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Sample records for seed iron loading

  1. A loss-of-function mutation in AtYSL1 reveals its role in iron and nicotianamine seed loading.

    PubMed

    Le Jean, Marie; Schikora, Adam; Mari, Stéphane; Briat, Jean-François; Curie, Catherine

    2005-12-01

    The Arabidopsis Yellow Stripe 1-Like (YSL) proteins have been identified by homology with the maize (Zea mays) Yellow Stripe 1 (YS1) transporter which is responsible for iron-phytosiderophore (PS) uptake by roots in response to iron shortage. Although dicotyledonous plants do not synthesize PS, they do synthesize the PS precursor nicotianamine, a strong metal chelator essential for maintenance of iron homeostasis and copper translocation. Furthermore, ZmYS1 and the rice (Oryza sativa) protein OsYSL2 have metal-nicotianamine transport activities in heterologous expression systems. In this work, we have characterized the function of AtYSL1 in planta. Two insertional loss-of-function ysl1 mutants of Arabidopsis were found to exhibit increased nicotianamine accumulation in shoots. More importantly, seeds of both ysl1 knockouts contained less iron and nicotianamine than wild-type seeds, even when produced by plants grown in the presence of an excess of iron. This phenotype could be reverted by expressing the wild-type AtYSL1 gene in ysl1 plants. ysl1 seeds germinated slowly, but this defect was rescued by an iron supply. AtYSL1 was expressed in the xylem parenchyma of leaves, where it was upregulated in response to iron excess, as well as in pollen and in young silique parts. This pattern is consistent with long-distance circulation of iron and nicotianamine and their delivery to the seed. Taken together, our work provides strong physiological evidence that iron and nicotianamine levels in seeds rely in part on AtYSL1 function. PMID:16297069

  2. Preparation of iron nanoparticles-loaded Spondias purpurea seed waste as an excellent adsorbent for removal of phosphate from synthetic and natural waters.

    PubMed

    Arshadi, M; Foroughifard, S; Etemad Gholtash, J; Abbaspourrad, A

    2015-08-15

    The synthesis and characterization of nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (NZVI) supported on Spondias purpurea seed waste (S-NaOH-NZVI) was performed for the adsorption of phosphate (P) ions from waste waters. The effects of various parameters, such as contact time, pH, concentration, reusability and temperature were studied. The adsorption of phosphate ions has been studied in terms of pseudo-first- and -second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich, and Langmuir isotherms models have also been used to the equilibrium adsorption data. The adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) indicated that the adsorption of phosphate ions were feasible, spontaneous and endothermic at 25-80 °C. No significant loss of activity was observed; confirming that the S-NaOH-NZVI has high stability during the adsorption process even after 12th runs. The suggested adsorbent in this paper was also implemented to remove P from the Persian Gulf water. XRD, FTIR and EDX analysis indicated the presence of Fe3 (PO4)2⋅8H2O (vivianite) on the S-NaOH-NZVI@P surface. PMID:25919431

  3. Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Seeded Growth of Nucleotide Coordinated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hao; Liu, Biwu; Yuan, Qipeng; Liu, Juewen

    2016-06-22

    The introduction of functional molecules to the surface of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is of critical importance. Most previously reported methods were focused on surface ligand attachment either by physisorption or covalent conjugation, resulting in limited ligand loading capacity. In this work, we report the seeded growth of a nucleotide coordinated polymer shell, which can be considered as a special form of adsorption by forming a complete shell. Among all of the tested metal ions, Fe(3+) is the most efficient for this seeded growth. A diverse range of guest molecules, including small organic dyes, proteins, DNA, and gold NPs, can be encapsulated in the shell. All of these molecules were loaded at a much higher capacity compared to that on the naked iron oxide NP core, confirming the advantage of the coordination polymer (CP) shell. In addition, the CP shell provides better guest protein stability compared to that of simple physisorption while retaining guest activity as confirmed by the entrapped glucose oxidase assay. Use of this system as a peroxidase nanozyme and glucose biosensor was demonstrated, detecting glucose as low as 1.4 μM with excellent stability. This work describes a new way to functionalize inorganic materials with a biocompatible shell. PMID:27248668

  4. Ferrioxamine excretion in iron-loaded man

    SciTech Connect

    Pippard, M.J.; Callender, S.T.; Finch, C.A.

    1982-08-01

    Factors affecting iron excretion after subcutaneous desferrioxamine infusion were evaluated in individuals with iron overload. Urinary iron varied directly, whereas stool iron varied inversely with the level of erythropoiesis. Ascorbic acid greatly enhanced urinary iron excretion but had a less constant effect on stool iron. Stool iron losses contributed a greater proportion of total iron excretion at higher chelator dosage. These studies indicate the importance of biliary iron excretion in monitoring the effectiveness of desferrioxamine. They also suggest that large chelator doses may remove established iron overload much more rapidly than has previously been realized.

  5. Comparison of seed loading approaches in prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Butler, W M; Merrick, G S; Lief, J H; Dorsey, A T

    2000-02-01

    Since uniform seed loading in prostate brachytherapy can produce an intolerably high dose along the urethra, some form of peripheral loading is commonly employed. We define three variants of peripheral loading and compare them in a small, medium, and large prostate in terms of coverage of the planning target volume (PTV), homogeneity, and ability to spare critical structures of excessive dose. Modified uniform loading has at least 2/3 of the seeds occupying sites on a 1 cm cubic grid keyed to the prostate base and the posterior border of the prostate. Nonuniform loading explicitly spares the urethra by using only basal and apical seeds in at least two centrally located needles. Peripheral loading uses higher activity seeds with the posterior implant plane 5 mm anterior to the posterior border of the prostate. The three prostate volumes (18.7, 40.7, and 60.2 cm3 by ultrasound) were expanded to planning volumes (32.9, 60.0, and 87.8 cm3, respectively). The planning volumes (PTVs) were loaded with a 125I seed distribution and activity sufficient to cover 99.7+/-0.3% of the PTV with the prescribed minimal peripheral dose (mPD) of 145 Gy. Activities used ranged from 0.32 to 0.37 mCi/seed (0.41-0.47 U/seed) for the first two approaches and from 0.57 to 0.66 mCi (0.72-0.84 U) for peripheral loading. Modified uniform loading produced the most uniform distribution based on dose-volume histograms and the volume receiving >150% of prescribed dose. All the approaches are capable of constraining the superior-inferior dose profile (the urethral path) to less than 150% of the mPD, but the nonuniform approach with explicit urethral sparing kept the urethral dose below 120% of the mPD. Dose profiles for the three approaches along the posterior-anterior midline axis are comparable near the urethra, but peripheral and nonuniform approaches have extended regions where the dose is >150% of mPD. These regions approach within 10 mm of the rectum or urethra, so these two approaches

  6. Ineffective erythropoiesis and regulation of iron status in iron loading anaemias.

    PubMed

    Camaschella, Clara; Nai, Antonella

    2016-02-01

    The definition 'iron loading anaemias' encompasses a group of inherited and acquired anaemias characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis, low hepcidin levels, excessive iron absorption and secondary iron overload. Non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia is the paradigmatic example of these conditions that include dyserythropoietic and sideroblastic anaemias and some forms of myelodysplasia. Interrupting the vicious cycle between ineffective erythropoiesis and iron overload may be of therapeutic benefit in all these diseases. Induction of iron restriction by means of transferrin infusions, minihepcidins or manipulation of the hepcidin pathway prevents iron overload, redistributes iron from parenchymal cells to macrophage stores and partially controls anaemia in β-thalassaemic mice. Inhibition of ineffective erythropoiesis by activin ligand traps improves anaemia and iron overload in the same models. Targeting iron loading or ineffective erythropoiesis shows promise in preclinical studies; activin ligand traps are in clinical trials with promising results and may be useful in patients with ineffective erythropoiesis. PMID:26491866

  7. Use of carbonyl iron to induce iron loading in the mussel Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Bootsma, N.; Macey, D.J.; Webb, J.; Talbot, V. )

    1990-02-01

    It is now recognized that in organisms such as marine mussels, the prior presence of one metal can be important in determining the ultimate toxicological response to a second challenge by a different metal species. Thus, for example, the presence of iron in the mussel Mytilus edulis profoundly affects the subsequent accumulation of zinc. To determine these synergistic (or indeed antagonistic) effects in an organism such as the mussel, it is important to be able to both load the animal rapidly, and ensure that the metal ends up in a form which is ultimately the same as that found in the animal in the natural environment. Unfortunately, considerable problems have arisen with the form in which iron has been loaded into mussels. Recently, carbonyl iron has been used to induce iron loading in rats. This form of iron is prepared by reacting elemental iron at high temperatures with carbon monoxide to form iron pentacarbonyl. This study was thus undertaken to determine whether carbonyl iron could be used for the rapid non-toxic iron loading of the mussel Mytilus edulis. Such loading could subsequently be used for the investigation of synergistic metal accumulation in mussels, a topic of considerable interest due to their use as marine pollution indicator organisms. Biochemical aspects of this tissue iron loading, including the isolation and characterization of the major metal-binding protein ferritin, have been reported previously.

  8. Physical properties and compression loading behaviour of corn seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babić, Lj.; Radojèin, M.; Pavkov, I.; Babić, M.; Turan, J.; Zoranović, M.; Stanišić, S.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to acquire data on the physical properties and compression loading behaviour of seed of six corn hybrid varieties. The mean values of length, width, thickness, geometric diameter, surface area, porosity, single kernel mass, sphericity, bulk and true density, 1 000 kernelmass and coefficient of friction were studied at single level of corn seed moisture content. The calculated secant modulus of elasticity during compressive loading for dent corn was 0.995 times that of the semi-flint type; there were no significant differences in the value of this mechanical property between semi-flint and dent corn varieties. The linear model showed a decreasing tendency of secant modulus of elasticity for all hybrids as the moisture content of seeds increased.

  9. Energetics of surface confined ferritin during iron loading.

    PubMed

    Federici, Stefania; Padovani, Francesco; Poli, Maura; Rodriguez, Fernando Carmona; Arosio, Paolo; Depero, Laura E; Bergese, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    We report on the first quantitative picture on how iron loading inside ferritin molecules occurs when they are self-assembled onto solid surfaces. Recombinant human ferritin H-chain with ferroxidase activity was adsorbed onto microcantilever beams to form a stable close-packed thin film. The obtained nanomechanical system was used to track in real time the energetics of inter-ferritin surface interactions during incubation with Fe(II) for iron loading. We observed that iron loading is accompanied by increasing attractive in-plane inter-ferritin interactions able to perform a maximum surface work of 6.0±1.5mJ/m(2), corresponding to a surface energy variation per ferritin of about 40kbT. Unique to this protein surface transformation, part of the surface work is exerted by the attractive electrostatic forces arising among the new born nanosized iron cores inside the ferritin shells. The remaining work comes from subtle action of steric, bridging and depletion forces. These findings are of fundamental interest and add important information for the rational development of ferritin nanotechnology. PMID:27281237

  10. Cellular level loading and heating of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kalambur, Venkat S; Longmire, Ellen K; Bischof, John C

    2007-11-20

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) hold promise for a variety of biomedical applications due to their properties of visualization using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), heating with radio frequency (rf), and movement in an external magnetic field. In this study, the cellular loading (uptake) mechanism of dextran- and surfactant-coated iron oxide NPs by malignant prostate tumor cells (LNCaP-Pro5) has been studied, and the feasibility of traditional rf treatment and a new laser heating method was evaluated. The kinetics of cell loading was quantified using magnetophoresis and a colorimetric assay. The results showed that loading of surfactant-coated iron oxide NPs with LNCaP-Pro5 was saturable with time (at 24 h) and extracellular concentration (11 pg Fe/cell at 0.5 mg Fe/mL), indicating that the particles are taken up by an "adsorptive endocytosis" pathway. Dextran-coated NPs, however, were taken up less efficiently (1 pg Fe/cell at 0.5 mg Fe/mL). Loading did not saturate with concentration suggesting uptake by fluid-phase endocytosis. Magnetophoresis suggests that NP-loaded cells can be held using external magnetic fields in microcirculatory flow velocities in vivo or in an appropriately designed extracorporeal circuit. Loaded cells were heated using traditional rf (260A, 357 kHz) and a new laser method (532 nm, 7 ns pulse duration, 0.03 J/pulse, 20 pulse/s). Iron oxide in water was found to absorb sufficiently strongly at 532 nm such that heating of individual NPs and thus loaded cells (1 pg Fe/cell) was effective (<10% cell survival) after 30 s of laser exposure. Radio frequency treatment required higher loading (>10 pg Fe/cell) and longer duration (30 min) when compared to laser to accomplish cell destruction (50% viability at 10 pg Fe/cell). Scaling calculations show that the pulsed laser method can lead to single-cell (loaded with NPs) treatments (200 degrees C temperature change at the surface of an individual NP) unlike traditional rf heating

  11. Omega 3 Chia seed loading as a means of carbohydrate loading.

    PubMed

    Illian, Travis G; Casey, Jason C; Bishop, Phillip A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Omega 3 Chia seed loading is a viable option for enhancing sports performance in events lasting >90 minutes and allow athletes to decrease their dietary intake of sugar while increasing their intake of Omega 3 fatty acids. It has been well documented that a high dietary carbohydrate (CHO) intake for several days before competition is known to increase muscle glycogen stores resulting in performance improvements in events lasting >90 minutes. This study compared performance testing results between 2 different CHO-loading treatments. The traditional CHO-loading treatment served as the control (100% cals from Gatorade). The Omega 3 Chia drink (50% of calories from Greens Plus Omega 3 Chia seeds, 50% Gatorade) served as the Omega 3 Chia loading drink. Both CHO-loading treatments were based on the subject's body weight and were thus isocaloric. Six highly trained male subjects V(O2)max 47.8-84.2 ml · kg(-1); mean (SD) of V(O2)max 70.3 ml · kg(-1) (13.3) performed a 1-hour run at ∼65% of their V(O2)max on a treadmill, followed by a 10k time trial on a track. There were 2 trials in a crossover counterbalanced repeated-measures design with a 2-week washout between testing sessions to allow the participants to recover from the intense exercise and any effects of the treatment. There was no statistical difference (p = 0.83) between Omega 3 Chia loading (mean 10k time = 37 minutes 49 seconds) and CHO loading (mean = 37 minutes 43 seconds). Under our conditions, Omega 3 Chia loading appears a viable option for enhancing performance for endurance events lasting >90 minutes and allows athletes to decrease their dietary intake of sugar while increasing their intake of Omega 3 fatty acids but offered no performance advantages. PMID:21183832

  12. Persistence of iron limitation in the western subarctic Pacific SEEDS II mesoscale fertilization experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Mark L.; Trick, Charles G.; Cochlan, William P.; Beall, Ben

    2009-12-01

    The cumulative evidence from more than a dozen mesoscale iron-enrichment studies in high nitrate low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters demonstrates that iron limitation is widespread and very likely affects atmospheric carbon dioxide and thus global climate. However, the responses of microphytoplankton (>20 μm), predominantly diatoms, vary greatly among these mesoscale experiments even though similar amounts of iron were added, making it difficult to quantitatively incorporate iron effects into global climate models. Nowhere is this difference more dramatic than between the massive bloom observed during Subarctic Pacific Iron Experiment for Ecosystem Dynamics Study (SEEDS) I and the order of magnitude smaller ecosystem response in SEEDS II; two mesocale experiments performed in the same HNLC region of the western subarctic Pacific in different years. Deckboard incubation experiments initiated during the early, middle, and late stages of the 32-day SEEDS II experiment show that while the two iron infusions increased phytoplankton growth, diatoms remained significantly limited by iron availability, despite total dissolved Fe concentrations in the patch being well above the diffusion-limited threshold for rapid diatom growth. This iron limitation was apparent <6 days after the initial iron infusion and was not alleviated by the second, smaller iron infusion. In contrast, smaller phytoplankton (<20 μm) showed a more restricted response to further iron amendments, indicating that their iron nutrition was near optimal. Iron complexed to desferrioximine B, a commonly available siderophore produced by at least one marine bacterium, was poorly available to diatoms throughout the patch evolution, indicating that these diatoms lacked the ability to induce high-affinity iron uptake systems. These results suggest that the strong organic complexation of Fe(III) observed in the SEEDS II-fertilized patch was not compatible with rapid diatom growth. In contrast, iron associated with

  13. Behavior of particulate materials during iron fertilization experiments in the Western Subarctic Pacific (SEEDS and SEEDS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramaki, Takafumi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Imai, Keiri

    2009-12-01

    During two mesoscale iron-enrichment studies in the northwestern subarctic Pacific (SEEDS in 2001 summer and SEEDS II in 2004 summer), particulate materials from the iron-induced phytoplankton bloom in the upper water column were monitored to analyze the export processes beneath the upper mixed layer, mainly with drifting sediment traps. We could not observe the total downward export process of the high accumulation of particulate organic carbon from the mixed layer induced by the large diatom bloom of SEEDS [e.g., Tsuda, A., Takeda, S., Saito, H., Nishioka, J., Nojiri, Y., Kudo, I., Kiyosawa, H., Shiomoto, A., Imai, K., Ono, T., Shimamoto, A., Tsumune, D., Yoshimura, T., Aono, T., Hinuma, A., Kinugasa, M., Suzuki, K., Sohrin, Y., Noiri, Y., Tani, H., Deguchi, Y., Tsurushima, N., Ogawa, H., Fukami, K., Kuma, K., Saino, T., 2003. A mesoscale iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific induces large centric diatom bloom. Science 300, 958-961] because the 2-week observation period was too short to examine the decline phase of the bloom. In contrast, in SEEDS II, the particulate organic carbon and particulate organic nitrogen were accumulated 123 and 23 mmol m -2, respectively, in the mixed layer until day-15 (days from iron-enrichment), and then ca. 90% were removed from the mixed layer by day-25. The sediment traps at 40 m depth between day-15 and day-25 accounted for at least more than 35% of these particles. There was no large variation in chemical composition in settling particles above 100 m depth throughout the experimental periods both in SEEDS and SEEDS II. The content of biogenic opal remained more than 50% of all settling particles during SEEDS, while the content of biogenic calcium carbonate was relatively high, with a low biogenic opal content of consistently less than 30% during SEEDS II. These results suggest that high standing stock of seed population of diatoms before the iron fertilization, indicated by low C/Si ratio of particulate matter, is an

  14. Microstructural fingerprints of phase transitions in shock-loaded iron.

    PubMed

    Wang, S J; Sui, M L; Chen, Y T; Lu, Q H; Ma, E; Pei, X Y; Li, Q Z; Hu, H B

    2013-01-01

    The complex structural transformation in crystals under static pressure or shock loading has been a subject of long-standing interest to materials scientists and physicists. The polymorphic transformation is of particular importance for iron (Fe), due to its technological and sociological significance in the development of human civilization, as well as its prominent presence in the earth's core. The martensitic transformation α→ε (bcc→hcp) in iron under shock-loading, due to its reversible and transient nature, requires non-trivial detective work to uncover its occurrence. Here we reveal refined microstructural fingerprints, needle-like colonies and three sets of {112}<111> twins with a threefold symmetry, with tell-tale features that are indicative of two sequential martensitic transformations in the reversible α→ε phase transition, even though no ε is retained in the post-shock samples. The signature orientation relationships are consistent with previously-proposed transformation mechanisms, and the unique microstructural fingerprints enable a quantitative assessment of the volume fraction transformed. PMID:23336068

  15. Microstructural fingerprints of phase transitions in shock-loaded iron

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S. J.; Sui, M. L.; Chen, Y. T.; Lu, Q. H.; Ma, E.; Pei, X. Y.; Li, Q. Z.; Hu, H. B.

    2013-01-01

    The complex structural transformation in crystals under static pressure or shock loading has been a subject of long-standing interest to materials scientists and physicists. The polymorphic transformation is of particular importance for iron (Fe), due to its technological and sociological significance in the development of human civilization, as well as its prominent presence in the earth's core. The martensitic transformation α→ε (bcc→hcp) in iron under shock-loading, due to its reversible and transient nature, requires non-trivial detective work to uncover its occurrence. Here we reveal refined microstructural fingerprints, needle-like colonies and three sets of {112}<111> twins with a threefold symmetry, with tell-tale features that are indicative of two sequential martensitic transformations in the reversible α→ε phase transition, even though no ε is retained in the post-shock samples. The signature orientation relationships are consistent with previously-proposed transformation mechanisms, and the unique microstructural fingerprints enable a quantitative assessment of the volume fraction transformed. PMID:23336068

  16. Microstructural fingerprints of phase transitions in shock-loaded iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. J.; Sui, M. L.; Chen, Y. T.; Lu, Q. H.; Ma, E.; Pei, X. Y.; Li, Q. Z.; Hu, H. B.

    2013-01-01

    The complex structural transformation in crystals under static pressure or shock loading has been a subject of long-standing interest to materials scientists and physicists. The polymorphic transformation is of particular importance for iron (Fe), due to its technological and sociological significance in the development of human civilization, as well as its prominent presence in the earth's core. The martensitic transformation α-->ɛ (bcc-->hcp) in iron under shock-loading, due to its reversible and transient nature, requires non-trivial detective work to uncover its occurrence. Here we reveal refined microstructural fingerprints, needle-like colonies and three sets of {112}<111> twins with a threefold symmetry, with tell-tale features that are indicative of two sequential martensitic transformations in the reversible α-->ɛ phase transition, even though no ɛ is retained in the post-shock samples. The signature orientation relationships are consistent with previously-proposed transformation mechanisms, and the unique microstructural fingerprints enable a quantitative assessment of the volume fraction transformed.

  17. Can an increase in leaf iron reductase activity enhance seed iron accumulation in soybean?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron is an important micronutrient for human nutrition, with plant foods providing a significant amount of dietary iron in certain population groups, and in some cases, providing the sole source of dietary iron. Because iron deficiency is unfortunately common in many human populations, we have been...

  18. An in situ iron-enrichment experiment in the western subarctic Pacific (SEEDS): Introduction and summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Shigenobu; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2005-02-01

    To test the iron hypothesis in the subarctic Pacific Ocean, an in situ iron-enrichment experiment (SEEDS) was performed in the western subarctic gyre in July-August 2001. About 350 kg of iron (as acidic iron sulfate) and 0.48 mol of the inert chemical tracer sulfur hexafluoride were introduced into a 10-m deep surface mixed layer over an 80 km 2 area. This single iron infusion raised dissolved iron levels to ∼2.9 nM initially. Dissolved iron concentrations rapidly decreased after the infusion, but levels remained close to 0.15 nM even at the end of the 14-day experimental period. During SEEDS there were iron-mediated increases in chlorophyll a concentrations (up to 20 μg l -1), primary production rates, biomass and photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency relative to waters outside the iron-enriched patch. The rapid and very high accumulation of phytoplankton biomass in response to the iron addition appeared to be partly attributable to shallow mixed-layer depth and moderate water temperature in the western subarctic Pacific. However, the main reason was a floristic shift to fast-growing centric diatom Chaetoceros debilis, unlike the previous iron-enrichment experiments in the equatorial Pacific and the Southern Ocean, in both of which iron stimulated the growth of pennate diatoms. The iron-mediated blooming of diatoms resulted in a marked consumption of macronutrients and drawdown of pCO 2. Biological and physiological measurements indicate that phytoplankton growth in the patch became both light- and iron-limited, making phytoplankton biomass relatively constant after day 9. The increase in microzooplankton grazing rate after day 9 also influenced the net growth rate of phytoplankton. There was no significant increase in the export flux of carbon to depth during the 14-day occupation of the experimental site. The export flux between day 4 and day 13 was estimated to be only 13% of the integrated primary production in the iron-enriched patch. The major part

  19. Wear behavior of bainite ductile cast iron under impact load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ting; Song, Ren-bo; Yang, Fu-qiang; Wu, Chun-jing

    2014-09-01

    The dry impact wear behavior of bainite ductile cast iron was evaluated under three different impact loads for 30000 cycles. The strain-hardening effects beneath the contact surfaces were analyzed according to the surfaces' micro-hardness profiles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to observe the worn surfaces. The results indicated that the material with the highest hardness was the one continuously cooled at 20°C, which exhibited the lowest wear rate under each set of test conditions. The hardness of the worn surface and the thickness of the hardened layer increased with the increases in impact load and in the number of test cycles. The better wear performance of the sample cooled at 20°C is attributed to its finer microstructure and superior mechanical properties. All the samples underwent the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) phenomenon after impact wear, as revealed by the fact that small amounts of retained austenite were detected by XRD.

  20. MRI Measurements of Iron Load in Transfusion-Dependent Patients: Implementation, Challenges, and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Charles T; St Pierre, Tim G

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has played a key role in studies of iron overload in transfusion-dependent patients, providing insights into the relations among liver and cardiac iron loading, iron chelator dose, and morbidity. Currently, there is rapid uptake of these methods into routine clinical practice as part of the management strategy for iron overload in regularly transfused patients. Given the manifold methods of data acquisition and analysis, there are several potential pitfalls that may result in inappropriate decision making. Herein, we review the challenges of establishing suitable MRI techniques for tissue iron measurement in regularly transfused patients. PMID:26713769

  1. The effect of shock loading on the survival of plant seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighs, J. A.; Hazell, P. J.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.

    2012-07-01

    Meteorite and asteroid impacts into planet Earth seem rare but over the lifetime of our planet have been relatively frequent. Such collisions (involving very large impactors) have been blamed for mass extinctions during Earth’s history. It has also been postulated that impactors could carry life with them throughout the universe and seed our planet. This is the basis of the theory of panspermia (‘life everywhere’) and suggests that life could be spread throughout the universe by ‘piggy-backing’ on inter-planetary bodies, e.g. asteroids, which then collide with other planets, thus seeding them with life. The shock behaviour of organic matter has an important role to play in helping to inform the feasibility of such theories. An example of a model carrier for life in seeding mechanisms is the plant seed. Here we present the development of an experimental technique in which plant seed samples are shock-loaded and their viability subsequently assessed post-shock. This technique was tested on Lepidium sativum (cress) seed samples. Experimentally, shocked seeds showed positive viability in all tests performed until shocked with a maximum peak shock pressure of ca. 0.8 GPa. These results suggest it is unlikely that the plant seeds tested would be able to survive the extreme conditions on an asteroid during impact, but may be able to survive shock waves that would be generated from such collisions when existing on a planetary body.

  2. Investigation of iron contamination of seed crystals and its impact on lifetime distribution in Quasimono silicon ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trempa, M.; Reimann, C.; Friedrich, J.; Müller, G.; Sylla, L.; Krause, A.; Richter, T.

    2015-11-01

    The use of seed plates during directional solidification (DS) of Quasimono silicon ingots causes additional yield losses compared to standard multi-crystalline ingots due to an increased area of low minority carrier lifetime ("red-zone") in the bottom region. This effect is attributed in literature mainly to iron impurities which are contaminating the seed crystal during heat up and afterwards the as-grown ingot during solidification. However, the contamination mechanisms itself are still not completely understood. Therefore, in this work the seed contamination mechanisms by iron and their effect on the lifetime distribution in the bottom region of Quasimono silicon ingots were investigated. For this purpose special crystal growth experiments in a laboratory-scale DS furnace were carried out by using diffusion barriers at the crucible/seed and seed/melt interfaces in order to separate the different contamination paths. The results show that the iron diffusion path from the crucible into the seed plates plays an important role. But in addition to this it will be demonstrated that an even more important iron contamination path is by gas phase transport from furnace parts via the furnace atmosphere to the seed crystals.

  3. Curcumin reduces the toxic effects of iron loading in rat liver epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Donald J.; Sivam, Gowsala; Kowdley, Kris V.

    2008-01-01

    Background/aims Iron overload can cause liver toxicity and increase the risk of liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a component of the food spice turmeric, has antioxidant, iron binding, and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to quantify its effects on iron overload and resulting downstream toxic effects in cultured T51B rat liver epithelial cells. Methods T51B cells were loaded with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) with or without the iron delivery agent 8-hydroxyquinoline. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. Iron uptake and iron bioavailability were documented by chemical assay, quench of calcein fluorescence, and ferritin induction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by fluorescence assay using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Oxidative stress signaling to jnk, c-jun, and p38 was measured by western blot with phospho-specific antibodies. Results Curcumin bound iron, but did not block iron uptake or bioavailability in T51B cells given FAC. However, it reduced cytotoxicity, blocked generation of ROS, and eliminated signaling to cellular stress pathways caused by iron. Inhibition was observed over a wide range of FAC concentrations (50 – 500 μM), with an apparent IC50 in all cases between 5 and 10 μM curcumin. In contrast, desferoxamine blocked both iron uptake and toxic effects of iron at concentrations that depended on the FAC concentration. Effects of curcumin also differed from those of α-tocopherol, which did not bind iron and was less effective at blocking iron-stimulated ROS generation. Conclusions Curcumin reduced iron-dependent oxidative stress and iron toxicity in T51B cells without blocking iron uptake. PMID:18492020

  4. Genetic dissection of seed-iron and zinc concentrations in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Hari D; Bajaj, Deepak; Das, Shouvik; Kumar, Vinod; Gowda, C L L; Sharma, Shivali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2016-01-01

    The SNP-based high-resolution QTL mapping mapped eight major genomic regions harbouring robust QTLs governing seed-Fe and Zn concentrations (39.4% combined phenotypic variation explained/PVE) on six chromosomes of an intra-specific high-density genetic linkage map (1.56 cM map-density). 24620 SNPs discovered from genome-wide GBS (genotyping-by-sequencing) and 13 known cloned Fe and Zn contents-related chickpea gene-orthologs were genotyped in a structured population of 92 sequenced desi and kabuli accessions. The large-scale 16591 SNP genotyping- and phenotyping-based GWAS (genome-wide association study) identified 16 genomic loci/genes associated (29% combined PVE) with seed-Fe and Zn concentrations. Of these, 11 trait-associated SNPs in the genes linked tightly with eight QTLs were validated by QTL mapping. The seed-specific expression, including pronounced differential-regulation of 16 trait-associated genes particularly in accessions/mapping individuals with contrasting level of seed-Fe and Zn contents was apparent. Collectively, the aforementioned rapid integrated genomic strategy led to delineate novel functional non-synonymous and regulatory SNP allelic-variants from 16 known/candidate genes, including three strong trait-associated genes (encoding late embryogenesis abundant and yellow stripe-like 1 protein, and vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein) and eight major QTLs regulating seed-Fe and Zn concentrations in chickpea. These essential inputs thus have potential to be deployed in marker-assisted genetic enhancement for developing nutritionally-rich iron/zinc-biofortified chickpea cultivars. PMID:27063651

  5. Genetic dissection of seed-iron and zinc concentrations in chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Bajaj, Deepak; Das, Shouvik; Kumar, Vinod; Gowda, C. L. L.; Sharma, Shivali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2016-01-01

    The SNP-based high-resolution QTL mapping mapped eight major genomic regions harbouring robust QTLs governing seed-Fe and Zn concentrations (39.4% combined phenotypic variation explained/PVE) on six chromosomes of an intra-specific high-density genetic linkage map (1.56 cM map-density). 24620 SNPs discovered from genome-wide GBS (genotyping-by-sequencing) and 13 known cloned Fe and Zn contents-related chickpea gene-orthologs were genotyped in a structured population of 92 sequenced desi and kabuli accessions. The large-scale 16591 SNP genotyping- and phenotyping-based GWAS (genome-wide association study) identified 16 genomic loci/genes associated (29% combined PVE) with seed-Fe and Zn concentrations. Of these, 11 trait-associated SNPs in the genes linked tightly with eight QTLs were validated by QTL mapping. The seed-specific expression, including pronounced differential-regulation of 16 trait-associated genes particularly in accessions/mapping individuals with contrasting level of seed-Fe and Zn contents was apparent. Collectively, the aforementioned rapid integrated genomic strategy led to delineate novel functional non-synonymous and regulatory SNP allelic-variants from 16 known/candidate genes, including three strong trait-associated genes (encoding late embryogenesis abundant and yellow stripe-like 1 protein, and vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein) and eight major QTLs regulating seed-Fe and Zn concentrations in chickpea. These essential inputs thus have potential to be deployed in marker-assisted genetic enhancement for developing nutritionally-rich iron/zinc-biofortified chickpea cultivars. PMID:27063651

  6. Tissue-specific accumulation of hepatic zinc metallothionein following parenteral iron loading

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    The synthesis in various tissues of the unique metal-binding protein, metallothionein, can be influenced by the administration of certain trace elements. Zinc and cadmium, both of which bind to metallothionein, are most widely recognized as potent inducers. Preliminary results in our laboratory suggested that iron loading causes a marked accumulation of hepatic zinc metallothionein. In this report the effects of parenteral iron administration on metallothionein concentration in various tissues are presented. Male chicks (300-350 g) received (ip) either a single injection (+1 Fe) of iron (10 mg Fe/kg, as FeCl/sub 3/), two injections (+2 Fe) given 24-hr apart, three injections (+3 Fe) each given 24-hr apart, or an equivalent volume of 0.9% saline (control). Twenty-four hours following the final injection, chicks were killed and tissues analyzed for cytoplasmic zinc and metallothionein (Zn-MT). The parenteral administration of ferric iron, FeCl/sub 3/, resulted in a marked tissue-specific accumulation of zinc as metallothionein. In chicks given +2 Fe, hepatic Zn-MT increased more than 10-fold with a third injection (+3 Fe) causing no further change. The concentration of Zn-MT in renal and pancreatic tissue was unaffected by iron loading. An increase in hepatic Zn-MT was evident prior to detectable changes in total hepatic iron. The administration of other ferrous iron compounds at a similar rate produced comparable changes in hepatic Zn-MT. Feeding excess dietary iron, however, had no effect on liver Zn-MT levels even though similar hepatic iron concentrations were attained. Results indicated that parenteral administration, but not feeding, of various iron compounds causes a marked increase in zinc metallothionein, specifically in liver tissue.

  7. A novel approach to oral iron delivery using ferrous sulphate loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zariwala, M Gulrez; Elsaid, Naba; Jackson, Timothy L; Corral López, Francisco; Farnaud, Sebastien; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Renshaw, Derek

    2013-11-18

    Iron (Fe) loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN's) were formulated using stearic acid and iron absorption was evaluated in vitro using the cell line Caco-2 with intracellular ferritin formation as a marker of iron absorption. Iron loading was optimised at 1% Fe (w/w) lipid since an inverse relation was observed between initial iron concentration and SLN iron incorporation efficiency. Chitosan (Chi) was included to prepare chitosan coated SLN's. Particle size analysis revealed a sub-micron size range (300.3±31.75 nm to 495.1±80.42 nm), with chitosan containing particles having the largest dimensions. As expected, chitosan (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4% w/v) conferred a net positive charge on the particle surface in a concentration dependent manner. For iron absorption experiments equal doses of Fe (20 μM) from selected formulations (SLN-FeA and SLN-Fe-ChiB) were added to Caco-2 cells and intracellular ferritin protein concentrations determined. Caco-2 iron absorption from SLN-FeA (583.98±40.83 ng/mg cell protein) and chitosan containing SLN-Fe-ChiB (642.77±29.37 ng/mg cell protein) were 13.42% and 24.9% greater than that from ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) reference (514.66±20.43 ng/mg cell protein) (p≤0.05). We demonstrate for the first time preparation, characterisation and superior iron absorption in vitro from SLN's, suggesting the potential of these formulations as a novel system for oral iron delivery. PMID:24012860

  8. Iron oxide-loaded slag for arsenic removal from aqueous system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fu-Shen; Itoh, Hideaki

    2005-07-01

    An effective adsorbent for arsenic removal from aqueous system was synthesized by loading iron(III) oxide on municipal solid waste incinerator melted slag. The loading was accomplished via chemical processes and thermal coating technique. The key point of the technique was the simultaneous generation of amorphous FeOOH sol and silica sol in-situ and eventually led to the formation of Fe-Si surface complexes which combined the iron oxide with the melted slag tightly. The surface morphology of the iron oxide-loaded slag was examined and the loading mechanisms were discussed in detail. The adsorbent was effective for both arsenate and arsenite removal and its removal capabilities for As(V) and As(III) were 2.5 and 3 times of those of FeOOH, respectively. Both affinity adsorption and chemical reactions contributed to arsenic removal. The effects of solution pH, contact time, arsenic concentration and adsorbent dosage on arsenic removal were examined and the optimum removal conditions were established. Furthermore, leaching of hazardous elements such as Cr(VI), As, Se, Cd and Pb from the adsorbent at a pH range of 2.5-12.5 was below the regulation values. Accordingly, it is believed that the iron oxide-loaded slag developed in this study is environmentally acceptable and industrially applicable for wastewater treatment. PMID:15924950

  9. NMR relaxation study of water dynamics in superparamagnetic iron-oxide-loaded vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Hsieh, Chu-Jung; Lin, Chao-Min; Hwang, Dennis W.

    2013-02-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles have been introduced as contrast agents for clinical applications in magnetic resonance imaging. Recently, SPIO has been also used for tracking cells. However, NMR relaxation of water molecules behaves differently in a SPIO solution and SPIO-loaded cells. In this study, we used water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions to mimic cellular environments. The MR relaxation induced by the SPIO-loaded vesicles and SPIO solution indicates that T2* is sensitive to the iron concentration alone, and the behavior was very similar in both SPIO-loaded vesicles and SPIO solution. However, T2 relaxation of water in SPIO-loaded vesicles was faster than that in a SPIO solution. In addition, the contribution of water inside and outside the vesicles was clarified by replacing H2O with D2O, and water inside the vesicles was found to cause a nonlinear iron concentration dependency. The studied dilution revealed that vesicle aggregation undergoes a structural transition upon dilution by a certain amount of water. R2* relaxation is sensitive to this structural change and shows an obvious nonlinear iron concentration dependency when the SPIO loading is sufficiently high. Random walk simulations demonstrated that in the assumed model, the vesicles aggregate structures causing the differences between R2* and R2 relaxation of water in vesicles in the presence of SPIO particles.

  10. Daunomycin-loaded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Preparation, magnetic targeting, cell cytotoxicity, and protein delivery research.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min-Chao; Jin, Shu-Fang; Zheng, Min; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Peng-Liang; Tang, Ding-Tong; Chen, Jiong; Lin, Jia-Qi; Wang, Xia-Hong; Zhao, Ping

    2016-08-01

    The clinical use of daunomycin is restricted by dose-dependent toxicity and low specificity against cancer cells. In the present study, modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were employed to load daunomycin and the drug-loaded nanospheres exhibited satisfactory size and smart pH-responsive release. The cellular uptake efficiency, targeted cell accumulation, and cell cytotoxicity experimental results proved that the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-loading process brings high drug targeting without decreasing the cytotoxicity of daunomycin. Moreover, a new concern for the evaluation of nanophase drug delivery's effects was considered, with monitoring the interactions between human serum albumin and the drug-loaded nanospheres. Results from the multispectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling calculation elucidate that the drug delivery has detectable deleterious effects on the frame conformation of protein, which may affect its physiological function. PMID:27288463

  11. Frataxin and the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial iron-loading in Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Shannon; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Sahni, Sumit; Lane, Darius J R; Merlot, Angelica M; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Huang, Michael L-H; Richardson, Des R

    2016-06-01

    The mitochondrion is a major site for the metabolism of the transition metal, iron, which is necessary for metabolic processes critical for cell vitality. The enigmatic mitochondrial protein, frataxin, is known to play a significant role in both cellular and mitochondrial iron metabolism due to its iron-binding properties and its involvement in iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) and heme synthesis. The inherited neuro- and cardio-degenerative disease, Friedreich's ataxia (FA), is caused by the deficient expression of frataxin that leads to deleterious alterations in iron metabolism. These changes lead to the accumulation of inorganic iron aggregates in the mitochondrial matrix that are presumed to play a key role in the oxidative damage and subsequent degenerative features of this disease. Furthermore, the concurrent dys-regulation of cellular antioxidant defense, which coincides with frataxin deficiency, exacerbates oxidative stress. Hence, the pathogenesis of FA underscores the importance of the integrated homeostasis of cellular iron metabolism and the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox environments. This review focuses on describing the pathogenesis of the disease, the molecular mechanisms involved in mitochondrial iron-loading and the dys-regulation of cellular antioxidant defense due to frataxin deficiency. In turn, current and emerging therapeutic strategies are also discussed. PMID:27129098

  12. Solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with iron to overcome barriers for treatment of iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Khaled Mohamed; Banjar, Zainy Mohammed; Hariri, Amani H; Hassan, Ali Habiballah

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, 46% of the world's children suffer from anemia, which is usually treated with iron supplements such as ferrous sulfate. The aim of this study was to prepare iron as solid lipid nanoparticles, in order to find an innovative way for alleviating the disadvantages associated with commercially available tablets. These limitations include adverse effects on the digestive system resulting in constipation and blood in the stool. The second drawback is the high variability in the absorption of iron and thus in its bioavailability. Iron solid lipid nanoparticles (Fe-SLNs) were prepared by hot homogenization/ultrasonication. Solubility of ferrous sulfate in different solid lipids was measured, and effects of process variables such as the surfactant type and concentration, homogenization and ultrasonication times, and charge-inducing agent on the particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency were determined. Furthermore, in vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetics were studied in rabbits. Results indicated that Fe-SLNs consisted of 3% Compritol 888 ATO, 1% Lecithin, 3% Poloxamer 188, and 0.2% dicetylphosphate, with an average particle size of 25 nm with 92.3% entrapment efficiency. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed more than fourfold enhanced bioavailability. In conclusion, Fe-SLNs could be a promising carrier for iron with enhanced oral bioavailability. PMID:25609917

  13. Solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with iron to overcome barriers for treatment of iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Hosny, Khaled Mohamed; Banjar, Zainy Mohammed; Hariri, Amani H; Hassan, Ali Habiballah

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, 46% of the world’s children suffer from anemia, which is usually treated with iron supplements such as ferrous sulfate. The aim of this study was to prepare iron as solid lipid nanoparticles, in order to find an innovative way for alleviating the disadvantages associated with commercially available tablets. These limitations include adverse effects on the digestive system resulting in constipation and blood in the stool. The second drawback is the high variability in the absorption of iron and thus in its bioavailability. Iron solid lipid nanoparticles (Fe-SLNs) were prepared by hot homogenization/ultrasonication. Solubility of ferrous sulfate in different solid lipids was measured, and effects of process variables such as the surfactant type and concentration, homogenization and ultrasonication times, and charge-inducing agent on the particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency were determined. Furthermore, in vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetics were studied in rabbits. Results indicated that Fe-SLNs consisted of 3% Compritol 888 ATO, 1% Lecithin, 3% Poloxamer 188, and 0.2% dicetylphosphate, with an average particle size of 25 nm with 92.3% entrapment efficiency. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed more than fourfold enhanced bioavailability. In conclusion, Fe-SLNs could be a promising carrier for iron with enhanced oral bioavailability. PMID:25609917

  14. Efficacy and safety of iron-chelation therapy with deferoxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox for the treatment of iron-loaded patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Kontoghiorghe, Christina N; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence rate of thalassemia, which is endemic in Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean, exceeds 100,000 live births per year. There are many genetic variants in thalassemia with different pathological severity, ranging from a mild and asymptomatic anemia to life-threatening clinical effects, requiring lifelong treatment, such as regular transfusions in thalassemia major (TM). Some of the thalassemias are non-transfusion-dependent, including many thalassemia intermedia (TI) variants, where iron overload is caused by chronic increase in iron absorption due to ineffective erythropoiesis. Many TI patients receive occasional transfusions. The rate of iron overloading in TI is much slower in comparison to TM patients. Iron toxicity in TI is usually manifested by the age of 30–40 years, and in TM by the age of 10 years. Subcutaneous deferoxamine (DFO), oral deferiprone (L1), and DFO–L1 combinations have been effectively used for more than 20 years for the treatment of iron overload in TM and TI patients, causing a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality. Selected protocols using DFO, L1, and their combination can be designed for personalized chelation therapy in TI, which can effectively and safely remove all the excess toxic iron and prevent cardiac, liver, and other organ damage. Both L1 and DF could also prevent iron absorption. The new oral chelator deferasirox (DFX) increases iron excretion and decreases liver iron in TM and TI. There are drawbacks in the use of DFX in TI, such as limitations related to dose, toxicity, and cost, iron load of the patients, and ineffective removal of excess iron from the heart. Furthermore, DFX appears to increase iron and other toxic metal absorption. Future treatments of TI and related iron-loading conditions could involve the use of the iron-chelating drugs and other drug combinations not only for increasing iron excretion but also for preventing iron absorption. PMID:26893541

  15. Magnetic Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol and Doxorubicine Loaded Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Anticancer Drug Delivery Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Akhtar, Muhammad Saeed; Shaari, Amiruddin; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Masood, Misbah; Saeed, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study emphasizes the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and impact of hydrophilic polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coating concentration as well as anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) loading on saturation magnetization for target drug delivery applications. Iron oxide nanoparticles particles were synthesized by a reformed version of the co-precipitation method. The coating of polyvinyl alcohol along with doxorubicin loading was carried out by the physical immobilization method. X-ray diffraction confirmed the magnetite (Fe3O4) structure of particles that remained unchanged before and after polyvinyl alcohol coating and drug loading. Microstructure and morphological analysis was carried out by transmission electron microscopy revealing the formation of nanoparticles with an average size of 10 nm with slight variation after coating and drug loading. Transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive, and Fourier transform infrared spectra further confirmed the conjugation of polymer and doxorubicin with iron oxide nanoparticles. The room temperature superparamagnetic behavior of polymer-coated and drug-loaded magnetite nanoparticles were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization after coating evaluated that a sufficient amount of polyvinyl alcohol would be 3 wt. % regarding the externally controlled movement of IONPs in blood under the influence of applied magnetic field for in-vivo target drug delivery. PMID:27348436

  16. Effect of iron oxide loading on the phase transformation and physicochemical properties of nanosized mesoporous ZrO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Basahel, S.N.; Ali, Tarek T.; Narasimharao, K.; Bagabas, A.A.; Mokhtar, M.

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Modified preparation method for nanosized iron oxide supported ZrO{sub 2} catalysts. ► Systematic study of effect of high iron oxide loading over ZrO{sub 2}. ► Influence of iron oxide on the stabilization of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} phase. ► A mesoporous nature of zirconia changed upon changing iron oxide loading. ► Surface to bulk migration of iron oxide evidenced by XPS technique. -- Abstract: Mesoporous ZrO{sub 2}-supported iron oxide materials were prepared with nominal loadings of iron oxide of 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.% using a modified co-precipitation method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy methods. A delay in the ZrO{sub 2} phase transformation as a result of the incorporation of iron was determined using TG/DSC measurements. XRD, Raman spectroscopy and HRTEM results revealed that an increase of iron oxide loading from 5 to 15 wt.% enhanced the transformation of the monoclinic to tetragonal phase. Unexpectedly, 20 wt.% iron oxide loading was required for complete tetragonal structure stabilization due to the mesoporosity of the ZrO{sub 2} support. Iron oxide loadings from 5 to 15 wt.% showed an increase in the BET-surface area due to the presence of amorphous iron oxide on the surface. XPS and FTIR results indicated that increasing the iron oxide content to 20 wt.% resulted in stabilization of the tetragonal zirconia phase as a result of surface-to-bulk migration and incorporation of Fe{sup 3+} ions in the ZrO{sub 2} lattice.

  17. Transfer of useful variability of high grain iron and zinc from Aegilops kotschyi into wheat through seed irradiation approach.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shailender Kumar; Kumar, Satish; Sheikh, Imran; Malik, Sachin; Mathpal, Priyanka; Chugh, Vishal; Kumar, Sundip; Prasad, Ramasare; Dhaliwal, Harcharan Singh

    2016-03-01

    Purpose To transfer the 2S chromosomal fragment(s) of Aegilops kotschyi (2S(k)) into the bread wheat genome which could lead to the biofortification of wheat with high grain iron and zinc content. Materials and methods Wheat-Ae. kotschyi 2A/2S(k) substitution lines with high grain iron and zinc content were used to transfer the gene/loci for high grain Fe and Zn content into wheat using seed irradiation approach. Results Bread wheat plants derived from 40 krad-irradiated seeds showed the presence of univalents and multivalents during meiotic metaphase-I. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis of seed irradiation hybrid F2 seedlings showed several terminal and interstitial signals indicated the introgression of Ae. kotschyi chromosome segments. This proves the efficacy of seed radiation hybrid approach in gene transfer experiments. All the radiation-treated hybrid plants with high grain Fe and Zn content were analyzed with wheat group 2 chromosome-specific polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers to identify the introgression of small alien chromosome fragment(s). Conclusion Radiation-induced hybrids showed more than 65% increase in grain iron and 54% increase in Zn contents with better harvest index than the elite wheat cultivar WL711 indicating effective and compensating translocations of 2S(k) fragments into wheat genome. PMID:26883304

  18. Primary productivity, bacterial productivity and nitrogen uptake in response to iron enrichment during the SEEDS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Isao; Noiri, Yoshifumi; Cochlan, William P.; Suzuki, Koji; Aramaki, Takafumi; Ono, Tsuneo; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    2009-12-01

    Primary productivity (PP), bacterial productivity (BP) and the uptake rates of nitrate and ammonium were measured using isotopic methods ( 13C, 3H, 15N) during a mesoscale iron (Fe)-enrichment experiment conducted in the western subarctic Pacific Ocean in 2004 (SEEDS II). PP increased following Fe enrichment, reached maximal rates 12 days after the enrichment, and then declined to the initial level on day 17. During the 23-day observation period, we observed the development and decline of the Fe-induced bloom. The surface mixed layer (SML) integrated PP increased by 3-fold, but was smaller than the 5-fold increase observed in the previous Fe-enrichment experiment conducted at almost the same location and season during 2001 (SEEDS). Nitrate uptake rates were enhanced by Fe enrichment but decreased after day 5, and became lower than ammonium uptake rates after day 17. The total nitrogenous nutrient uptake rate declined after the peak of the bloom, and accumulation of ammonium was obvious in the euphotic layer. Nitrate utilization accounted for all the requirements of N for the massive bloom development during SEEDS, whereas during SEEDS II, nitrate accounted for >90% of total N utilization on day 5, declining to 40% by the end of the observation period. The SML-integrated BP increased after day 2 and peaked twice on days 8 and 21. Ammonium accumulation and the delayed heterotrophic activity suggested active regeneration occurred after the peak of the bloom. The SML-integrated PP between days 0 and 23 was 19.0 g C m -2. The SML-integrated BP during the same period was 2.6 g C m -2, which was 14% of the SML-integrated PP. Carbon budget calculation for the whole experimental period indicated that 33% of the whole (particulate plus dissolved) PP (21.5 g C m -2) was exported below the SML and 18% was transferred to the meso-zooplankton (growth). The bacterial carbon consumption (43% of the whole PP) was supported by DOC or POC release from phytoplankton, zooplankton

  19. The Rehbinder effect in iron during giga-cycle fatigue loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannikov, M. V.; Naimark, O. B.

    2015-10-01

    The influence of the adsorptive strength reduction effect (the Rehbinder effect) on the fatigue life of pure iron under the giga-cycle loading regime was investigated. Specimens were loaded by an ultrasonic testing machine with a frequency of 20 kHz in air and in contact with eutectic alloy of gallium with tin and indium. A significant (by several orders of magnitude) worsening of the life-time of iron in contact with a molten metal as compared with tests in air was established. The liquid metal penetrates into the material to a depth of 200 μm to the center of a fatigue crack. The mechanism of the fatigue crack initiation in the giga-cycle regime of loading in contact with a surfactant is differing: the crack is formed on the surface of the specimen rather than within it as is the case for air. Based on the electron and optical microscopy data for the fracture surface, it can be concluded that exactly the change in the crack initiation mechanism reduces the fatigue life of iron in contact with a liquid metal because the initiated crack propagates regardless of the surfactant.

  20. Positive Contrast MRI Techniques for Visualization of Iron-Loaded Hernia Mesh Implants in Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ciritsis, Alexander; Truhn, Daniel; Hansen, Nienke L.; Otto, Jens; Kuhl, Christiane K.; Kraemer, Nils A.

    2016-01-01

    Object In MRI, implants and devices can be delineated via susceptibility artefacts. To discriminate susceptibility voids from proton-free structures, different positive contrast techniques were implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a pulse sequence-based positive contrast technique (PCSI) and a post-processing susceptibility gradient mapping algorithm (SGM) for visualization of iron loaded mesh implants in patients. Material and Methods Five patients with iron-loaded MR-visible inguinal hernia mesh implants were examined at 1.5 Tesla. A gradient echo sequence (GRE; parameters: TR: 8.3ms; TE: 4.3ms; NSA:2; FA:20°; FOV:350mm²) and a PCSI sequence (parameters: TR: 25ms; TE: 4.6ms; NSA:4; FA:20°; FOV:350mm²) with on-resonant proton suppression were performed. SGM maps were calculated using two algorithms. Image quality and mesh delineation were independently evaluated by three radiologists. Results On GRE, the iron-loaded meshes generated distinct susceptibility-induced signal voids. PCSI exhibited susceptibility differences including the meshes as hyperintense signals. SGM exhibited susceptibility differences with positive contrast. Visually, the different algorithms presented no significant differences. Overall, the diagnostic value was rated best in GRE whereas PCSI and SGM were barely “sufficient”. Conclusion Both “positive contrast” techniques depicted implanted meshes with hyperintense signal. SGM comes without additional acquisition time and can therefore be utilized in every patient. PMID:27192201

  1. The Rehbinder effect in iron during giga-cycle fatigue loading

    SciTech Connect

    Bannikov, M. V. Naimark, O. B.

    2015-10-27

    The influence of the adsorptive strength reduction effect (the Rehbinder effect) on the fatigue life of pure iron under the giga-cycle loading regime was investigated. Specimens were loaded by an ultrasonic testing machine with a frequency of 20 kHz in air and in contact with eutectic alloy of gallium with tin and indium. A significant (by several orders of magnitude) worsening of the life-time of iron in contact with a molten metal as compared with tests in air was established. The liquid metal penetrates into the material to a depth of 200 μm to the center of a fatigue crack. The mechanism of the fatigue crack initiation in the giga-cycle regime of loading in contact with a surfactant is differing: the crack is formed on the surface of the specimen rather than within it as is the case for air. Based on the electron and optical microscopy data for the fracture surface, it can be concluded that exactly the change in the crack initiation mechanism reduces the fatigue life of iron in contact with a liquid metal because the initiated crack propagates regardless of the surfactant.

  2. Selective in vitro anticancer effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles loaded in hyaluronan polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Smejkalová, Daniela; Nešporová, Kristina; Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Syrovátka, Jakub; Jirák, Daniel; Gálisová, Andrea; Velebný, Vladimír

    2014-11-10

    Due to its native origin, excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, hyaluronan (HA) represents an attractive polymer for superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) coating. Herein, we report HA polymeric micelles encapsulating oleic acid coated SPIONs, having a hydrodynamic size of about 100 nm and SPION loading capacity of 1-2 wt %. The HA-SPION polymeric micelles were found to be selectively cytotoxic toward a number of human cancer cell lines, mainly those of colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29). The selective inhibition of cell growth was even observed when the SPION loaded HA polymeric micelles were incubated with a mixture of control and cancer cells. The selective in vitro inhibition could not be connected with an enhanced CD44 uptake or radical oxygen species formation and was rather connected with a different way of SPION intracellular release. While aggregated iron particles were visualized in control cells, nonaggregated solubilized iron oxide particles were detected in cancer cells. In vivo SPION accumulation in intramuscular tumor following an intravenous micelle administration was confirmed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and histological analysis. Having a suitable hydrodynamic size, high magnetic relaxivity, and being cancer specific and able to accumulate in vivo in tumors, SPION-loaded HA micelles represent a promising platform for theranostic applications. PMID:25268047

  3. The effect of iron loading and iron chelation on the innate immune response and subclinical organ injury during human endotoxemia: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    van Eijk, Lucas T; Heemskerk, Suzanne; van der Pluijm, Rob W; van Wijk, Susanne M; Peters, Wilbert H M; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Kox, Matthijs; Swinkels, Dorine W; Pickkers, Peter

    2014-03-01

    In this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial involving 30 healthy male volunteers we investigated the acute effects of iron loading (single dose of 1.25 mg/kg iron sucrose) and iron chelation therapy (single dose of 30 mg/kg deferasirox) on iron parameters, oxidative stress, the innate immune response, and subclinical organ injury during experimental human endotoxemia. The administration of iron sucrose induced a profound increase in plasma malondialdehyde 1 h after administration (433±37% of baseline; P<0.0001), but did not potentiate the endotoxemia-induced increase in malondialdehyde, as was seen 3 h after endotoxin administration in the placebo group (P=0.34) and the iron chelation group (P=0.008). Endotoxemia resulted in an initial increase in serum iron levels and transferrin saturation that was accompanied by an increase in labile plasma iron, especially when transferrin saturation reached levels above 90%. Thereafter, serum iron decreased to 51.6±9.7% of baseline at T=8 h in the placebo group versus 84±15% and 60.4±8.9% of baseline at 24 h in the groups treated with iron sucrose and deferasirox, respectively. No significant differences in the endotoxemia-induced cytokine response (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1RA), subclinical vascular injury and kidney injury were observed between groups. However, vascular reactivity to noradrenalin was impaired in the 6 subjects in whom labile plasma iron was elevated during endotoxemia as opposed to those in whom no labile plasma iron was detected (P=0.029). In conclusion, a single dose of iron sucrose does not affect the innate immune response in a model of experimental human endotoxemia, but may impair vascular reactivity when labile plasma iron is formed. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01349699). PMID:24241495

  4. Uranium fate in wetland mesocosms: Effects of plants at two iron loadings with different pH values

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small-scale continuous flow wetland mesocosms (~0.8 L) were used to evaluate how plant roots under different iron loadings affect uranium (U) mobility. When significant concentrations of ferrous iron (Fe) were present at circumneutral pH values, U concentrations in root exposed ...

  5. Uranium fate in wetland mesocosms: Effects of plants at two iron loadings with different pH values

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small-scale continuous flow wetland mesocosms (~0.8 L) were used to evaluate how plant roots under different iron loadings affect uranium (U) mobility. When significant concentrations of ferrous iron (Fe) were present at circumneutral pH values U concentrations in root exposed s...

  6. Effect of antioxidants on lipid peroxidation in iron-loaded rats.

    PubMed

    Dillard, C J; Downey, J E; Tappel, A L

    1984-02-01

    Indirect evidence has suggested that lipid peroxidation is associated with iron overload in vivo. As a measure of lipid peroxidation, pentane expired in the breath of rats loaded with an accumulated dose of either 100 mg or 186-200 mg of iron injected intraperitoneally as iron dextran was measured over a 7 to 8 week period, and the effect on pentane production of feeding antioxidant-supplemented diets was determined. By the seventh week of feeding the diets, rats fed 0.3% L-ascorbic acid produced 17% less (P = 0.03) pentane than did rats fed the basal antioxidant-deficient diet, whereas rats fed 0.004% dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate produced 92% less (P less than 0.001). After being fed the basal diet for 7 weeks, iron-loaded rats produced 76 +/- 9 pmol pentane/100 g body wt/min. When synthetic antioxidants were added to the diet at a concentration of 0.25%, the order of effectiveness in decreasing pentane production after 1 week was: N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine greater than ethoxyquin greater than butylated hydroxyanisole greater than butylated hydroxytoluene greater than propyl gallate approximately equal to no antioxidant. After removal of either ethoxyquin or N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine from the diets for 1 week, pentane production increased to a high level. The total amount of lipid soluble fluorophores in individual spleens of rats fed N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine, ethoxyquin, dl-alpha- tocopherol acetate, ascorbic acid and no antioxidant were correlated significantly with the corresponding total integrated amount of pentane produced by the individual rats over the 7 to 8 week period. This study has provided some of the most direct evidence to date that lipid peroxidation is associated with iron overload in vivo. PMID:6708751

  7. Temporal changes in community composition of heterotrophic bacteria during in situ iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific (SEEDS-II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Takafumi; Suzuki, Koji; Hayakawa, Maki; Kudo, Isao; Higashi, Seigo; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of iron enrichment in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters on the community composition of heterotrophic bacteria, which are crucial to nutrient recycling and microbial food webs. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA fragments, we investigated the heterotrophic eubacterial community composition in surface waters during an in situ iron-enrichment experiment (SEEDS-II) in the western subarctic Pacific in the summer of 2004. DGGE fingerprints representing the community composition of eubacteria differed inside and outside the iron-enriched patch. Sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that at least five phylotypes of α-proteobacteria including Roseobacter, Cytophaga-Flavobacteria- Bacteroides (CFB), γ-proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria occurred in almost all samples from the iron-enriched patch. Diatoms did not bloom during SEEDS-II, but the eubacterial composition in the iron-enriched patch was similar to that in diatom blooms observed previously. Although dissolved organic carbon (DOC) accumulation was not detected in surface waters during SEEDS-II, growth of the Roseobacter clade might have been particularly stimulated after iron additions. Two identified phylotypes of CFB were closely related to the genus Saprospira, whose algicidal activity might degrade the phytoplankton assemblages increased by iron enrichment. These results suggest that the responses of heterotrophic bacteria to iron enrichment could differ among phylotypes during SEEDS-II.

  8. Iron deficiency and bioavailability in anaerobic batch and submerged membrane bioreactors (SAMBR) during organic shock loads.

    PubMed

    Ketheesan, Balachandran; Thanh, Pham Minh; Stuckey, David C

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the effects of Fe(2+) and its bioavailability for controlling VFAs during organic shock loads in batch reactors and a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). When seed grown under Fe-sufficient conditions (7.95±0.05mgFe/g-TSS), an organic shock resulted in leaching of Fe from the residual to organically bound and soluble forms. Under Fe-deficient seed conditions (0.1±0.002mgFe/gTSS), Fe(2+) supplementation (3.34mgFe(2+)/g-TSS) with acetate resulted in a 2.1-3.9 fold increase in the rate of methane production, while with propionate it increased by 1.2-1.5 fold compared to non-Fe(2+) supplemented reactors. Precipitation of Fe(2+) as sulphides and organically bound Fe were bioavailable to methanogens for acetate assimilation. The results confirmed that the transitory/long term limitations of Fe play a significant role in controlling the degradation of VFAs during organic shock loads due to their varying physical/chemical states, and bioavailability. PMID:27015020

  9. Effects of pollen load, parasitoids and the environment on pre-dispersal seed predation in the cleistogamous Ruellia nudiflora.

    PubMed

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Parra-Tabla, Víctor

    2013-11-01

    Few studies have simultaneously addressed the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on pre-dispersal seed predation (PSP). Plant-seed predator interactions may be influenced by natural enemies and pollinators (the latter through changes in fruit or seed traits), and the activity of pre-dispersal seed predators and their natural enemies may both be affected by the abiotic environment. Additionally, in the case of cleistogamous plants with fruit dimorphism, PSP may be biased towards larger and more seeded chasmogamous (CH) fruits [relative to the smaller cleistogamous (CL) fruits], and the effects of biotic and abiotic factors may be contingent upon this fruit dimorphism. We studied PSP in the cleistogamous Ruellia nudiflora using a split-plot experimental design and asked the following: (1) is PSP biased towards CH fruits and is there an effect of pollen load on PSP? (2) Do parasitoids influence PSP and is their effect influenced by pollen load or fruit type? And (3) do light and water availability modify PSP and parasitoid effects? PSP was higher for CH relative to CL fruits, and under low water availability it was lower for pollen-supplemented CH fruits relative to open-pollinated CH fruits. Parasitoids were not influenced by abiotic conditions, but their negative effect on PSP was stronger for pollen-supplemented CH fruits. Overall, we show that fruit dimorphism, abiotic factors and natural enemies affect PSP, and that these effects can be non-additive. PMID:23576106

  10. Inheritance of seed iron and zinc concentrations in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronutrients are essential elements needed in small amounts for adequate human nutrition and include the elements iron and zinc. Both of these minerals are essential to human well-being, and an adequate supply of iron and zinc helps to prevent iron deficiency anemia and zinc deficiency, two preva...

  11. Iron-Loaded Magnetic Nanocapsules for pH-Triggered Drug Release and MRI Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanocapsules were synthesized for controlled drug release, magnetically assisted delivery, and MRI imaging. These magnetic nanocapsules, consisting of a stable iron nanocore and a mesoporous silica shell, were synthesized by controlled encapsulation of ellipsoidal hematite in silica, partial etching of the hematite core in acid, and reduction of the core by hydrogen. The iron core provided a high saturation magnetization and was stable against oxidation for at least 6 months in air and 1 month in aqueous solution. The hollow space between the iron core and mesoporous silica shell was used to load anticancer drug and a T1-weighted MRI contrast agent (Gd-DTPA). These multifunctional monodispersed magnetic “nanoeyes” were coated by multiple polyelectrolyte layers of biocompatible poly-l-lysine and sodium alginate to control the drug release as a function of pH. We studied pH-controlled release, magnetic hysteresis curves, and T1/T2 MRI contrast of the magnetic nanoeyes. They also served as MRI contrast agents with relaxivities of 8.6 mM–1 s–1 (r1) and 285 mM–1 s–1 (r2). PMID:24748722

  12. Myocardial Iron Loading Assessment by Automatic Left Ventricle Segmentation with Morphological Operations and Geodesic Active Contour on T2* images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yun-Gang; Ko, Jacky Kl; Shi, Lin; Guan, Yuefeng; Li, Linong; Qin, Jing; Heng, Pheng-Ann; Chu, Winnie Cw; Wang, Defeng

    2015-07-01

    Myocardial iron loading thalassemia patients could be identified using T2* magnetic resonance images (MRI). To quantitatively assess cardiac iron loading, we proposed an effective algorithm to segment aligned free induction decay sequential myocardium images based on morphological operations and geodesic active contour (GAC). Nine patients with thalassemia major were recruited (10 male and 16 female) to undergo a thoracic MRI scan in the short axis view. Free induction decay images were registered for T2* mapping. The GAC were utilized to segment aligned MR images with a robust initialization. Segmented myocardium regions were divided into sectors for a region-based quantification of cardiac iron loading. Our proposed automatic segmentation approach achieve a true positive rate at 84.6% and false positive rate at 53.8%. The area difference between manual and automatic segmentation was 25.5% after 1000 iterations. Results from T2* analysis indicated that regions with intensity lower than 20 ms were suffered from heavy iron loading in thalassemia major patients. The proposed method benefited from abundant edge information of the free induction decay sequential MRI. Experiment results demonstrated that the proposed method is feasible in myocardium segmentation and was clinically applicable to measure myocardium iron loading.

  13. Myocardial Iron Loading Assessment by Automatic Left Ventricle Segmentation with Morphological Operations and Geodesic Active Contour on T2* images

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yun-gang; Ko, Jacky KL; Shi, Lin; Guan, Yuefeng; Li, Linong; Qin, Jing; Heng, Pheng-Ann; Chu, Winnie CW; Wang, Defeng

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial iron loading thalassemia patients could be identified using T2* magnetic resonance images (MRI). To quantitatively assess cardiac iron loading, we proposed an effective algorithm to segment aligned free induction decay sequential myocardium images based on morphological operations and geodesic active contour (GAC). Nine patients with thalassemia major were recruited (10 male and 16 female) to undergo a thoracic MRI scan in the short axis view. Free induction decay images were registered for T2* mapping. The GAC were utilized to segment aligned MR images with a robust initialization. Segmented myocardium regions were divided into sectors for a region-based quantification of cardiac iron loading. Our proposed automatic segmentation approach achieve a true positive rate at 84.6% and false positive rate at 53.8%. The area difference between manual and automatic segmentation was 25.5% after 1000 iterations. Results from T2* analysis indicated that regions with intensity lower than 20 ms were suffered from heavy iron loading in thalassemia major patients. The proposed method benefited from abundant edge information of the free induction decay sequential MRI. Experiment results demonstrated that the proposed method is feasible in myocardium segmentation and was clinically applicable to measure myocardium iron loading. PMID:26215336

  14. Strong sexual selection in males against a mutation load that reduces offspring production in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Grieshop, K; Stångberg, J; Martinossi-Allibert, I; Arnqvist, G; Berger, D

    2016-06-01

    Theory predicts that sexual reproduction can increase population viability relative to asexual reproduction by allowing sexual selection in males to remove deleterious mutations from the population without large demographic costs. This requires that selection acts more strongly in males than females and that mutations affecting male reproductive success have pleiotropic effects on population productivity, but empirical support for these assumptions is mixed. We used the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to implement a three-generation breeding design where we induced mutations via ionizing radiation (IR) in the F0 generation and measured mutational effects (relative to nonirradiated controls) on an estimate of population productivity in the F1 and effects on sex-specific competitive lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in the F2 . Regardless of whether mutations were induced via F0 males or females, they had strong negative effects on male LRS, but a nonsignificant influence on female LRS, suggesting that selection is more efficient in removing deleterious alleles in males. Moreover, mutations had seemingly shared effects on population productivity and competitive LRS in both sexes. Thus, our results lend support to the hypothesis that strong sexual selection on males can act to remove the mutation load on population viability, thereby offering a benefit to sexual reproduction. PMID:26991346

  15. Over-expression of the MxIRT1 gene increases iron and zinc content in rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Tan, Song; Han, Rui; Li, Peng; Yang, Guang; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Wei-Bing; Zhao, Wei-Zhong; Yin, Li-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Iron and zinc are essential in plant and human nutrition. Iron deficiency has been one of the causes of human mortality, especially in developing countries with high rice consumption. MxIRT1 is a ferrous transporter that has been screened from an iron-efficient genotype of the apple tree, Malus xiaojinensis Cheng et Jiang. In order to produce Fe-biofortified rice with MxIRT1 to solve the Fe-deficiency problem, plant expression vectors of pCAMBIA1302-MxIRT1:GFP and pCAMBIA1302-anti MxIRT1:GFP were constructed that led to successful production of transgenic rice. The transgenic plant phenotypes showed that the expression of endogenous OsIRT1 was suppressed by anti-MxIRT1 in antisense lines that acted as an opposing control, while sense lines had a higher tolerance under Zn- and Fe-deficient conditions. The iron and zinc concentration in T3 seeds increased by three times in sense lines when compared to the wild type. To understand the MxIRT1 cadmium uptake, the MxIRT1 cadmium absorption trait was compared with AtIRT1 and OsIRT1 in transgenic rice protoplasts, and it was found that MxIRT1 had the lowest Cd uptake capacity. MxIRT1 transgenic tobacco-cultured bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cells and rice lines were subjected to different Fe conditions and the results from the non-invasive micro-test technique showed that iron was actively transported compared to cadmium as long as iron was readily available in the environment. This suggests that MxIRT1 is a good candidate gene for plant Fe and Zn biofortification. PMID:25099285

  16. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  17. Iron-chelating and anti-lipid peroxidation properties of 1-(N-acetyl-6-aminohexyl)-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridin-4-one (CM1) in long-term iron loading β-thalassemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kulprachakarn, Kanokwan; Chansiw, Nittaya; Pangjit, Kanjana; Phisalaphong, Chada; Fucharoen, Suthat; Hider, Robert C.; Santitherakul, Sineenart; Srichairatanakool, Somdet

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the iron-chelating properties and free-radical scavenging activities of 1-(N-acetyl-6-aminohexyl)-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridin-4-one (CM1) treatment in chronic iron-loaded β-thalassemic (BKO) mice. Methods The BKO mice were fed with a ferrocene-rich diet and were orally administered with CM1 [50 mg/(kg.day)] for 6 months. Blood levels of non-transferrin bound iron, labile plasma iron, ferritin (Ft) and malondialdehyde were determined. Results The BKO mice were fed with an iron diet for 8 months which resulted in iron overload. Interestingly, the mice showed a decrease in the non-transferrin bound iron, labile plasma iron and malondialdehyde levels, but not the Ft levels after continuous CM1 treatment. Conclusions CM1 could be an effective oral iron chelator that can reduce iron overload and lipid peroxidation in chronic iron overload β-thalassemic mice. PMID:25183338

  18. An Enhanced Drought-Tolerant Method Using SA-Loaded PAMPS Polymer Materials Applied on Tobacco Pelleted Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yajing; Cui, Huawei; Ma, Wenguang; Zheng, Yunye; Tian, Yixin; Hu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important stress factors limiting the seed industry and crop production. Present study was undertaken to create novel drought-resistant pelleted seeds using the combined materials with superabsorbent polymer, poly(2-acrylamide-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS) hydrogel, and drought resistance agent, salicylic acid (SA). The optimized PAMPS hydrogel was obtained as the molar ratio of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) to potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS) and N, N′-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) was 1 : 0.00046 : 0.00134. The hydrogel weight after swelling in deionized water for 24 h reached 4306 times its own dry weight. The water retention ratio (RR) of PAMPS was significantly higher as compared with the control. It could keep as high as 85.3% of original weight after 30 min at 110°C; even at 25°C for 40 d, the PAMPS still kept RR at 33.67%. PAMPS disintegration ratio increased gradually and reached around 30% after embedding in soil or activated sludge for 60 d. In addition, there were better seed germination performance and seedling growth in the pelleted treatments with SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel under drought stress than control. It suggested that SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel, a nontoxic superabsorbent polymer, could be used as an effective drought resistance material applied to tobacco pelleted seeds. PMID:25250387

  19. Moving toward a precise nutrition: preferential loading of seeds with essential nutrients over non-essential toxic elements

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mather A.; Castro-Guerrero, Norma; Mendoza-Cozatl, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Plants and seeds are the main source of essential nutrients for humans and livestock. Many advances have recently been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which plants take up and accumulate micronutrients such as iron, zinc, copper and manganese. Some of these mechanisms, however, also facilitate the accumulation of non-essential toxic elements such as cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As). In humans, Cd and As intake has been associated with multiple disorders including kidney failure, diabetes, cancer and mental health issues. Recent studies have shown that some transporters can discriminate between essential metals and non-essential elements. Furthermore, sequestration of non-essential elements in roots has been described in several plant species as a key process limiting the translocation of non-essential elements to aboveground edible tissues, including seeds. Increasing the concentration of bioavailable micronutrients (biofortification) in grains while lowering the accumulation of non-essential elements will likely require the concerted action of several transporters. This review discusses the most recent advances on mineral nutrition that could be used to preferentially enrich seeds with micronutrients and also illustrates how precision breeding and transport engineering could be used to enhance the nutritional value of crops by re-routing essential and non-essential elements to separate sink tissues (roots and seeds). PMID:24600463

  20. Iron and the liver. Acute and long-term effects of iron-loading on hepatic haem metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Bonkowsky, H L; Healey, J F; Sinclair, P R; Sinclair, J F; Pomeroy, J S

    1981-01-01

    We have determined the dose-response curves (100-900 mg of Fe/kg body wt.) and the time course over 84 days for the effects of a single injection of iron-dextran on rat hepatic 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase, cytochrome P-450, iron content, and GSH (reduced glutathione). Porphyrins in liver and urine have also been measured. (1) At 2 days after treatment, a dose of 500 mg of Fe/kg produced a 20-fold increase in iron concentration, which was maintained for 14 days. Total hepatic iron remained constant over 63 days, falling slightly by 84 days. (2) The activity of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase was maximally increased (6-fold) 12-24 h after iron treatment. By 48 h the activity fell to less than twice the control value and thereafter remained slightly above the control value (1.1-1.5-fold) until 84 days after iron treatment. Liver GSH concentrations were unaffected by iron. Porphyrins in liver and urine were either unchanged or decreased. (3) Hepatic cytochrome P-450 decreased after iron treatment to a minimum (63% of control) at 48 h after iron administration and gradually returned to the control value by 28 days. (4) Iron-dextran potentiated 2 allyl-2-isopropyl-acetamide-induced synthesis of hepatic 5-aminolaevulinate. Potentiation occurred if the drug was given at the same time or 36 h after iron administration, but did not occur if the drug was given 14 or 64 days after iron administration. (5) The results are discussed in relation to proposed mechanisms for the effects of iron on hepatic haem metabolism. PMID:7306080

  1. Effects of sediment load on emergence of aquatic invertebrates and plants from wetland soil egg and seed banks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, R.A.; Euliss, N.H., Jr.; Hubbard, D.E.; Duffy, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    Intensive agricultural activities near prairie wetlands may result in excessive sediment loads, which may bury seed and invertebrate egg banks that are important for maintenance and cycling of biotic communities during wet/dry cycles. Sediment-load experiments indicated that burial depths of 0.5 cm caused a 91.7% reduction in total seedling emergence and a 99.7% reduction in total invertebrate emergence. These results suggest sediment entering wetlands from agricultural erosion may hamper successional changes throughout interannual climate cycles.

  2. Differential iron distribution in seeds of two closely related legume species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The World Health Organization states that the lack of micronutrients such as zinc and iron represents a major threat to the health and development of populations around the world. Iron deficiency affects over 2 billion people, in particular children and pregnant women in developing countries. A comm...

  3. Lasing and magnetic microbeads loaded with colloidal quantum dots and iron oxide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Minxu; You, Guanjun; Wang, Andrew Y.; Hu, Wenjia; Wang, Jingkang; Sun, Fengqing; Zhu, Yiming; Henderson, Ron; Xu, Jian

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of loading nanostructured lasing medium and magnetic nanocrystals in the same microbead for potential applications in bio- and chemical sensing. A sequential infiltration process is proposed and tested for the preparation of magnetic and lasing microbeads by incorporating, respectively, iron oxide nanocrystals in the inner cores and colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) in the periphery regions of mesoporous silica microbeads. The co-doped bead structure was confirmed by electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The lasing action of the CQD gain medium in the mesoporous beads was characterized with micro-photoluminescence, revealing sharp whispering gallery mode lasing signatures, whereas the distinguishing superparamagnetic property was measured from the co-doped microbeads with vibrating sample magnetometry.

  4. Effects of Radiation and a High Iron Load on Bone Mineral Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, E.; Morgan, J. L. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Gonzales, E.; Camp, K.; Smith, S. M.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts on long duration space flight missions to the moon or mars are exposed to radiation and have increase iron (Fe) stores, both of which can independently induce oxidative stress and may exacerbate bone mass loss and strength. We hypothesize a high Fe diet and a fractionated gamma radiation exposure would increase oxidative stress and lower bone mass. Three mo-old, SD rats (n=32) were randomized to receive an adequate Fe diet (45 mg Fe/kg diet) or a high Fe diet (650 mg Fe/kg diet) for 4 wks and either a cumulative 3 Gy dose (fractionated 8 x 0.375 Gy) of gamma radiation (Cs-137) or sham exposure starting on day 14. Elisa kit assessed serum catalase, clinical analyzer assessed serum Fe status and ex vivo pQCT scans measured bone parameters in the proximal/midshaft tibia and femoral neck. Mechanical strength was assessed by 3-pt bending and femoral neck test. There is a significant decrease in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) from radiation (p less than 0.05) and a trend in diet (p=0.05) at the proximal tibia. There is a significant interaction in cortical BMD from the combined treatments at the midshaft tibia (p less than 0.05). There is a trending decrease in total BMD from diet (p=0.07) at the femoral neck. In addition, high serum Fe was correlated to low trabecular BMD (p less than 0.05) and high serum catalase was correlated to low BMD at all 3 bone sites (p less than 0.05). There was no difference in the max load of the tibia or femoral neck. Radiation and a high iron diet increases iron status and catalase in the serum and decreases BMD.

  5. Mobilization of vacuolar iron by AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4 is essential for seed germination on low iron.

    PubMed

    Lanquar, Viviane; Lelièvre, Françoise; Bolte, Susanne; Hamès, Cécile; Alcon, Carine; Neumann, Dieter; Vansuyt, Gérard; Curie, Catherine; Schröder, Astrid; Krämer, Ute; Barbier-Brygoo, Hélène; Thomine, Sebastien

    2005-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is necessary for all living cells, but its bioavailability is often limited. Fe deficiency limits agriculture in many areas and affects over a billion human beings worldwide. In mammals, NRAMP2/DMT1/DCT1 was identified as a major pathway for Fe acquisition and recycling. In plants, AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4 are induced under Fe deficiency. The similitude of AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4 expression patterns and their common targeting to the vacuole, together with the lack of obvious phenotype in nramp3-1 and nramp4-1 single knockout mutants, suggested a functional redundancy. Indeed, the germination of nramp3 nramp4 double mutants is arrested under low Fe nutrition and fully rescued by high Fe supply. Mutant seeds have wild type Fe content, but fail to retrieve Fe from the vacuolar globoids. Our work thus identifies for the first time the vacuole as an essential compartment for Fe storage in seeds. Our data indicate that mobilization of vacuolar Fe stores by AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4 is crucial to support Arabidopsis early development until efficient systems for Fe acquisition from the soil take over. PMID:16270029

  6. Mobilization of vacuolar iron by AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4 is essential for seed germination on low iron

    PubMed Central

    Lanquar, Viviane; Lelièvre, Françoise; Bolte, Susanne; Hamès, Cécile; Alcon, Carine; Neumann, Dieter; Vansuyt, Gérard; Curie, Catherine; Schröder, Astrid; Krämer, Ute; Barbier-Brygoo, Hélène; Thomine, Sebastien

    2005-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is necessary for all living cells, but its bioavailability is often limited. Fe deficiency limits agriculture in many areas and affects over a billion human beings worldwide. In mammals, NRAMP2/DMT1/DCT1 was identified as a major pathway for Fe acquisition and recycling. In plants, AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4 are induced under Fe deficiency. The similitude of AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4 expression patterns and their common targeting to the vacuole, together with the lack of obvious phenotype in nramp3-1 and nramp4-1 single knockout mutants, suggested a functional redundancy. Indeed, the germination of nramp3 nramp4 double mutants is arrested under low Fe nutrition and fully rescued by high Fe supply. Mutant seeds have wild type Fe content, but fail to retrieve Fe from the vacuolar globoids. Our work thus identifies for the first time the vacuole as an essential compartment for Fe storage in seeds. Our data indicate that mobilization of vacuolar Fe stores by AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4 is crucial to support Arabidopsis early development until efficient systems for Fe acquisition from the soil take over. PMID:16270029

  7. Genetic control and transgressive segregation of zinc, iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and sodium accumulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Fernandes Santos, C A; Boiteux, L S

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea crop, through combining a range of essential minerals with high quality proteins, plays an important role in providing nutritional security to human population living in semi-arid regions. Studies on genetics of biofortification with essential minerals are still quite scarce, and the major objective of the present study was to provide genetic information on development of cowpea cultivars with high seed mineral contents. Genetic parameters heritability and minimum number of genes were estimated for seed accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sodium (Na). Generation mean and variance analyses were conducted using contrasting parental lines, F₁, F₂, and backcross populations derived from IT97K-1042-3 x BRS Tapaihum and IT97K-1042-3 x Canapu crosses. High narrow-sense heritability (h²) values were found for accumulation of Fe (65-86%), P (74-77%), and K (77-88%), whereas moderate h(2) values were observed for accumulation of Ca (41-56%), Zn (51-83%), and Na (50-55%) in seeds. Significant additive genetic effects as well as parental mean effects were detected in both crosses for all minerals, whereas epistasis was important genetic component in Zn content. The minimum number of genes controlling the accumulation of minerals ranged from two (K) to 11 (P). Transgressive segregation was observed in F2 populations of both crosses for all minerals analyzed. The results suggest that, although under either oligogenic or polygenic control, the seed content of these six minerals in cowpea can be improved via standard breeding methods largely used for self-pollinated crops. PMID:25729958

  8. QTL analyses for seed iron and zinc concentrations in an intra-genepool population of Andean common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; Astudillo, Carohna; Rengifo, Judith; Beebe, Steve E; Graham, Robin

    2011-02-01

    Legumes provide essential micronutrients that are found only in low amounts in the cereals or root crops. An ongoing project at CIAT has shown that the legume common bean is variable in the amount of seed minerals (iron, zinc, and other elements), vitamins, and sulfur amino acids that they contain and that these traits are likely to be inherited quantitatively. In this study we analyzed iron and zinc concentrations in an Andean recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 100 lines derived from a cross between G21242, a Colombian cream-mottled climbing bean with high seed iron/zinc and G21078, an Argentinean cream seeded climbing bean with low seed iron/zinc. The population was planted across three environments; seed from each genotype was analyzed with two analytical methods, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected using composite interval mapping and single-point analyses. A complete genetic map was created for the cross using a total of 74 microsatellite markers to anchor the map to previously published reference maps and 42 RAPD markers. In total, nine seed mineral QTL were identified on five linkage groups (LGs) with the most important being new loci on b02 and other QTL on b06, b08, and b07 near phaseolin. Seed weight QTL were associated with these on b02 and b08. These Andean-derived QTL are candidates for marker-assisted selection either in combination with QTL from the Mesoamerican genepool or with other QTL found in inter and intra-genepool crosses, and the genetic map can be used to anchor other intra-genepool studies. PMID:21113704

  9. A study of the effect of cesium loading on the phase transformation of iron in iron phosphate over the oxidative dehydrogenation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Faiza B.; Dasireddy, Venkata D. B. C.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Masenda, H.; Friedrich, H. B.

    2015-04-01

    A phase specific iron orthophosphate catalyst, FePO4, was synthesized and promoted with cesium. This catalyst was subjected to oxidative dehydrogenation reactions to form an alkyl methacrylate. The phases of the catalyst, before and after the reactions, were studied as a function of different cesium loading. Mössbauer spectra of the catalysts show the change of the catalyst precursor FePO4, to i) the tridymite-like phase, ii) the reduced form, iron(II) pyrophosphate and Fe2 P 2 O 7, and iii) the α-phase of iron phosphate which is governed by the temperatures of oxidation. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer measurements on the spent catalyst show a transformation of the catalyst to a mixture of phases.

  10. IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document surveys the effects of organic and inorganic iron that are relevant to humans and their environment. The biology and chemistry of iron are complex and only partially understood. Iron participates in oxidation reduction processes that not only affect its geochemical m...

  11. Non-seeded synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles incorporated into silica nanoparticles via ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Sodipo, Bashiru Kayode; Abdul Aziz, Azlan

    2015-03-01

    A non-seeded method of incorporating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) into silica nanoparticles is presented. Mixture of both SPION and silica nanoparticles was ultrasonically irradiated. The collapsed bubbles and shockwave generated from the ultrasonic irradiation produce tremendous force that caused inelastic collision and incorporation of SPION into the silica. Physicochemical analyses using transmission electron microscope (TEM), electronic spectroscopic imaging (ESI), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrated the formation of SPION/silica composite nanoparticles. The prepared composite nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behaviour and nearly 70% of the initial saturation magnetization (Ms) of the SPION was retained. The presence and reactivity of the silica were demonstrated via assembling decanethiol monolayer on the composite nanoparticles. The silanol group of the silica provided the binding site for the alkyl group in the decanethiol molecules. Therefore, the thiol moiety became the terminal and functional group on the magnetic composite nanoparticles. PMID:25315418

  12. Magnetically triggered release of molecular cargo from iron oxide nanoparticle loaded microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carregal-Romero, Susana; Guardia, Pablo; Yu, Xiang; Hartmann, Raimo; Pellegrino, Teresa; Parak, Wolfgang J.

    2014-12-01

    Photothermal release of cargo molecules has been extensively studied for bioapplications. For instance, microcapsules decorated with plasmonic nanoparticles have been widely used in in vitro assays. However, some concerns about their suitability for some in vivo applications cannot be easily overcome, in particular the limited penetration depth of light (even infrared). Magnetic nanoparticles are alternative heat-mediators for local heating, which can be triggered by applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). AMFs are much less absorbed by tissue than light and thus can penetrate deeper overcoming the above mentioned limitations. Here we present iron oxide nanocube-modified microcapsules as a platform for magnetically triggered molecular release. Layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte microcapsules with 4.6 μm diameter, which had 18 nm diameter iron oxide nanocubes integrated in their walls, were synthesized. The microcapsules were further loaded with an organic fluorescent polymer (Cascade Blue-labelled dextran), which was used as a model of molecular cargo. Through an AMF the magnetic nanoparticles were able to heat their surroundings and destroy the microcapsule walls, leading to a final release of the embedded cargo to the surrounding solution. The cargo release was monitored in solution by measuring the increase in both absorbance and fluorescence signal after the exposure to an AMF. Our results demonstrate that magnetothermal release of the encapsulated material is possible using magnetic nanoparticles with a high heating performance.Photothermal release of cargo molecules has been extensively studied for bioapplications. For instance, microcapsules decorated with plasmonic nanoparticles have been widely used in in vitro assays. However, some concerns about their suitability for some in vivo applications cannot be easily overcome, in particular the limited penetration depth of light (even infrared). Magnetic nanoparticles are alternative heat

  13. Browse diversity and iron loading in captive sumatran rhinoceroses (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis): a comparison of sanctuary and zoological populations.

    PubMed

    Candra, Dedi; Radcliffe, Robin W; Andriansyah; Khan, Mohammad; Tsu, I-Hsien; Paglia, Donald E

    2012-09-01

    Iron storage disease (ISD) is now recognized as a serious clinical disorder acquired by two species of browsing rhinoceroses, the African black (Diceros bicornis) and the Asian Sumatran (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) rhinoceroses, when displaced from their natural habitats. The most complete knowledge of ISD comes from studies of the black rhinoceros, but the Asian species is also at risk. Sumatran rhinoceroses housed in traditional zoological settings outside of range countries have suffered significant morbidity and mortality potentially related to ISD induced by diet and/or other confinement conditions. With so few animals in captivity, very little information exists on iron loading in the Sumatran rhinoceros. To better characterize the problem, we retrospectively compared captive management conditions of Sumatran rhinoceroses housed under traditional zoological care with those in two native sanctuary environments. In general, zoo rhinoceroses are offered a paucity of plants and browse species compared with their sanctuary and wild counterparts managed in native rainforest habitats. Iron analyte levels and limited histopathologic observations in these populations suggest variable tendencies to overload iron, dependent upon differences in managed diet and individual food preferences. More detailed investigation of these markedly dissimilar ex situ populations is warranted to better understand the role of nutrition and other conditions affecting iron loading in browser rhinoceroses. PMID:23156708

  14. Binding of iron, zinc, and lead ions from aqueous solution by shea butter (Butyrospermun Parkii) seed husks

    SciTech Connect

    Eromosele, I.C.; Otitolaye, O.O. )

    1994-08-01

    Several workers have reported on the potential use of agricultural products as substrates for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. These studies demonstrated that considerable amounts of metal ions can be removed from aqueous solutions by cellulosic materials. The merit in the use of the latter is their relative abundance and cheapness compared to conventional materials for the removal of toxic metal ions from waste-waters. In some of the studies, chemical modification of cellulosic materials significantly enhanced their ion-binding properties, providing greater flexibility in their applications to a wide range of heavy metal ions. Shea butter plant (Butyrospermun Parkii) normally grows in the wild within the guinea-savana zone of Nigeria. The seeds are a rich source of edible oils and the husks are usually discarded. The husk is thus available in abundance and, hence, there is reason to examine its ion-binding properties for its possible application in the removal of toxic metal ions from industrial waste-waters. This paper reports on preliminary studies of the sorption of iron, zinc and lead ions from aqueous solution by modified and unmodified shea butter seed husks. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. USING NATURAL VARIATION FOR GENE DISCOVERY TO IMPROVE SEED IRON NUTRITIONAL VALUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We and others are interested in developing crops biofortified with iron to improve their nutritional value for human consumption. One of the crucial tasks, therefore, is to identify relevant genes that can be targeted for transgenic or conventional breeding approaches to improve the Fe concentratio...

  16. Liposomes Loaded with Hydrophobic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Suitable T₂ Contrast Agents for MRI.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Raquel; Estelrich, Joan; Busquets, Maria Antònia

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as contrast agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to their tunable properties and their low toxicity compared with other CAs such as gadolinium. SPIONs exert a strong influence on spin-spin T₂ relaxation times by decreasing the MR signal in the regions to which they are delivered, consequently yielding darker images or negative contrast. Given the potential of these nanoparticles to enhance detection of alterations in soft tissues, we studied the MRI response of hydrophobic or hydrophilic SPIONs loaded into liposomes (magnetoliposomes) of different lipid composition obtained by sonication. These hybrid nanostructures were characterized by measuring several parameters such as size and polydispersity, and number of SPIONs encapsulated or embedded into the lipid systems. We then studied the influence of acyl chain length as well as its unsaturation, charge, and presence of cholesterol in the lipid bilayer at high field strength (7 T) to mimic the conditions used in preclinical assays. Our results showed a high variability depending on the nature of the magnetic particles. Focusing on the hydrophobic SPIONs, the cholesterol-containing samples showed a slight reduction in r₂, while unsaturation of the lipid acyl chain and inclusion of a negatively charged lipid into the bilayer appeared to yield a marked increase in negative contrast, thus rendering these magnetoliposomes suitable candidates as CAs, especially as a liver CA. PMID:27472319

  17. Iron-loaded mangosteen as a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst for the treatment of landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Laiju, A R; Sivasankar, T; Nidheesh, P V

    2014-09-01

    Iron-loaded mangosteen shell powder (Fe-MSP) was found as an effective heterogeneous Fenton catalyst for the treatment of stabilized landfill leachate. Sonolytically produced catalyst has higher efficiency than other catalysts. At the optimal conditions (pH 3, catalyst concentration of 1,750 mg/L and hydrogen peroxide concentration of 0.26 M), 81 % of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed effectively from the landfill leachate. But, the efficiency of Fe-MSP was reduced in the first recycling due to the poisoning of active sites. A metal leaching study indicated that the degradation of the pollutant is mainly due to solid Fe ions present in Fe-MSP rather than the leached ferrous and ferric ions. Hydroxyl radical production in the system was confirmed by the Fenton oxidation of benzoic acid. Compared to the homogeneous Fenton process, the heterogeneous Fenton process using Fe-MSP had higher COD removal efficiency, indicating the practical applicability of the prepared catalyst. PMID:24798918

  18. Liposomes Loaded with Hydrophobic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Suitable T2 Contrast Agents for MRI

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, Raquel; Estelrich, Joan; Busquets, Maria Antònia

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as contrast agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to their tunable properties and their low toxicity compared with other CAs such as gadolinium. SPIONs exert a strong influence on spin-spin T2 relaxation times by decreasing the MR signal in the regions to which they are delivered, consequently yielding darker images or negative contrast. Given the potential of these nanoparticles to enhance detection of alterations in soft tissues, we studied the MRI response of hydrophobic or hydrophilic SPIONs loaded into liposomes (magnetoliposomes) of different lipid composition obtained by sonication. These hybrid nanostructures were characterized by measuring several parameters such as size and polydispersity, and number of SPIONs encapsulated or embedded into the lipid systems. We then studied the influence of acyl chain length as well as its unsaturation, charge, and presence of cholesterol in the lipid bilayer at high field strength (7 T) to mimic the conditions used in preclinical assays. Our results showed a high variability depending on the nature of the magnetic particles. Focusing on the hydrophobic SPIONs, the cholesterol-containing samples showed a slight reduction in r2, while unsaturation of the lipid acyl chain and inclusion of a negatively charged lipid into the bilayer appeared to yield a marked increase in negative contrast, thus rendering these magnetoliposomes suitable candidates as CAs, especially as a liver CA. PMID:27472319

  19. PSMA targeted docetaxel-loaded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Nagesh, Prashanth K B; Johnson, Nia R; Boya, Vijaya K N; Chowdhury, Pallabita; Othman, Shadi F; Khalilzad-Sharghi, Vahid; Hafeez, Bilal B; Ganju, Aditya; Khan, Sheema; Behrman, Stephen W; Zafar, Nadeem; Chauhan, Subhash C; Jaggi, Meena; Yallapu, Murali M

    2016-08-01

    Docetaxel (Dtxl) is currently the most common therapeutic option for prostate cancer (PC). However, adverse side effects and problems associated with chemo-resistance limit its therapeutic outcome in clinical settings. A targeted nanoparticle system to improve its delivery to and activity at the tumor site could be an attractive strategy for PC therapy. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop and determine the anti-cancer efficacy of a novel docetaxel loaded, prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) (J591-SPION-Dtxl) formulation for PC therapy. Our results showed the SPION-Dtxl formulation exhibits an optimal particle size and zeta potential, which can efficiently be internalized in PC cells. SPION-Dtxl exhibited potent anti-cancer efficacy via induction of the expression of apoptosis associated proteins, downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins, and inhibition of chemo-resistance associated protein in PC cell lines. J591-SPION-Dtxl exhibited a profound uptake in C4-2 (PSMA(+)) cells compared to PC-3 (PSMA(-)) cells. A similar targeting potential was observed in ex-vivo studies in C4-2 tumors but not in PC-3 tumors, suggesting its tumor specific targeting. Overall, this study suggests that a PSMA antibody functionalized SPION-Dtxl formulation can be highly useful for targeted PC therapy. PMID:27058278

  20. Structural Changes and Energy Cumulation in an Iron-Nickel Alloy upon Quasi-Spherical Explosive Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Zel'dovich, V. I.; Khomskaya, I. V.; Frolova, N. Yu.; Kheifets, A. E.; Gundyrev, V. M.; Litvinov, B. V.; Purygin, N. P.

    2006-08-03

    Ball samples of the Fe-31.8 wt % Ni-0.05 wt % C iron-nickel alloy one of which was in an austenitic state and the other was in a martensitic-austenitic state were subjected to quasi-spherical shock-wave loading under identical conditions. A comparison of the results obtained under the same loading conditions on the samples of the same alloy in two different initial states made it possible to establish the influence of the initial phase composition on the structural changes and on the effect of energy cumulation.

  1. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common vean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and association with seed iron accumulation QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem, which often affects women and children of developing countries and is based on diets that are low in iron. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their root...

  2. Effects of climate change and seed dispersal on airborne ragweed pollen loads in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Liu, Li; Solmon, Fabien; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Essl, Franz; Chuine, Isabelle; Colette, Augustin; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Schaffhauser, Alice; Storkey, Jonathan; Thibaudon, Michel; Epstein, Michelle M.

    2015-08-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an invasive alien species in Europe producing pollen that causes severe allergic disease in susceptible individuals. Ragweed plants could further invade European land with climate and land-use changes. However, airborne pollen evolution depends not only on plant invasion, but also on pollen production, release and atmospheric dispersion changes. To predict the effect of climate and land-use changes on airborne pollen concentrations, we used two comprehensive modelling frameworks accounting for all these factors under high-end and moderate climate and land-use change scenarios. We estimate that by 2050 airborne ragweed pollen concentrations will be about 4 times higher than they are now, with a range of uncertainty from 2 to 12 largely depending on the seed dispersal rate assumptions. About a third of the airborne pollen increase is due to on-going seed dispersal, irrespective of climate change. The remaining two-thirds are related to climate and land-use changes that will extend ragweed habitat suitability in northern and eastern Europe and increase pollen production in established ragweed areas owing to increasing CO2. Therefore, climate change and ragweed seed dispersal in current and future suitable areas will increase airborne pollen concentrations, which may consequently heighten the incidence and prevalence of ragweed allergy.

  3. The Effect of the Hemochromatosis (HFE) Genotype on Lead Load and Iron Metabolism among Lead Smelter Workers

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guangqin; Du, Guihua; Li, Huijun; Lin, Fen; Sun, Ziyong; Yang, Wei; Feng, Chang; Zhu, Gaochun; Li, Yanshu; Chen, Ying; Jiao, Huan; Zhou, Fankun

    2014-01-01

    Background Both an excess of toxic lead (Pb) and an essential iron disorder have been implicated in many diseases and public health problems. Iron metabolism genes, such as the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene, have been reported to be modifiers for lead absorption and storage. However, the HFE gene studies among the Asian population with occupationally high lead exposure are lacking. Objectives To explore the modifying effects of the HFE genotype (wild-type, H63D variant and C282Y variant) on the Pb load and iron metabolism among Asian Pb-workers with high occupational exposure. Methods Seven hundred and seventy-one employees from a lead smelter manufacturing company were tested to determine their Pb intoxication parameters, iron metabolic indexes and identify the HFE genotype. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results Forty-five H63D variant carriers and no C282Y variant carrier were found among the 771 subjects. Compared with subjects with the wild-type genotype, H63D variant carriers had higher blood lead levels, even after controlling for factors such as age, sex, marriage, education, smoking and lead exposure levels. Multivariate analyses also showed that the H63D genotype modifies the associations between the blood lead levels and the body iron burden/transferrin. Conclusions No C282Y variant was found in this Asian population. The H63D genotype modified the association between the lead and iron metabolism such that increased blood lead is associated with a higher body iron content or a lower transferrin in the H63D variant. It is indicated that H63D variant carriers may be a potentially highly vulnerable sub-population if they are exposed to high lead levels occupationally. PMID:24988074

  4. Evaluation of tissue doppler echocardiography and T2* magnetic resonance imaging in iron load of patients with thalassemia major

    PubMed Central

    Saravi, Mehrdad; Tamadoni, Ahmad; Jalalian, Rozita; Mahmoodi – Nesheli, Hassan; Hojati, Mosatafa; Ramezani, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Iron-mediated cardiomyopathy is the main complication of thalassemia major (TM) patients. Therefore, there is an important clinical need in the early diagnosis and risk stratification of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tissue doppler imaging (TDI) to study cardiac iron overload in patients with TM using T2* magnetic resonance (MR) as the gold-standard non-invasive diagnostic test. Methods: A total of 100 TM patients with the mean age of 19±7 years and 100 healthy controls 18.8±7 years were evaluated. Conventional echocardiography, TDI, and cardiac MRI T2* were performed in all subjects. TDI measures included myocardial systolic (Sm), early (Em) and late (Am) diastolic velocities at basal and middle segments of septal and lateral LV wall. The TM patients were also subgrouped according to those with iron load (T2* ≤ 20 ms) and those without (T2* > 20 ms), and also severe (T2* ≤ 10 ms) versus the non-severe (T2* ≤ 10 ms). Results: Using T2* cardiovascular MR, abnormal myocardial iron load (T2* ≤ 20 ms) was detected in 84% of the patients and among these, 50% (42/84) had severe (T2* ≤ 10 ms) iron load. The mean T2* was 11.6±8.6 ms (5–36.7). A negative linear correlation existed between transfusion period of patients and T2* levels (r = -0.53, p=0.02). The following TDI measures were lower in patients than in controls: basal septal Am (p<0.05), mid-septal Em and Am (p<0.05), basal lateral Am (p<0.05), mid-lateral LV wall Sm (p<0.05) and Am (p<0.05). Conclusion: Tissue doppler imaging is helpful in predicting the presence of myocardial iron load in Thalassemia patients. Therefore, it can be used for screening of thalassemia major patients. PMID:24009962

  5. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    ... organ failure, coma, convulsions, and death. Child-proof packaging and warning labels on iron supplements have greatly ... levodopa that the body absorbs, making it less effective. Levodopa, found in Sinemet® and Stalevo®, is used ...

  6. Dietary iron-loaded rat liver haemosiderin and ferritin: in situ measurement of iron core nanoparticle size and cluster structure using anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovell, Eliza; Buckley, Craig E.; Chua-anusorn, Wanida; Cookson, David; Kirby, Nigel; Saunders, Martin; St. Pierre, Timothy G.

    2009-03-01

    The morphology, particle size distribution and cluster structure of the hydrated iron(III) oxyhydroxide particles associated with haemosiderin and ferritin in dietary iron-loaded rat liver tissue have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering (ASAXS). Rat liver tissue was removed from a series of female Porton rats which had been fed an iron-rich diet until sacrifice at various ages from 2-24 months. Hepatic iron concentrations ranged from 1 to 65 mg Fe g-1 dry tissue. TEM studies showed both dispersed and clustered iron-containing nanoparticles. The dispersed particles were found to have mean sizes (±standard deviation) of 54 ± 8 Å for the iron-loaded animals and 55 ± 7 Å for the controls. Superposition of particles in TEM images prevented direct measurement of nanoparticulate size in the clusters. The ASAXS data were modelled to provide a quantitative estimate of both the size and spacing of iron oxyhydroxide particles in the bulk samples. The modelling yielded close-packed particles with sizes of 60 to 78 Å which when corrected for anomalous scattering suggests sizes from 54 to 70 Å. Particle size distributions are of particular importance since they determine the surface iron to core iron ratios, which in turn are expected to be related to the molar toxicity of iron deposits in cells.

  7. Functional Reconstruction of Tracheal Defects by Protein-Loaded, Cell-Seeded, Fibrous Constructs in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ott, Lindsey M; Vu, Cindy H; Farris, Ashley L; Fox, Katrina D; Galbraith, Richard A; Weiss, Mark L; Weatherly, Robert A; Detamore, Michael S

    2015-09-01

    Tracheal stenosis is a life-threatening disease and current treatments include surgical reconstruction with autologous rib cartilage and the highly complex slide tracheoplasty surgical technique. We propose using a sustainable implant, composed of a tunable, fibrous scaffold with encapsulated chondrogenic growth factor (transforming growth factor-beta3 [TGF-β3]) or seeded allogeneic rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs). In vivo functionality of these constructs was determined by implanting them in induced tracheal defects in rabbits for 6 or 12 weeks. The scaffolds maintained functional airways in a majority of the cases, with the BMSC-seeded group having an improved survival rate and the Scaffold-only group having a higher occurrence of more patent airways as determined by microcomputed tomography. The BMSC group had a greater accumulation of inflammatory cells over the graft, while also exhibiting normal epithelium, subepithelium, and cartilage formation. Overall, it was concluded that a simple, acellular scaffold is a viable option for tracheal tissue engineering, with the intraoperative addition of cells being an optional variation to the scaffolds. PMID:26094554

  8. Comparative response of lead-acid and nickel/iron batteries to pulsed and constant-current loads

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Tummillo, A.F.; Biwer, T.L.; Christianson, C.C.; Hornstra, F.; Yao, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    Improved lead-acid and nickel/iron batteries are currently being developed for use in electric vehicles. The response of these batteries to given discharge conditions differs due to the inherent characteristics of each system. The discharge capacity of the lead-acid system is reduced (>25%) at increased discharge rates and its internal resistance is a function of both depth-of-discharge (DOD) and discharge rate. However, open-circuit stand times (0.5 to 2.0 h) at DOD levels >50% reduce the internal resistance of the lead-acid system and provide a corresponding increase in its availability capacity. In comparison, the discharge capacity and internal resistance of the nickel/iron system are virtually independent of both discharge rate and open-circuit stand times during discharge. With pulsed-current loads, the available energy and power output of both battery systems are always less than those obtained with equivalent constant-current loads due to increased internal power losses. The nickel/iron system exhibits an internal inductance that is significantly greater than that for the lead-acid system thereby causing potentially damaging voltage transients. This paper describes the test procedures and system employed, presents the test data, and methods for predicting battery response, and discusses the results obtained.

  9. Gallium loading of gold seed for high yield of patterned GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Boulanger, J. P.; Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2014-08-25

    A method is presented for maximizing the yield and crystal phase purity of vertically aligned Au-assisted GaAs nanowires grown with an SiO{sub x} selective area epitaxy mask on GaAs (111)B substrates. The nanowires were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method in a gas source molecular beam epitaxy system. During annealing, Au VLS seeds will alloy with the underlying GaAs substrate and collect beneath the SiO{sub x} mask layer. This behavior is detrimental to obtaining vertically aligned, epitaxial nanowire growth. To circumvent this issue, Au droplets were pre-filled with Ga assuring vertical yields in excess of 99%.

  10. The response of the virus community to the SEEDS II mesoscale iron fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Julie L.; Kudo, Isao; Nishioka, Jun; Tsuda, Atsushi; Wilhelm, Steven W.

    2009-12-01

    Although the important role of viruses in marine biogeochemical cycles has been established in recent years, virus activity (including changes in this activity) has been largely ignored during mesoscale iron (Fe)-fertilization experiments relative to other processes. This is of particular interest as viruses have been shown to be critical to the transformation of Fe from the particulate (i.e., biological) to the dissolved pools. The goal of the present study was to evaluate changes in the virus-mediated lysis of heterotrophic bacterial cells following a shift in ecosystem trophic status brought about by a mesoscale Fe addition in the subarctic Pacific Ocean. Virus production rates, estimated by a reduction and reoccurrence assay, were coupled with transmission electron microscopy estimates of burst size and direct counts of virus and bacterial abundance. Fe fertilization of the upper mixed layer resulted in significant yet weak increases in virus production rates during the 12 days of observation immediately after fertilization, although the burst size (viruses produced per lytic event) and the percentage of visibly infected cells remained constant. The results imply that increases in virus production rates were most likely tied to a decreased lytic cycle length or the stimulation of lysogenized cells following the stimulation of primary and secondary productivity by the addition of Fe. The results also indicate that virus-induced cell-lysis regenerated an estimated nearly 200 pmol L -1 Fe daily, providing a significant return of Fe back to the water column, which may be critical in the maintenance of this added Fe as resident.

  11. Anti-cancer drug loaded iron-gold core-shell nanoparticles (Fe@Au) for magnetic drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Sibnath; Ramanujan, Raju Vijayaraghavan

    2010-09-01

    Magnetic drug targeting, using core-shell magnetic carrier particles loaded with anti-cancer drugs, is an emerging and significant method of cancer treatment. Gold shell-iron core nanoparticles (Fe@Au) were synthesized by the reverse micelle method with aqueous reactants, surfactant, co-surfactant and oil phase. XRD, XPS, TEM and magnetic property measurements were utilized to characterize these core-shell nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements showed that the particles were superparamagnetic at room temperature and that the saturation magnetization decreased with increasing gold concentration. The anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded onto these Fe@Au nanoparticle carriers and the drug release profiles showed that upto 25% of adsorbed drug was released in 80 h. It was found that the amine (-NH2) group of DOX binds to the gold shell. An in vitro apparatus simulating the human circulatory system was used to determine the retention of these nanoparticle carriers when exposed to an external magnetic field. A high percentage of magnetic carriers could be retained for physiologically relevant flow speeds of fluid. The present findings show that DOX loaded gold coated iron nanoparticles are promising for magnetically targeted drug delivery. PMID:21133071

  12. Growth of salmonellae on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, native microbial load, and Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of human illness associated with the consumption of fresh sprouts has increased very sharply during the past decade. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth dynamics of salmonellae on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, native microbial load, an...

  13. Development, optimization and in vitro-in vivo evaluation of pioglitazone- loaded jackfruit seed starch-alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Hasnain, Saquib Md

    2013-10-01

    The present investigation describes development and optimization of pioglitazone-loaded jackfruit seed starch (JFSS)-alginate beads by ionotropic-gelation using 3(2) factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio and CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release after 10 hours (R10h, %) was optimized. The DEE (%) of these beads were 64.80 ± 1.92 to 94.07 ± 3.82 % with sustained in vitro drug release of 64.± 1.83 to 92.66 ± 4.54 % over 10 hours. The in vitro drug release from these beads followed controlled-release pattern with super case-II transport. Particle size range of these beads was 0.77 ± 0.04 to 1.24 ± 0.09 mm. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling of these beads was influenced by pH of the test medium. The optimized pioglitazone-loaded JFSS-alginate beads showed significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. PMID:23360248

  14. Ketoprofen-loaded pomegranate seed oil nanoemulsion stabilized by pullulan: Selective antiglioma formulation for intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luana M; Cervi, Verônica F; Gehrcke, Mailine; da Silveira, Elita F; Azambuja, Juliana H; Braganhol, Elizandra; Sari, Marcel H M; Zborowski, Vanessa A; Nogueira, Cristina W; Cruz, Letícia

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to prepare pomegranate seed oil nanoemulsions containing ketoprofen using pullulan as a polymeric stabilizer, and to evaluate antitumor activity against in vitro glioma cells. Formulations were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method and different concentrations of pullulan were tested. Nanoemulsions presented adequate droplet size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, pH, ketoprofen content and encapsulation efficiency. Nanoemulsions were able to delay the photodegradation profile of ketoprofen under UVC radiation, regardless of the concentration of pullulan. In vitro release study indicates that nanoemulsions were able to release approximately 95.0% of ketoprofen in 5h. Free ketoprofen and formulations were considered hemocompatible at 1 μg/mL, in a hemolysis study, for intravenous administration. In addition, a formulation containing the highest concentration of pullulan was tested against C6 cell line and demonstrated significant activity, and did not reduce fibroblasts viability. Thus, pullulan can be considered an interesting excipient to prepare nanostructured systems and nanoemulsion formulations can be considered promising alternatives for the treatment of glioma. PMID:25935266

  15. Using iron-loaded sepiolite obtained by adsorption as a catalyst in the electro-Fenton oxidation of Reactive Black 5.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, O; Fernández de Dios, M A; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2013-09-01

    This study explores the possibility of using iron-loaded sepiolite, obtained by recovering iron from polluted water, as a catalyst in the electro-Fenton oxidation of organic pollutants in textile effluents. The removal of iron ions from aqueous solution by adsorption on sepiolite was studied in batch tests at iron concentrations between 100 and 1,000 ppm. Electro-Fenton experiments were carried out in an electrochemical cell with a working volume of 0.15 L, an air flow of 1 L/min, and 3 g of iron-loaded sepiolite. An electric field was applied using a boron-doped diamond anode and a graphite sheet cathode connected to a direct current power supply with a constant potential drop. Reactive Black 5 (100 mg/L) was selected as the model dye. The adsorption isotherms proved the ability of the used adsorbent. The removal of the iron ion by adsorption on sepiolite was in the range of 80-100 % for the studied concentration range. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were found to be applicable in terms of the relatively high regression values. Iron-loaded sepiolite could be used as an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in the electro-Fenton process. Successive batch processes were performed at optimal working conditions (5 V and pH 2). The results indicate the suitability of the proposed combined process, adsorption to iron remediation followed by the application of the obtained iron-loaded sepiolite to the electro-Fenton technique, to oxidize polluted effluents. PMID:23516035

  16. Magnetic hyperthermia efficiency and (1)H-NMR relaxation properties of iron oxide/paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Maria R; Crich, Simonetta Geninatti; Sieni, Elisabetta; Sgarbossa, Paolo; Forzan, Michele; Cavallari, Eleonora; Stefania, Rachele; Dughiero, Fabrizio; Aime, Silvio

    2016-07-15

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) can be exploited in biomedicine as agents for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatments and as contrast enhancers in magnetic resonance imaging. New, oleate-covered, iron oxide particles have been prepared either by co-precipitation or thermal decomposition methods and incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-Fe-NPs) to improve their biocompatibility and in vivo stability. Moreover, the PLGA-Fe-NPs have been loaded with paclitaxel to pursue an MFH-triggered drug release. Remarkably, it has been found that the nanoparticle formulations are characterized by peculiar (1)H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles that directly correlate with their heating potential when exposed to an alternating magnetic field. By prolonging the magnetic field exposure to 30 min, a significant drug release was observed for PLGA-Fe-NPs in the case of the larger-sized magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the immobilization of lipophilic Fe-NPs in PLGA-NPs also made it possible to maintain Néel relaxation as the dominant relaxation contribution in the presence of large iron oxide cores (diameters of 15-20 nm), with the advantage of preserving their efficiency when they are entrapped in the intracellular environment. The results reported herein show that NMRD profiles are a useful tool for anticipating the heating capabilities of Fe-NPs designed for MFH applications. PMID:27265726

  17. Magnetic hyperthermia efficiency and 1H-NMR relaxation properties of iron oxide/paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Maria R.; Geninatti Crich, Simonetta; Sieni, Elisabetta; Sgarbossa, Paolo; Forzan, Michele; Cavallari, Eleonora; Stefania, Rachele; Dughiero, Fabrizio; Aime, Silvio

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) can be exploited in biomedicine as agents for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatments and as contrast enhancers in magnetic resonance imaging. New, oleate-covered, iron oxide particles have been prepared either by co-precipitation or thermal decomposition methods and incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-Fe-NPs) to improve their biocompatibility and in vivo stability. Moreover, the PLGA-Fe-NPs have been loaded with paclitaxel to pursue an MFH-triggered drug release. Remarkably, it has been found that the nanoparticle formulations are characterized by peculiar 1H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles that directly correlate with their heating potential when exposed to an alternating magnetic field. By prolonging the magnetic field exposure to 30 min, a significant drug release was observed for PLGA-Fe-NPs in the case of the larger-sized magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the immobilization of lipophilic Fe-NPs in PLGA-NPs also made it possible to maintain Néel relaxation as the dominant relaxation contribution in the presence of large iron oxide cores (diameters of 15–20 nm), with the advantage of preserving their efficiency when they are entrapped in the intracellular environment. The results reported herein show that NMRD profiles are a useful tool for anticipating the heating capabilities of Fe-NPs designed for MFH applications.

  18. Hydrogen induced cracking tests of high strength steels and nickel-iron base alloys using the bolt-loaded specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Vigilante, G.N.; Underwood, J.H.; Crayon, D.; Tauscher, S.; Sage, T.; Troiano, E.

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen induced cracking tests were conducted on high strength steels and nickel-iron base alloys using the constant displacement bolt-loaded compact specimen. The bolt-loaded specimen was subjected to both acid and electrochemical cell environments in order to produce hydrogen. The materials tested were A723, Maraging 200, PH 13-8 Mo, Alloy 718, Alloy 706, and A286, and ranged in yield strength from 760--1400 MPa. The effects of chemical composition, refinement, heat treatment, and strength on hydrogen induced crack growth rates and thresholds were examined. In general, all high strength steels tested exhibited similar crack growth rates and thresholds were examined. In general, all high strength steels tested exhibited similar crack growth rates and threshold levels. In comparison, the nickel-iron base alloys tested exhibited up to three orders of magnitude lower crack growth rates than the high strength steels tested. It is widely known that high strength steels and nickel base alloys exhibit different crack growth rates, in part, because of their different crystal cell structure. In the high strength steels tested, refinement and heat treatment had some effect on hydrogen induced cracking, though strength was the predominant factor influencing susceptibility to cracking. When the yield strength of one of the high strength steels tested was increased moderately, from 1130 MPa to 1275 MPa, the incubation times decreased by over two orders of magnitude, the crack growth rates increased by an order of magnitude, and the threshold stress intensity was slightly lower.

  19. Direct Synthesis of Novel and Reactive Sulfide-modified Nano Iron through Nanoparticle Seeding for Improved Cadmium-Contaminated Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yiming; Adeleye, Adeyemi S.; Huang, Yuxiong; Zhou, Xuefei; Keller, Arturo A.; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic sulfide-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (S-nZVI) is of great technical and scientific interest because of its promising application in groundwater remediation, although its synthesis is still a challenge. We develop a new nanoparticle seeding method to obtain a novel and reactive nanohybrid, which contains an Fe(0) core covered by a highly sulfidized layer under high extent of sulfidation. Syntheses monitoring experiments show that seeding accelerates the reduction rate from Fe2+ to Fe0 by 19%. X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses demonstrate the hexahedral Fe-Fe bond (2.45 and 2.83 Å) formation through breaking down of the 1.99 Å Fe-O bond both in crystalline and amorphous iron oxide. The XANES analysis also shows 24.2% (wt%) of FeS with bond length of 2.4 Å in final nanohybrid. Both X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer analyses further confirm that increased nanoparticle seeding results in formation of more Fe0 crystals. Nano-SiO2 seeding brings down the size of single Fe0 grain from 32.4 nm to 18.7 nm, enhances final Fe0 content from 5.9% to 55.6%, and increases magnetization from 4.7 to 65.5 emu/g. The synthesized nanohybrid has high cadmium removal capacity and holds promising prospects for treatment of metal-contaminated water. PMID:27095387

  20. Direct Synthesis of Novel and Reactive Sulfide-modified Nano Iron through Nanoparticle Seeding for Improved Cadmium-Contaminated Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Su, Yiming; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Huang, Yuxiong; Zhou, Xuefei; Keller, Arturo A; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic sulfide-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (S-nZVI) is of great technical and scientific interest because of its promising application in groundwater remediation, although its synthesis is still a challenge. We develop a new nanoparticle seeding method to obtain a novel and reactive nanohybrid, which contains an Fe(0) core covered by a highly sulfidized layer under high extent of sulfidation. Syntheses monitoring experiments show that seeding accelerates the reduction rate from Fe(2+) to Fe(0) by 19%. X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses demonstrate the hexahedral Fe-Fe bond (2.45 and 2.83 Å) formation through breaking down of the 1.99 Å Fe-O bond both in crystalline and amorphous iron oxide. The XANES analysis also shows 24.2% (wt%) of FeS with bond length of 2.4 Å in final nanohybrid. Both X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer analyses further confirm that increased nanoparticle seeding results in formation of more Fe(0) crystals. Nano-SiO2 seeding brings down the size of single Fe(0) grain from 32.4 nm to 18.7 nm, enhances final Fe(0) content from 5.9% to 55.6%, and increases magnetization from 4.7 to 65.5 emu/g. The synthesized nanohybrid has high cadmium removal capacity and holds promising prospects for treatment of metal-contaminated water. PMID:27095387

  1. Direct Synthesis of Novel and Reactive Sulfide-modified Nano Iron through Nanoparticle Seeding for Improved Cadmium-Contaminated Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yiming; Adeleye, Adeyemi S.; Huang, Yuxiong; Zhou, Xuefei; Keller, Arturo A.; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic sulfide-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (S-nZVI) is of great technical and scientific interest because of its promising application in groundwater remediation, although its synthesis is still a challenge. We develop a new nanoparticle seeding method to obtain a novel and reactive nanohybrid, which contains an Fe(0) core covered by a highly sulfidized layer under high extent of sulfidation. Syntheses monitoring experiments show that seeding accelerates the reduction rate from Fe2+ to Fe0 by 19%. X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses demonstrate the hexahedral Fe-Fe bond (2.45 and 2.83 Å) formation through breaking down of the 1.99 Å Fe-O bond both in crystalline and amorphous iron oxide. The XANES analysis also shows 24.2% (wt%) of FeS with bond length of 2.4 Å in final nanohybrid. Both X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer analyses further confirm that increased nanoparticle seeding results in formation of more Fe0 crystals. Nano-SiO2 seeding brings down the size of single Fe0 grain from 32.4 nm to 18.7 nm, enhances final Fe0 content from 5.9% to 55.6%, and increases magnetization from 4.7 to 65.5 emu/g. The synthesized nanohybrid has high cadmium removal capacity and holds promising prospects for treatment of metal-contaminated water.

  2. Neuroprotective effect of the active components of three Chinese herbs on brain iron load in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    DONG, XIAN-HUI; GAO, WEI-JUAN; KONG, WEI-NA; XIE, HONG-LIN; PENG, YAN; SHAO, TIE-MEI; YU, WEN-GUO; CHAI, XI-QING

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder and the most common cause of dementia. New treatments for AD are required due to its increasing prevalence in aging populations. The present study evaluated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on learning and memory impairment, β-amyloid (Aβ) reduction and brain iron load in an APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Increasing evidence indicates that a disturbance of normal iron homeostasis may contribute to the pathology of AD. However, the underlying mechanisms resulting in abnormal iron load in the AD brain remain unclear. It has been hypothesized that the brain iron load is influenced by the deregulation of certain proteins associated with brain iron metabolism, including divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1). The present study investigated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on the expression levels of DMT1 and FPN1. The treatment with the active components reduced cognitive deficits, inhibited Aβ plaque accumulation, reversed Aβ burden and reduced the brain iron load in AD model mice. A significant increase was observed in the levels of DMT1-iron-responsive element (IRE) and DMT1-nonIRE in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain, which was reduced by treatment with the active components. In addition, the levels of FPN1 were significantly reduced in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain compared with those of control mice, and these levels were increased following treatment with the active components. Thus, the present study indicated that the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae may exert a neuroprotective effect against AD by reducing iron overload in the AD brain and may provide a novel approach for the development of drugs for the treatment of AD. PMID:25780429

  3. The impact of different stator and rotor slot number combinations on iron losses of a three-phase induction motor at no-load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marčič, T.; Štumberger, B.; Štumberger, G.; Hadžiselimović, M.; Zagradišnik, I.

    The electromechanical characteristics of induction motors depend on the used stator and rotor slot combination. The correlation between the usage of different stator and rotor slot number combinations, magnetic flux density distributions, no-load iron losses and rated load winding over-temperatures for a specific induction motor is presented. The motor's magnetic field was analyzed by traces of the magnetic flux density vector, obtained by FEM. Post-processing of FE magnetic field solution was used for posterior iron loss calculation of the motor iron loss at no-load. The examined motor stator lamination had 36 semi-closed slots and the rotor laminations had 28, 33, 34, 44 and 46 semi-closed slots.

  4. Cold catalytic recovery of loaded activated carbon using iron oxide-based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bach, Altai; Zelmanov, Grigory; Semiat, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach for the recovery of spent activated carbon by an advanced oxidation process using iron oxide-based nanocatalysts was proposed and investigated. Model organic contaminants, such as ethylene glycol and phenol, were chosen for this study as water pollutants. It was shown that there are several advantages in using catalytic oxidation recovery of activated carbon with iron oxide-based nanocatalysts: low temperature reactivity of catalytic recovery without heating; and a relatively large number of adsorption-recovery cycles, without a reduction in the adsorptive properties of the virgin activated carbon or without a performance decrease from the first adsorption-recovery cycle of the new modified adsorptive properties of the activated carbon. The catalytic recovery takes place without ultraviolet light or any visible radiation sources. Results show a high efficiency of catalytic recovery of spent activated carbon using iron oxide-based nanocatalysts. A 97-99% efficiency of spent activated carbon catalytic regeneration was achieved under chosen conditions after 15-20 min of reaction. The process may be also considered as cold in situ recovery of active carbon. PMID:17826818

  5. Design of multifunctional magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/mitoxantrone-loaded liposomes for both magnetic resonance imaging and targeted cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingna; Zhang, Linhua; Zhu, Dunwan; Song, Cunxian

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-targeting multifunctional liposomes simultaneously loaded with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent and anticancer drug, mitoxantrone (Mit), were developed for targeted cancer therapy and ultrasensitive MRI. The gonadorelin-functionalized MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-GML) showed significantly increased uptake in luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor overexpressing MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7) breast cancer cells over a gonadorelin-free MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-ML) control, as well as in an LHRH receptor low-expressing Sloan-Kettering HER2 3+ Ovarian Cancer (SK-OV-3) cell control, thereby leading to high cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 human breast tumor cell line. The Mit-GML formulation was more effective and less toxic than equimolar doses of free Mit or Mit-ML in the treatment of LHRH receptors overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts in mice. Furthermore, the Mit-GML demonstrated much higher T2 enhancement than did Mit-ML controls in vivo. Collectively, the study indicates that the integrated diagnostic and therapeutic design of Mit-GML nanomedicine potentially allows for the image-guided, target-specific treatment of cancer. PMID:25187709

  6. Oral administration of iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin–loaded ceramic nanocapsules for breast cancer therapy and influence on iron and calcium metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mahidhara, Ganesh; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Roy, Kislay; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2015-01-01

    We determined the anticancer efficacy and internalization mechanism of our polymeric–ceramic nanoparticle system (calcium phosphate nanocores, enclosed in biodegradable polymers chitosan and alginate nanocapsules/nanocarriers [ACSC NCs]) loaded with iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Fe-bLf) in a breast cancer xenograft model. ACSC-Fe-bLf NCs with an overall size of 322±27.2 nm were synthesized. In vitro internalization and anticancer efficacy were evaluated in the MDA-MB-231 cells using multicellular tumor spheroids, CyQUANT and MTT assays. These NCs were orally delivered in a breast cancer xenograft mice model, and their internalization, cytotoxicity, biodistribution, and anticancer efficacy were evaluated. Chitosan-coated calcium phosphate Fe-bLf NCs effectively (59%, P≤0.005) internalized in a 1-hour period using clathrin-mediated endocytosis (P≤0.05) and energy-mediated pathways (P≤0.05) for internalization; 3.3 mg/mL of ACSC-Fe-bLf NCs completely disintegrated (~130-fold reduction, P≤0.0005) the tumor spheroids in 72 hours and 96 hours. The IC50 values determined for ACSC-Fe-bLf NCs were 1.69 mg/mL at 10 hours and 1.62 mg/mL after 20 hours. We found that Fe-bLf-NCs effectively (P≤0.05) decreased the tumor size (4.8-fold) compared to the void NCs diet and prevented tumor recurrence when compared to intraperitoneal injection of Taxol and Doxorubicin. Receptor gene expression and micro-RNA analysis confirmed upregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and transferrin receptor (liver, intestine, and brain). Several micro-RNAs responsible for iron metabolism upregulated with NCs were identified. Taken together, orally delivered Fe-bLf NCs offer enhanced antitumor activity in breast cancer by internalizing via low-density lipoprotein receptor and transferrin receptor and regulating the micro-RNA expression. These NCs also restored the body iron and calcium levels and increased the hematologic counts. PMID:26124661

  7. Reference design of 100 MW-h lithium/iron sulfide battery system for utility load leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Zivi, S.M.; Kacinskas, H.; Pollack, I.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Barney, D.L.; Grieve, W.; McFarland, B.L.; Sudar, S.; Goldstein, E.; Adler, E.

    1980-03-01

    The first year in a two-year cooperative effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Rockwell International to develop a conceptual design of a lithium alloy/iron sulfide battery for utility load leveling is presented. A conceptual design was developed for a 100 MW-h battery system based upon a parallel-series arrangement of 2.5 kW-h capacity cells. The sales price of such a battery system was estimated to be very high, $80.25/kW-h, exclusive of the cost of the individual cells, the dc-to-ac converters, site preparation, or land acquisition costs. Consequently, the second year's efforts were directed towards developing modified designs with significantly lower potential costs.

  8. Constitutive model for flake graphite cast iron automotive brake discs: induced anisotropic damage model under complex loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustins, L.; Billardon, R.; Hild, F.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper details an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model for automotive brake discs made of flake graphite cast iron. In a companion paper (Augustins et al. in Contin Mech Thermodyn, 2015), the authors proposed a one-dimensional setting appropriate for representing the complex behavior of the material (i.e., asymmetry between tensile and compressive loadings) under anisothermal conditions. The generalization of this 1D model to 3D cases on a volume element and the associated challenges are addressed. A direct transposition is not possible, and an alternative solution without unilateral conditions is first proposed. Induced anisotropic damage and associated constitutive laws are then introduced. The transition from the volume element to the real structure and the numerical implementation require a specific basis change. Brake disc simulations with this constitutive model show that unilateral conditions are needed for the friction bands. A damage deactivation procedure is therefore defined.

  9. Influences of nanoscale zero valent iron loadings and bicarbonate and calcium concentrations on hydrogen evolution in anaerobic column experiments.

    PubMed

    Paar, Hendrik; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Jekel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The estimation of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) reactivity after its injection into the subsurface is essential for its application in groundwater remediation. In the present study H₂ generation of commercially available nZVI and novel milled nZVI flakes were investigated in column experiments with varying nZVI loads (ranging from 8 to 43 g nZVI per kg sand). H₂ evolution rates were determined for column experiments without and with hydrogen carbonate and/or calcium. On average 0.29 mmol H₂/L per g Fe⁰ evolved within the first 30 days in column experiments with spherical, commercial nZVI particles. The H₂ evolution developed almost independently of the water matrices applied. The application of nZVI flakes resulted in lower H₂ generation rates. In general corrosion rates accelerated linearly with increasing initial amounts of iron. This was evident in experiments with both particle types. Concentration profiles of carbonate and calcium in influent and effluent were used to estimate corrosion products and precipitates. Despite the presence of high concentrations of inorganic carbon, Fe²⁺ reacted preferably with hydroxide ions to form ferrous hydroxide which is the precursor of magnetite. As a result only minor passivation of the reactive nZVI was observed. PMID:25462777

  10. Characterization of Iron-Oxide Loaded Adult Stem Cells for Magnetic Particle Imaging in Targeted Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüdtke-Buzug, Kerstin; Rapoport, Daniel Hans; Schneider, Dagmar

    2010-12-01

    Recently, magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has been presented as a new method for the measurement of the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). MPI is based on the nonlinear magnetization response of nanoparticles that are subjected to a sinusoidal magnetic field. Spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio of MPI depend on the particle quality. This is particularly important when stem cells shall be tracked with MPI. Stem cell-based treatment is an upcoming technology in targeted cancer-therapy. In this study, we analyzed the particle quality of newly developed dextran-coated SPIONs—with respect to their response in the imaging experiment—using magnetic particle spectrometry. The uptake of dextran-coated SPIONs into rat and human adult stem cells was monitored via transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, adult stem cells were incubated with FITC-dextran-coated SPIONs and stained for confocal laser scanning microscopy. The dextran- and FITC-dextran coated SPIONs were localized in the cytoplasm of rat and human adult stem cells. MPI promises real-time imaging with high spatial resolution at high sensitivity. Our data support iron oxide loaded adult stem cells as a powerful tool for targeted cancer therapy.

  11. Preparation and evaluation of MRI detectable poly (acrylic acid) microspheres loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for transcatheter arterial embolization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Qin, Xiao-Ya; Li, Zi-Yuan; Guo, Li-Ying; Zheng, Zhuo-Zhao; Liu, Li-Si; Fan, Tian-Yuan

    2016-09-25

    To monitor the spatial distribution of embolic particles inside the target tissues during and after embolization, blank poly (acrylic acid) microspheres (PMs) were initially prepared by inverse suspension polymerization method and then loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles by in situ precipitation method to obtain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detectable SPIO-loaded poly (acrylic acid) microspheres (SPMs). The loading of SPIO nanoparticles in SPMs was confirmed by vibrating sample magnetometer, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectrum, respectively. The results showed that SPMs exhibited excellent superparamagnetism and the SPIO embedded in SPMs were proved to be inverse spinel magnetite. The content of SPIO loaded in wet SPMs of subgroups of 100-300, 300-500, 500-700 and 700-900μm was measured to be 11.84±0.07, 10.20±0.05, 9.98±0.00 and 8.79±0.01mg/ml, corresponding to the weight percentage in freeze-dried SPMs to be 18.07±0.28%, 18.54±0.13%, 18.66±0.01% and 18.50±0.07%, respectively. The SPMs were spherical in shape, had smooth surface, and were within the size range of clinical demands for embolization. The compression tests indicated that SPMs were more rigid than PMs and commercially used Embospheres (P<0.01). The MRI detectability of SPMs was evaluated with the SPMs embedded in gel phantom in vitro and injected subcutaneously into the back of mice in vivo. Both the results demonstrated that the SPMs could provide distinct negative contrast enhancement and be sensitively detected by T2-weighted MR imaging. All the results show that SPMs are potential MRI detectable embolic microspheres for the future embolotherapy. PMID:27426106

  12. Early detection of right ventricular diastolic dysfunction by pulsed tissue Doppler echocardiography in iron loaded beta thalassemia patients.

    PubMed

    Agha, Hala Mounir; Beshlawy, Amal; Hamdy, Mona; Sobeih, Alae; El Zahrae, Fatma; Abd El Satar, Inas Abd; AbdelMassih, Antoine; Said, Fadwa; Abd El Aziz, Ossama; El Tagui, Mona; Pennell, Dudley J

    2015-03-01

    Early heart iron overload in beta thalassemia major patients can be quantified through T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). To clarify the value of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in early detection of myocardial dysfunction in iron loaded thalassemia patients diagnosed by CMR. Two groups were included in the study; Group I: 69 asymptomatic thalassemia patients (28 females, 41 males), mean age 18.1 ± 7.03 years (range 6-39 years); Group II (n = 41) healthy normal controls matched for age and sex. Serum ferritin and CMR were performed to assess the cardiac siderosis (T2* < 20 ms). Group I was subdivided into two subgroups; Group Ia (n = 26) T2* < 20 ms and Group Ib (n = 43) T2* > 20 ms. Conventional and Doppler echocardiography of LV, RV dimensions and functions and pulmonary artery pressure were evaluated. Right ventricular diastolic function assessed by tricuspid annular E'/A' was positively correlated with T2* value; lower tricuspid E'/A' ratios were correlated with lower T2* values (r = 0.366, P = 0.002). Tricuspid annular A' was significantly higher in group Ia compared to group Ib (16.7 ± 5.2 vs 12.1 ± 4.0 cm/s, P < 0.001). Tricuspid E'/A' < 1 was common in group Ia compared to group Ib (19/26 (73.0) vs 3/43 (6.97%), P < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, right ventricular diastolic dysfunction (tricuspid E'/A' < 1) was associated with serum ferritin and T2* level of the thalassemia patients. TDI is a promising tool for quantitative assessment of myocardial function and early detection of right ventricular diastolic dysfunction in iron loaded beta thalassemia major patients. PMID:25293426

  13. Effect of iron loading on the photocatalytic performance of Bi2WO6 photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwichai, Surassa; Ranwongsa, Hataikarn; Wetchakun, Khatcharin; Phanichphant, Sukon; Wetchakun, Natda

    2014-12-01

    Pure Bi2WO6 and nominal 0.1-2.0 mol% Fe-loaded Bi2WO6 samples were synthesized by hydrothermal method. All samples were characterized in order to obtain the correlation between structure and photocatalytic properties by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller-specific surface area, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activities of all photocatalyst samples were examined by studying the degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The 0.5 mol% Fe-loaded Bi2WO6 had the best activity in photodegradation of MB in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The high performance of Fe-loaded Bi2WO6 could be attributed to the fact that the Fe ions could act as electron traps promoting the electron-hole separation then enhancing the photocatalytic reaction.

  14. Load partitioning between the bcc-iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy on multiple length scales

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Zhiqian; Song, Gian; Sisneros, Thomas A.; Clausen, Bjorn; Pu, Chao; Li, Lin; Gao, Yanfei; Liaw, Peter K

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of load sharing among constituent phases aids in designing mechanical properties of multiphase materials. Here we investigate load partitioning between the body-centered-cubic iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy during uniaxial tensile tests at 364 and 506 C on multiple length scales by in situ neutron diffraction and crystal plasticity finite element modeling. Our findings show that the macroscopic load-transfer efficiency is not as high as that predicted by the Eshelby model; moreover, it depends on the matrix strain-hardening behavior. We explain the grain-level anisotropic load-partitioning behavior by considering the plastic anisotropy of the matrix and elastic anisotropy of precipitates. We further demonstrate that the partitioned load on NiAl-type precipitates relaxes at 506 C, most likely through thermally-activated dislocation rearrangement on the microscopic scale. The study contributes to further understanding of load-partitioning characteristics in multiphase materials.

  15. Evaluation Of Glass Density To Support The Estimation Of Fissile Mass Loadings From Iron Concentrations In SB8 Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T. B.; Peeler, D. K.; Kot, W. K.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I. L.

    2013-04-30

    The Department of Energy – Savannah River (DOE-SR) has provided direction to Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3}. In support of that guidance, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a technical basis and a supporting Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet for the evaluation of fissile loading in Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) glass based on the iron (Fe) concentration in glass as determined by the measurements from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) acceptability analysis. SRR has since requested that the necessary density information be provided to allow SRR to update the Excel® spreadsheet so that it may be used to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3} during the processing of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). One of the primary inputs into the fissile loading spreadsheet includes an upper bound for the density of SB8-based glasses. Thus, these bounding density values are to be used to assess the fissile concentration in this glass system. It should be noted that no changes are needed to the underlying structure of the Excel-based spreadsheet to support fissile assessments for SB8. However, SRR should update the other key inputs to the spreadsheet that are based on fissile and Fe concentrations reported from the SB8 Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) sample.

  16. Evaluation of material heterogeneity dosimetric effects using radiochromic film for COMS eye plaques loaded with {sup 125}I seeds (model I25.S16)

    SciTech Connect

    Acar, Hilal; Chiu-Tsao, Sou-Tung; Oezbay, Ismail; Kemikler, Goenuel; Tuncer, Samuray

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: (1) To measure absolute dose distributions in eye phantom for COMS eye plaques with {sup 125}I seeds (model I25.S16) using radiochromic EBT film dosimetry. (2) To determine the dose correction function for calculations involving the TG-43 formalism to account for the presence of the COMS eye plaque using Monte Carlo (MC) method specific to this seed model. (3) To test the heterogeneous dose calculation accuracy of the new version of Plaque Simulator (v5.3.9) against the EBT film data for this seed model. Methods: Using EBT film, absolute doses were measured for {sup 125}I seeds (model I25.S16) in COMS eye plaques (1) along the plaque's central axis for (a) uniformly loaded plaques (14-20 mm in diameter) and (b) a 20 mm plaque with single seed, and (2) in off-axis direction at depths of 5 and 12 mm for all four plaque sizes. The EBT film calibration was performed at {sup 125}I photon energy. MC calculations using MCNP5 code for a single seed at the center of a 20 mm plaque in homogeneous water and polystyrene medium were performed. The heterogeneity dose correction function was determined from the MC calculations. These function values at various depths were entered into PS software (v5.3.9) to calculate the heterogeneous dose distributions for the uniformly loaded plaques (of all four sizes). The dose distributions with homogeneous water assumptions were also calculated using PS for comparison. The EBT film measured absolute dose rate values (film) were compared with those calculated using PS with homogeneous assumption (PS Homo) and heterogeneity correction (PS Hetero). The values of dose ratio (film/PS Homo) and (film/PS Hetero) were obtained. Results: The central axis depth dose rate values for a single seed in 20 mm plaque measured using EBT film and calculated with MCNP5 code (both in ploystyrene phantom) were compared, and agreement within 9% was found. The dose ratio (film/PS Homo) values were substantially lower than unity (mostly between 0.8 and 0

  17. New innovative electrocoagulation (EC) treatment technology for BWR colloidal iron utilizing the seeding and filtration electronically (SAFET{sup TM}) system

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, Mark S.; Bostick, William D.

    2007-07-01

    is 1) to break the colloid (i.e., break the outer radius repulsive charges of the similar charged colloidal particles), 2) allow these particles to now flocculate (floc), and 3) form a type of floc that is more readily filterable, and, thus, de-waterable. This task has been carried out with the innovative application of electronically seeding the feed stream with the metal of choice, and without the addition of chemicals common to ferri-flocking, or polymer addition. This patent-pending new system and technique is called Seeding And Filtration Electronically, or the SAFE{sup TM} System. Once the colloid has been broken and flocking has begun, removal of the resultant floc can be carried out by standard, back-washable (or, in simple cases, dead-end) filters; or simply in de-waterable HICs or liners. Such applications include low level radwaste (LLW) from both PWRs and BWRs, fuel pools, storage basins, salt water collection tanks, etc. For the removal of magnetic materials, such as some BWR irons, an Electro Magnetic Filter (EMF) was developed to couple with the Electro Coagulation (EC), (or metal-Flocking) Unit. In the advent that the waste stream primarily contains magnetic materials (e.g., boiler condensates and magnetite, and he-magnetite from BWRs), the material was simply filtered using the EMF. Bench-, pilot- and full-scale systems have been assembled and applied on actual plant waste samples quite successfully. The effects of initial feed pH and conductivity, as well as flocculation retention times was examined prior to applying the production equipment into the field. Since the initial studies (Denton, et al, EPRI, 2006), the ultimate success of field applications is now being demonstrated as the next development phase. For such portable field demonstrations and demand systems, a fully self enclosed (secondary containment) EC system was first developed and assembled in a modified B 25 Box (Floc-In-A-Box) and is being deployed to a number of NPP sites. Finally

  18. Graphitic Mesoporous Carbon Loaded with Iron-Nickel Hydroxide for Superior Oxygen Evolution Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Huang, Xiaolei; Xue, Junmin

    2016-07-21

    Earth-abundant transition metal oxides and hydroxides have been intensively investigated as promising catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). However, the overall OER performance of the transition metal oxides/hydroxides is largely jeopardized by their inherent low electrical conductivity. Mesoporous carbon has been a commonly used as a carrier material for these oxides/hydroxides to promote the electrical conductivity and provide a large specific surface area. However, most of the available mesoporous carbon carriers are amorphous. It has been very challenging to synthesize graphitic mesoporous carbon owing to the extremely high graphitization temperature. In this work, we report a new strategy used to prepare graphitic mesoporous carbon (GMC) by employing Fe metal as the graphitization catalyst. The graphitic carbon was obtained at 1000 °C, at which it retained its mesoporous structure. The conductivity of the obtained GMC was approximately 550 S m(-1) , which was almost ten times higher than that of amorphous carbon. The GMC was further loaded with Fe-Ni hydroxide to fabricate the OER catalyst. The obtained catalyst showed good OER activity with an overpotential of 320 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) and a low Tafel slope of 57 mV dec(-1) . The synthesized catalyst also possessed excellent stability, with almost no current drop even after 2000 cycles and at a constant voltage for 2 h. PMID:27312811

  19. Some pollinators are more equal than others: Factors influencing pollen loads and seed set capacity of two actively and passively pollinating fig wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellberg, Finn; Suleman, Nazia; Raja, Shazia; Tayou, Abelouahad; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Compton, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    The nursery pollination system of fig trees (Ficus) results in the plants providing resources for pollinator fig wasp larvae as part of their male reproductive investment, with selection determining relative investment into pollinating wasps and the pollen they carry. The small size of Ficus pollen suggests that the quantities of pollen transported by individual wasps often limits male reproductive success. We assessed variation in fig wasp pollen loads and its influence on seed production in actively pollinated (Ficus montana) and passively pollinated (Ficus carica) dioecious fig trees.

  20. Drug-loaded gold/iron/gold plasmonic nanoparticles for magnetic targeted chemo-photothermal treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Sun-Mi; Park, Kyu-Hyung; Mun, Chin Hee; Park, Yong-Beom; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2015-08-01

    We have developed methotrexate (MTX)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA) gold (Au)/iron (Fe)/gold (Au) half-shell nanoparticles conjugated with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD), which can be applied for magnetic targeted chemo-photothermal treatment, and in vivo multimodal imaging of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Upon near-infrared (NIR) irradiation, local heat is generated at the inflammation region due to the NIR resonance of Au half-shells and MTX release from PLGA nanoparticles is accelerated. The Fe half-shell layer embedded between the Au half-shell layers enables in vivo T2-magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in addition to NIR absorbance imaging. Furthermore, the delivery of the nanoparticles to the inflammation region in collagen-induced arthritic (CIA) mice, and their retention can be enhanced under external magnetic field. When combined with consecutive NIR irradiation and external magnetic field application, these nanoparticles provide enhanced therapeutic effects with an MTX dosages of only 0.05% dosage compared to free MTX therapy for the treatment of RA. PMID:26001074

  1. Study on the physicochemical properties of Fe/CeO2 catalysts as an effect from different iron loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, Mas Fatiha; Ramli, Anita; Yusup, Suzana

    2012-11-01

    The use of catalyst in the biomass gasification is effective to elevate hydrogen content and to reduce tar formation. This study presents the development of 2.5-10 wt% Fe/CeO2 catalysts for biomass gasification to hydrogen. The catalysts were prepared using incipient wetness impregnation method. Different characterization methods such as Powder XRay Diffraction (XRD), Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. BET analysis clearly indicates that Fe/CeO2 catalysts are mainly nonporous and the surface area of the catalysts increases with increasing of Fe loading. Characterization by XRD exhibited the formation of a solid solution of iron-cerium oxide, with the presence of cubic CeO2 structure which is in agreement with FESEM images. The TPR results show the emergence of two reduction peaks, corresponding to the surface and bulk reduction of CeO2 to Ce2O3. No distinct peak related to the reduction of Fe2O3 to Fe3O4, instead a shoulder evolved, related to the reduction of Fe3O4 to Fe.

  2. Triterpene-loaded microemulsion using Coix lacryma-jobi seed extract as oil phase for enhanced antitumor efficacy: preparation and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ding; He, Junjie; Liu, Congyan; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum triterpene-loaded microemulsions (TMEs) using Coix lacryma-jobi (adlay) seed oil as oil phase were prepared, characterized, and evaluated for enhanced antitumor activity. Ternary phase diagrams for the TMEs were constructed and the optimal preparation was developed. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that this formulation had a well defined spherical shape, a homogeneous distribution, a small size, and a narrow polydispersity index. The drug-loading rate was determined to be 9.87% by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and acceptable stability under various stimulations in vitro was confirmed. Importantly, the TME formulation showed a significantly greater antiproliferative effect towards human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and murine lung tumor (Lewis) cells in comparison with suspension formulations containing triterpene and adlay seed oil as a positive control. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the TMEs was about 0.62 mg crude drug per mL, being 2.5-fold improved relative to that of the corresponding suspension formulation, but no significant cytotoxicity was observed for the bare microemulsion in A549 cells and Lewis cells. In vivo, the TME formulation showed markedly enhanced antitumor efficacy in a xenograft model of Lewis lung cancer after intragastric administration. Compared with cyclophosphamide, the TME formulation showed similar antitumor activity but less general toxicity. These results indicate the feasibility of using a microemulsion to increase the solubility of triterpene and adlay. TMEs hold promise as an efficient drug delivery system for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:24379669

  3. Triterpene-loaded microemulsion using Coix lacryma-jobi seed extract as oil phase for enhanced antitumor efficacy: preparation and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Ding; He, Junjie; Liu, Congyan; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum triterpene-loaded microemulsions (TMEs) using Coix lacryma-jobi (adlay) seed oil as oil phase were prepared, characterized, and evaluated for enhanced antitumor activity. Ternary phase diagrams for the TMEs were constructed and the optimal preparation was developed. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that this formulation had a well defined spherical shape, a homogeneous distribution, a small size, and a narrow polydispersity index. The drug-loading rate was determined to be 9.87% by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and acceptable stability under various stimulations in vitro was confirmed. Importantly, the TME formulation showed a significantly greater antiproliferative effect towards human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and murine lung tumor (Lewis) cells in comparison with suspension formulations containing triterpene and adlay seed oil as a positive control. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the TMEs was about 0.62 mg crude drug per mL, being 2.5-fold improved relative to that of the corresponding suspension formulation, but no significant cytotoxicity was observed for the bare microemulsion in A549 cells and Lewis cells. In vivo, the TME formulation showed markedly enhanced antitumor efficacy in a xenograft model of Lewis lung cancer after intragastric administration. Compared with cyclophosphamide, the TME formulation showed similar antitumor activity but less general toxicity. These results indicate the feasibility of using a microemulsion to increase the solubility of triterpene and adlay. TMEs hold promise as an efficient drug delivery system for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:24379669

  4. Iodinated oil-loaded, fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography/fluorescence trimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Xue, Sihan; Wang, Yao; Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Lu; Du, Xiaoxia; Gu, Hongchen; Zhang, Chunfu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT)/fluorescence trifunctional probe was prepared by loading iodinated oil into fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (i-fmSiO4@SPIONs). Fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (fmSiO4@SPIONs) were prepared by growing fluorescent dye-doped silica onto superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) directed by a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide template. As prepared, fmSiO4@SPIONs had a uniform size, a large surface area, and a large pore volume, which demonstrated high efficiency for iodinated oil loading. Iodinated oil loading did not change the sizes of fmSiO4@SPIONs, but they reduced the MRI T2 relaxivity (r2) markedly. I-fmSiO4@SPIONs were stable in their physical condition and did not demonstrate cytotoxic effects under the conditions investigated. In vitro studies indicated that the contrast enhancement of MRI and CT, and the fluorescence signal intensity of i-fmSiO4@SPION aqueous suspensions and macrophages, were intensified with increased i-fmSiO4@SPION concentrations in suspension and cell culture media. Moreover, for the in vivo study, the accumulation of i-fmSiO4@SPIONs in the liver could also be detected by MRI, CT, and fluorescence imaging. Our study demonstrated that i-fmSiO4@SPIONs had great potential for MRI/CT/fluorescence trimodal imaging. PMID:24904212

  5. Iodinated oil-loaded, fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography/fluorescence trimodal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Sihan; Wang, Yao; Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Lu; Du, Xiaoxia; Gu, Hongchen; Zhang, Chunfu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT)/fluorescence trifunctional probe was prepared by loading iodinated oil into fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (i-fmSiO4@SPIONs). Fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (fmSiO4@SPIONs) were prepared by growing fluorescent dye-doped silica onto superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) directed by a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide template. As prepared, fmSiO4@SPIONs had a uniform size, a large surface area, and a large pore volume, which demonstrated high efficiency for iodinated oil loading. Iodinated oil loading did not change the sizes of fmSiO4@SPIONs, but they reduced the MRI T2 relaxivity (r2) markedly. I-fmSiO4@SPIONs were stable in their physical condition and did not demonstrate cytotoxic effects under the conditions investigated. In vitro studies indicated that the contrast enhancement of MRI and CT, and the fluorescence signal intensity of i-fmSiO4@SPION aqueous suspensions and macrophages, were intensified with increased i-fmSiO4@SPION concentrations in suspension and cell culture media. Moreover, for the in vivo study, the accumulation of i-fmSiO4@SPIONs in the liver could also be detected by MRI, CT, and fluorescence imaging. Our study demonstrated that i-fmSiO4@SPIONs had great potential for MRI/CT/fluorescence trimodal imaging. PMID:24904212

  6. Serum ferritin level changes in children with sickle cell disease on chronic blood transfusion are nonlinear and are associated with iron load and liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Miguel R.; Paley, Carole; Olivieri, Nancy; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; Vichinsky, Elliott; Casella, James F.; Alvarez, Ofelia A.; Barredo, Julio C.; Lee, Margaret T.; Iyer, Rathi V.; Kutlar, Abdullah; McKie, Kathleen M.; McKie, Virgil; Odo, Nadine; Gee, Beatrice; Kwiatkowski, Janet L.; Woods, Gerald M.; Coates, Thomas; Wang, Winfred; Adams, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic blood transfusion is increasingly indicated in patients with sickle cell disease. Measuring resulting iron overload remains a challenge. Children without viral hepatitis enrolled in 2 trials for stroke prevention were examined for iron overload (STOP and STOP2; n = 271). Most received desferrioxamine chelation. Serum ferritin (SF) changes appeared nonlinear compared with prechelation estimated transfusion iron load (TIL) or with liver iron concentrations (LICs). Averaged correlation coefficient between SF and TIL (patients/observations, 26 of 164) was r = 0.70; between SF and LIC (patients/observations, 33 of 47) was r = 0.55. In mixed models, SF was associated with LIC (P = .006), alanine transaminase (P = .025), and weight (P = .026). Most patients with SF between 750 and 1500 ng/mL had a TIL between 25 and 100 mg/kg (72.8% ± 5.9%; patients/observations, 24 of 50) or an LIC between 2.5 and 10 mg/g dry liver weight (75% ± 0%; patients/observations, 8 of 9). Most patients with SF of 3000 ng/mL or greater had a TIL of 100 mg/kg or greater (95.3% ± 6.7%; patients/observations, 7 of 16) or an LIC of 10 mg/g dry liver weight or greater (87.7% ± 4.3%; patients/observations, 11 of 18). Although SF changes are nonlinear, levels less than 1500 ng/mL indicated mostly acceptable iron overload; levels of 3000 ng/mL or greater were specific for significant iron overload and were associated with liver injury. However, to determine accurately iron overload in patients with intermediately elevated SF levels, other methods are required. These trials are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00000592 and #NCT00006182. PMID:19721013

  7. Development and Evaluation of Amphotericin B Loaded Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery to Systemic Fungal Infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balabathula, Pavan

    A targeted nanotheronostic drug delivery system to diagnose and treat life threatening invasive fungal infections (IFIs) such as cryptococcal meningitis was designed, developed, characterized, and evaluated. To address the development processes, first, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) (34-40 nm) coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA), loaded and targeted with amphotericin B (AMB) (AMB-IONP) was formulated by applying a layer by layer approach. Several designs (A, B, C, D, & E) of AMB-IONP were developed and their physicochemical properties such as drug loading with HPLC method, particle size, poly dispersity index (PDI), and zeta-potential using dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique, morphology with transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), and in vitro drug release profile with dialysis method were evaluated. Second, uptake (with fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry) and killing efficacy (with susceptibility testing) of AMB-IONP in fungal clinical isolates of Candida species were evaluated and compared with standard drug AMB deoxycholate (AMB-D) data. Third, the cellular uptake mechanisms with endocytosis inhibitors and intracellular trafficking using TEM for design D were evaluated in selected isolates. Fourth, a stable lyophilized AMB-IONP formulation was developed and was suitable for clinical trials. A validated isocratic HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of AMB. Design D was determined to be the lead formulation with drug loading of 13.6+/-6.9 of AMB/mg of IONP. The size, zeta-potential, and PDI for all formulation designs were found to be in an optimum range for a nanomedicine with ≤36 nm, ˜ -20 mV, and ≤0.2, respectively. The TEM images confirmed that the nanoparticles were monodispersed and spherical in shape. The drug release profile indicated a burst release up to 3 hours for designs A and B, followed by a sustained drug release profile up to 72 hours. Designs C and D (with and without glutaraldehyde

  8. Load partitioning between the bcc-iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy on multiple length scales.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiqian; Song, Gian; Sisneros, Thomas A; Clausen, Bjørn; Pu, Chao; Li, Lin; Gao, Yanfei; Liaw, Peter K

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of load sharing among constituent phases aids in designing mechanical properties of multiphase materials. Here we investigate load partitioning between the body-centered-cubic iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy during uniaxial tensile tests at 364 and 506 °C on multiple length scales by in situ neutron diffraction and crystal plasticity finite element modeling. Our findings show that the macroscopic load-transfer efficiency is not as high as that predicted by the Eshelby model; moreover, it depends on the matrix strain-hardening behavior. We explain the grain-level anisotropic load-partitioning behavior by considering the plastic anisotropy of the matrix and elastic anisotropy of precipitates. We further demonstrate that the partitioned load on NiAl-type precipitates relaxes at 506 °C, most likely through thermally-activated dislocation rearrangement on the microscopic scale. The study contributes to further understanding of load-partitioning characteristics in multiphase materials. PMID:26979660

  9. Load partitioning between the bcc-iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy on multiple length scales

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sun, Zhiqian; Song, Gian; Sisneros, Thomas A.; Clausen, Bjorn; Pu, Chao; Li, Lin; Gao, Yanfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-03-16

    An understanding of load sharing among constituent phases aids in designing mechanical properties of multiphase materials. Here we investigate load partitioning between the body-centered-cubic iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy during uniaxial tensile tests at 364 and 506 C on multiple length scales by in situ neutron diffraction and crystal plasticity finite element modeling. Our findings show that the macroscopic load-transfer efficiency is not as high as that predicted by the Eshelby model; moreover, it depends on the matrix strain-hardening behavior. We explain the grain-level anisotropic load-partitioning behavior by considering the plastic anisotropy of the matrix andmore » elastic anisotropy of precipitates. We further demonstrate that the partitioned load on NiAl-type precipitates relaxes at 506 C, most likely through thermally-activated dislocation rearrangement on the microscopic scale. Furthermore, the study contributes to further understanding of load-partitioning characteristics in multiphase materials.« less

  10. Load partitioning between the bcc-iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy on multiple length scales

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhiqian; Song, Gian; Sisneros, Thomas A.; Clausen, Bjørn; Pu, Chao; Li, Lin; Gao, Yanfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of load sharing among constituent phases aids in designing mechanical properties of multiphase materials. Here we investigate load partitioning between the body-centered-cubic iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy during uniaxial tensile tests at 364 and 506 °C on multiple length scales by in situ neutron diffraction and crystal plasticity finite element modeling. Our findings show that the macroscopic load-transfer efficiency is not as high as that predicted by the Eshelby model; moreover, it depends on the matrix strain-hardening behavior. We explain the grain-level anisotropic load-partitioning behavior by considering the plastic anisotropy of the matrix and elastic anisotropy of precipitates. We further demonstrate that the partitioned load on NiAl-type precipitates relaxes at 506 °C, most likely through thermally-activated dislocation rearrangement on the microscopic scale. The study contributes to further understanding of load-partitioning characteristics in multiphase materials. PMID:26979660

  11. Load partitioning between the bcc-iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy on multiple length scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiqian; Song, Gian; Sisneros, Thomas A.; Clausen, Bjørn; Pu, Chao; Li, Lin; Gao, Yanfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-03-01

    An understanding of load sharing among constituent phases aids in designing mechanical properties of multiphase materials. Here we investigate load partitioning between the body-centered-cubic iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy during uniaxial tensile tests at 364 and 506 °C on multiple length scales by in situ neutron diffraction and crystal plasticity finite element modeling. Our findings show that the macroscopic load-transfer efficiency is not as high as that predicted by the Eshelby model; moreover, it depends on the matrix strain-hardening behavior. We explain the grain-level anisotropic load-partitioning behavior by considering the plastic anisotropy of the matrix and elastic anisotropy of precipitates. We further demonstrate that the partitioned load on NiAl-type precipitates relaxes at 506 °C, most likely through thermally-activated dislocation rearrangement on the microscopic scale. The study contributes to further understanding of load-partitioning characteristics in multiphase materials.

  12. Fabrication of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the channels of iron loaded three dimensional mesoporous material by catalytic chemical vapour deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somanathan, T.; Gokulakrishnan, N.; Chandrasekar, G.; Pandurangan, A.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was successfully achieved in the channels of three dimensional (3D) iron loaded mesoporous matrices (KIT-6) by employing catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CCVD) technique. The synthesised MWNTs, which were characterised by SEM, TEM and Raman spectroscopy, consist of thick graphene layers of about 10 nm composed of 29 graphene sheets with inner and outer diameter of ∼17 nm and ∼37 nm, respectively. The Raman spectrum showed the formation of well-graphitised MWNTs with significantly higher IG/ID ratio of 1.47 compared to commercial MWNTs. Comparatively, 2 wt% Fe loaded KIT-6 material produced a better yield of 91%, which is also highest compared with the report of MWNTs synthesis using mesoporous materials reported so far.

  13. Hepatic iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gregory J; Frazer, David M

    2005-11-01

    The liver performs three main functions in iron homeostasis. It is the major site of iron storage, it regulates iron traffic into and around the body through its production of the peptide hepcidin, and it is the site of synthesis of major proteins of iron metabolism such as transferrin and ceruloplasmin. Most of the iron that enters the liver is derived from plasma transferrin under normal circumstances, and transferrin receptors 1 and 2 play important roles in this process. In pathological situations, non-transferrin-bound iron, ferritin, and hemoglobin/haptoglobin and heme/hemopexin complexes assume greater importance in iron delivery to the organ. Iron is stored in the liver as ferritin and, with heavy iron loading, as hemosiderin. The liver can divest itself of iron through the plasma membrane iron exporter ferroportin 1, a process that also requires ceruloplasmin. Hepcidin can regulate this iron release through its interaction with ferroportin. PMID:16315136

  14. Ascorbate efflux as a new strategy for iron reduction and transport in plants.

    PubMed

    Grillet, Louis; Ouerdane, Laurent; Flis, Paulina; Hoang, Minh Thi Thanh; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Lobinski, Ryszard; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane

    2014-01-31

    Iron (Fe) is essential for virtually all living organisms. The identification of the chemical forms of iron (the speciation) circulating in and between cells is crucial to further understand the mechanisms of iron delivery to its final targets. Here we analyzed how iron is transported to the seeds by the chemical identification of iron complexes that are delivered to embryos, followed by the biochemical characterization of the transport of these complexes by the embryo, using the pea (Pisum sativum) as a model species. We have found that iron circulates as ferric complexes with citrate and malate (Fe(III)3Cit2Mal2, Fe(III)3Cit3Mal1, Fe(III)Cit2). Because dicotyledonous plants only transport ferrous iron, we checked whether embryos were capable of reducing iron of these complexes. Indeed, embryos did express a constitutively high ferric reduction activity. Surprisingly, iron(III) reduction is not catalyzed by the expected membrane-bound ferric reductase. Instead, embryos efflux high amounts of ascorbate that chemically reduce iron(III) from citrate-malate complexes. In vitro transport experiments on isolated embryos using radiolabeled (55)Fe demonstrated that this ascorbate-mediated reduction is an obligatory step for the uptake of iron(II). Moreover, the ascorbate efflux activity was also measured in Arabidopsis embryos, suggesting that this new iron transport system may be generic to dicotyledonous plants. Finally, in embryos of the ascorbate-deficient mutants vtc2-4, vtc5-1, and vtc5-2, the reducing activity and the iron concentration were reduced significantly. Taken together, our results identified a new iron transport mechanism in plants that could play a major role to control iron loading in seeds. PMID:24347170

  15. Ascorbate Efflux as a New Strategy for Iron Reduction and Transport in Plants*

    PubMed Central

    Grillet, Louis; Ouerdane, Laurent; Flis, Paulina; Hoang, Minh Thi Thanh; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Lobinski, Ryszard; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is essential for virtually all living organisms. The identification of the chemical forms of iron (the speciation) circulating in and between cells is crucial to further understand the mechanisms of iron delivery to its final targets. Here we analyzed how iron is transported to the seeds by the chemical identification of iron complexes that are delivered to embryos, followed by the biochemical characterization of the transport of these complexes by the embryo, using the pea (Pisum sativum) as a model species. We have found that iron circulates as ferric complexes with citrate and malate (Fe(III)3Cit2Mal2, Fe(III)3Cit3Mal1, Fe(III)Cit2). Because dicotyledonous plants only transport ferrous iron, we checked whether embryos were capable of reducing iron of these complexes. Indeed, embryos did express a constitutively high ferric reduction activity. Surprisingly, iron(III) reduction is not catalyzed by the expected membrane-bound ferric reductase. Instead, embryos efflux high amounts of ascorbate that chemically reduce iron(III) from citrate-malate complexes. In vitro transport experiments on isolated embryos using radiolabeled 55Fe demonstrated that this ascorbate-mediated reduction is an obligatory step for the uptake of iron(II). Moreover, the ascorbate efflux activity was also measured in Arabidopsis embryos, suggesting that this new iron transport system may be generic to dicotyledonous plants. Finally, in embryos of the ascorbate-deficient mutants vtc2-4, vtc5-1, and vtc5-2, the reducing activity and the iron concentration were reduced significantly. Taken together, our results identified a new iron transport mechanism in plants that could play a major role to control iron loading in seeds. PMID:24347170

  16. Vacuolar membrane transporters OsVIT1 and OsVIT2 modulate iron translocation between flag leaves and seeds in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Yong-Han; Yi, Hong-Yin; Gong, Ji-Ming

    2012-11-01

    The plant vacuole is an important organelle for storing excess iron (Fe), though its contribution to increasing the Fe content in staple foods remains largely unexplored. In this study we report the isolation and functional characterization of two rice genes OsVIT1 and OsVIT2, orthologs of the Arabidopsis VIT1. Transient expression of OsVIT1:EGFP and OsVIT2:EGFP protein fusions revealed that OsVIT1 and OsVIT2 are localized to the vacuolar membrane. Ectopic expression of OsVIT1 and OsVIT2 partially rescued the Fe(2+) - and Zn(2+) -sensitive phenotypes in yeast mutant Δccc1 and Δzrc1, and further increased vacuolar Fe(2+) , Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) accumulation. These data together suggest that OsVIT1 and OsVIT2 function to transport Fe(2+) , Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) across the tonoplast into vacuoles in yeast. In rice, OsVIT1 and OsVIT2 are highly expressed in flag leaf blade and sheath, respectively, and in contrast to OsVIT1, OsVIT2 is highly responsive to Fe treatments. Interestingly, functional disruption of OsVIT1 and OsVIT2 leads to increased Fe/Zn accumulation in rice seeds and a corresponding decrease in the source organ flag leaves, indicating an enhanced Fe/Zn translocation between source and sink organs, which might represent a novel strategy to biofortify Fe/Zn in staple foods. PMID:22731699

  17. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  18. Doxorubicin loaded PEG-b-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate) coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hałupka-Bryl, Magdalena; Bednarowicz, Magdalena; Dobosz, Bernadeta; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Zalewski, Tomasz; Wereszczyńska, Beata; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Jarek, Marcin; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2015-06-01

    Due to their unique physical properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are increasingly used in medical applications. They are very useful carriers for delivering antitumor drugs in targeted cancer treatment. Magnetic nanoparticles with chemiotherapeutic were synthesized by coprecipitation method followed by coating with biocompatible polymer. The aim of this work is to characterize physical and magnetic properties of synthesized nanoparicles. Characterization was carried out using EPR, HRTEM, X-ray diffraction, SQUID and NMR methods. The present findings show that synthesized nanosystem is promising tool for potential magnetic drug delivery.

  19. Physical properties of psyllium seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, R.; Kalbasi-Ashtari, A.; Gharibzahedi, S.

    2012-02-01

    Physical properties ie dimensions, volume, surface area, sphericity, true density, porosity, angle of repose, terminal velocity, static and dynamic friction coefficients on plywood, stainless steel, glass and galvanized iron sheet, force required for initiating seed rupture in horizontal and vertical orientations of psyllium seed at a moisture content of 7.2% (w.b.)were determined.

  20. Chemically modified nanoparticles surface for sensing bacterial loading--experimental study based on fluorescence stimulation by iron ions.

    PubMed

    Poiata, Antoniea; Creanga, Dorina E; Nadejde, Claudia; Fifere, Nicușor; Airinei, Anton

    2013-10-01

    The influence of iron ions supplied from magnetite nanoparticles with chemically modified surface on Pseudomonas aeruginosa germ was aimed--with experimental and theoretical approach of the intensity of the fluorescent signal emitted by the pyoverdine like siderophores. As the coated magnetic nanoparticles could function as probes, the possibility of designing a chemical device was considered based on the sensing of iron reduction from Fe(3+) into the more soluble Fe(2+), for detecting various levels of contamination (10 ÷ 10(8) cell/ml) of biological specimens and environmental samples. The proposed mathematical model estimated the fluorescence intensity due to siderophore synthesized by Pseudomonas, considering that the parameter describing the ion-bacteria interaction depends differently on the cell density for different magnetite nanoparticle coatings: linear dependence was found in the case of sodium oleate coating while power function was revealed for tetramethyl ammonium coating of magnetite nanocores, in both cases magnetite suspension being supplied in the same concentration (0.1 μl/ml). The calculated values of fluorescence intensity fitted the experimental data corresponding to magnetite supplied bacteria with graph slopes close to the unit and correlation coefficients of 0.999 and 0.996, while for the control samples, where that parameter was zeroed, correlation coefficient was found of 0.999. PMID:23186558

  1. Polymeric nanocomposites loaded with fluoridated hydroxyapatite Ln3+ (Ln = Eu or Tb)/iron oxide for magnetic targeted cellular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jie; Liu, Wei-Jiao; Hua, Chao; Wang, Li-Li; Wan, Dong; Gong, Jun-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To fabricate polymeric nanocomposites with excellent photoluminescence, magnetic properties, and stability in aqueous solutions, in order to improve specificity and sensitivity of cellular imaging under a magnetic field. Methods Fluoridated Ln3+-doped HAP (Ln3+-HAP) NPs and iron oxides (IOs) can be encapsulated with biocompatible polymers via a modified solvent exaction/evaporation technique to prepare polymeric nanocomposites with fluoridated Ln3+-HAP/iron oxide. The nanocomposites were characterized for surface morphology, fluorescence spectra, magnetic properties and in vitro cytotoxicity. Magnetic targeted cellular imaging of such nanocomposites was also evaluated with confocal laser scanning microscope using A549 cells with or without magnetic field. Results The fabricated nanocomposites showed good stability and excellent luminescent properties, as well as low in vitro cytotoxicity, indicating that the nanocomposites are suitable for biological applications. Nanocomposites under magnetic field achieved much higher cellular uptake via an energy-dependent pathway than those without magnetic field. Conclusion The nanocomposites fabricated in this study will be a promising tool for magnetic targeted cellular imaging with improved specificity and enhanced selection. PMID:26487962

  2. Preparation and characterization of chitosan-Polyethylene glycol-polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as carrier system: Drug loading and in vitro drug release study.

    PubMed

    Prabha, G; Raj, V

    2016-05-01

    In the present research work, the anticancer drug "curcumin" is loaded with Chitosan (CS)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (CS-PEG-PVP) polymer nanocomposites coated with superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3 O4 ) nanoparticles. The system can be used for targeted and controlled drug delivery of anticancer drugs with reduced side effects and greater efficiency. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Curcumin drug-loaded Fe3 O4 -CS, Fe3 O4 -CS- PEG and Fe3 O4 -CS-PEG-PVP nanoparticles exhibited the mean particle size in the range of 183 - 390 nm with a zeta potential value of 26 mV-41 mV as measured using Malvern Zetasizer. The encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and in-vitro drug release behaviour of curcumin drug-loaded Fe3 O4 -CS, Fe3 O4 -CS-PEG, and Fe3 O4 -CS-PEG-PVP nanoparticles were studied using UV spectrophotometer. Besides, the cytotoxicity of the prepared nanoparticles using MTT assay was also studied. The curcumin drug release was examined at different pH medium (4.5 and 7.4) and temperature (37°C and 45°C), and it was proved that the drug release depends upon the pH medium and temperature in addition to the nature of matrix. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 808-816, 2016. PMID:26996397

  3. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape. PMID:18780144

  4. Effect of NO upon N2O decomposition over Fe/ZSM-5 with low iron loading.

    PubMed

    Sang, Chimin; Kim, Bryan H; Lund, Carl R F

    2005-02-17

    An Fe/ZSM-5 catalyst with a very high Si/Al ratio was prepared, and using it, the effect of NO upon the kinetics of N2O decomposition was studied. The addition of small, nonstoichiometric amounts of NO was observed to cause the rate to increase by more than an order of magnitude. The kinetics were well-fit by a rate expression that was first order in the partial pressure of N2O for the situation without added NO and separately for the situation where NO was added. The Arrhenius parameters of the rate coefficient differed for the two situations. The results are consistent with a mechanistic scheme wherein the reaction proceeds via an oxide-oxo redox cycle in the absence of NO. The results suggest that the NO-assisted decomposition of N2O does not require a second iron site adjacent to the active site and that NOx species adsorbed on the same cation site could serve as locations for oxygen storage if, in fact, the promotional effect of NO is related to such storage. PMID:16851222

  5. Inactivation performance and mechanism of Escherichia coli in aqueous system exposed to iron oxide loaded graphene nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Deng, Can-Hui; Gong, Ji-Lai; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Niu, Cheng-Gang; Niu, Qiu-Ya; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hong-Yu

    2014-07-15

    The challenge to achieve efficient disinfection and microbial control without harmful disinfection byproducts calls for developing new technologies. Magnetic-graphene oxide (M-GO) with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles well dispersed on graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets exerted excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The antibacterial performance of M-GO was dependent on the concentration and the component mass ratio of M/GO. The synergetic antibacterial effect of M-GO was observed with M/GO mass ratio of 9.09. TEM images illustrated the interaction between E. coli cells and M-GO nanocomposites. M-GO nanomaterials were possible to deposit on or penetrate into cells leading to leakage of intercellular contents and loss of cell integrity. The inactivation mechanism of E. coli by M-GO was supposed to result from both the membrane stress and oxidation stress during the incubation period. M-GO with excellent antibacterial efficiency against E. coli and separation-convenient property from water could be potent bactericidal nanomaterials for water disinfection. PMID:24862470

  6. Inhibiting excessive acidification using zero-valent iron in anaerobic digestion of food waste at high organic load rates.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xin; Wei, Yonghong; Xu, Shuang; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Huan; Liu, Yili; Yu, Shuyao

    2016-07-01

    Excessive acidification occurs frequently in food waste (FW) anaerobic digestion (AD) due to the high carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of FW. In this study, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was applied to prevent the excessive acidification. All of the control groups, without ZVI addition (pH∼5.3), produced little methane (CH4) and had high volatile fatty acids/bicarbonate alkalinity (VFA/ALK). By contrast, at OLR of 42.32gVS/Lreactor, the pH of effluent from the reactors with 0.4g/gVSFWadded of ZVI increased to 7.8-8.2, VFA/ALK decreased to <0.1, and the final CH4 yield was ∼380mL/gVSFWadded, suggesting inhibition of excessive acidification. After adding powdered or scrap metal ZVI to the acidogenic reactors, the fractional content of butyric acid changed from 30-40% to 0%, while, that of acetic acid increased. These results indicate that adding ZVI to FW digestion at high OLRs could eliminate excessive acidification by promoting butyric acid conversion and enhancing methanogen activity. PMID:26998799

  7. Crystal structure of delta9 stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from castor seed and its relationship to other di-iron proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Y; Huang, W; Schneider, G; Shanklin, J

    1996-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of recombinant homodimeric delta9 stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase, the archetype of the soluble plant fatty acid desaturases that convert saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, has been determined by protein crystallographic methods to a resolution of 2.4 angstroms. The structure was solved by a combination of single isomorphous replacement, anomalous contribution from the iron atoms to the native diffraction data and 6-fold non-crystallographic symmetry averaging. The 363 amino acid monomer consists of a single domain of 11 alpha-helices. Nine of these form an antiparallel helix bundle. The enzyme subunit contains a di-iron centre, with ligands from four of the alpha-helices in the helix bundle. The iron ions are bound in a highly symmetric environment, with one of the irons forming interactions with the side chains of E196 and H232 and the second iron with the side chains of E105 and H146. Two additional glutamic acid side chains, from E143 and E229, are within coordination distance to both iron ions. A water molecule is found within the second coordination sphere from the iron atoms. The lack of electron density corresponding to a mu-oxo bridge, and the long (4.2 angstroms) distance between the iron ions suggests that this probably represents the diferrous form of the enzyme. A deep channel which probably binds the fatty acid extends from the surface into the interior of the enzyme. Modelling of the substrate, stearic acid, into this channel places the delta9 carbon atom in the vicinity of one of the iron ions. Images PMID:8861937

  8. Iron(III) hydroxide-loaded coral limestone as an adsorbent for arsenic(III) and arsenic (V)

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Shigeru; Ohki, Akira; Saikoji, Shunsuke; Naka, Kensuke )

    1992-04-01

    Trace levels of As(III) and As(V) in aqueous media were effectively adsorbed onto a coral limestone loaded by Fe(OH){sub 3}. The adsorption of As(III) was almost comparable to that of As(V). The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) was almost independent of the pH of the aqueous phase (pH range: 3-10) because of a self-buffering effect of the coral. The addition of such anions as chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and acetate in the aqueous phase did not significantly affect the adsorption of As(III), whereas the addition of phosphate brought about a great decrease in the adsorption. The arsenic adsorption was effectively applied to the column method. Unloaded coral itself was effective as an adsorbent for As(V) when Fe(III) coexisted in the aqueous solutions.

  9. Spark Plasma Sintering of Load-Bearing Iron-Carbon Nanotube-Tricalcium Phosphate CerMets for Orthopaedic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montufar, Edgar B.; Horynová, Miroslava; Casas-Luna, Mariano; Diaz-de-la-Torre, Sebastián; Celko, Ladislav; Klakurková, Lenka; Spotz, Zdenek; Diéguez-Trejo, Guillermo; Fohlerová, Zdenka; Dvorak, Karel; Zikmund, Tomáš; Kaiser, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    Recently, ceramic-metallic composite materials (CerMets) have been investigated for orthopaedic applications with promising results. This first generation of bio-CerMets combine the bioactivity of hydroxyapatite with the mechanical stability of titanium to fabricate bioactive, tough and biomechanically more biocompatible osteosynthetic devices. Nonetheless, these first CerMets are not biodegradable materials and a second surgery is required to remove the implant after bone healing. The present work aims to develop the next generation bio-CerMets, which are potential biodegradable materials. The process to produce the new biodegradable CerMet consisted of mixing powder of soluble and osteoconductive alpha tricalcium phosphate with biocompatible and biodegradable iron with consolidation through spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructure, composition and mechanical strength of the new CerMet were studied by metallography, x-ray diffraction and diametral tensile strength tests, respectively. The results show that SPS produces CerMet with higher mechanical performance (120 MPa) than the ceramic component alone (29 MPa) and similar mechanical strength to the pure metallic component (129 MPa). Nonetheless, although a short sintering time (10 min) was used, partial transformation of the alpha tricalcium phosphate into its allotropic and slightly less soluble beta phase was observed. Cell adhesion tests show that osteoblasts are able to attach to the CerMet surface, presenting spread morphology regardless of the component of the material with which they are in contact. However, the degradation process restricted to the small volume of the cell culture well quickly reduces the osteoblast viability.

  10. Automated seed manipulation and planting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ray; Herrera, Javier; Holcomb, Scott; Kelly, Paul; Myers, Scott; Rosendo, Manny; Sivitz, Herbert; Wolsefer, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The Mechanical Division fabricated three seed separators utilizing pressure gradients to move and separate wheat seeds. These separators are called minnow buckets and use air, water, or a combination of both to generate the pressure gradient. Electrostatic fields were employed in the seed separator constructed by the Electrical Division. This separator operates by forcing a temporary electric dipole on the wheat seeds and using charged electrodes to attract and move the seeds. Seed delivery to the hydroponic growth tray is accomplished by the seed cassette. The cassette is compatible with all the seed separators, and it consists of a plastic tube threaded with millipore filter paper. During planting operations, the seeds are placed in an empty cassette. The loaded cassette is then placed in the growth tray and nutrient solution provided. The solution wets the filter paper and capillary action draws the nutrients up to feed the seeds. These seeding systems were tested and showed encouraging results. Seeds were effectively separated and the cassette can support the growth of wheat plants. Problems remaining to be investigated include improving the success of delivering the seeds to the cassette and providing adequate spacing between seeds for the electric separator.

  11. The Role of Gap Junctions and Mechanical Loading on Mineral Formation in a Collagen-I Scaffold Seeded with Osteoprogenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Damaraju, Swathi; Matyas, John R.; Rancourt, Derrick E.

    2015-01-01

    Fracture nonunions represent one of many large bone defects where current treatment strategies fall short in restoring both form and function of the injured tissue. In this case, the use of a tissue-engineered scaffold for promoting bone healing offers an accessible and easy-to-manipulate environment for studying bone formation processes in vitro. We have previously shown that mechanical prestimulation using confined compression of differentiating osteoblasts results in an increase in mineralization formed in a 3D collagen-I scaffold. This study builds on this knowledge by evaluating the short and long-term effects of blocking gap junction-mediated intercellular communication among osteogenic cells on their effectiveness to mineralize collagen-I scaffolds in vitro, and in the presence and absence of mechanical stimulation. In this study, confined compression was applied in conjunction with octanol (a general communication blocker) or 18-α-glycerrhetinic acid (AGA, a specific gap junction blocker) using a modified FlexCell plate to collagen-I scaffolds seeded with murine embryonic stem cells stimulated toward osteoblast differentiation using beta-glycerol phosphate. The activity, presence, and expression of osteoblast cadherin, connexin-43, as well as various pluripotent and osteogenic markers were examined at 5–30 days of differentiation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, immunofluorescence, viability, histology assessments, and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assessments revealed that inhibiting communication in this scaffold altered the lineage and function of differentiating osteoblasts. In particular, treatment with communication inhibitors caused reduced mineralization in the matrix, and dissociation between connexin-43 and integrin α5β1. This dissociation was not restored even after long-term recovery. Thus, in order for this scaffold to be considered as an alternative strategy for the repair of large bone defects, cell

  12. Evaluation of Glass Density to Support the Estimation of Fissile Mass Loadings from Iron Concentrations in SB6 Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Peeler, D.

    2010-12-15

    The Department of Energy - Savannah River (DOE-SR) previously provided direction to Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3}. In support of the guidance, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a technical basis and a supporting Microsoft{reg_sign} Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheet for the evaluation of fissile loading in Sludge Batch 5 glass based on the Fe concentration in glass as determined by the measurements from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) acceptability analysis. SRR has since requested that SRNL provide the necessary information to allow SRR to update the Excel spreadsheet so that it may be used to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3} during the processing of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6). One of the primary inputs into the fissile loading spreadsheet includes a bounding density for SB6-based glasses. Based on the measured density data of select SB6 variability study glasses, SRNL recommends that SRR utilize the 99/99 Upper Tolerance Limit (UTL) density value at 38% WL (2.823 g/cm{sup 3}) as a bounding density for SB6 glasses to assess the fissile concentration in this glass system. That is, the 2.823 g/cm{sup 3} is recommended as a key (and fixed) input into the fissile concentration spreadsheet for SB6 processing. It should be noted that no changes are needed to the underlying structure of the Excel based spreadsheet to support fissile assessments for SB6. However, SRR should update the other key inputs to the spreadsheet that are based on fissile and Fe concentrations reported from the SB6 Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) sample. The purpose of this technical report is to present the density measurements that were determined for the SB6 variability study glasses and to conduct a statistical evaluation of these measurements to provide a bounding density value that may be used as input to the Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheet to be employed by SRR to maintain the

  13. Application of iron and zinc isotopes to track the sources and mechanisms of metal loading in a mountain watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borrok, D.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Ian, Ridley W.; Lamothe, P.J.; Kimball, B.A.; Verplanck, P.L.; Runkel, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Here the hydrogeochemical constraints of a tracer dilution study are combined with Fe and Zn isotopic measurements to pinpoint metal loading sources and attenuation mechanisms in an alpine watershed impacted by acid mine drainage. In the tested mountain catchment, ??56Fe and ??66Zn isotopic signatures of filtered stream water samples varied by ???3.5??? and 0.4???, respectively. The inherent differences in the aqueous geochemistry of Fe and Zn provided complimentary isotopic information. For example, variations in ??56Fe were linked to redox and precipitation reactions occurring in the stream, while changes in ??66Zn were indicative of conservative mixing of different Zn sources. Fen environments contributed distinctively light dissolved Fe (<-2.0???) and isotopically heavy suspended Fe precipitates to the watershed, while Zn from the fen was isotopically heavy (>+0.4???). Acidic drainage from mine wastes contributed heavier dissolved Fe (???+0.5???) and lighter Zn (???+0.2???) isotopes relative to the fen. Upwelling of Fe-rich groundwater near the mouth of the catchment was the major source of Fe (??56Fe ??? 0???) leaving the watershed in surface flow, while runoff from mining wastes was the major source of Zn. The results suggest that given a strong framework for interpretation, Fe and Zn isotopes are useful tools for identifying and tracking metal sources and attenuation mechanisms in mountain watersheds. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Superparamagnetic iron oxide--loaded poly(lactic acid)-D-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate copolymer nanoparticles as MRI contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Prashant, Chandrasekharan; Dipak, Maity; Yang, Chang-Tong; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Jun, Ding; Feng, Si-Shen

    2010-07-01

    We developed a strategy to formulate supraparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) in nanoparticles (NPs) of biodegradable copolymer made up of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and d-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) for medical imaging by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of high contrast and low side effects. The IOs-loaded PLA-TPGS NPs (IOs-PNPs) were prepared by the single emulsion method and the nanoprecipitation method. Effects of the process parameters such as the emulsifier concentration, IOs loading in the nanoparticles, and the solvent to non-solvent ratio on the IOs distribution within the polymeric matrix were investigated and the formulation was then optimized. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed direct visual evidence for the well dispersed distribution of the IOs within the NPs. We further investigated the biocompatibility and cellular uptake of the IOs-PNPs in vitro with MCF-7 breast cancer cells and NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast in close comparison with the commercial IOs imaging agent Resovist. MRI imaging was further carried out to investigate the biodistribution of the IOs formulated in the IOs-PNPs, especially in the liver to understand the liver clearance process, which was also made in close comparison with Resovist. We found that the PLA-TPGS NPs formulation at the clinically approved dose of 0.8 mg Fe/kg could be cleared within 24 h in comparison with several weeks for Resovist. Xenograft tumor model MRI confirmed the advantages of the IOs-PNPs formulation versus Resovist through the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect of the tumor vasculature. PMID:20434210

  15. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis of doxorubicin-loaded/superparamagnetic iron oxide colloidal nanoassemblies on MCF7 and NIH3T3 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Tomankova, Katerina; Polakova, Katerina; Pizova, Klara; Binder, Svatopluk; Havrdova, Marketa; Kolarova, Mary; Kriegova, Eva; Zapletalova, Jana; Malina, Lukas; Horakova, Jana; Malohlava, Jakub; Kolokithas-Ntoukas, Argiris; Bakandritsos, Aristides; Kolarova, Hana; Zboril, Radek

    2015-01-01

    One of the promising strategies for improvement of cancer treatment is based on magnetic drug delivery systems, thus avoiding side effects of standard chemotherapies. Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles have ideal properties to become a targeted magnetic drug delivery contrast probes, named theranostics. We worked with SPIO condensed colloidal nanocrystal clusters (MagAlg) prepared through a new soft biomineralization route in the presence of alginate as the polymeric shell and loaded with doxorubicin (DOX). The aim of this work was to study the in vitro cytotoxicity of these new MagAlg–DOX systems on mouse fibroblast and breast carcinoma cell lines. For proper analysis and understanding of cell behavior after administration of MagAlg–DOX compared with free DOX, a complex set of in vitro tests, including production of reactive oxygen species, comet assay, cell cycle determination, gene expression, and cellular uptake, were utilized. It was found that the cytotoxic effect of MagAlg–DOX system is delayed compared to free DOX in both cell lines. This was attributed to the different mechanism of internalization of DOX and MagAlg–DOX into the cells, together with the fact that the drug is strongly bound on the drug nanocarriers. We discovered that nanoparticles can attenuate or even inhibit the effect of DOX, particularly in the tumor MCF7 cell line. This is a first comprehensive study on the cytotoxic effect of DOX-loaded SPIO compared with free DOX on healthy and cancer cell lines, as well as on the induced changes in gene expression. PMID:25673990

  16. Internalization and cytotoxicity effects of carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles in murine endothelial cells: Studies on internal dosages due to loaded mass agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Cywinska, Monika A; Bystrzejewski, Michal; Poplawska, Magdalena; Kosmider, Anita; Zdanowski, Robert; Lewicki, Slawomir; Fijalek, Zbigniew; Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Bamburowicz, Magdalena; Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Grudzinski, Ireneusz P

    2016-08-01

    Carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CEINs) qualified as metal-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials offer a potential scope for an increasing number of biomedical applications. In this study, we have focused on the investigation of cellular fate and resulting cytotoxic effects of CEINs synthesized using a carbon arc route and studied in murine endothelial (HECa-10) cells. The CEIN samples were characterized as pristine (the mean diameter between 47 and 56nm) and hydrodynamic (the mean diameter between 270 and 460nm) forms and tested using a battery of methods to determine the cell internalization extent and cytotoxicity effects upon to the exposures (0.0001-100μg/ml) in HECa-10 cells. Our studies evidenced that the incubation with CEINs for 24h is accompanied with substantial changes of Zeta potential in cells which can be considered as a key factor for affecting the membrane transport, cellular distribution and cytotoxicity of these nanoparticles. The results demonstrate that CEINs have entered the endothelial cell through the endocytic pathway rather than by passive diffusion and they were mainly loaded as agglomerates on the cell membrane and throughout the cytoplasm, mitochondria and nucleus. The studies show that CEINs induce the mitochondrial and cell membrane cytotoxicities in a dose-dependent manner resulting from the internal dosages due to CEIN agglomerates. Our results highlight the importance of the physicochemical characterization of CEINs in studying the magnetic nanoparticle-endothelial cell interactions because the CEIN mass agglomerates can sediment more or less rapidly in culture models. PMID:27107485

  17. Quantitative analysis of dietary iron utilization for erythropoiesis in response to body iron status.

    PubMed

    Matsuo-Tezuka, Yukari; Noguchi-Sasaki, Mariko; Kurasawa, Mitsue; Yorozu, Keigo; Shimonaka, Yasushi

    2016-06-01

    Erythropoiesis requires large amounts of iron for hemoglobin synthesis. There are two sources of iron for erythropoiesis, dietary and stored iron; however, their relative contributions to erythropoiesis remain unknown. In this study, we used the stable iron isotope (57)Fe to quantify synthesis of hemoglobin derived from dietary iron. Using this method, we investigated the activities of dietary iron absorption and the utilization of dietary iron for erythropoiesis in responses to stimulated erythropoiesis and to interventions to alter body iron status. Under iron-loaded conditions, the activity of dietary iron absorption was clearly lowered in response to up-regulation of hepcidin, although the estimated activity of iron release from stored iron was not compared with that under control conditions. This result was supported by the observation that two duodenal iron transporters, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin, were downregulated by iron loading, although the levels of expression of ferroportin in iron storage tissues were not changed by iron loading under erythropoietic stimulation by epoetin-β pegol (C.E.R.A., a long-acting erythropoiesis-stimulating agent). These results indicate that the dietary iron absorption system is more sensitive to body iron status than are reticuloendothelial iron- release mechanisms. Our data indicated that there could be a regulatory mechanism favoring use of stored iron over dietary iron under iron-loaded conditions. PMID:26911670

  18. 20 Gb/s WDM-OFDM-PON over 20-km single fiber uplink transmission using optical millimeter-wave signal seeding with rate adaptive bit-power loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartiwa, Iwa; Jung, Sang-Min; Hong, Moon-Ki; Han, Sang-Kook

    2013-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of millimeter-wave signal generation by optical carrier suppression (OCS) method using single-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator as a light sources seed for 20 Gb/s WDM-OFDM-PON in 20-km single fiber loopback transmission based on cost-effective RSOA modulation. Practical discrete rate adaptive bit loading algorithm was employed in this colorless ONU system to maximize the achievable bit rate for an average bit error rate (BER) below 2 × 10-3.

  19. Seed Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initiation of seed germination is a critical decision for plants. It is important for seed populations under natural conditions to spread the timing of germination of individual seeds to maximize the probability of species survival. Therefore, seeds have evolved the multiple layers of mechanisms tha...

  20. Genetic reduction of antinutrients in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed, increases nutrients and in vitro iron bioavailability without depressing main agronomical traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In common bean, lectins, phytic acid, polyphenols and tannins exert major antinutritional effects when grains are consumed as a staple food. Reduced iron and zinc absorption, low protein digestibility and high toxicity at the intestinal level are the causes of their antinutritional effect. To improv...

  1. Iron bioavailability in low phytate pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds have high nutritional value but also contain potential anti-nutritional factors, such as phytate and polyphenols. Phytate can store up to 80% of the phosphorus in seeds. In the seed and during digestion it can complex minerals such as iron and zinc and make them un...

  2. Iron Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect and help diagnose iron deficiency or iron overload. In people with anemia , these tests can help ... also be ordered when iron deficiency or iron overload is suspected. Early iron deficiency often goes unnoticed. ...

  3. Mitoxantrone-loaded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as drug carriers for cancer therapy: Uptake and toxicity in primary human tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cicha, Iwona; Scheffler, Laura; Ebenau, Astrid; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph; Goppelt-Struebe, Margarete

    2016-06-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are in use for many clinical diagnostic and experimental therapeutic applications, for example, for targeted drug delivery. To analyze the cellular responses to mitoxantrone-carrying SPIONs (SPION-MTO), and to the drug released from SPIONs, we used an in vitro system that allows comparison of primary human cells with different endocytotic capacities, namely, epithelial cells from proximal and distal parts of the nephron. SPIONs were selectively and rapidly internalized by proximal tubular cells with high endocytotic potential, but not by distal tubular cells. Uptake did not affect cell viability or morphology. In both cell types, free MTO (10-100 nM) induced double-strand DNA breaks and senescence, cell hypertrophy and reduced cell proliferation. However, cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, cytoskeletal structures or polarity of the cells were not affected. Interestingly, a comparable response was also observed upon treatment with SPION-MTO and was independent of uptake of the particles. The effect of SPION-MTO on cells which did not internalize particles was primarily related to the release of MTO from drug-coated particles upon incubation in serum-containing cell growth medium. In conclusion, we show that whereas the uptake of SPIONs does not affect cellular functions or viability, the toxicity of drug-loaded SPIONs depends essentially on the type of drug bound to nanoparticles. Due to the relatively low systemic toxicity of MTO, the effects of MTO-SPIONs on human tubular cells were moderate, but they may become clinically relevant when more nephrotoxic drugs are bound to SPIONs. PMID:26468004

  4. 10. DETAIL OF CAST IRON COLUMN BASE ON FIRST FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF CAST IRON COLUMN BASE ON FIRST FLOOR STOREFRONT, SHOWING MANUFACTURER'S STAMP: IOWA IRON WOKS CO. DUBUQUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Seed Company Warehouse, 169-171 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  5. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, I.; Toyoda, K.; Beneragama, N.; Umetsu, K.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  6. Seed proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds comprise a protective covering, a small embryonic plant, and a nutrient-storage organ. Seeds are protein-rich, and have been the subject of many mass spectrometry-based analyses. Seed storage proteins (SSP), which are transient depots for reduced nitrogen, have been studied for decades by cel...

  7. Iron Chelation

    MedlinePlus

    ... iron overload and need treatment. What is iron overload? Iron chelation therapy is used when you have ... may want to perform: How quickly does iron overload happen? This is different for each person. It ...

  8. Mother-plant-mediated pumping of zinc into the developing seed.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Lene Irene; Hansen, Thomas H; Larue, Camille; Østerberg, Jeppe Thulin; Hoffmann, Robert D; Liesche, Johannes; Krämer, Ute; Surblé, Suzy; Cadarsi, Stéphanie; Samson, Vallerie Ann; Grolimund, Daniel; Husted, Søren; Palmgren, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient intake of zinc and iron from a cereal-based diet is one of the causes of 'hidden hunger' (micronutrient deficiency), which affects some two billion people(1,2). Identifying a limiting factor in the molecular mechanism of zinc loading into seeds is an important step towards determining the genetic basis for variation of grain micronutrient content and developing breeding strategies to improve this trait(3). Nutrients are translocated to developing seeds at a rate that is regulated by transport processes in source leaves, in the phloem vascular pathway, and at seed sinks. Nutrients are released from a symplasmic maternal seed domain into the seed apoplasm surrounding the endosperm and embryo by poorly understood membrane transport processes(4-6). Plants are unique among eukaryotes in having specific P1B-ATPase pumps for the cellular export of zinc(7). In Arabidopsis, we show that two zinc transporting P1B-ATPases actively export zinc from the mother plant to the filial tissues. Mutant plants that lack both zinc pumps accumulate zinc in the seed coat and consequently have vastly reduced amounts of zinc inside the seed. Blockage of zinc transport was observed at both high and low external zinc supplies. The phenotype was determined by the mother plant and is thus due to a lack of zinc pump activity in the seed coat and not in the filial tissues. The finding that P1B-ATPases are one of the limiting factors controlling the amount of zinc inside a seed is an important step towards combating nutritional zinc deficiency worldwide. PMID:27243644

  9. The Major Cow Milk Allergen Bos d 5 Manipulates T-Helper Cells Depending on Its Load with Siderophore-Bound Iron

    PubMed Central

    Roth-Walter, Franziska; Pacios, Luis F.; Gomez-Casado, Cristina; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Roth, Georg A.; Singer, Josef; Diaz-Perales, Araceli; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of allergic sensitization to milk are still elusive. The major allergen Bos d 5 belongs to the lipocalin-family and thus is able to transport numerous ligands. In this study we investigated its ability to bind to iron-siderophore complexes and tested the immune-modulatory properties of Bos d 5 in either forms. Structural and in silico docking analysis of Bos d 5 revealed that Bos d 5 is able to bind to iron via catechol-based flavonoids (quercetin, myricetin, luteolin) that act as siderophores as confirmed by spectral-analysis and iron staining. Calculated dissociation constants of docking analyses were below 1 µM by virtual addition of iron. When incubated with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), only the apo-form of Bos d 5 led to an increase of CD4+positive cells and significantly elevated IL13 and IFNγ-levels. In contrast, holo-Bos d 5 decreased numbers of CD4 expressing cells and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data give evidence that Bos d 5 is capable of binding iron via siderophores. Moreover, our data support for the first time the notion that the form of application (apo- or holo-form) is decisive for the subsequent immune response. The apo-form promotes Th2 cells and inflammation, whereas the holo-form appears to be immunosuppressive. PMID:25117976

  10. Size-fractionated iron distributions and iron-limitation processes in the subarctic NW Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Jun; Takeda, Shigenobu; Kudo, Isao; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Kuma, Kenshi; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2003-07-01

    Comparison of vertical profiles of size-fractionated iron between the western and eastern subarctic North Pacific clearly showed higher labile particulate iron concentrations towards the west and this result strongly supports the higher iron supply in the western region. Additionally, the results of the SEEDS experiment, the first meso-scale iron enrichment experiment in the subarctic North Pacific, clearly showed that artificially enriched iron in the dissolved fraction (mainly in colloidal fraction) was rapidly transformed to suspended labile particulate iron during phytoplankton growth and was retained in the surface mixed layer. Probably, this same rapid transformation process occurs naturally after sporadic atmospheric iron supply and the labile particulate iron is retained in the western region. Furthermore, this transformation process reduces dissolved concentration of iron and its bioavailability. Therefore, the transformation process is important for understanding how phytoplankton became iron limited and the biogeochemical iron cycle in the western subarctic North Pacific.

  11. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  12. Iron overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Iron is an ingredient in many mineral and vitamin supplements. Iron supplements are also sold by themselves. Types include: Ferrous sulfate (Feosol, Slow Fe) Ferrous gluconate (Fergon) Ferrous fumarate (Femiron, Feostat) Other products may also contain iron.

  13. Compression ignition performance using sunflower seed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbrough, C.M.; LePori, W.A.; Engler, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil subjected to various levels of processing and blends with diesel fuel were evaluated in a single cylinder diesel engine. Results from short duration performance tests and longer duration load tests are reported. 8 refs.

  14. Dimensional specific physical properties of fan palm fruits, seeds and seed coats (Washingtonia robusta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coşkuner, Yalçın; Gökbudak, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    In this study some physical properties of fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) fruits, seeds and seed coats were determined using dimensional, bulk and single kernel physical analysis. The moisture content of whole fruits, seeds and seed coats was 12.0, 9.86 and 13.87% (d.b.), respectively. The sphericity values showed that seed shape (0.86) is close to a sphere, similar as the fruit shape (0.83), both of which were close to a scalene ellipsoid shape. The surface area values of fruits and seeds were obtained as 163.27 and 80.25 mm2, and volume values were obtained as 190.96 and 66.32 mm3, respectively. Bulk densities of fruits, seeds and seed coats were 559, 783 and 272 kg m-3, and the corresponding true densities were 1143, 1147 and 864 kg m-3, whereas the corresponding porosities were 48.87, 54.12, and 31.52%, respectively. The values of the static coefficient of friction and the angle of repose of fruits, seeds and seed coats of palm fruits were studied on aluminium, canvas, galvanised iron, plywood, PP knitted bag, PVC and stainless steel surfaces. As expected, seed coat has higher values of coefficient of static friction on the all surfaces than fruit and seed.

  15. Characterization of aquatic humic substances and their metal complexes by immobilized metal-chelate affinity chromatography on iron(III)-loaded ion exchangers.

    PubMed

    Burba, P; Jakubowski, B; Kuckuk, R; Küllmer, K; Heumann, K G

    2000-12-01

    The analytical fractionation of aquatic humic substances (HS) by means of immobilized metal-chelate affinity chromatography (IMAC) on metal-loaded chelating ion exchangers is described. The cellulose HYPHAN, loaded with different trivalent ions, and the chelate exchanger Chelex 100, loaded to 90% of its capacity with Fe(III), were used. The cellulose HYPHAN, loaded with 2% Fe(III), resulted in HS distribution coefficients Kd of up to 10(3.7) mL/g at pH 4.0 continuously decreasing down to 10(1.5) at pH 12, which were appropriate for HS fractionation by a pH-depending chromatographic procedure. Similar distribution coefficients Kd were obtained for HS sorption onto Fe(III)-loaded Chelex 100. On the basis of Fe-loaded HYPHAN both, a low-pressure and high-pressure IMAC technique, were developed for the fractionation of dissolved HS applying a buffer-based pH gradient for their gradual elution between pH 4.0 and 12.0. By coupling the Chelex 100 column under high-pressure conditions with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer an on-line characterization of HS metal species could be achieved. Using these fractionation procedures a number of reference HS were characterized. Accordingly, the HA (humic acids) and FA (fulvic acids) studied could be discriminated into up to 6 fractions by applying cellulose HYPHAN, significantly differing in their Cu(II) complexation capacity but hardly in their substructures assessed by conventional FTIR. In the case of using Chelex 100 exchanger resin two major UV active HS fractions were obtained, which significantly differ in their complexation properties for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively. PMID:11227549

  16. Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans.

    PubMed

    Tako, Elad; Reed, Spenser; Anandaraman, Amrutha; Beebe, Steve E; Hart, Jonathan J; Glahn, Raymond P

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus) and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell) models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58 μg Fe/g) and a biofortified (SMC; 106 μg Fe/g), were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7 μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively). In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05). In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05). Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05), indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3-glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore, specific

  17. Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans

    PubMed Central

    Tako, Elad; Reed, Spenser; Anandaraman, Amrutha; Beebe, Steve E.; Hart, Jonathan J.; Glahn, Raymond P.

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus) and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell) models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58μg Fe/g) and a biofortified (SMC; 106μg Fe/g), were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively). In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05). In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05). Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05), indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3–glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore, specific

  18. Iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1991-10-01

    The world's leading nutritional problem is iron deficiency. 66% of children and women aged 15-44 years in developing countries have it. Further, 10-20% of women of childbearing age in developed countries are anemic. Iron deficiency is identified with often irreversible impairment of a child's learning ability. It is also associated with low capacity for adults to work which reduces productivity. In addition, it impairs the immune system which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Iron deficiency also lowers the metabolic rate and the body temperature when exposed to cold. Hemoglobin contains nearly 73% of the body's iron. This iron is always being recycled as more red blood cells are made. The rest of the needed iron does important tasks for the body, such as binds to molecules that are reservoirs of oxygen for muscle cells. This iron comes from our diet, especially meat. Even though some plants, such as spinach, are high in iron, the body can only absorb 1.4-7% of the iron in plants whereas it can absorb 20% of the iron in red meat. In many developing countries, the common vegetarian diets contribute to high rates of iron deficiency. Parasitic diseases and abnormal uterine bleeding also promote iron deficiency. Iron therapy in anemic children can often, but not always, improve behavior and cognitive performance. Iron deficiency during pregnancy often contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality. Yet treatment, if given to a child in time, can lead to normal growth and hinder infections. However, excess iron can be damaging. Too much supplemental iron in a malnourished child promotes fatal infections since the excess iron is available for the pathogens use. Many countries do not have an effective system for diagnosing, treating, and preventing iron deficiency. Therefore a concerted international effort is needed to eliminate iron deficiency in the world. PMID:1745900

  19. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reports on Project SEED (Summer Educational Experience for the Disadvantaged) a project in which high school students from low-income families work in summer jobs in a variety of academic, industrial, and government research labs. The program introduces the students to career possibilities in chemistry and to the advantages of higher education.…

  20. Secondary dispersal of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa ) seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Wall, Stephen B.; Borchert, Mark I.; Gworek, Jennifer R.

    2006-07-01

    Large-seeded pines ( Pinus spp.) are known to be dispersed by seed-caching corvids (i.e. jays and nutcrackers) and rodents (e.g. chipmunks and mice), with a concomitant decrease in seed dispersability by wind. We tested the idea that seeds of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa), which are winged but larger than the seeds of other members of Pseudotsuga, are dispersed by a combination of wind and seed-caching rodents. We compared characteristics of seeds from P. macrocarpa in southern California (mean seed mass 132.6 mg) to seeds of a population of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) in northern California (24.8 mg). We also tested whether rodents would cache seeds of P. macrocarpa. Seeds of P. macrocarpa had greater wing loadings (1.37 mg/mm 2) and descent velocities (2.47 m/s) than those of P. menziesii (0.52 mg/mm 2 and 1.28 m/s, respectively). These data indicate that the wind dispersability of P. macrocarpa is likely to be less than that of P. menziesii, but this loss of wind dispersability is partially compensated for by secondary dispersal of seeds by rodents, which readily gathered and cached the larger seeds of P. macrocarpa up to 34 m from source trees. Large seed size confers several advantages to P. macrocarpa, most importantly attracting seed-caching animals that effectively bury seeds.

  1. Bypassing Iron Storage in Endodermal Vacuoles Rescues the Iron Mobilization Defect in the natural resistance associated-macrophage protein3natural resistance associated-macrophage protein4 Double Mutant1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mary, Viviane; Schnell Ramos, Magali; Gillet, Cynthia; Socha, Amanda L.; Giraudat, Jérôme; Agorio, Astrid; Merlot, Sylvain; Clairet, Colin; Kim, Sun A.; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Thomine, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    To improve seed iron (Fe) content and bioavailability, it is crucial to decipher the mechanisms that control Fe storage during seed development. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds, most Fe is concentrated in insoluble precipitates, with phytate in the vacuoles of cells surrounding the vasculature of the embryo. NATURAL RESISTANCE ASSOCIATED-MACROPHAGE PROTEIN3 (AtNRAMP3) and AtNRAMP4 function redundantly in Fe retrieval from vacuoles during germination. When germinated under Fe-deficient conditions, development of the nramp3nramp4 double mutant is arrested as a consequence of impaired Fe mobilization. To identify novel genes involved in seed Fe homeostasis, we screened an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population of nramp3nramp4 seedlings for mutations suppressing their phenotypes on low Fe. Here, we report that, among the suppressors, two independent mutations in the VACUOLAR IRON TRANSPORTER1 (AtVIT1) gene caused the suppressor phenotype. The AtVIT1 transporter is involved in Fe influx into vacuoles of endodermal and bundle sheath cells. This result establishes a functional link between Fe loading in vacuoles by AtVIT1 and its remobilization by AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4. Moreover, analysis of subcellular Fe localization indicates that simultaneous disruption of AtVIT1, AtNRAMP3, and AtNRAMP4 limits Fe accumulation in vacuolar globoids. PMID:26232490

  2. Bypassing Iron Storage in Endodermal Vacuoles Rescues the Iron Mobilization Defect in the natural resistance associated-macrophage protein3natural resistance associated-macrophage protein4 Double Mutant.

    PubMed

    Mary, Viviane; Schnell Ramos, Magali; Gillet, Cynthia; Socha, Amanda L; Giraudat, Jérôme; Agorio, Astrid; Merlot, Sylvain; Clairet, Colin; Kim, Sun A; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Thomine, Sébastien

    2015-09-01

    To improve seed iron (Fe) content and bioavailability, it is crucial to decipher the mechanisms that control Fe storage during seed development. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds, most Fe is concentrated in insoluble precipitates, with phytate in the vacuoles of cells surrounding the vasculature of the embryo. NATURAL RESISTANCE ASSOCIATED-MACROPHAGE PROTEIN3 (AtNRAMP3) and AtNRAMP4 function redundantly in Fe retrieval from vacuoles during germination. When germinated under Fe-deficient conditions, development of the nramp3nramp4 double mutant is arrested as a consequence of impaired Fe mobilization. To identify novel genes involved in seed Fe homeostasis, we screened an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population of nramp3nramp4 seedlings for mutations suppressing their phenotypes on low Fe. Here, we report that, among the suppressors, two independent mutations in the VACUOLAR IRON TRANSPORTER1 (AtVIT1) gene caused the suppressor phenotype. The AtVIT1 transporter is involved in Fe influx into vacuoles of endodermal and bundle sheath cells. This result establishes a functional link between Fe loading in vacuoles by AtVIT1 and its remobilization by AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4. Moreover, analysis of subcellular Fe localization indicates that simultaneous disruption of AtVIT1, AtNRAMP3, and AtNRAMP4 limits Fe accumulation in vacuolar globoids. PMID:26232490

  3. Efficient arsenic(V) and arsenic(III) removal from acidic solutions with Novel Forager Sponge-loaded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Morillo, D; Pérez, G; Valiente, M

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide variety of arsenic decontamination processes being adsorption processes the most efficient. In this concern, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) have been proposed as an appropriate system to improve arsenic adsorption from acidic wastewater. The number of mines, the amount of ore processed, and thus the amount of mine (acid) wastewaters have been rapidly increased in recent decades. For this reason, arsenic removal from contaminated water is an important goal to accomplish environmental regulations. It is noteworthy that aggregation of these nanoparticles has been detected as the main difficulty, hindering the promising adsorption. In order to overcome this drawback, it is proposed a system to avoid aggregation based on nanoparticles dispersion into an appropriate supporting material. To this purpose, SPION have been fixed on a cellulosic sponge achieving a decrease of the aggregation state, an increase of the active centers, and consequently, arsenic adsorption increases. Experimental results report a lower aggregation of supported SPION over sponge than the observed in the non supported nanoparticles. At this point, a remarkable improvement in the sponge system adsorption capacity is observed in comparison with superparamagnetic nanoparticles in suspension, reaching adsorption capacities about 2.1 mmol As/g SPION and 12.1 mmol As/g SPION for arsenite and arsenate, respectively at pH 3.8. Then, the developed system not only amends the aggregation problem but also keep their nanoproperties intact, making the system a suitable one for arsenic removal in acidic wastewater treatment. PMID:25982936

  4. A legume biofortification quandary: variability and genetic control of seed coat micronutrient accumulation in common beans

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Matthew W.; Izquierdo, Paulo; Astudillo, Carolina; Grusak, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), like many legumes, are rich in iron, zinc, and certain other microelements that are generally found to be in low concentrations in cereals, other seed crops, and root or tubers and therefore are good candidates for biofortification. But a quandary exists in common bean biofortification: namely that the distribution of iron has been found to be variable between the principal parts of seed; namely the cotyledonary tissue, embryo axis and seed coat. The seed coat represents ten or more percent of the seed weight and must be considered specifically as it accumulates much of the anti-nutrients such as tannins that effect mineral bioavailability. Meanwhile the cotyledons accumulate starch and phosphorus in the form of phytates. The goal of this study was to evaluate a population of progeny derived from an advanced backcross of a wild bean and a cultivated Andean bean for seed coat versus cotyledonary minerals to identify variability and predict inheritance of the minerals. We used wild common beans because of their higher seed mineral concentration compared to cultivars and greater proportion of seed coat to total seed weight. Results showed the most important gene for seed coat iron was on linkage group B04 but also identified other QTL for seed coat and cotyledonary iron and zinc on other linkage groups, including B11 which has been important in studies of whole seed. The importance of these results in terms of physiology, candidate genes and plant breeding are discussed. PMID:23908660

  5. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  6. What Are Chia Seeds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men For Women For Seniors What Are Chia Seeds? Published February 05, 2014 Print Email When you ... number of research participants. How to Eat Chia Seeds Chia seeds can be eaten raw or prepared ...

  7. Occupancy of the iron binding sites of human transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Huebers, H A; Josephson, B; Huebers, E; Csiba, E; Finch, C A

    1984-01-01

    The in vivo distribution of iron between the binding sites of transferrin was examined. Plasma was obtained from normal subjects under basal conditions and after in vitro and in vivo iron loading. Independent methods, including measurement of the transferrin profile after isoelectric focusing and cross immunoelectrophoresis, and determination of the iron content in the separated fractions were in agreement that there was a random distribution of iron on binding sites. This held true with in vitro loading, when iron was increased by intestinal absorption and with loading from the reticuloendothelial system. The data indicate that the distribution of apo-, monoferric, and diferric transferrins is predictable on the basis of the plasma transferrin saturation and negate the concept that iron loading of transferrin in vitro is a selective process with possible functional consequences in tissue iron delivery. PMID:6589596

  8. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

  9. Hepcidin and iron disorders: new biology and clinical approaches.

    PubMed

    Arezes, J; Nemeth, E

    2015-05-01

    Hepatic hormone hepcidin is a principal regulator of iron homeostasis and a pathogenic factor in common iron disorders. Hepcidin deficiency causes iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis and iron-loading anemias, whereas hepcidin excess causes or contributes to the development of iron-restricted anemia in inflammatory diseases, infections, some cancers, and chronic kidney disease. Because of this, hepcidin may become a useful tool for diagnosis and management of iron disorders. Furthermore, a number of strategies that target hepcidin, its receptor, and its regulators are under development as novel therapeutic approaches for diseases associated with iron dysregulation. PMID:25976966

  10. Studies of cream seeded carioca beans (phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan efficacy trial: in vitro and in vivo screening tools reflect human studies and predict beneficial results from iron biofortified beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether...

  11. Evaluation of a load measurement system for cotton harvesters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work is to develop and characterize the performance of a system used onboard a cotton harvester for obtaining seed cotton weight data. This system can be used to measure seed cotton weight on a load by load basis, thereby enhancing the ability for a producer to conduct on-farm ...

  12. Seed health and vigor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The health of lentil and chickpea seed greatly impacts the quality of the crop stand and yield. Healthy seed has a high germination rate, is whole (free of cracks or other damage), is free from foreign matter including weed seed and has limited seedborne pathogens. The health of the seed often dep...

  13. Fate of blood meal iron in mosquitos

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guoli; Kohlhepp, Pete; Geiser, Dawn; Frasquillo, Maria del Carmen; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is an essential element of living cells and organisms as a component of numerous metabolic pathways. Hemoglobin and ferric-transferrin in vertebrate host blood are the two major iron sources for female mosquitoes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and radioisotope-labeling to quantify the fate of iron supplied from hemoglobin or as transferrin in Aedes aegypti. At the end of the first gonotrophic cycloe, ~87% of the ingested total meal heme iron was excreted, while 7% was distributed into the eggs and 6% was stored in different tissues. In contrast, ~8% of the iron provided as transferrin was excreted and of that absorbed, 77% was allocated to the eggs and 15% distributed in the tissues. Further analyses indicate that of the iron supplied in a blood meal, ~7% appears in the eggs and of this iron 98% is from hemoglobin and 2% from ferric-transferrin. Whereas of iron from a blood meal retained in body of the female, ~97% is from heme and <1 % is from transferrin. Evaluation of iron-binding proteins in hemolymph and egg following intake of 59Fe-transferrin revealed that ferritin is iron loaded in these animals, and indicate that this protein plays a critical role in meal iron transport and iron storage in eggs in A. aegypti. PMID:17689557

  14. Adipocyte iron regulates leptin and food intake

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yan; Li, Zhonggang; Gabrielsen, J. Scott; Simcox, Judith A.; Lee, Soh-hyun; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Bob; Stoddard, Gregory; Cefalu, William T.; McClain, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary iron supplementation is associated with increased appetite. Here, we investigated the effect of iron on the hormone leptin, which regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. Serum ferritin was negatively associated with serum leptin in a cohort of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the same inverse correlation was observed in mice fed a high-iron diet. Adipocyte-specific loss of the iron exporter ferroportin resulted in iron loading and decreased leptin, while decreased levels of hepcidin in a murine hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) model increased adipocyte ferroportin expression, decreased adipocyte iron, and increased leptin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with iron decreased leptin mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. We found that iron negatively regulates leptin transcription via cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation (CREB activation) and identified 2 potential CREB-binding sites in the mouse leptin promoter region. Mutation of both sites completely blocked the effect of iron on promoter activity. ChIP analysis revealed that binding of phosphorylated CREB is enriched at these two sites in iron-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with untreated cells. Consistent with the changes in leptin, dietary iron content was also directly related to food intake, independently of weight. These findings indicate that levels of dietary iron play an important role in regulation of appetite and metabolism through CREB-dependent modulation of leptin expression. PMID:26301810

  15. Adipocyte iron regulates leptin and food intake.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Li, Zhonggang; Gabrielsen, J Scott; Simcox, Judith A; Lee, Soh-hyun; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Bob; Stoddard, Gregory; Cefalu, William T; McClain, Donald A

    2015-09-01

    Dietary iron supplementation is associated with increased appetite. Here, we investigated the effect of iron on the hormone leptin, which regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. Serum ferritin was negatively associated with serum leptin in a cohort of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the same inverse correlation was observed in mice fed a high-iron diet. Adipocyte-specific loss of the iron exporter ferroportin resulted in iron loading and decreased leptin, while decreased levels of hepcidin in a murine hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) model increased adipocyte ferroportin expression, decreased adipocyte iron, and increased leptin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with iron decreased leptin mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. We found that iron negatively regulates leptin transcription via cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation (CREB activation) and identified 2 potential CREB-binding sites in the mouse leptin promoter region. Mutation of both sites completely blocked the effect of iron on promoter activity. ChIP analysis revealed that binding of phosphorylated CREB is enriched at these two sites in iron-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with untreated cells. Consistent with the changes in leptin, dietary iron content was also directly related to food intake, independently of weight. These findings indicate that levels of dietary iron play an important role in regulation of appetite and metabolism through CREB-dependent modulation of leptin expression. PMID:26301810

  16. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  17. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  18. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  19. Duodenal nonheme iron content correlates with iron stores in mice, but the relationship is altered by Hfe gene knock-out.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Robert J; Debnam, Edward S; Laftah, Abas H; Solanky, Nita; Beaumont, Nick; Bahram, Seiamak; Schümann, Klaus; Srai, S Kaila S

    2003-04-15

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is a common iron-loading disorder found in populations of European descent. It has been proposed that mutations causing loss of function of HFE gene result in reduced iron incorporation into immature duodenal crypt cells. These cells then overexpress genes for iron absorption, leading to inappropriate cellular iron balance, a persistent iron deficiency of the duodenal mucosa, and increased iron absorption. The objective was to measure duodenal iron content in Hfe knock-out mice to test whether the mutation causes a persistent decrease in enterocyte iron concentration. In both normal and Hfe knock-out mice, duodenal nonheme iron content was found to correlate with liver iron stores (P <.001, r = 0.643 and 0.551, respectively), and this effect did not depend on dietary iron levels. However, duodenal iron content was reduced in Hfe knock-out mice for any given content of liver iron stores (P <.001). PMID:12468424

  20. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts are made to provide a total design of a Microbial Load Monitor (MLM) system flight engineering model. Activities include assembly and testing of Sample Receiving and Card Loading Devices (SRCLDs), operator related software, and testing of biological samples in the MLM. Progress was made in assembling SRCLDs with minimal leaks and which operate reliably in the Sample Loading System. Seven operator commands are used to control various aspects of the MLM such as calibrating and reading the incubating reading head, setting the clock and reading time, and status of Card. Testing of the instrument, both in hardware and biologically, was performed. Hardware testing concentrated on SRCLDs. Biological testing covered 66 clinical and seeded samples. Tentative thresholds were set and media performance listed.

  1. Physiology and Pathophysiology of Iron in Hemoglobin-Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Iron overload and iron toxicity, whether because of increased absorption or iron loading from repeated transfusions, can be major causes of morbidity and mortality in a number of chronic anemias. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of iron homeostasis over the past decade. At the same time, advances in magnetic resonance imaging have allowed clinicians to monitor and quantify iron concentrations non-invasively in specific organs. Furthermore, effective iron chelators are now available, including preparations that can be taken orally. This has resulted in substantial improvement in mortality and morbidity for patients with severe chronic iron overload. This paper reviews the key points of iron homeostasis and attempts to place clinical observations in patients with transfusional iron overload in context with the current understanding of iron homeostasis in humans. PMID:24726864

  2. METABOLISM OF IRON STORES

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, HIROSHI

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Remarkable progress was recently achieved in the studies on molecular regulators of iron metabolism. Among the main regulators, storage iron, iron absorption, erythropoiesis and hepcidin interact in keeping iron homeostasis. Diseases with gene-mutations resulting in iron overload, iron deficiency, and local iron deposition have been introduced in relation to the regulators of storage iron metabolism. On the other hand, the research on storage iron metabolism has not advanced since the pioneering research by Shoden in 1953. However, we recently developed a new method for determining ferritin iron and hemosiderin iron by computer-assisted serum ferritin kinetics. Serum ferritin increase or decrease curves were measured in patients with normal storage iron levels (chronic hepatitis C and iron deficiency anemia treated by intravenous iron injection), and iron overload (hereditary hemochromatosis and transfusion dependent anemia). We thereby confirmed the existence of two iron pathways where iron flows followed the numbered order (1) labile iron, (2) ferritin and (3) hemosiderin in iron deposition and mobilization among many previously proposed but mostly unproven routes. We also demonstrated the increasing and decreasing phases of ferritin iron and hemosiderin iron in iron deposition and mobilization. The author first demonstrated here the change in proportion between pre-existing ferritin iron and new ferritin iron synthesized by removing iron from hemosiderin in the course of iron removal. In addition, the author disclosed the cause of underestimation of storage iron turnover rate which had been reported by previous investigators in estimating storage iron turnover rate of normal subjects. PMID:25741033

  3. Dynamic control of hepatic Plasmodium numbers by hepcidin despite elevated liver iron during iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Patricia; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Roy, Cindy N; Sullivan, David J

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of iron deficiency anemia in malaria endemic areas is complicated as iron supplementation increases malaria risk while malaria decreases iron absorption. Here we measured the influence of hepcidin expression and non-heme iron during iron supplementation on hepatic Plasmodium berghei numbers in anemic and non-anemic mice. Despite elevated hepatic non-heme iron on the high iron diet, elevated hepcidin expression is associated with less parasite bioavailable iron and lower hepatic parasite loads in anemic, iron deficient mice after both two and six weeks of supplementation. A marginal trend to lower parasite hepatic numbers was seen in non-anemic, iron replete mice. In a transgenic model of severe anemia, mice with a deletion in Sec15l1, which reportedly have normal liver iron and normal hepcidin expression, there were no changes in liver parasite numbers or blood stage numbers or outcome in the lethal Plasmodium yoelii model. In summary during iron supplementation the lower hepatic malaria numbers are regulated more by hepcidin than the absolute level of non-heme hepatic iron. PMID:26384816

  4. Iron-biofortification in rice by the introduction of three barley genes participated in mugineic acid biosynthesis with soybean ferritin gene

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Michiko; Aung, May S.; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Mori, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency is a serious problem around the world, especially in developing countries. The production of iron-biofortified rice will help ameliorate this problem. Previously, expression of the iron storage protein, ferritin, in rice using an endosperm-specific promoter resulted in a two-fold increase in iron concentration in the resultant transgenic seeds. However, further over expression of ferritin did not produce an additional increase in the seed iron concentration, and symptoms of iron deficiency were noted in the leaves of the transgenic plants. In the present study, we aimed to further increase the iron concentration in rice seeds without increasing the sensitivity to iron deficiency by enhancing the uptake and transport of iron via a ferric iron chelator, mugineic acid. To this end, we introduced the soybean ferritin gene (SoyferH2) driven by two endosperm-specific promoters, along with the barley nicotianamine synthase gene (HvNAS1), two nicotianamine aminotransferase genes (HvNAAT-A and -B), and a mugineic acid synthase gene (IDS3) to enhance mugineic acid production in rice plants. A marker-free vector was utilized as a means of increasing public acceptance. Representative lines were selected from 102 transformants based on the iron concentration in polished seeds and ferritin accumulation in the seeds. These lines were grown in both commercially supplied soil (iron-sufficient conditions) and calcareous soil (iron-deficient conditions). Lines expressing both ferritin and mugineic acid biosynthetic genes showed signs of iron-deficiency tolerance in calcareous soil. The iron concentration in polished T3 seeds was increased by 4 and 2.5 times, as compared to that in non-transgenic lines grown in normal and calcareous soil, respectively. These results indicate that the concomitant introduction of the ferritin gene and mugineic acid biosynthetic genes effectively increased the seed iron level without causing iron sensitivity under iron-limited conditions

  5. [The role of iron as a deficient element].

    PubMed

    Schümann, K

    1989-12-01

    Iron is an essential trace element. In its heme-form as well as in its non heme-form it is a part of enzymes and hemoproteins. For a safe and adequate dietary intake 10-18 mg of iron are recommended daily. Frequently, this quantity is not available: approximately 20% of the world population is iron-deficient. In this state the enteral transfer capacity for toxic metals, e.g., Cd and Pb, is increased and the adaptation to physical strain as well as the immunological responses are depressed. Alterations of body iron-stores are almost exclusively balanced by adequate adaptation of the enteral iron-transfer capacity. The mechanism of this adaptation process can neither be satisfactorily explained by the "mucosal block hypothesis", nor by the "mucosal transferrin hypothesis". When the time-course of iron storage and its relation to intestinal iron transfer was investigated after i.v. iron administration to iron-deficient rats, the results indicated that the process of adaptation is located in the intestinal mucosa. Intestinal iron loading is decreased in iron deficiency, whereas the iron transfer into the organism is increased. Further investigation is necessary to find out by which mechanism the iron manages to bypass existing mucosal storage capacity in this situation. The geographical distribution of iron deficiency is influenced by a variety of local factors. Still, the paramount causes of iron-deficiency are unbalanced iron losses and the lack of bioavailable iron in the diet. The bioavailability of non heme iron is influenced by the composition of the diet. The effect of promotors of iron absorption, such as meat, amino acids, polycarbonic acids and ascorbate is opposed by the influence of inhibitors, such as bran, soya products, vegetables and egg-dishes. Iron losses are mainly due to blood losses. Thus, the wide distribution of hookworm diseases in tropical areas contributes significantly to the endemic iron-deficiency in these regions. A more physiological loss

  6. The tribological chemistry of the triazine derivative additives in rape seed oil and synthetic diester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Rui; Li, Jing; Wu, Hua; Ren, Tianhui; Zhao, Yidong; Ma, Chenyan

    2011-02-01

    The additives, laurylamino-methylthio-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol (referred to as TRLA) and diisooctylamino-methylthio-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol (referred to as TREA), were prepared in our laboratory. The products were characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy (IR) and elemental analysis. Their tribological behaviors as additives in raped seed oil and diester were evaluated using four-ball friction and wear testers as well. The results suggest that all the synthesized compounds have excellent tribological behaviors and they were compared with sulfurized isobutene (referred to as SIB) which is a commercial additive. The results show that they have good tribological properties. The two additives were investigated on thermal films and tribofilms by using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The results of surface analysis reveal that the thermal films formed from TREA and TRLA in rape seed oil (referred to as RSO) and diester (referred to as DE), all are consist of iron sulfate; under mild AW conditions, the tribofilms from TRLA and TREA in DE is mainly composed of FeS, while the tribochemcal film from TRLA in RSO is mainly composed of iron sulfite; under EP-1 (the maximum non-seizure load) conditions, the tribochemical films from TRLA and TREA in RSO and DE mainly consist of FeS and FeSO4; under EP-2 (nearly weld load) conditions, the tribochemical films from TRLA and TREA in RSO and DE mainly consist of FeS.

  7. Uptake and release of iron from human transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Huebers, H; Josephson, B; Huebers, E; Csiba, E; Finch, C

    1981-01-01

    Purified fractions of human apotransferrin, monoferric transferrins with iron on the acid-labile binding site and on the acid-stable binding site, and diferric transferrin have been prepared. The iron loading and unloading behavior of these preparations has been examined by isoelectric focusing. Iron release from the two monoferric transferrin preparations to human reticulocytes was of similar magnitude. In a mixture containing equal amounts of diferic and monoferric iron, approximately 4 times the amount of iron delivered by the monoferric species was delivered by the diferric species. Iron loading of transferrin in vitro showed a random distribution between monoferric and diferric transferrin. Among the monoferric transferrins, loading of the acid-labile binding sites was greater than that of the acid-stable binding sites. In vivo iron distribution in normal subjects, as evaluated by in vitro-added 50Fe, gave similar results. Absorption of a large dose of orally administered iron in iron-deficient subjects resulted in a somewhat greater amount of diferric transferrin at low saturation and a somewhat smaller amount of diferric transferrin at higher saturations than would have been anticipated by random loading. These data would indicate that in the human, iron loading of transferrin may be considered essentially random. Unloading from the two monoferric transferrin species is of similar magnitude but far less than that delivered by diferric transferrin. PMID:6941310

  8. Adipocyte iron regulates adiponectin and insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsen, J. Scott; Gao, Yan; Simcox, Judith A.; Huang, Jingyu; Thorup, David; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Robert C.; Gabrielsen, David; Adams, Ted D.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hopkins, Paul N.; Cefalu, William T.; McClain, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Iron overload is associated with increased diabetes risk. We therefore investigated the effect of iron on adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine that is decreased in diabetic patients. In humans, normal-range serum ferritin levels were inversely associated with adiponectin, independent of inflammation. Ferritin was increased and adiponectin was decreased in type 2 diabetic and in obese diabetic subjects compared with those in equally obese individuals without metabolic syndrome. Mice fed a high-iron diet and cultured adipocytes treated with iron exhibited decreased adiponectin mRNA and protein. We found that iron negatively regulated adiponectin transcription via FOXO1-mediated repression. Further, loss of the adipocyte iron export channel, ferroportin, in mice resulted in adipocyte iron loading, decreased adiponectin, and insulin resistance. Conversely, organismal iron overload and increased adipocyte ferroportin expression because of hemochromatosis are associated with decreased adipocyte iron, increased adiponectin, improved glucose tolerance, and increased insulin sensitivity. Phlebotomy of humans with impaired glucose tolerance and ferritin values in the highest quartile of normal increased adiponectin and improved glucose tolerance. These findings demonstrate a causal role for iron as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and a role for adipocytes in modulating metabolism through adiponectin in response to iron stores. PMID:22996660

  9. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  10. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  11. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  12. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  13. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  14. Iron Dextran Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  15. Application of carboxyphenylboronic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for extracting nucleic acid from seeds.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Ge, Guanglu; Xia, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with 4-carboxyphenylboronic acid (CPBA-MNPs) were developed for extracting genomic DNA, total RNA and nucleic acids from seeds. The seed samples were genetically-modified maize seeds and unmodified soybean seeds infected by bean pod mottle virus and tobacco ringspot virus. The total nucleic acids, genomic DNA, and RNA could be separately extracted from these seeds with high qualities using CPBA-MNPs under different conditions. Furthermore, the results of real-time quantitative qPCR and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that the nucleic acids extracted from these seeds using CPBA-MNPs were suitable for the detection of genetically-modified seeds and seed-borne viruses. PMID:25214223

  16. Iron, lead, and cobalt absorption: similarities and dissimilarities

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.C.; Conrad, M.E.; Holland, R.

    1981-01-01

    Using isolated intestinal segments in rats, the absorption of iron, lead, and cobalt was increased in iron deficiency and decreased in iron loading. Similarly, the absorption of these metals was decreased in transfusional erythocytosis, after intravenous iron injection and after parenteral endotoxin injection. Acute bleeding or abbreviated intervals of dietary iron deprivation resulted in increased iron absorption from isolated intestinal segments and in intact animals, while the absorption of lead and cobalt was unaffected. These results suggest that the specificity of the mucosal metal absorptive mechanism is either selectively enhanced for iron absorption by phlebotomy or brief periods of dietary iron deprivation, or that two or more mucosal pathways for iron absorption may exist.

  17. Iron and alloys of iron. [lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar

    1992-01-01

    All lunar soil contains iron in the metallic form, mostly as an iron-nickel alloy in concentrations of a few tenths of 1 percent. Some of this free iron can be easily separated by magnetic means. It is estimated that the magnetic separation of 100,000 tons of lunar soil would yield 150-200 tons of iron. Agglutinates contain metallic iron which could be extracted by melting and made into powder metallurgy products. The characteristics and potential uses of the pure-iron and iron-alloy lunar products are discussed. Processes for working iron that might be used in a nonterrestrial facility are also addressed.

  18. Needs of Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The "Needs of Seeds" formative assessment probe can be used to find out whether students recognize that seeds have needs both similar to and different from plants and other living organisms (Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007). The probe reveals whether students overgeneralize the needs of seeds by assuming they have the same needs as the adult plants…

  19. Pasture seed banks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our surveys of northeastern pastures, we found the equivalent of more than 8 million seeds per acre in the surface soil (the top four inches) from the seed bank study. These seeds came from 58 species of plants. The annual forbs (all broadleaf plants with the exception of legumes and trees) domin...

  20. Preservation of recalcitrant seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recalcitrant and intermediate seeds are not included in seed banks because of misperceptions that these efforts would be futile. Between 20 and 25% of the Earth’s angiosperm species are estimated to produce recalcitrant or intermediate seeds. These species are more prevalent in the tropics and sub...

  1. Seed Development and Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed is the fertilized and matured ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms and represents a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Seeds of diverse plant species may display differences in size, shape and color. Despite apparent morphological variations, most mature seeds consist of three major com...

  2. Seed Proteomics"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomic analysis of seeds encounters some specific problems that do not impinge on analyses of other plant cells, tissues, or organs. There are anatomic considerations. Seeds comprise the seed coat, the storage organ(s), and the embryonic axis. Are these to be studied individually or as a compo...

  3. Going to Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a unit on seeds designed to introduce students to their scientific and nutritional uses. Unit activities are easily done, employ a variety of process skills, and can be used at various grade levels. Suggests field trips to gather seeds, seed sprouting, and making cookies out of various whole grains. (JM)

  4. Iron overload due to mutations in ferroportin

    PubMed Central

    De Domenico, Ivana; Ward, Diane McVey; Musci, Giovanni; Kaplan, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Iron overload disease due to mutations in ferroportin has a dominant inheritance and a variable clinical phenotype, such that some patients show early Küpffer cell iron loading and low transferrin saturation, while others show hepatocyte iron loading and high transferrin saturation. Studies expressing ferroportin mutant proteins in cultured cells have shown that mutant proteins fall into two main classes; proteins that do not localize to the cell surface and are unable to export iron, and those that localize to the cell surface but are unable to respond to the antimicrobial peptide hepcidin. Patients with mutant ferroportin proteins that do not localize to the cell surface show typical ferroportin disease with low transferrin saturation and early Küpffer cell iron loading, while patients with mutant proteins unable to respond to hepcidin show high transferrin saturation and early hepatocyte iron loading similar to classic hereditary hemochromatosis. The dominant genetic transmission of ferroportin-linked disorders is explained by the in vitro data, which suggest that ferroportin is a multimer and that the behavior of the mutant protein can affect the behavior of the wild type protein. PMID:16434376

  5. Iron and iron derived radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Suspended Load

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suspended load of rivers and streams consists of the sediments that are kept in the water column by the upward components of the flow velocity. Suspended load may be divided into cohesive and non-cohesive loads which are primarily discriminated by sediment particle size. Non-cohesive sediment ...

  7. DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED AT LEFT CENTER, FIRE DISPATCH OFFICES 1 AND 2 AT RIGHT CENTER, UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  8. Impact testing of ductile cast iron: Tension and compression

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, T.; Takata, T.; Sogabe, Y.

    1995-11-01

    Impact tension and compression tests on ferritic ductile cast iron (JIS FCD370) are conducted by means of the split Hopkinson bar technique. Reliable stress-strain relations in tension and compression for ductile cast iron are determined at strain rates of over 10{sup 3}/s. The test results indicate that ductile cast iron shows different strength characteristics in tension and compression under impact loading as well as under quasi-static loading. Microscopic examinations of the post-test specimens reveal that this mechanical behavior is attributed to the presence of spheroidal graphites in a ferritic matrix of ductile cast iron.

  9. Modulation of iron metabolism by iron chelation regulates intracellular calcium and increases sensitivity to doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Yalcintepe, Leman; Halis, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Increased intracellular iron levels can both promote cell proliferation and death, as such; iron has a “two-sided effect” in the delicate balance of human health. Though the role of iron in the development of cancer remains unclear, investigations of iron chelators as anti-tumor agents have revealed promising results. Here, we investigated the influence of iron and desferrioxamine (DFO), the iron chelating agent on intracellular calcium in a human leukemia cell line, K562. Iron uptake is associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Therefore, we showed that iron also caused dose-dependent ROS generation in K562 cells. The measurement of intracellular calcium was determined using Furo-2 with a fluorescence spectrophotometer. The iron delivery process to the cytoplasmic iron pool was examined by monitoring the fluorescence of cells loaded with calcein-acetoxymethyl. Our data showed that iron increased intracellular calcium, and this response was 8 times higher when cells were incubated with DFO. K562 cells with DFO caused a 3.5 times increase of intracellular calcium in the presence of doxorubicin (DOX). In conclusion, DFO induces intracellular calcium and increases their sensitivity to DOX, a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:26773173

  10. Monitoring iron uptake by siderophores.

    PubMed

    Hoegy, Françoise; Schalk, Isabelle J

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an important element for almost all forms of life. In order to get access to this essential nutriment, Pseudomonads produce two major siderophores, pyoverdine PVD and pyochelin (PCH). Uptake of iron in bacterial cells can be monitored accurately using (55)Fe. Bacteria cells are incubated in the presence of either PVD or PCH loaded with (55)Fe. After incubation, extracellular iron ions are separated from those accumulated in the bacteria cells by either centrifugation or filtration on glass microfiber filters, for the PCH and PVD assays, respectively. (55)Fe contained in the harvested cells on the filter or in the cell pellet is counted in scintillation cocktail. The number of moles of (55)Fe transported can be determined using the specific activity of the radionuclide. PMID:24818918

  11. Prediction of iron losses in doubly salient permanent magnet machine with rectangular current waveform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Minxi; Cheng, Ming

    2012-04-01

    Iron losses in doubly salient permanent magnet (DSPM) machine are difficult to predict, as the flux waveforms are complex and dc bias existed. This paper measures iron losses at no load for different rotor speeds and these measured loss data are used to calibrate the iron loss model of the DSPM machine. Then the iron losses at rated load are predicted under three phase rectangular currents exerting on the armature windings. The result shows that small increment of iron losses is in the rotor at rated load which do benefit to the rotor thermal dissipation design.

  12. Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scruggs, S. J.; Putman, P. T.; Zhou, Y. X.; Fang, H.; Salama, K.

    2006-07-01

    There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local Tc suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown.

  13. Molecular pharmacology of the interaction of anthracyclines with iron.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Persson, H L; Richardson, D R

    2005-08-01

    Although anthracyclines such as doxorubicin are widely used antitumor agents, a major limitation for their use is the development of cardiomyopathy at high cumulative doses. This severe adverse side effect may be due to interactions with cellular iron metabolism, because iron loading promotes anthracycline-induced cell damage. On the other hand, anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is significantly alleviated by iron chelators (e.g., desferrioxamine and dexrazoxane). The molecular mechanisms by which anthracyclines interfere with cellular iron trafficking are complex and still unclear. Doxorubicin can directly bind iron and can perturb iron metabolism by interacting with multiple molecular targets, including the iron regulatory proteins (IRP) 1 and 2. The RNA-binding activity of these molecules regulates synthesis of the transferrin receptor 1 and ferritin, which are crucial proteins involved in iron uptake and storage, respectively. At present, it is not clear whether doxorubicin affects IRP1-RNA-binding activity by intracellular formation of doxorubicinol and/or by generation of the doxorubicin-iron(III) complex. Furthermore, doxorubicin prevents the mobilization of iron from ferritin by a mechanism that may involve lysosomal degradation of this protein. Prevention of iron mobilization from ferritin would probably disturb vital cellular functions as a result of inhibition of essential iron-dependent proteins, such as ribonucleotide reductase. This review discusses the molecular interactions of anthracyclines with iron metabolism and the development of cardioprotective strategies such as iron chelators. PMID:15883202

  14. Identification of metabolites from an active fraction of Cajanus cajan seeds by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tekale, Satishkumar S; Jaiwal, Bhimrao V; Padul, Manohar V

    2016-11-15

    Antioxidants are important food additives which prolong food storage due to their protective effects against oxidative degradation of foods by free radicals. However, the synthetic antioxidants show toxic properties. Alternative economical and eco-friendly approach is screening of plant extract for natural antioxidants. Plant phenolics are potent antioxidants. Hence, in present study Cajanus cajan seeds were analyzed for antioxidant activity, Iron chelating activity and total phenolic content. The antioxidant activity using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay showed 71.3% inhibition and 65.8% Iron chelating activity. Total 37 compounds including some short peptides and five major abundant compounds were identified in active fraction of C. cajan seeds. This study concludes that C. cajan seeds are good source of antioxidants and Iron chelating activity. Metabolites found in C. cajan seeds which remove reactive oxygen species (ROS), may help to alleviate oxidative stress associated dreaded health problem like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27283694

  15. Platinum Attachments on Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Palchoudhury, Soubantika; Xu, Yaolin; An, Wei; Turner, C. H.; Bao, Yuping

    2010-04-30

    Platinum nanoparticles supported on metal oxide surfaces have shown great potential as heterogeneous catalysts to accelerate electrochemical processes, such as the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Recently, the use of magnetic supports has become a promising research topic for easy separation and recovery of catalysts using magnets, such as Pt nanoparticles supported on iron oxide nanoparticles. The attachment of Pt on iron oxide nanoparticles is limited by the wetting ability of the Pt (metal) on ceramic surfaces. A study of Pt nanoparticle attachment on iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces in an organic solvent is reported, which addresses the factors that promote or inhibit such attachment. It was discovered that the Pt attachment strongly depends on the capping molecules of the iron oxide seeds and the reaction temperature. For example, the attachment of Pt nanoparticles on oleic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles was very challenging, because of the strong binding between the carboxylic groups and iron oxide surfaces. In contrast, when nanoparticles are coated with oleic acid/tri-n-octylphosphine oxide or oleic acid/oleylamine, a significant increase in Pt attachment was observed. Electronic structure calculations were then applied to estimate the binding energies between the capping molecules and iron ions, and the modeling results strongly support the experimental observations.

  16. The effect of hydrostatic vs. shock pressure treatment of plant seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustey, A.; Leighs, J. A.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Wood, D. C.; Hazael, R.; McMillan, P. F.; Hazell, P. J.

    2014-05-01

    The hydrostatic pressure and shock response of plant seeds has been investigated antecedently, primarily driven by interest in reducing bacterial contamination of crops and the theory of panspermia, respectively. However, comparisons have not previously been made between these two methods ofapplying pressure to plant seeds. Here such a comparison has been undertaken based on the premise that any correlations in collected data may provide a route to inform understanding of damage mechanisms in the seeds under test. In this work two varieties of plant seeds were subjected to hydrostatic pressure via a non-end-loaded piston cylinder setup and shock compression via employment of a 50 mm bore, single stage gas gun using the flyer plate technique. Results from germination tests of recovered seed samples have been compared and contrasted, and initial conclusions made regarding causes of trends in the resultant data-set. Data collected has shown that cress seeds are extremely resilient to static loading, whereas the difference in the two forms of loading is negligible for lettuce seeds. Germination time has been seen to extend dramatically following static loading of cress seeds to greater than 0.4 GPa. In addition, the cut-off pressure previously seen to cause 0% germination in dynamic experiments performed on cress seeds has now also been seen in lettuce seeds.

  17. Modulation of hepcidin to treat iron deregulation: potential clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, Nicole L.; Manz, David H.; Torti, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    The secreted peptide hormone hepcidin regulates systemic and local iron homeostasis through degradation of the iron exporter ferroportin. Dysregulation of hepcidin leads to altered iron homeostasis and development of pathological disorders including hemochromatosis, and iron loading and iron restrictive anemias. Therapeutic modulation of hepcidin is a promising method to ameliorate these conditions. Several approaches have been taken to enhance or reduce the effects of hepcidin in vitro and in vivo. Based on these approaches, hepcidin modulating drugs have been developed and are undergoing clinical evaluation. In this article we review the rationale for development of these drugs, the data concerning their safety and efficacy, their therapeutic uses, and potential future prospects. PMID:26669208

  18. Mechanisms and regulation of intestinal iron absorption.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Evan H; Oates, Phillip S

    2002-01-01

    RNA and protein started at the crypt-villus junction and increased to reach highest levels in the mid-villus region. Greater expression was found in iron deficiency and less in iron loaded animals than in controls and in the iron deficient rats most of the protein was present on the brush border membrane. In normal rats the efficiency of iron absorption parallelled the level of DMT1 expression, but in b/b rats absorption was very low and independent of dietary iron content even though DMT1 was present in villus enterocytes. The results confirm the essential role of DMT1 in the uptake phase of non-heme iron absorption. When normal rats previously fed a low iron diet were given a bolus of iron by stomach tube, the subsequent absorption of iron from a test dose placed in the duodenum diminished in parallel with the expression of DMT1 mRNA and protein, commencing within 1hour and reaching low levels by 7 hours. The margination of DMT1 to the brush border membrane disappeared. These results show the level of expression and intracellular distribution and function of DMT1 respond very quickly to the iron content of the diet as well as being affected by storage iron levels. PMID:12547229

  19. Iron deficiency anaemia and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Annibale, B; Capurso, G; Martino, G; Grossi, C; Delle Fave, G

    2000-12-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common form of anaemia world-wide. IDA is the simple result of an imbalance between iron loss and absorption. Gastric function with hydrochloric and ascorbic acid is essential for iron absorption. Some strains of Helicobacter pylori are able to acquire iron, competing with the host. A large percentage of patients with atrophic body gastritis (ABG) develop IDA and 61% of them are H. pylori positive. Recent evidence suggests that H. pylori infection could cause IDA in the absence of peptic ulcer or other upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract bleeding lesions. Gastritis extending to the corpus and a high bacterial load are features of these patients. About 70% of IDA patients with ABG or H. pylori gastritis are premenopausal women. Both ABG and H. pylori gastritis should be considered when evaluating the GI tract of patients with iron deficiency anaemia. PMID:11118871

  20. Natural Genetic Variation of Seed Micronutrients of Arabidopsis thaliana Grown in Zinc-Deficient and Zinc-Amended Soil

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaochao; Yuan, Lixing; Ludewig, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The quality of edible seeds for human and animal nutrition is crucially dependent on high zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) seed concentrations. The micronutrient bioavailability is strongly reduced by seed phytate that forms complexes with seed cations. Superior genotypes with increased seed Zn concentrations had been identified, but low micronutrient seed levels often prevail when the plants are grown in Zn-deficient soils, which are globally widespread and correlate with human Zn-deficiency. Here, seed Zn concentrations of Arabidopsis accessions grown in Zn-deficient and Zn-amended conditions were measured together with seed Fe and manganese (Mn), in a panel of 108 accessions. By applying genome-wide association, de novo candidate genes potentially involved in the seed micronutrient accumulation were identified. However, a candidate inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase 3 gene (ITPK3), located close to a significant nucleotide polymorphism associated with relative Zn seed concentrations, was dispensable for seed micronutrients accumulation in Col-0. Loss of this gene in itpk3-1 did neither affect phytate seed levels, nor seed Zn, Fe, and Mn. It is concluded that large natural variance of micronutrient seed levels is identified in the population and several accessions maintain high seed Zn despite growth in Zn-deficient conditions. PMID:27507976

  1. Natural Genetic Variation of Seed Micronutrients of Arabidopsis thaliana Grown in Zinc-Deficient and Zinc-Amended Soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochao; Yuan, Lixing; Ludewig, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The quality of edible seeds for human and animal nutrition is crucially dependent on high zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) seed concentrations. The micronutrient bioavailability is strongly reduced by seed phytate that forms complexes with seed cations. Superior genotypes with increased seed Zn concentrations had been identified, but low micronutrient seed levels often prevail when the plants are grown in Zn-deficient soils, which are globally widespread and correlate with human Zn-deficiency. Here, seed Zn concentrations of Arabidopsis accessions grown in Zn-deficient and Zn-amended conditions were measured together with seed Fe and manganese (Mn), in a panel of 108 accessions. By applying genome-wide association, de novo candidate genes potentially involved in the seed micronutrient accumulation were identified. However, a candidate inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase 3 gene (ITPK3), located close to a significant nucleotide polymorphism associated with relative Zn seed concentrations, was dispensable for seed micronutrients accumulation in Col-0. Loss of this gene in itpk3-1 did neither affect phytate seed levels, nor seed Zn, Fe, and Mn. It is concluded that large natural variance of micronutrient seed levels is identified in the population and several accessions maintain high seed Zn despite growth in Zn-deficient conditions. PMID:27507976

  2. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. PMID:26184996

  3. Ferrous iron content of intravenous iron formulations.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ajay; Pratt, Raymond D; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2016-06-01

    The observed biological differences in safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) iron formulations are attributable to physicochemical differences. In addition to differences in carbohydrate shell, polarographic signatures due to ferric iron [Fe(III)] and ferrous iron [Fe(II)] differ among IV iron formulations. Intravenous iron contains Fe(II) and releases labile iron in the circulation. Fe(II) generates toxic free radicals and reactive oxygen species and binds to bacterial siderophores and other in vivo sequestering agents. To evaluate whether differences in Fe(II) content may account for some observed biological differences between IV iron formulations, samples from multiple lots of various IV iron formulations were dissolved in 12 M concentrated HCl to dissociate and release all iron and then diluted with water to achieve 0.1 M HCl concentration. Fe(II) was then directly measured using ferrozine reagent and ultraviolet spectroscopy at 562 nm. Total iron content was measured by adding an excess of ascorbic acid to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), and Fe(II) was then measured by ferrozine assay. The Fe(II) concentration as a proportion of total iron content [Fe(III) + Fe(II)] in different lots of IV iron formulations was as follows: iron gluconate, 1.4 and 1.8 %; ferumoxytol, 0.26 %; ferric carboxymaltose, 1.4 %; iron dextran, 0.8 %; and iron sucrose, 10.2, 15.5, and 11.0 % (average, 12.2 %). The average Fe(II) content in iron sucrose was, therefore, ≥7.5-fold higher than in the other IV iron formulations. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between Fe(II) content and increased risk of oxidative stress and infections with iron sucrose. PMID:26956439

  4. Characterization of iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein IscA from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lin; Zheng, Chunli; Liu, Jianshe

    2013-03-01

    IscA is a key member of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly machinery found in bacteria and eukaryotes, but the mechanism of its function in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur cluster remains elusive. In this paper, we demonstrate that Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans IscA is a [4Fe-4S] cluster binding protein, and it can bind iron in the presence of DTT with an apparent iron association constant of 4·10(20) M(-1). The iron binding in IscA can be promoted by oxygen through oxidizing ferrous iron to ferric iron. Furthermore, we show that the iron bound form of IscA can be converted to iron-sulfur cluster bound form in the presence of IscS and L-cysteine in vitro. Substitution of the invariant cysteine residues Cys35, Cys99, or Cys101 in IscA abolishes the iron binding activity of the protein; the IscA mutants that fail to bind iron are unable to assemble the iron-sulfur clusters. Further studies indicate that the iron-loaded IscA could act as an iron donor for the assembly of iron-sulfur clusters in the scaffold protein IscU in vitro. Taken together, these findings suggest that A. ferrooxidans IscA is not only an iron-sulfur protein, but also an iron binding protein that can act as an iron donor for biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters. PMID:23586717

  5. Elemental analysis of Anethum gravedlens, Sismbrium Irio Linn and Veronia Anthelmintica seeds by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Fatima, I; Waheed, S; Zaidi, J H

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to characterize As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn, and Sc in seeds of Anethum graveolens (Dill), Sisymbrium irio Linn. (Wild Mustard) and Vernonia anthelmintica (Iron Weed). Dill seed was found to contain high K while Wild Mustard has high Fe, Mn and Na levels. Iron Weed has highest Cl, Co, Cr and Zn content with least concentration of Fe. PMID:23103327

  6. Cobalt excretion test for the assessment of body iron stores.

    PubMed

    Sorbie, J; Olatunbosun, D; Corbett, W E; Valberg, L S

    1971-05-01

    Iron absorption is under delicate control and the level of absorption is adjusted to comply with the body's need for iron. To measure the intestinal setting for iron absorption, and thereby indirectly assess body iron requirements, cobaltous chloride labelled with (57)Co or (60)Co was given by mouth and the percentage of the test dose excreted in the urine in 24 hours was measured in a gamma counter. Seventeen control subjects with normal iron stores excreted 18% (9-23%) of the dose. Increased excretion, 31% (23-42%), was found in 10 patients with iron deficiency anemia and in 15 patients with depleted iron stores in the absence of anemia. In contrast, 12 patients with anemia due to causes other than iron deficiency excreted amounts of radiocobalt within the normal control range. In patients with iron deficiency, replenishment of iron stores by either oral or parenteral iron caused the previously high results to return to normal.Excretion of the test dose was normal in portal cirrhosis with normal iron stores but it was markedly increased in patients with cirrhosis complicated by either iron deficiency or endogenous iron overload. It was also raised in primary hemochromatosis. Excretion of the dose was reduced in gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Gastrointestinal surgery and inflammatory disease of the lower small intestine had no effect on the results except that some patients with steatorrhea had diminished excretion.The cobalt excretion test provides the clinician with a tool for the assessment of iron absorption, the detection of a reduction in body iron stores below the level that is normal for the subject in question, the differentiation of iron deficiency anemia from anemia due to other causes, and the investigation of patients with iron-loading disorders. PMID:5578125

  7. Atomic simulation of cracks under mixed mode loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, M.

    1984-01-01

    A discrete atomic model of a crack tip in iron under mixed mode loads is examined. The results indicate that the behavior of the crack at the atomic scale as a function of the ratio of mode I to mode II component of load is quite complex. In general, crack tip plasticity appears to increase as the mode II component of load increases.

  8. Analysis of interspecies physicochemical variation of grain legume seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybiński, Wojciech; Rusinek, Robert; Szot, Bogusław; Bocianowski, Jan; Starzycki, Michał

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an attempt to assess the reaction of seeds to mechanical loads taking into account their geometry expressed as seed thickness and 1000 seed weight. The initial material comprised 33 genotypes of grain legume plants and included cultivars registered in the country and breeding lines that are subject to pre-registration trials. The analysis of variance revealed significant diversity of the cultivars and lines of the species studied in terms of each of the analysed trait. The highest weight of 1000 seeds were obtained for white lupine seeds and peas, the lowest for andean lupine seeds. The maximum deformation and energy were obtained for white lupine seeds, the lowest for pea seeds, the maximum force and module the lowest values were determined for narrow-leafed lupine and pea. The highest values of protein were obtained for andean and yellow lupine, a fat content for andean and white lupine. The fatty acid profile as much as 70% or more were linoleic and oleic acids. Against the background of all the species are distinguished by white lupine seeds with a high content of oleic acid and the lowest of linoleic acid, for yellow lupine were obtained the inverse ratio of the two acids.

  9. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due to too little iron) in people with chronic kidney disease (damage to the kidneys which may worsen over ...

  10. A quick SEED tutorial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam; Evans, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A number of different government-funded seismic data centers offer free open-access data (e.g., U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), and Data Management System), which can be freely downloaded and shared among different members of the community (Lay, 2009). To efficiently share data, it is important that different data providers follow a common format. The Standard for the Exchange of Earthquake Data (SEED) provides one such format for storing seismic and other geophysical data. The SEED format is widely used in earthquake seismology; however, SEED and its structure can be difficult for many first-time users (ourselves included). Below is a quick tutorial that outlines the basic structure of SEED format. This write-up is in no way intended to replace the comprehensive SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), and instead of going into the details of any specific part of the SEED format we refer the reader to the manual for additional details. The goal of this write-up is to succinctly explain the basic structure of SEED format as well as the associated jargon, as most commonly used now, in a colloquial way so that novice users of SEED can become more familiar with the format and its application quickly. Our goal is to give the reader the necessary background so that when problems or questions about SEED format arise they will have some understanding of where they should look for more details or from where the problem might be stemming. As a secondary goal, we hope to help the reader become familiar with the SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), which contains detailed information about all aspects of the SEED format.