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Sample records for seed weight variation

  1. The Natural Variation of Seed Weight Is Mainly Controlled by Maternal Genotype in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiaqin; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Seed weight is a very important and complex trait in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). The seed weight of rapeseed shows great variation in its natural germplasm resources; however, the morphological, cytological and genetic causes of this variation have remained unclear. In the present study, nine highly pure inbred rapeseed lines with large seed weight variation and different genetic backgrounds were selected for morphological, cytological and genetic studies on seed weight. The results showed the following: (1) Seed weight showed an extremely significant correlation and coordinated variation with seed size (including seed diameter, seed surface area and seed volume), but it showed no significant correlation with bulk density, which suggests that seed weight is determined by size rather than bulk density. (2) Seed weight showed a higher correlation with the cell numbers of seed coats and cotyledons than the cell sizes of seed coats and cotyledons, which suggests that cell number is more tightly correlated with final seed weight. (3) Seed weight was mainly controlled by the maternal genotype, with little or no xenia and cytoplasmic effects. This is the first report on the morphological and cytological causes of seed weight natural variation in rapeseed. We concluded that the natural variation of seed weight is mainly controlled by maternal genotype. This finding lays a foundation for genetic and breeding studies of seed weight in rapeseed and opens a new field of research on the regulation of seed traits in plants. PMID:25915862

  2. Variation of hairy vetch seed weight alters germination and seedling growth response to an allelochemical

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. This response may have significant impact on weed control by allelopathic cover crops where the small-seeded weeds would be controlled more effectively than large-seeded species. In our...

  3. Natural variation in ARF18 gene simultaneously affects seed weight and silique length in polyploid rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Hu, Zhiyong; Yang, Hongli; Zhang, Liang; Li, Rongjun; Deng, Linbin; Sun, Xingchao; Wang, Xinfa; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-09-15

    Seed weight (SW), which is one of the three major factors influencing grain yield, has been widely accepted as a complex trait that is controlled by polygenes, particularly in polyploid crops. Brassica napus L., which is the second leading crop source for vegetable oil around the world, is a tetraploid (4×) species. In the present study, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome A9 of rapeseed in which the genes for SW and silique length (SL) were colocated. By fine mapping and association analysis, we uncovered a 165-bp deletion in the auxin-response factor 18 (ARF18) gene associated with increased SW and SL. ARF18 encodes an auxin-response factor and shows inhibitory activity on downstream auxin genes. This 55-aa deletion prevents ARF18 from forming homodimers, in turn resulting in the loss of binding activity. Furthermore, reciprocal crossing has shown that this QTL affects SW by maternal effects. Transcription analysis has shown that ARF18 regulates cell growth in the silique wall by acting via an auxin-response pathway. Together, our results suggest that ARF18 regulates silique wall development and determines SW via maternal regulation. In addition, our study reveals the first (to our knowledge) QTL in rapeseed and may provide insights into gene cloning involving polyploid crops. PMID:26324896

  4. Natural variation in ARF18 gene simultaneously affects seed weight and silique length in polyploid rapeseed

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Hu, Zhiyong; Yang, Hongli; Zhang, Liang; Li, Rongjun; Deng, Linbin; Sun, Xingchao; Wang, Xinfa; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Seed weight (SW), which is one of the three major factors influencing grain yield, has been widely accepted as a complex trait that is controlled by polygenes, particularly in polyploid crops. Brassica napus L., which is the second leading crop source for vegetable oil around the world, is a tetraploid (4×) species. In the present study, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome A9 of rapeseed in which the genes for SW and silique length (SL) were colocated. By fine mapping and association analysis, we uncovered a 165-bp deletion in the auxin-response factor 18 (ARF18) gene associated with increased SW and SL. ARF18 encodes an auxin-response factor and shows inhibitory activity on downstream auxin genes. This 55-aa deletion prevents ARF18 from forming homodimers, in turn resulting in the loss of binding activity. Furthermore, reciprocal crossing has shown that this QTL affects SW by maternal effects. Transcription analysis has shown that ARF18 regulates cell growth in the silique wall by acting via an auxin-response pathway. Together, our results suggest that ARF18 regulates silique wall development and determines SW via maternal regulation. In addition, our study reveals the first (to our knowledge) QTL in rapeseed and may provide insights into gene cloning involving polyploid crops. PMID:26324896

  5. Seed coat color and seed weight contribute differential responses of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Kim, Sun Tae; Yoon, Won-Byong; Han, Won Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and variation of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds are affected by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used 192 soybean germplasm accessions collected from two provinces of Korea to elucidate the effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight on the metabolic variation and responses of targeted metabolites. The effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight were present in sucrose, total oligosaccharides, total carbohydrates and all measured fatty acids. The targeted metabolites were clustered within three groups. These metabolites were not only differently related to seeds dry weight, but also responded differentially to seed coat color. The inter-relationship between the targeted metabolites was highly present in the result of correlation analysis. Overall, results revealed that the targeted metabolites were diverged in relation to seed coat color and seeds dry weight within locally collected soybean seed germplasm accessions. PMID:27507473

  6. Endozoochorous seed dispersal by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): Effects of temporal variation in ranging and seed characteristics on seed shadows.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato; Morimoto, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Variation in seed shadows generated by frugivores is caused by daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in ranging, as well as inter-specific variability in gut passage times according to seed characteristics. We studied the extent to which seed weight, specific gravity, and daily (morning, afternoon, and evening) and inter-annual (2004 vs. 2005) variation in ranging affected seed shadows generated by wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. The macaques ingested fleshy fruits of 11 species during the two year study period; Viburnum dilatatum (Caprifoliaceae: heavier seeds with higher specific gravity) and Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae: lighter seeds with lower specific gravity) were eaten frequently in both years. The travel distances of macaques after feeding on V. dilatatum and R. multiflora fruits were estimated by combining feeding locations and ranging patterns measured in the field with gut passage times of model seeds in captive animals. Median travel distances after fruit feeding were 431 (quantile range: 277-654) and 478 m (265-646), respectively, with a maximum of 1,261 m. Neither year nor time of day affected travel distances. The gut passage time of model V. dilatatum seeds was longer than that of model R. multiflora seed, but this did not affect dispersal distances. Seed shadows for both species over 2 years showed unimodal distribution (peak: 101-500 m) and more than 90%, 20%, and 3% of ingested seeds were estimated to be dispersed >100, >500, and >1000 m, respectively, the longest known distances among macaque species. R. multiflora seeds tended to be dispersed further in 2004 than 2005, but V. dilatatum seeds were not, implying that inter-annual variations in ranging pattern due to the distribution and abundance of nut fruiting could affect dispersal distance. PMID:26469699

  7. Seed weight and germination behavior of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongqiang; Lu, Wei; Yang, Lei; Kong, Xianghong; Deng, Xuwei

    2015-01-01

    Variation in seed weight is common within and among plant species, but few studies have attempted to document the pattern of seed weight and germination attributes for aquatic macrophytes at a large scale. This study examined within-species variation in seed weight and germination attributes and the effects of environmental factors on seed traits of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China. Our results showed that the average seed weight was 0.24 g per 100 seeds with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 28.4% among the eight P. pectinatus populations. The total germination fraction of seeds of P. pectinatus was relatively poor, less than 35% in seven P. pectinatus populations, and the lowest germination percentage found was only 2%. There were significant differences in seed weight, time to onset of germination, and total germination fraction among the eight different populations. Hierarchical partitioning analysis showed a strongly positive correlation between seed weight and water temperature and pH. Seed weight and the maternal environmental factors significantly affected both time to initiation of germination and total germination fraction. Our results suggest that (1) seed weight variation in P. pectinatus primarily is the result of temperature variation during fruit development; (2) relatively poor germination fraction suggests that seeds are relatively unimportant in the short-term survival of populations and that it may be another adaptive trait allowing plants to take place in the right place and at the right time, especially in harsh environment; and (3) variation in seed germination traits should be determined by local environmental and intrinsic factors that interact in a complex fashion. PMID:25897389

  8. Florivory Modulates the Seed Number-Seed Weight Relationship in Halenia elliptica (Gentianaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linlin; Meng, Lihua; Luo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Generally, plant reproductive success might be affected negatively by florivory, and the effects may vary depending on the timing and intensity of florivory. To clarify the impacts of florivory by the sawfly larvae (Tenthredinidae) on seed production of Halenia elliptica D. Don, we simulated florivory by removing different proportion of flowers at three reproductive stages in this alpine herb and then examined the seed number per fruit, the seed weight, and the seed mass per fruit of the remaining flowers. Seed number per fruit reduced significantly when flowers were removed at flowering and fruiting stages or when 15% and 60% of flowers were removed. However, seed weight increased significantly after flowers were removed, independent of treatments of reproductive stage and proportion. There was a similar seed mass per fruit between the plants subjected to simulation of florivory and control. The results indicated that florivory modulated the seed number-seed weight relationship in this alpine species. Our study suggested that selective seed abortion and resource reallocation within fruits may ensure fewer but larger seeds, which were expected to be adaptive in the harsh environments. PMID:26495428

  9. Seed predators exert selection on the subindividual variation of seed size.

    PubMed

    Sobral, M; Guitián, J; Guitián, P; Larrinaga, A R

    2014-07-01

    Subindividual variation among repeated organs in plants constitutes an overlooked level of variation in phenotypic selection studies, despite being a major component of phenotypic variation. Animals that interact with plants could be selective agents on subindividual variation. This study examines selective pressures exerted during post-dispersal seed predation and germination on the subindividual variation of seed size in hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). With a seed offering experiment and a germination test, we estimated phenotypic selection differentials for average and subindividual variation of seed size due to seed predation and germination. Seed size affects germination, growth rate and the probability of an individual seed of escaping predation. Longer seeds showed higher germination rates, but this did not result in significant selection on phenotypes of the maternal trees. On the other hand, seed predators avoided wider seeds, and by doing so exerted phenotypic selection on adult average and subindividual variation of seed size. The detected selection on subindividual variation suggests that the levels of phenotypic variation within individual plants may be, at least partly, the adaptive consequence of animal-mediated selection. PMID:24176051

  10. Evidence for Orthologous Seed Weight Genes in Cowpea and Mung Bean Based on RFLP Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Fatokun, C. A.; Menancio-Hautea, D. I.; Danesh, D.; Young, N. D.

    1992-01-01

    A well saturated genomic map is a necessity for a breeding program based on marker assisted selection. To this end, we are developing genomic maps for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 2N=22) and mung bean (Vigna radiata 2N=22) based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Using these maps, we have located major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed weight in both species. Two unlinked genomic regions in cowpea contained QTLs accounting for 52.7% of the variation for seed weight. In mung bean there were four unlinked genomic regions accounting for 49.7% of the variation for seed weight. In both cowpea and mung bean the genomic region with the greatest effect on seed weight spanned the same RFLP markers in the same linkage order. This suggests that the QTLs in this genomic region have remained conserved through evolution. This inference is supported by the observation that a significant interaction (i.e., epistasis) was detected between the QTL(s) in the conserved region and an unlinked RFLP marker locus in both species. PMID:1361476

  11. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  12. Exploring the natural variation for seedling traits and their link with seed dimensions in tomato.

    PubMed

    Khan, Noorullah; Kazmi, Rashid H; Willems, Leo A J; van Heusden, Adriaan W; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2012-01-01

    The success of germination, growth and final yield of every crop depends to a large extent on the quality of the seeds used to grow the crop. Seed quality is defined as the viability and vigor attribute of a seed that enables the emergence and establishment of normal seedlings under a wide range of environments. We attempt to dissect the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of seed quality, through a combined approach of physiology and genetics. To achieve this goal we explored the genetic variation found in a RIL population of Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Moneymaker) x Solanum pimpinellifolium through extensive phenotyping of seed and seedling traits under both normal and nutrient stress conditions and root system architecture (RSA) traits under optimal conditions. We have identified 62 major QTLs on 21 different positions for seed, seedling and RSA traits in this population. We identified QTLs that were common across both conditions, as well as specific to stress conditions. Most of the QTLs identified for seedling traits co-located with seed size and seed weight QTLs and the positive alleles were mostly contributed by the S. lycopersicum parent. Co-location of QTLs for different traits might suggest that the same locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. We show that seed weight has a strong effect on seedling vigor and these results are of great importance for the isolation of the corresponding genes and elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22952841

  13. Exploring the Natural Variation for Seedling Traits and Their Link with Seed Dimensions in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Leo A. J.; van Heusden, Adriaan W.; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W. M.

    2012-01-01

    The success of germination, growth and final yield of every crop depends to a large extent on the quality of the seeds used to grow the crop. Seed quality is defined as the viability and vigor attribute of a seed that enables the emergence and establishment of normal seedlings under a wide range of environments. We attempt to dissect the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of seed quality, through a combined approach of physiology and genetics. To achieve this goal we explored the genetic variation found in a RIL population of Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Moneymaker) x Solanum pimpinellifolium through extensive phenotyping of seed and seedling traits under both normal and nutrient stress conditions and root system architecture (RSA) traits under optimal conditions. We have identified 62 major QTLs on 21 different positions for seed, seedling and RSA traits in this population. We identified QTLs that were common across both conditions, as well as specific to stress conditions. Most of the QTLs identified for seedling traits co-located with seed size and seed weight QTLs and the positive alleles were mostly contributed by the S. lycopersicum parent. Co-location of QTLs for different traits might suggest that the same locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. We show that seed weight has a strong effect on seedling vigor and these results are of great importance for the isolation of the corresponding genes and elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22952841

  14. A single gene mutation that increases maize seed weight

    SciTech Connect

    Giroux, M.J.; Shaw, J.; Hannah, L.C. |

    1996-06-11

    The maize endosperm-specific gene shrunken2 (Sh2) encodes the large subunit of the heterotetrameric starch synthetic enzyme adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP; EC 2.7.7.27). Here we exploit an in vivo, site-specific mutagenesis system to create short insertion mutations in a region of the gene known to be involved in the allosteric regulation of AGP. The site-specific mutagen is the transposable element dissociation (Ds). Approximately one-third (8 of 23) of the germinal revertants sequenced restored the wild-type sequence, whereas the remaining revertants contained insertions of 3 or 6 bp. All revertants retained the original reading frame 3 feet to the insertion site and involved the addition of tyrosine and/or serine. Each insertion revertant reduced total AGP activity and the amount of the SH2 protein. The revertant containing additional tyrosine and serine residues increased seed weight 11-18% without increasing or decreasing the percentage of starch. Other insertion revertants lacking an additional serine reduced seed weight. Reduced sensitivity to phosphate, a long-known inhibitor of AGP, was found in the high seed-weight revertant. This alteration is likely universally important since insertion of tyrosine and serine in the potato large subunit of AGP at the comparable position and expression in Escherichia coli also led to a phosphate-insensitive enzyme. These results show that single gene mutations giving rise to increased seed weight, and therefore perhaps yield, are clearly possible in a plant with a long history of intensive and successful breeding efforts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Analysis of interspecies physicochemical variation of grain legume seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybiński, Wojciech; Rusinek, Robert; Szot, Bogusław; Bocianowski, Jan; Starzycki, Michał

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an attempt to assess the reaction of seeds to mechanical loads taking into account their geometry expressed as seed thickness and 1000 seed weight. The initial material comprised 33 genotypes of grain legume plants and included cultivars registered in the country and breeding lines that are subject to pre-registration trials. The analysis of variance revealed significant diversity of the cultivars and lines of the species studied in terms of each of the analysed trait. The highest weight of 1000 seeds were obtained for white lupine seeds and peas, the lowest for andean lupine seeds. The maximum deformation and energy were obtained for white lupine seeds, the lowest for pea seeds, the maximum force and module the lowest values were determined for narrow-leafed lupine and pea. The highest values of protein were obtained for andean and yellow lupine, a fat content for andean and white lupine. The fatty acid profile as much as 70% or more were linoleic and oleic acids. Against the background of all the species are distinguished by white lupine seeds with a high content of oleic acid and the lowest of linoleic acid, for yellow lupine were obtained the inverse ratio of the two acids.

  16. Genotypic variation in fatty acid content of blackcurrant seeds.

    PubMed

    Ruiz del Castillo, M L; Dobson, G; Brennan, R; Gordon, S

    2002-01-16

    The fatty acid composition and total fatty acid content of seeds from 36 blackcurrant genotypes developed at the Scottish Crop Research Institute were examined. A rapid small-scale procedure, involving homogenization of seeds in toluene followed by sodium methoxide transesterification and gas chromatography, was used. There was considerable variation between genotypes. The gamma-linolenic acid content generally varied from 11 to 19% of the total fatty acids, but three genotypes had higher values of 22-24%, levels previously not reported for blackcurrant seed and similar to those for borage seed. Other nutritionally important fatty acids, stearidonic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, varied from 2 to 4% and 10-19%, respectively. The mean total fatty acid contents ranged from 14 to 23% of the seed, but repeatability was poor. The results are discussed. Blackcurrant seeds are mainly byproducts from juice production, and the study shows the potential for developing blackcurrant genotypes with optimal added value. PMID:11782203

  17. Variation in seed lipids in Calendula germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula officinalis (pot marigold) has considerable promise as an industrial crop, with a long history as an ornamental and medicinal plant. It is also marketed as an ingredient in cosmetics and a colorant. It produces unusual seed lipids, which can provide an additional market for commercial Ca...

  18. Air temperature variation across the seed cotton dryer mixpoint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen tests were conducted in six gins in the fall of 2008 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the...

  19. Seed size variation in the palm Euterpe edulis and the effects of seed predators on germination and seedling survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizo, Marco A.; Von Allmen, Christiane; Morellato, L. Patricia C.

    2006-05-01

    Intraspecific variation in seed size is common in wild plant populations and has important consequences for the reproductive success of individual plants. Multiple, often conflicting evolutionary forces mediated by biotic as well as abiotic agents may maintain such a variation. In this paper we assessed seed size variation in a population of the threatened, commercially important palm Euterpe edulis in southeast Brazil. We investigated (i) how this variation affects the probability of attack by vertebrate and invertebrate post-dispersal seed predators, and (ii) if seed size influences the outcome of seeds damaged by beetles in terms of seed germination and early survival of seedlings. Euterpe edulis seeds varied in diameter from 8.3 to 14.1 mm. Neither insects nor rodents selected the seeds they preyed upon based on seed size. Seed germination and total, shoot and root biomasses of one-year seedlings were significantly and positively affected by seed size. Root biomass and seedling survival were negatively affected by seed damage caused by a scolytid beetle ( Coccotrypes palmarum) whose adults bore into seeds to consume part of the endosperm, but do not oviposit on them. Seed size had a marginally significant effect on seedling survival. Therefore, if any advantage is accrued by E. edulis individuals producing large seeds, this is because of greater seed germination success and seedling vigor. If this is so, even a relatively narrow range of variation in seed size as observed in the E. edulis population studied may translate into differential success of individual plants.

  20. Exploring nitrogen remobilization for seed filling using natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline; Chardon, Fabien

    2011-03-01

    Nineteen Arabidopsis accessions grown at low (LOW N) and high (HIGH N) nitrate supplies were labelled using (15)N to trace nitrogen remobilization to the seeds. Effects of genotype and nutrition were examined. Nitrate availability affected biomass and yield, and highly modified the nitrogen concentration in the dry remains. Surprisingly, variations of one-seed dry weight (DW(1S)) and harvest index (HI) were poorly affected by nutrition. Nitrogen harvest index (NHI) was highly correlated with HI and showed that nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was increased at LOW N. Nitrogen remobilization efficiency (NRE), as (15)N partitioning in seeds ((15)NHI), was also higher at LOW N. The relative specific abundance (RSA) in seeds and whole plants indicated that the (14)NO(3) absorbed post-labelling was mainly allocated to the seeds (SEEDS) at LOW N, but to the dry remains (DR) at HIGH N. Nitrogen concentration (N%) in the DR was then 4-fold higher at HIGH N compared with LOW N, whilst N% in seeds was poorly modified. Although NHI and (15)NHI were highly correlated to HI, significant variations in NUE and NRE were identified using normalization to HI. New insights provided in this report are helpful for the comprehension of NUE and NRE concepts in Arabidopsis as well as in crops and especially in Brassica napus. PMID:21273332

  1. Exploring nitrogen remobilization for seed filling using natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline; Chardon, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen Arabidopsis accessions grown at low (LOW N) and high (HIGH N) nitrate supplies were labelled using 15N to trace nitrogen remobilization to the seeds. Effects of genotype and nutrition were examined. Nitrate availability affected biomass and yield, and highly modified the nitrogen concentration in the dry remains. Surprisingly, variations of one-seed dry weight (DW1S) and harvest index (HI) were poorly affected by nutrition. Nitrogen harvest index (NHI) was highly correlated with HI and showed that nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was increased at LOW N. Nitrogen remobilization efficiency (NRE), as 15N partitioning in seeds (15NHI), was also higher at LOW N. The relative specific abundance (RSA) in seeds and whole plants indicated that the 14NO3 absorbed post-labelling was mainly allocated to the seeds (SEEDS) at LOW N, but to the dry remains (DR) at HIGH N. Nitrogen concentration (N%) in the DR was then 4-fold higher at HIGH N compared with LOW N, whilst N% in seeds was poorly modified. Although NHI and 15NHI were highly correlated to HI, significant variations in NUE and NRE were identified using normalization to HI. New insights provided in this report are helpful for the comprehension of NUE and NRE concepts in Arabidopsis as well as in crops and especially in Brassica napus. PMID:21273332

  2. Seasonal Variation in Seed Dispersal by Tamarins Alters Seed Rain in a Secondary Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz Lazo, Fernando Julio João; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Poncin, Pascal; Heymann, Eckhard W.

    2010-01-01

    Reduced dispersal of large seeds into degraded areas is one of the major factors limiting rain forest regeneration, as many seed dispersers capable of transporting large seeds avoid these sites with a limited forest cover. However, the small size of tamarins allows them to use small trees, and hence to disperse seeds into young secondary forests. Seasonal variations in diet and home range use might modify their contribution to forest regeneration through an impact on the seed rain. For a 2-yr period, we followed a mixed-species group of tamarins in Peru to determine how their role as seed dispersers in a 9-yr-old secondary-growth forest varied across seasons. These tamarins dispersed small to large seeds of 166 tree species, 63 of which were into a degraded area. Tamarins’ efficiency in dispersing seeds from primary to secondary forest varied across seasons. During the late wet season, high dietary diversity and long forays in secondary forest allowed them to disperse large seeds involved in later stages of regeneration. This occurred precisely when tamarins spent a more equal amount of time eating a high diversity of fruit species in primary forest and pioneer species in secondary forest. We hypothesized that well-balanced fruit availability induced the movement of seed dispersers between these 2 habitats. The noteworthy number of large-seeded plant species dispersed by such small primates suggests that tamarins play an important, but previously neglected, role in the regeneration and maintenance of forest structure. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10764-010-9413-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20651905

  3. Seed-specific silencing of OsMRP5 reduces seed phytic acid and weight in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xu; Zhao, Hai-Jun; Pang, Wei-Qin; Cui, Hai-Rui; Poirier, Yves; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2014-08-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is poorly digested by humans and monogastric animals and negatively affects human/animal nutrition and the environment. Rice mutants with reduced PA content have been developed but are often associated with reduced seed weight and viability, lacking breeding value. In the present study, a new approach was explored to reduce seed PA while attaining competitive yield. The OsMRP5 gene, of which mutations are known to reduce seed PA as well as seed yield and viability, was down-regulated specifically in rice seeds by using an artificial microRNA driven by the rice seed specific promoter Ole18. Seed PA contents were reduced by 35.8-71.9% in brown rice grains of transgenic plants compared to their respective null plants (non-transgenic plants derived from the same event). No consistent significant differences of plant height or number of tillers per plant were observed, but significantly lower seed weights (up to 17.8% reduction) were detected in all transgenic lines compared to null plants, accompanied by reductions of seed germination and seedling emergence. It was observed that the silencing of the OsMRP5 gene increased the inorganic P (Pi) levels (up to 7.5 times) in amounts more than the reduction of PA-P in brown rice. This indicates a reduction in P content in other cellular compounds, such as lipids and nucleic acids, which may affect overall seed development. Put together, the present study demonstrated that seed specific silencing of OsMRP5 could significantly reduce the PA content and increase Pi levels in seeds; however, it also significantly lowers seed weight in rice. Discussions were made regarding future directions towards producing agronomically competitive and nutritionally valuable low PA rice. PMID:24648215

  4. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  5. Heritability of seed weight in Maritime pine, a relevant trait in the transmission of environmental maternal effects

    PubMed Central

    Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative seed provisioning is an important life-history trait with strong effects on offspring phenotype and fitness. As for any other trait, heritability estimates are vital for understanding its evolutionary dynamics. However, being a trait in between two generations, estimating additive genetic variation of seed provisioning requires complex quantitative genetic approaches for distinguishing between true genetic and environmental maternal effects. Here, using Maritime pine as a long-lived plant model, we quantified additive genetic variation of cone and seed weight (SW) mean and SW within-individual variation. We used a powerful approach combining both half-sib analysis and parent–offspring regression using several common garden tests established in contrasting environments to separate G, E and G × E effects. Both cone weight and SW mean showed significant genetic variation but were also influenced by the maternal environment. Most of the large variation in SW mean was attributable to additive genetic effects (h2=0.55–0.74). SW showed no apparent G × E interaction, particularly when accounting for cone weight covariation, suggesting that the maternal genotypes actively control the SW mean irrespective of the amount of resources allocated to cones. Within-individual variation in SW was low (12%) relative to between-individual variation (88%), and showed no genetic variation but was largely affected by the maternal environment, with greater variation in the less favourable sites for pine growth. In summary, results were very consistent between the parental and the offspring common garden tests, and clearly indicated heritable genetic variation for SW mean but not for within-individual variation in SW. PMID:25160045

  6. Geographic variations in seed dispersal by ants: are plant and seed traits decisive?

    PubMed

    Boulay, R; Coll-Toledano, J; Manzaneda, A J; Cerdá, X

    2007-03-01

    The effect of local ant species on the dispersal success of a myrmecochorous plant, Helleborus foetidus, was analyzed in two populations of the Iberian Peninsula (Caurel and Cazorla, respectively). The contribution of the various local ant species to dispersal was very unequal. While 5 and 19 ant taxa visited the plants of Caurel and Cazorla, respectively, most removal activity (67 and 80%) was performed by two species only (Formica lugubris and Camponotus cruentatus, respectively). Visits by dispersers were also unequally distributed between neighboring plants. While some plants were always visited during the period of seed release, others were never visited. A regression model indicated that this pattern might be explained by two plant traits: ants preferred to visit plants that released more seeds and whose elaiosomes were richer in oleic acid. Although it has long been known that this compound triggers removal by ants, it is the first demonstration that quantitative variations in elaiosome traits contribute to variation in dispersal success. Finally, other variables being equal, morphological traits (seed size, elaiosome size, and elaiosome/seed size ratio) did not affect ant behavior. Although myrmecochory has long been considered a diffuse interaction, our results support the idea that, at local scale, a limited number of ant species may be decisive to its evolution. PMID:17119907

  7. Geographic variations in seed dispersal by ants: are plant and seed traits decisive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulay, R.; Coll-Toledano, J.; Manzaneda, A. J.; Cerdá, X.

    2007-03-01

    The effect of local ant species on the dispersal success of a myrmecochorous plant, Helleborus foetidus, was analyzed in two populations of the Iberian Peninsula (Caurel and Cazorla, respectively). The contribution of the various local ant species to dispersal was very unequal. While 5 and 19 ant taxa visited the plants of Caurel and Cazorla, respectively, most removal activity (67 and 80%) was performed by two species only (Formica lugubris and Camponotus cruentatus, respectively). Visits by dispersers were also unequally distributed between neighboring plants. While some plants were always visited during the period of seed release, others were never visited. A regression model indicated that this pattern might be explained by two plant traits: ants preferred to visit plants that released more seeds and whose elaiosomes were richer in oleic acid. Although it has long been known that this compound triggers removal by ants, it is the first demonstration that quantitative variations in elaiosome traits contribute to variation in dispersal success. Finally, other variables being equal, morphological traits (seed size, elaiosome size, and elaiosome/seed size ratio) did not affect ant behavior. Although myrmecochory has long been considered a diffuse interaction, our results support the idea that, at local scale, a limited number of ant species may be decisive to its evolution.

  8. Sequence variations in the FAD2 gene in seeded pumpkins.

    PubMed

    Ge, Y; Chang, Y; Xu, W L; Cui, C S; Qu, S P

    2015-01-01

    Seeded pumpkins are important economic crops; the seeds contain various unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid and linoleic acid, which are crucial for human and animal nutrition. The fatty acid desaturase-2 (FAD2) gene encodes delta-12 desaturase, which converts oleic acid to linoleic acid. However, little is known about sequence variations in FAD2 in seeded pumpkins. Twenty-seven FAD2 clones from 27 accessions of Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita pepo, and Cucurbita ficifolia were obtained (totally 1152 bp; a single gene without introns). More than 90% nucleotide identities were detected among the 27 FAD2 clones. Nucleotide substitution, rather than nucleotide insertion and deletion, led to sequence polymorphism in the 27 FAD2 clones. Furthermore, the 27 FAD2 selected clones all encoded the FAD2 enzyme (delta-12 desaturase) with amino acid sequence identities from 91.7 to 100% for 384 amino acids. The same main-function domain between 47 and 329 amino acids was identified. The four species clustered separately based on differences in the sequences that were identified using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. Geographic origin and species were found to be closely related to sequence variation in FAD2. PMID:26782391

  9. An automated intensity-weighted brachytherapy seed localization algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, Gregory; Chang Zheng; Ji, Jim

    2008-03-15

    Brachytherapy has proven to be an effective treatment for various forms of cancer, whereby radioactive material is inserted directly into the body to maximize dosage to malignant tumors while preserving healthy tissue. In order to validate the preoperative or intraoperative dosimetric model, a postimplant evaluation procedure is needed to ensure that the locations of the implanted seeds are consistent with the planning stage. Moreover, development of an automated algorithm for seed detection and localization is necessary to expedite the postimplant evaluation process and reduce human error. Most previously reported algorithms have performed binary transforms on images before attempting to localize seeds. Furthermore, traditional approaches based upon three-dimensional seed shape parameterization and matching require high resolution imaging. The authors propose a new computationally efficient algorithm for automatic seed localization for full three-dimensional, low-resolution data sets that directly applies voxel intensity to the estimation of both seed centroid location and angular seed orientation. Computer simulations, phantom studies, and in vivo computed tomography prostate seed imaging results show that the proposed algorithm can produce reliable results even for low-resolution images.

  10. Assessment of Variation in Seed Longevity within Rye, Wheat and the Intergeneric Hybrid Triticale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the mechanisms by which seeds deteriorate in storage and the genetic and environmental factors that modify seed aging rates require reliable measurement of the seed longevity phenotype and good estimates of within-species variation. To that end, this study compares seed longevity amo...

  11. Seed predation and climate impacts on reproductive variation in temperate forests of the southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Bell, David M; Clark, James S

    2016-04-01

    Climatic effects on tree recruitment will be determined by the interactive effects of fecundity and seed predation. Evaluating how insect and vertebrate seed predators mediate tree reproductive responses to climate depends on long-term studies of seed production, development, and predation. In this study, our objectives were to (1) assess the effects of interannual climate variation on seed abortion rates, (2) assess the impact of seed density on predation rates, and (3) examine the degree to which density-dependent seed predation would amplify or dampen interannual variation in fecundity associated with seed abortion. We used a 19-year study of seed abortion and pre-dispersal predation rates by insects and vertebrates (birds and rodents) for five temperate tree species across forest plots from the North Carolina Piedmont to the Southern Appalachian Mountains in the southeastern USA. We found that rates of seed abortion and predation increased reproductive variation for oaks (Quercus species). Probability of seed abortion was greatest during years with cool, dry springs. Responses of seed predation on Quercus species to current year's seed density varied by species, but exhibited positive density-dependence to previous year's seed density consistent with numerical responses of seed predators. Seed abortion and predation rates for two drupe species responded little to variation in climate or seed density, respectively. Given that predation increased interannual variation in seed availability and the negative density-dependence to previous year's seed density, our results indicate that consistent numerical responses of oak seed predators may amplify interannual variation due to climate-mediated processes like seed abortion. PMID:26747267

  12. Wide genetic variation in phenolic compound content of seed coats among black soybean cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Phommalath, Siviengkhek; Teraishi, Masayoshi; Yoshikawa, Takanori; Saito, Hiroki; Tsukiyama, Takuji; Nakazaki, Tetsuya; Tanisaka, Takatoshi; Okumoto, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Black soybeans have been used as a food source and also in traditional medicine because their seed coats contain natural phenolic compounds such as proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin. The objective of this research is to reveal the genetic variation in the phenolic compound contents (PCCs) of seed coats in 227 black soybean cultivars, most of which were Japanese landraces and cultivars. Total phenolics were extracted from seed coats using an acidic acetone reagent and the proanthocyanidin content, monomeric anthocyanin content, total flavonoids content, total phenolics content, and radical scavenging activity were measured. The cultivars showed wide genetic variation in PCCs. Each of the contents was highly correlated with one another, and was closely associated with radical scavenging activity. PCCs were also moderately associated by flowering date but not associated by seed weight. Cultivars with purple flowers had a tendency to produce higher PCCs compared with cultivars with white flowers, suggesting that the W1 locus for flower color can affect phenolic compound composition and content. Our results suggest that developing black soybean cultivars with high functional phenolic compounds activity is feasible. PMID:25914597

  13. Do key dimensions of seed and seedling functional trait variation capture variation in recruitment probability?

    PubMed

    Larson, Julie E; Sheley, Roger L; Hardegree, Stuart P; Doescher, Paul S; James, Jeremy J

    2016-05-01

    Seedling recruitment is a critical driver of population dynamics and community assembly, yet we know little about functional traits that define different recruitment strategies. For the first time, we examined whether trait relatedness across germination and seedling stages allows the identification of general recruitment strategies which share core functional attributes and also correspond to recruitment outcomes in applied settings. We measured six seed and eight seedling traits (lab- and field-collected, respectively) for 47 varieties of dryland grasses and used principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis to identify major dimensions of trait variation and to isolate trait-based recruitment groups, respectively. PCA highlighted some links between seed and seedling traits, suggesting that relative growth rate and root elongation rate are simultaneously but independently associated with seed mass and initial root mass (first axis), and with leaf dry matter content, specific leaf area, coleoptile tissue density and germination rate (second axis). Third and fourth axes captured separate tradeoffs between hydrothermal time and base water potential for germination, and between specific root length and root mass ratio, respectively. Cluster analysis separated six recruitment types along dimensions of germination and growth rates, but classifications did not correspond to patterns of germination, emergence or recruitment in the field under either of two watering treatments. Thus, while we have begun to identify major threads of functional variation across seed and seedling stages, our understanding of how this variation influences demographic processes-particularly germination and emergence-remains a key gap in functional ecology. PMID:26337610

  14. Genetic variation and seed transfer guidelines for lodgepole pine in Central Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, F.C.

    1992-09-01

    Pine cones were collected from 272 trees at 189 locations uniformly distributed over the east slopes of the Oregon Cascade Range and Warner Mountains. Variation in seed and seedling traits was related to (1) seed source latitude, distance from the Cascade crest, elevation, slope, and aspect in multiple regression analyses; and (2) seed zone and elevation band in classification analyses. Provisional seed transfer guidelines are presented. These include a regression equation for guiding seed transfer and estimating transfer risk, and a new outline of fixed seed zones.

  15. Genetic variation and seed transfer guidelines for ponderosa pine in central Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, F.C.

    1994-07-01

    The report includes an adaptive genetic variation in seed and seedling traits for ponderosa pine from the east slopes of the Cascade Range in Oregon which was analyzed by using 307 families from 227 locations. Factor scores from three principal components based on seed and seedling traits were related by multiple regression to latitude, distance from the Cascade crest, elevation, slope, and aspect of the seed sources and by classification analysis to seed zone and 300-meter elevation band within zone. A provisional transfer risk equation and tentative new seed zones were delineated to guide seed transfer in artificial regeneration.

  16. Progress on screening the USDA cultivated peanut germplasm collection for variability in seed weight, seed-coat color, oil content and fatty acid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are over 10,000 accessions in the USDA peanut germplasm collection. Among them, 8,913 accessions are cultivated peanuts. To determine the variability of seed traits, we initiated a study to observe seed-coat color, measure seed weight, and quantify oil content and fatty acid composition by nuc...

  17. Patterns of Cross-Continental Variation in Tree Seed Mass in the Canadian Boreal Forest

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jushan; Bai, Yuguang; Lamb, Eric G.; Simpson, Dale; Liu, Guofang; Wei, Yongsheng; Wang, Deli; McKenney, Daniel W.; Papadopol, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Seed mass is an adaptive trait affecting species distribution, population dynamics and community structure. In widely distributed species, variation in seed mass may reflect both genetic adaptation to local environments and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Acknowledging the difficulty in separating these two aspects, we examined the causal relationships determining seed mass variation to better understand adaptability and/or plasticity of selected tree species to spatial/climatic variation. A total of 504, 481 and 454 seed collections of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) across the Canadian Boreal Forest, respectively, were selected. Correlation analyses were used to determine how seed mass vary with latitude, longitude, and altitude. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine how geographic and climatic variables influence seed mass. Climatic factors explained a large portion of the variation in seed mass (34, 14 and 29%, for black spruce, white spruce and jack pine, respectively), indicating species-specific adaptation to long term climate conditions. Higher annual mean temperature and winter precipitation caused greater seed mass in black spruce, but annual precipitation was the controlling factor for white spruce. The combination of factors such as growing season temperature and evapotranspiration, temperature seasonality and annual precipitation together determined seed mass of jack pine. Overall, sites with higher winter temperatures were correlated with larger seeds. Thus, long-term climatic conditions, at least in part, determined spatial variation in seed mass. Black spruce and Jack pine, species with relatively more specific habitat requirements and less plasticity, had more variation in seed mass explained by climate than did the more plastic species white spruce. As traits such as seed mass are related to seedling growth and survival, they potentially

  18. Quantitative Genetics of Transgenic Mice: Components of Phenotypic Variation in Body Weights and Weight Gains

    PubMed Central

    Clutter, A. C.; Pomp, D.; Murray, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    Transgenic mice possessing an ovine growth hormone gene were used to study the effects of elevated growth hormone on quantitative genetic variation. Males hemizygous for the transgene were mated to wild-type females to produce half- and full-sib families in which approximately half the progeny were transgenic and half were wild type. Analyses of body weights at 3-10 weeks, and weight gains from 3 to 6, and 6 to 10 weeks produced estimates of the proportion of total variance due to additive genetic effects (h(2)) and common litter effects (c(2)), and the genetic correlation between transgenic and wild-type expression of each trait. At 10 weeks, body weight of transgenics exceeded that of wild types by 26 and 49% in males and females, respectively. Estimated genetic variances in the transgenic group were significantly greater than zero for body weights at most ages and for both measurements of gain. Common litter effects accounted for a similar proportion of variation in the wild-type and transgenic groups. Additive genetic correlations between wild-type and transgenic expression of body weights tended to decline with age, indicating that a partially different array of genes may have begun to affect body weight in the transgenic group. PMID:8844161

  19. Extensive Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage Structure

    PubMed Central

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Zimmermann, Eva; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Günl, Markus; Fu, Lanbao; North, Helen M.; Usadel, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Hydrated Arabidopsis thaliana seeds are coated by a gelatinous layer called mucilage, which is mainly composed of cell wall polysaccharides. Since mucilage is rich in pectin, its architecture can be visualized with the ruthenium red (RR) dye. We screened the seeds of around 280 Arabidopsis natural accessions for variation in mucilage structure, and identified a large number of novel variants that differed from the Col-0 wild-type. Most of the accessions released smaller RR-stained capsules compared to the Col-0 reference. By biochemically characterizing the phenotypes of 25 of these accessions in greater detail, we discovered that distinct changes in polysaccharide structure resulted in gelatinous coatings with a deceptively similar appearance. Monosaccharide composition analysis of total mucilage extracts revealed a remarkable variation (from 50 to 200% of Col-0 levels) in the content of galactose and mannose, which are important subunits of heteromannan. In addition, most of the natural variants had altered Pontamine Fast Scarlet 4B staining of cellulose and significantly reduced birefringence of crystalline structures. This indicates that the production or organization of cellulose may be affected by the presence of different amounts of hemicellulose. Although, the accessions described in this study were primarily collected from Western Europe, they form five different phenotypic classes based on the combined results of our experiments. This suggests that polymorphisms at multiple loci are likely responsible for the observed mucilage structure. The transcription of MUCILAGE-RELATED10 (MUCI10), which encodes a key enzyme for galactoglucomannan synthesis, was severely reduced in multiple variants that phenocopied the muci10-1 insertion mutant. Although, we could not pinpoint any causal polymorphisms in this gene, constitutive expression of fluorescently-tagged MUCI10 proteins complemented the mucilage defects of a muci10-like accession. This leads us to

  20. Variation in semi-arid soil seed banks

    SciTech Connect

    Boudell-Flanary, J.A.; Link, S.O. |

    1995-09-01

    Seeds recovered from soils in the semi-arid shrub-steppe were compared to test for differences between the seed banks found beneath and cryptogamic crust and the crevices in the crust. Seed quantity found within the crevices was 56% higher than that under the cryptogamic crust. Pseudoroegneria spicata, Poa sandbergii, Bromus tectorum, and Artemisia tridentata are the common species found at the research site. Seeds of Bromus tectorum, Erigeron spp., and Poa spp. were found in the crevices of the crust. Seeds of Artemisia tridentata were not found in the seed banks of either the cryptogamic crust or the crevices in the crust. The higher amount of seeds found in the crevices of the cryptogamic crust suggests that the crevices play a significant role in determining the distributional pattern of shrub-steppe vegetation.

  1. Seed weight increases with altitude in the Swiss Alps between related species but not among populations of individual species.

    PubMed

    Pluess, Andrea R; Schütz, Wolfgang; Stöcklin, Jürg

    2005-06-01

    Seed weight is a crucial plant life history trait, determining establishment success and dispersal ability. Especially in stressful environments, larger seeds may be selected at the expense of seed number, because larger seeds have a better chance of giving rise to an established offspring. We tested the hypotheses that between related species-pairs and among populations of single species a similar trend for increasing seed weight with increasing altitude should be present. Firstly, we measured seed weights from 29 species-pairs, with one species occurring in lowland areas and a congeneric species from high altitudes. Seeds of the alpine species were 28+/-8% larger than seeds from lowland species (P < 0.01). Compared to the related lowland species, 55% of the alpine species had heavier seeds, 3% (one species) had lighter, and 41% had seeds of approximately equal weight. Secondly, we compared seed weights among populations of four species from different habitats and with different life histories. Seeds from between 11 and 34 populations per species were sampled along altitudinal gradients of 800-1,500 m (ca. 800 m in Scabiosa lucida, ca. 1,000 m in Saxifraga oppositifolia, ca. 1,000 m in Epilobium fleischeri, and ca. 1,500 m in Carex flacca). In all the four species, we found no indication for heavier seeds at higher altitudes. Our results indicate a selection pressure for species with heavier seeds at higher altitude, but the trend does not seem to operate across all cases. Phylogenetic constraints may limit the correlation among altitude and seed weight, operating particularly against selection for larger seed size, the closer populations and species are related to each other. PMID:15800741

  2. Low molecular weight squash trypsin inhibitors from Sechium edule seeds.

    PubMed

    Laure, Hélen J; Faça, Vítor M; Izumi, Clarice; Padovan, Júlio C; Greene, Lewis J

    2006-02-01

    Nine chromatographic components containing trypsin inhibitor activity were isolated from Sechium edule seeds by acetone fractionation, gel filtration, affinity chromatography and RP-HPLC in an overall yield of 46% of activity and 0.05% of protein. The components obtained with highest yield of total activity and highest specific activity were sequenced by Edman degradation and their molecular masses determined by mass spectrometry. The inhibitors contained 31, 32 and 27 residues per molecule and their sequences were: SETI-IIa, EDRKCPKILMRCKRDSDCLAKCTCQESGYCG; SETI-IIb, EEDRKCPKILMRCKRDSDCLAKCTCQESGYCG and SETI-V, CPRILMKCKLDTDCFPTCTCRPSGFCG. SETI-IIa and SETI-IIb, which differed by an amino-terminal E in the IIb form, were not separable under the conditions employed. The sequences are consistent with consensus sequences obtained from 37 other inhibitors: CPriI1meCk_DSDCla_C_C_G_CG, where capital letters are invariant amino acid residues and lower case letters are the most preserved in this position. SETI-II and SETI-V form complexes with trypsin with a 1:1 stoichiometry and have dissociation constants of 5.4x10(-11)M and 1.1x10(-9)M, respectively. PMID:16406091

  3. Mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis).

    PubMed

    Ng, Chin-Hong; Lee, Soon-Leong; Ng, Kevin Kit-Siong; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2009-04-01

    The mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis) were studied using allozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, respectively. Multi-locus outcrossing rate estimations indicated that the hybrid was predominantly outcrossed (mean+/- s.e. t(m) = 0.86+/-0.01). Seed variation was investigated using 35 polymorphic RAPD fragments. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the highest genetic variation among seeds within a pod (66%-70%), followed by among pods within inflorescence (29%-37%), and the least variation among inflorescences within tree (1%). In addition, two to four RAPD profiles could be detected among seeds within pod. Therefore, the results suggest that a maximum of four seeds per pod could be sampled for the establishment of a mapping population for further studies. PMID:19417541

  4. Evolution and association analysis of GmCYP78A10 gene with seed size/weight and pod number in soybean.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Yinhui; Zhang, Haowei; Sun, Genlou; Zhang, Wenming; Qiu, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Seed-size/weight traits, controlled by multiple genes in soybean, play an important role in determining seed yield. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling the seed size and weight in soybean remain unclear. In Arabidopsis, P450/CYP78A gene family has been proved extremely relevant to seed size (such as AtCYP78A5, AtCYP78A6 and AtCYP78A9). We found that a soybean GmCYP78A10 gene underwent artificial selection during soybean breeding. The GmCYP78A10a allele mainly distributed in wild soybean (Glycine soja), but has been eliminated in the cultivars during early stage of soybean breeding, while the GmCYP78A10b allele has been accumulated and become the predominant allele in cultivated soybean (G. max). ANOVA analysis showed that the mean seed weight, seed width and seed thickness of soybean varieties with GmCYP78A10b allele was significantly heavier/bigger than those with GmCYP78A10a allele (P < 0.01). The allele could explain 7.2 % variation in seed weight. The pod number of the soybeans with GmCYP78A10b allele significantly decreased compared to those with GmCYP78A10a allele (P < 0.01, R(2) = 5.8 %), while other agronomic traits including seed weight/plant were not significantly affected by these two alleles. We speculated that during the early stage of soybean breeding, breeders selected big seed carrying GmCYP78A10b allele, but lowered pod number simultaneously. Overall, the selection did not cause the significantly change in soybean seed yield. Our results suggests that the soybean GmCYP78A10 gene may have a similar function to those genes belonging to P450/CYP78A subfamily in Arabidopsis and provides new information for the genetic control of seed size in soybean. PMID:25324172

  5. Effects of seed traits variation on seedling performance of the invasive weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortmans, William; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2016-02-01

    Seedling performance can determine the survival of a juvenile plant and impact adult plant performance. Understanding the factors that may impact seedling performance is thus critical, especially for annuals, opportunists or invasive plant species. Seedling performance can vary among mothers or populations in response to environmental conditions or under the influence of seed traits. However, very few studies have investigated seed traits variations and their consequences on seedling performance. Specifically, the following questions have been addressed by this work: 1) How the seed traits of the invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. vary among mothers and populations, as well as along the latitude; 2) How do seed traits influence seedling performance; 3) Is the influence on seedlings temperature dependent. With seeds from nine Western Europe ruderal populations, seed traits that can influence seedling development were measured. The seeds were sown into growth chambers with warmer or colder temperature treatments. During seedling growth, performance-related traits were measured. A high variability in seed traits was highlighted. Variation was determined by the mother identity and population, but not latitude. Together, the temperature, population and the identity of the mother had an effect on seedling performance. Seed traits had a relative impact on seedling performance, but this did not appear to be temperature dependent. Seedling performance exhibited a strong plastic response to the temperature, was shaped by the identity of the mother and the population, and was influenced by a number of seed traits.

  6. Variations of Weight Loss Following Gastric Bypass and Gastric Band

    PubMed Central

    Puzziferri, Nancy; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Livingston, Edward H.; Carmody, Thomas J.; Provost, David A.; Rush, A. John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare and describe the weight loss outcomes from gastric bypass and gastric band so as to define the variation of excess weight loss (EWL) among individual patients, the time to onset of effect, and the durability of weight loss in severely obese adults. Summary Background Data Gastric bypass and gastric band are the most common operations for obesity performed in the United States, but few reports have compared these 2 procedures. Methods Patients (N = 1733, aged 18–65 years) met National Institutes of Health criteria for obesity surgery and underwent either gastric bypass or gastric band between March 1997 and November 2006. The selection of bypass versus band was based on patient/surgeon discussion. The evaluable sample consisted of 1518 patients. The percentage of EWL was assessed over 2 years. Successful weight loss was defined a priori as ≥40% EWL in each of four 6-month postoperative measurement periods. The analyses included a mixed model and generalized estimating equation (GEE) model with repeated measures. Odds ratios and descriptive analyses were also provided. Results Gastric bypass was associated with less individual variation in weight loss than gastric band. Both procedures were associated with a significant EWL benefit (Treatment Group effect P < 0.0001), but they differed in terms of time to effect (Treatment Group × Period interaction effect P < 0.0001). The mean EWL for gastric bypass was greater at each measurement period (6, 12, 18, 24 months) compared with gastric band (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, at each of the postoperative measurement periods within each treatment group (bypass and band), the mean EWL was greater for those who had preoperative body mass index (BMI) ≤50 kg/m2 than for those who had preoperative BMI >50 kg/m2 (P < 0.0001). Gastric bypass was consistently associated with a greater likelihood of at least a 40% EWL in each of the 6-month postoperative measurement periods (GEE, P < 0.0001). The odds ratio

  7. Hierarchical Levels of Seed Predation Variation by Introduced Beetles on an Endemic Mediterranean Palm

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Marta; Delibes, Miguel; Fedriani, José Mª.

    2014-01-01

    Seed predators can limit plant recruitment and thus profoundly impinge the dynamics of plant populations, especially when diverse seed predators (e.g., native and introduced) attack particular plant populations. Surprisingly, however, we know little concerning the potential hierarchy of spatial scales (e.g., region, population, patch) and coupled ecological correlates governing variation in the overall impact that native and introduced seed predators have on plant populations. We investigated several spatial scales and ecological correlates of pre-dispersal seed predation by invasive borer beetles in Chamaerops humilis (Arecaceae), a charismatic endemic palm of the Mediteranean basin. To this end, we considered 13 palm populations (115 palms) within four geographical regions of the Iberian Peninsula. The observed interregional differences in percentages of seed predation by invasive beetles were not significant likely because of considerable variation among populations within regions. Among population variation in seed predation was largely related to level of human impact. In general, levels of seed predation were several folds higher in human-altered populations than in natural populations. Within populations, seed predation declined significantly with the increase in amount of persisting fruit pulp, which acted as a barrier against seed predators. Our results revealed that a native species (a palm) is affected by the introduction of related species because of the concurrent introduction of seed predators that feed on both the introduced and native palms. We also show how the impact of invasive seed predators on plants can vary across a hierarchy of levels ranging from variation among individuals within local populations to large scale regional divergences. PMID:25340462

  8. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure. PMID:27104783

  9. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure. PMID:27104783

  10. Cytometrical evidence that the lossof seed weight in the minature 1 seed mutant of maize associated with reduced mitotic activity in the developing endosperm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The miniature1 (mn1) seed mutant is the most drastic nonlethal single gene mutation wherein the mutants loose >70% of the seed weight relative to the wild type. The causal basis of it is the loss of the Mn1-encoded cell wall invertase in developing endosperm (Plant Cell 4:297-305 and 8:971-83). We r...

  11. Seed yield, development, and variation in diverse poa pratensis accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post harvest residue removal is critical for continued high seed production of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Previous work showed some accessions have little or no yield reduction with mechanical residue removal compared with the controversial practice of open field burning. Using 10 of t...

  12. Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map and Identification of QTLs for Seed Weight and Seed Size Traits in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.).

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Goyal, Richa; Chahota, R K; Sharma, Tilak R; Abdin, M Z; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    Seed weight and seed size both are quantitative traits and have been considered as important components of grain yield, thus identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed traits in lentil (Lens culinaris) would be beneficial for the improvement of grain yield. Hence the main objective of this study was to identify QTLs for seed traits using an intraspecific mapping population derived from a cross between L. culinaris cv. Precoz (seed weight-5.1g, seed size-5.7mm) and L. culinaris cv. L830 (seed weight-2.2g, seed size-4mm) comprising 126 F8-RILs. For this, two microsatellite genomic libraries enriched for (GA/CT) and (GAA/CTT) motif were constructed which resulted in the development of 501 new genomic SSR markers. Six hundred forty seven SSR markers (including 146 previously published) were screened for parental polymorphism and 219 (33.8%) were found to be polymorphic among the parents. Of these 216 were mapped on seven linkage groups at LOD4.0 spanning 1183.7cM with an average marker density of 5.48cM. Phenotypic data from the RILs was used to identify QTLs for the seed weight and seed size traits by single marker analysis (SMA) followed by composite interval mapping (CIM) which resulted in one QTL each for the 2 traits (qSW and qSS) that were co-localized on LG4 and explained 48.4% and 27.5% of phenotypic variance respectively. The current study would serve as a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for utilization in lentil breeding programs. PMID:26436554

  13. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Nuno D.; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M.; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict. PMID:26811909

  14. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    PubMed

    Pires, Nuno D; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict. PMID:26811909

  15. Variation in ovule and seed size and associated size-number trade-offs in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Carly A; Harder, Lawrence D

    2007-05-01

    Unlike pollen and seed size, the extent and causes of variation in ovule size remain unexplored. Based on 45 angiosperm species, we assessed whether intra- and interspecific variation in ovule size is consistent with cost minimization during ovule production or allows maternal plants to dominate conflict with their seeds concerning resource investment. Despite considerable intraspecific variation in ovule volume (mean CV = 0.356), ovule production by few species was subject to a size-number trade-off. Among the sampled species, ovule volume varied two orders of magnitude, whereas seed volume varied four orders of magnitude. Ovule volume varied positively among species with flower mass and negatively with ovule number. Tenuinucellate ovules were generally larger that crassinucellate ovules, and species with apical placentation (which mostly have uniovulate ovaries) had smaller ovules than those with other placentation types. Seed volume varied positively among species with fruit mass and seed development time, but negatively with seed number. Seeds grew a median 93-fold larger than the ovules from which they originated. Our results provide equivocal evidence that selection minimizes ovule size to allow efficient resource allocation after fertilization, but stronger evidence that ovule size affords maternal plants an advantage in parent-offspring conflict. PMID:21636453

  16. Variation in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in apple seeds of seven cultivars.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Fan, Mingtao; Ran, Junjian; Zhang, Tingjing; Sun, Huiye; Dong, Mei; Zhang, Zhe; Zheng, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    Polyphenols are the predominant ingredients in apple seeds. However, few data are available on the phenolic profile or antioxidant activity in apple seeds in previous researches. In this study, low-molecular-weight phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in seeds, peels, and flesh of seven apple cultivars grown in northwest China were measured and analyzed using HPLC and FRAP, DPPH, ABTS assays, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed phloridzin as the dominant phenolic compound in the seeds with its contents being 240.45-864.42 mg/100 gDW. Total phenolic content (TPC) measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay in apple seed extracts of seven cultivars ranged from 5.74 (Golden Delicious) to 17.44 (Honeycrisp) mgGAE/gDW. Apple seeds showed higher antioxidant activity than peels or flesh; antioxidant activity in seeds varied from 57.59 to 397.70 μM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g FW for FRAP, from 37.56 to 64.31 μM TE/g FW for DPPH, and from 220.52 to 708.02 μM TE/g FW for ABTS. TPC in apple seeds was significantly correlated with all three assays. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that Honeycrisp was characterized with high contents of total polyphenols and phloridzin. Our findings suggest that phenolic extracts from apple seeds have good commercial potential as a promising antioxidant for use in food or cosmetics. PMID:27081364

  17. [Anticoagulant activity of low-molecular-weight sulfated derivatives of galactomannan from Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) seeds].

    PubMed

    Mestechkina, N M; Shcherbukhin, V D; Bannikova, G E; Varlamov, V P; Drozd, N N; Tolstenkov, A S; Makarov, V A; Tikhonov, V E

    2008-01-01

    Galactomannan from seeds of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. (guar) was depolymerized using immobilized enzymatic preparation celloviridin. A set of fragments whose molecular weights varied from 12.6 to 245.6 kDa was obtained. Sulfated derivatives of components of all fractions were synthesized, in which the content of HSO3(-) groups was 48.05% +/- 2.31. All preparations exhibited anticoagulant activity, which was recorded in vitro in two tests--aIIa and aXa. The antithrombin activity (aIIa) was high (up to 65-87 U/mg) and did not depend on the molecular weight of a sulfated derivative; in the second test (aXa), the effect of molecular weight was observed. Biospecific electrophoresis allowed us to detect the ability of galactomannan sulfates to form complexes with protamine sulfate, a classic antidote to heparin. PMID:18491607

  18. Characteristics and bioactivities of different molecular weight polysaccharides from camellia seed cake.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhou; Li, Xu; Feng, Shiling; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Lijun; Yuan, Ming; Ding, Chunbang

    2016-10-01

    Four polysaccharides, namely COP-1, COP-2, COP-3 and COP-4, were ultrafiltrated from crud Camellia oleifera seed cake polysaccharides (COP-c), purified, and characterized, including the determination of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Their molecular weights were 7.9, 36, 83 and 225kDa, respectively. All COPs showed the similar FT-IR spectrums, but significant differentials in monosaccharide components. COP-2 exhibited the highest radical scavenging abilities. COP-1 has the strongest metal chelating capabilities. Although with higher molecular weight, COP-4 showed the poorest antioxidant abilities. These results suggested appreciate molecular weight COP possessed a better antioxidant activities. Additionally, all COPs had non-significant antiproliferative abilities in HaLa and HepG2 cells. PMID:27341780

  19. Flowering, Capsule and Seed Characteristics in Cuphea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We modeled the flowering and capsule set dynamics, quantified the level of variation in seed characteristics, elucidated the inter-relationships among seed and capsule physical dimensions, and quantified their impact on single seed weight as the main determinant of seed yield in the indeterminate, p...

  20. Relationships Between Seed Weight, Germination Potential and Biochemical Reserves of Maritime Pine in Morocco: Elements for Tree Seedlings Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahid, Nadya; Bounoua, Lahouari

    2011-01-01

    Selection of quality seeds in breeding programs can significantly improve seedling productivity. Germination and biochemical analyses on seeds from ten natural populations of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in Morocco reveals significant differences among populations in seed weight, germination characters and protein content in both dry seeds and megagametophytes. During germination, the mobilization of protein content in megagametophyte is significantly different among populations than sugar content. A strong positive correlation between the germination capacity and the protein content in both dry seeds and megagametophytes indicates that the best populations in term of germination capacity may also be the richest in protein content. The present study finds that seed weight is not a good indicator for quality seed selection, nor is it recommended to increase the degree of germinability. Our results suggest that the pine population in southern Morocco might have adapted to drought conditions as it is characterized by heavy seed weight and lower speed of protein content mobilization in megagametophyte compared to northern populations growing in temperate climate.

  1. Drivers of Spatial Variation in the Role of Ants as Secondary Seed Dispersers.

    PubMed

    Bottcher, C; Peixoto, P E C; Silva, W R; Pizo, M A

    2016-08-01

    The spatial variation in the outcome of the interaction between secondary dispersers and seeds is superimposed upon the variation produced by primary dispersers. Investigating the factors that drive the outcome of the interactions with secondary seed dispersers thus represents an essential refinement to our understanding of the complete seed dispersal process. We studied the interactions between two ponerine ants (Pachycondyla striata Smith, 1858 and Odontomachus chelifer (Latreille, 1802)) with fruits experimentally set on the ground, and estimated the effects of ants on seedling establishment in three areas distributed along a 2-km stretch of a Brazilian Atlantic rainforest that differ in soil properties and vegetation physiognomies. We tested the hypothesis that interactions are more frequent, resulting in greater seedling establishment at the site with harsher abiotic and biotic conditions. Both ant species removed fruits frequently and have a positive effect on seedling establishment in all study areas, but fruit removal did not differ among areas, while seedling establishment was more pronounced at the site with stressful abiotic conditions. The two ant species differed in important aspects of their seed dispersal services, including the propensity to interact with seeds. As a result, both the species of ant and abiotic conditions interact at the scale of 2 km to determine the fate of seeds interacting with ants, thus creating a mosaic of outcomes with variable benefits to plants. PMID:27298391

  2. Extraction, Characterization, and Molecular Weight Determination of Senna tora (L.) Seed Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Harshal A.; Lalitha, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was extraction of polysaccharide from Senna tora L. seed and its characterization as a pharmaceutical excipient. Polysaccharide extraction was based on mechanical separation of the endosperm of seeds of Senna tora, water dissolution, centrifugation, and precipitation with acetone. Standard procedures were used to study the viscosity, micromeritic properties, and microbial bioburden. Accelerated stability study was carried out on isolated polysaccharide for six months at 40°C/75 RH as per ICH guidelines. The gum obtained from S. tora seeds was an amorphous free flowing odourless powder with dull brown colour (yield = 35% w/w). The bulk density, tapped density, and angle of repose data reveal that S. tora gum possesses good flow property. The intrinsic viscosity obtained was 1.568 dL/g. The average molecular weight of purified S. tora gum was found to be 198 kDa by intrinsic viscosity method. The results indicated that viscosity of gum solution increases with increase in temperature. FTIR study revealed the absence of degradation or decomposition of polysaccharide at accelerated stability conditions for six months. It has been concluded that extracted polysaccharide can be used as pharmaceutical excipient in terms of flow behavior, microbial properties, and stability. PMID:26640490

  3. Extraction, Characterization, and Molecular Weight Determination of Senna tora (L.) Seed Polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Harshal A; Lalitha, K G

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was extraction of polysaccharide from Senna tora L. seed and its characterization as a pharmaceutical excipient. Polysaccharide extraction was based on mechanical separation of the endosperm of seeds of Senna tora, water dissolution, centrifugation, and precipitation with acetone. Standard procedures were used to study the viscosity, micromeritic properties, and microbial bioburden. Accelerated stability study was carried out on isolated polysaccharide for six months at 40°C/75 RH as per ICH guidelines. The gum obtained from S. tora seeds was an amorphous free flowing odourless powder with dull brown colour (yield = 35% w/w). The bulk density, tapped density, and angle of repose data reveal that S. tora gum possesses good flow property. The intrinsic viscosity obtained was 1.568 dL/g. The average molecular weight of purified S. tora gum was found to be 198 kDa by intrinsic viscosity method. The results indicated that viscosity of gum solution increases with increase in temperature. FTIR study revealed the absence of degradation or decomposition of polysaccharide at accelerated stability conditions for six months. It has been concluded that extracted polysaccharide can be used as pharmaceutical excipient in terms of flow behavior, microbial properties, and stability. PMID:26640490

  4. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Cayea, Erin J; Austin, Melanie D; Henson, Dru A; McAnulty, Steven R; Jin, Fuxia

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) in promoting weight loss and altering disease risk factors in overweight adults. The hypothesis was that the high dietary fiber and alpha-linolenic (ALA) contents of chia seed would induce a small but significant decrease in body weight and fat and improve disease risk factors. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (CS) and placebo (P) groups, and under single-blinded procedures, ingested 25 g CS or P supplements mixed in 0.25 L water twice daily before the first and last meal for 12 weeks. Ninety nondiseased, overweight/obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study, with 76 subjects (n = 39 CS, n = 37 P) completing all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), inflammation markers from fasting blood samples (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), oxidative stress markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite), blood pressure, and a serum lipid profile. Plasma ALA increased 24.4% compared to a 2.8% decrease in CS and P, respectively (interaction effect, P = .012). No group differences were measured for changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (interaction effects, P = .420 and .980, respectively). Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and lipoproteins did not differ between CS and P for both sexes. In conclusion, ingestion of 50 g/d CS vs P for 12 weeks by overweight/obese men and women had no influence on body mass or composition, or various disease risk factor measures. PMID:19628108

  5. Assessment of the natural variation of low abundant metabolic proteins in soybean seeds using proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we investigated the distribution of the low abundant proteins that are involved in soybean seed development in four wild and twelve cultivated soybean genotypes. We found proteomic variation of these proteins within and...

  6. Free volume variation with molecular weight of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; St.clair, Terry L.; Jensen, Brian J.

    1992-01-01

    Free volume measurements were made in several molecular weight fractions of two different geometries of poly(arylene ether ketone)s. Free volumes were measured using positron lifetime spectroscopy. It has been observed that the free volume cell size V(sub f) varies with the molecular weight M of the test samples according to an equation of the form V(sub f) = AM(B), where A and B are constants. The molecular weights computed from the free volume cell sizes are in good agreement with the values measured by gel permeation chromatography.

  7. Genetic and Sequence Analysis of Genes Controlling Natural Variation of Seed-Coat and Flower Colors in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean exhibits natural variation in flower and seed-coat colors via the deposition of various anthocyanin pigments in the respective tissues. Although pigmentation in seeds or flowers has been well dissected at molecular level in several plant species, the genes controlling natural variation ...

  8. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield. PMID:24942044

  9. Changes due to cooking and sterilization in low molecular weight carbohydrates in immature seeds of five cultivars of common bean.

    PubMed

    Słupski, Jacek; Gębczyński, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Immature seeds of five bean cultivars (flageolet-type and those intended for dry-seed production) were assessed for changes in water-soluble carbohydrates including raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) due to boiling, sterilization, and storage of the sterilized product. About 100 g fresh weight of edible portion of fresh bean seeds contained 2449.3-3182.6 mg total soluble sugars, of which RFOs comprised 44-49%. The highest amounts of these compounds were found in the seeds of the cultivars Laponia and Mona. The dominant oligosaccharide was stachyose. Boiling fresh seeds to consumption consistency reduced total soluble sugars and RFOs: average values were 57% and 55%, respectively. Sterilization in cans resulted in 65% reductions of both total soluble sugars and RFOs. In general, there were no changes in the content of soluble sugars in canned and sterilized products stored for 12 months. PMID:24392956

  10. New stable QTLs for berry weight do not colocalize with QTLs for seed traits in cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In grapevine, as in other fruit crops, fruit size and seed content are key components of yield and quality; however, very few Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for berry weight and seed content (number, weight, and dry matter percentage) have been discovered so far. To identify new stable QTLs for marker-assisted selection and candidate gene identification, we performed simultaneous QTL detection in four mapping populations (seeded or seedless) with various genetic backgrounds. Results For berry weight, we identified five new QTLs, on linkage groups (LGs) 1, 8, 11, 17 and 18, in addition to the known major QTL on LG 18. The QTL with the largest effect explained up to 31% of total variance and was found in two genetically distant populations on LG 17, where it colocalized with a published putative domestication locus. For seed traits, besides the major QTLs on LG 18 previously reported, we found four new QTLs explaining up to 51% of total variance, on LGs 4, 5, 12 and 14. The previously published QTL for seed number on LG 2 was found related in fact to sex. We found colocalizations between seed and berry weight QTLs only for the major QTL on LG 18 in a seedless background, and on LGs 1 and 13 in a seeded background. Candidate genes belonging to the cell number regulator CNR or cytochrome P450 families were found under the berry weight QTLs on LGs 1, 8, and 17. The involvement of these gene families in fruit weight was first described in tomato using a QTL-cloning approach. Several other interesting candidate genes related to cell wall modifications, water import, auxin and ethylene signalling, transcription control, or organ identity were also found under berry weight QTLs. Conclusion We discovered a total of nine new QTLs for berry weight or seed traits in grapevine, thereby increasing more than twofold the number of reliable QTLs for these traits available for marker assisted selection or candidate gene studies. The lack of colocalization between berry and

  11. Rapid Identification of Candidate Genes for Seed Weight Using the SLAF-Seq Method in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xinxin; Jiang, Chenghong; Yang, Jie; Wang, Lijun; Wu, Xiaoming; Wei, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Seed weight is a critical and direct trait for oilseed crop seed yield. Understanding its genetic mechanism is of great importance for yield improvement in Brassica napus breeding. Two hundred and fifty doubled haploid lines derived by microspore culture were developed from a cross between a large-seed line G-42 and a small-seed line 7–9. According to the 1000-seed weight (TSW) data, the individual DNA of the heaviest 46 lines and the lightest 47 lines were respectively selected to establish two bulked DNA pools. A new high-throughput sequencing technology, Specific Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq), was used to identify candidate genes of TSW in association analysis combined with bulked segregant analysis (BSA). A total of 1,933 high quality polymorphic SLAF markers were developed and 4 associated markers of TSW were procured. A hot region of ~0.58 Mb at nucleotides 25,401,885–25,985,931 on ChrA09 containing 91 candidate genes was identified as tightly associated with the TSW trait. From annotation information, four genes (GSBRNA2T00037136001, GSBRNA2T00037157001, GSBRNA2T00037129001 and GSBRNA2T00069389001) might be interesting candidate genes that are highly related to seed weight. PMID:26824525

  12. Rapid Identification of Candidate Genes for Seed Weight Using the SLAF-Seq Method in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xinxin; Jiang, Chenghong; Yang, Jie; Wang, Lijun; Wu, Xiaoming; Wei, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Seed weight is a critical and direct trait for oilseed crop seed yield. Understanding its genetic mechanism is of great importance for yield improvement in Brassica napus breeding. Two hundred and fifty doubled haploid lines derived by microspore culture were developed from a cross between a large-seed line G-42 and a small-seed line 7-9. According to the 1000-seed weight (TSW) data, the individual DNA of the heaviest 46 lines and the lightest 47 lines were respectively selected to establish two bulked DNA pools. A new high-throughput sequencing technology, Specific Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq), was used to identify candidate genes of TSW in association analysis combined with bulked segregant analysis (BSA). A total of 1,933 high quality polymorphic SLAF markers were developed and 4 associated markers of TSW were procured. A hot region of ~0.58 Mb at nucleotides 25,401,885-25,985,931 on ChrA09 containing 91 candidate genes was identified as tightly associated with the TSW trait. From annotation information, four genes (GSBRNA2T00037136001, GSBRNA2T00037157001, GSBRNA2T00037129001 and GSBRNA2T00069389001) might be interesting candidate genes that are highly related to seed weight. PMID:26824525

  13. Glucose, stem dry weight variation, principal component and cluster analysis for some agronomic traits among 16 regenerated Crotalaria juncea accessions for potential cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Morris, J Bradley; Antonious, George F

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify candidate sunn hemp accessions having high concentrations of cellulose for use as parents in breeding for cellulose and to determine variability for glucose content and some important agronomic traits among sunn hemp accessions. Since sunn hemp is an under-utilized species, glucose content and agronomic trait variation is essential for the identification of superior sunn hemp accessions for use as potential ethanol for biofuel. Sixteen sunn hemp accessions including the following plant introductions (expressed as glucose concentration) and stem dry weights were studied. "Sixteen sunn hemp accessions including the following plant introductions (expressed as glucose concentration) and stem dry weights were studied." In addition, to verify variability, these traits plus morphological, phenological, and seed reproductive traits were analyzed using multivariate and cluster analysis. The accessions, PI 250487, PI 337080, and PI 219717 produced the highest glucose concentrations (859, 809, and 770 mg g(-1) stem dry weight, respectively), however PI 468956 produced the highest stem dry weight (258 g). Branching significantly correlated with foliage (r(2) = 0.67**) and relative maturity (r(2) = 0.60*), while maturity had a significantly negative correlation with seed number (r(2) = -0.67**) and plant width (r(2) = -0.53*) as well. Seed number significantly correlated with plant width (r(2) = 0.57*). Average linkage cluster analysis grouped the 16 sunn hemp accessions into well-defined phenotypes with four distinct seed-producing groups and one outlier. Based on multivariate and cluster analysis, sufficient variation among these16 sunn hemp accessions exists to support the development of cellulosic ethanol producing cultivars with improved architecture, early maturity, seed yield, glucose concentrations, and stem dry weights. PMID:23356343

  14. Coffee seeds isotopic composition as a potential proxy to evaluate Minas Gerais, Brazil seasonal variations during seed maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Carla; Maia, Rodrigo; Brunner, Marion; Carvalho, Eduardo; Prohaska, Thomas; Máguas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Plant seeds incorporate the prevailing climate conditions and the physiological response to those conditions (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted). During coffee seed maturation the biochemical compounds may either result from accumulated material in other organs such as leafs and/or from new synthesis. Accordingly, plant seeds develop in different stages along a particular part of the year, integrating the plant physiology and seasonal climatic conditions. Coffee bean is an extremely complex matrix, rich in many products derived from both primary and secondary metabolism during bean maturation. Other studies (De Castro and Marraccini, 2006) have revealed the importance of different coffee plant organs during coffee bean development as transfer tissues able to provide compounds (i.e. sugars, organic acids, etc) to the endosperm where several enzymatic activities and expressed genes have been reported. Moreover, it has been proved earlier on that green coffee bean is a particularly suitable case-study (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted), not only due to the large southern hemispheric distribution but also because of this product high economic interest. The aim of our work was to evaluate the potential use of green coffee seeds as a proxy to seasonal climatic conditions during coffee bean maturation, through an array of isotopic composition determinations. We have determined carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition (by IRMS - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) as well as strontium isotope abundance (by MC-ICP-MS; Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), of green coffee beans harvested at different times at Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isotopic composition data were combined with air temperature and relative humidity data registered during the coffee bean developmental period, and with the parent rock strontium isotopic composition. Results indicate that coffee seeds indeed integrate the interactions

  15. Using soil seed banks to assess temporal patterns of genetic variation in invasive plant populations

    PubMed Central

    Fennell, Mark; Gallagher, Tommy; Vintro, Luis Leon; Osborne, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Most research on the genetics of invasive plant species has focused on analyzing spatial differences among existing populations. Using a long-established Gunnera tinctoria population from Ireland, we evaluated the potential of using plants derived from seeds associated with different soil layers to track genetic variation through time. This species and site were chosen because (1) G. tinctoria produces a large and persistent seed bank; (2) it has been present in this locality, Sraheens, for ∼90 years; (3) the soil is largely undisturbed; and (4) the soil's age can be reliably determined radiometrically at different depths. Amplified fragment length polymorphic markers (AFLPs) were used to assess differences in the genetic structure of 75 individuals sampled from both the standing population and from four soil layers, which spanned 18 cm (estimated at ∼90 years based on 210Pb and 137Cs dating). While there are difficulties in interpreting such data, including accounting for the effects of selection, seed loss, and seed migration, a clear pattern of lower total allele counts, percentage polymorphic loci, and genetic diversity was observed in deeper soils. The greatest percentage increase in the measured genetic variables occurred prior to the shift from the lag to the exponential range expansion phases and may be of adaptive significance. These findings highlight that seed banks in areas with long-established invasive populations can contain valuable genetic information relating to invasion processes and as such, should not be overlooked. PMID:24967082

  16. Multiple loci and epistases control genetic variation for seed dormancy in weedy rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xing-You; Kianian, Shahryar F; Foley, Michael E

    2004-01-01

    Weedy rice has much stronger seed dormancy than cultivated rice. A wild-like weedy strain SS18-2 was selected to investigate the genetic architecture underlying seed dormancy, a critical adaptive trait in plants. A framework genetic map covering the rice genome was constructed on the basis of 156 BC(1) [EM93-1 (nondormant breeding line)//EM93-1/SS18-2] individuals. The mapping population was replicated using a split-tiller technique to control and better estimate the environmental variation. Dormancy was determined by germination of seeds after 1, 11, and 21 days of after-ripening (DAR). Six dormancy QTL, designated as qSD(S)-4, -6, -7-1, -7-2, -8, and -12, were identified. The locus qSD(S)-7-1 was tightly linked to the red pericarp color gene Rc. A QTL x DAR interaction was detected for qSD(S)-12, the locus with the largest main effect at 1, 11, and 21 DAR (R(2) = 0.14, 0.24, and 0.20, respectively). Two, three, and four orders of epistases were detected with four, six, and six QTL, respectively. The higher-order epistases strongly suggest the presence of genetically complex networks in the regulation of variation for seed dormancy in natural populations and make it critical to select for a favorable combination of alleles at multiple loci in positional cloning of a target dormancy gene. PMID:15082564

  17. Selecting sagebrush seed sources for restoration in a variable climate: ecophysiological variation among genotypes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities dominate a large fraction of the United States and provide critical habitat for a number of wildlife species of concern. Loss of big sagebrush due to fire followed by poor restoration success continues to reduce ecological potential of this ecosystem type, particularly in the Great Basin. Choice of appropriate seed sources for restoration efforts is currently unguided due to knowledge gaps on genetic variation and local adaptation as they relate to a changing landscape. We are assessing ecophysiological responses of big sagebrush to climate variation, comparing plants that germinated from ~20 geographically distinct populations of each of the three subspecies of big sagebrush. Seedlings were previously planted into common gardens by US Forest Service collaborators Drs. B. Richardson and N. Shaw, (USFS Rocky Mountain Research Station, Provo, Utah and Boise, Idaho) as part of the Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project. Seed sources spanned all states in the conterminous Western United States. Germination, establishment, growth and ecophysiological responses are being linked to genomics and foliar palatability. New information is being produced to aid choice of appropriate seed sources by Bureau of Land Management and USFS field offices when they are planning seed acquisitions for emergency post-fire rehabilitation projects while considering climate variability and wildlife needs.

  18. Weight variation before and after surgery in Parkinson's disease: a noradrenergic modulation?

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Joana; Moura, Eduardo; Vieira-Coelho, Maria Augusta; Garrett, Carolina

    2012-08-01

    Changes in the nutritional profile of patients with Parkinson's disease have been reported before and after deep brain stimulation surgery. The major determinants of the weight variation in Parkinson's disease are not yet understood, and the mechanism seems complex. Based on the influence of the sympathetic nervous system in metabolic syndrome obesity, the intent of the present review is to consider the role of noradrenergic modulation on weight variations in Parkinson's disease. In this review the authors raise the following hypothesis: weight variation in Parkinson's disease before and after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus could be influenced by noradrenergic interaction between the locus coeruleus, subthalamic nucleus, and hypothalamic nucleus. PMID:22700383

  19. Do key dimensions of seed and seedling functional trait variation capture variation in recruitment probability?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Plant functional traits provide a mechanistic basis for understanding ecological variation among plant species and the implications of this variation for species distribution, community assembly and restoration. 2. The bulk of our functional trait understanding, however, is centered on traits rel...

  20. Fermi energy 5f spectral weight variation in uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Denlinger, J.D.; Clack, J.; Allen, J.W.

    1997-04-01

    Uranium materials display a wide range of thermal, electrical and magnetic properties, often exotic. For more than a decade there have been efforts to use photoemission spectroscopy to develop a systematic and unified understanding of the 5f electron states giving rise to this behavior. These efforts have been hampered by a paucity of systems where changes in transport properties are accompanied by substantial spectral changes, so as to allow an attempt to correlate the two kinds of properties within some model. The authors have made resonant photoemission measurements to extract the 5f spectral weight in three systems which show varying degrees of promise of permitting such an attempt, Y{sub 1{minus}x}U{sub x}Pd{sub 3}, U(Pd{sub x}Pt{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 3} and U(Pd{sub x}Cu{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 5}. They have also measured U 4f core level spectra. The 4f spectra can be modeled with some success by the impurity Anderson model (IAM), and the 5f spectra are currently being analyzed in that framework. The IAM characterizes the 5f-electrons of a single site by an f binding energy {epsilon}{sub f}, an f Coulomb interaction and a hybridization V to conduction electrons. Latent in the model are the phenomena of 5f mixed valence and the Kondo effect.

  1. The atomic weight and isotopic composition of boron and their variation in nature

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1993-08-01

    The boron isotopic composition and atomic weight value and their variation in nature are reviewed. Questions are raised about the previously recommended value and the uncertainty for the atomic weight. The problem of what constitutes an acceptable range for normal material and what should then be considered geologically exceptional is discussed. Recent measurements make some previous decisions in need of re-evaluation.

  2. 48 CFR 245.7309-8 - Variations in quantity or weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... weight. 245.7309-8 Section 245.7309-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7309-8 Variations in quantity or weight. When property is sold on a “unit price” basis,...

  3. Phenotypic and genetic variation in leptin as determinants of weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Rudich, A; Meiner, V; Schwarzfuchs, D; Sharon, N; Shpitzen, S; Blüher, M; Stumvoll, M; Thiery, J; Fiedler, GM; Friedlander, Y; Leiterstdorf, E; Shai, I

    2016-01-01

    Aims Over 75% of obese subjects fail to maintain their weight following weight loss interventions. We aimed to identify phenotypic and genetic markers associated with weight maintenance/regain following a dietary intervention. Subjects and methods In the 2-year Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial, we assessed potential predictors for weight changes during the ‘weight loss phase’ (0–6 months) and the ‘weight maintenance/regain phase’ (7–24 months). Genetic variation between study participants was studied using single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the leptin gene (LEP). Results Mean weight reduction was −5.5% after 6 months, with a mean weight regain of 1.2% of baseline weight during the subsequent 7–24 months. In a multivariate regression model, higher baseline high-molecular-weight adiponectin was the only biomarker predictor of greater success in 0- to 6-month weight loss (β = −0.222, P-value = 0.044). In a multivariate regression model adjusted for 6-month changes in weight and various biomarkers, 6-month plasma leptin reduction exhibited the strongest positive association with 6-month weight loss (β = 0.505, P-value<0.001). Conversely, 6-month plasma leptin reduction independently predicted weight regain during the following 18 months (β = −0.131, P-value<.013). Weight regain was higher among participants who had a greater (top tertiles) 6-month decrease in both weight and leptin (+ 3.4% (95% confidence interval 2.1–4.8)) as compared with those in the lowest combined tertiles (+ 0.2% (95% confidence interval −1.1 to 1.4)); P-value<0.001. Weight regain was further significantly and independently associated with genetic variations in LEP (P = 0.006 for both rs4731426 and rs2071045). Adding genetic data to the phenotypic multivariate model increased its predictive value for weight regain by 34%. Conclusion Although greater reduction in leptin concentrations during the initial phase of a dietary intervention is associated with

  4. Purification and partial characterization of low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein from the seeds of Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sushila; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Jithesh, O; Khan, Meraj Alam; Yadav, R N; Srinivasan, A; Singh, Tej P; Yadav, Savita

    2011-12-01

    The watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seeds are highly nutritive and contain large amount of proteins and many beneficial minerals such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, iron, phosphorous, zinc etc. In various parts of the world, C. lanatus seed extracts are used to cure cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and blood pressure. C. lanatus seed extracts are also used as home remedy for edema and urinary tract problems. In this study, we isolated protein fraction of C. lanatus seeds using various protein separation methods. We successfully purified a low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein using chromatographic methods followed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS identification. This is the first report of purification of a vicilin like polypeptide from C. lanatus seeds. In next step, we extracted mRNA from immature seeds and reverse transcribed it using suitable forward and reverse primers for purified glycoprotein. The PCR product was analysed on 1% agarose gel and was subsequently sequenced by Dideoxy DNA sequencing method. An amino acid translation of the gene is in agreement with amino acid sequences of the identified peptides. PMID:21989589

  5. The Tracking Study: Description of a randomized controlled trial of variations on weight tracking frequency in a behavioral weight loss program

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Crow, Scott J.; Brelje, Kerrin L.; Pacanowski, Carly R.; Gavin, Kara L.; Smolenski, Derek J.

    2014-01-01

    Observational evidence from behavioral weight control trials and community studies suggests that greater frequency of weighing oneself, or tracking weight, is associated with better weight outcomes. Conversely, it has also been suggested that frequent weight tracking may have a negative impact on mental health and outcomes during weight loss, but there are minimal experimental data that address this concern in the context of an active weight loss program. To achieve the long-term goal of strengthening behavioral weight loss programs, the purpose of this randomized controlled trial (the Tracking Study) is to test variations on frequency of self-weighing during a behavioral weight loss program, and to examine psychosocial and mental health correlates of weight tracking and weight loss outcomes. Three hundred thirty-nine overweight and obese adults were recruited and randomized to one of three variations on weight tracking frequency during a 12-month weight loss program with a 12-month follow-up: daily weight tracking, weekly weight tracking, or no weight tracking. The primary outcome is weight in kilograms at 24 months. The weight loss program integrates each weight tracking instruction with standard behavioral weight loss techniques (goal setting, self-monitoring, stimulus control, dietary and physical activity enhancements, lifestyle modifications); participants in weight tracking conditions were provided with wireless Internet technology (Wi-Fi-enabled digital scales and touchscreen personal devices) to facilitate weight tracking during the study. This paper describes the study design, intervention features, recruitment, and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the Tracking Study. PMID:25533727

  6. Within-litter variation in birth weight: impact of nutritional status in the sow*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Tao-lin; Zhu, Yu-hua; Shi, Meng; Li, Tian-tian; Li, Na; Wu, Guo-yao; Bazer, Fuller W.; Zang, Jian-jun; Wang, Feng-lai; Wang, Jun-jun

    2015-01-01

    Accompanying the beneficial improvement in litter size from genetic selection for high-prolificacy sows, within-litter variation in birth weight has increased with detrimental effects on post-natal growth and survival due to an increase in the proportion of piglets with low birth-weight. Causes of within-litter variation in birth weight include breed characteristics that affect uterine space, ovulation rate, degree of maturation of oocytes, duration of time required for ovulation, interval between ovulation and fertilization, uterine capacity for implantation and placentation, size and efficiency of placental transport of nutrients, communication between conceptus/fetus and maternal systems, as well as nutritional status and environmental influences during gestation. Because these factors contribute to within-litter variation in birth weight, nutritional status of the sow to improve fetal-placental development must focus on the following three important stages in the reproductive cycle: pre-mating or weaning to estrus, early gestation and late gestation. The goal is to increase the homogeneity of development of oocytes and conceptuses, decrease variations in conceptus development during implantation and placentation, and improve birth weights of newborn piglets. Though some progress has been made in nutritional regulation of within-litter variation in the birth weight of piglets, additional studies, with a focus on and insights into molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology from the aspects of maternal growth and offspring development, as well as their regulation by nutrients provided to the sow, are urgently needed. PMID:26055904

  7. Seed size and nutrient content variation for twenty-one invasive and native California and Oregon taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed characteristics are important for seed dispersal, seedling growth, and seedling survival, but there is little information on seed characteristics for several taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Family: Asteraceae). We determined seed characteristics and their variation from natural populations of twen...

  8. Statistical studies on high molecular weight pullulan production in solid state fermentation using jack fruit seed.

    PubMed

    Sugumaran, K R; Sindhu, R V; Sukanya, S; Aiswarya, N; Ponnusami, V

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of the work was to optimize the medium variables for maximizing pullulan production using jack fruit seed as a low cost substrate by Aureobasidium pullulans in solid state fermentation. Effects of K2HPO4, KH2PO4, ZnSO4·5H2O, MgSO4·7H2O, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4·5H2O, yeast extract, moisture content (%, w/w) in the production medium on pullulan production were studied using Plackett-Burman design. Production of pullulan was significantly affected by the medium variables namely KH2PO4, ZnSO4·5H2O, NaCl and moisture content (%, w/w). Then screened variables were optimized by Box Behnken experiment design. The pullulan obtained was characterized and confirmed by FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan was found to be 1.733×10(6) g/mol by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). PMID:23987421

  9. Rapid Development of Adaptive, Climate-Driven Clinal Variation in Seed Mass in the Invasive Annual Forb Echium plantagineum L.

    PubMed Central

    Konarzewski, Tara K.; Murray, Brad R.; Godfree, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    We examined adaptive clinal variation in seed mass among populations of an invasive annual species, Echium plantagineum, in response to climatic selection. We collected seeds from 34 field populations from a 1,000 km long temperature and rainfall gradient across the species' introduced range in south-eastern Australia. Seeds were germinated, grown to reproductive age under common glasshouse conditions, and progeny seeds were harvested and weighed. Analyses showed that seed mass was significantly related to climatic factors, with populations sourced from hotter, more arid sites producing heavier seeds than populations from cooler and wetter sites. Seed mass was not related to edaphic factors. We also found that seed mass was significantly related to both longitude and latitude with each degree of longitude west and latitude north increasing seed mass by around 2.5% and 4% on average. There was little evidence that within-population or between-population variation in seed mass varied in a systematic manner across the study region. Our findings provide compelling evidence for development of a strong cline in seed mass across the geographic range of a widespread and highly successful invasive annual forb. Since large seed mass is known to provide reproductive assurance for plants in arid environments, our results support the hypothesis that the fitness and range potential of invasive species can increase as a result of genetic divergence of populations along broad climatic gradients. In E. plantagineum population-level differentiation has occurred in 150 years or less, indicating that the adaptation process can be rapid. PMID:23284621

  10. Plant-Species Diversity Correlates with Genetic Variation of an Oligophagous Seed Predator

    PubMed Central

    Laukkanen, Liisa; Mutikainen, Pia; Muola, Anne; Leimu, Roosa

    2014-01-01

    Several characteristics of habitats of herbivores and their food-plant communities, such as plant-species composition and plant quality, influence population genetics of both herbivores and their host plants. We investigated how different ecological and geographic factors affect genetic variation in and differentiation of 23 populations of the oligophagous seed predator Lygaeus equestris (Heteroptera) in southwestern Finland and in eastern Sweden. We tested whether genetic differentiation of the L. equestris populations was related to the similarity of vegetation, and whether there was more within-population genetic variation in habitats with a high number of plant species or in those with a large population of the primary food plant, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria. We also tested whether genetic differentiation of the populations was related to the geographic distance, and whether location of the populations on islands or on mainland, island size, or population size affected within-population genetic variation. Pairwise FST ranged from 0 to 0.1 indicating low to moderate genetic differentiation of populations. Differentiation increased with geographic distance between the populations, but was not related to the similarity of vegetation between the habitats. Genetic variation within the L. equestris populations did not increase with the population size of the primary food plant. However, the more diverse the plant community the higher was the level of genetic variation within the L. equestris population. Furthermore, the level of genetic variation did not vary significantly between island and mainland populations. The effect of the population size on within-population genetic variation was related to island size. Usually small populations are susceptible to loss of genetic variation, but small L. equestris populations on large islands seemed to maintain a relatively high level of within-population genetic variation. Our findings suggest that, in addition to geographic

  11. Contribution of low-molecular-weight antioxidants to the antioxidant capacity of raw and processed lentil seeds.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Orozco, Rebeca; Zieliński, Henryk; Piskuła, Mariusz K

    2003-10-01

    In this study four cultivars of lentil originating from Spain were examined: cv Paula, cv Agueda, cv Almar and cv Alcor. Since consumption of these seeds after heat treatment and as sprouts has been popularised, the impact of cooking (up to 30 min) and germination process (in dark, at 25 degrees C, for up to 4 days) on peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC) and Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the processed seeds was addressed. Also, changes in the content of low-molecular-weight antioxidants (LMWA) and soluble proteins in the course of cooking and germination were studied. The analyzed LMWAwere: total phenolics, tocopherols (alpha-T, beta-T, gamma-T, delta-T), reduced glutathione, and L-ascorbic acid. On the basis of the results obtained, the contribution of LMWA and soluble proteins to the PRTC and TEAC of raw, cooked, and germinated lentil seeds was calculated by multiple mean values for the content of investigated compounds and their relative potential with respect to Trolox. The results showed avery high molar percentage contribution of phenolic compounds and low contribution of tocopherols, glutathione, soluble proteins, and ascorbate (only in germinated seeds) to the total TEAC and total PRTC calculated as a sum of data provided for phosphate-buffered and 80% methanolic extracts of raw and processed lentil seeds. PMID:14609082

  12. Assessment of Genetically Modified Soybean in Relation to Natural Variation in the Soybean Seed Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Joseph D.; Alexander, Danny C.; Ward, Dennis P.; Ryals, John A.; Mitchell, Matthew W.; Wulff, Jacob E.; Guo, Lining

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops currently constitute a significant and growing part of agriculture. An important aspect of GM crop adoption is to demonstrate safety and equivalence with respect to conventional crops. Untargeted metabolomics has the ability to profile diverse classes of metabolites and thus could be an adjunct for GM crop substantial equivalence assessment. To account for environmental effects and introgression of GM traits into diverse genetic backgrounds, we propose that the assessment for GM crop metabolic composition should be understood within the context of the natural variation for the crop. Using a non-targeted metabolomics platform, we profiled 169 metabolites and established their dynamic ranges from the seeds of 49 conventional soybean lines representing the current commercial genetic diversity. We further demonstrated that the metabolome of a GM line had no significant deviation from natural variation within the soybean metabolome, with the exception of changes in the targeted engineered pathway. PMID:24170158

  13. Variation of form and dimension for minimum weight design of continuous structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkes, Uwe-Laszlo

    1987-01-01

    A method for minimum weight design of arbitrary loaded continuous structures is outlined. The optimization algorithm is controlled by a fast fully stressed design procedure and the structure stress-strain behavior is computed by the finite element code. Both are completed by pre and postprocessors. To reach the minimum weight design two tasks are carried out: dimension variation in general elementwise thickness adaption to the stress limits; and form variation by element reduction in the finite element set. For comparison of the convergence behavior and accuracy of this code, results are compared with Michell reference structures and their analytic solutions. The method shows fast convergence and reaches the theoretical optimum efficiently.

  14. Genetic variation of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host.) from Iran using RAPD-PCR and SDS-PAGE of seed proteins.

    PubMed

    Farkhari, M; Naghavi, M R; Pyghambari, S A; Sabokdast

    2007-09-01

    Genetic variation of 28 populations of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host.), collected from different parts of Iran, were evaluated using both RAPD-PCR and SDS-PAGE of seed proteins. The diversity within and between populations for the three-band High Molecular Weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin pattern were extremely low. Out of 15 screened primers of RAPD, 14 primers generated 133 reproducible fragments which among them 92 fragments were polymorphic (69%). Genetic similarity calculated from the RAPD data ranged from 0.64 to 0.98. A dendrogram was prepared on the basis of a similarity matrix using the UPGMA algorithm and separated the 28 populations into two groups. Confusion can happen between populations with the same origin as well as between populations of very diverse geographical origins. Our results show that compare to seed storage protein, RAPD is suitable for genetic diversity assessment in Ae. cylindrica populations. PMID:19090190

  15. Variation and inheritance pattern in cone and seed characteristics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) for evaluation of genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Hakan; Topaçoğlu, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is one of the most common and important forest tree species in Turkey due to usefulness of its wood to many commercial uses. This species is classified as one of the economically important tree species for Turkish Forestry in the "National Tree Breeding and Seed Production Program". The objective of the present study was to investigate variation and inheritance pattern in cone and seed characteristics of Scots pine and to evaluate variation in cone and seed characters within and among clones and grafts. The results showed that maximum CV among the clones was found for SWe (21.95), FS (16.99) and CWe (16.88). According to the results of SAS, variation between the clones is averaged at 19.2% and variation within the clones is averaged at 24.4 %. Variation between the clones ranged from 3.6% (SW) to 34.5% (TC) and variation within the clones ranged from 12.3% (SW) to 38.1% (WL). For CW, AL, AW, WW and TC, genetic variation among clones was higher than within clones. When the results of study like compared with results obtained from natural populations, it was seen that genetic variability in seed orchard which was subjected to study was quite low. This case may have dangerous results for the future of forests. PMID:26521555

  16. Variation in body weight and total length among families of fingerling white bass after communal rearing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation in body weight and total length among 15 families of Phase I white bass Morone chrysops was evaluated in a communal pond. Family pedigrees were determined a posteriori using microsatellite molecular markers and trait heritabilities (h2) were estimated. Fingerlings averaged 36.7 (+ or - 2...

  17. Trypsin inhibitor from tamarindus indica L. seeds reduces weight gain and food consumption and increases plasmatic cholecystokinin levels

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento Campos Ribeiro, Joycellane Alline; Serquiz, Alexandre Coellho; dos Santos Silva, Priscila Fabíola; Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; Sampaio, Tarcísio Bruno Montenegro; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Oliveira, Adeliana Silva; Machado, Richele Janaina Araújo; Maciel, Bruna Leal Lima; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; dos Santos, Elizeu Antunes; de Araújo Morais, Ana Heloneida

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30–60%) following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated. PMID:25789523

  18. Evaluation of between- and within-breed variation in measures of weight-age relationships.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T G; Kaps, M; Cundiff, L V; Ferrell, C L

    1991-08-01

    Variation between- and within-breeds was evaluated for accretion of weight from birth to 7 yr of age and hip height at 7 yr for 1,577 cows sired by Angus, Brahman, Brown Swiss, Charolais, Chianina, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, Maine Anjou, Pinzgauer, Sahiwal, Simmental, South Devon, and Tarentaise and from either Angus or Hereford dams. Parameters from Wt = A (1 - Be-kt) were estimated by nonlinear regressions and provided estimates of mature body weight (A) and rate of weight accretion relative to change in age (k) for each cow. Actual weight at birth, linear adjusted weights at 200, 365, and 500 d of age, ratios of these weights to mature weight, and height at the hip at 7 yr were analyzed. Beyond 20 mo, weights were adjusted to a constant condition score within breed of sire. Variance and covariance components were derived for breed (sigma 2 b), sires within breed (sigma 2 s), and progeny within sire (sigma 2 w). For all traits, the sigma 2 b estimate of genetic variance ranged from two to four times greater than the variance component for sigma 2 s. Between-breed heritabilities were .91 +/- .27 and .54 +/- .17 for A and k, respectively. Estimates of within-breed heritability for these two traits were .61 +/- .11 and .27 +/- .09. Estimates, both between- and within-breed, of the genetic correlation between A and k were moderate to large and negative; those between A and weights at 200, 365, and 500 d and height at maturity were large and positive. Selection for immediate change in measures of growth would be most effective among breeds. Sufficient direct genetic variation exists between breeds to enhance breed improvement of growth characters through breed substitution. Greater opportunity to alter the shape of the growth curve exists through selection for within-breed selection than through breed substitution. PMID:1894547

  19. Length variations of i-type low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes in diploid wheats.

    PubMed

    Long, H; Huang, Z; Wei, Y-M; Yan, Z-H; Ma, Z-C; Zheng, Y-L

    2008-04-01

    Allelic variation of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) is associated with the significant differences of dough quality in bread and durum wheat, and has been widely evaluated at protein level in wheat and its relatives. In this study, a PCR primer set, targeting the high variable repetitive domains, was employed to assay the length variation of i-type LMW-GS genes in the A-genomes of diploid wheats, the diploid progenitors of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. A total of 71 accessions of diploid wheats, belonging to two wild and one cultivated species, were investigated. The higher variations of repetitive length in i-type LMW-GS genes were found in diploid wheats with Nei's genetic variation index (H) of 0.834. The two wild species, T. boeoticum and T. urartu, were found to possess the similar degree of variability, with the Nei's genetic variation index of 0.806 and 0.783, respectively. Less variations were detected in T. monococcum (H = 0.680), a cultivated species domesticated from T. boeoticum. The sufficient variations found in this study could be used as valuable sources for the enrichment of the genetic variations and the alteration of flour-processing properties of the cultivated wheat. To our knowledge, it was the first time that an analysis of length variation targeting a particular group of genes of LMW-GS complex multigene families was conducted. PMID:18666554

  20. Inter-individual and seasonal weight variation in rural Nepali women.

    PubMed

    Panter-Brick, C

    1995-04-01

    Changes in body weight were examined for non-pregnant women in rural Nepal, using 183 anthropometric measures between the early winter and monsoon seasons in 1982, 1982-83, 1990-91 and 1993. The women gained weight when work loads decreased after the monsoon, but despite substantial changes in total energy expenditure, which were out of phase with changes in food intake, seasonal changes were small, averaging only up to 2.6% of initial body weight. There were notable differences between individual women, changes in body weight ranging from -5.6 kg to 4.8 kg. Weight change was examined with respect to lactation status, age, body mass index, mid upper arm circumference and skinfolds as well as total energy expenditure and intake. Nonlactating women, very thin women and women aged under 25 years gained more weight than their counterparts, both before and after the monsoon. Data for a sub-sample in 1982-83 indicated that women who maintained high physical activity levels throughout the year were less prone to weight loss than women whose activity fluctuated between seasons. Initial energy reserves, age-related maturation factors, levels of physical activity and energy intake combine to produce the notable inter-individual variation in body weight changes observed in this population. PMID:7738083

  1. The effect of within-year variation in acorn crop size on seed harvesting by avian hoarders.

    PubMed

    Pesendorfer, Mario B; Koenig, Walter D

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in resource distribution affect the movement and foraging behavior of many animals. In the case of animal-dispersed trees, numerous studies have addressed masting-the synchronized variation in seed production between years-but the fitness consequences of spatial variation in seed production within a year are unclear. We investigated the effects of variable acorn production in a population of valley oaks (Quercus lobata) on the composition and behavior of the avian-disperser community. We found that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica), high-quality dispersers that store seeds in the ground, were attracted to, and exhibited increased per capita dispersal rates from, trees with large acorn crops. In contrast, acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus), low-quality dispersers that store acorns in trees where they are unlikely to germinate, increased per capita hoarding rates but did not attend trees with large seed crops in higher numbers, suggesting that the two species responded to resources on different spatial scales. Antagonistic interactions within and between species increased with the number of birds attending a tree, resulting in a potential cost for foraging birds, but did not reduce dispersal rates. Using a simulation model, we estimated that trees with large initial crops experienced a greater proportion (77 %) of high-quality seed dispersal events than trees with small crops (62 %). Our findings provide support for a mechanistic link between seed production and foraging behavior of seed dispersers as predicted by the predator dispersal hypothesis for the functional consequences of variable seed production in hoarder-dispersed trees. PMID:26809620

  2. SEED QUALITY ASSURANCE IN MAIZE BREEDING PROGRAMS: TESTS TO EXPLAIN VARIATIONS IN CORN INBREDS AND POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) breeders are interested in evaluating seed quality of their inbred lines, and seed companies rigorously test the seed quality of the hybrids they produce. Seed quality has a strong relationship to field emergence. There is little information, however, on the influence of the se...

  3. Spatial variations in the associations of term birth weight with ambient air pollution in Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jun; Tu, Wei; Tedders, Stuart H

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight is an important indicator of overall infant health and a strong predictor of infant morbidity and mortality, and low birth weight (LBW) is a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have examined the associations of birth weight with ambient air pollution, but the results were inconsistent. In this study, a spatial statistical technique, geographically weighted regression (GWR) is applied to explore the spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with concentrations of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the State of Georgia, USA adjusted for gestational age, parity, and six other socioeconomic, behavioral, and land use factors. The results show considerable spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with both pollutants. Significant positive, non-significant, and significant negative relationships between birth weight and concentrations of each air pollutant are all found in different parts of the study area, and the different types of the relationships are affected by the socioeconomic and urban characteristics of the communities where the births are located. The significant negative relationships between birth weight and O3 indicate that O3 is a significant risk factor of LBW and these associations are primarily located in less-urbanized communities. On the other hand, PM2.5 is a significant risk factor of LBW in the more-urbanized communities with higher family income and education attainment. These findings suggest that environmental and health policies should be adjusted to address the different effects of air pollutants on birth outcomes across different types of communities to more effectively and efficiently improve birth outcomes. PMID:27104672

  4. Genetic background and environmental conditions drive metabolic variation in wild type and transgenic soybean (Glycine max) seeds.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Hagai; Shir, Ofer M; Yu, Yang; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Han, Tianfu; Amir, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    The metabolic profiles and composition of storage reserves of agricultural crop seeds are strongly regulated by heritable and environmental factors. Yet, very little is known about the genetic and environmental determinants of adaptive metabolic variation amongst wild type as well as transgenic seed populations derived from the same genetic background, grown under natural field conditions. The goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of natural environmental conditions on wild type and transgenic soybean seeds expressing a feedback-insensitive form of cystathionine γ-synthase, a methionine main regulatory enzyme. The seeds were grown in four geographically distinct habitats in China and then assayed for primary metabolic profiles using gas chromatography mass spectrometry, morphological traits and storage reserve accumulation. The analyses revealed changes in the levels of primary metabolites which evidently exhibited high correlation to methionine regardless of changes in environmental conditions. The environment, however, constituted a major determinant of metabolic profiles amongst seeds, as much more metabolites were observed to be affected by this variable, particularly along the north-to-south latitudinal gradient. The observations suggest that metabolic variation amongst seeds grown under natural field conditions depends upon the complex relationships existing amongst their genetic background and the environmental conditions characterizing their cultivation areas. PMID:27038216

  5. Variation in the terrestrial isotopic composition and atomic weight of argon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, John Karl

    2014-01-01

    The isotopic composition and atomic weight of argon (Ar) are variable in terrestrial materials. Those variations are a source of uncertainty in the assignment of standard properties for Ar, but they provide useful information in many areas of science. Variations in the stable isotopic composition and atomic weight of Ar are caused by several different processes, including (1) isotope production from other elements by radioactive decay (radiogenic isotopes) or other nuclear transformations (e.g., nucleogenic isotopes), and (2) isotopic fractionation by physical-chemical processes such as diffusion or phase equilibria. Physical-chemical processes cause correlated mass-dependent variations in the Ar isotope-amount ratios (40Ar/36Ar, 38Ar/36Ar), whereas nuclear transformation processes cause non-mass-dependent variations. While atmospheric Ar can serve as an abundant and homogeneous isotopic reference, deviations from the atmospheric isotopic ratios in other Ar occurrences limit the precision with which a standard atomic weight can be given for Ar. Published data indicate variation of Ar atomic weights in normal terrestrial materials between about 39.7931 and 39.9624. The upper bound of this interval is given by the atomic mass of 40Ar, as some samples contain almost pure radiogenic 40Ar. The lower bound is derived from analyses of pitchblende (uranium mineral) containing large amounts of nucleogenic 36Ar and 38Ar. Within this interval, measurements of different isotope ratios (40Ar/36Ar or 38Ar/36Ar) at various levels of precision are widely used for studies in geochronology, water–rock interaction, atmospheric evolution, and other fields.

  6. Genetic variation and seed transfer guidelines for ponderosa pine in the Ochoco and Malheur National Forests of central Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, F.C.; Weber, J.C.

    1994-02-01

    Adaptive genetic variation in seed and seedling traits was evaluated for 280 families from 220 locations. Factor scores from three principal components were related by multiple regression to latitude, longitude, elevation, slope, and aspect of the seed source, and by classification analysis to seed zone and elevation band in seed zone. Location variance was significant but not large. Multiple regression equations explained less than 50 percent of location variance. Slope-aspect variables were important.

  7. Genome-wide association study of Arabidopsis thaliana identifies determinants of natural variation in seed oil composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The renewable source of highly reduced carbon provided by plant triacylglycerols fills an ever increasing demand for food, biodiesel and industrial chemicals. Each of these uses requires different compositions of fatty acid proportions in seed oils. Identifying the genes responsible for variation in...

  8. Conflicting selection from fire and seed predation drives fine-scaled phenotypic variation in a widespread North American conifer

    PubMed Central

    Talluto, Matthew V.; Benkman, Craig W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that evolutionary processes shape ecological dynamics on relatively short timescales (eco-evolutionary dynamics), but demonstrating these effects at large spatial scales in natural landscapes has proven difficult. We used empirical studies and modeling to investigate how selective pressures from fire and predispersal seed predation affect the evolution of serotiny, an ecologically important trait. Serotiny is a highly heritable key reproductive trait in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia), a conifer that dominates millions of hectares in western North America. In these forests, the frequency of serotiny determines postfire seedling density with corresponding community- and ecosystem-level effects. We found that serotinous individuals have a selective advantage at high fire frequencies and low predation pressure; however, very high seed predation shifted the selective advantage to nonserotinous individuals even at high fire frequencies. Simulation modeling suggests that spatial variation in the frequency of serotiny results from heterogeneity in these two selective agents. These results, combined with previous findings showing a negative association between the density of seed predators and the frequency of serotiny at both landscape and continental scales, demonstrate that contemporary patterns in serotiny reflect an evolutionary response to conflicting selection pressures from fire and seed predation. Thus, we show that variation in the frequency of a heritable polygenic trait depends on spatial variation in two dominant selective agents, and, importantly, the effects of the local trait variation propagate with profound consequences to the structure and function of communities and ecosystems across a large landscape. PMID:24979772

  9. Conflicting selection from fire and seed predation drives fine-scaled phenotypic variation in a widespread North American conifer.

    PubMed

    Talluto, Matthew V; Benkman, Craig W

    2014-07-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that evolutionary processes shape ecological dynamics on relatively short timescales (eco-evolutionary dynamics), but demonstrating these effects at large spatial scales in natural landscapes has proven difficult. We used empirical studies and modeling to investigate how selective pressures from fire and predispersal seed predation affect the evolution of serotiny, an ecologically important trait. Serotiny is a highly heritable key reproductive trait in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia), a conifer that dominates millions of hectares in western North America. In these forests, the frequency of serotiny determines postfire seedling density with corresponding community- and ecosystem-level effects. We found that serotinous individuals have a selective advantage at high fire frequencies and low predation pressure; however, very high seed predation shifted the selective advantage to nonserotinous individuals even at high fire frequencies. Simulation modeling suggests that spatial variation in the frequency of serotiny results from heterogeneity in these two selective agents. These results, combined with previous findings showing a negative association between the density of seed predators and the frequency of serotiny at both landscape and continental scales, demonstrate that contemporary patterns in serotiny reflect an evolutionary response to conflicting selection pressures from fire and seed predation. Thus, we show that variation in the frequency of a heritable polygenic trait depends on spatial variation in two dominant selective agents, and, importantly, the effects of the local trait variation propagate with profound consequences to the structure and function of communities and ecosystems across a large landscape. PMID:24979772

  10. Seasonal Variation in the Fate of Seeds under Contrasting Logging Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marina; Rodrigues, Ricardo R.; do Couto, Hilton T. Z.; Galetti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Seed predators and dispersers may drive the speed and structure of forest regeneration in natural ecosystems. Rodents and ants prey upon and disperse seeds, yet empirical studies on the magnitude of these effects are lacking. Here, we examined the role of ants and rodents on seed predation in 4 plant species in a successional gradient on a tropical rainforest island. We found that (1) seeds are mostly consumed rather than dispersed; (2) rates of seed predation vary by habitat, season, and species; (3) seed size, shape, and hardness do not affect the probability of being depredated. Rodents were responsible for 70% of seed predation and were negligible (0.14%) seed dispersers, whereas ants were responsible for only 2% of seed predation and for no dispersal. We detected seasonal and habitat effects on seed loss, with higher seed predation occurring during the wet season and in old-growth forests. In the absence of predators regulating seed-consumer populations, the densities of these resilient animals explode to the detriment of natural regeneration and may reduce diversity and carrying capacity for consumers and eventually lead to ecological meltdown. PMID:24614500

  11. Seed set, berry weight, and yield interactions in highbush blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yields and berry weights of two widely grown, commercial, highbush blueberry cultivars, ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’, were evaluated for 3 or more harvests every season over ten years, and seed set was determined at each harvest over the last four. Across 10 years, yield and berry weight had no significant...

  12. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Intraspecific Variation and Thermotolerance Classification Using in Vitro Seed Germination Assay

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Seepaul, Ramdeo; Macoon, Bisoondat; Reddy, K. Raja; Baldwin, Brian

    2011-06-01

    Cardinal temperatures for plant processes have been used for thermotolerance screening of genotypes, geoclimatic adaptability determination and phenological prediction. Current simulation models for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) utilize single cardinal temperatures across genotypes for both vegetative and reproductive processes although in-tra-specific variation exists among genotypes. An experiment was conducted to estimate the cardinal temperatures for seed germination of 14 diverse switchgrass genotypes and to classify genotypes for temperature tolerance. Stratified seeds of each genotype were germinated at eight constant temperatures from 10 °C to 45 °C under a constant light intensity of 35 μmol m-2s-1 for 12 hd-1. Germination wasmore » recorded at 6-h intervals in all treatments. Maximum seed germination (MSG) and germination rate (GR), estimated by fitting Sigmoidal function to germination-time series data, varied among genotypes. Quadratic and bilinear models best described the MSG and GR responses to temperature, respectively. The mean cardinal temperatures, Tmin, Topt, and Tmax, were 8.1, 26.6, and 45.1 °C for MSG and 11.1, 33.1, and 46.0 °C for GR, respectively. Cardinal temperatures for MSG and GR; however, varied significantly among genotypes. Genotypes were classified as sensitive (Cave-in-Rock, Dacotah, Expresso, Forestburg˜, Kanlow, ˜Sunburst, Trailblazer, and ˜Tusca™), intermediate (˜Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, ˜Shawnee™, and Shelter™) and tolerant (˜Summer) to high temperature based on cumulative temperature response index (CTRI) estimated by summing individual response indices estimated from the MSG and GR cardinal temperatures. Similarly, genotypes were also classified as sensitive (Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Dacotah, Shawnee, Shelter and Summer), moderately sensitive (Cave-in-rock, Forestburg, Kanlow, Sunburst, and Tusca), moderately tolerant (Trailblazer), and tolerant (Expresso) to low temperatures. The cardinal

  13. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Intraspecific Variation and Thermotolerance Classification Using in Vitro Seed Germination Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Seepaul, Ramdeo; Macoon, Bisoondat; Reddy, K. Raja; Baldwin, Brian

    2011-06-01

    Cardinal temperatures for plant processes have been used for thermotolerance screening of genotypes, geoclimatic adaptability determination and phenological prediction. Current simulation models for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) utilize single cardinal temperatures across genotypes for both vegetative and reproductive processes although in-tra-specific variation exists among genotypes. An experiment was conducted to estimate the cardinal temperatures for seed germination of 14 diverse switchgrass genotypes and to classify genotypes for temperature tolerance. Stratified seeds of each genotype were germinated at eight constant temperatures from 10 °C to 45 °C under a constant light intensity of 35 μmol m-2s-1 for 12 hd-1. Germination was recorded at 6-h intervals in all treatments. Maximum seed germination (MSG) and germination rate (GR), estimated by fitting Sigmoidal function to germination-time series data, varied among genotypes. Quadratic and bilinear models best described the MSG and GR responses to temperature, respectively. The mean cardinal temperatures, Tmin, Topt, and Tmax, were 8.1, 26.6, and 45.1 °C for MSG and 11.1, 33.1, and 46.0 °C for GR, respectively. Cardinal temperatures for MSG and GR; however, varied significantly among genotypes. Genotypes were classified as sensitive (Cave-in-Rock, Dacotah, Expresso, Forestburg˜, Kanlow, ˜Sunburst, Trailblazer, and ˜Tusca™), intermediate (˜Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, ˜Shawnee™, and Shelter™) and tolerant (˜Summer) to high temperature based on cumulative temperature response index (CTRI) estimated by summing individual response indices estimated from the MSG and GR cardinal temperatures. Similarly, genotypes were also classified as sensitive (Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Dacotah, Shawnee, Shelter and Summer), moderately sensitive (Cave-in-rock, Forestburg, Kanlow, Sunburst, and Tusca), moderately tolerant (Trailblazer), and

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study of Arabidopsis thaliana Identifies Determinants of Natural Variation in Seed Oil Composition.

    PubMed

    Branham, Sandra E; Wright, Sara J; Reba, Aaron; Linder, C Randal

    2016-05-01

    The renewable source of highly reduced carbon provided by plant triacylglycerols (TAGs) fills an ever increasing demand for food, biodiesel, and industrial chemicals. Each of these uses requires different compositions of fatty acid proportions in seed oils. Identifying the genes responsible for variation in seed oil composition in nature provides targets for bioengineering fatty acid proportions optimized for various industrial and nutrition goals. Here, we characterized the seed oil composition of 391 world-wide, wild accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the 9 major fatty acids in the seed oil and 4 composite measures of the fatty acids. Four to 19 regions of interest were associated with the seed oil composition traits. Thirty-four of the genes in these regions are involved in lipid metabolism or transport, with 14 specific to fatty acid synthesis or breakdown. Eight of the genes encode transcription factors. We have identified genes significantly associated with variation in fatty acid proportions that can be used as a resource across the Brassicaceae. Two-thirds of the regions identified contain candidate genes that have never been implicated in lipid metabolism and represent potential new targets for bioengineering. PMID:26704140

  15. Integration of Experiments across Diverse Environments Identifies the Genetic Determinants of Variation in Sorghum bicolor Seed Element Composition.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Nadia; Ziegler, Greg; Dilkes, Brian P; Brenton, Zachary; Boyles, Richard; Connolly, Erin L; Kresovich, Stephen; Baxter, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality require the sequestration of sufficient element nutrients. The identification of genes and alleles that modify element content in the grains of cereals, including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), is fundamental to developing breeding and selection methods aimed at increasing bioavailable element content and improving crop growth. We have developed a high-throughput work flow for the simultaneous measurement of multiple elements in sorghum seeds. We measured seed element levels in the genotyped Sorghum Association Panel, representing all major cultivated sorghum races from diverse geographic and climatic regions, and mapped alleles contributing to seed element variation across three environments by genome-wide association. We observed significant phenotypic and genetic correlation between several elements across multiple years and diverse environments. The power of combining high-precision measurements with genome-wide association was demonstrated by implementing rank transformation and a multilocus mixed model to map alleles controlling 20 element traits, identifying 255 loci affecting the sorghum seed ionome. Sequence similarity to genes characterized in previous studies identified likely causative genes for the accumulation of zinc, manganese, nickel, calcium, and cadmium in sorghum seeds. In addition to strong candidates for these five elements, we provide a list of candidate loci for several other elements. Our approach enabled the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in strong linkage disequilibrium with causative polymorphisms that can be evaluated in targeted selection strategies for plant breeding and improvement. PMID:26896393

  16. Integration of Experiments across Diverse Environments Identifies the Genetic Determinants of Variation in Sorghum bicolor Seed Element Composition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality require the sequestration of sufficient element nutrients. The identification of genes and alleles that modify element content in the grains of cereals, including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), is fundamental to developing breeding and selection methods aimed at increasing bioavailable element content and improving crop growth. We have developed a high-throughput work flow for the simultaneous measurement of multiple elements in sorghum seeds. We measured seed element levels in the genotyped Sorghum Association Panel, representing all major cultivated sorghum races from diverse geographic and climatic regions, and mapped alleles contributing to seed element variation across three environments by genome-wide association. We observed significant phenotypic and genetic correlation between several elements across multiple years and diverse environments. The power of combining high-precision measurements with genome-wide association was demonstrated by implementing rank transformation and a multilocus mixed model to map alleles controlling 20 element traits, identifying 255 loci affecting the sorghum seed ionome. Sequence similarity to genes characterized in previous studies identified likely causative genes for the accumulation of zinc, manganese, nickel, calcium, and cadmium in sorghum seeds. In addition to strong candidates for these five elements, we provide a list of candidate loci for several other elements. Our approach enabled the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in strong linkage disequilibrium with causative polymorphisms that can be evaluated in targeted selection strategies for plant breeding and improvement. PMID:26896393

  17. Natural variation of fecundity components in a widespread plant with dimorphic seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braza, Rita; Arroyo, J.; García, M. B.

    2010-09-01

    The number and size of seeds are the basis of the quantity and quality components of female reproductive fitness in plants, playing a central role in the evolutionary ecology of life history diversification. In this study we show and analyze the natural variability of several fecundity variables (fruit set, seed production per fruit, seed size, total seed production per plant, and proportion of small seeds) in Plantago coronopus, a widespread, short-lived herb with dimorphic seeds. The structure of such variability was examined at the individual, population (eight locations with different environments within the same region), and life history levels (annual vs perennial), and correlated to soil fertility. There was no divergence associated to the life history for any of the variables studied. Total seed production (the quantity component of female fitness) was correlated with maternal resources, while the size of the large mucilaginous, basal seeds, and the proportion of the small apical seeds (quality component) were more associated to environmental resources. Thus, internal and external resources shape different fitness components, maximizing seed production, and fitting the size and proportion of different kind of seeds to local conditions irrespective of life history. P. coronopus illustrates the versatility of short-lived widespread plants to combine fecundity traits in a flexible manner, in order to increase fitness at each of the many possible habitats they occupy over heterogeneous environments.

  18. Intraspecific variation in seed dispersal of a Neotropical tree and its relationship to fruit and tree traits.

    PubMed

    Augspurger, Carol K; Franson, Susan E; Cushman, Katherine C; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2016-02-01

    The distribution of wind-dispersed seeds around a parent tree depends on diaspore and tree traits, as well as wind conditions and surrounding vegetation. This study of a neotropical canopy tree, Platypodium elegans, explored the extent to which parental variation in diaspore and tree traits explained (1) rate of diaspore descent in still air, (2) distributions of diaspores dispersed from a 40-m tower in the forest, and (3) natural diaspore distributions around the parent tree. The geometric mean rate of descent in still air among 20 parents was highly correlated with geometric mean wing loading(1/2) (r = 0.84). However, diaspore traits and rate of descent predicted less variation in dispersal distance from the tower, although descent rate(-1) consistently correlated with dispersal distance. Measured seed shadows, particularly their distribution edges, differed significantly among six parents (DBH range 62-181 cm) and were best fit by six separate anisotropic dispersal kernels and surveyed fecundities. Measured rate of descent and tree traits, combined in a mechanistic seed dispersal model, did not significantly explain variation among parents in natural seed dispersal distances, perhaps due to the limited power to detect effects with only six trees. Seedling and sapling distributions were at a greater mean distance from the parents than seed distributions; saplings were heavily concentrated at far distances. Variation among parents in the distribution tails so critical for recruitment could not be explained by measured diaspore or tree traits with this sample size, and may be determined more by wind patterns and the timing of abscission in relation to wind conditions. Studies of wind dispersal need to devote greater field efforts at recording the "rare" dispersal events that contribute to far dispersal distances, following their consequences, and in understanding the mechanisms that generate them. PMID:26839686

  19. Variations and controlling factors of the coccolith weight in the Western Pacific Warm Pool over the last 200 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Dan; Liu, Chuanlian

    2016-06-01

    Using a coccolith weight analytic software (Particle Analyser), we analyze most abundant coccolith species in a sediment core from the central Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) and calculate coccolith size and weight variations over the last 200 ka. These variations are compared with the trends of sea surface temperature (SST), primary productivity (PP), sea surface salinity (SSS), and insolation. Our results demonstrate that the size and weight of the coccoliths varied in response to variations of these factors, and their average total weight is primarily related to the relative abundance of the dominant species GEO ( Gephyrocapsa oceanica). The variation in weight of EMI ( Emiliania huxleyi) and GEE ( Gephyrocapsa ericsonii) are mainly influenced by nutrients, and the variation of GEM ( G. muellerae conformis) and GEO ( G. oceanica) weight are mainly influenced by SST. For all of the taxa weight, PP and SST present apparent precession or semi-precession cycles, we consider that the mono-coccolith weight of the Equatorial Western Pacific is primarily affected by precession drived thermocline and nutricline variation.

  20. Weighted pseudometric discriminatory power improvement using a Bayesian logistic regression model based on a variational method.

    PubMed

    Ksantini, Riadh; Ziou, Djemel; Colin, Bernard; Dubeau, François

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of a Bayesian logistic regression model to compute the weights of a pseudo-metric, in order to improve its discriminatory capacity and thereby increase image retrieval accuracy. In the proposed Bayesian model, the prior knowledge of the observations is incorporated and the posterior distribution is approximated by a tractable Gaussian form using variational transformation and Jensen's inequality, which allow a fast and straightforward computation of the weights. The pseudo-metric makes use of the compressed and quantized versions of wavelet decomposed feature vectors, and in our previous work, the weights were adjusted by classical logistic regression model. A comparative evaluation of the Bayesian and classical logistic regression models is performed for content-based image retrieval as well as for other classification tasks, in a decontextualized evaluation framework. In this same framework, we compare the Bayesian logistic regression model to some relevant state-of-the-art classification algorithms. Experimental results show that the Bayesian logistic regression model outperforms these linear classification algorithms, and is a significantly better tool than the classical logistic regression model to compute the pseudo-metric weights and improve retrieval and classification performance. Finally, we perform a comparison with results obtained by other retrieval methods. PMID:18084057

  1. Interspecific variation in persistence of buried weed seeds follows trade-offs among physiological, chemical and physical seed defences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil seedbanks drive infestations of annual weeds, yet weed management focuses largely on seedling mortality. As weed seedbanks increasingly become reservoirs of herbicide resistance, species-specific seedbank management approaches will be essential. Limited understanding of interspecific variation ...

  2. Toxicity of anthraquinones: differential effects of rumex seed extracts on rat organ weights and biochemical and haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rabigul; Mamat, Yultuz; Ismayil, Ilyar; Yan, Ming; Kadir, Mahsutjan; Abdugheny, Abdujilil; Rapkat, Haximjan; Niyaz, Mardan; Ali, Yusupjan; Abay, Sirapil

    2015-05-01

    The genus Rumex and related species such as Rheum and Polygonum are widely used as medicinal herbs and foods. They contain anthraquinones (AQ) such as emodin and chrysophanol as active ingredients, and there is concern about the toxicity of these compounds. This study evaluated the chronic effects of Rumex patientia seed aqueous and ethanolic extracts, in male and female rats separately, on organ weights and over 30 haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, immediately after 14-week administration and after a further period of 15 days without drug treatment. Adverse changes were associated with long-term AQ administration, and these focussed on the liver, lung and kidney, but after 15-day convalescence, most had reverted to normal. In general, male rats appeared to be more susceptible than female rats at similar doses. The water extract produced no irreversible changes, which may reflect the lower dose of the AQ constituents or the presence of different ancillary compounds, and supports the traditional method of extracting Rumex seeds with water. In conclusion, ethanolic extracts of R. patientia caused irreversible pathological changes at very high doses (4000mg/kg), but lower doses and aqueous extracts produced either non-significant or reversible changes. Long-term administration of high doses of AQ extracts over a long period of time should be avoided until further assurances can be given, and given other existing reports of reproductive toxicity, should be avoided altogether during pregnancy. PMID:25753342

  3. Variation in seed oil and protein content among diverse cotton (Gossypium sp.) germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed embryos are comprised of oil and protein reserves that serve as a vital carbon, nitrogen and energy source during seed germination. These storage compounds also are a source of commercial vegetable oil and protein meal. Most historical surveys for quantifying either seed oil and/or prot...

  4. Tocopherols in soybean seeds: genetic variation and environmental effects in field-grown crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fraction of tocopherol (T) in soybean seeds present as alpha-tocopherol (aT) has been shown to increase several fold as a result of relatively mild increases in temperature or extreme drought during seed maturation, whereas total tocopherols (Ttot) remain approximately constant. These observatio...

  5. GENETIC VARIATION FOR SEED MINERAL AND PROTEIN CONCENTRATION IN DIVERSE GERMPLASM OF CHICKPEA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is an important food legume that can provide significant amounts of dietary minerals and protein to humans. In order to better understand the genetic diversity that exists for these nutrients, we have assessed seed mineral concentration and seed protein concentration in 2...

  6. Variation in Yield of Near-isogenic Soybean Lines for High and Low Seed Coat Peroxidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peroxidase is an enzyme present in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed coats and is characterized as either high (dominant allele) or low (recessive allele) activity. Cultivar Cutler 71 is a mixture of high and low seed coat peroxidase genotypes. Mechanical mixtures of 1 high: 1 low peroxidase...

  7. Isoflavones in soybean seeds: Genetic variation and environmental effects in field-grown crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both controlled environment and field studies indicate that isoflavones, a dietary source of a class of bioactive phytochemicals present primarily in soybean seeds, increase greatly when seeds mature under cooler conditions or when plants are well-watered. Environmental effects can be superimposed ...

  8. Geographic variation in seed traits within and among forty-two species of Rhododendron (Ericaceae) on the Tibetan plateau: relationships with altitude, habitat, plant height, and phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongji; Wang, Jianjian; Lai, Liming; Jiang, Lianhe; Zhuang, Ping; Zhang, Lehua; Zheng, Yuanrun; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2014-01-01

    Seed mass and morphology are plant life history traits that influence seed dispersal ability, seeding establishment success, and population distribution pattern. Southeastern Tibet is a diversity center for Rhododendron species, which are distributed from a few hundred meters to 5500 m above sea level. We examined intra- and interspecific variation in seed mass and morphology in relation to altitude, habitat, plant height, and phylogeny. Seed mass decreased significantly with the increasing altitude and increased significantly with increasing plant height among populations of the same species. Seed mass differed significantly among species and subsections, but not among sections and subgenera. Seed length, width, surface area, and wing length were significantly negative correlated with altitude and significantly positive correlated with plant height. Further, these traits differed significantly among habitats and varied among species and subsection, but not among sections and subgenera. Species at low elevation had larger seeds with larger wings, and seeds became smaller and the wings of seeds tended to be smaller with the increasing altitude. Morphology of the seed varied from flat round to long cylindrical with increasing altitude. We suggest that seed mass and morphology have evolved as a result of both long-term adaptation and constraints of the taxonomic group over their long evolutionary history. PMID:24963385

  9. Influence of some sow characteristics on within-litter variation of piglet birth weight.

    PubMed

    Quesnel, H; Brossard, L; Valancogne, A; Quiniou, N

    2008-12-01

    Within-litter variation of piglet birth weight (BW0) is associated with an increased piglet mortality and a high variability in pig weight at weaning and weight or age at slaughter. Data collected in two experimental herds were used to quantify within-litter variability in BW0 and to assess the influence of factors mainly related to the sow. Within 24 h after birth, piglets born alive were individually weighed and stillborn piglets were collectively (first data set) or individually (second data set) weighed. The first data set was restricted to litters with no or only one stillborn piglet (3338 litters). It was used to assess the influence of genetic selection on BW0 variation by comparing litter characteristics before (1994 to 1996) and after (2001 to 2004) the development of hyperprolific sows in this herd. The second data set included all litters (n = 1596) from sows born between 2000 and 2004. For each litter, mean BW0 (mBW0) and its coefficient of variation (CVBW0) were calculated. Then, variance analyses were performed to test the influence of litter size, parity, year of sow birth and season at conception. Prolificacy improvement was associated with an increased CVBW0 in litters from pure Large White (LW) and Landrace × Large White (LR × LW) crossbred sows. The CVBW0 averaged 21% and was significantly influenced by litter size and parity. It increased from 15% to 24% when litter size varied from less than 10 piglets to more than 15 piglets. The proportion of small piglets (i.e. weighing less than 1 kg) increased concomitantly. The CVBW0 was not repeatable from a parity to the following. It was lowest for first and second parities (20%) and thereafter increased progressively. The CVBW0 was positively related to sow's backfat thickness gain during gestation. Taking into account litter size, parity, year of sow birth and season at conception explained 20% of BW0 variation. Thus, major part of heterogeneity is due to other factors, presumably including embryo

  10. A reexamination of age-related variation in body weight and morphometry of Maryland nutria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Mollett, T.A.; McGowan, K.R.; Daugherty, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Age-related variation in morphometry has been documented for many species. Knowledge of growth patterns can be useful for modeling energetics, detecting physiological influences on populations, and predicting age. These benefits have shown value in understanding population dynamics of invasive species, particularly in developing efficient control and eradication programs. However, development and evaluation of descriptive and predictive models is a critical initial step in this process. Accordingly, we used data from necropsies of 1,544 nutria (Myocastor coypus) collected in Maryland, USA, to evaluate the accuracy of previously published models for prediction of nutria age from body weight. Published models underestimated body weights of our animals, especially for ages <3. We used cross-validation procedures to develop and evaluate models for describing nutria growth patterns and for predicting nutria age. We derived models from a randomly selected model-building data set (n = 192-193 M, 217-222 F) and evaluated them with the remaining animals (n = 487-488 M, 642-647 F). We used nonlinear regression to develop Gompertz growth-curve models relating morphometric variables to age. Predicted values of morphometric variables fell within the 95% confidence limits of their true values for most age classes. We also developed predictive models for estimating nutria age from morphometry, using linear regression of log-transformed age on morphometric variables. The evaluation data set corresponded with 95% prediction intervals from the new models. Predictive models for body weight and length provided greater accuracy and less bias than models for foot length and axillary girth. Our growth models accurately described age-related variation in nutria morphometry, and our predictive models provided accurate estimates of ages from morphometry that will be useful for live-captured individuals. Our models offer better accuracy and precision than previously published models

  11. Investigation of variation of precipitation by the cloud seeding using WRF-CHEM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, S.; Lee, K.; Lee, C.; Ahn, K.; Choi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Resent observational and numerical studies demonstrate a significant effect of aerosols on the amount of precipitation and its spatial distribution. Airborne cloud seeding experiments using the AgI particles have been carried out in Korea. The Weather Research Forecast model coupled with chemistry mechanism and aerosol modules (WRF-CHEM) is used to investigate the effects of the airborne cloud seeding on precipitation. The sensitivity tests (EXP 1, 2, and 3) of the WRF-CHEM were performed on the airborne cloud seeding experiments. EXP 1 is a control run from the original WRF model which has no aerosol effect. EXP 2 and EXP 3 are the WRF-CHEM simulations coupled with RADM2/MADE-SORGAM modules and CBMZ/MOSAIC modules, respectively. The AgI seeding was considered as an emission of primary PM2.5 in the simulations. The unspeciated primary PM2.5 are of 10000 μg/(m2s) at 0.5 km about the ground level to simulate the cloud seeding in both cases. The results of sensitivity experiments with the chemistry mechanism and aerosol schemes showed that for the six hours after the seeding, the accumulated amounts of precipitation increased about 14% for EXP 2 and 45% for EXP3, compared to EXP 1. Also, the simulations showed that the seeding brought initial precipitation time forward aerosol by 10 minutes.

  12. Interspecific and annual variation in pre-dispersal seed predation by a granivorous bird in two East Asian hackberries, Celtis biondii and Celtis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, T; Masaki, T; Isagi, Y; Kikuzawa, K

    2012-05-01

    Pre-dispersal seed predation by granivorous birds has potential to limit fruit removal and subsequent seed dispersal by legitimate avian seed dispersers in bird-dispersed plants, especially when the birds form flocks. We monitored pre-dispersal seed predation by the Japanese grosbeak, Eophona personata, of two bird-dispersed hackberry species (Cannabaceae), Celtis biondii (four trees) and Celtis sinensis (10 trees), for 3 years (2005, 2007 and 2008) in a fragmented forest in temperate Japan. Throughout the 3 years, predation was more intense on C. biondii, which, as a consequence, lost a larger part of its fruit crop. Grosbeaks preferred C. biondii seeds that had a comparatively lower energy content and lower hardness than C. sinensis, suggesting an association between seed hardness and selective foraging by grosbeaks. In C. biondii, intensive predation markedly reduced fruit duration and strongly limited fruit removal by seed dispersers, especially in 2007 and 2008. In C. sinensis, seed dispersers consumed fruits throughout the fruiting seasons in all 3 years. In C. biondii, variation in the timing of grosbeak migration among years was associated with annual variation in this bird's effects on fruit removal. Our results demonstrate that seed predation by flocks of granivorous birds can dramatically disrupt seed dispersal in fleshy-fruited plants and suggest the importance of understanding their flocking behaviour. PMID:22136589

  13. Evapotranspiration partitioning and variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production in arid region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning is useful in accurately determining water use of the female and male parents and improving irrigation management of maize for hybrid seed production. Sap fl...

  14. Image deblurring associated with shearlet sparsity and weighted anisotropic total variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiaohong, Liu; Bin, Li; Min, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Image deblurring is one of the classical problems in image processing. The main purpose of image deblurring is to restore the images corrupted by blur and additive noise while preserving edges and details. We focus on the nonblind image deblurring (NBID) problem. In order to obtain good deblurred images, we propose an NBID method based on a compound regularization model associated with the shearlet-based sparsity and the weighted anisotropic total variation. Based on this model, we present an alternative iterative scheme which consists of the operator splitting and penalty techniques. The split Bregman-based multivariable minimization iteration is introduced to optimize the proposed NBID inverse problem. Compared with some previous methods, the experiments demonstrate the efficiency and viability of the proposed method for preserving sharp edges and structural details of the image while mitigating the artifacts.

  15. Total variation-regularized weighted nuclear norm minimization for hyperspectral image mixed denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhaojun; Wang, Qiang; Wu, Zhenghua; Shen, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Many nuclear norm minimization (NNM)-based methods have been proposed for hyperspectral image (HSI) mixed denoising due to the low-rank (LR) characteristics of clean HSI. However, the NNM-based methods regularize each eigenvalue equally, which is unsuitable for the denoising problem, where each eigenvalue stands for special physical meaning and should be regularized differently. However, the NNM-based methods only exploit the high spectral correlation, while ignoring the local structure of HSI and resulting in spatial distortions. To address these problems, a total variation (TV)-regularized weighted nuclear norm minimization (TWNNM) method is proposed. To obtain the desired denoising performance, two issues are included. First, to exploit the high spectral correlation, the HSI is restricted to be LR, and different eigenvalues are minimized with different weights based on the WNNM. Second, to preserve the local structure of HSI, the TV regularization is incorporated, and the alternating direction method of multipliers is used to solve the resulting optimization problem. Both simulated and real data experiments demonstrate that the proposed TWNNM approach produces superior denoising results for the mixed noise case in comparison with several state-of-the-art denoising methods.

  16. QTL Location and Epistatic Effect Analysis of 100-Seed Weight Using Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rongsheng; Hu, Jiahui; Han, Heyu; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Chunyan; Chen, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) is a main aim of soybean breeding. The 100-seed weight is a critical factor for soybean yield. To facilitate genetic analysis of quantitative traits and to improve the accuracy of marker-assisted breeding in soybean, a valuable mapping population consisting of 194 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) was developed. In these lines, different chromosomal segments of the Chinese cultivar Suinong 14 were substituted into the genetic background of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) ZYD00006. Based on these CSSLs, a genetic map covering the full genome was generated using 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, twelve main effect QTLs (qSW-B1-1/2/3, qSW-D1b-1/2, qSW-D2-1/2, qSW-G-1/2/3, qSW-M-2 and qSW-N-2) underlying 100-seed weight were identified in 2011 and 2012. The epistatic effects of pairwise interactions between markers were analyzed in 2011 and 2012. The results clearly demonstrated that these CSSLs could be used to identify QTLs, and that an epistatic analysis was able to detect several sites with important epistatic effects on 100-seed weight. Thus, we identified loci that will be valuable for improving soybean 100-seed weight. These results provide a valuable foundation for identifying the precise location of genes of interest, and for designing cloning and marker-assisted selection breeding strategies targeting the 100-seed weight of soybean. PMID:26934088

  17. Energy-weighted Amplitude Variation with Offset: A new AVO attribute for low impedance gas sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfour, Mohammed; Yoon, Wang Jung; Jang, SeongHyung

    2016-06-01

    Amplitude Variation with Offset (AVO) is a technique that has been widely used as a reliable indicator of hydrocarbon expressions in seismic data. The technique uses mathematical approximations and approaches in order to estimate variations in seismic amplitude as a function of incidence angle, and related them to lithology and pore-fluids. In this study, a new AVO attribute is presented. The Energy-weighted AVO attribute uses Zoeppritz approximations and exploits the fact that hydrocarbon-bearing sediments show anomalous seismic responses relative to their backgrounds. The new AVO attribute emphasizes this hydrocarbon-associated effect and attenuates the background signal. In addition, the fact that the attribute integrates the signatures of conventional AVO attributes (intercept × gradient) with seismic data makes the discrimination of hydrocarbon anomalies from other anomalies caused by anomalous lithologies such as coal, carbonates or salt, straightforward. More interestingly, the new attribute can be applied to both prestack and poststack data. This indeed would solve several problems and difficulties encountered with prestack data, as prestack data are generally less readily available, and have a much lower signal to noise ratio. The process has been examined using synthetic data generated from Zoeppritz equations, and then applied to real prestack and poststack data. At all stages, promising results have been derived and the hydrocarbon effect and extent could be successfully predicted, also the AVO effect of hydrocarbons could be investigated even in the poststack data.

  18. Robust dynamic myocardial perfusion CT deconvolution using adaptive-weighted tensor total variation regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Changfei; Zeng, Dong; Bian, Zhaoying; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Lijun; Feng, Qianjin; Liang, Zhengrong; Ma, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic myocardial perfusion computed tomography (MPCT) is a promising technique for diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease by assessing the myocardial perfusion hemodynamic maps (MPHM). Meanwhile, the repeated scanning of the same region results in a relatively large radiation dose to patients potentially. In this work, we present a robust MPCT deconvolution algorithm with adaptive-weighted tensor total variation regularization to estimate residue function accurately under the low-dose context, which is termed `MPD-AwTTV'. More specifically, the AwTTV regularization takes into account the anisotropic edge property of the MPCT images compared with the conventional total variation (TV) regularization, which can mitigate the drawbacks of TV regularization. Subsequently, an effective iterative algorithm was adopted to minimize the associative objective function. Experimental results on a modified XCAT phantom demonstrated that the present MPD-AwTTV algorithm outperforms and is superior to other existing deconvolution algorithms in terms of noise-induced artifacts suppression, edge details preservation and accurate MPHM estimation.

  19. Genetic variation of the weaning weight of beef cattle as a function of accumulated heat stress.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the genetic variation in the weaning weight (WW) of beef cattle as a function of heat stress. The WWs were recorded at approximately 205 days of age in three Brazilian beef cattle populations: Nelore (93,616), Brangus (18,906) and Tropical Composite (62,679). In view of the cumulative nature of WW, the effect of heat stress was considered as the accumulation of temperature and humidity index units (ACTHI) from the animal's birth to weaning. A reaction norm model was used to estimate the (co)variance components of WW across the ACTHI scale. The accumulation of THI units from birth to weaning negatively affected the WW. The definition of accumulated THI units as an environmental descriptor permitted to identify important genetic variation in the WW as a function of heat stress. As evidence of genotype by environment interaction, substantial heterogeneity was observed in the (co)variance components for WW across the environmental gradient. In this respect, the best animals in less stressful environments are not necessarily the best animals in more stressful environments. Furthermore, the response to selection for WW is expected to be lower in more stressful environments. PMID:26061790

  20. Spatial variation in post-dispersal seed removal in an Atlantic forest: Effects of habitat, location and guilds of seed predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianini, Alexander V.; Galetti, Mauro

    2007-11-01

    Studies of post-dispersal seed removal in the Neotropics have rarely examined the magnitude of seed removal by different types of granivores. The relative impact of invertebrates, small rodents, and birds on seed removal was investigated in a 2,178 ha Atlantic forest fragment in southeastern Brazil. We used popcorn kernels ( Zea mays—Poaceae) to investigate seed removal in a series of selective exclosure treatments in a replicated, paired design experiment that included forest understory, gaps, and forest edge sites. We recorded the vegetation around the experimental seed stations in detail in order to evaluate the influence of microhabitat traits on seed removal. Vertebrate granivores (rodents and birds) were surveyed to determine whether granivore abundance was correlated with seed removal levels. Seed removal varied spatially and in unpredictable ways at the study site. Seed encounter and seed use varied with treatments, but not with habitat type. However, seed removal by invertebrates was negatively correlated with gap-related traits, which suggested an avoidance of large gaps by granivorous ants. The abundance of small mammals was remarkably low, but granivorous birds (tinamous and doves) were abundant at the study site. Birds were the main seed consumers in open treatments, but there was no correlation between local granivorous bird abundance and seed removal. These results emphasize the stochastic spatial pattern of seed removal, and, contrary to previous studies, highlight the importance of birds as seed predators in forest habitats.

  1. Geographic variation in speed of seed germination in central Oregon ponderosa pine ( pinus ponderosa' dougl. ex laws). Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.C.; Sorensen, F.C.

    1992-03-01

    Variation in speed of seed germination was investigated among ponderosa pine trees representing 225 locations in central Oregon. Results suggested that at least some of the geographic variation is related to the severity of summer drought. In general, germination speed was greater in locations with short, drought-limited growing seasons. Levels of geographic variation were highest in the region having the steepest precipitation gradients. Most of the variation occurred, however, within locations.

  2. Genetic variation and seed zones of douglas-fir in the Siskiyou National Forest. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.K.; Sugano, A.I.

    1993-07-01

    The provisional seed zones and breeding zones were developed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Siskiyou National Forest in southwestern Oregon. Zones were based on maps of genetic variation patterns obtained by evaluating genotypes of trees from 260 locations in the region. Genotypes controlling growth vigor and growth rhythm were assessed in the common garden. Within the Forest, three breeding blocks were recommended, with different numbers of elevational bands in each block: from 0 to 610 meters, from 611 to 838 meters, and then a series of bands 152 meters wide at higher elevations.

  3. Genetic Variation of Seed Dormancy in Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat-Derived Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of wheat (Triticum aestivum), has very strong seed dormancy and genes controlling the trait may be used in breeding programs to manipulate germinability of improved cultivars. Thus, this research was conducted to initiate a project to identify dormancy genes fro...

  4. Emergence timing and fitness consequences of variation in seed oil composition in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, Sandra E; Linder, C Randal

    2015-01-01

    Early seedling emergence can increase plant fitness under competition. Seed oil composition (the types and relative amounts of fatty acids in the oils) may play an important role in determining emergence timing and early growth rate in oilseeds. Saturated fatty acids provide more energy per carbon atom than unsaturated fatty acids but have substantially higher melting points (when chain length is held constant). This characteristic forms the basis of an adaptive hypothesis that lower melting point seeds (lower proportion of saturated fatty acids) should be favored under colder germination temperatures due to earlier germination and faster growth before photosynthesis, while at warmer germination temperatures, seeds with a higher amount of energy (higher proportion of saturated fatty acids) should be favored. To assess the effects of seed oil melting point on timing of seedling emergence and fitness, high- and low-melting point lines from a recombinant inbred cross of Arabidopsis thaliana were competed in a fully factorial experiment at warm and cold temperatures with two different density treatments. Emergence timing between these lines was not significantly different at either temperature, which aligned with warm temperature predictions, but not cold temperature predictions. Under all conditions, plants competing against high-melting point lines had lower fitness relative to those against low-melting point lines, which matched expectations for undifferentiated emergence times. PMID:25628873

  5. Emergence timing and fitness consequences of variation in seed oil composition in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early seedling emergence can increase plant fitness under competition. Seed oil composition (the types and relative amounts of fatty acids in the oils) may play an important role in determining emergence timing in oilseeds. Saturated fatty acids provide more energy per carbon atom than unsaturated...

  6. Variation in Seed Oil Content of the USDA Lesquerella fendleri Germplasm Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella is considered as an important industrial crop due to hydroxy fatty acid (HFA) content in the seeds. The HFA such as lesquerolic, densipolic and auricolic acids may be used in plastics, surfactants, cosmetics and biolubricants. Lesquerella (Brassicaceae) species are native to North and So...

  7. Variation for seed minerals and protein concentrations in diverse germplasm of lentil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentil (Lens culinaris) is an important food legume that can provide significant amounts of dietary minerals and other essential nutrients to humans. To understand the nutritional diversity that exists within this species, we measured seed mineral and protein concentrations in 350 diverse accessions...

  8. Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging of the Anatomic Variation of Thalamostriate Vein and Its Tributaries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-fen; Li, Jian-ce; Wen, Xin-dong; Ren, Chuan-gen; Cai, Ming; Chen, Cheng-chun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Thalamostriate vein (TSV) is an important tributary of the internal cerebral vein, which mainly drains the basal ganglia and deep medulla. The purpose of this study was to explore the anatomic variation and quality of TSV and its smaller tributaries using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Methods We acquired SWI images in 40 volunteers on a 3.0T MR system using an 8-channel high-resolution phased array coil. The frequencies of the TSV and its tributaries were evaluated. We classified TSV into types I (forming a venous angle) and II (forming a false venous angle). We classified anterior caudate vein (ACV)into types 1 (1 trunk) and 2 (2 trunks) as well as into types A (joiningTSV), B (joining anterior septal vein), and C (joining the angle of both veins). Results The TSV drains the areas of caudate nucleus, internal capsule,lentiform nucleus, external capsule, claustrum, extreme capsule and the white matter of the frontoparietal lobes,except thalamus. The frequencies of the TSV, ACV and transverse caudate vein (ACV) were 92.5%, 87.5% and 63.8%, respectively. We found TSV types I and II in 79.7%, and 20.3% with significantly different constitution ratios (P< 0.05). The most common types of ACV were type 1 (90.0%) and type A (64.3%). Conclusion The complex three-dimensional (3D) venous architecture of TSV and its small tributaries manifests great variation, with significant and practical implications for neurosurgery. PMID:26506095

  9. [Quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya-yue; Zhu, Zai-biao; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-lin

    2015-02-01

    In order to establish the quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds, thirty-one batches of P. suffruticosa seeds from different provenances were selected. The seed rooting rate, seed germination rate, seed purity, seed viability, 1,000-seed weight and moisture content were determined and analyzed through SPSS 20.0 software. Seed rooting rate, seed germination rate and seed purity were selected as the main index for classification, while 1,000-seed weight, seed viability and moisture content could be used as important references. The seed quality grading of P. suffruticosa was set as three grades. The seed quality of each grade should meet following requirements: For the first grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 80%, seed germination rate ≥ 80%, seed purity ≥ 90%, seed viability ≥ 80%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 250 g, moisture content, ≤ 10. For the second grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 50%, seed germination rate ≥ 60%, seed purity ≥ 70%, seed viability ≥ 75%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 225 g, moisture content ≤ 10. For the third grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 20%, seed germination rate ≥ 45%, seed purity ≥ 60%, seed viability ≥ 45%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 205 g, moisture content ≤ 10. The quality classification criteria of P. suffruticosa seeds have been initially established. PMID:26137680

  10. Seed size variability: from carob to carats

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Lindsay A; Santamaria, Luis; Martorell, Toni; Rallo, Joan; Hector, Andy

    2006-01-01

    The seeds of various plants were used as weights because their mass reputedly varies so little. Carob (Ceratonia siliqua), which has given its name to the carat, is particularly famous in this regard. But are carob seeds unusually constant in weight and, if not, how did the myth arise? The variability of seeds sampled from a collection of carob trees (CV=23%) was close to the average of 63 species reviewed from the literature (CV=25%). However, in a perception experiment observers could discriminate differences in carob seed weight of around 5% by eye demonstrating the potential for humans to greatly reduce natural variation. Interestingly, the variability of pre-metrication carat weight standards is also around 5% suggesting that human rather than natural selection gave rise to the carob myth. PMID:17148413

  11. Historic Variations in Winter Indoor Domestic Temperatures and Potential Implications for Body Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, F.; Ucci, M.; Marmot, A.; Wardle, J.; Oreszczyn, T.; Summerfield, A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that the amount of time spent by humans in thermoneutral environments has increased in recent decades. This paper examines evidence of historic changes in winter domestic temperatures in industrialised countries. Future trajectories for indoor thermal comfort are also explored. Whilst methodological differences across studies make it difficult to compare data and accurately estimate the absolute size of historic changes in indoor domestic temperatures, data analysis does suggest an upward trend, particularly in bedrooms. The variations in indoor winter residential temperatures might have been further exacerbated in some countries by a temporary drop in demand temperatures due to the 1970s energy crisis, as well as by recent changes in the building stock. In the United Kingdom, for example, spot measurement data indicate that an increase of up to 1.3°C per decade in mean dwelling winter indoor temperatures may have occurred from 1978 to 1996. The findings of this review paper are also discussed in the context of their significance for human health and well-being. In particular, historic indoor domestic temperature trends are discussed in conjunction with evidence on the links between low ambient temperatures, body energy expenditure and weight gain. PMID:26321874

  12. Genetic variation in adaptive traits and seed transfer zones for Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass) in the northwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Bradley St. Clair, John; Kilkenny, Francis F; Johnson, Richard C; Shaw, Nancy L; Weaver, George

    2013-01-01

    A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation in adaptive traits in Pseudoroegneria spicata, a key restoration grass, in the intermountain western United States. Common garden experiments were established at three contrasting sites with seedlings from two maternal parents from each of 114 populations along with five commercial releases commonly used in restoration. Traits associated with size, flowering phenology, and leaf width varied considerably among populations and were moderately correlated with the climates of the seed sources. Pseudoroegneria spicata populations from warm, arid source environments were smaller with earlier phenology and had relatively narrow leaves than those from mild climates with cool summers, warm winters, low seasonal temperature differentials, high precipitation, and low aridity. Later phenology was generally associated with populations from colder climates. Releases were larger and more fecund than most of the native ecotypes, but were similar to native populations near their source of origin. Differences among native populations associated with source climates that are logical for survival, growth, and reproduction indicate that genetic variation across the landscape is adaptive and should be considered during restoration. Results were used to delineate seed transfer zones and population movement guidelines to ensure adapted plant materials for restoration activities. PMID:24062802

  13. Variation in a single protoplast- and seed-derived population of Lotus corniculatus L.

    PubMed

    Niizeki, M; Ishikawa, R; Saito, K

    1990-12-01

    Lotus comiculatus L. is a widely cultivated, outbreeding, leguminous forage crop. Seventy-one plants, most of which were tetraploid, were regenerated from calli derived from a single protoplast. Their morphological and agronomic traits were evaluated and compared with those of the seed-produced population. The variances of most of the traits in the protoplast-derived (protoclonal) population were smaller than those of the seed-produced population. Mean values of all the traits of the protoclonal population shifted significantly towards lower values. However, new phenotypic variants with higher values than those of the plant initially used for protoplast isolation were also observed. Plants with less hydrocyanic acid (which has a toxic effect on cattle) than the initial plant were obtained in the protoclones. Generally, the pollen fertility of protoclones was significantly low compared with the seed-produced plants. This seems to be partly due to the occurrence of abnormalities in chromosome structure during protoplast and/or callus culture, as suggested by the formation of univalents, lagging, and fragment chromosomes and bridges at metaphase I and anaphase I and II of the regenerants. The changes in chromosome structure, however, did not induce any malformed morphologies. PMID:24221102

  14. Over-Expression of a Tobacco Nitrate Reductase Gene in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Increases Seed Protein Content and Weight without Augmenting Nitrogen Supplying

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao-Qiang; Nie, Xuan-Li; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Heavy nitrogen (N) application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR) in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, “Nongda146” and “Jimai6358”, by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed), respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s) in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying. PMID:24040315

  15. A survey of the castor oil content, seed weight and seed-coat colour on the United States Department of Agriculture germplasm collection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor bean is an important non-edible oilseed crop that can potentially be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Cultivars with a high percentage of oil content in seeds are preferred for biodiesel production. There are 1033 accessions in the USDA castor bean germplasm collection. The range o...

  16. The Effect of Flax Seed (Linum Usitatissimum) Hydroalcoholic Extract on Brain, Weight and Plasma Sexual Hormone Levels in Aged and Young Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bahmanpour, Soghra; Kamali, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Flax is a food and fiber crop that is grown in some regions of the world. Its value will account for its great popularity as a food, medical and cosmetic applications. Flax fibers are taken from the stem of the plant and are two to three times as strong as cotton. In this study, we compared brain weight and plasma sex hormone levels in young and aged mice after the administration of Linum usitatissimum (flax seed) hydro alcoholic extract. Methods: In this study, 32 aged and 32 young mice were divided into 4 groups. Controls remained untreated and experimental groups were fed with flax seed hydroalcoholic extract by oral gavages during 3 weeks. After 3 weeks, the brain was removed and blood samples were collected to measure sex hormone levels by ELISA. Data analysis was done by statistical ANOVA test using SPSS version 18 (P<0.05). Results: The results of this study shows that the brain weight of mice did not change significantly, but the sex hormone levels in the experimental groups in comparison with the control groups increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of flax seed had no effect on the brain weight, but this extract improved the sexual hormone levels. PMID:27516647

  17. Coexistence in tropical forests through asynchronous variation in annual seed production.

    PubMed

    Usinowicz, Jacob; Wright, S Joseph; Ives, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    The storage effect is a mechanism that can facilitate the coexistence of competing species through temporal fluctuations in reproductive output. Numerous natural systems have the prerequisites for the storage effect, yet it has rarely been quantitatively assessed. Here, we investigate the possible importance of the storage effect in explaining the coexistence of tree species in the diverse tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. This tropical forest has been monitored for more than 20 years, and annual seed production is asynchronous among species, a primary requirement for the storage effect. We constructed a model of forest regeneration that includes species-specific recruitment through seed, sapling, and adult stages, and we parameterized the model using data for 28 species for which information is known about seedling germination and survival. Simulations of the model demonstrated that the storage effect alone can be a strong mechanism allowing long-term persistence of species. We also developed a metric to quantify the strength of the storage effect in a way comparable to classical resource partitioning. Applying this metric to seed production data from 108 species, the storage effect reduces the strength of pairwise interspecific competition to 11-43% of the strength of intraspecific competition, thereby demonstrating strong potential to facilitate coexistence. Finally, for a subset of 51 species whose phylogenetic relationships are known, we compared the strength of the storage effect between pairs of species to their phylogenetic similarity. The strength of the storage effect between closely related species was on average no different from distantly related species, implying that the storage effect can be important in promoting the coexistence of even closely related species. PMID:23094379

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study in Arabidopsis thaliana of Natural Variation in Seed Oil Melting Point: A Widespread Adaptive Trait in Plants.

    PubMed

    Branham, Sandra E; Wright, Sara J; Reba, Aaron; Morrison, Ginnie D; Linder, C Randal

    2016-05-01

    Seed oil melting point is an adaptive, quantitative trait determined by the relative proportions of the fatty acids that compose the oil. Micro- and macro-evolutionary evidence suggests selection has changed the melting point of seed oils to covary with germination temperatures because of a trade-off between total energy stores and the rate of energy acquisition during germination under competition. The seed oil compositions of 391 natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, grown under common-garden conditions, were used to assess whether seed oil melting point within a species varied with germination temperature. In support of the adaptive explanation, long-term monthly spring and fall field temperatures of the accession collection sites significantly predicted their seed oil melting points. In addition, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to determine which genes were most likely responsible for the natural variation in seed oil melting point. The GWAS found a single highly significant association within the coding region of FAD2, which encodes a fatty acid desaturase central to the oil biosynthesis pathway. In a separate analysis of 15 a priori oil synthesis candidate genes, 2 (FAD2 and FATB) were located near significant SNPs associated with seed oil melting point. These results comport with others' molecular work showing that lines with alterations in these genes affect seed oil melting point as expected. Our results suggest natural selection has acted on a small number of loci to alter a quantitative trait in response to local environmental conditions. PMID:26865732

  19. Oleosin Isoforms of High and Low Molecular Weights Are Present in the Oil Bodies of Diverse Seed Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Tzen, Jason T. C.; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Chan, Kwai-Lan; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1990-01-01

    Oleosins are unique and major proteins localized on the surface of oil bodies in diverse seed species. We purified five different oleosins (maize [Zea mays L.] KD 16 and KD 18, soybean [Glycine max L.] KD 18 and KD 24, and rapeseed [Brassica campestris L.] KD 20), and raised chicken antibodies against them. These antibodies were used to test for immunological cross-reactivity among oleosins from diverse seed species. Within the same seed species, antibodies raised against one oleosin isoform did not cross-react with the other oleosin isoform (i.e. between maize oleosins KD 16 and KD 18, and between soybean oleosins KD 18 and KD 24). However, the respective antibodies were able to recognize oleosins from other seed species. Where interspecies cross-reactivity occurred, the results suggest that there are at least two immunologically distinct isoforms of oleosins present in diverse seed species, one of lower Mr, and another one of higher Mr. This suggestion is also supported by the relative similarities between the amino acid sequence of a small portion of rapeseed oleosin KD 20 and those of maize oleosins KD 16 and KD 18. In maize kernel, there was a tissue-specific differential presentation of the three oleosins, KD 16, KD 18, and KD 19, in the oil-storing scutellum, embryonic axis, and aleurone layer. The phylogenetic relationship between the high and low Mr isoforms within the same, and among diverse, seed species is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:16667830

  20. Natural Genetic Variation of Seed Micronutrients of Arabidopsis thaliana Grown in Zinc-Deficient and Zinc-Amended Soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochao; Yuan, Lixing; Ludewig, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The quality of edible seeds for human and animal nutrition is crucially dependent on high zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) seed concentrations. The micronutrient bioavailability is strongly reduced by seed phytate that forms complexes with seed cations. Superior genotypes with increased seed Zn concentrations had been identified, but low micronutrient seed levels often prevail when the plants are grown in Zn-deficient soils, which are globally widespread and correlate with human Zn-deficiency. Here, seed Zn concentrations of Arabidopsis accessions grown in Zn-deficient and Zn-amended conditions were measured together with seed Fe and manganese (Mn), in a panel of 108 accessions. By applying genome-wide association, de novo candidate genes potentially involved in the seed micronutrient accumulation were identified. However, a candidate inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase 3 gene (ITPK3), located close to a significant nucleotide polymorphism associated with relative Zn seed concentrations, was dispensable for seed micronutrients accumulation in Col-0. Loss of this gene in itpk3-1 did neither affect phytate seed levels, nor seed Zn, Fe, and Mn. It is concluded that large natural variance of micronutrient seed levels is identified in the population and several accessions maintain high seed Zn despite growth in Zn-deficient conditions. PMID:27507976

  1. Natural Genetic Variation of Seed Micronutrients of Arabidopsis thaliana Grown in Zinc-Deficient and Zinc-Amended Soil

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaochao; Yuan, Lixing; Ludewig, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The quality of edible seeds for human and animal nutrition is crucially dependent on high zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) seed concentrations. The micronutrient bioavailability is strongly reduced by seed phytate that forms complexes with seed cations. Superior genotypes with increased seed Zn concentrations had been identified, but low micronutrient seed levels often prevail when the plants are grown in Zn-deficient soils, which are globally widespread and correlate with human Zn-deficiency. Here, seed Zn concentrations of Arabidopsis accessions grown in Zn-deficient and Zn-amended conditions were measured together with seed Fe and manganese (Mn), in a panel of 108 accessions. By applying genome-wide association, de novo candidate genes potentially involved in the seed micronutrient accumulation were identified. However, a candidate inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase 3 gene (ITPK3), located close to a significant nucleotide polymorphism associated with relative Zn seed concentrations, was dispensable for seed micronutrients accumulation in Col-0. Loss of this gene in itpk3-1 did neither affect phytate seed levels, nor seed Zn, Fe, and Mn. It is concluded that large natural variance of micronutrient seed levels is identified in the population and several accessions maintain high seed Zn despite growth in Zn-deficient conditions. PMID:27507976

  2. Insulin sensitivity regulates autonomic control of heart rate variation independent of body weight in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Bergholm, R; Westerbacka, J; Vehkavaara, S; Seppälä-Lindroos, A; Goto, T; Yki-Järvinen, H

    2001-03-01

    It is unclear whether insulin sensitivity independent of body weight regulates control of heart rate variation (HRV) by the autonomic nervous system. Insulin action on whole-body glucose uptake (M-value) and heart rate variability were measured in 21 normal men. The subjects were divided into 2 groups [normally insulin sensitive (IS, 8.0 +/- 0.4 mg/kg.min) and less insulin sensitive (IR, 5.1 +/- 0.3 mg/kg.min)] based on their median M-value (6.2 mg/kg x min). Spectral power analysis of heart rate variability was performed in the basal state and every 30 min during the insulin infusion. The IS and IR groups were comparable, with respect to age (27 +/- 2 vs. 26 +/- 2 yr), body mass index (22 +/- 1 vs. 23 +/- 1 kg/m(2)), body fat (13 +/- 1 vs. 13 +/- 1%), systolic (121 +/- 16 vs. 117 +/- 14 mm Hg) and diastolic (74 +/- 11 vs. 73 +/- 11 mm Hg) blood pressures, and fasting plasma glucose (5.4 +/- 0.1 vs. 5.5 +/- 0.1 mmol/L) concentrations. Fasting plasma insulin was significantly higher in the IR (30 +/- 4 pmol/L) than in the IS (17 +/- 3 pmol/L, P < 0.05) group. In the IS group, insulin significantly increased the normalized low-frequency (LFn) component, a measure of predominantly sympathetic nervous system activity, from 36 +/- 5 to 48 +/- 4 normalized units (nu; 0 vs. 30-120 min, P < 0.001); whereas the normalized high-frequency (HFn) component, a measure of vagal control of HRV, decreased from 66 +/- 9 to 48 +/- 5 nu (P < 0.001). No changes were observed in either the normalized LF component [35 +/- 5 vs. 36 +/- 2 nu, not significant (NS)] or the normalized HF component (52 +/- 6 vs. 51 +/- 4 nu, NS) in the IR group. The ratio LF/HF, a measure of sympathovagal balance, increased significantly in the IS group (0.92 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.01 +/- 0.04, P < 0.01) but remained unchanged in the IR group (0.91 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.92 +/- 0.03, NS). Heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressures remained unchanged during the insulin infusion in both groups. We conclude that

  3. Induction of a germination specific, low molecular weight, acid phosphatase isozyme with specific phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity in lentil (Lens esculenta) seeds.

    PubMed

    Bose, S K; Taneja, V

    1998-09-29

    A germination specific isozyme of acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) hydrolysing O-phospho-L-Tyrosine, pH optima 5.5 is induced in lentil seeds. When seeds at 0 h, 24 h and 36 h of germination are electrophorezed, native PAGE on specific enzyme staining shows several constitutive isozymes of acid phosphatases. At 48 h, an isozyme is induced which gradually decreases and then disappears at 108 h of germination. The short lived, induced isozyme is present in the embryo and seed-coat but not in the plumule and the radical. Induction of this isozyme is inhibited by cycloheximide and actinomycin-D and increased by plant growth regulators such as heteroauxin and gibbrellic acid treatment during germination. The induced isozyme is a single 30 kD polypeptide, with subunit molecular mass of 25 kD, shows activity for O-phospho-L-Tyrosine. It is strongly inhibited by vanadate (microM), molybdate, tungustate as also by iodoacetate, p-chloromercuribenzoate and diethylpyrocarbonate. This study shows for the first time that the germination induced low molecular weight Acid phosphatase is a Tyrosine phosphatase super family class IV enzyme, having a role in cellular differentiation and development during seed germination. PMID:9784397

  4. A combinatorial approach of comprehensive QTL-based comparative genome mapping and transcript profiling identified a seed weight-regulating candidate gene in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Deepak; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Khan, Yusuf; Das, Shouvik; Badoni, Saurabh; Shree, Tanima; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C L L; Singh, Sube; Sharma, Shivali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Chattopdhyay, Debasis; Parida, Swarup K

    2015-01-01

    High experimental validation/genotyping success rate (94-96%) and intra-specific polymorphic potential (82-96%) of 1536 SNP and 472 SSR markers showing in silico polymorphism between desi ICC 4958 and kabuli ICC 12968 chickpea was obtained in a 190 mapping population (ICC 4958 × ICC 12968) and 92 diverse desi and kabuli genotypes. A high-density 2001 marker-based intra-specific genetic linkage map comprising of eight LGs constructed is comparatively much saturated (mean map-density: 0.94 cM) in contrast to existing intra-specific genetic maps in chickpea. Fifteen robust QTLs (PVE: 8.8-25.8% with LOD: 7.0-13.8) associated with pod and seed number/plant (PN and SN) and 100 seed weight (SW) were identified and mapped on 10 major genomic regions of eight LGs. One of 126.8 kb major genomic region harbouring a strong SW-associated robust QTL (Caq'SW1.1: 169.1-171.3 cM) has been delineated by integrating high-resolution QTL mapping with comprehensive marker-based comparative genome mapping and differential expression profiling. This identified one potential regulatory SNP (G/A) in the cis-acting element of candidate ERF (ethylene responsive factor) TF (transcription factor) gene governing seed weight in chickpea. The functionally relevant molecular tags identified have potential to be utilized for marker-assisted genetic improvement of chickpea. PMID:25786576

  5. Climatic variation and seed persistence: freeze-thaw cycles lower survival via the joint action of abiotic stress and fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Brian M; Orrock, John L

    2015-10-01

    Global climate change is altering thermal cycles in soils during late winter, a transition that may directly threaten seed survival via abiotic stress, facilitate infection by soil-borne pathogens, or both. Using field-collected soil and seeds of the perennial bunchgrass Elymus canadensis, we tested the hypothesis that soil freeze-thaw events limit survival within the soil through direct effects on seed persistence and amplification of soil pathogen attack using a factorial experiment that manipulated freeze-thaw cycles (constant freeze vs. freeze-thaw) and fungicide addition. Freeze-thaw treatment resulted in lower seedling emergence and delayed emergence time relative to constant-freeze controls. Fungicide-treated soils had greater emergence relative to untreated soils; the lowest seedling emergence was observed in no-fungicide, freeze-thaw-treated soils (<1 %). The strong effects of thermal variability and fungi on seeds were mitigated through interactions at the seed-soil interface, as subsequent experiments showed that fungicide and freeze-thaw treatments alone do not influence dormancy. Our work demonstrates that changes in freeze-thaw events directly limit seedling emergence, delay seedling phenology, and provide opportunities for fungal pathogens to limit seed persistence. As recruitment from seeds is a key determinant of plant population dynamics, these results suggest that climatic variation may generate unique consequences for populations under changing climate regimes. PMID:26078006

  6. Variation in spectral-shape discrimination weighting functions at different stimulus levels and signal strengths.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Jennifer J

    2007-09-01

    This study evaluated whether weights for spectral-shape discrimination depend on overall stimulus level and signal strength (the degree of spectral-shape change between two stimuli). Five listeners discriminated between standard stimuli that were the sum of six equal-amplitude tones and signal stimuli created by decreasing the amplitudes of three low-frequency components and increasing the amplitudes of three high-frequency components. Weighting functions were influenced by stimulus level in that the relative contribution of the low-frequency (decremented) components to the high-frequency (incremented) components decreased with increasing stimulus level. Although individual variability was present, a follow-up experiment suggested that the level dependence was due to greater reliance on high-frequency components rather than incremented components. Excitation-pattern analyses indicated that the level dependence is primarily, but not solely, driven by cochlear factors. In general, different signal strengths had no effect on the weighting functions (when normalized), but two of the five listeners showed variability in the shape of the weighting function across signal strengths. Results suggest that the effects of stimulus level on weighting functions and individual variability in the shapes of the weighting functions should be considered when comparing weighting functions across conditions and groups that might require different stimulus levels and signal strengths. PMID:17927430

  7. a Study on Variations of Shoreline Changes and Temporal-Spatial Potentiality for Cloud Seeding at Urumia Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agha Taher, R.; Jafari, M.; Fallah, M.; Alavi, A.

    2015-12-01

    time period has been used. In order to reach better results, images from MODIS satellite has been used as auxiliary data for the images that are with an error margin. Initial classification on the images was conducted to distinguish water and non water applications. Neural network classification was applied with specific scales on the images and the two major applications were thereby extracted. Then, in order to authenticate the proceedings, Error matrix and Kappa coefficient has been applied on the classified images. Base pixel method of neural network was used for the purpose of information extraction while authenticity of that was evaluated too. The outcomes display the trend of Urmia shoreline has been approximately constant between the years of 1976 to 1995 and has experienced very low variations. In 1998 the lake experienced increase of water and therefore advancement of the shoreline of the lake due to increase of precipitation and the volume of inflowing water to the basin. During 2000 to 20125, however, the lake's shoreline has experienced a downward trend, which was intensified in 2007 and reached to its most critical level ever since, that is decreasing to about one third. Further, temporal and spatial potentiality evaluation of clouds seeding in Urmia lake zone has been studied as a solution for improvement and recovery of the current status of the lake, and an algorithm was proposed for optimized temporal- spatial study on could seeding. Ecological, meteorological and synoptic data were used for timing study of the cloud's seeding plan, which upon study; it is easy to evaluate precipitation potential and quality of the system. At the next step, the rate of humidity and also stability of the precipitating system can be analyzed using radar acquired data. Whereas extracted date from MODIS images are expressing the spatial position, therefore in order to study the location of the cloud's seeding, MODIS images of the selected time intervals along with

  8. In situ adaptive response to climate and habitat quality variation: spatial and temporal variation in European badger (Meles meles) body weight.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Andrew W; Fogarty, Ursula; O'Keeffe, James; Newman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Variation in climatic and habitat conditions can affect populations through a variety of mechanisms, and these relationships can act at different temporal and spatial scales. Using post-mortem badger body weight records from 15 878 individuals captured across the Republic of Ireland (7224 setts across ca. 15 000 km(2) ; 2009-2012), we employed a hierarchical multilevel mixed model to evaluate the effects of climate (rainfall and temperature) and habitat quality (landscape suitability), while controlling for local abundance (unique badgers caught/sett/year). Body weight was affected strongly by temperature across a number of temporal scales (preceding month or season), with badgers being heavier if preceding temperatures (particularly during winter/spring) were warmer than the long-term seasonal mean. There was less support for rainfall across different temporal scales, although badgers did exhibit heavier weights when greater rainfall occurred one or 2 months prior to capture. Badgers were also heavier in areas with higher landscape habitat quality, modulated by the number of individuals captured per sett, consistent with density-dependent effects reducing weights. Overall, the mean badger body weight of culled individuals rose during the study period (2009-2012), more so for males than for females. With predicted increases in temperature, and rainfall, augmented by ongoing agricultural land conversion in this region, we project heavier individual badger body weights in the future. Increased body weight has been associated with higher fecundity, recruitment and survival rates in badgers, due to improved food availability and energetic budgets. We thus predict that climate change could increase the badger population across the Republic of Ireland. Nevertheless, we emphasize that, locally, populations could still be vulnerable to extreme weather variability coupled with detrimental agricultural practice, including population management. PMID:25846328

  9. Temperature thresholds of physically dormant seeds and plant functional response to fire: variation among species and relative impact of climate change.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Mark K J; Denham, Andrew J; Santana, Victor M; Auld, Tony D

    2014-03-01

    Variation in dormancy thresholds among species is rarely studied but may provide a basis to better understand the mechanisms controlling population persistence. Incorporating dormancy-breaking temperature thresholds into existing trait frameworks could improve predictions regarding seed bank persistence, and subsequently species resilience in response to fire, climate change and anthropogenic management. A key ecological strategy for many species from fire-prone ecosystems is the possession of a long-lived seed bank, ensuring recovery after fire. Physical dormancy is dominant in these ecosystems and maintaining this dormancy is directly linked to seed bank persistence. We identified a suite of seed-related factors relevant to maintaining populations in fire-prone regions for 14 co-occurring physically dormant species. We measured variation in initial levels of dormancy and then applied experimental heating treatments, based on current seasonal temperatures and those occurring during fires, to seeds of all study species. Additionally, higher seasonal temperature treatments were applied to assess response of seeds to temperatures projected under future climate scenarios. Levels of germination response and mortality were determined to assess how tightly germination response was bound to either fire or seasonal cues. Six species were found to have dormancy cues bound to temperatures that only occur during fires (80°C and above) and were grouped as having obligate pyrogenic dormancy release. The remaining species, classified as having facultative pyrogenic dormancy, had lower temperature dormancy thresholds and committed at least 30% of seeds to germinate after summer-temperature treatments. Evidence from this study supports including dormancy-breaking temperature thresholds as an attribute for identifying functional types. High temperature thresholds for breaking dormancy, found in our obligate pyrogenic group, appear to be a fire-adapted trait, while we predict that

  10. A CT reconstruction approach from sparse projection with adaptive-weighted diagonal total-variation in biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Deng, Luzhen; Mi, Deling; He, Peng; Feng, Peng; Yu, Pengwei; Chen, Mianyi; Li, Zhichao; Wang, Jian; Wei, Biao

    2015-01-01

    For lack of directivity in Total Variation (TV) which only uses x-coordinate and y-coordinate gradient transform as its sparse representation approach during the iteration process, this paper brought in Adaptive-weighted Diagonal Total Variation (AwDTV) that uses the diagonal direction gradient to constraint reconstructed image and adds associated weights which are expressed as an exponential function and can be adaptively adjusted by the local image-intensity diagonal gradient for the purpose of preserving the edge details, then using the steepest descent method to solve the optimization problem. Finally, we did two sets of numerical simulation and the results show that the proposed algorithm can reconstruct high-quality CT images from few-views projection, which has lower Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and higher Universal Quality Index (UQI) than Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) and TV-based reconstruction method. PMID:26405935

  11. Prostate Postbrachytherapy Seed Distribution: Comparison of High-Resolution, Contrast-Enhanced, T1- and T2-Weighted Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Versus Computed Tomography: Initial Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, B. Nicolas Lenkinski, Robert E.; Helbich, Thomas H.; Ngo, Long; Oismueller, Renee; Jaromi, Silvia; Kubin, Klaus; Hawliczek, Robert; Kaplan, Irving D.; Rofsky, Neil M.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To compare contrast-enhanced, T1-weighted, three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (CEMR) and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2MR) with computed tomography (CT) for prostate brachytherapy seed location for dosimetric calculations. Methods and Materials: Postbrachytherapy prostate MRI was performed on a 1.5 Tesla unit with combined surface and endorectal coils in 13 patients. Both CEMR and T2MR used a section thickness of 3 mm. Spiral CT used a section thickness of 5 mm with a pitch factor of 1.5. All images were obtained in the transverse plane. Two readers using CT and MR imaging assessed brachytherapy seed distribution independently. The dependency of data read by both readers for a specific subject was assessed with a linear mixed effects model. Results: The mean percentage ({+-} standard deviation) values of the readers for seed detection and location are presented. Of 1205 implanted seeds, CEMR, T2MR, and CT detected 91.5% {+-} 4.8%, 78.5% {+-} 8.5%, and 96.1% {+-} 2.3%, respectively, with 11.8% {+-} 4.5%, 8.5% {+-} 3.5%, 1.9% {+-} 1.0% extracapsular, respectively. Assignment to periprostatic structures was not possible with CT. Periprostatic seed assignments for CEMR and T2MR, respectively, were as follows: neurovascular bundle, 3.5% {+-} 1.6% and 2.1% {+-} 0.9%; seminal vesicles, 0.9% {+-} 1.8% and 0.3% {+-} 0.7%; periurethral, 7.1% {+-} 3.3% and 5.8% {+-} 2.9%; penile bulb, 0.6% {+-} 0.8% and 0.3% {+-} 0.6%; Denonvillier's Fascia/rectal wall, 0.5% {+-} 0.6% and 0%; and urinary bladder, 0.1% {+-} 0.3% and 0%. Data dependency analysis showed statistical significance for the type of imaging but not for reader identification. Conclusion: Both enumeration and localization of implanted seeds are readily accomplished with CEMR. Calculations with MRI dosimetry do not require CT data. Dose determinations to specific extracapsular sites can be obtained with MRI but not with CT.

  12. Variations of Weight of Prostate Gland in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Mannan, S; Azam, M S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ara, I; Ajmery, S; Zaman, U K; Amin, S

    2016-07-01

    Now a days, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders in men. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to find out the difference in weight of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories - Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the prostate gland was 10.13gm in Group A, 17.27gm in Group B and 22.50gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of weight of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The weight of prostate gland was found to increase with increased age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of prostate gland of Bangladeshi people. PMID:27612887

  13. Normal birth weight variation and children's neuropsychological functioning: links between language, executive functioning, and theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Wade, M; Browne, D T; Madigan, S; Plamondon, A; Jenkins, J M

    2014-10-01

    The effect of low birth weight on children's development has been documented for a range of neurocognitive outcomes. However, few previous studies have examined the effect of birth weight variability within the normal range on children's neuropsychological development. The current study examined birth weight variation amongst children weighing ≥2500 g in relation to their language, executive functioning (EF), and theory of mind (ToM), and specified a developmental pathway in which birth weight was hypothesized to be associated with children's EF and ToM through their intermediary language skills. The current study used a prospective community birth cohort of 468 children. Families were recruited when children were newborns and followed up every 18 months until children were age 4.5. Language was assessed at age 3 using a standardized measure of receptive vocabulary (PPVT), and EF and ToM were measured at age 4.5 using previously validated and developmentally appropriate tasks. After controlling for potential confounding variables (family income, parent education, gestational age), birth weight within the normal range was associated with language ability at age 3 (β=.17; p=.012); and the effect of birth weight on both EF (z=2.09; p=.03) and ToM (z=2.07; p=.03) at age 4.5 operated indirectly through their language ability at age 3. Our findings indicate that the effects of birth weight on child neurocognition extend into the normal range of birth weight, and specific developmental mechanisms may link these skills over time. PMID:25171131

  14. Modeling seed weight under environmental resource limitations as a function of C, N, and C:N allocation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents and C:N ratio in seed of two genotypes each of five crops with different resource allocation patterns were assessed under normal growing degree days (GDD) and normal population density (NN) for each crop; normal GDD and 25%>normal population density (NL); sho...

  15. Variation in seed viability and dormancy of 17 weed species after 24.7 years of burial: the concept of buried seed safe sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 50-year study at Fairbanks, AK was started in 1984 to determine soil seed longevity of 17 weed species. Seeds were buried in mesh bags 2 and 15 cm deep and were recovered 0.7, 1.7, 2.7, 3.7, 4.7, 6.7, 9.7,19.7 and 24.7 yr later. Viability was determined using germination and tetrazolium tests. By ...

  16. A re-examination of cremains weight: sex and age variation in a Northern California sample.

    PubMed

    Van Deest, Traci L; Murad, Turhon A; Bartelink, Eric J

    2011-03-01

    The reduction of modern commercially cremated remains into a fine powder negates the use of traditional methods of skeletal analysis. The literature on the use of cremains weight for estimating aspects of the biologic profile is limited, often with conflicting results. This study re-evaluates the value of weight in the assessment of biologic parameters from modern cremated remains. A sample of adults was collected in northern California (n = 756), with a cremains weight averaging 2737.1 g. Males were significantly heavier than females (mean = 3233.2 g versus mean = 2238.3 g, respectively; p<0.001). Comparison of this sample with other previously reported samples from southern California, Florida, and Tennessee indicates a consistent sex difference, with the most similar mean values to the Tennessee study. Although cremains weight decreases with age as expected, the relationship is weak; thus, cremains weight cannot accurately predict age-at-death. While sex estimation shows considerable accuracy (86.3% for males and 80.9% for females), sectioning points may be population specific. PMID:21265835

  17. Child Health in Peru: Importance of Regional Variation and Community Effects on Children's Height and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the…

  18. Genetic variations of body weight and GCRV resistance in a random mating population of grass carp

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rong; Sun, Jiaxian; Luo, Qing; He, Libo; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Guo, Fuhua; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an important species in freshwater aquaculture both in China and on a global scale. Variety degeneration and frequent diseases have limited the further development of grass carp aquaculture. Thus, new and improved varieties are required. Here, we identified and assessed the body weight and disease resistance in a random mating population of 19 ♀ × 22 ♂ grass carp, which were derived from different water systems. In both the growth experimental group of 10,245 fish and grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-infected group with 10,000 fish, 78 full-sib families were statistically analyzed for body weight and GCRV resistance. The findings showed that body weight traits had low heritability (0.11 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.03 and 0.12 ± 0.05), GCRV resistance traits had high heritability (0.63 ± 0.11); body weight was higher in 3 families, whereas GCRV resistance was significantly greater in 11 families. Our results confirmed that the natural germplasm resources of wild grass carp were genetically diverse. Breeding of GCRV resistant varieties of grass carp have better genetic basis. This study provides the basis for constructing basal populations for grass carp selective breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis. PMID:26439690

  19. Seasonal Variation in Pigeon Body Weight and Delayed Matching-to-Sample Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargisson, Rebecca J.; McLean, Ian G.; Brown, Glenn S.; White, K. Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    The weights of 5 pigeons with free access to food, monitored over 3 calendar years in the laboratory, were found to fluctuate with season. All pigeons were at their heaviest in the winter and were lightest in the summer. Five different pigeons performed a standard delayed matching-to-sample task for 44 weeks from January to November. Their weights…

  20. Modulation of the intestinal microbiota is associated with lower plasma cholesterol and weight gain in hamsters fed chardonnay grape seed flour.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Seo, Kun-Ho; Chon, Jung-Whan; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2015-02-11

    The relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of whole grape seed flour from white and red winemaking was evaluated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a high-fat (HF) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from either Chardonnay (ChrSd) or Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd) grapes for 3 weeks. The numbers of total bacteria and relative abundances of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Firmicutes in feces were significantly lower, while the relative abundance of Bacteroides fragilis was greater than the control from feeding the ChrSd diet. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) was lower in the ChrSd diet. There were significantly positive correlations between Lactobacillus spp., ratio of F/B, and plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol and liver weight. The reduction of Lactobacillus spp. by the ChrSd diet was accompanied by inhibition of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling in the intestine as expression of intestinal fibrablast growth factor (FGF)15, positively regulated by FXR, was decreased. Expression of CYP7A1, negatively regulated by FGF15, was up-regulated in the liver, which indicates that alteration of the intestinal microbiota may regulate bile acid and lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that beneficial health effects of Chardonnay grape seed flour on HF-induced metabolic disease relate in part to modulation of intestinal microbiota and their metabolic processes. PMID:25598538

  1. Allelic Variation of BnaC.TT2.a and Its Association with Seed Coat Color and Fatty Acids in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nazim; Li, Zhilan; Wu, Dezhi; Jiang, Lixi

    2016-01-01

    Efficient molecular markers for the selection of rapeseed genetic materials with high seed oil content and ideal fatty acid (FA) composition are preferred by rapeseed breeders. Recently, we reported the molecular mechanism of TRANSPARENT TESTA 2 (TT2) in inhibiting seed FA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. However, evidence showing the association of rapeseed TT2 homologs and seed FA production are still insufficient. In this study, we collected 83 rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) landraces from different geographical backgrounds to conduct association mapping of BnaC.TT2.a in relation to seed coat color and FA biosynthesis. Population background was corrected by 84 pairs of SSR markers that were uniformly distributed among the linkage groups of the Tapidor-Ningyou-7 DH population. A single copy of BnaC.TT2.a for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay was cloned by a pair of previously reported specific primers. From the analysis of BnaC.TT2.a allelic variations using GLM+Q model, four SNPs on intron 1 of BnaC.TT2.a that were associated with seed FA were discovered. Moreover, an InDel at position 738 on exon 3 of BnaC.TT2.a indicated a change of protein function that was significantly associated with seed coat color, linoleic acid (C18:2), and total FA content. These findings revealed the role of BnaC.TT2.a in regulating the seed color formation and seed FA biosynthesis in rapeseed, thereby suggesting effective molecular markers for rapeseed breeding. PMID:26752200

  2. Reproductive habitus, psychosocial health, and birth weight variation in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-08-01

    The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial

  3. Natural Variation in the Degree of Autonomous Endosperm Formation Reveals Independence and Constraints of Embryo Growth During Seed Development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ungru, Alexander; Nowack, Moritz K.; Reymond, Matthieu; Shirzadi, Reza; Kumar, Manoj; Biewers, Sandra; Grini, Paul E.; Schnittger, Arp

    2008-01-01

    Seed development in flowering plants is a paradigm for the coordination of different tissues during organ growth. It requires a tight interplay between the two typically sexually produced structures: the embryo, developing from the fertilized egg cell, and the endosperm, originating from a fertilized central cell, along with the surrounding maternal tissues. Little is known about the presumptive signal transduction pathways administering and coordinating these different tissues during seed growth and development. Recently, a new signal has been identified emanating from the fertilization of the egg cell that triggers central cell proliferation without prior fertilization. Here, we demonstrate that there exists a large natural genetic variation with respect to the outcome of this signaling process in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. By using a recombinant inbred line population between the two Arabidopsis accessions Bayreuth-0 and Shahdara, we have identified two genetic components that influence the development of unfertilized endosperm. Exploiting this natural variation, we could further dissect the interdependence of embryo and endosperm growth during early seed development. Our data show an unexpectedly large degree of independence in embryo growth, but also reveal the embryo's developmental restrictions with respect to endosperm size. This work provides a genetic framework for dissection of the interplay between embryo and endosperm during seed growth in plants. PMID:18505878

  4. Knee Joint Laxity and Its Cyclic Variation Influence Tibiofemoral Motion during Weight Acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Sandra J.; Schmitz, Randy J.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Levine, Beverly; Kim, Hyunsoo; Montgomery, Melissa M.; Shimokochi, Yohei; Beynnon, Bruce D.; Perrin, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To better understand how sex differences in anterior knee joint laxity (AKL) impact knee joint biomechanics, we examined the consequence of greater absolute baseline (males and females) and cyclic increases in AKL during the menstrual cycle (females) on anterior tibial translation (ATT) as the knee transitioned from non-weight bearing (NWB) to weight bearing (WB) conditions, while also controlling for genu recurvatum (GR). Methods Males and females (71F,48M;18-30 years) were measured for AKL and GR, and underwent measurement of ATT. Females were tested on the days of their cycle when AKL was at its minimum (T1) and maximum (T2); males were matched in time to a female with similar AKL. Linear regressions examined relationships between absolute baseline (AKLT1, GRT1) and cyclic changes (Δ=T2-T1; AKLΔ, GRΔ)(females only) in knee laxity with ATT as measured at T1 and T2, and Δ (T2-T1) (females only). Results AKL and GR increased in females, but not males, from T1 to T2. Greater AKLT1 and GRT1 predicted greater ATTT1 and ATTT2 in males (R2=21.0, P<.007). The combination of greater AKLT1, AKLΔ and less GRΔ predicted greater ATTT1 and ATTT2 in females (R2=12.5-13.1, P<.05), with AKLΔ being a stronger predictor (coefficient, P-value) of ATTT2 (0.864, P=.027) compared to ATTT1 (0.333, P=.370). AKLΔ was the sole predictor of ATTΔ (R2=.104; 0.740, P=.042). Conclusions Greater absolute baseline and cyclic increases in AKL were consistently associated with greater ATT produced by transition of the knee from NWB to WB. As the ACL is the primary restraint to ATT, these findings provide insight into possible mechanisms by which greater AKL may be associated with at risk knee biomechanics during the weight acceptance phase of dynamic tasks. PMID:20581718

  5. The auxin conjugate 1-O-indole-3-acetyl-beta-D-glucose is synthesized in immature legume seeds by IAGlc synthase and may be used for modification of some high molecular weight compounds.

    PubMed

    Jakubowska, Anna; Kowalczyk, Stanislaw

    2004-04-01

    Immature seeds of some dicotyledonous plants contain IAGlc synthase catalysing the synthesis of 1-O-IAGlc. This enzyme activity is comparable with 1-O-IAGlc synthase activity investigated earlier in liquid endosperm of Zea mays. Polyclonal antibodies against maize 1-O-IAGlc synthase cross-react with partially purified 1-O-IAGlc synthase from immature pea and rape seeds. Single immunoreactive bands were observed at a locus corresponding to 45.7 kDa and 43.7 kDa from pea and rape enzyme preparations, respectively, unlike that from the 50 kDa molecular mass of the maize enzyme. It was also observed that some high molecular weight compounds of pea seeds are labelled in vivo by [(14)C] IAA, and unlabelled 1-O-IAGlc inhibits that labelling. In immature pea seeds 43-49.8% of the IAA-modified high molecular weight compounds, obtained after ultracentrifugation, was found in the soluble fraction and 50.1-57% in the insoluble fraction. Ester-linked IAA accounted for about 6-9% and 38-45.6% in soluble and insoluble material, respectively, estimated after hydrolysis in 1 N NaOH. Enzymatic hydrolysis of IAA-labelled high molecular weight compounds gives free IAA and compound(s) corresponding to IAGlc isomers. These results suggest that 1-O-IAGlc synthesized in legume seeds may be used for the modification of some high molecular weight compounds. PMID:14990619

  6. Penalized weighted least-squares approach for multienergy computed tomography image reconstruction via structure tensor total variation regularization.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Dong; Gao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Lijun; Ma, Jianhua

    2016-10-01

    Multienergy computed tomography (MECT) allows identifying and differentiating different materials through simultaneous capture of multiple sets of energy-selective data belonging to specific energy windows. However, because sufficient photon counts are not available in each energy window compared with that in the whole energy window, the MECT images reconstructed by the analytical approach often suffer from poor signal-to-noise and strong streak artifacts. To address the particular challenge, this work presents a penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) scheme by incorporating the new concept of structure tensor total variation (STV) regularization, which is henceforth referred to as 'PWLS-STV' for simplicity. Specifically, the STV regularization is derived by penalizing higher-order derivatives of the desired MECT images. Thus it could provide more robust measures of image variation, which can eliminate the patchy artifacts often observed in total variation (TV) regularization. Subsequently, an alternating optimization algorithm was adopted to minimize the objective function. Extensive experiments with a digital XCAT phantom and meat specimen clearly demonstrate that the present PWLS-STV algorithm can achieve more gains than the existing TV-based algorithms and the conventional filtered backpeojection (FBP) algorithm in terms of both quantitative and visual quality evaluations. PMID:27490315

  7. SIRT1 Polymorphisms Associate with Seasonal Weight Variation, Depressive Disorders, and Diastolic Blood Pressure in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kovanen, Leena; Donner, Kati; Partonen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    SIRT1 polymorphisms have previously been associated with depressive and anxiety disorders. We aimed at confirming these earlier findings and extending the analyses to seasonal variations in mood and behavior. Three tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to capture the common variation in the SIRT1 gene. 5910 individuals (with blood sample, diagnostic interview, self-report of on seasonal changes in mood and behavior) were selected from a representative Finnish nationwide population-based sample. Logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze the associations between the SNPs and depressive and anxiety disorders, metabolic syndrome (EGIR criteria) and its components, and health examination measurements, Homeostasis Model Assessments, and diagnoses of type 2 and type 1 diabetes. SIRT1 rs2273773 showed evidence of association with seasonal variation in weight (C-allele, OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.76–0.95, p = 0.005). In addition, our study gave further support for the association of SIRT1 gene with depressive disorders (rs3758391) and diastolic blood pressure (rs2273773). PMID:26509718

  8. Seasonal variation in soft tissue weights and trace metal burdens in the bay mussel, Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Latouche, Y.D.; Mix, M.C.

    1981-12-01

    Levels of six trace metals were measure in Mytilus edulis during a six month period. Patterns of seasonal variation were established and normal ranges of metal burdens in mussels were determined. Metals measured were vanadium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc and cadmium. Sexually mature M. edulis, between 50 and 60 mm in size, were sampled in Yaquina Bay, Oregon at regular intervals between October 1979 and June 1980. Tissues were combined in two pools, ''somatic'' and ''gonadal''. Flame atomic absorption was used to determine concentrations of manganese, nickel, copper, and cadmium. Vanadium was determined by neutron activation analysis. With the exception of copper, all gonadal tissue burdens were greatest in late winter or early spring, at the time of gametogenesis. Somatic burdens of nickel, manganese, and zinc were maximal in early spring, while copper, cadmium and vanadium fluctuated without regard to gametogenesis or spawning. Zinc concentrations increased dramatically between days 22 and 80. Such increases may be indicative of the onset of gametogenesis. Results suggest that somatic and gonadal tissue should be considered separately when measuring metal levels. 1 table (JMT)

  9. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  10. Adaptive-weighted total variation minimization for sparse data toward low-dose x-ray computed tomography image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Ma, Jianhua; Fan, Yi; Liang, Zhengrong

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that by minimizing the total variation (TV) of the to-be-estimated image with some data and other constraints, piecewise-smooth x-ray computed tomography (CT) can be reconstructed from sparse-view projection data without introducing notable artifacts. However, due to the piecewise constant assumption for the image, a conventional TV minimization algorithm often suffers from over-smoothness on the edges of the resulting image. To mitigate this drawback, we present an adaptive-weighted TV (AwTV) minimization algorithm in this paper. The presented AwTV model is derived by considering the anisotropic edge property among neighboring image voxels, where the associated weights are expressed as an exponential function and can be adaptively adjusted by the local image-intensity gradient for the purpose of preserving the edge details. Inspired by the previously reported TV-POCS (projection onto convex sets) implementation, a similar AwTV-POCS implementation was developed to minimize the AwTV subject to data and other constraints for the purpose of sparse-view low-dose CT image reconstruction. To evaluate the presented AwTV-POCS algorithm, both qualitative and quantitative studies were performed by computer simulations and phantom experiments. The results show that the presented AwTV-POCS algorithm can yield images with several notable gains, in terms of noise-resolution tradeoff plots and full-width at half-maximum values, as compared to the corresponding conventional TV-POCS algorithm.

  11. Seed Development and Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed is the fertilized and matured ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms and represents a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Seeds of diverse plant species may display differences in size, shape and color. Despite apparent morphological variations, most mature seeds consist of three major com...

  12. Variation in social and sexual behaviour in four species of aposematic seed bugs (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae): the role of toxic and non-toxic food.

    PubMed

    Burdfield-Steel, Emily R; Dougherty, Liam R; Smith, Lynsey A; Collins, Laura A; Shuker, David M

    2013-10-01

    Understanding variation in social behaviour both within and among species continues to be a challenge. Evolutionary or ecological theory typically predicts the optimal behaviour for an animal under a given set of circumstances, yet the real world presents much greater variation in behaviour than predicted. This variation is apparent in many social and sexual interactions, including mate choice, and has led to a renewed focus on individual variation in behaviour. Here we explore within and among species variation in social behaviour in four species of aposematic seed bug (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera). These species are Müllerian mimics, with characteristic warning colouration advertising their chemical toxicity. We examine the role of diet in generating variation in two key behaviours: social aggregation of nymphs and mate choice. We test how behaviour varies with exposure to either milkweed (a source of defensive compounds) or sunflower (that provides no defence). We show that although the four species vary in their food preferences, and diet influences their life-history (as highlighted by body size), social aggregation and mate choice is relatively unaffected by diet. We discuss our findings in terms of the evolution of aposematism, the importance of automimicry, and the role of diet in generating behavioural variation. PMID:23796773

  13. Development of gene-based markers for use in construction of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genetic linkage map and identification of QTLs associated with seed weight and plant height.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shefali; Kumar, Tapan; Verma, Subodh; Bharadwaj, Chellapilla; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-11-01

    Seed weight and plant height are important agronomic traits and contribute to seed yield. The objective of this study was to identify QTLs underlying these traits using an intra-specific mapping population of chickpea. A F11 population of 177 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between SBD377 (100-seed weight--48 g and plant height--53 cm) and BGD112 (100-seed weight--15 g and plant height--65 cm) was used. A total of 367 novel EST-derived functional markers were developed which included 187 EST-SSRs, 130 potential intron polymorphisms (PIPs) and 50 expressed sequence tag polymorphisms (ESTPs). Along with these, 590 previously published markers including 385 EST-based markers and 205 genomic SSRs were utilized. Of the 957 markers tested for analysis of parental polymorphism between the two parents of the mapping population, 135 (14.64%) were found to be polymorphic. Of these, 131 polymorphic markers could be mapped to the 8 linkage groups. The linkage map had a total length of 1140.54 cM with an average marker density of 8.7 cM. The map was further used for QTL identification using composite interval mapping method (CIM). Two QTLs each for seed weight, qSW-1 and qSW-2 (explaining 11.54 and 19.24% of phenotypic variance, respectively) and plant height, qPH-1 and qPH-2 (explaining 13.98 and 12.17% of phenotypic variance, respectively) were detected. The novel set of genic markers, the intra-specific linkage map and the QTLs identified in the present study will serve as valuable genomic resources in improving the chickpea seed yield using marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategies. PMID:26446030

  14. Toxicity of combined chromium(VI) and phenanthrene pollution on the seed germination, stem lengths, and fresh weights of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuangqing; Gu, Hairong; Cui, Chunyan; Ji, Rong

    2016-08-01

    Studies of the interaction and toxicity of pollutant combinations such as heavy metals and PAHs are of practical importance in the remediation and monitoring of the industrial soil environment. This study investigated the single and combined toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on three important higher plants: mung beans (Phaseolus aureus), pakchoi cabbage (Brassica chinensis), and rice (Oryza sativa). In experiments using artificial soil matrix, the EC10 and EC20 of the two pollutants, alone and in combination, were analyzed with respect to seed germination, stem length, and above-ground fresh weight of these higher plants. The additive index method was used to evaluate the combined biological toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene. The results showed that the EC20 of chromium(VI) on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 289, 248, and 550 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 334, 307, and 551 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 528, 426, and 628 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 696, 585, and 768 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of a combination of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 192, 173, and 279 mg kg(-1), respectively, and 200, 205, and 271 mg kg(-1) for the fresh weights of the three plants. The single and combined exposure of soil to chromium(VI) and phenanthrene had deleterious effects on plants in the early stage of growth. Overall, pakchoi cabbage was more sensitive than mung beans and rice. The two pollutants exerted synergistic effects on the stem lengths and above-ground fresh weights of both mung beans and rice but antagonistic effects on pakchoi cabbage. The results of this study also suggested pakchoi cabbage as a sensitive indicator of soil pollution. PMID

  15. Male fertility versus sterility, cytotype, and DNA quantitative variation in seed production in diploid and tetraploid sea lavenders (Limonium sp., Plumbaginaceae) reveal diversity in reproduction modes.

    PubMed

    Róis, Ana Sofia; Teixeira, Generosa; Sharbel, Timothy F; Fuchs, Jörg; Martins, Sérgio; Espírito-Santo, Dalila; Caperta, Ana D

    2012-12-01

    were present in each seed. Flow cytometric seed screens using such mature seeds showed quantitative variations in seeds ploidy level. It is concluded that male function seems to play an important role in the reproduction modes of Limonium diploids and tetraploids. PMID:23086613

  16. Within-population spatial variation in pollinator visitation rates, pollen limitation on seed set, and flower longevity in an alpine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundemo, Sverre; Totland, Ørjan

    2007-11-01

    Pollen limitation through insufficient pollen deposition on stigmas caused by too infrequent pollinator visitation may influence the reproductive outcome of plants. In this study we investigated how pollinator visitation rate, the degree of pollen limitation, and flower longevity varied spatially among three sites at different altitudes within a population of the dwarf shrub Dryas octopetala L. in alpine southern Norway. Significant pollen limitation on seed set only occurred at the mid-elevation site, while seed set at the other sites appeared to be mainly resource limited, thus indicating a spatial variation in pollen limitation. There was no association between the spatial variation in the extent of pollen limitation and pollinator visitation rate to flowers. However, pollinator visitation rates were related to flower longevity of Dryas; sites with low visitation rates had long-lived flowers and vice versa. Thus, our results suggest within-population spatial co-variation between pollinator visitation rates, pollen limitation, and a developmental response to these factors, flower longevity.

  17. Adaptive-weighted total variation minimization for sparse data toward low-dose x-ray computed tomography image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Ma, Jianhua; Fan, Yi; Liang, Zhengrong

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that by minimizing the total variation (TV) of the to-be-estimated image with some data and other constraints, piecewise-smooth x-ray computed tomography (CT) can be reconstructed from sparse-view projection data without introducing notable artifacts. However, due to the piecewise constant assumption for the image, a conventional TV minimization algorithm often suffers from over-smoothness on the edges of the resulting image. To mitigate this drawback, we present an adaptive-weighted TV (AwTV) minimization algorithm in this paper. The presented AwTV model is derived by considering the anisotropic edge property among neighboring image voxels, where the associated weights are expressed as an exponential function and can be adaptively adjusted by the local image-intensity gradient for the purpose of preserving the edge details. Inspired by the previously reported TV-POCS (projection onto convex sets) implementation, a similar AwTV-POCS implementation was developed to minimize the AwTV subject to data and other constraints for the purpose of sparse-view low-dose CT image reconstruction. To evaluate the presented AwTV-POCS algorithm, both qualitative and quantitative studies were performed by computer simulations and phantom experiments. The results show that the presented AwTV-POCS algorithm can yield images with several notable gains, in terms of noise-resolution tradeoff plots and full-width at half-maximum values, as compared to the corresponding conventional TV-POCS algorithm. PMID:23154621

  18. Identification, expression and variation of the GNPDA2 gene, and its association with body weight and fatness traits in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Zhang, Huan; Li, Weimin; Liang, Sisi; Jebessa, Endashaw; Abdalla, Bahareldin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The GNPDA2 (glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2) gene is a member of Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) deaminase subfamily, which encoded an allosteric enzyme of GlcN6P. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that variations of human GNPDA2 are associated with body mass index and obesity risk, but its function and metabolic implications remain to be elucidated.The object of this study was to characterize the gene structure, expression, and biological functions of GNPDA2 in chickens. Methods. Variant transcripts of chicken GNPDA2 and their expression were investigated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) system and real-time quantitative PCR technology. We detected the GNPDA2 expression in hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens with fasting and high-glucose-fat diet treatments, and performed association analysis of variations of GNPDA2 with productive traits in chicken. The function of GNPDA2 was further studied by overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA) methods in chicken preadipocytes. Results.Four chicken GNPDA2 transcripts (cGNPDA2-a∼cGNPDA2-d) were identified in this study. The complete transcript GNPDA2-a was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat), hypothalamus, and duodenum. In fasting chickens, the mRNA level of GNPDA2 was decreased by 58.8% (P < 0.05) in hypothalamus, and returned to normal level after refeeding. Chicken fed a high-glucose-fat diet increased GNPDA2 gene expression about 2-fold higher in adipose tissue (P < 0.05) than that in the control (fed a basal diet), but decreased its expression in hypothalamus. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the GNPDA2 gene were significantly associated with body weight and a number of fatness traits in chicken (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our findings indicated that the GNPDA2 gene has a potential role in the regulation of body weight, fat and energy metabolism in chickens. PMID:27326383

  19. Identification, expression and variation of the GNPDA2 gene, and its association with body weight and fatness traits in chicken.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Zhang, Huan; Li, Weimin; Liang, Sisi; Jebessa, Endashaw; Abdalla, Bahareldin A; Nie, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Background. The GNPDA2 (glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2) gene is a member of Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) deaminase subfamily, which encoded an allosteric enzyme of GlcN6P. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that variations of human GNPDA2 are associated with body mass index and obesity risk, but its function and metabolic implications remain to be elucidated.The object of this study was to characterize the gene structure, expression, and biological functions of GNPDA2 in chickens. Methods. Variant transcripts of chicken GNPDA2 and their expression were investigated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) system and real-time quantitative PCR technology. We detected the GNPDA2 expression in hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens with fasting and high-glucose-fat diet treatments, and performed association analysis of variations of GNPDA2 with productive traits in chicken. The function of GNPDA2 was further studied by overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA) methods in chicken preadipocytes. Results.Four chicken GNPDA2 transcripts (cGNPDA2-a∼cGNPDA2-d) were identified in this study. The complete transcript GNPDA2-a was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat), hypothalamus, and duodenum. In fasting chickens, the mRNA level of GNPDA2 was decreased by 58.8% (P < 0.05) in hypothalamus, and returned to normal level after refeeding. Chicken fed a high-glucose-fat diet increased GNPDA2 gene expression about 2-fold higher in adipose tissue (P < 0.05) than that in the control (fed a basal diet), but decreased its expression in hypothalamus. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the GNPDA2 gene were significantly associated with body weight and a number of fatness traits in chicken (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our findings indicated that the GNPDA2 gene has a potential role in the regulation of body weight, fat and energy metabolism in chickens. PMID:27326383

  20. Orthodoxy, recalcitrance and in-between: describing variation in seed storage characteristics using threshold responses to water loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tolerance of desiccation is typically described by a threshold or low-water-content-limit to survival. This convention provides fairly good distinction between orthodox and recalcitrant seeds, which show thresholds of less than about 0.07 and greater than about 0.2 g H2O g dw-1, respectively. Thresh...

  1. VARIATION OF SEED AGING RATES AMONG LINES OF WHEAT, RYE AND TRITICALE IN RESPONSE TO STORAGE HUMIDITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed deterioration was measured in 50 lines of wheat, rye and triticale that were stored at 35C and a range of relative humidities for over 6 years. Decrease in percent germination and radicle growth with storage time were fit to Avrami kinetics, and longevity of individual lines is expressed as ti...

  2. Differential transcriptional activity of SAD, FAD2 and FAD3 desaturase genes in developing seeds of linseed contributes to varietal variation in α-linolenic acid content.

    PubMed

    Rajwade, Ashwini V; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Borikar, Sanjay P; Harsulkar, Abhay M; Ghorpade, Prakash B; Gupta, Vidya S

    2014-02-01

    Linseed or flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) varieties differ markedly in their seed α-linolenic acid (ALA) levels. Fatty acid desaturases play a key role in accumulating ALA in seed. We performed fatty acid (FA) profiling of various seed developmental stages of ten Indian linseed varieties including one mutant variety. Depending on their ALA contents, these varieties were grouped under high ALA and low ALA groups. Transcript profiling of six microsomal desaturase genes (SAD1, SAD2, FAD2, FAD2-2, FAD3A and FAD3B), which act sequentially in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, was performed using real-time PCR. We observed gene specific as well as temporal expression pattern for all the desaturases and their differential expression profiles corresponded well with the variation in FA accumulation in the two groups. Our study points to efficient conversion of intermediate FAs [stearic (SA), oleic (OA) and linoleic acids (LA)] to the final product, ALA, due to efficient action of all the desaturases in high ALA group. While in the low ALA group, even though the initial conversion up to OA was efficient, later conversions up to ALA seemed to be inefficient, leading to higher accumulation of OA and LA instead of ALA. We sequenced the six desaturase genes from the ten varieties and observed that variation in the amino acid (AA) sequences of desaturases was not responsible for differential ALA accumulation, except in the mutant variety TL23 with very low (<2%) ALA content. In TL23, a point mutation in the FAD3A gene resulted into a premature stop codon generating a truncated protein with 291 AA. PMID:24380374

  3. Bean arcelin : 2. Genetic variation, inheritance and linkage relationships of a novel seed protein of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Osborn, T C; Blake, T; Gepts, P; Bliss, F A

    1986-03-01

    Crude proteins from seeds of wild bean accessions of Mexican origin were analyzed by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE). Several accessions had electrophoretic patterns showing unique protein bands. When analyzed by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing (IEF)-SDS/PAGE, four protein variants which had electrophoretic mobilities similar to each other but different from the other major seed proteins, phaseolin and lectin, were observed. All four variants, which have not been described in cultivated beans, were tentatively named arcelin proteins and designated as arcelin 1, 2, 3 and 4. Arcelins 3 and 4 had polypeptides that comigrated on two-dimensional gels and these variants occurred in accessions that were collected in the same location. Analysis of single F2 seeds from crosses among arcelin-containing lines and from crosses between cultivated beans lines without arcelin and arcelin-containing lines revealed that differences in arcelin polypeptide expression were inherited monogenically. The alleles for different arcelin variants were codominant to each other and dominant to the absence of arcelin. The gene(s) controlling arcelin proteins were unlinked to those controlling phaseolin expression and tightly linked to genes controlling the presence of lectin proteins (< 0.30% recombination). The possible origins of arcelin genes and their potential role in bruchid resistance are discussed. PMID:24247713

  4. LMWOA (low molecular weight organic acid) exudation by salt marsh plants: Natural variation and response to Cu contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2010-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of roots of two salt marsh plants to release low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and to ascertain whether Cu contamination would stimulate or not organic acids exudation. The sea rush Juncus maritimus and the sea-club rush Scirpus maritimus, both from the lower Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were used. Plants were collected seasonally, four times a year in 2004, during low tide. After sampling, plant roots were washed for removal of adherent particles and immersed for 2 h in a solution that matched salinity (3) and pH (7.5) of the pore water from the same location to obtain plant exudates. In one of the seasons, similar experiments were carried out but spiking the solution with different amounts of Cu in order to embrace the range between 0 and 1600 nM. In the final solutions as well as in sediment pore water LMWOAs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Plants were able to release, in a short period of time, relatively high amounts of LMWOAs (oxalate, citrate, malate, malonate, and succinate). In the sediment pore water oxalate, succinate and acetate were also detected. Therefore, plant roots probably contributed to the presence of some of these organic compounds in pore water. Exudation differed between the plant species and also showed some seasonally variation, particularly for S. maritimus. The release of oxalate by J. maritimus increased with Cu increase in the media. However, exudation of the other LMWOAs did not seem to be stimulated by Cu contamination in the media. This fact is compatible with the existence of alternative internal mechanisms for Cu detoxification, as denoted by the fact that in media contaminated with Cu both plant species accumulated relatively high amounts (29-83%) of the initially dissolved Cu. This study expands our knowledge on the contribution of globally dominant salt marsh plants to the release of LMWOAs into the environment.

  5. The transcriptomic signature of developing soybean seeds reveals the genetic basis of seed trait adaptation during domestication.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiang; Li, Qing-Tian; Xiong, Qing; Li, Wei; Bi, Ying-Dong; Lai, Yong-Cai; Liu, Xin-Lei; Man, Wei-Qun; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2016-06-01

    Cultivated soybean has undergone many transformations during domestication. In this paper we report a comprehensive assessment of the evolution of gene co-expression networks based on the analysis of 40 transcriptomes from developing soybean seeds in cultivated and wild soybean accessions. We identified 2680 genes that are differentially expressed during seed maturation and established two cultivar-specific gene co-expression networks. Through analysis of the two networks and integration with quantitative trait locus data we identified two potential key drivers for seed trait formation, GA20OX and NFYA. GA20OX encodes an enzyme in a rate-limiting step of gibberellin biosynthesis, and NFYA encodes a transcription factor. Overexpression of GA20OX and NFYA enhanced seed size/weight and oil content, respectively, in seeds of transgenic plants. The two genes showed significantly higher expression in cultivated than in wild soybean, and the increases in expression were associated with genetic variations in the promoter region of each gene. Moreover, the expression of GA20OX and NFYA in seeds of soybean accessions correlated with seed weight and oil content, respectively. Our study reveals transcriptional adaptation during soybean domestication and may identify a mechanism of selection by expression for seed trait formation, providing strategies for future breeding practice. PMID:27062090

  6. Assessment of genetic diversity and variation of Robinia pseudoacacia seeds induced by short-term spaceflight based on two molecular marker systems and morphological traits.

    PubMed

    Yuan, C Q; Li, Y F; Sun, P; Sun, Y H; Zhang, G J; Yang, M S; Zhang, Y Y; Li, Y; Wang, L

    2012-01-01

    The black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is a forest legume that is highly valued as a honey plant and for its wood. We explored the effect of short-term spaceflight on development of R. pseudoacacia seedlings derived from seeds that endured a 15-day flight; the genetic diversity and variation of plants sampled from space-mutagenized seeds were compared to plants from parallel ground-based control seeds using molecular markers and morphological traits. In the morphology analysis, the space-mutagenized group had apparent variation compared with the control group in morphological traits, including plant height, basal diameter, number of branches, branch stipular thorn length, branch stipular thorn middle width, leaflet vertex angle, and tippy leaf vertex angle. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) molecular marker analyses showed a slightly higher levels of genetic diversity in the space-mutagenized group compared to the control group. In the SRAP analysis, the space-mutagenized group had 115 polymorphic bands vs 98 in the controls; 91.27% polymorphic loci vs 77.78% in the controls; 1.9127 ± 0.2834 alleles vs 1.7778 ± 0.4174 in the controls; Nei's genetic diversity (h) was 0.2930 ± 0.1631 vs 0.2688 ± 0.1862 in the controls, and the Shannon's information index (I) was 0.4452 ± 0.2177 vs 0.4031 ± 0.2596 in the controls. The number of alleles was significantly higher in the space-mutagenized group. In the SSR analysis, the space-mutagenized group also had more polymorphic bands (51 vs 46), a greater percentage of polymorphic loci (89.47% vs 80.70%); h was also higher (0.2534 ± 0.1533 vs 0.2240 ± 0.1743), as was I (0.3980 ± 0.2069 vs 0.3501 ± 0.2412). These results demonstrated that the range of genetic variation in the populations of R. pseudoacacia increased after spaceflight. It also suggested that the SSR and SRAP markers are effective markers for studying mutations and genetic diversity in R. pseudoacacia. The data

  7. Birth weight modifies the association between central-nervous-system gene variation and adult body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A.; Haddad, Stephen A.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 100 loci associated with body mass index (BMI). Persons with low birth-weight have an increased risk of metabolic disorders. We postulate that normal mechanisms of body weight regulation are disrupted in subjects with low birth-weight. The present analyses included 2215 African American women from the Black Women’s Health Study, and were based on genotype data on twenty BMI-associated loci and self-reported data on birth-weight, weight at age 18, and adult weight. We used general linear models to assess the association of individual SNPs with BMI at age 18 and later in adulthood within strata of birth-weight (above and below the median, 3200 g). Three SNPs (rs1320330 near TMEM18, rs261967 near PCSK1, and rs17817964 in FTO), and a genetic score combining these three variants, showed significant interactions with birth-weight in relation to BMI. Among women with birth-weight <3200 g, there was an inverse association between genetic score and BMI; beta-coefficient = −0.045 (95% CI −0.104, 0.013) for BMI at age 18, and −0.055 (95% CI −0.112, 0.002) for adult BMI. Among women with birth-weight ≥3,200 g, genetic score was positively associated with BMI: beta-coefficient = 0.110 (95% CI 0.051, 0.169) for BMI at age 18 (P for interaction = 0.0002), and 0.112 (95% CI 0.054, 0.170) for adult BMI (P for interaction < 0.0001). Because TMEM18, PCSK1, and FTO are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), our results suggest that low birth-weight may disrupt mechanisms of CNS body weight regulation. PMID:26582267

  8. Genetic variation in adaptive traits and seed transfer zones for Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass) in the northwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation in adaptive traits in Pseudoroegneria spicata, a key restoration grass, in the intermountain western United States. Common garden experiments were established at three contrasting sites with seedlings from two maternal parents from each ...

  9. Consumption of diets containing raw soya beans (Glycine max), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) or lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) by rats for up to 700 days: effects on body composition and organ weights.

    PubMed

    Grant, G; Dorward, P M; Buchan, W C; Armour, J C; Pusztai, A

    1995-01-01

    Feeding trials have been done with rats to assess the effects of long-term (700 d) consumption of diets based on raw cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata; moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, low lectin content), lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius; low lectin and protease inhibitor content) or soya beans (Glycine max; high Kunitz inhibitor content, moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, moderate lectin content) or diets containing low levels of raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris; high lectin content, low Bowman-Birk inhibitor content) on body weight and composition and organ weights. All the legume-based diets reduced feed conversion efficiency and growth rates during the initial 250 d. However, after 250 d the weight gains by rats given legume-based diets were similar to those of controls given the same daily feed intake. Long-term consumption of diets containing low levels of kidney bean significantly altered body composition of rats. The levels of lipid in the body were significantly reduced. As a result, carcasses of these rats contained a higher proportion of muscle/protein than did controls. Small-intestine relative weight was increased by short- and long-term consumption of the kidney-bean-based diet. However, the increase in relative pancreatic weight observed at 30 d did not persist long term. None of the other legume-based diets caused any significant changes in body composition. However, long-term exposure to a soya-bean- or cowpea-based diet induced an extensive increase in the relative and absolute weights of the pancreas and caused an increase in the incidence of macroscopic pancreatic nodules and possibly pancreatic neoplasia. Long-term consumption of the cowpea-, kidney-bean-, lupin-seed- or soya-bean-based diets by rats resulted in a significant increase in the relative weight of the caecum and colon. PMID:7857911

  10. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Length-Weight Relationships and Condition of the Ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus (Linnaeus, 1758): Implications for Fisheries Management.

    PubMed

    Al Nahdi, Abdullah; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of length-weight relationships for commercially exploited fish is an important tool for assessing and managing of fish stocks. However, analyses of length-weight relationship fisheries data typically do not consider the inherent differences in length-weight relationships for fish caught from different habitats, seasons, or years, and this can affect the utility of these data for developing condition indices or calculating fisheries biomass. Here, we investigated length-weight relationships for ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus in the waters of the Arabian Sea off Oman collected during three periods (2001-02, 2007-08, and 2014-15) and showed that a multivariate modelling approach that considers the areas and seasons in which ribbonfish were caught improved estimation of length-weight relationships. We used the outputs of these models to explore spatio-temporal variations in condition indices and relative weights among ribbonfish, revealing fish of 85-125 cm were in the best overall condition. We also found that condition differed according to where and when fish were caught, with condition lowest during spring and pre-south-west monsoon periods and highest during and after the south-west monsoons. We interpret these differences to be a consequence of variability in temperature and food availability. Based on our findings, we suggest fishing during seasons that have the lowest impact on fish condition and which are commercially most viable; such fishery management would enhance fisheries conservation and economic revenue in the region. PMID:27579485

  11. Variation at the Melanocortin 4 Receptor gene and response to weight-loss interventions in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing; Delahanty, Linda M.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Knowler, William C.; Kahn, Steven E.; Florez, Jose C.; Franks, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess associations and genotype × treatment interactions for melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) locus variants and obesity-related traits. Design and Methods Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) participants (N=3,819, of whom 3,356 were genotyped for baseline and 3,234 for longitudinal analyses) were randomized into intensive lifestyle modification (diet, exercise, weight loss), metformin or placebo control. Adiposity was assessed in a subgroup (n=909) using computed tomography. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity and treatment. Results The rs1943218 minor allele was nominally associated with short-term (6 month; P=0.032) and long-term (2 year; P=0.038) weight change. Eight SNPs modified response to treatment on short-term (rs17066856, rs9966412, rs17066859, rs8091237, rs17066866, rs7240064) or long-term (rs12970134, rs17066866) reduction in body weight, or diabetes incidence (rs17066829) (all Pinteraction <0.05). Conclusion This is the first study to comprehensively assess the role of MC4R variants and weight regulation in a weight loss intervention trial. One MC4R variant was directly associated with obesity-related traits or diabetes; numerous other variants appear to influence body weight and diabetes risk by modifying the protective effects of the DPP interventions. PMID:23512951

  12. Copy Number Variation of Cytokinin Oxidase Gene Tackx4 Associated with Grain Weight and Chlorophyll Content of Flag Leaf in Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Cheng; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Hai-Ping; Ma, Chuan-Xi; Sun, Genlou

    2015-01-01

    As the main pigment in photosynthesis, chlorophyll significantly affects grain filling and grain weight of crop. Cytokinin (CTK) can effectively increase chlorophyll content and chloroplast stability, but it is irreversibly inactivated by cytokinin oxidase (CKX). In this study, therefore, twenty-four pairs of primers were designed to identify variations of wheat CKX (Tackx) genes associated with flag leaf chlorophyll content after anthesis, as well as grain weight in 169 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from Triticum aestivum Jing 411 × Hongmangchun 21. Results indicated variation of Tackx4, identified by primer pair T19-20, was proven to significantly associate with chlorophyll content and grain weight in the RIL population. Here, two Tackx4 patterns were identified: one with two co-segregated fragments (Tackx4-1/Tackx4-2) containing 618 bp and 620 bp in size (as in Jing 411), and another with no PCR product. The two genotypes were designated as genotype-A and genotype-B, respectively. Grain weight and leaf chlorophyll content at 5~15 days after anthesis (DAA) were significantly higher in genotype-A lines than those in genotype-B lines. Mapping analysis indicated Tackx4 was closely linked to Xwmc169 on chromosome 3AL, as well as co-segregated with a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for both grain weight and chlorophyll content of flag leaf at 5~15 DAA. This QTL explained 8.9~22.3% phenotypic variations of the two traits across four cropping seasons. Among 102 wheat varieties, a third genotype of Tackx4 was found and designated as genotype-C, also having two co-segregated fragments, Tackx4-2 and Tackx4-3 (615bp). The sequences of three fragments, Tackx4-1, Tackx4-2, and Tackx4-3, showed high identity (>98%). Therefore, these fragments could be considered as different copies at Tackx4 locus on chromosome 3AL. The effect of copy number variation (CNV) of Tackx4 was further validated. In general, genotype-A contains both significantly higher grain weight

  13. Seed dormancy in Mexican teosinte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy in wild Zea species may affect fitness and relate to ecological adaptation. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the variation in seed germination of the wild species of the genus Zea that currently grow in Mexico, and to relate this variation to their ecological zon...

  14. Distinguishing disease effects from environmental effects in a mountain ungulate: seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum chemistry among Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) affected by sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Jesús M; Serrano, Emmanuel; Soriguer, Ramón C; González, Francisco J; Sarasa, Mathieu; Granados, José E; Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; Cuenca, Rafaela; Fandos, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Our study focuses on the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (southern Spain), where sarcoptic mange is an endemic disease and animals are affected by a highly seasonal environment. Our aim was to distinguish between disease and environmental influences on seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum biochemistry in Iberian ibex. We sampled 136 chemically immobilized male ibexes. The single effect of mange influenced hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, leukocytes, band neutrophils, monocytes, cholesterol, urea, creatine, and aspartate aminotransferase. Both mange and the period of the year also affected values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, neutrophils, glucose, and serum proteins. Scabietic animals showed a marked reduction in body weight (21.4 kg on average), which was more pronounced in winter. These results reveal that 1) infested animals are anemic, 2) secondary infections likely occur, and 3) sarcoptic mange is catabolic. PMID:25380360

  15. Cross-cultural variation in blood pressure: a quantitative analysis of the relationships of blood pressure to cultural characteristics, salt consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    Waldron, I; Nowotarski, M; Freimer, M; Henry, J P; Post, N; Witten, C

    1982-01-01

    This study has analyzed the relationships of cross-cultural variation in blood pressure to cultural characteristics, salt consumption and body weight. The data used were blood pressures for adults in 84 groups, ratings of cultural characteristics (based on anthropological data and made by raters who had no knowledge of the blood pressure data) and, where available, salt consumption and body mass index (weight/height2). Blood pressures were higher and the slopes of blood pressure with age were greater in groups which had greater involvement in a money economy, more economic competition, more contact with people of different culture or beliefs, and more unfulfilled aspirations for a return to traditional beliefs and values. Blood pressures were also higher in groups for which the predominant family type was a nuclear or father-absent family, as opposed to an extended family. For Negroes, groups who were descended from slaves had higher blood pressures than other groups. The correlations between blood pressures and involvement in a money economy were substantial and significant even after controlling for level of salt consumption and, for men, also after controlling for body mass index. For men there were also significant partial correlations between blood pressure and salt consumption, controlling for type of economy. For women there were significant partial correlations between blood pressure and body mass index, controlling for type of economy. In conclusion, cross-cultural variation in blood pressure appears to be due to multiple factors. One contributory factor appears to be psychosocial stress due to cultural disruption, including the disruption of cooperative relationships and traditional cultural patterns which frequently occurs during economic modernization. In addition, both the protective effects of very low salt consumption in some groups and differences in body weight appear to contribute to cross-cultural variation in blood pressure. PMID:7079796

  16. [Allozyme variation of seed embryos and mating system in relict populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from the Kremenets Hill Ridge and Maloe Poles'e].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Kalafat, L A; Lisnichuk, A N; Velikorid'ko, T I; Mudrik, E A

    2011-07-01

    Allozyme variation at ten polymorphic loci and mating system was studied in three small isolated relict populations (4.4 to 22 ha) and in three artificial stands of Pinus sylvestris from the Kremenets Hill Ridge and Maloe Poles'e. It was established that the mean heterozygosity of 130 to 140 year-old trees from natural populations (H(O) = 0.288; H(E) = 0.277) was substantially lower, compared to 30 to 40 year-old trees from artificial stands (H(O) = 0.358; H(E) = 0.330). The observed heterozygosity of seed embryos (H(O) = 0.169 and 0.180) was substantially lower than of the mature trees from populations and artificial stands, respectively. In the embryo samples, irrespectively of the forest stand origin, substantial hetedrozygote deficiency was observed (at six to eight loci), compared to the Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The proportion of cross pollination in the populations and artificial stands was low, t(m) = 0.588 to 0.721; and t(m) = 0.455 to 0.837, respectively. PMID:21938957

  17. GWR-PM - Spatial variation relationship analysis with Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) - An application at Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamhuri, J.; Azhar, B. M. S.; Puan, C. L.; Norizah, K.

    2016-06-01

    GWR-PM has been developed exclusively for decision makers in Peninsular Malaysia and the purpose is to provide them with additional flexibility in analysing spatial variation. While GWR extension analysis in ArcMap application has a universal coordinate system, GWR-PM is specifically designed with Peninsular Malaysia's coordinate system of Kertau RSO Malaya Meter. This paper presents the development of GWR-PM model by using a model builder, the application of which is to examine the forest fire risk at North Selangor Peat Swamp Forest. This model can be extended and improved by using ArcGIS language of phyton.

  18. Effects of Perilipin (PLIN) Gene Variation on Metabolic Syndrome Risk and Weight Loss in Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Deram, Sophie; Nicolau, Christiane Y.; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Guazzelli, Isabel; Halpern, Alfredo; Wajchenberg, Bernardo L.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Villares, Sandra M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Genetic polymorphisms at the perilipin (PLIN) locus have been investigated for their potential utility as markers for obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). We examined in obese children and adolescents (OCA) aged 7–14 yr the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at the PLIN locus with anthropometric, metabolic traits, and weight loss after 20-wk multidisciplinary behavioral and nutritional treatment without medication. Design: A total of 234 OCA [body mass index (BMI = 30.4 ± 4.4 kg/m2; BMI Z-score = 2.31 ± 0.4) were evaluated at baseline and after intervention. We genotyped four SNPs (PLIN1 6209T→C, PLIN4 11482G→A, PLIN5 13041A→G, and PLIN6 14995A→T). Results: Allele frequencies were similar to other populations, PLIN1 and PLIN4 were in linkage disequilibrium (D′ = 0.999; P < 0.001). At baseline, no anthropometric differences were observed, but minor allele A at PLIN4 was associated with higher triglycerides (111 ± 49 vs. 94 ± 42 mg/dl; P = 0.003), lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (40 ± 9 vs. 44 ± 10 mg/dl; P = 0.003) and higher homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (4.0 ± 2.3 vs. 3.5 ± 2.1; P = 0.015). Minor allele A at PLIN4 was associated with MS risk (age and sex adjusted) hazard ratio 2.4 (95% confidence interval = 1.1–4.9) for genotype GA and 3.5 (95% confidence interval = 1.2–9.9) for AA. After intervention, subjects carrying minor allele T at PLIN6 had increased weight loss (3.3 ± 3.7 vs. 1.9 ± 3.4 kg; P = 0.002) and increased loss of the BMI Z-score (0.23 ± 0.18 vs. 0.18 ± 0.15; P = 0.003). Due to group size, risk of by-chance findings cannot be excluded. Conclusion: The minor A allele at PLIN4 was associated with higher risk of MS at baseline, whereas the PLIN6 SNP was associated with better weight loss, suggesting that these polymorphisms may predict outcome strategies based on multidisciplinary treatment for OCA. PMID:18812483

  19. Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

    2011-11-01

    We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed

  20. Genome-wide association study in arabidopsis thaliana of natural variation in seed oil melting point, a widespread adaptive trait in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed oil melting point is an adaptive, quantitative trait determined by the relative proportions of the fatty acids that compose the oil. Micro- and macro-evolutionary evidence suggests selection has changed the melting point of seed oils to co-vary with germination temperatures because of a trade-o...

  1. Seed Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initiation of seed germination is a critical decision for plants. It is important for seed populations under natural conditions to spread the timing of germination of individual seeds to maximize the probability of species survival. Therefore, seeds have evolved the multiple layers of mechanisms tha...

  2. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8. PMID:27239343

  3. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3-10 in a molecular weight range of 11-170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6-8. PMID:27239343

  4. Phenotypic Characteristics as Predictors of Phytosterols in Mature Cycas micronesica Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E.; Shaw, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between mature Cycas micronesica K.D. Hill seed sterol concentration and content and plant or seed phenotypic characteristics was established by multiple regression. Combined models were significant for free but not glycosylated sterols. Reduced models revealed leaf number as the only significant predictor. Free and glycosylated sterol concentrations were unaffected throughout the range of several predictors: tree height (1.7 to 5.8 m), seed fresh weight (48 to 120 g), seed load (one to 76 seeds per plant), and estimated tree age (32 to 110 years). The free and glycosylated sterol phenotypes were also not dependent on the presence/absence of developed embryos in mature seeds. The significant response to leaf number was subtle with an increase of 43 leaves associated with a 0.1-mg increase in free sterol per gram seed fresh weight. This is the first report for any cycad that discusses reproductive or physiological traits in the context of allometric relations. Results indicate a highly constrained phenotypic plasticity of Cycas gametophyte sterol and steryl glucoside concentration and seed content in relation to whole plant and organ size variation. PMID:20174600

  5. Diversity of selected Lupinus angustifolius L. genotypes at the phenotypic and DNA level with respect to microscopic seed coat structure and thickness.

    PubMed

    Clements, Jon; Galek, Renata; Kozak, Bartosz; Michalczyk, Dariusz Jan; Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka Iwona; Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, Ewa; Stawiński, Stanislaw; Zalewski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates seed coat characteristics (as a percentage of overall seed diameter) in Lupinus angustifolius L., a potential forage crop. In the study ten L. angustifolius genotypes, including three Polish cultivars, two Australian cultivars, three mutants originated from cv. 'Emir', and one Belarusian and one Australian breeding line were evaluated. The highest seed coat percentage was recorded in cultivars 'Sonet' and 'Emir'. The lowest seed coat thickness percentage (below 20%) was noted for breeding lines 11257-19, LAG24 and cultivar 'Zeus' (17.87%, 18.91% 19.60%, respectively). Despite having low seed weight, the Australian line no. 11257-19 was characterized by a desirable proportion of seed coat to the weight of seeds. In general, estimation of the correlation coefficient indicated a tendency that larger seeds had thinner coats. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed low variation of seed coat sculpture and the top of seeds covered with a cuticle. Most of the studied genotypes were characterized by a cristatepapillate seed coat surface, formed by elongated polygonal cells. Only breeding line no. 11267-19 had a different shape of the cells building the surface layer of the coat. In order to illustrate genetic diversity among the genotypes tested, 24 ISSR primers were used. They generated a total of 161 polymorphic amplification products in 10 evaluated narrow-leaved lupin genotypes. PMID:25119983

  6. Diversity of Selected Lupinus angustifolius L. Genotypes at the Phenotypic and DNA Level with Respect to Microscopic Seed Coat Structure and Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Jon; Galek, Renata; Kozak, Bartosz; Michalczyk, Dariusz Jan; Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka Iwona; Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, Ewa; Stawiński, Stanislaw; Zalewski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates seed coat characteristics (as a percentage of overall seed diameter) in Lupinus angustifolius L., a potential forage crop. In the study ten L. angustifolius genotypes, including three Polish cultivars, two Australian cultivars, three mutants originated from cv. ‘Emir’, and one Belarusian and one Australian breeding line were evaluated. The highest seed coat percentage was recorded in cultivars ‘Sonet’ and ‘Emir’. The lowest seed coat thickness percentage (below 20%) was noted for breeding lines 11257-19, LAG24 and cultivar ‘Zeus’ (17.87%, 18.91% 19.60%, respectively). Despite having low seed weight, the Australian line no. 11257-19 was characterized by a desirable proportion of seed coat to the weight of seeds. In general, estimation of the correlation coefficient indicated a tendency that larger seeds had thinner coats. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed low variation of seed coat sculpture and the top of seeds covered with a cuticle. Most of the studied genotypes were characterized by a cristatepapillate seed coat surface, formed by elongated polygonal cells. Only breeding line no. 11267-19 had a different shape of the cells building the surface layer of the coat. In order to illustrate genetic diversity among the genotypes tested, 24 ISSR primers were used. They generated a total of 161 polymorphic amplification products in 10 evaluated narrow-leaved lupin genotypes. PMID:25119983

  7. Variation of low molecular weight organic acids in precipitation and cloudwater at high elevation in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Sun, Minghu; Li, Penghui; Li, Yuhua; Xue, Likun; Wang, Wenxing

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the sources and chemical behaviors of carboxylic acids in Southern China, precipitation and corresponding cloudwater samples were collected in an acid rain-prone area of Mount Heng. The carboxylic acid levels in the samples were measured, and the concentration patterns were evaluated with respect to temporal and seasonal variations. Formic and acetic acids were predominant among the carboxylic acids identified for both precipitation and cloudwater. Most of the organic acids in the precipitation had a clear seasonal pattern, reaching higher levels during the warm season; these higher levels were attributed to the stronger source strength of biogenic emissions during this season. The cloud-fog samples did not display a similar trend. A distinctive diurnal pattern in carboxylic acids was only observed in the precipitation samples during the warm season. In cloud-fog, the ratio of formic to acetic acid differed considerably with time, with these values varying little in the precipitation samples. This result indicates that the organic acids in precipitation originate consistently from primary sources throughout the entire period, while those in cloud are mainly associated with direct emissions in the earlier stage and with secondary sources in the later period.

  8. Supplying dextrose before insemination and L-arginine during the last third of pregnancy in sow diets: effects on within-litter variation of piglet birth weight.

    PubMed

    Quesnel, H; Quiniou, N; Roy, H; Lottin, A; Boulot, S; Gondret, F

    2014-04-01

    Preweaning piglet mortality is largely attributed to the incidence of low birth weight and birth weight variation within the litter. Therefore, developing strategies to increase within-litter uniformity of piglet birth weight is important. This study investigated the effects of different feeding strategies based on specific nutrient supplies in sow diet on the within-litter variation of piglet birth weight (BW0). Four batches of highly prolific crossbred Landrace × Large White sows were used. Three dietary treatments were compared: supplies of dextrose during the week before insemination (190 g/d) and of L-arginine (25.5 g/d) from d 77 of pregnancy until term (DEXA, n = 26); a dietary supplementation of L-arginine only (25.5 g/d), from d 77 of pregnancy until term (ARGI, n = 24); and no supplementation to a standard gestation diet (CTL; n = 23). Total born piglets (TB), i.e., piglets born alive (BA) and stillborn piglets, were numbered and weighed at birth and at weaning. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the MIXED procedure in a model that included dietary treatment (ARGI, DEXA, and CTL), initial parity (1, 2 and 3, 4, and more), and backfat thickness (below or above the average value at the onset of the experiment: 15.7 mm) as the main effects and batch as random effect. The treatment did not influence (P > 0.10) the number of piglets at birth (on average 15.6 ± 3.8 and 14.2 ± 3.6 for TB and BA, respectively) or piglet BW0 (on average 1.48 ± 0.26 and 1.50 ± 0.26 kg for TB and BA, respectively). The coefficient of variation of piglet BW0 (CV(BW0)) was less in litters from ARGI sows than in litters from CTL sows and intermediate in litters from DEXA sows (for TB: 21.4, 23.4, and 25.7%, P = 0.08; for BA: 20.6, 22.5, and 25.4%, P = 0.03, in the ARGI, DEXA, and CTL groups, respectively). Irrespective of diet, CV(BW0) was less (P < 0.01) in litters with 16 TB piglets or less than in the largest litters (20.9 vs. 26.5%). Litter growth rate during lactation and

  9. Inheritance of seed color in Capsicum.

    PubMed

    Zewdie, Y; Bosland, P W

    2003-01-01

    The mode of seed color inheritance in Capsicum was studied via an interspecific hybridization between C. pubescens Ruiz and Pav. (black seed color) and C. eximium Hunz. (yellow seed color). Black seed color was dominant over yellow seed color. The F(2) segregation pattern showed continuous variation. The generation means analysis indicated the presence of a significant effect of additive [d], dominance [h], and additive x additive [i] interaction for seed color inheritance. The estimate for a minimum number of effective factors (genes) involved in seed color inheritance was approximately 3. PMID:12920108

  10. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for seed quality traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Badigannavar, Ashok; Myers, Gerald O

    2015-03-01

    Cottonseed contains 16% seed oil and 23% seed protein by weight. High levels of palmitic acid provides a degree of stability to the oil, while the presence of bound gossypol in proteins considerably changes their properties, including their biological value. This study uses genetic principles to identify genomic regions associated with seed oil, protein and fibre content in upland cotton cultivars. Cotton association mapping panel representing the US germplasm were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, yielding 234 polymorphic DNA fragments. Phenotypic analysis showed high genetic variability for the seed traits, seed oil range from 6.47-25.16%, protein from 1.85-28.45% and fibre content from 15.88-37.12%. There were negative correlations between seed oil and protein content.With reference to genetic diversity, the average estimate of FST was 8.852 indicating a low level of genetic differentiation among subpopulations. The AMOVA test revealed that variation was 94% within and 6% among subpopulations. Bayesian population structure identified five subpopulations and was in agreement with their geographical distribution. Among the mixed models analysed, mixed linear model (MLM) identified 21 quantitative trait loci for lint percentage and seed quality traits, such as seed protein and oil. Establishing genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for the seed quality traits could be valuable in understanding the genetic relationships and their utilization in breeding programmes. PMID:25846880

  11. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Qi, Mingming; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Chunxue; Wang, Yongcui

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT) and accelerated ageing test (AAT). Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest. PMID:27170257

  12. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Qi, Mingming; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Chunxue; Wang, Yongcui; Mu, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT) and accelerated ageing test (AAT). Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest. PMID:27170257

  13. Brassinosteroid functions in Arabidopsis seed development

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wen-Bo; Lin, Wen-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Seed development of flowering plant is a complicated process controlled by a signal network. Double fertilization generates 2 zygotic products (embryo and endosperm). Embryo gives rise to a daughter plant while endosperm provides nutrients for embryo during embryogenesis and germination. Seed coat differentiates from maternally derived integument and encloses embryo and endosperm. Seed size/mass and number comprise final seed yield, and seed shape also contributes to seed development and weight. Seed size is coordinated by communication among endosperm, embryo, and integument. Seed number determination is more complex to investigate and shows differencies between monocot and eudicot. Total seed number depends on sillique number and seed number per sillique in Arabidopsis. Seed comes from fertilized ovule, hence the ovule number per flower determines the maximal seed number per sillique. Early studies reported that engineering BR levels increased the yield of ovule and seed; however the molecular mechanism of BR regulation in seed development still remained unclear. Our recent studies demonstrated that BR regulated seed size, shape, and number by transcriptionally modulating specific seed developmental pathways. This review summarizes roles of BR in Arabidopsis seed development and gives clues for future application of BR in agricultural production. PMID:24270689

  14. Geographic Variation in the Association between Ambient Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Term Low Birth Weight in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yongping; Strosnider, Heather; Balluz, Lina; Qualters, Judith R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies on the association between prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and term low birth weight (LBW) have resulted in inconsistent findings. Most studies were conducted in snapshots of small geographic areas and no national study exists. Objectives We investigated geographic variation in the associations between ambient PM2.5 during pregnancy and term LBW in the contiguous United States. Methods A total of 3,389,450 term singleton births in 2002 (37–44 weeks gestational age and birth weight of 1,000–5,500 g) were linked to daily PM2.5 via imputed birth days. We generated average daily PM2.5 during the entire pregnancy and each trimester. Multi-level logistic regression models with county-level random effects were used to evaluate the associations between term LBW and PM2.5 during pregnancy. Results Without adjusting for covariates, the odds of term LBW increased 2% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.03] for every 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure during the second trimester only, which remained unchanged after adjusting for county-level poverty (OR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.04). The odds did change to null after adjusting for individual-level predictors (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.02). Multi-level analyses, stratified by census division, revealed significant positive associations of term LBW and PM2.5 exposure (during the entire pregnancy or a specific trimester) in three census divisions of the United States: Middle Atlantic, East North Central, and West North Central, and significant negative association in the Mountain division. Conclusions Our study provided additional evidence on the associations between PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy and term LBW from a national perspective. The magnitude and direction of the estimated associations between PM2.5 exposure and term LBW varied by geographic locations in the United States. Citation Hao Y, Strosnider H, Balluz L, Qualters JR. 2016

  15. Pre-dispersal predation effect on seed packaging strategies and seed viability.

    PubMed

    DeSoto, Lucía; Tutor, David; Torices, Rubén; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Nabais, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    An increased understanding of intraspecific seed packaging (i.e. seed size/number strategy) variation across different environments may improve current knowledge of the ecological forces that drive seed evolution in plants. In particular, pre-dispersal seed predation may influence seed packaging strategies, triggering a reduction of the resources allocated to undamaged seeds within the preyed fruits. Assessing plant reactions to pre-dispersal seed predation is crucial to a better understanding of predation effects, but the response of plants to arthropod attacks remains unexplored. We have assessed the effect of cone predation on the size and viability of undamaged seeds in populations of Juniperus thurifera with contrasting seed packaging strategies, namely, North African populations with single-large-seeded cones and South European populations with multi-small-seeded cones. Our results show that the incidence of predation was lower on the single-large-seeded African cones than on the multi-small-seeded European ones. Seeds from non-preyed cones were also larger and had a higher germination success than uneaten seeds from preyed cones, but only in populations with multi-seeded cones and in cones attacked by Trisetacus sp., suggesting a differential plastic response to predation. It is possible that pre-dispersal seed predation has been a strong selective pressure in European populations with high cone predation rates, being a process which maintains multi-small-seeded cones and empty seeds as a strategy to save some seeds from predation. Conversely, pre-dispersal predation might not have a strong effect in the African populations with single-large-seeded cones characterized by seed germination and filling rates higher than those in the European populations. Our results indicate that differences in pre-dispersal seed predators and predation levels may affect both selection on and intraspecific variation in seed packaging. PMID:26400794

  16. Seed proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds comprise a protective covering, a small embryonic plant, and a nutrient-storage organ. Seeds are protein-rich, and have been the subject of many mass spectrometry-based analyses. Seed storage proteins (SSP), which are transient depots for reduced nitrogen, have been studied for decades by cel...

  17. Comprehensive speciation of low-molecular weight selenium metabolites in mustard seeds using HPLC-electrospray linear trap/Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ouerdane, Laurent; Aureli, Federica; Flis, Paulina; Bierla, Katarzyna; Preud'homme, Hugues; Cubadda, Francesco; Szpunar, Joanna

    2013-09-01

    An analytical methodology based on high-resolution high mass accuracy electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem MS assisted by Se-specific detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) was developed for speciation of selenium (Se) in seeds of black mustard (Brassica nigra) grown on Se-rich soil. Size-exclusion LC-ICP MS allowed the determination of the Se distribution according to the molecular mass and the control of the species stability during extraction. The optimization of hydrophilic interaction of LC and cation-exchange HPLC resulted in analytical conditions making it possible to detect and characterize over 30 Se species using ESI MS, including a number of minor (<0.5%) metabolites. Selenoglucosinolates were found to be the most important class of species accounting for at least 15% of the total Se present and over 50% of all the metabolites. They were found particularly unstable during aqueous extraction leading to the loss of Se by volatilization as methylselenonitriles and methylselenoisothiocyanates identified using gas chromatography (GC) with the parallel ICP MS and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) MS/MS detection. However, selenoglucosinolates could be efficiently recovered by extraction with 70% methanol. Other classes of identified species included selenoamino acids, selenosugars, selenosinapine and selenourea derivatives. The three types of reactions leading to the formation of selenometabolites were: the Se-S substitution in the metabolic pathway, oxidative reactions of -SeH groups with endogenous biomolecules, and chemical reactions, e.g., esterification, of Se-containing molecules and other biomolecules through functional groups not involving Se. PMID:23925428

  18. Surface and Column Variations of CO2 using Weighting Functions for Future Active Remote CO2 sensors and Data from DISCOVER-AQ Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M. M.; Choi, Y.; Kooi, S. A.; Browell, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Fast response (1 Hz) and high precision (< 0.1 ppmv) in situ CO2 measurements were recorded onboard the NASA P-3B during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) Field Campaign, to investigate the ability of space-based observations to accurately assess near surface conditions related to air quality. The campaign spanned 4 years and took place over four geographically different locations. These included, Washington DC/Baltimore, MD (July 2011), San Joaquin Valley, CA (January - February 2013), Houston, TX (September 2013), and Denver, CO (July-August 2014). With the objective of obtaining better CO2 column calculations, each of these campaigns consisted of missed approaches and approximately two hundred vertical soundings of CO2 (from the surface to about 5 km). In this study, surface and column-averaged CO2 mixing ratio values from the vertical soundings in the four different urban areas are used to examine the temporal and spatial variability of CO2 within the lower troposphere. Tracers such as CO, CH2O, NOx, and NMHCs will be used to identify the source of variations observed in these urban sites. Additionally, we apply nominal CO2 column weighting functions for potential future active remote CO2 sensors operating in the 1.57-mm and 2.05-mm measurement regions to convert the in situ CO2 vertical mixing ratio profiles to variations in CO2 column optical depths, which is what the active remote sensors actually measure. Using statistics calculated from the optical depths at each urban site measured during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and for each nominal weighting function, we compare the natural variability of CO2 columns in the lower troposphere; relate the CO2 column variability to surface emissions; and show the measurement requirements for the future ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) in the continental U.S. urban areas.

  19. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  20. Factors associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates of very-low-birth-weight infants in 34 Malaysian neonatal intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat-Sim

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to determine whether patient loads, infant status on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in the Malaysian National Neonatal Registry (MNNR). METHODS This was a retrospective study of 3,880 VLBW (≤ 1,500 g) infants admitted to 34 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the MNNR. Sepsis was diagnosed in symptomatic infants with positive blood culture. RESULTS Sepsis developed in 623 (16.1%) infants; 61 (9.8%) had early-onset sepsis (EOS) and 562 (90.2%) had late-onset sepsis (LOS). The median EOS rate of all NICUs was 1.0% (interquartile range [IQR] 0%, 2.0%). Compared with NICUs reporting no EOS (n = 14), NICUs reporting EOS (n = 20) had significantly higher patient loads (total live births, admissions, VLBW infants, outborns); more mothers with a history of abortions, and antenatal steroids and intrapartum antibiotic use; more infants requiring resuscitation procedures at birth; higher rates of surfactant therapy, pneumonia and insertion of central venous catheters. The median LOS rate of all NICUs was 14.5% (IQR 7.8%, 19.2%). Compared with NICUs with LOS rates below the first quartile (n = 8), those above the third quartile (n = 8) used less intrapartum antibiotics, and had significantly bigger and more mature infants, more outborns, as well as a higher number of sick infants requiring ventilator support and total parenteral nutrition. CONCLUSION Patient loads, resuscitation at birth, status of infants on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis. PMID:26996633

  1. Genetic variation in salt tolerance during seed germination in a backcross inbred line population and advanced breeding lines derived from upland cotton x pima cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed germination is a crucial phase of the plant life cycle that affects its establishment and productivity. However, information on salt tolerance at this phase is limited. Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) may be more salt tolerant during germination than Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.) based o...

  2. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Emilio; Martín, José Javier; Saadaoui, Ezzeddine

    2016-01-01

    Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index). The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc.) provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds. PMID:27190684

  3. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, Emilio; Martín, José Javier; Saadaoui, Ezzeddine

    2016-01-01

    Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index). The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc.) provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds. PMID:27190684

  4. Variations and Determinants of Mortality and Length of Stay of Very Low Birth Weight and Very Low for Gestational Age Infants in Seven European Countries.

    PubMed

    Fatttore, Giovanni; Numerato, Dino; Peltola, Mikko; Banks, Helen; Graziani, Rebecca; Heijink, Richard; Over, Eelco; Klitkou, Søren Toksvig; Fletcher, Eilidh; Mihalicza, Péter; Sveréus, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    The EuroHOPE very low birth weight and very low for gestational age infants study aimed to measure and explain variation in mortality and length of stay (LoS) in the populations of seven European nations (Finland, Hungary, Italy (only the province of Rome), the Netherlands, Norway, Scotland and Sweden). Data were linked from birth, hospital discharge and mortality registries. For each infant basic clinical and demographic information, infant mortality and LoS at 1 year were retrieved. In addition, socio-economic variables at the regional level were used. Results based on 16,087 infants confirm that gestational age and Apgar score at 5 min are important determinants of both mortality and LoS. In most countries, infants admitted or transferred to third-level hospitals showed lower probability of death and longer LoS. In the meta-analyses, the combined estimates show that being male, multiple births, presence of malformations, per capita income and low population density are significant risk factors for death. It is essential that national policies improve the quality of administrative datasets and address systemic problems in assigning identification numbers at birth. European policy should aim at improving the comparability of data across jurisdictions. PMID:26633869

  5. Structural stability of beta-globulin, the low molecular weight protein fraction from sesame seed (Sesamum indicum L.) in alkaline solution.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, S; Prakash, V

    1993-02-01

    Beta-globulin, a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight 15,000 +/- 1,000, undergoes denaturation in alkaline pH (7.0-13.0), thereby affecting the hydrodynamic properties of the protein, viz. a decrease in sedimentation coefficient from a value of 2.0s to 1.4s at pH 11.3, an increase in reduced viscosity from 0.042 dl/g to 0.158 dl/g at pH 12.6 and a decrease in partial specific volume resulting in a volume change of 6.3 +/- 1.0 ml/mole residue at pH 11.7. The perturbation of tryptophanyl residues and ionization of tyrosyl residues are preceded by alteration in conformational status of the protein. The fluorescence emission measurements indicate initial unfolding of the protein molecule which exposes the tryptophan and tyrosyl residues to the solvent. The tyrosyl phenolic group ionization is anomalous having a pKint value of 11.2. The reduced viscosity value reaches a plateau region at pH 12.5. PMID:8509122

  6. Variation of the phytotoxicity of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination with leaching conditions.

    PubMed

    Phoungthong, Khamphe; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA) has long been regarded as an alternative building material in the construction industry. However, the pollutants contained in the bottom ash could potentially leach out and contaminate the local environment, which presents an obstacle to the reuse of the materials. To evaluate the environmental feasibility of using MSWIBA as a recycled material in construction, the leaching derived ecotoxicity was assessed. The leaching behavior of MSWIBA under various conditions, including the extractant type, leaching time, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, and leachate pH were investigated, and the phytotoxicity of these leachates on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination was determined. Moreover, the correlation between the germination index and the concentrations of various chemical constituents in the MSWIBA leachates was assessed using multivariate statistics with principal component analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis. It was found that, heavy metal concentrations in the leachate were pH and L/S ratio dependent, but were less affected by leaching time. Heavy metals were the main pollutants present in wheat seeds. Heavy metals (especially Ba, Cr, Cu and Pb) had a substantial inhibitory effect on wheat seed germination and root elongation. To safely use MSWIBA in construction, the potential risk and ecotoxicity of leached materials must be addressed. PMID:26745383

  7. Genetic Variation for Thermotolerance in Lettuce Seed Germination Is Associated with Temperature-Sensitive Regulation of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1)1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Laurel K.; Truco, Maria Jose; Huo, Heqiang; Sideman, Rebecca; Hayes, Ryan; Michelmore, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of most lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars are susceptible to thermoinhibition, or failure to germinate at temperatures above approximately 28°C, creating problems for crop establishment in the field. Identifying genes controlling thermoinhibition would enable the development of cultivars lacking this trait and, therefore, being less sensitive to high temperatures during planting. Seeds of a primitive accession (PI251246) of lettuce exhibited high-temperature germination capacity up to 33°C. Screening a recombinant inbred line population developed from PI215246 and cv Salinas identified a major quantitative trait locus (Htg9.1) from PI251246 associated with the high-temperature germination phenotype. Further genetic analyses discovered a tight linkage of the Htg9.1 phenotype with a specific DNA marker (NM4182) located on a single genomic sequence scaffold. Expression analyses of the 44 genes encoded in this genomic region revealed that only a homolog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (termed LsERF1) was differentially expressed between PI251246 and cv Salinas seeds imbibed at high temperature (30°C). LsERF1 belongs to a large family of transcription factors associated with the ethylene-signaling pathway. Physiological assays of ethylene synthesis, response, and action in parental and near-isogenic Htg9.1 genotypes strongly implicate LsERF1 as the gene responsible for the Htg9.1 phenotype, consistent with the established role for ethylene in germination thermotolerance of Compositae seeds. Expression analyses of genes associated with the abscisic acid and gibberellin biosynthetic pathways and results of biosynthetic inhibitor and hormone response experiments also support the hypothesis that differential regulation of LsERF1 expression in PI251246 seeds elevates their upper temperature limit for germination through interactions among pathways regulated by these hormones. Our results support a model in which LsERF1 acts through

  8. Genetic Variation for Thermotolerance in Lettuce Seed Germination Is Associated with Temperature-Sensitive Regulation of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1).

    PubMed

    Yoong, Fei-Yian; O'Brien, Laurel K; Truco, Maria Jose; Huo, Heqiang; Sideman, Rebecca; Hayes, Ryan; Michelmore, Richard W; Bradford, Kent J

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of most lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars are susceptible to thermoinhibition, or failure to germinate at temperatures above approximately 28°C, creating problems for crop establishment in the field. Identifying genes controlling thermoinhibition would enable the development of cultivars lacking this trait and, therefore, being less sensitive to high temperatures during planting. Seeds of a primitive accession (PI251246) of lettuce exhibited high-temperature germination capacity up to 33°C. Screening a recombinant inbred line population developed from PI215246 and cv Salinas identified a major quantitative trait locus (Htg9.1) from PI251246 associated with the high-temperature germination phenotype. Further genetic analyses discovered a tight linkage of the Htg9.1 phenotype with a specific DNA marker (NM4182) located on a single genomic sequence scaffold. Expression analyses of the 44 genes encoded in this genomic region revealed that only a homolog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (termed LsERF1) was differentially expressed between PI251246 and cv Salinas seeds imbibed at high temperature (30°C). LsERF1 belongs to a large family of transcription factors associated with the ethylene-signaling pathway. Physiological assays of ethylene synthesis, response, and action in parental and near-isogenic Htg9.1 genotypes strongly implicate LsERF1 as the gene responsible for the Htg9.1 phenotype, consistent with the established role for ethylene in germination thermotolerance of Compositae seeds. Expression analyses of genes associated with the abscisic acid and gibberellin biosynthetic pathways and results of biosynthetic inhibitor and hormone response experiments also support the hypothesis that differential regulation of LsERF1 expression in PI251246 seeds elevates their upper temperature limit for germination through interactions among pathways regulated by these hormones. Our results support a model in which LsERF1 acts through

  9. Genetic variation in the 15q25 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5–CHRNA3–CHRNB4) interacts with maternal self-reported smoking status during pregnancy to influence birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Huikari, Ville; Christie, Jennifer T.; Cavadino, Alana; Bakker, Rachel; Brion, Marie-Jo A.; Geller, Frank; Paternoster, Lavinia; Myhre, Ronny; Potter, Catherine; Johnson, Paul C.D.; Ebrahim, Shah; Feenstra, Bjarke; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hofman, Albert; Kaakinen, Marika; Lowe, Lynn P.; Magnus, Per; McConnachie, Alex; Melbye, Mads; Ng, Jane W.Y.; Nohr, Ellen A.; Power, Chris; Ring, Susan M.; Sebert, Sylvain P.; Sengpiel, Verena; Taal, H. Rob; Watt, Graham C.M.; Sattar, Naveed; Relton, Caroline L.; Jacobsson, Bo; Frayling, Timothy M.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Pennell, Craig E.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Hypponen, Elina; Lowe, William L.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Davey Smith, George; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight. Common variation at rs1051730 is robustly associated with smoking quantity and was recently shown to influence smoking cessation during pregnancy, but its influence on birth weight is not clear. We aimed to investigate the association between this variant and birth weight of term, singleton offspring in a well-powered meta-analysis. We stratified 26 241 European origin study participants by smoking status (women who smoked during pregnancy versus women who did not smoke during pregnancy) and, in each stratum, analysed the association between maternal rs1051730 genotype and offspring birth weight. There was evidence of interaction between genotype and smoking (P = 0.007). In women who smoked during pregnancy, each additional smoking-related T-allele was associated with a 20 g [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4–36 g] lower birth weight (P = 0.014). However, in women who did not smoke during pregnancy, the effect size estimate was 5 g per T-allele (95% CI: −4 to 14 g; P = 0.268). To conclude, smoking status during pregnancy modifies the association between maternal rs1051730 genotype and offspring birth weight. This strengthens the evidence that smoking during pregnancy is causally related to lower offspring birth weight and suggests that population interventions that effectively reduce smoking in pregnant women would result in a reduced prevalence of low birth weight. PMID:22956269

  10. Growth, seed development and genetic analysis in wild type and Def mutant of Pisum sativum L

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The def mutant pea (Pisum sativum L) showed non-abscission of seeds from the funicule. Here we present data on seed development and growth pattern and their relationship in predicting this particular trait in wild type and mutant lines as well as the inheritance pattern of the def allele in F2 and F3 populations. Findings Pod length and seed fresh weight increase with fruit maturity and this may affect the abscission event in pea seeds. However, the seed position in either the distal and proximal ends of the pod did not show any difference. The growth factors of seed fresh weight (FW), width of funicles (WFN), seed width (SW) and seed height (SH) were highly correlated and their relationships were determined in both wild type and def mutant peas. The coefficient of determination R2 values for the relationship between WFN and FW, SW and SH and their various interactions were higher for the def dwarf type. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that variation of WFN was associated with SH and SW. Pearson's chi square analysis revealed that the inheritance and segregation of the Def locus in 3:1 ratio was significant in two F2 populations. Structural analysis of the F3 population was used to confirm the inheritance status of the Def locus in F2 heterozygote plants. Conclusions This study investigated the inheritance of the presence or absence of the Def allele, controlling the presence of an abscission zone (AZ) or an abscission-less zone (ALZ) forming in wild type and mutant lines respectively. The single major gene (Def) controlling this phenotype was monogenic and def mutants were characterized and controlled by the homozygous recessive def allele that showed no palisade layers in the hilum region of the seed coat. PMID:22078070

  11. Glucose, stem dry weight variation, principal component and cluster analysis for some agronomic traits among 16 regenerated Crotalaria juncea accessions for potential cellulosic ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United State Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service, (ARS), Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit’s (PGRCU) sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) germlasm collection consists of 22 accessions. Sixteen (16) accessions of the most seed productive were selected. These access...

  12. Myrmecochory and short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus: Ant species and seed characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bas, J. M.; Oliveras, J.; Gómez, C.

    2009-05-01

    Benefits conferred on plants in ant-mediated seed dispersal mutualisms (myrmecochory) depend on the fate of transported seeds. We studied the effects of elaiosome presence, seed size and seed treatment (with and without passage through a bird's digestive tract) on short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus. In our study, we define short-term seed, or initial, seed fate, as the location where ants release the seeds after ant contact with it. The elaiosomes had the most influence on short-term fate, i.e. whether or not seeds were transported to the nest. The workers usually transported big seeds more often than small ones, but small ants did not transport large seeds. Effect of seed size on transport depended on the ant species and on the treatment of the seed (manual extraction simulating a direct fall from the parent plant vs. bird deposition corresponding to preliminary primary dispersal). Probability of removal of elaiosome-bearing seeds to the nest by Aphaenogaster senilis increased with increasing seed weight.

  13. Effects of maternal diet and host quality on oviposition patterns and offspring performance in a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Segovia, Ricardo; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2008-07-01

    In seed beetles, oviposition decisions may influence the offspring phenotype because eggs constitute the initial resources available for larval development. We tested the effects of host quality variations (small vs. large seeds of the host plant Calystegia sepium, Convolvulaceae) on oviposition patterns and offspring performance of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus. We also manipulated the maternal diet: high diet quality vs. low diet quality to evaluate possible interactive effects of the maternal nutritional environment and host quality on oviposition patterns. We further assessed the consequences of egg size variation in offspring size. Female M. eulophus fed with high-quality diet (H-diet) laid more eggs and lived longer than females fed with low-quality diet (P-diet). Fecundity decreased under a low-quality host for both maternal diets. The occurrence of maternal environmental effects on egg size plasticity was detected. Under conditions of low-quality host, mothers fed with the high-quality diet produced bigger eggs in comparison with a high-quality host, whereas females fed with the low-quality diet produced smaller ones. Regardless of these differences observed in egg size depending on the maternal diet, progeny emerging from small seeds (low-quality host) showed a similar performance at emergence. Offspring traits were only significantly affected by host quality. Beetles emerging from large seeds had greater body weight and length than those reared on small seeds. Variations in oviposition patterns in response to host quality are discussed.

  14. Hypocholesterolemic effect of amaranth seeds (Amaranthus esculantus).

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, A; Sarojini, G; Devi, N L

    1993-07-01

    Hypocholesterolemic effect of amaranth seeds was studied in male wistar strain albino rats as against Bengal gram. The results showed that liver weights were significantly higher in animals with hypercholesterolemia inducing diet. Contrarily, weights of other organs like brain, kidney, testes and spleen showed higher weights with amaranth and bengal gram diets. Serum lipid and TG (triglyceride) contents were lower and HDL-cholesterol fraction was higher and comparable with amaranth seed diet. Feeding with amaranth seed showed a definite hypocholesterolemic effect. PMID:8332587

  15. [Seed quality test methods of Paeonia suffruticosa].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya-Yue; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-Lin

    2014-11-01

    In order to optimize the testing methods for Paeonia suffruticosa seed quality, and provide basis for establishing seed testing rules and seed quality standard of P. suffruticosa. The seed quality of P. suffruticosa from different producing areas was measured based on the related seed testing regulations. The seed testing methods for quality items of P. suffruticosa was established preliminarily. The samples weight of P. suffruticosa was at least 7 000 g for purity analysis and was at least 700 g for test. The phenotypic observation and size measurement were used for authenticity testing. The 1 000-seed weight was determined by 100-seed method, and the water content was carried out by low temperature drying method (10 hours). After soaking in distilled water for 24 h, the seeds was treated with different temperature stratifications of day and night (25 degrees C/20 degrees C, day/night) in the dark for 60 d. After soaking in the liquor of GA3 300 mg x L(-1) for 24 h, the P. suffruticos seeds were cultured in wet sand at 15 degrees C for 12-60 days for germination testing. Seed viability was tested by TlC method. PMID:25775790

  16. Variations in fatty acid compositions of the seed oil of Eruca sativa Mill. caused by different sowing periods and nitrogen forms

    PubMed Central

    Uğur, Atnan; Süntar, İpek; Aslan, Sinem; Orhan, İlkay Erdoğan; Kartal, Murat; Şekeroğlu, Nazim; Eşiyok, Dursun; Şener, Bilge

    2010-01-01

    Background: Eruca is a native plant genus of the South Europe and central Asia where it has been cultivated since centuries. As the genus name implies, the oil is high in erucic acid. Materials and Methods: In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of sowing periods (autumn and spring) and three forms of the nitrogen-containing fertilizers (manure, calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2, 15.5% N], and ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4, 21% N]) on fatty acid compositions of the oils obtained from Eruca sativa Mill. seeds cultivated. All oils were obtained by maceration of the seeds with n-hexane at room temperature and converted to their methyl ester derivatives by trans-methylesterification reaction using boron-trifluorur (BF3). The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in the oils were detected by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: All the samples analyzed were found to contain quite high amounts of erucic acid ranging between 46.64-54.79%, followed by oleic (17.86-19.95%), palmitic (7.25-10.97%), linoleic (4.23-9.72%), and linolenic (1.98-3.01%) acids. Conclusion: Our data pointed out that there is a statistically important alteration caused by these applications on the contents of only C12:0 and C14:0 found as the minor fatty acids, whereas no other fatty acids in the samples seemed to be affected by those criteria. PMID:21120033

  17. Computation and use of volume-weighted-average concentrations to determine long-term variations of selected water-quality constituents in lakes and reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Frank C.; Schertz, Terry L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program using the Statistical Analysis System has been developed to perform the arithmetic calculations and regression analyses to determine volume-weighted-average concentrations of selected water-quality constituents in lakes and reservoirs. The program has been used in Texas to show decreasing trends in dissolved-solids and total-phosphorus concentrations in Lake Arlington after the discharge of sewage effluent into the reservoir was stopped. The program also was used to show that the August 1978 and October 1981 floods on the Brazos River greatly decreased the volume-weighted-average concentrations of selected constituents in Hubbard Creek Reservoir and Possum Kingdom Lake.

  18. Simple method of improving harvest by nonthermal air plasma irradiation of seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Kazunori; Thapanut, Sarinont; Amano, Takaaki; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Hayashi, Nobuya; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the effects of air nonthermal plasma irradiation of seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) on their growth from the beginning of cultivation to their harvest. Three minute plasma irradiation of dry seeds resulted in growth acceleration in all the growth stages. Compared with the control, the plasma irradiation led to an 11% shorter harvest period, a 56% increase in total seed weight, a 12% increase in each seed weight, and a 39% increase in seed number.

  19. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reports on Project SEED (Summer Educational Experience for the Disadvantaged) a project in which high school students from low-income families work in summer jobs in a variety of academic, industrial, and government research labs. The program introduces the students to career possibilities in chemistry and to the advantages of higher education.…

  20. Seed gum of Stryphnodendron barbatiman (Barbatimao)

    SciTech Connect

    Reicher, F.; Leitner, S.C.S.; Fontana, J.D.; Correa, J.B.C.; Sierakowski, M.R.

    1991-12-31

    Stryphnodendron barbatiman (barbatimao) is a native tree that is found throughout the {open_quotes}Cerrados,{close_quotes} a region of Central Brazil. Plant seeds, on water extraction, furnished 28 g% galactomannan (dry-weight basis), the monosaccharide composition of which (galactose to mannose ratio, 1.0:1.5) fits in the legume heteromannan group. This seed gum, after Sevag deproteinization, still retained 6 g% of associated protein and had a molecular weight of about 1.8 MD on gel filtration. A high intrinsic viscosity (1300 cP) was observed for the polysaccharide sample obtained after reflux of the crushed seeds in 80% aqueous methanol.

  1. Generalized provisional seed zones for native plants.

    PubMed

    Bower, Andrew D; St Clair, J Bradley; Erickson, Vicky

    2014-07-01

    Deploying well-adapted and ecologically appropriate plant materials is a core component of successful restoration projects. We have developed generalized provisional seed zones that can be applied to any plant species in the United States to help guide seed movement. These seed zones are based on the intersection of high-resolution climatic data for winter minimum temperature and aridity (as measured by annual heat : moisture index), each classified into discrete bands. This results in the delineation of 64 provisional seed zones for the continental United States. These zones represent areas of relative climatic similarity, and movement of seed within these zones should help to minimize maladaptation. Superimposing Omernik's level III ecoregions over these seed zones distinguishes areas that are similar climatically yet different ecologically. A quantitative comparison of provisional seed zones with level III ecoregions and provisional seed zones within ecoregions for three species showed that provisional seed zone within ecoregion often explained the greatest proportion of variation in a suite of traits potentially related to plant fitness. These provisional seed zones can be considered a starting point for guidelines for seed transfer, and should be utilized in conjunction with appropriate species-specific information as well as local knowledge of microsite differences. PMID:25154085

  2. Seed dimorphism, nutrients and salinity differentially affect seed traits of the desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica via multiple maternal effects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal effects may influence a range of seed traits simultaneously and are likely to be context-dependent. Disentangling the interactions of plant phenotype and growth environment on various seed traits is important for understanding regeneration and establishment of species in natural environments. Here, we used the seed-dimorphic plant Suaeda aralocaspica to test the hypothesis that seed traits are regulated by multiple maternal effects. Results Plants grown from brown seeds had a higher brown:black seed ratio than plants from black seeds, and germination percentage of brown seeds was higher than that of black seeds under all conditions tested. However, the coefficient of variation (CV) for size of black seeds was higher than that of brown seeds. Seeds had the smallest CV at low nutrient and high salinity for plants from brown seeds and at low nutrient and low salinity for plants from black seeds. Low levels of nutrients increased size and germinability of black seeds but did not change the seed morph ratio or size and germinability of brown seeds. High levels of salinity decreased seed size but did not change the seed morph ratio. Seeds from high-salinity maternal plants had a higher germination percentage regardless of level of germination salinity. Conclusions Our study supports the multiple maternal effects hypothesis. Seed dimorphism, nutrient and salinity interacted in determining a range of seed traits of S. aralocaspica via bet-hedging and anticipatory maternal effects. This study highlights the importance of examining different maternal factors and various offspring traits in studies that estimate maternal effects on regeneration. PMID:23006315

  3. Weighted aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The use of a weighted aggregation technique to improve the precision of the overall LACIE estimate is considered. The manner in which a weighted aggregation technique is implemented given a set of weights is described. The problem of variance estimation is discussed and the question of how to obtain the weights in an operational environment is addressed.

  4. Sci—Fri PM: Topics — 02: Evaluation of Dosimetric Variations in Partial Breast Seed Implant (PBSI) due to Patient Arm Position (Up vs. Down)

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, E; Long, K; Husain, S; Meyer, T

    2014-08-15

    The planning for PBSI is done with the patient's ipsilateral arm raised, however, anatomical changes and variations are unavoidable as the patient resumes her daily activities, potentially resulting in significant deviations in implant geometry from the treatment plan. This study aims to quantify the impact of the ipsilateral arm position on the geometry and dosimetry of the implant at eight weeks, evaluated on post-plans using the MIM Symphony™ software (MIM Software, Cleveland, OH). The average dose metrics for the three patients treated at the TBCC thus far using rigid fusion and contour transfer for the arms up position were 76% for the CTV V100, 61% for the PTV V100, and 37% for the PTV V200; and for the arms down position 81% for the CTV V100, 64% for the PTV V100, and 42% for the PTV V200. Qualitative analysis of the post-implant CT for one of the three patients showed poor agreement between the seroma contour transferred from the pre-implant CT and the seroma visible on the post-implant CT. To obtain a clinically accurate plan for that patient, contour modifications were used, yielding improved dose metric averages for the arms-up position for all three patients of 87% for the CTV V100, 68% for the PTV V100, and 39% for the PTV V200. Overall, the data available shows that dosimetric parameters increase with the patient's arm down, both in terms of coverage and in terms of the hot spot, and accrual of more patients may confirm this in a larger population.

  5. Variation in Adult Plant Phenotypes and Partitioning among Seed and Stem-Borne Roots across Brachypodium distachyon Accessions to Exploit in Breeding Cereals for Well-Watered and Drought Environments1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Seedling roots enable plant establishment. Their small phenotypes are measured routinely. Adult root systems are relevant to yield and efficiency, but phenotyping is challenging. Root length exceeds the volume of most pots. Field studies measure partial adult root systems through coring or use seedling roots as adult surrogates. Here, we phenotyped 79 diverse lines of the small grass model Brachypodium distachyon to adults in 50-cm-long tubes of soil with irrigation; a subset of 16 lines was droughted. Variation was large (total biomass, ×8; total root length [TRL], ×10; and root mass ratio, ×6), repeatable, and attributable to genetic factors (heritabilities ranged from approximately 50% for root growth to 82% for partitioning phenotypes). Lines were dissected into seed-borne tissues (stem and primary seminal axile roots) and stem-borne tissues (tillers and coleoptile and leaf node axile roots) plus branch roots. All lines developed one seminal root that varied, with branch roots, from 31% to 90% of TRL in the well-watered condition. With drought, 100% of TRL was seminal, regardless of line because nodal roots were almost always inhibited in drying topsoil. Irrigation stimulated nodal roots depending on genotype. Shoot size and tillers correlated positively with roots with irrigation, but partitioning depended on genotype and was plastic with drought. Adult root systems of B. distachyon have genetic variation to exploit to increase cereal yields through genes associated with partitioning among roots and their responsiveness to irrigation. Whole-plant phenotypes could enhance gain for droughted environments because root and shoot traits are coselected. PMID:25975834

  6. Variation in Adult Plant Phenotypes and Partitioning among Seed and Stem-Borne Roots across Brachypodium distachyon Accessions to Exploit in Breeding Cereals for Well-Watered and Drought Environments.

    PubMed

    Chochois, Vincent; Vogel, John P; Rebetzke, Gregory J; Watt, Michelle

    2015-07-01

    Seedling roots enable plant establishment. Their small phenotypes are measured routinely. Adult root systems are relevant to yield and efficiency, but phenotyping is challenging. Root length exceeds the volume of most pots. Field studies measure partial adult root systems through coring or use seedling roots as adult surrogates. Here, we phenotyped 79 diverse lines of the small grass model Brachypodium distachyon to adults in 50-cm-long tubes of soil with irrigation; a subset of 16 lines was droughted. Variation was large (total biomass, ×8; total root length [TRL], ×10; and root mass ratio, ×6), repeatable, and attributable to genetic factors (heritabilities ranged from approximately 50% for root growth to 82% for partitioning phenotypes). Lines were dissected into seed-borne tissues (stem and primary seminal axile roots) and stem-borne tissues (tillers and coleoptile and leaf node axile roots) plus branch roots. All lines developed one seminal root that varied, with branch roots, from 31% to 90% of TRL in the well-watered condition. With drought, 100% of TRL was seminal, regardless of line because nodal roots were almost always inhibited in drying topsoil. Irrigation stimulated nodal roots depending on genotype. Shoot size and tillers correlated positively with roots with irrigation, but partitioning depended on genotype and was plastic with drought. Adult root systems of B. distachyon have genetic variation to exploit to increase cereal yields through genes associated with partitioning among roots and their responsiveness to irrigation. Whole-plant phenotypes could enhance gain for droughted environments because root and shoot traits are coselected. PMID:25975834

  7. [Effects of storage time on quality of Desmodium styracifolium seeds].

    PubMed

    Yang, Quan; Tang, Xiao-min; Pan, Hai-yun; Mei, Ling-feng; Zhang, Chun-rong; Cheng, Xuan-xuan; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic changes of germination percentage, germination potential, thousand-seed weight, antioxidase activity in Desmodium styracifolium seeds with different storage time were tested, and electrical conductivity, contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, starch in seed leach liquor were also determined in order to reveal the mechanism of seed deterioration. The results as the following. (1) The germination percentage, germination potential and thousand-seed weight of D. styracifolium seeds declined, while the seed coat color darkened with the extension of storage time. (2) The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) decreased with the prolongation of storage period. The SOD activity declined fastest in 1,095-1,185 d of storage, while the POD activity declined significantly in 365-395 d of storage. (3) The electrical conductivity and the contents of soluble sugar, starch in seed leach liquor increased, while the content of soluble protein declined with the extension of storage time. (4) Correlation analysis indicated that the germination percentage, germination potential and thousand-seed weight of D. styracifolium seeds have a significantly positive correlation with SOD and POD activity, while have a significantly negative correlation with the electrical conductivity, contents of soluble sugar and starch. It can be concluded that during the storage of D. styracifolium seeds, physiological and biochemical changes including decrease in antioxidase activity, rise in electrical conductivity, degradation effluent of soluble sugar and starch, degradation of soluble protein were the main factors leading to the seed deterioration. PMID:27062808

  8. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

  9. Temporal assessment of gene expression in source leaves of Medicago truncatula: Correlations with seed Fe concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral accumulation in seeds is dictated by several processes, including nutrient mobilization from source tissues. The timing and robustness of these processes, with respect to seed growth and development, may affect harvest characteristics such as seed number and seed weight as well as nutritiona...

  10. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, P. Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T{sub 2}) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds.

  11. Bean arcelin : 1. Inheritance of a novel seed protein of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and its effect on seed composition.

    PubMed

    Romero Andreas, J; Yandell, B S; Bliss, F A

    1986-04-01

    SDS-PAGE of seed proteins from the seeds of a nondomesticated bean of Mexican origin (Phaseolus vulgaris L., PI 325690) revealed the presence of a novel 38 kd protein which appeared to be neither an altered phaseolin nor a lectin fraction. The protein was named arcelin, after Arcelia, the town in the state of Guerrero near which PI 325690 had been collected. The pure line, UW 325, was derived by self fertilization of the plant from a single arcelin-containing seed of PI 325690. Despite a low percentage seed phaseolin (14.6%), seed phenotype, seed germination, plant growth, pollen fertility, and percentage seed protein of UW 325 were normal. Analyses of F2 and F3 seeds from a single F1 plant of the cross 'Sanilac'XPI 325690-3 revealed that arcelin expression was inherited as a single gene and that presence was dominant to absence of arcelin. The mean percentage phaseolin in the seeds of homozygous dominant Arc/Arc F3 families (14.0%) was significantly lower than that of the homozygous recessive arc/arc seeds (44.7%). The distribution of percentage phaseolin values for seeds within segregating families was bimodal and nonoverlapping. Without exception, seeds containing arcelin (Arc+phenotype) contained a lower percentage phaseolin than seeds lacking arcelin (Arc-phenotype). Although arcelin presence was associated with low percentage phaseolin, the Arc/Arc and Arc/arc genotypes were similar for seed weight and percentage total seed protein. PMID:24247784

  12. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  13. Seed deposition patterns and the survival of seeds and seedlings of the palm Euterpe edulis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizo, Marco A.; Simão, Isaac

    2001-08-01

    The seed deposition pattern created by a seed disperser is one of the components of the efficiency of a species as seed disperser, and ultimately may influence the recruitment of a plant species. In this study, we used the seeds of a bird-dispersed forest palm, Euterpe edulis, to investigate the effects of two distinct seed deposition patterns created by birds that defecate (clumped pattern) and regurgitate seeds (loose-clumped pattern) on the survival of seeds experimentally set in an E. edulis-rich site, and of seedlings grown under shade-house conditions. The study was conducted in the lowland forest of Parque Estadual Intervales, SE Brazil. Clumped and loose-clumped seeds were equally preyed upon by rodents and insects. Although clumped and isolated seedlings had the same root weight after 1 year, the isolated seedlings survived better and presented more developed shoots, suggesting intraspecific competition among clumped seedlings. Our results indicate that animals that deposit E. edulis seeds in faecal clumps (e.g. cracids, tapirs) are less efficient seed dispersers than those that regurgitate seeds individually (e.g. trogons, toucans). Intraspecific competition among seedlings growing from faecal clumps is a likely process preventing the occurrence of clumps of adult palms.

  14. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  15. Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  16. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  17. What Are Chia Seeds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men For Women For Seniors What Are Chia Seeds? Published February 05, 2014 Print Email When you ... number of research participants. How to Eat Chia Seeds Chia seeds can be eaten raw or prepared ...

  18. Mapping variations in weight percent silica measured from multispectral thermal infrared imagery - Examples from the Hiller Mountains, Nevada, USA and Tres Virgenes-La Reforma, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, S.J.; Dmochowski, J.E.; Howard, K.A.; Rowan, L.C.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Stock, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Remotely sensed multispectral thermal infrared (8-13 ??m) images are increasingly being used to map variations in surface silicate mineralogy. These studies utilize the shift to longer wavelengths in the main spectral feature in minerals in this wavelength region (reststrahlen band) as the mineralogy changes from felsic to mafic. An approach is described for determining the amount of this shift and then using the shift with a reference curve, derived from laboratory data, to remotely determine the weight percent SiO2 of the surface. The approach has broad applicability to many study areas and can also be fine-tuned to give greater accuracy in a particular study area if field samples are available. The approach was assessed using airborne multispectral thermal infrared images from the Hiller Mountains, Nevada, USA and the Tres Virgenes-La Reforma, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Results indicate the general approach slightly overestimates the weight percent SiO2 of low silica rocks (e.g. basalt) and underestimates the weight percent SiO2 of high silica rocks (e.g. granite). Fine tuning the general approach with measurements from field samples provided good results for both areas with errors in the recovered weight percent SiO2 of a few percent. The map units identified by these techniques and traditional mapping at the Hiller Mountains demonstrate the continuity of the crystalline rocks from the Hiller Mountains southward to the White Hills supporting the idea that these ranges represent an essentially continuous footwall block below a regional detachment. Results from the Baja California data verify the most recent volcanism to be basaltic-andesite. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variation for canopy morphology in little bluestem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little bluestem, Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, is a native grass that has been shown to have high level of genetic variation for traits such as; biomass yield, disease resistance, plant height, leafiness, maturity, seed yield, and seed yield components. If high levels of genetic variation ...

  20. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

  1. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

  2. Interspecific Variations in Seed Germination of Corylopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was initiated to investigate the difference in germination pattern between C. coreana Uyeki and C. sinensis var. calvescens Rehder & E. H. Wilson responding to a warm (WS) and cold stratification (CS), and to study the effect of different WS temperatures interacting with different duratio...

  3. Investigating Seed Longevity of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2009-01-01

    from each site, as well as several environmental variables, were used to evaluate seed viability within the context of habitat variation. Initial viability of seeds used in the seed retrieval experiment was 81 and 92 percent for mountain and Wyoming big sagebrush, respectively. After remaining in the field for 24 months, buried Wyoming big sagebrush seeds retained 28-58 percent viability,11-23 percent of seeds under litter remained viable, and no seeds remained viable on the surface (estimates are 95-percent confidence intervals). The odds of remaining viable did not change from 12 to 24 months. However, after 24 months the odds of seeds beneath litter being viable decreased to 75 percent of the odds of viability at 12 months. Similar to Wyoming big sagebrush, buried seeds of mountain big sagebrush were 31-68 percent viable, seeds under litter retained 10-22 percent of their viability, and no surface seeds were viable after 24 months. Both subspecies of big sagebrush had some portion of seed that remained viable for more than one growing season provided they were buried or under litter. Although seeds beneath litter may remain viable in intact communities, seeds are susceptible to incineration during fires. Nine months after seed dispersal, seed bank estimates for Wyoming big sagebrush ranged from 19 to 49 viable seeds/m2 in litter samples and 19-57 viable seeds/m2 in soil samples (95-percent confidence interval). For mountain big sagebrush, estimates were 27-75 viable seeds/m2 in litter samples and 54-139 viable seeds/m2 in soil (95-percent confidence interval). The number of viable seeds present in the seed bank 9 months after seed dispersal was not significantly different from the number present immediately after seed dispersal. Seed viability was highest in mountain big sagebrush sites for seeds on the surface and beneath litter, but decreased after one season. Buried seeds of both subspecies were in equal abundances and may be insulated from the effect

  4. Age, body weight and backfat thickness at first observed oestrus in crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire gilts, seasonal variations and their influence on subsequence reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, P; Tantasuparuk, W; Techakumphu, M; Kunavongkrit, A

    2007-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate puberty attainment in crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire (LY) gilts reared under tropical conditions and their subsequent reproductive performance. This study was carried out in a 2400-sow herd over a 1-year period. A total of 696 crossbred LY replacement gilts were included. Faecal samples from 214 gilts were collected to determine the faecal progesterone profiles around the time of first oestrus. Solid-phase 125I-radioimmunoassay was used to determine the progesterone concentrations in the faecal extract. The gilts entered the herd at an average age of 177.5 +/- 12.6 days, 95.7 +/- 10.2 kg body weight (BW) and a backfat thickness (BF) of 12.0 +/- 2.9 mm. On average, the gilts expressed first standing oestrus at 195 days of age, 106 kg of BW and a BF of 13.0 mm. The interval from entry to the gilt pool to the first observed oestrus (EOI) was 24.4 +/- 18.0 days (range 0-88 days). The hormonal profile indicated that the gilts that actually ovulated during the first observed oestrus was 34% (group A), the gilts that had ovulated before the first observed oestrus was 21% (group B) and the gilts that did not ovulate during the first observed oestrus was 45% (group C). During summer the proportion of group A gilts was significantly lower than during the winter and the rainy seasons (P < 0.05). The BW of gilts at entry significantly correlated with the BF at entry (r = 0.31, P < 0.001), the age at entry (r = 0.47, P < 0.001), the BW at first oestrus (r = 0.65, P < 0.001) and the BF at first oestrus (r = 0.33, P < 0.001). An increase of BW at entry of 1 kg resulted in a decrease of EOI of 0.28 days. The age, BW and BF of gilts at the first observed oestrus significantly influenced the total number of piglets born per litter (TB) and the number of piglets born alive per litter (BA) in the first three parities. Gilts expressing their first oestrus between 181 and 200 days had a significantly larger TB than gilts that

  5. Seed health and vigor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The health of lentil and chickpea seed greatly impacts the quality of the crop stand and yield. Healthy seed has a high germination rate, is whole (free of cracks or other damage), is free from foreign matter including weed seed and has limited seedborne pathogens. The health of the seed often dep...

  6. Analysis of river health variation under the background of urbanization based on entropy weight and matter-element model: A case study in Huzhou City in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Guangbo; Xu, Youpeng; Yu, Zhihui; Song, Song; Zhang, Yuan

    2015-05-01

    Maintaining the health of the river ecosystem is an essential ecological and environmental guarantee for regional sustainable development and one of the basic objectives in water resource management. With the rapid development of urbanization, the river health situation is deteriorating, especially in urban areas. The river health evaluation is a complex process that involves various natural and social components; eight eco-hydrological indicators were selected to establish an evaluation system, and the variation of river health status under the background of urbanization was explored based on entropy weight and matter-element model. The comprehensive correlative degrees of urban river health of Huzhou City in 2001, 2006 and 2010 were then calculated. The results indicated that river health status of the study area was in the direction of pathological trend, and the impact of limiting factors (such as Shannon's diversity index and agroforestry output growth rate) played an important role in river health. The variation of maximum correlative degree could be classified into stationary status, deterioration status, deterioration-to-improvement status, and improvement-to-deterioration status. There was a severe deterioration situation of river health under the background of urbanization. PMID:25798876

  7. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before Your Baby is Born From Birth to 2 Years Quitting for Two SmokefreeMom Healthy Kids Parenting & ... Weight Management Weight Management ...

  8. Seed dormancy distribution: explanatory ecological factors

    PubMed Central

    Wagmann, Kristen; Hautekèete, Nina-Coralie; Piquot, Yves; Meunier, Cécile; Schmitt, S. Eric; Van Dijk, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Knowledge of those traits that vary with latitude should be helpful in predicting how they may evolve locally under climate change. In the sea beet Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima, seed dormancy largely controls the timing of germination, is highly heritable and varies geographically; it is therefore thought to be selected by climate. The aim here was to characterize the variation in seed dormancy among sea beet populations across the French distribution area, as well as the ecological factors in situ that are correlated with and that could therefore select for seed dormancy. The relative importance of genetic inheritance vs. non-genetic variation is also evaluated. Methods The proportions of dormant seeds from 85 natural populations encompassing different climates over the whole French distribution area were measured under controlled conditions. Germination phenology was observed in a common garden experiment. Dormancy variation of seeds collected in situ was compared with that of seeds collected on plants grown in the greenhouse. Key Results The proportions of dormant seeds in the greenhouse were highly variable, covering almost the entire range from 0 to 1, and followed a geographical pattern from lower dormancy at high latitudes to high dormancy at low latitudes. The distribution of dormancy was positively correlated with yearly temperatures, especially summer temperatures. Minimum temperatures in winter did not significantly explain the trait variation. The genetic component of the total variation was significant and is probably completed by an important adjustment to the local conditions brought about by maternal adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Conclusions Dormancy in sea beet could be interpreted as a way to limit summer germination and spread germination over the first autumn and spring or following autumns. This highly heritable trait has the potential to evolve in the relatively near future because of climate change. PMID:22952378

  9. Effect of seeding depth on seedling growth and dry matter partitioning in American ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, John T. A.; Sullivan, J. Alan

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments with American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) stratified seed sown at depths of 10 to 100 mm were carried out to determine effects of seeding depth on seedling emergence, growth and development and to calculate optimum seeding depth. The time to 50% seedling emergence (E50) in the field increased linearly from 17 d at 20 mm seeding depth to 42.5 d at 80 mm. Seedling emergence and root weight (economic yield) at the end of the first year each increased quadratically with the increase of seeding depth. Maximum emergence and root yields were produced at sowing depths of 26.9 and 30.6 mm respectively. In a greenhouse pot experiment, increasing seeding depth from 10 to 100 mm increased partitioning of dry matter to leaves from 23.6% to 26.1%, to stems from 6.9% to 14.2%, and decreased dry matter to roots from 69.5% to 59.7%. Optimum seeding depth was 31.1 mm for a corresponding maximum root weight of 119.9 mg. A predictor equation [X (seeding depth, mm)=Y (seed weight, mg)/9.1+20.96] for seeding depth for ginseng, based on data for ten vegetable crops, their seed weights and suggested seeding depths, predicted a seeding depth of 28.3 mm for ginseng similar to that reported above for most pot and field experiments. PMID:23717178

  10. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  11. Genetic Dissection of Seed Production Traits and Identification of a Major-Effect Seed Retention QTL in Hybrid Leymus (Triticeae) Wildryes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many native grasses display seed shattering and other seed production problems. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus) and creeping wildrye (L. triticoides) are perennial Triticeae grasses native to western North America. In this study, variation in the number of florets per inflorescence, percent seed s...

  12. How the food supply harvestable by waders in the Wadden Sea depends on the variation in energy density, body weight, biomass, burying depth and behaviour of tidal-flat invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwarts, Leo; Wanink, Jan H.

    For several reasons, waders in the Wadden Sea face a large seasonal and annual variation in their food supply. Observations on a tidal flat in the Dutch Wadden Sea have shown that: - (1) The average energy density of ten invertebrate prey species varies between 21 and 23 kJ·g -1 AFDW. In Scrobicularia plana and Mya arenaria, but not in Macoma balthica, the energy density is 10% lower in winter than in summer. - (2) Depending on the species, body weights of prey of similar size are 30 to 60% lower in winter than in summer. - (3) The year-to-year fluctuation in standing-crop biomass is larger in some species than in others, the difference depending mainly on the frequency of successful recruitment. The overall biomass of the macrobenthos in winter is half of that in summer, but the timing of the peak biomass differs per species. - (4) The burying depth varies per species: Cerastoderma edule live just beneath the surface, while M. balthica, S. plana, M. arenaria, Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor bury more deeply and the majority of these prey live out of reach of the bird's bill. In all six species, burying depth increases with size. There is no seasonal variation in depth of C. edule and M. arenaria, but the four other species live at most shallow depth in early summer and most deeply in midwinter. Burying depths in winter vary from year to year, but are unrelated to temperature. Neither has temperature any effect on depth within months. For knot Calidris canutus feeding on M. balthica, the fluctuation in the accessible fraction was the main source of variation in the biomass of prey that is actually harvestable, i.e. the biomass of prey of suitable size that is accessible. Accordingly, the paper reviews the available data on the temporal variations in accessibility, detectability, ingestibility, digestibility and profitability of prey for waders. Only a small part of the prey is harvestable since many accessible prey are ignored because of their low

  13. Influence of different seed materials on multi-crystalline silicon ingot properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, C.; Trempa, M.; Lehmann, T.; Rosshirt, K.; Stenzenberger, J.; Friedrich, J.; Hesse, K.; Dornberger, E.

    2016-01-01

    Different silicon feedstock materials, Single Crystalline Crushed (SCS), Fluidized-Bed-Reactor (FBR) and Siemens (SIE) feedstock, were used as seeding layer for growing cylindrical shaped, high performance multi-crystalline ingots with a weight of 1.2 kg. Within the investigations a systematic variation of the particle size of the seeding material in the range of <1 mm up to 15 mm was performed. Grain size, grain orientation, and grain boundary type were evaluated at different ingot heights. These results show clearly, that the microstructure size, respectively the particle size for the crushed single crystalline material, determines the resulting grain structure in the ingot near the seeding position. If the microstructure size is equal to the particle size, as it is the case for the SCS material, the particle size has a significant influence on grain size, grain orientation, and grain boundary distribution. With increasing average particle size of the SCS seed material the grain size increases, the grain orientation distribution becomes less uniform, and the random grain boundary length fraction decreases. If the microstructure size is smaller than the particle size, as it is the case for FBR and SIE feedstock materials, the particle size has no influence on the initial grain structure of the ingot. For FBR and SIE seeding material, small grains, with a homogeneous orientation distribution and a high random grain boundary length fraction are obtained. Therefore, all FBR and all SIE seeding materials, as well as the SCS with particle size <1 mm, show lowest fractions of defected areas at about the same level which were determined by etch pit analysis.

  14. Seasonal variation in dry weight and elemental composition of the early developmental stages of Petrolisthes laevigatus (Guérin, 1835) (Decapoda: Porcellanidae) in the Seno de Reloncaví, southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, P.; Paschke, K.; Barría, A.; Anger, K.

    2013-03-01

    In the Seno de Reloncaví, southern Chile, seasonal changes in dry weight (DW) and elemental composition (CHN) were studied in embryo (initial embryonic stage), newly hatched zoeae, and newly settled megalopae of a porcelain crab, Petrolisthes laevigatus. Samples were taken throughout the seasons of egg laying (March-December), hatching (August-February), and settlement (October-February). Values of DW and CHN per embryo or larva, respectively, were consistently minimum in the middle of each season and maximum near its beginning and end. Patterns of seasonal variation in early embryonic biomass may thus be carried over to larvae at hatching and, possibly, to the settlement stage. Such carry-over effects may be selectively advantageous, as zoeae released at the beginning or near the end of the hatching season face conditions of poor planktonic food availability in combination with low winter temperatures or decreasing temperatures at the end of summer (enforcing long development duration). Hence, an enhanced female energy allocation into egg production may subsequently translate to enhanced yolk reserves remaining at hatching, allowing for a larval development under unfavourable winter conditions. In summer, by contrast, plankton productivity and temperatures are generally high, allowing for fast larval growth and development. This coincides with minimal biomass and energy contents both at hatching and settlement. In conclusion, our data suggest that seasonal patterns in the biomass of early developmental stages of P. laevigatus may reflect phenotypic variability as an adaptive response to predictable variations in environmental conditions, allowing this species to reproduce in temperate regions with marked seasonality in water temperature and plankton productivity.

  15. Field testing soybeans for residual effects of air pollution and seed size on crop yield

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R.K.; Rose, L.P. Jr.; Leffel, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Mean seed weights (g/100 seeds) for four soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), cultivars grown in 1973 and 1974 in cylindrical open-top field chambers that provided carbon-filtered air were significantly greater (17.2) than from plants grown in nonfiltered air in chambers (15.1), or in conventional plots without chambers (15.7). Using this seed, as experiment was designed to answer three questions: (i) does air quality influence seed yields from subsequent plants; (ii) do seed size differences, possibly induced by air pollutants, influence subsequent seed yields; (iii) is there a yield advantage from planting large seed vs an original lot of seed. This experiment was designed as a split-split plot with six replications. The whole plot treatments were the four cultivars; the split-plot treatments consisted of the nine factorial combinations of three seed sizes and three environments. The split-split plot treatment was a comparison between the specified seed size and an original lot of the seed from which the specific seed size was obtained. Six seeds per 30 cm of row were planted and evaluated in a field experiment near Queenstown, Maryland, in 1975. We found no residual air quality effects on subsequent seed yields. Differences in seed size observed for different air qualities did not significantly affect yields. In general, there was no significant yield advantage for plants grown from a selected seed size as compared with the original lot seed.

  16. Evaluation of the impacts of different nuclear DNA content in the hull, endosperm, and embryo of rice seeds on GM rice quantification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Donger; Shen, Jie; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing

    2010-04-28

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is a main staple food in the world, and several genetically modified (GM) rice events have been approved for commercialization. To accurately quantify GM contents in rice derived products, we have evaluated the variation of seed DNA density and nuclear DNA content in the hull, endosperm, and embryo of rice seeds from 19 cultivars, as well as their impacts on GM rice quantification. Rice endosperm DNA accounts for 73.71% of total seed DNA, whereas the hull and embryo DNAs account for 3.98% and 22.31%, respectively. Two formulas were established to describe the relationship between GM content on the basis of weight ratio (GM(wt)%) and that on the basis of haploid genome copy number ratio (GM(hg)%) for the samples containing heterozygous GM rice seeds. These two equations were well confirmed in quantification of the heterozygous GM rice TT51-1 seeds containing the GM allele from a female parent or that from a male parent. This work is useful for accurate quantification of GM rice using reference materials containing the heterozygous GM rice seed powder. PMID:20222712

  17. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  18. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  19. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  20. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  1. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  2. Pea (Pisum sativum) seed production as an assay for reproductive effects due to herbicides.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2009-09-01

    Even though herbicide drift can affect plant reproduction, current plant testing protocols emphasize effects on vegetative growth. In this study, we determined whether a short-growing season plant can indicate potential effects of herbicides on seed production. Pea (Pisum sativum cv. Dakota) plants were grown in mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plants were treated with a variety of herbicides (dicamba, clopyralid, glufosinate, glyphosate, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, primisulfuron, or sulfometuron) at below standard field application rates applied at a vegetative stage of growth (approximately 14 d after emergence) or at flowering (approximately 20 d after emergence). Pea seed production was greatly reduced by sulfometuron at the minimum concentration used (0.001 x field application rate), with an effective concentration producing a 25% reduction in seed dry weight of 0.00007 x field application rate. Primisulfuron and glyphosate had a 25% reduction in seed dry weight for seed dry weight of 0.0035 and 0.0096 x field application rate, respectively. Clopyralid and dicamba reduced pea seed dry weight at a 25% reduction in seed dry weight of approximately 0.07 x field application rate. Glufosinate only reduced pea seed weight in one experiment, with a 25% reduction in seed dry weight of 0.07 and 0.008 x field application rate at vegetative growth and flowering stages, respectively. Pea seed dry weight was not affected by 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid. Plant developmental stage had no consistent effect on herbicide responses. Reduced seed production occurred with some herbicides (especially acetolactate synthase inhibitors), which caused little or no reduction in plant height or shoot biomass and little visible injury. Thus, pea may be a model species to indicate seed reproductive responses to herbicides, with seed production obtained by extending plant growth for usually only 7 d longer than the period usually used in the vegetative vigor

  3. Seed harvesting by a generalist consumer is context-dependent: Interactive effects across multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Klinger, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Granivore foraging decisions affect consumer success and determine the quantity and spatial pattern of seed survival. These decisions are influenced by environmental variation at spatial scales ranging from landscapes to local foraging patches. In a field experiment, the effects of seed patch variation across three spatial scales on seed removal by western harvester ants Pogonomyrmex occidentalis were evaluated. At the largest scale we assessed harvesting in different plant communities, at the intermediate scale we assessed harvesting at different distances from ant mounds, and at the smallest scale we assessed the effects of interactions among seed species in local seed neighborhoods on seed harvesting (i.e. resource–consumer interface). Selected seed species were presented alone (monospecific treatment) and in mixture with Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass; mixture treatment) at four distances from P. occidentalis mounds in adjacent intact sagebrush and non-native cheatgrass-dominated communities in the Great Basin, Utah, USA. Seed species differed in harvest, with B. tectorum being least preferred. Large and intermediate scale variation influenced harvest. More seeds were harvested in sagebrush than in cheatgrass-dominated communities (largest scale), and the quantity of seed harvested varied with distance from mounds (intermediate-scale), although the form of the distance effect differed between plant communities. At the smallest scale, seed neighborhood affected harvest, but the patterns differed among seed species considered. Ants harvested fewer seeds from mixed-seed neighborhoods than from monospecific neighborhoods, suggesting context dependence and potential associational resistance. Further, the effects of plant community and distance from mound on seed harvest in mixtures differed from their effects in monospecific treatments. Beyond the local seed neighborhood, selection of seed resources is better understood by simultaneously evaluating removal at

  4. Seed Proteomics"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomic analysis of seeds encounters some specific problems that do not impinge on analyses of other plant cells, tissues, or organs. There are anatomic considerations. Seeds comprise the seed coat, the storage organ(s), and the embryonic axis. Are these to be studied individually or as a compo...

  5. Going to Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a unit on seeds designed to introduce students to their scientific and nutritional uses. Unit activities are easily done, employ a variety of process skills, and can be used at various grade levels. Suggests field trips to gather seeds, seed sprouting, and making cookies out of various whole grains. (JM)

  6. Needs of Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The "Needs of Seeds" formative assessment probe can be used to find out whether students recognize that seeds have needs both similar to and different from plants and other living organisms (Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007). The probe reveals whether students overgeneralize the needs of seeds by assuming they have the same needs as the adult plants…

  7. Pasture seed banks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our surveys of northeastern pastures, we found the equivalent of more than 8 million seeds per acre in the surface soil (the top four inches) from the seed bank study. These seeds came from 58 species of plants. The annual forbs (all broadleaf plants with the exception of legumes and trees) domin...

  8. Preservation of recalcitrant seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recalcitrant and intermediate seeds are not included in seed banks because of misperceptions that these efforts would be futile. Between 20 and 25% of the Earth’s angiosperm species are estimated to produce recalcitrant or intermediate seeds. These species are more prevalent in the tropics and sub...

  9. Noninvasive diagnosis of seed viability using infrared thermography

    PubMed Central

    Kranner, Ilse; Kastberger, Gerald; Hartbauer, Manfred; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the noninvasive analyses of plant metabolism include stress imaging techniques, mainly developed for vegetative tissues. We explored if infrared thermography can be used to predict whether a quiescent seed will germinate or die upon water uptake. Thermal profiles of viable, aged, and dead Pisum sativum seeds were recorded, and image analysis of 22,000 images per individual seed showed that infrared thermography can detect imbibition- and germination-associated biophysical and biochemical changes. These “thermal fingerprints” vary with viability in this species and in Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus seeds. Thermogenesis of the small individual B. napus seeds was at the limit of the technology. We developed a computer model of “virtual pea seeds,” that uses Monte Carlo simulation, based on the heat production of major seed storage compounds to unravel physico-chemical processes of thermogenesis. The simulation suggests that the cooling that dominates the early thermal profiles results from the dissolution of low molecular-weight carbohydrates. Moreover, the kinetics of the production of such “cooling” compounds over the following 100 h is dependent on seed viability. We also developed a deterministic tool that predicts in the first 3 hours of water uptake, when seeds can be redried and stored again, whether or not a pea seed will germinate. We believe that the early separation of individual, ungerminated seeds (live, aged, or dead) before destructive germination assessment creates unique opportunities for integrative studies on cell death, differentiation, and development. PMID:20133712

  10. Seed Longevity and deterioration in orthodox seed: A perspective based on structural stability of Visco-Elastic Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longevity of orthodox seeds during storage under controlled conditions can be estimated by mathematical models describing general temperature and moisture responses and accounting for variation within species by the initial seed quality. Despite the well-known trends, longevity of a particular see...

  11. Two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms play specific roles for seed germination and seed yield structure in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, M.; Møller, I. S.; Schjoerring, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) remobilization from reserves to sinks is essential for seedling establishment and seed production. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) is up-regulated during both seed germination and seed filling in plants. However, the specific roles of the individual GS1 isogenes with respect to N remobilization, early seedling vigour, and final seed productivity are not known. In this study, impairment of seed germination and seedling establishment is demonstrated in the single knockout mutant gln1;2, and the double knockout mutant gln1;1:gln1;2. The negative effect of Gln1;2 deficiency was associated with reduced N remobilization from the cotyledons and could be fully alleviated by exogenous N supply. Following reproductive growth, both the single and double Gln1;2-knockout mutants showed decreased seed yield due to fewer siliques, less seeds per silique, and lower dry weight per seed. The gln1;1 single mutant had normal seed yield structure but primary root development during seed germination was reduced in the presence of external N. Gln1;2 promoter–green fluorescent protein constructs showed that Gln1;2 localizes to the vascular cells of roots, petals, and stamens. It is concluded that Gln1;2 plays an important role in N remobilization for both seedling establishment and seed production in Arabidopsis. PMID:25316065

  12. Two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms play specific roles for seed germination and seed yield structure in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Guan, M; Møller, I S; Schjoerring, J K

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) remobilization from reserves to sinks is essential for seedling establishment and seed production. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) is up-regulated during both seed germination and seed filling in plants. However, the specific roles of the individual GS1 isogenes with respect to N remobilization, early seedling vigour, and final seed productivity are not known. In this study, impairment of seed germination and seedling establishment is demonstrated in the single knockout mutant gln1;2, and the double knockout mutant gln1;1:gln1;2. The negative effect of Gln1;2 deficiency was associated with reduced N remobilization from the cotyledons and could be fully alleviated by exogenous N supply. Following reproductive growth, both the single and double Gln1;2-knockout mutants showed decreased seed yield due to fewer siliques, less seeds per silique, and lower dry weight per seed. The gln1;1 single mutant had normal seed yield structure but primary root development during seed germination was reduced in the presence of external N. Gln1;2 promoter-green fluorescent protein constructs showed that Gln1;2 localizes to the vascular cells of roots, petals, and stamens. It is concluded that Gln1;2 plays an important role in N remobilization for both seedling establishment and seed production in Arabidopsis. PMID:25316065

  13. Are tortoises important seed dispersers in Amazonian forests?

    PubMed

    Jerozolimski, Adriano; Ribeiro, Maria Beatriz N; Martins, Marcio

    2009-09-01

    According to most studies on seed dispersal in tropical forests, mammals and birds are considered the main dispersal agents and the role played by other animal groups remains poorly explored. We investigate qualitative and quantitative components of the role played by the tortoise Chelonoidis denticulata in seed dispersal in southeastern Amazon, and the influence of seasonal variation in tortoise movement patterns on resulting seed shadows. Seed shadows produced by this tortoise were estimated by combining information on seed passage times through their digestive tract, which varied from 3 to 17 days, with a robust dataset on movements obtained from 18 adult C. denticulata monitored with radio transmitters and spoon-and-line tracking devices. A total of 4,206 seeds were found in 94 collected feces, belonging to 50 seed morphotypes of, at least, 25 plant genera. Very low rates of damage to the external structure of the ingested seeds were observed. Additionally, results of germination trials suggested that passage of seeds through C. denticulata's digestive tract does not seem to negatively affect seed germination. The estimated seed shadows are likely to contribute significantly to the dispersal of seeds away from parent plants. During the dry season seeds were dispersed, on average, 174.1 m away from the location of fruit ingestion; during the rainy season, this mean dispersal distance increased to 276.7 m. Our results suggest that C. denticulata plays an important role in seed dispersal in Amazonian forests and highlight the influence of seasonal changes in movements on the resulting seed shadows. PMID:19575239

  14. The effects of ice storm on seed rain and seed limitation in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in east China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yanjun; Mi, Xiangcheng; Liu, Xiaojuan; Ma, Keping

    2012-02-01

    Extreme climatic events almost universally play a major role in influencing the composition and structure of plant and animal communities, and thus could influence seed production, seed dispersal and seedling recruitment. We explored the effects of ice storm damage on seed rain and seed limitation in a 24-ha permanent forest plot in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in east China. We compared seed production before and after the storm in 2008. We evaluated the following hypotheses: 1) seed production after the ice storm was less than that before the storm; 2) seed limitation after the storm was more severe than before the storm. The results showed that seeds from one species, Eurya muricata, dominated the seed rain after the storm, accounting for more than half of the total seeds. Post-ice storm seed production of species other than E. muricata was only one fifth of that before the storm. Seed production in the second year after the ice storm recovered to pre-storm levels. The results indicate large inter-specific variation in response to the ice storm. Disturbance caused by the ice storm greatly increased seed diversity. The Jaccard similarity of species before and after the ice storm was 58%. There was no significant difference in seed limitation or dispersal limitation before and after the storm, but there was a significant difference in source limitation. Neither seed limitation nor dispersal limitation was correlated with dispersal modes. Only source limitation for rodent dispersed species increased after the ice storm.

  15. Seed vigour and crop establishment: extending performance beyond adaptation.

    PubMed

    Finch-Savage, W E; Bassel, G W

    2016-02-01

    Seeds are central to crop production, human nutrition, and food security. A key component of the performance of crop seeds is the complex trait of seed vigour. Crop yield and resource use efficiency depend on successful plant establishment in the field, and it is the vigour of seeds that defines their ability to germinate and establish seedlings rapidly, uniformly, and robustly across diverse environmental conditions. Improving vigour to enhance the critical and yield-defining stage of crop establishment remains a primary objective of the agricultural industry and the seed/breeding companies that support it. Our knowledge of the regulation of seed germination has developed greatly in recent times, yet understanding of the basis of variation in vigour and therefore seed performance during the establishment of crops remains limited. Here we consider seed vigour at an ecophysiological, molecular, and biomechanical level. We discuss how some seed characteristics that serve as adaptive responses to the natural environment are not suitable for agriculture. Past domestication has provided incremental improvements, but further actively directed change is required to produce seeds with the characteristics required both now and in the future. We discuss ways in which basic plant science could be applied to enhance seed performance in crop production. PMID:26585226

  16. Investigations into Seed Dormancy in Grevillea linearifolia, G. buxifolia and G. sericea: Anatomy and Histochemistry of the Seed Coat

    PubMed Central

    BRIGGS, C. L.; MORRIS, E. C.; ASHFORD, A. E.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Seeds of east Australian Grevillea species generally recruit post-fire; previous work showed that the seed coat was the controller of dormancy in Grevillea linearifolia. Former studies on seed development in Grevillea have concentrated on embryology, with little information that would allow testing of hypotheses about the breaking of dormancy by fire-related cues. Our aim was to investigate structural and chemical characteristics of the seed coat that may be related to dormancy for three Grevillea species. • Methods Seeds of Grevillea linearifolia, Grevillea buxifolia and Grevillea sericea were investigated using gross dissection, thin sectioning and histochemical staining. Water movement across the seed coat was tested for by determining the water content of embryos from imbibed and dry seeds of G. sericea. Penetration of intact seeds by Lucifer Yellow was used to test for internal barriers to diffusion of high-molecular-weight compounds. • Key Results Two integuments were present in the seed coat: an outer testa, with exo-, meso- and endotestal (palisade) layers, and an inner tegmen of unlignified sclerenchyma. A hypostase at the chalazal end was a region of structural difference in the seed coat, and differed slightly among the three species. An internal cuticle was found on each side of the sclerenchyma layer. The embryos of imbibed seeds had a water content six times that of dry seeds. Barriers to diffusion of Lucifer Yellow existed at the exotestal and the endotestal/hypostase layers. • Conclusions Several potential mechanisms of seed coat dormancy were identified. The embryo appeared to be completely surrounded by outer and inner barriers to diffusion of high-molecular-weight compounds. Phenolic compounds present in the exotesta could interfere with gas exchange. The sclerenchyma layer, together with strengthening in the endotestal and exotestal cells, could act as a mechanical constraint. PMID:16157632

  17. Viability of barley seeds after long-term exposure to outer side of international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Makoto; Mori, Izumi C.; Elena, Shagimardanova; Gusev, Oleg A.; Kihara, Makoto; Hoki, Takehiro; Sychev, Vladimir N.; Levinskikh, Margarita A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

    2011-09-01

    Barley seeds were exposed to outer space for 13 months in a vented metal container without a climate control system to assess the risk of physiological and genetic mutation during long-term storage in space. The space-stored seeds (S0 generation), with an 82% germination rate in 50 seeds, lost about 20% of their weight after the exposure. The germinated seeds showed normal growth, heading, and ripening. The harvested seeds (S1 generation) also germinated and reproduced (S2 generation) as did the ground-stored seeds. The culm length, ear length, number of seed, grain weight, and fertility of the plants from the space-stored seeds were not significantly different from those of the ground-stored seeds in each of the S0 and S1 generation. Furthermore, the S1 and S2 space-stored seeds respectively showed similar β-glucan content to those of the ground-stored seeds. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis with 16 primer combinations showed no specific fragment that appears or disappears significantly in the DNA isolated from the barley grown from the space-stored seeds. Though these data are derived from nine S0 space-stored seeds in a single exposure experiment, the results demonstrate the preservation of barley seeds in outer space for 13 months without phenotypic or genotypic changes and with healthy and vigorous growth in space.

  18. Genecology for seed zones: Problems and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed zones are needed to guide the choice of genetic resources used in restoration. Their development using genecology is ongoing in numerous grass and forb species cooperative among the ARS, BLM, US Forest Service and the University of Nevada-Reno. The interaction of genetic variation and long-t...

  19. Identification and characterization of large DNA deletions affecting oil quality traits in soybean seeds through transcriptome sequencing analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying variation in seed composition and contents among different genotypes is important for soybean oil quality improvement. We designed a bioinformatics approach to compare seed transcriptomes of 9 soybean genotypes varying in oil composition ...

  20. ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE Activity Potentiates Carotenoid Degradation in Maturing Seed.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Jorge, Sabrina; Mehrshahi, Payam; Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Lipka, Alexander E; Angelovici, Ruthie; Gore, Michael A; DellaPenna, Dean

    2016-07-01

    Elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway has enabled altering the composition and content of carotenoids in various plants, but to achieve desired nutritional impacts, the genetic components regulating carotenoid homeostasis in seed, the plant organ consumed in greatest abundance, must be elucidated. We used a combination of linkage mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and pathway-level analysis to identify nine loci that impact the natural variation of seed carotenoids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE (ZEP) was the major contributor to carotenoid composition, with mutants lacking ZEP activity showing a remarkable 6-fold increase in total seed carotenoids relative to the wild type. Natural variation in ZEP gene expression during seed development was identified as the underlying mechanism for fine-tuning carotenoid composition, stability, and ultimately content in Arabidopsis seed. We previously showed that two CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE enzymes, CCD1 and CCD4, are the primary mediators of seed carotenoid degradation, and here we demonstrate that ZEP acts as an upstream control point of carotenoid homeostasis, with ZEP-mediated epoxidation targeting carotenoids for degradation by CCD enzymes. Finally, four of the nine loci/enzymatic activities identified as underlying natural variation in Arabidopsis seed carotenoids also were identified in a recent GWAS of maize (Zea mays) kernel carotenoid variation. This first comparison of the natural variation in seed carotenoids in monocots and dicots suggests a surprising overlap in the genetic architecture of these traits between the two lineages and provides a list of likely candidates to target for selecting seed carotenoid variation in other species. PMID:27208224

  1. A herbivory-induced increase in the proportion of floating seeds in an invasive plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukano, Yuya; Hirayama, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Koichi

    2014-04-01

    It is important to determine the factors prompting seed dispersal because for plant species seed dispersal is the only opportunity to disperse into a new habitat. Previous studies showed that the maternal stress, such as high density and low nutrient levels, induces the adaptive plastic increase of the dispersal ability in seed heteromorphic plants. In this study, we examined whether herbivory can change the relative proportion of dispersal-related seed heteromorphism (floating or non floating seeds) in an invasive weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Because A. artemisiifolia often distributes in the riparian habitat, floating seeds might contribute to the long distance dispersal by hydrochory. Floating ability and seed weight were compared between plants damaged by a specialist herbivore Ophraella communa and undamaged plants. The damaged plants produced lighter and more likely floating seeds than the undamaged plants. However, multi-regression analysis revealed that the probability of floating was affected by seed weight but was not affected by herbivore treatment (damaged vs. undamaged plants). These results suggest that the increased proportion of floating seeds was not a direct response to the herbivore signal but an indirect response through the herbivore's effect on the reduction of seed weight. Plants damaged by herbivores might not only decrease seed production and quality but also increase the dispersal ability. These responses in dispersal ability against the herbivores might contribute to the spread of invasive plants.

  2. Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scruggs, S. J.; Putman, P. T.; Zhou, Y. X.; Fang, H.; Salama, K.

    2006-07-01

    There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local Tc suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown.

  3. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  4. Seed arrival in tropical forest tree fall gaps.

    PubMed

    Puerta-Pińero, Carolina; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Calderón, Osvaldo; Wright, S Joseph

    2013-07-01

    Tree deaths open gaps in closed-canopy forests, which allow light to reach the forest floor and promote seed germination and seedling establishment. Gap dependence of regeneration is an important axis of life history variation among forest plant species, and many studies have evaluated how plant species differ in seedling and sapling performance in gaps. However, relatively little is known about how seed arrival in gaps compares with seed arrival in the understory, even though seed dispersal by wind and animals is expected to be altered in gaps. We documented seed arrival for the first seven years after gap formation in the moist tropical forests of Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, and evaluated how the amount and functional composition of arriving seeds compared with understory sites. On average, in the first three years after gap formation, 72% fewer seeds arrived in gaps than in the understory (207 vs. 740 seeds x m(-2) x yr(-1)). The reduction in number of arriving seeds fell disproportionately on animal-dispersed species, which suffered an 86% reduction in total seed number, while wind-dispersed species experienced only a 47% reduction, and explosively dispersed species showed increased seed numbers arriving. The increase in explosively dispersed seeds consisted entirely of the seeds of several shrub species, a result consistent with greater in situ seed production by explosively dispersed shrubs that survived gap formation or recruited immediately thereafter. Lianas did relatively better in seed arrival into gaps than did trees, suffering less of a reduction in seed arrival compared with understory sites. This result could in large part be explained by the greater predominance of wind dispersal among lianas: there were no significant differences between lianas and trees when controlling for dispersal syndromes. Our results show that seed arrival in gaps is very different from seed arrival in the understory in both total seeds arriving and functional

  5. Rapid and high seed germination and large soil seed bank of Senecio aquaticus in managed grassland.

    PubMed

    Suter, Matthias; Lüscher, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Senecio aquaticus, regionally a Red List species in Europe, has become increasingly abundant in agricultural grassland of medium to high management intensity in Switzerland, Southern Germany, and Austria in recent years, where it is a threat for animal and human health due to its toxicity. In this study, we investigated the seed ecology of S. aquaticus to help protection of the species in relic populations while improving its control when abundant in managed grassland. Germination percentages of fresh ripe seeds of S. aquaticus were on average 68% in 2008, but only 45% in 2010, indicating yearly variation. Germination was generally fast: ten days after the onset of the tests, often more than 45% of all seeds had germinated. When covered with a soil layer of 5 mm, germination was only 16% compared to 63% in full light. Seeds buried in the soil for one and two years showed a germination of 78%, significantly higher than that of fresh ripe seeds, thus suggesting a stimulating effect of cold-wet stratification on germination and long seed survival in the soil. In grasslands with established populations of S. aquaticus, the number of germinable seeds of the species ranged from 361 to 1875 m⁻² in topsoil (0-10 cm) with an average of 1139 m⁻². The large seed bank and the rapid and high germination of S. aquaticus suggest that allowing seed formation is important for its preservation in relic populations. With respect to agricultural grassland, strategies to control the species should initially target hindering seed production and dispersal. PMID:22272180

  6. Rapid and High Seed Germination and Large Soil Seed Bank of Senecio aquaticus in Managed Grassland

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Matthias; Lüscher, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Senecio aquaticus, regionally a Red List species in Europe, has become increasingly abundant in agricultural grassland of medium to high management intensity in Switzerland, Southern Germany, and Austria in recent years, where it is a threat for animal and human health due to its toxicity. In this study, we investigated the seed ecology of S. aquaticus to help protection of the species in relic populations while improving its control when abundant in managed grassland. Germination percentages of fresh ripe seeds of S. aquaticus were on average 68% in 2008, but only 45% in 2010, indicating yearly variation. Germination was generally fast: ten days after the onset of the tests, often more than 45% of all seeds had germinated. When covered with a soil layer of 5 mm, germination was only 16% compared to 63% in full light. Seeds buried in the soil for one and two years showed a germination of 78%, significantly higher than that of fresh ripe seeds, thus suggesting a stimulating effect of cold-wet stratification on germination and long seed survival in the soil. In grasslands with established populations of S. aquaticus, the number of germinable seeds of the species ranged from 361 to 1875 m−2 in topsoil (0–10 cm) with an average of 1139 m−2. The large seed bank and the rapid and high germination of S. aquaticus suggest that allowing seed formation is important for its preservation in relic populations. With respect to agricultural grassland, strategies to control the species should initially target hindering seed production and dispersal. PMID:22272180

  7. Effects of germination time on seed morph ratio in a seed-dimorphic species and possible ecological significance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C.; Yang, Xuejun; Cao, Dechang; Huang, Zhenying

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Diaspores of heteromorphic species may germinate at different times due to distinct dormancy-breaking and germination requirements, and this difference can influence life history traits. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of germination time of the two seed morphs of Suaeda corniculata subsp. mongolica on life history traits of the offspring. Methods Germinated brown and black seeds were sown on the 20th of each month from April to September in a simulated but near-natural habitat of the species. Phenological and vegetative traits of the maternal plants, and number, size and germination percentage of the offspring were determined. Key Results Germinated seeds sown late in the year produced smaller plants that had a higher proportion of non-dormant brown than dormant black seeds, and these brown seeds were larger than those produced by germinated seeds sown early in the year. The length of the seedling stage for brown seeds was shorter than that for black seeds, and the root/shoot ratio and reproductive allocation of plants from brown seeds were more variable than they were for plants from black seeds. Late-germinating brown seeds produced larger plants than late-germinating black seeds. Conclusions Altering the proportion of the two seed types in response to germination timing can help alleviate the adverse effects of delayed germination. The flexible strategy of a species, such as S. corniculata, that produces different proportions of dimorphic seeds in response to variation in germination timing may favour the maintenance and regeneration of the population in its unpredictable environment. PMID:25395107

  8. Seed preferences by rodents in the agri-environment and implications for biological weed control.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Christina; Türke, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Post-dispersal seed predation and endozoochorous seed dispersal are two antagonistic processes in relation to plant recruitment, but rely on similar preconditions such as feeding behavior of seed consumers and seed traits. In agricultural landscapes, rodents are considered important seed predators, thereby potentially providing regulating ecosystem services in terms of biological weed control. However, their potential to disperse seeds endozoochorously is largely unknown. We exposed seeds of arable plant species with different seed traits (seed weight, nutrient content) and different Red List status in an experimental rye field and assessed seed removal by rodents. In a complementary laboratory experiment, consumption rates, feeding preferences, and potential endozoochory by two vole species (Microtus arvalis and Myodes glareolus) were tested. Seed consumption by rodents after 24 h was 35% in the field and 90% in the laboratory. Both vole species preferred nutrient-rich over nutrient-poor seeds and M. glareolus further preferred light over heavy seeds and seeds of common over those of endangered plants. Endozoochory by voles could be neglected for all tested plant species as no seeds germinated, and only few intact seeds could be retrieved from feces. Synthesis and applications. Our results suggest that voles can provide regulating services in agricultural landscapes by depleting the seed shadow of weeds, rather than facilitating plant recruitment by endozoochory. In the laboratory, endangered arable plants were less preferred by voles than noxious weeds, and thus, our results provide implications for seed choice in restoration approaches. However, other factors such as seed and predator densities need to be taken into account to reliably predict the impact of rodents on the seed fate of arable plants. PMID:27547355

  9. Physical capsule and seed characteristics impact nutrient densities in cuphea seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We quantified interrelationships between nutrient densities and their dependencies on weights and physical characteristics of capsules and seeds of indeterminate Cuphea plants subjected to no (GDD0) or to source-sink manipulation by removing the top 25% of plant foliage at 100 and 200 growing degree...

  10. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. PMID:26184996

  11. Seeding requirements for scanning laser velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackett, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    To measure the velocity distributions within time dependent turbulent flow fields, a continuously scanning laser velocimeter system is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories Livermore (SNLL). A prototype of this system has produced results which show that spatial and temporal variations in particle seed distribution seriously compromise the overall performance and operation of this device. To alleviate some of these problems, alternate flow seeding concepts are explored. The most promising appear to be those that actively induce laser sparks within the gas flow, the velocity of which may be measured by a Fourier transformed velocimetry system.

  12. Synchrony between fruit maturation and effective dispersers' foraging activity increases seed protection against seed predators

    PubMed Central

    Boulay, Raphaël; Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramón C; Cerdá, Xim

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms is conditioned by the spatial and temporal co-occurrence of animals and plants. In the present study we explore the timing of seed release of a myrmecochorous plant (Helleborus foetidus) and ant activity in two populations in southern Spain during 2 consecutive years. The results indicate that fruit dehiscence and seed shedding occur mostly in the morning and correspond to the period of maximum foraging activity of the most effective ant dispersers. By contrast, ant species that do not transport seeds and/or that do not abound near the plants are active either before or after H. foetidus diaspores are released. Experimental analysis of diet preference for three kinds of food shows that effective ant dispersers are mostly scavengers that readily feed on insect corpses and sugars. Artificial seed depots suggest that seeds deposited on the ground out of the natural daily time window of diaspore releasing are not removed by ants and suffer strong predation by nocturnal rodents Apodemus sylvaticus. Nevertheless, important inter-annual variations in rodent populations cast doubts on their real importance as selection agents. We argue that traits allowing synchrony between seed presentation and effective partners may constitute a crucial pre-adaptation for the evolution of plant–animal mutualisms involving numerous animal partners. PMID:17698486

  13. African Cucurbita pepo L.: properties of seed and variability in fatty acid composition of seed oil.

    PubMed

    Younis, Y M; Ghirmay, S; al-Shihry, S S

    2000-05-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds are used locally in Eritrea to treat tapeworm. Seeds were found to be rich in oil (approximately 35%), protein (38%), alpha-tocoferols (3 mg/100 g) and carbohydrate content (approximately 37%). The physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the seed oil were examined. The four dominant fatty acids found are: palmitic C16:0 (13.3%), stearic C18:0 (8.0%), oleic C18:1 (29.0%) and linoleic C18:2 (47.0%). The oil contains an appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids (78.0%) and found to be a rich source of linoleic acid (47.0%). Within the three localities of the study, variations exist in seed properties and the fatty acid composition of the oil. PMID:10846750

  14. Pollen- and Seed-Mediated Transgene Flow in Commercial Cotton Seed Production Fields

    PubMed Central

    Heuberger, Shannon; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not) for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. Conclusions/Significance A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow. PMID:21152426

  15. A quick SEED tutorial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam; Evans, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A number of different government-funded seismic data centers offer free open-access data (e.g., U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), and Data Management System), which can be freely downloaded and shared among different members of the community (Lay, 2009). To efficiently share data, it is important that different data providers follow a common format. The Standard for the Exchange of Earthquake Data (SEED) provides one such format for storing seismic and other geophysical data. The SEED format is widely used in earthquake seismology; however, SEED and its structure can be difficult for many first-time users (ourselves included). Below is a quick tutorial that outlines the basic structure of SEED format. This write-up is in no way intended to replace the comprehensive SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), and instead of going into the details of any specific part of the SEED format we refer the reader to the manual for additional details. The goal of this write-up is to succinctly explain the basic structure of SEED format as well as the associated jargon, as most commonly used now, in a colloquial way so that novice users of SEED can become more familiar with the format and its application quickly. Our goal is to give the reader the necessary background so that when problems or questions about SEED format arise they will have some understanding of where they should look for more details or from where the problem might be stemming. As a secondary goal, we hope to help the reader become familiar with the SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), which contains detailed information about all aspects of the SEED format.

  16. Suppression of seed rot and preemergence of chickpea by seed treatments with fluorescent pseudomonads in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzadeh, M; Sharifi-Tehrani, A

    2006-01-01

    Species of Pythium isolated from rotted chickpea seeds and damped-off seedlings and chickpea soils at experimental field of Agriculture faculty of Tehran University in Karaj area that caused seed rot and preemergence damping-off of chickpea were Pyhium ultimum var. ultimum. One of the most important of soilborne fungal pathogens of the chickpea in Iran is seed rot and preemergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum Trow. Consequently, growers can expect as much as > 80% reduction in stand and yield if measures are not taken to control Pythium. Currently, most commercial seeds of chickpea are treated with pesticides. Fluorescent pseudomonads applied to seed are known to reduce soilborne diseases of chickpea caused by Pythium spp. In this study rotted chickpea seeds and diseased seedlings and soil samples were collected from experimental field in Karaj. Soils and roots used as sources of bacteria were collected from field. Fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated by plating samples on S1 and King's Medium B (KMB). Bacteria were preserved in 0.1 M MgSO4 for long-term storage; and NAG (containing 2% glucose) slants and plates at 4 degrees C short-term storage. Of 20 fluorescent pseudomonads isolated on S1 medium, 2 isolates selected for next tests. All strains significantly increased emergence as compared to the infested control in greenhouse trial; isolate Pf-4 consistently provided the best protection against Pythium. Seedling emergence from all bacteria seed treatments was statistically lower than the chemical treatments. All strains significantly increased fresh weight of chickpea as compared to the infested control in greenhouse trial. Seed treatment with metalaxyl were statistically better than captan in sterilized soil. In nonsterilized soil collected from the field artificially infested with P. ultimum, all strains significantly increased fresh weight of chickpea as compared to the infested control in greenhouse trial. Seedling emergence from seed treatment

  17. Dependence of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) Seed Reproduction Indices on Intensity of Motor Traffic Pollution.

    PubMed

    Erofeeva, Elena A

    2014-12-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) seed reproduction indices such as the total number of seeds, the number of normally developed seeds and underdeveloped seeds per anthodium, and seed weight are suggested to assess the level of environmental pollution (bioindication). However, the non-monotonic dose-response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indices are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependence of some T. officinale seed reproduction indices on intensity of motor traffic pollution in wide range of values over 2 years of observation. In 2010, the increase in traffic intensity induced a monotonic increase in the total seed number and the number of normally developed seeds. Besides, motor traffic pollution decreased the number of undeveloped seeds and seed weight in comparison with the control. In 2011, for all studied T. officinale indices except seed weight, complicated non-monotonic dependences on traffic intensity were found that could be attributed to paradoxical effects. It is hypothesised that the significant differences in the studied dependencies in 2010-2011 were caused by changes in weather conditions because traffic intensity did not differ significantly between the two observation years. PMID:25552956

  18. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss-rapid weight loss; Overweight-rapid weight loss; Obesity-rapid weight loss; Diet-rapid weight loss ... for people who have health problems because of obesity. For these people, losing a lot of weight ...

  19. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator You are here Home / Online Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Print Share Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Intro ...

  20. Inhibition of testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of sprague-dawley rats by pumpkin seed oil.

    PubMed

    Gossell-Williams, M; Davis, A; O'Connor, N

    2006-01-01

    The oil from the pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed is claimed to be useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This investigation seeks to examine the effect of pumpkin seed oil on testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of rats. Hyperplasia was induced by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (0.3 mg/100 g of body weight) for 20 days. Simultaneous oral administration of either pumpkin seed oil (2.0 and 4.0 mg/100 g of body weight) or corn oil (vehicle) was also given for 20 days. The weights of the rats were recorded weekly, and the influence of testosterone and pumpkin seed oil on the weight gain of the rats was examined. On day 21, rats were sacrificed, and the prostate was removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. Neither testosterone nor pumpkin seed oil had any significant influence on the weight gain of the rats. Testosterone significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .05), and this induced increase was inhibited in rats fed with pumpkin seed oil at 2.0 mg/100 g of body weight. The protective effect of pumpkin seed oil was significant at the higher pumpkin seed oil dose (P < .02). We conclude pumpkin seed oil can inhibit testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate and therefore may be beneficial in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:16822218

  1. Examining Children's Models of Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Natalie

    2002-01-01

    Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)

  2. Ant benefits in a seed dispersal mutualism.

    PubMed

    Gammans, Nicola; Bullock, James M; Schönrogge, Karsten

    2005-11-01

    Myrmecochorous plant seeds have nutrient rich appendages, elaiosomes, which induce some ant species to carry the seeds back to their nest where the elaiosome is consumed and the seed is discarded unharmed. The benefits to plants of dispersal of their seeds in this way have been well documented, but the benefits to the ants from consuming the elaiosomes have rarely been measured and are less clear. Ant benefits from myrmecochory were investigated in a laboratory experiment using the ant Myrmica ruginodis and seeds of Ulex species. To separate the effects of elaiosome consumption on the development of newly produced larvae versus existing larvae, ten 'Queenright' colonies containing a queen were compared to ten 'Queenless' colonies. Six measures of colony fitness over a complete annual cycle were taken: sexual production, larval weight and number, pupal weight and number, and worker survival. Queenless colonies fed with elaiosomes produced 100.0+/-29.3 (mean +/- SE) of larvae compared to non-elaiosome fed colonies which produced 49.6+/-19.0; an increase of 102%. Larval weight increased in both Queenright and Queenless colonies. In colonies fed with elaiosomes, larvae weighed 1.02+/-0.1 mg, but in non-elaiosome fed colonies larvae weighed 0.69+/-0.1 mg; an increase of 48%. The food supplement provided by Ulex elaiosomes was trivial in energetic terms, under the conditions of an ample diet, suggesting that these effects might be due to the presence of essential nutrients. Chemical analysis of Ulex elaiosomes showed the presence of four essential fatty acids and four essential sterols for ants. PMID:16049717

  3. Coating Soybean Seed with Oxamyl for Control of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Townshend, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Oxamyl coated on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Elgin) seeds in solutions of 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/ml had no serious deleterious effects on seedling emergence and growth when planted in sterile soil. Seedling emergence on day 3 was less than that of the uncoated control, but by day 7 emergence was equal to, or greater than, the control. Shoot and root growth from seed coated with oxamyl in 40 and 80 mg/ml solutions was greater than that of the control. In soil infested with soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, shoot weight of soybean plants from seeds coated with oxamyl in 80 mg/ml solution was 11 and 9% greater at weeks 3 and 7, respectively, than from uncoated seeds. Numbers of juveniles (J3 and J4) and adults of H. glycines observed on the roots of plants from oxamyl-coated seeds were 83, 42, and 49% less at weeks 3, 5, and 7, respectively, than numbers on the roots of the untreated control. Numbers of J2 extracted from the roots of plants from oxamyl-coated seeds were 75% less at weeks 5 and 7 than those extracted from roots of uncoated seeds. The numbers of J2 extracted from the soil planted to oxamyl-coated seeds were 51 and 33% less at weeks 5 and 7, respectively, than from soil planted to uncoated seed. PMID:19287713

  4. GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN ELEMENTARY…

  5. A legume biofortification quandary: variability and genetic control of seed coat micronutrient accumulation in common beans

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Matthew W.; Izquierdo, Paulo; Astudillo, Carolina; Grusak, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), like many legumes, are rich in iron, zinc, and certain other microelements that are generally found to be in low concentrations in cereals, other seed crops, and root or tubers and therefore are good candidates for biofortification. But a quandary exists in common bean biofortification: namely that the distribution of iron has been found to be variable between the principal parts of seed; namely the cotyledonary tissue, embryo axis and seed coat. The seed coat represents ten or more percent of the seed weight and must be considered specifically as it accumulates much of the anti-nutrients such as tannins that effect mineral bioavailability. Meanwhile the cotyledons accumulate starch and phosphorus in the form of phytates. The goal of this study was to evaluate a population of progeny derived from an advanced backcross of a wild bean and a cultivated Andean bean for seed coat versus cotyledonary minerals to identify variability and predict inheritance of the minerals. We used wild common beans because of their higher seed mineral concentration compared to cultivars and greater proportion of seed coat to total seed weight. Results showed the most important gene for seed coat iron was on linkage group B04 but also identified other QTL for seed coat and cotyledonary iron and zinc on other linkage groups, including B11 which has been important in studies of whole seed. The importance of these results in terms of physiology, candidate genes and plant breeding are discussed. PMID:23908660

  6. Seed heteromorphism in Triticum dicoccoides: association between seed positions within a dispersal unit and dormancy.

    PubMed

    Volis, Sergei

    2016-06-01

    Variation in seed size and dormancy can take the form of seed heteromorphism, i.e., production of different kinds of seeds by a single individual. In this paper, I tested for the effect of seed position within a spikelet on its germination over time, and the contribution of this effect to population differentiation along an aridity gradient in an annual grass, Triticum dicoccoides. The results show that the upper grain in a spikelet is larger than the bottom grain, and either germinates in the season following dispersal, or dies. In contrast, a substantial fraction of the bottom grains do not germinate in the first season, but remain dormant in the soil seed bank for 1 and, very rarely, 2 years. This pattern was observed in seeds of all origins, but the bottom grains from the most arid location had the lowest, and from the least arid location, the highest germination fraction in the 1st year and vice versa in the 2nd year. This difference in germination fraction was observed under controlled irrigation conditions but not in the field experiment. These mixed results suggest that seed dimorphism is a life history trait with a complicated evolutionary history and wide adaptive implications. Seed dimorphism in T. dicoccoides could initially be an adaptation for reducing competition in productive (i.e., high precipitation) environments. In addition to this, seed dimorphism under increasing aridity could become a bet-hedging trait allowing a population to survive periods of insufficient rainfall through dormancy. PMID:26868523

  7. AIR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN SEED COTTON DRYING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten tests were conducted in the fall of 2007 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the airflow ductwork...

  8. Seed distribution of four co-occurring grasses around Artemisia halodendron shrubs in a sandy habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-Rui; Zhao, Wen-Zhi; Kang, Ling-Fen; Liu, Ji-Liang; Huang, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Qi

    2009-05-01

    In a natural population of the perennial semi-shrub Artemisia halodendron in a shifting sandy habitat in the Horqin Desert of eastern Inner Mongolia, six isolated adult A. halodendron individuals of similar canopy size were chosen as target plants. The density of seeds in the top 5 cm soil depth around shrubs was measured using transects aligned to the four main wind directions and at different distances from the shrub base on both the windward and leeward sides. The effects of shrub presence on seed distribution of four co-occurring grasses were examined by linking seed distribution to seed traits. Of the four species, Setaris viridis and Eragrostis pilosa had small but similar seed mass, while Chloris virgata and Aristida adscensionis had large but similar seed mass. The species were grouped into two cohorts: small-seeded vs. large-seeded cohorts, and shrub presence effects on seed distribution of both cohorts were examined. We found marked difference in the seed distribution pattern among species, especially between the small-seeded and large-seeded cohorts. The small-seeded cohort had significantly higher seed accumulation on the windward than the leeward sides in the most and least prevailing wind directions and much higher seed accumulation on the leeward than the windward sides in the second and third most prevailing wind directions, while opposite patterns occurred in the large-seeded cohort. Four species also showed marked variation in the seed distribution pattern among transects and between windward and leeward sides of each transect. This study provided further evidence that shrubs embedded in a matrix of herbaceous plants is a key cause of spatial heterogeneity in seed availability of herbaceous species. However, seed distribution responses to the presence of shrubs will vary with species as well as with wind direction, sampling position (windward vs. leeward sides of the shrub) and distance from the shrub.

  9. A crop population perspective on maize seed systems in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dyer, George A; Taylor, J Edward

    2008-01-15

    Improvement of local germplasm through artificial selection is regarded as the main force behind maize evolution and diversity in Mexico, the crop's center of origin. This perspective neglects the larger social context of maize evolution. Using a theoretical approach and Mexico-wide data, we show that farmer-led evolution of maize is largely driven by a technological diffusion and appropriation process that selectively integrates nonlocal germplasm into local seed stocks. Our approach construes farmer practices as events in the life history of seed to build a demographic model. The model shows how random and systematic differences in management combine to structure maize seed populations into subpopulations that can spread or become extinct, in some cases independently of visible agronomic advantages. The process involves continuous population bottlenecks that can lead to diversity loss. Nonlocal germplasm thus might play a critical role in maintaining diversity in individual localities. Empirical estimates show that introduction of nonlocal seed in Central and Southeastern Mexico is rarer than previously thought; prompt replacement further prevents new seed from spreading. Yet introduced seed perceived as valuable diffuses rapidly, contributing variation in the form of type diversity or through introgression into local seed. Maize seed dynamics and evolution are thus part of a complex social process driven by farmers' desire to appropriate the value in maize farming, not always achieved by preserving or improving local seed stocks. PMID:18184814

  10. [Nutrition and body weight].

    PubMed

    Gohlke, H

    2002-01-01

    Certain dietary components play a key role for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Complex carbohydrates lower the prevalence of CAD. Protein should provide 15% of daily calories. Populations with a high consumption of soy protein have a low coronary event rate and a high life expectancy. Soy protein has a favorable effect on LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol correlates with an increased incidence of CAD. Saturated fats increase cholesterol levels as well as the activity of clotting factor VII and promote progression of CAD. Mono-(MUFA) and poly-unsaturated fatty acids lower LDL-cholesterol to a similar extent. MUFA are contained in rape seed oil, olive oil and pea nut oil, but also in avocados and almonds. Omega-3-fatty acids are in fatty fish like salmon, tuna and herring and improve survival after myocardial infarction. They improve among others endothelial function (adhesion molecules). Eating 1-2 fish meals per week has a preventive effect on CAD and stroke. Dietary fiber decreases the risk for CAD up to 30% and favorably influences carbohydrate metabolism. Antioxidants have a favorable effect in their natural form (fruits and fresh vegetables). The secondary preventive effect of a mediterranean diet after myocardial infarction (probably by a combination of the above effects) has been validated. Body weight correlates with coronary risk, diabetes and use of health care resources. A reduction of body weight is best achieved by calory reduction plus an increase of physical activity. A calory-adjusted diet, low in total fat with a significant proportion of unsaturated fats and omega-3-fatty acids and rich in fiber is of great importance for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Fruits, vegetables and whole grain products are important components of this diet, which lowers the coronary event rate, increases longevity and is associated with a low rate of malignancies and osteoporosis. PMID

  11. Magnetic stimulation of marigold seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, I.; Mukhtar, K.; Qasim, M.; Basra, S. M. A.; Shahid, M.; Haq, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds on germination, early seedling growth and biochemical changes of seedlings were studied under controlled conditions. For this purpose, seeds were exposed to five different magnetic seed treatments for 3 min each. Most of seed treatments resulted in improved germination speed and spread, root and shoot length, seed soluble sugars and a-amylase activity. Magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT maximally improved germination, seedling vigour and starch metabolism as compared to control and other seed treatments. In emergence experiment, higher emergence percentage (4-fold), emergence index (5-fold) and vigorous seedling growth were obtained in seeds treated with 100 mT. Overall, the enhancement of marigold seeds by magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT could be related to enhanced starch metabolism. The results suggest that magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds have the potential to enhance germination, early growth and biochemical parameters of seedlings.

  12. Salinity affects production and salt tolerance of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengxia; Xu, Yan-Ge; Wang, Shuai; Shi, Weiwei; Liu, Ranran; Feng, Gu; Song, Jie

    2015-10-01

    The effect of salinity on brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight, endogenous hormone concentrations, and germination of brown and black seeds in the euhalophyte Suaeda salsa was investigated. The brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight of brown and black seeds and the content of protein increased at a concentration of 500 mM NaCl compared to low salt conditions (1 mM NaCl). The germination percentage and germination index of brown seeds from plants cultured in 500 mM NaCl were higher than those cultured in 1 mM NaCl, but it was not true for black seeds. The concentrations of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), ZR (free zeatin riboside) and ABA (abscisic acid) in brown seeds were much greater than those in black seeds, but there were no differences in the level of GAs (gibberellic acid including GA1 and GA3) regardless of the degree of salinity. Salinity during plant culture increased the concentration of GAs, but salinity had no effect on the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in brown seeds. Salinity had no effect on the concentration of IAA but increased the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in black seeds. Accumulation of endogenous hormones at different concentrations of NaCl during plant growth may be related to seed development and to salt tolerance of brown and black S. salsa seeds. These characteristics may help the species to ensure seedling establishment and population succession in variable saline environments. PMID:26184090

  13. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Peanut Seed and Seed Coat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown extensively worldwide for its edible seed and oil. In a peanut, within the hull and encasing the cotyledon is the seed coat, which is commonly referred to within the peanut industry as the skin. The seed coat is a distinct plant structure critical for seed deve...

  14. The effects of selected pre-treatments on germination of seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Ozel, Halil Bariş

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of some pre-treatments implemented on seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis), which has wide geographical variation along Turkey on germination percentage values were investigated. For this purpose, 13 different pre-treatments were implemented to seeds obtained from 17 different populations. According to the obtained results (except control seeds), pre-treatments leading to lowest germination percentage value (8.1%) in Oriental hornbeam seeds was PT10: Keeping seeds for 90 min in sulfuric acid, while highest germination percentage (86.58%) has been obtained with pre-treatment PT13: Implementation of 40% dose of Baikal EM1 + Biohoumous mixture to the seeds, while lowest germination percentage (40.50%) was observed on seeds collected from P7 (Bartin-Kozcağiz) population, highest germination percentage was observed in seeds obtained from P17 (Artvin-Hopa) population. PMID:27498493

  15. Intra-specific variation in genome size in maize: cytological and phenotypic correlates.

    PubMed

    Realini, María Florencia; Poggio, Lidia; Cámara-Hernández, Julián; González, Graciela Esther

    2015-01-01

    Genome size variation accompanies the diversification and evolution of many plant species. Relationships between DNA amount and phenotypic and cytological characteristics form the basis of most hypotheses that ascribe a biological role to genome size. The goal of the present research was to investigate the intra-specific variation in the DNA content in maize populations from Northeastern Argentina and further explore the relationship between genome size and the phenotypic traits seed weight and length of the vegetative cycle. Moreover, cytological parameters such as the percentage of heterochromatin as well as the number, position and sequence composition of knobs were analysed and their relationships with 2C DNA values were explored. The populations analysed presented significant differences in 2C DNA amount, from 4.62 to 6.29 pg, representing 36.15 % of the inter-populational variation. Moreover, intra-populational genome size variation was found, varying from 1.08 to 1.63-fold. The variation in the percentage of knob heterochromatin as well as in the number, chromosome position and sequence composition of the knobs was detected among and within the populations. Although a positive relationship between genome size and the percentage of heterochromatin was observed, a significant correlation was not found. This confirms that other non-coding repetitive DNA sequences are contributing to the genome size variation. A positive relationship between DNA amount and the seed weight has been reported in a large number of species, this relationship was not found in the populations studied here. The length of the vegetative cycle showed a positive correlation with the percentage of heterochromatin. This result allowed attributing an adaptive effect to heterochromatin since the length of this cycle would be optimized via selection for an appropriate percentage of heterochromatin. PMID:26644343

  16. Intra-specific variation in genome size in maize: cytological and phenotypic correlates

    PubMed Central

    Realini, María Florencia; Poggio, Lidia; Cámara-Hernández, Julián; González, Graciela Esther

    2016-01-01

    Genome size variation accompanies the diversification and evolution of many plant species. Relationships between DNA amount and phenotypic and cytological characteristics form the basis of most hypotheses that ascribe a biological role to genome size. The goal of the present research was to investigate the intra-specific variation in the DNA content in maize populations from Northeastern Argentina and further explore the relationship between genome size and the phenotypic traits seed weight and length of the vegetative cycle. Moreover, cytological parameters such as the percentage of heterochromatin as well as the number, position and sequence composition of knobs were analysed and their relationships with 2C DNA values were explored. The populations analysed presented significant differences in 2C DNA amount, from 4.62 to 6.29 pg, representing 36.15 % of the inter-populational variation. Moreover, intra-populational genome size variation was found, varying from 1.08 to 1.63-fold. The variation in the percentage of knob heterochromatin as well as in the number, chromosome position and sequence composition of the knobs was detected among and within the populations. Although a positive relationship between genome size and the percentage of heterochromatin was observed, a significant correlation was not found. This confirms that other non-coding repetitive DNA sequences are contributing to the genome size variation. A positive relationship between DNA amount and the seed weight has been reported in a large number of species, this relationship was not found in the populations studied here. The length of the vegetative cycle showed a positive correlation with the percentage of heterochromatin. This result allowed attributing an adaptive effect to heterochromatin since the length of this cycle would be optimized via selection for an appropriate percentage of heterochromatin. PMID:26644343

  17. Genetic variability for phenotype, seed production, oil content, and fatty acid composition among 17 Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed oil and fatty acids in plants have human health implications. Oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds are used in Taiwan as a diuretic, laxative, and tonic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seeds from 17 roselle accessions for oil and fatty acid variation in a greenhouse. S...

  18. Identification of genes/loci and functional markers for seed oil quality improvement by exploring soybean genetic diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The difference in seed oil composition and content among soybean genotypes can be attributed mostly to variations in transcript sequences and/or transcript accumulation of oil-related genes expressed in seeds. We applied the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system to sequence RNA populations in soybean seeds fro...

  19. In-stream measurement of canola (Brassica napus L.) seed oil concentration using in-line near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation in the seed oil concentration of oilseed crops can impair a crushing plant’s ability to efficiently recover the oil from seed. Consequently, there is interest in using in-line near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to measure the oil concentration of the seed to be processed and use thi...

  20. Transcriptome characterization of developing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pods from two genotypes with contrasting seed zinc concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two c...

  1. Detailed characterization of mechanical properties and molecular mobility within dry seed glasses: relevance to the physiology of dry biological systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular motion slows when seeds form a glassy matrix, conferring longevity during dry storage. However, seeds inevitably age and variation in aging rates suggests differences in mobility among seed glasses. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to distinguish elastic and viscous motion with...

  2. Seed Dispersal and Germination Traits of 70 Plant Species Inhabiting the Gurbantunggut Desert in Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiliang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Yang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhenying; Duan, Shimin; Wang, Xiyong

    2014-01-01

    Seed dispersal and germination were examined for 70 species from the cold Gurbantunggut Desert in northwest China. Mean and range (3 orders of magnitude) of seed mass were smaller and narrower than those in other floras (5–8 orders of magnitude), which implies that selection favors relatively smaller seeds in this desert. We identified five dispersal syndromes (anemochory, zoochory, autochory, barochory, and ombrohydrochory), and anemochorous species were most abundant. Seed mass (F = 3.50, P = 0.01), seed size (F = 8.31, P < 0.01), and seed shape (F = 2.62, P = 0.04) differed significantly among the five dispersal syndromes and barochorous species were significantly smaller and rounder than the others. There were no significant correlations between seed mass (seed weight) (P = 0.15), seed size (P = 0.38), or seed shape (variance) (P = 0.95) and germination percentage. However, germination percentages differed significantly among the dispersal syndromes (F = 3.64, P = 0.01) and seeds of ombrohydrochorous species had higher germination percentages than those of the other species. In the Gurbantunggut Desert, the percentage of species with seed dormancy was about 80%. In general, our studies suggest that adaptive strategies in seed dispersal and germination of plants in this area are closely related to the environment in which they live and that they are influenced by natural selection forces. PMID:25485296

  3. Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Li; Jiafeng, Jiang; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Xin, He; Hanliang, Shao; Yuanhua, Dong

    2014-07-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv. Zhongdou 40) seed germination and seedling growth were studied. Seeds were pre-treated with 0, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W of cold plasma for 15 s. Results showed that plasma treatments had positive effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and treatment of 80 W had the highest stimulatory effect. Germination and vigor indices significantly increased by 14.66% and 63.33%, respectively. Seed's water uptake improved by 14.03%, and apparent contact angle decreased by 26.19%. Characteristics of seedling growth, including shoot length, shoot dry weight, root length and root dry weight, significantly increased by 13.77%, 21.95%, 21.42% and 27.51%, respectively, compared with control. The seed reserve utilization, including weight of the mobilized seed reserve, seed reserve depletion percentage and seed reserve utilization efficiency significantly improved by cold plasma treatment. In addition, soluble sugar and protein contents were 16.51% and 25.08% higher than those of the control. Compared to a 21.95% increase in shoot weight, the root weight increased by 27.51% after treatment, indicating that plasma treatment had a greater stimulatory effect on plant roots. These results indicated that cold plasma treatment might promote the growth even yield of soybean.

  4. Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Li; Jiafeng, Jiang; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Xin, He; Hanliang, Shao; Yuanhua, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv. Zhongdou 40) seed germination and seedling growth were studied. Seeds were pre-treated with 0, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W of cold plasma for 15 s. Results showed that plasma treatments had positive effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and treatment of 80 W had the highest stimulatory effect. Germination and vigor indices significantly increased by 14.66% and 63.33%, respectively. Seed's water uptake improved by 14.03%, and apparent contact angle decreased by 26.19%. Characteristics of seedling growth, including shoot length, shoot dry weight, root length and root dry weight, significantly increased by 13.77%, 21.95%, 21.42% and 27.51%, respectively, compared with control. The seed reserve utilization, including weight of the mobilized seed reserve, seed reserve depletion percentage and seed reserve utilization efficiency significantly improved by cold plasma treatment. In addition, soluble sugar and protein contents were 16.51% and 25.08% higher than those of the control. Compared to a 21.95% increase in shoot weight, the root weight increased by 27.51% after treatment, indicating that plasma treatment had a greater stimulatory effect on plant roots. These results indicated that cold plasma treatment might promote the growth even yield of soybean. PMID:25080862

  5. Tomato seeds for LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Tomato seeds are prepared for their launch aboard the Langley's Long Duration Exposure Facility. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 119), by James Schultz.

  6. Seeds in Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Willard K.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are the seed dispersal mechanisms of six different plants: big-leaf maple, pincushion tree, tree of heaven, squirting cucumber, digger pine, and bull thistle. Elaborate color and black-and-white drawings illustrate the text. (MA)

  7. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  8. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dekker; 2005:309–325. Grape. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on June ... Grape seed ( Vitis vinifera, Vitis coignetiae ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on June ...

  9. Community-wide spatial and temporal discordances of seed-seedling shadows in a tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Rother, Débora Cristina; Pizo, Marco Aurélio; Siqueira, Tadeu; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Several factors decrease plant survival throughout their lifecycles. Among them, seed dispersal limitation may play a major role by resulting in highly aggregated (contagious) seed and seedling distributions entailing increased mortality. The arrival of seeds, furthermore, may not match suitable environments for seed survival and, consequently, for seedling establishment. In this study, we investigated spatio-temporal patterns of seed and seedling distribution in contrasting microhabitats (bamboo and non-bamboo stands) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Spatial distribution patterns, spatial concordance between seed rain and seedling recruitment between subsequent years in two fruiting seasons (2004-2005 and 2007-2009), and the relation between seeds and seedlings with environmental factors were examined within a spatially-explicit framework. Density and species richness of both seeds and seedlings were randomly distributed in non-bamboo stands, but showed significant clustering in bamboo stands. Seed and seedling distributions showed across-year inconsistency, suggesting a marked spatial decoupling of the seed and seedling stages. Generalized linear mixed effects models indicated that only seed density and seed species richness differed between stand types while accounting for variation in soil characteristics. Our analyses provide evidence of marked recruitment limitation as a result of the interplay between biotic and abiotic factors. Because bamboo stands promote heterogeneity in the forest, they are important components of the landscape. However, at high densities, bamboos may limit recruitment for the plant community by imposing marked discordances of seed arrival and early seedling recruitment. PMID:25856393

  10. Community-Wide Spatial and Temporal Discordances of Seed-Seedling Shadows in a Tropical Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Rother, Débora Cristina; Pizo, Marco Aurélio; Siqueira, Tadeu; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Several factors decrease plant survival throughout their lifecycles. Among them, seed dispersal limitation may play a major role by resulting in highly aggregated (contagious) seed and seedling distributions entailing increased mortality. The arrival of seeds, furthermore, may not match suitable environments for seed survival and, consequently, for seedling establishment. In this study, we investigated spatio-temporal patterns of seed and seedling distribution in contrasting microhabitats (bamboo and non-bamboo stands) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Spatial distribution patterns, spatial concordance between seed rain and seedling recruitment between subsequent years in two fruiting seasons (2004–2005 and 2007–2009), and the relation between seeds and seedlings with environmental factors were examined within a spatially-explicit framework. Density and species richness of both seeds and seedlings were randomly distributed in non-bamboo stands, but showed significant clustering in bamboo stands. Seed and seedling distributions showed across-year inconsistency, suggesting a marked spatial decoupling of the seed and seedling stages. Generalized linear mixed effects models indicated that only seed density and seed species richness differed between stand types while accounting for variation in soil characteristics. Our analyses provide evidence of marked recruitment limitation as a result of the interplay between biotic and abiotic factors. Because bamboo stands promote heterogeneity in the forest, they are important components of the landscape. However, at high densities, bamboos may limit recruitment for the plant community by imposing marked discordances of seed arrival and early seedling recruitment. PMID:25856393

  11. Fatty Acid Patterns of Seeds of Some Salvia Species from Iran - A Chemotaxonomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Moazzami Farida, Seyed Hamed; Radjabian, Tayebeh; Ranjbar, Massoud; Salami, Seyed Alireza; Rahmani, Nosrat; Ghorbani, Abdolbaset

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the seed oil content and fatty acid (FA) profile of 21 populations from 16 wild Salvia species of Iran were analyzed by GC. Patterns of chemical variations of the oils among species were identified via numerical analyses and also the taxonomic status of the infrageneric grouping was outlined in the genus. Salvia species were scored based on the contents of main FAs using principal coordinate analysis (PCO). The results showed that the total oil content in the seeds varied significantly, and ranged from 6.68 to 38.53% dry weight. α-Linolenic (18:3ω3, 1.69 - 53.56%), linoleic (18:2ω6, 13.04 - 60.64%), oleic (18:1ω9, 6.15 - 27.06%), palmitic (16:0, 3.77 - 9.27%), and stearic (18:0, 1.78 - 3.05%) acid were identified as five major FAs in the oils. The amount of ω-3 and ω-6 FAs ranged between 1.90 - 53.80% and 13.46 - 60.83% of total FAs in the seed oils, respectively. The results confirmed that FA profiles were distinctive among the species and that they can be used as chemotaxonomic markers. The discrimination of Salvia species according to their botanical classification at intersectional level was supported. In general, seed oils of Salvia species were rich sources of polyunsaturated FAs, except in linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and may be valuable for food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26988735

  12. Evaluation of antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica seeds in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dushyant Kumar; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Surendra; Joshi, Vivek; Mandal, Ravi Shankar Kumar; Prakash, A. G. Bhanu; Singh, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of ethanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Family - Apocynaceae) seeds against induced diarrhea in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The extract was evaluated for castor oil and Escherichia coli induced diarrhea. Extract was given at 100, 200, 400 mg/kg body wt. orally in both protocols. Standard antidiarrheal Loperamide was used at 5 mg/kg body wt. orally in castor oil induced protocol, while standard antibiotic Gentamicin at 8 mg/kg body wt. intraperitoneally was used in E. coli induced diarrhea. In castor oil induced protocol, the percentage inhibition of defecation was calculated for each group, whereas in E. coli induced protocol, change in fecal consistency, and body weight was recorded for each individual rat for 3 days. Results: The severity of castor oil induced diarrhea was reduced significantly (p<0.05) with H. antidysenterica seeds extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt. which showed equivalent effectiveness like that of Loperamide treated groups. Similarly in E. coli induced diarrhea protocol, the mean change in body weight was significantly (p<0.05) higher in positive control, whereas no significant variation was observed in negative control, Gentamicin treated and H. antidysenterica treated group at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body wt., respectively. Conclusion: The study concluded that ethanolic extract of H. antidysenterica seeds effectively controlled diarrhea and decreased the severity of clinical signs of castor oil and E. coli induced diarrhea in Wistar rats. PMID:27047049

  13. Seed reserve composition in 19 tree species of a tropical deciduous forest in Mexico and its relationship to seed germination and seedling growth

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Diana; Orozco-Segovia, Alma; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Kitajima, Kaoru; Gamboa-de Buen, Alicia; Huante, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The size and composition of seed reserves may reflect the ecological strategy and evolutionary history of a species and also temporal variation in resource availability. The seed mass and composition of seed reserves of 19 co-existing tree species were studied, and we examined how they varied among species in relation to germination and seedling growth rates, as well as between two years with contrasting precipitation (652 and 384 mm). Methods Seeds were collected from a tropical deciduous forest in the northwest of Mexico (Chamela Biological Station). The seed dry mass, with and without the seed coat, and the concentrations of lipids, nitrogen and non-structural carbohydrates for the seed minus seed coat were determined. The anatomical localization of these reserves was examined using histochemical analysis. The germination capacity, rate and lag time were determined. The correlations among these variables, and their relationship to previously reported seedling relative growth rates, were evaluated with and without phylogenetic consideration. Key Results There were interannual differences in seed mass and reserve composition. Seed was significantly heavier after the drier year in five species. Nitrogen concentration was positively correlated with seed coat fraction, and was significantly higher after the drier year in 12 species. The rate and lag time of germination were negatively correlated with each other. These trait correlations were also supported for phylogenetic independent contrasts. Principal component analysis supported these correlations, and indicated a negative association of seedling relative growth rate with seed size, and a positive association of germination rate with nitrogen and lipid concentrations. Conclusions Nitrogen concentration tended to be higher after the drier year and, while interannual variations in seed size and reserve composition were not sufficient to affect interspecific correlations among seed and seedling

  14. Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods. PMID:20658661

  15. A lipid transfer protein, OsLTPL36, is essential for seed development and seed quality in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Wei; Lu, Zhanhua; Ouyang, Yidan; O, Chol Su; Yao, Jialing

    2015-10-01

    Storage lipid is a vital component for maintaining structure of seed storage substances and valuable for rice quality and food texture. However, the knowledge of lipid transporting related genes and their function in seed development have not been well elucidated yet. In this study, we identified OsLTPL36, a homolog of putative lipid transport protein, and showed specific expression in rice developing seed. Transcriptional profiling and in situ hybridization analysis confirmed that OsLTPL36 was exclusively expressed in developing seed coat and endosperm aleurone cells. Down-regulated expression of OsLTPL36 led to decreased seed setting rate and 1000-grain weight in transgenic plants. Further studies showed that suppressed expression of OsLTPL36 caused chalky endosperm and resulted in reduced fat acid content in RNAi lines as compared with wild type (WT). Histological analysis showed that the embryo development was delayed after down regulation of OsLTPL36. Moreover, impeded seed germination and puny seedling were also observed in the OsLTPL36 RNAi lines. The data demonstrated that OsLTPL36, a lipid transporter, was critical important not only for seed quality but also for seed development and germination in rice. PMID:26398804

  16. A seed coat-specific promoter for canola.

    PubMed

    El-Mezawy, Aliaa; Wu, Limin; Shah, Saleh

    2009-12-01

    The canola industry generates more than $11 billion of yearly income to the Canadian economy. One problem of meal quality is the dark polyphenolic pigments that accumulate in the seed coat. Seed coat-specific promoters are a pre-requisite to regulate the genes involved in seed coat development and metabolism. The beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was used to test an Arabidopsis promoter in developing and mature seeds of canola (Brassica napus). The promoter tested is the regulatory region of the laccase gene (AtLAC15) from Arabidopsis thaliana. The AtLAC15 promoter::GUS construct was inserted into canola double haploid line DH12075 using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Southern blot analysis using a 536 bp GUS probe showed variation among the transformed plants in the T-DNA copy numbers and the position of the insertion in their genomes. Histochemical assay of the GUS enzyme in different tissues (roots, leaves, stem, pollen grains, flowers, siliques, embryos and seed coats) showed ascending GUS activity only in the seed coat from 10 days after pollination (DAP) to the fully mature stage (35 DAP). GUS stain was observed in the mucilage cell layer, in the outer integument layer of the seed coat but not in the inner integument. The AtLAC15 promoter exhibited a specificity and expression level that is useful as a seed coat-specific promoter for canola. PMID:19690805

  17. Seed Size, Fecundity and Postfire Regeneration Strategy Are Interdependent in Hakea

    PubMed Central

    El-ahmir, Sh-hoob Mohamed; Lim, Sim Lin; Lamont, Byron B.; He, Tianhua

    2015-01-01

    Seed size is a key functional trait that affects plant fitness at the seedling stage and may vary greatly with species fruit size, growth form and fecundity. Using structural equation modelling (SEM) and correlated trait evolution analysis, we investigated the interaction network between seed size and fecundity, postfire regeneration strategy, fruit size, plant height and serotiny (on-plant seed storage) among 82 species of the woody shrub genus, Hakea, with a wide spectrum of seed sizes (2–500 mg). Seed size is negatively correlated with fecundity, while fire-killed species (nonsprouters) produce more seeds than resprouters though they are of similar size. Seed size is unrelated to plant height and level of serotiny while it scales allometrically with fruit size. A strong phylogenetic signal in seed size revealed phylogenetic constraints on seed size variation in Hakea. Our analyses suggest a causal relationship between seed size, fecundity and postfire regeneration strategy in Hakea. These results demonstrate that fruit size, fecundity and evolutionary history have had most control over seed size variation among Hakea species. PMID:26035821

  18. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  19. Seeds in space experiment results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1991-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed on the space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) tray in sealed canister number six and in two small vented canisters. The tray was in the F-2 position. The seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants compared to the control seed that stayed in Park Seed's seed storage facility. The initial results are presented. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than in the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seeds in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low.

  20. Seed Transmission of Pseudoperonospora cubensis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E.; Galperin, Mariana; Ploch, Sebastian; Runge, Fabian; Thines, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoperonospora cubensis, an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing devastating foliar disease in species of the Cucurbitaceae family, was never reported in seeds or transmitted by seeds. We now show that P. cubensis occurs in fruits and seeds of downy mildew-infected plants but not in fruits or seeds of healthy plants. About 6.7% of the fruits collected during 2012–2014 have developed downy mildew when homogenized and inoculated onto detached leaves and 0.9% of the seeds collected developed downy mildew when grown to the seedling stage. This is the first report showing that P. cubensis has become seed-transmitted in cucurbits. Species-specific PCR assays showed that P. cubensis occurs in ovaries, fruit seed cavity and seed embryos of cucurbits. We propose that international trade of fruits or seeds of cucurbits might be associated with the recent global change in the population structure of P. cubensis. PMID:25329308

  1. Automated seed manipulation and planting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ray; Herrera, Javier; Holcomb, Scott; Kelly, Paul; Myers, Scott; Rosendo, Manny; Sivitz, Herbert; Wolsefer, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The Mechanical Division fabricated three seed separators utilizing pressure gradients to move and separate wheat seeds. These separators are called minnow buckets and use air, water, or a combination of both to generate the pressure gradient. Electrostatic fields were employed in the seed separator constructed by the Electrical Division. This separator operates by forcing a temporary electric dipole on the wheat seeds and using charged electrodes to attract and move the seeds. Seed delivery to the hydroponic growth tray is accomplished by the seed cassette. The cassette is compatible with all the seed separators, and it consists of a plastic tube threaded with millipore filter paper. During planting operations, the seeds are placed in an empty cassette. The loaded cassette is then placed in the growth tray and nutrient solution provided. The solution wets the filter paper and capillary action draws the nutrients up to feed the seeds. These seeding systems were tested and showed encouraging results. Seeds were effectively separated and the cassette can support the growth of wheat plants. Problems remaining to be investigated include improving the success of delivering the seeds to the cassette and providing adequate spacing between seeds for the electric separator.

  2. Volatile fingerprints of seeds of four species indicate the involvement of alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions in seed deterioration during ageing and desiccation stress

    PubMed Central

    Colville, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The volatile compounds released by orthodox (desiccation-tolerant) seeds during ageing can be analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Comparison of three legume species (Pisum sativum, Lathyrus pratensis, and Cytisus scoparius) during artificial ageing at 60% relative humidity and 50 °C revealed variation in the seed volatile fingerprint between species, although in all species the overall volatile concentration increased with storage period, and changes could be detected prior to the onset of viability loss. The volatile compounds are proposed to derive from three main sources: alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions. Lipid peroxidation was confirmed in P. sativum seeds through analysis of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Volatile production by ageing orthodox seeds was compared with that of recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) seeds of Quercus robur during desiccation. Many of the volatiles were common to both ageing orthodox seeds and desiccating recalcitrant seeds, with alcoholic fermentation forming the major source of volatiles. Finally, comparison was made between two methods of analysis; the first used a Tenax adsorbent to trap volatiles, whilst the second used solid phase microextraction to extract volatiles from the headspace of vials containing powdered seeds. Solid phase microextraction was found to be more sensitive, detecting a far greater number of compounds. Seed volatile analysis provides a non-invasive means of characterizing the processes involved in seed deterioration, and potentially identifying volatile marker compounds for the diagnosis of seed viability loss. PMID:23175670

  3. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  4. Effects of fenugreek seed extract in obese mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Handa, Toshiaki; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Sono, Yoshikatsu; Yazawa, Kazunaga

    2005-06-01

    It was found that fenugreek seed extract reduced the body weight gain induced by a high-fat diet in obese mice. The extract decreased plasma triglyceride gain induced by oil administration. The major component of the extract, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, also decreased plasma triglyceride gain. Consequently, fenugreek seed extract is expected to prevent the obesity induced by a high-fat diet. PMID:15973051

  5. A Proteomics-Based Platform for Systems Biology Analysis of Soybean Seed Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A system based on fresh weight and color was used to define eight stages of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill, cv. Jack) seed development. Storage protein, oil, and starch were quantified from each stage, and used along with the morphological characteristics to establish a first-stage model of seed...

  6. Seed-protein genes and the regulation of their expression. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Larkins, B.A.; Hodges, T.K.; Foard, D.E.; Tomes, M.L.

    1981-08-01

    Research during the past year focused on two aspects of seed protein research. One objective explored the possibility of using Xenopus laevis oocytes as a potential system for studying expression of cloned storage protein genes. A second objective developed methods for isolating and partially purifying mRNAs directing the synthesis of the low molecular weight protease inhibitors of soybean seeds.

  7. An Integrated Genomic Strategy Delineates Candidate Mediator Genes Regulating Grain Size and Weight in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Naveen; Dwivedi, Nidhi; Singh, Ashok K.; Parida, Swarup K.; Agarwal, Pinky; Thakur, Jitendra K.; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study deployed a Mediator (MED) genes-mediated integrated genomic strategy for understanding the complex genetic architecture of grain size/weight quantitative trait in rice. The targeted multiplex amplicon resequencing of 55 MED genes annotated from whole rice genome in 384 accessions discovered 3971 SNPs, which were structurally and functionally annotated in diverse coding and non-coding sequence-components of genes. Association analysis, using the genotyping information of 3971 SNPs in a structured population of 384 accessions (with 50–100 kb linkage disequilibrium decay), detected 10 MED gene-derived SNPs significantly associated (46% combined phenotypic variation explained) with grain length, width and weight in rice. Of these, one strong grain weight-associated non-synonymous SNP (G/A)-carrying OsMED4_2 gene was validated successfully in low- and high-grain weight parental accessions and homozygous individuals of a rice mapping population. The seed-specific expression, including differential up/down-regulation of three grain size/weight-associated MED genes (including OsMED4_2) in six low and high-grain weight rice accessions was evident. Altogether, combinatorial genomic approach involving haplotype-based association analysis delineated diverse functionally relevant natural SNP-allelic variants in 10 MED genes, including three potential novel SNP haplotypes in an OsMED4_2 gene governing grain size/weight differentiation in rice. These molecular tags have potential to accelerate genomics-assisted crop improvement in rice. PMID:27000976

  8. Measurement of single soybean seed attributes by near infrared technologies. A comparative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four near infrared spectrophotometers, and their associated spectral collection methods, were tested and compared for measuring three soybean single seed attributes: weight (g), protein (%), and oil (%). Using partial least squares (PLS) and 4 preprocessing methods, the attribute which was significa...

  9. Evidence for maternal control of seed size in maize from phenotypic and transcriptional analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Hirsch, Candice N; Sekhon, Rajandeep S; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M

    2016-04-01

    Seed size is an important component of grain yield and a key determinant trait for crop domestication. The Krug Yellow Dent long-term selection experiment for large and small seed provides a valuable resource to dissect genetic and phenotypic changes affecting seed size within a common genetic background. In this study, inbred lines derived from Krug Large Seed (KLS) and Krug Small Seed (KSS) populations and reciprocal F1 crosses were used to investigate developmental and molecular mechanisms governing seed size. Seed morphological characteristics showed striking differences between KLS and KSS inbred lines, and the reciprocal cross experiment revealed a strong maternal influence on both seed weight and seed size. Quantification of endosperm area, starchy endosperm cell size, and kernel dry mass accumulation indicated a positive correlation between seed size, endosperm cell number, and grain filling rate, and patterns of grain filling in reciprocal crosses mirrored that of the maternal parent. Consistent with the maternal contribution to seed weight, transcriptome profiling of reciprocal F1 hybrids showed substantial similarities to the maternal parent. A set of differentially expressed genes between KLS and KSS inbreds were found, which fell into a broad number of functional categories including DNA methylation, nucleosome assembly, and heat stress response. In addition, gene co-expression network analysis of parental inbreds and reciprocal F1 hybrids identified co-expression modules enriched in ovule development and DNA methylation, implicating these two processes in seed size determination. These results expand our understanding of seed size regulation and help to uncover the developmental and molecular basis underlying maternal control of seed size in maize. PMID:26826570

  10. Evidence for maternal control of seed size in maize from phenotypic and transcriptional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Hirsch, Candice N.; Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Seed size is an important component of grain yield and a key determinant trait for crop domestication. The Krug Yellow Dent long-term selection experiment for large and small seed provides a valuable resource to dissect genetic and phenotypic changes affecting seed size within a common genetic background. In this study, inbred lines derived from Krug Large Seed (KLS) and Krug Small Seed (KSS) populations and reciprocal F1 crosses were used to investigate developmental and molecular mechanisms governing seed size. Seed morphological characteristics showed striking differences between KLS and KSS inbred lines, and the reciprocal cross experiment revealed a strong maternal influence on both seed weight and seed size. Quantification of endosperm area, starchy endosperm cell size, and kernel dry mass accumulation indicated a positive correlation between seed size, endosperm cell number, and grain filling rate, and patterns of grain filling in reciprocal crosses mirrored that of the maternal parent. Consistent with the maternal contribution to seed weight, transcriptome profiling of reciprocal F1 hybrids showed substantial similarities to the maternal parent. A set of differentially expressed genes between KLS and KSS inbreds were found, which fell into a broad number of functional categories including DNA methylation, nucleosome assembly, and heat stress response. In addition, gene co-expression network analysis of parental inbreds and reciprocal F1 hybrids identified co-expression modules enriched in ovule development and DNA methylation, implicating these two processes in seed size determination. These results expand our understanding of seed size regulation and help to uncover the developmental and molecular basis underlying maternal control of seed size in maize. PMID:26826570

  11. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  12. Quantitative trait loci for seed yield and yield-related traits, and their responses to reduced phosphorus supply in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Guangda; Zhao, Zunkang; Liao, Yuan; Hu, Yifan; Shi, Lei; Long, Yan; Xu, Fangsen

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims One of the key targets of breeding programmes in rapeseed (Brassica napus) is to develop high-yield varieties. However, the lack of available phosphorus (P) in soils seriously limits rapeseed production. The aim of this study was to dissect the genetic control of seed yield and yield-related traits in B. napus grown with contrasting P supplies. Methods Two-year field trials were conducted at one site with normal and low P treatments using a population of 124 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between ‘B104-2’ and ‘Eyou Changjia’. Seed yield, seed weight, seed number, pod number, plant height, branch number and P efficiency coefficient (PEC) were investigated. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed by composite interval mapping. Key Results The phenotypic values of most of the tested traits were reduced under the low P conditions. In total, 74 putative QTLs were identified, contributing 7·3–25·4 % of the phenotypic variation. Of these QTLs, 16 (21·6 %) were detected in two seasons and in the mean value of two seasons, and eight QTLs for two traits were conserved across P levels. Low-P-specific QTLs were clustered on chromosomes A1, A6 and A8. By comparative mapping between Arabidopsis and B. napus, 161 orthologues of 146 genes involved in Arabidopsis P homeostasis and/or yield-related trait control were associated with 45 QTLs corresponding to 23 chromosomal regions. Four gene-based markers developed from genes involved in Arabidopsis P homeostasis were mapped to QTL intervals. Conclusions Different genetic determinants were involved in controlling seed yield and yield-related traits in B. napus under normal and low P conditions. The QTLs detected under reduced P supply may provide useful information for improving the seed yield of B. napus in soils with low P availability in marker-assisted selection. PMID:22234558

  13. Effects of frugivorous birds on seed retention time and germination in Xishuangbanna, southwest China

    PubMed Central

    SHI, Ting-Ting; WANG, Bo; QUAN, Rui-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The dispersal of many plants depends on transportation by birds as seed dispersers. The birds play an important role in long distance seed dispersal and may also affect seed germination. However, for plants who have many bird dispersers, the influence of dominant and non-dominant dispersers on retention time (dispersal distance) and germination remains poorly understood. In this study, we performed experiments with captive frugivorous birds and fruiting plant species to study the effects of dominant and non-dominant dispersers on seed retention time (SRT) and germination (seed germination percentage and germination speed). Our study showed a great interspecific variation in the effects of frugivorous birds on both SRT and germination. Some birds enhance the germination of a given plant species, but others do not. Generally, the dominant visitors improved the seed germination and performed longer seed retention time. PMID:26228475

  14. Water Relations of Seed Development and Germination in Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) : IV. Characteristics of the Perisperm during Seed Development.

    PubMed

    Welbaum, G E; Bradford, K J

    1990-04-01

    We previously reported that an apparent water potential disequilibrium is maintained late in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) seed development between the embryo and the surrounding fruit tissue (mesocarp). To further investigate the basis of this phenomenon, the permeability characteristics of the tissues surrounding muskmelon embryos (the mucilaginous endocarp, the testa, a 2- to 4-cell-layered perisperm and a single cell layer of endosperm) were examined from 20 to 65 days after anthesis (DAA). Water passes readily through the perisperm envelope (endosperm + perisperm), testa, and endocarp at all stages of development. Electrolyte leakage (conductivity of imbibition solutions) of individual intact seeds, decoated seeds (testa removed), and embryos (testa and perisperm envelope removed) was measured during imbibition of freshly harvested seeds. The testa accounted for up to 80% of the total electrolyte leakage. Leakage from decoated seeds fell by 8- to 10-fold between 25 and 45 DAA. Presence of the perisperm envelope prior to 40 DAA had little effect on leakage, while in more mature seeds, it reduced leakage by 2- to 3-fold. In mature seeds, freezing, soaking in methanol, autoclaving, accelerated aging, and other treatments which killed the embryos had little effect on leakage of intact or decoated seeds, but caused osmotic swelling of the perisperm envelope due to the leakage of solutes from the embryo into the space between the embryo and perisperm. The semipermeability of the perisperm envelope of mature seeds did not depend upon cellular viability or lipid membrane integrity. After maximum seed dry weight is attained (35-40 DAA), the perisperm envelope prevents the diffusion of solutes, but not of water, between the embryo and the surrounding testa, endocarp, and mesocarp tissue. PMID:16667368

  15. Genetic architecture and mechanism of seed number per pod in rapeseed: elucidated through linkage and near-isogenic line analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuhua; Shi, Jiaqin; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Seed number per pod (SNPP) is one of the major yield components and breeding targets in rapeseed that shows great variation and is invaluable for genetic improvement. To elucidate the genetic architecture and uncover the mechanism of SNPP, we identified five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) using the BnaZNRIL population, which were integrated with those of previous studies by physical map to demonstrate a complex and relatively complete genetic architecture of SNPP. A major QTL, qSN.A6, was successfully fine-mapped from 1910 to 267 kb using near-isogenic line (NIL). In addition, qSN.A6 exhibited an antagonistic pleiotropy on seed weight (SW), which is caused by a physiological interaction in which SNPP acts “upstream” of SW. Because the negative effect of qSN.A6 on SW cannot fully counteract its positive effect on SNPP, it also enhanced the final yield (17.4%), indicating its great potential for utilization in breeding. The following genetic and cytological experiments further confirmed that the different rate of ovule abortion was responsible for the ~5 seed difference between Zhongshuang11 and NIL-qSN.A6. This systematic approach to dissecting the comprehensive genetic architecture of SNPP and characterizing the underlying mechanism has advanced the understanding of SNPP and will facilitate the development of high-yield cultivars. PMID:27067010

  16. Genetic architecture and mechanism of seed number per pod in rapeseed: elucidated through linkage and near-isogenic line analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuhua; Shi, Jiaqin; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Seed number per pod (SNPP) is one of the major yield components and breeding targets in rapeseed that shows great variation and is invaluable for genetic improvement. To elucidate the genetic architecture and uncover the mechanism of SNPP, we identified five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) using the BnaZNRIL population, which were integrated with those of previous studies by physical map to demonstrate a complex and relatively complete genetic architecture of SNPP. A major QTL, qSN.A6, was successfully fine-mapped from 1910 to 267 kb using near-isogenic line (NIL). In addition, qSN.A6 exhibited an antagonistic pleiotropy on seed weight (SW), which is caused by a physiological interaction in which SNPP acts "upstream" of SW. Because the negative effect of qSN.A6 on SW cannot fully counteract its positive effect on SNPP, it also enhanced the final yield (17.4%), indicating its great potential for utilization in breeding. The following genetic and cytological experiments further confirmed that the different rate of ovule abortion was responsible for the ~5 seed difference between Zhongshuang11 and NIL-qSN.A6. This systematic approach to dissecting the comprehensive genetic architecture of SNPP and characterizing the underlying mechanism has advanced the understanding of SNPP and will facilitate the development of high-yield cultivars. PMID:27067010

  17. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  18. Multiple seeds sensitivity using a single seed with threshold.

    PubMed

    Egidi, Lavinia; Manzini, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    Spaced seeds are a fundamental tool for similarity search in biosequences. The best sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs are obtained using many seeds simultaneously: This is known as the multiple seed approach. Unfortunately, spaced seeds use a large amount of memory and the available RAM is a practical limit to the number of seeds one can use simultaneously. Inspired by some recent results on lossless seeds, we revisit the approach of using a single spaced seed and considering two regions homologous if the seed hits in at least t sufficiently close positions. We show that by choosing the locations of the don't care symbols in the seed using quadratic residues modulo a prime number, we derive single seeds that when used with a threshold t > 1 have competitive sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs, indeed close to the best multiple seeds known in the literature. In addition, the choice of the threshold t can be adjusted to modify sensitivity and selectivity a posteriori, thus enabling a more accurate search in the specific instance at issue. The seeds we propose also exhibit robustness and allow flexibility in usage. PMID:25747382

  19. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  20. Assessing Your Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measure and Interpret Weight Status Adult Body Mass Index or BMI Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person's weight in kilograms divided ... finding your height and weight in this BMI Index Chart 1 . If your BMI is less than ...

  1. Robust fusion with reliabilities weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, Jean-Francois; Marques, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    The reliability is a value of the degree of trust in a given measurement. We analyze and compare: ML (Classical Maximum Likelihood), MLE (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Entropy), MLR (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Reliability), MLRE (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Reliability and Entropy), DS (Credibility Plausibility), DSR (DS weighted by reliabilities). The analysis is based on a model of a dynamical fusion process. It is composed of three sensors, which have each it's own discriminatory capacity, reliability rate, unknown bias and measurement noise. The knowledge of uncertainties is also severely corrupted, in order to analyze the robustness of the different fusion operators. Two sensor models are used: the first type of sensor is able to estimate the probability of each elementary hypothesis (probabilistic masses), the second type of sensor delivers masses on union of elementary hypotheses (DS masses). In the second case probabilistic reasoning leads to sharing the mass abusively between elementary hypotheses. Compared to the classical ML or DS which achieves just 50% of correct classification in some experiments, DSR, MLE, MLR and MLRE reveals very good performances on all experiments (more than 80% of correct classification rate). The experiment was performed with large variations of the reliability coefficients for each sensor (from 0 to 1), and with large variations on the knowledge of these coefficients (from 0 0.8). All four operators reveal good robustness, but the MLR reveals to be uniformly dominant on all the experiments in the Bayesian case and achieves the best mean performance under incomplete a priori information.

  2. Production of high levels of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in plastids of Camelina sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Malik, Meghna R; Yang, Wenyu; Patterson, Nii; Tang, Jihong; Wellinghoff, Rachel L; Preuss, Mary L; Burkitt, Claire; Sharma, Nirmala; Ji, Yuanyuan; Jez, Joseph M; Peoples, Oliver P; Jaworski, Jan G; Cahoon, Edgar B; Snell, Kristi D

    2015-06-01

    Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production in plastids of Camelina sativa seeds was investigated by comparing levels of polymer produced upon transformation of plants with five different binary vectors containing combinations of five seed-specific promoters for expression of transgenes. Genes encoding PHB biosynthetic enzymes were modified at the N-terminus to encode a plastid targeting signal. PHB levels of up to 15% of the mature seed weight were measured in single sacrificed T1 seeds with a genetic construct containing the oleosin and glycinin promoters. A more detailed analysis of the PHB production potential of two of the best performing binary vectors in a Camelina line bred for larger seed size yielded lines containing up to 15% polymer in mature T2 seeds. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of distinct granules of PHB in the seeds. PHB production had varying effects on germination, emergence and survival of seedlings. Once true leaves formed, plants grew normally and were able to set seeds. PHB synthesis lowered the total oil but not the protein content of engineered seeds. A change in the oil fatty acid profile was also observed. High molecular weight polymer was produced with weight-averaged molecular weights varying between 600 000 and 1 500 000, depending on the line. Select lines were advanced to later generations yielding a line with 13.7% PHB in T4 seeds. The levels of polymer produced in this study are the highest reported to date in a seed and are an important step forward for commercializing an oilseed-based platform for PHB production. PMID:25418911

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Levels in Arabidopsis Seeds[W

    PubMed Central

    Angelovici, Ruthie; Lipka, Alexander E.; Deason, Nicholas; Gonzalez-Jorge, Sabrina; Lin, Haining; Cepela, Jason; Buell, Robin; Gore, Michael A.; DellaPenna, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are three of the nine essential amino acids in human and animal diets and are important for numerous processes in development and growth. However, seed BCAA levels in major crops are insufficient to meet dietary requirements, making genetic improvement for increased and balanced seed BCAAs an important nutritional target. Addressing this issue requires a better understanding of the genetics underlying seed BCAA content and composition. Here, a genome-wide association study and haplotype analysis for seed BCAA traits in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed a strong association with a chromosomal interval containing two BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACID TRANSFERASES, BCAT1 and BCAT2. Linkage analysis, reverse genetic approaches, and molecular complementation analysis demonstrated that allelic variation at BCAT2 is responsible for the natural variation of seed BCAAs in this interval. Complementation analysis of a bcat2 null mutant with two significantly different alleles from accessions Bayreuth-0 and Shahdara is consistent with BCAT2 contributing to natural variation in BCAA levels, glutamate recycling, and free amino acid homeostasis in seeds in an allele-dependent manner. The seed-specific phenotype of bcat2 null alleles, its strong transcription induction during late seed development, and its subcellular localization to the mitochondria are consistent with a unique, catabolic role for BCAT2 in BCAA metabolism in seeds. PMID:24368787

  4. [Desiccation tolerance in seeds of Prosopisferox and Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae)].

    PubMed

    Morandini, Marcelo Nahuel; Giamminola, Eugenia Mabel; de Viana, Marta Leonor

    2013-03-01

    The high number of endemisms and species diversity together with the accelerated biodiversity loss by deforestation, especially in North Western Argentina, points out the need to work on species conservation combining ex situ and in situ strategies. The aim of this work was to study the desiccation tolerance in seeds of P ferox and P nitens for long term ex situ conservation at the Germplasm Bank of Native Species (BGEN) of the National University of Salta (Argentina). The fruits were collected from ten individuals in P ferox at the National Park Los Cardones and from two sites (Orán and Rivadavia) for P nitens. Desiccation tolerance was assessed following previous established methodologies. The moisture content (MC) of the seeds was determined by keeping them in oven at 103 degreeC and weighting the samples at different intervals till constant weight. Germination essays were carried out with two treatments (control and scarification), with different seed MC (fresh, 10-12%, 3-5%) and in desiccated seeds (3-5% MC) stored six months at -20 degreeC. The MC in P ferox seeds was 14.2% and 10% in P nitens, for both populations studied. Percentage germination in P ferox was higher in the scarification treatments (<82%). The difference between treatments increased with the reduction in MC and the storage for six months at -20 degreeC. Fresh seeds of P nitens do not need scarification treatment, but it is required with the reduction in MC and storage. Mean germination percentage of desiccated seeds stored six months at -20 degreeC was similar in both populations and greater than 82%.We concluded that both species are probably orthodox because seeds tolerated desiccation to 3-5% and storage for six months at -20 degree C. PMID:23894986

  5. Physical View of Cloud Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribus, Myron

    1970-01-01

    Reviews experimental data on various aspects of climate control. Includes a discussion of (1) the physics of cloud seeding, (2) the applications of cloud seeding, and (3) the role of statistics in the field of weather modification. Bibliography. (LC)

  6. Breaking dormancy in freshly matured seeds of Elymus sibiricus, an important forage grass in the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J Q; Wang, Y R

    2015-01-01

    Elymus sibiricus L. is an important forage grass widely distributed in Asia and is usually a dominant species on Tibetan Plateau alpine grasslands. Here, we used the seed development indices of 1000 seed weight, seed moisture content, and seed viability to compare the seed characteristics at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 days after anthesis (DAA) in five populations of E. sibiricus growing in Gannan, China. Additionally, seeds collected at 60 DAA were air-dried for one month, and the primary germination percentage (GP) was determined in the laboratory. Treatment of seeds with 0.2% KNO3, 100 mg/L cytokinin, and 500 mg/L GA3 were tested for their effects on dormancy. A primary GP of 16% was found after 12 d of 15/25°C incubation, with no differences among the five populations. The 1000 seed weight and seed viability steadily increased and moisture content continuously fell with DAA. The optimal harvest time for E. sibiricus in an alpine pasture was 50 DAA. No effect on dormancy was found after treating seeds with 0.2% KNO3 or 100 mg/L cytokinin; however, a low concentration of GA3 induced a prompt and synchronized germination. Freshly matured E. sibiricus seeds were classified to be in non-deep physiologically dormant. Treatment of seeds with GA3 before sowing enhanced the emergence speed and seedling uniformity in E. sibiricus. PMID:26400341

  7. Thermal Changes of Maize Seed by Laser Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Aguilar, C.; Dominguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.

    2015-09-01

    In this research, the thermal evolution in maize seeds ( Zea mays L.) was studied when low-intensity laser irradiation was applied during 60 s. The seeds were irradiated in three different conditions: suspended in air, placed on an aluminum surface, and finally placed on a cardboard; the evolution of the seed temperature was measured by an infrared camera. Photoacoustic spectroscopy and the Rosencwaig and Gersho model were used to determine the optical absorption coefficient (β ) of the seeds. The results indicate that using 650 nm laser light and 27.4 mW, it is possible to produce temperature changes (up to 9.06°C after 1 min) on the seeds. Comparing the mean temperature of the seeds, during and after the incidence of light from a laser, it was found that there were statistically significant differences (P≤ 0.05) from time t1 to time t_{16} (t1 to t_{16}) and t3 to t_{16}, for the laser turned on and off, respectively. The seed condition that had the highest temperature variation, relative to the initial temperature (during the irradiation laser exposure), involved the seeds suspended in air. With regard to the stage of decay of the temperature, it was found that the seed condition that decays more slowly was the seed placed on the cardboard. It was also found that black-dyed maize seeds are optically opaque in the 300 nm to 700 nm range Also, the thermal diffusion length is smaller than the optical penetration length. In the present investigation, it was shown that there is a thermal component associated with the mechanisms of laser biostimulation, which is also a function of the container materials of the seed. In this way, the effects of laser treatment on maize seeds involve at least a temperature effect. It is important to know the temperature changes in the seeds that have been irradiated with a laser beam since they could have substantial practical and theoretical importance.

  8. SEED DETERIORATION INCREASES IN THE PRESENCE OF VOLATILES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of culinary importance emit low molecular weight carbonyl compounds that can be detected as volatiles in the surrounding air. Volatile carbonyl molecules are byproducts of cascading peroxidative reactions and can be highly reactive against proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Carum carvi L. pro...

  9. Swietenine: a potential oral hypoglycemic from Swietenia macrophylla seed.

    PubMed

    Dewanjee, Saikat; Maiti, Anup; Das, Anup K; Mandal, Subhash C; Dey, Sankar P

    2009-06-01

    Swietenine, a tetranortriterpenoid, was isolated from the Swietenia macrophylla seeds. The in vivo hypoglycemic activity was evaluated against neonatal-streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. Oral administration of swietenine at 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight per day to diabetic rats was found to possess significant dose dependant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity in type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:19239921

  10. Seed morphology and anatomy and its utility in recognizing subfamilies and tribes of Zingiberaceae

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, John C.; Smith, Selena Y.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Leong-Skornickova, Jana; Specht, Chelsea D.; Marone, Federica; Xiao, Xianghui; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.

    2015-11-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data suggested that the monocot family Zingiberaceae be separated into four subfamilies and four tribes. Robust morphological characters to support these clades are lacking. Seeds were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to test independently the circumscription of clades and to better understand evolution of seed characters within Zingiberaceae. METHODS: Seventy-five species from three of the four subfamilies were analyzed using synchrotron based x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) and scored for 39 morphoanatomical characters. KEY RESULTS: Zingiberaceae seeds are some of the most structurally complex seeds in angiosperms. No single seed character was found to distinguish each subfamily, but combinations of characters were found to differentiate between the subfamilies. Recognition of the tribes based on seeds was possible for Globbeae, but not for Alpinieae, Riedelieae, or Zingibereae, due to considerable variation. CONCLUSIONS: SRXTM is an excellent, nondestructive tool to capture morphoanatomical variation of seeds and allows for the study of taxa with limited material available. Alpinioideae, Siphonochiloideae, Tamijioideae, and Zingiberoideae are well supported based on both molecular and morphological data, including multiple seed characters. Globbeae are well supported as a distinctive tribe within the Zingiberoideae, but no other tribe could be differentiated using seeds due to considerable homoplasy when compared with currently accepted relationships based on molecular data. Novel seed characters suggest tribal affinities for two currently unplaced Zingiberaceae taxa: Siliquamomum may be related to Riedelieae and Monolophus to Zingibereae, but further work is needed before formal revision of the family.

  11. The effects of Cannabis sativa L. seed (hemp seed) on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points in rats.

    PubMed

    Yousofi, Másume; Saberivand, Adel; Becker, Lora A; Karimi, Isaac

    2011-05-01

    This study determined the effects of maternal dietary intake of hemp seed on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points of Wistar rats. Time-mated rats were fed 100% hemp seed (n  =  15), 50% hemp seed (n  =  15) or basal diet (n  =  15) once a day. The amount of food made available was based on control feed consumption records. All dams remained on their respective diets from premating (14 days) throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were given their maternal diet until puberty. Mating and delivery weights of dams in all groups did not show significant changes. Number of pregnancies, number and post-natal survival rate of total rat pups, litter size and milk yield were lower in the group that received 100% hemp seed. Offspring that received 50% hemp seed diet expressed reproductive and neurobehavioral end points from a modified Fox battery earlier than rats on 100% hemp seed or basal diet, except acoustic startle results where no differences appeared. In conclusion, this study shows that hemp seed supplementation does not improve the reproductive and neurobehavioral performances of rats. Pregnant women and nursing mothers should be cautious about the using of Cannabis sativa L. byproducts in their diets. PMID:21328577

  12. Identification of transcript polymorphisms for seed quality improvement by exploring soybean genetic diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The difference in seed oil composition and content among soybean genotypes could be mostly attributed to transcript sequence and/or expression variations of oil-related genes that that lead to changes in the functions of the proteins that they encode and/or their accumulation in seeds. We sequenced ...

  13. Positional cloning of a seed dormancy QTL from weedy rice (Oryza sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed weedy rice (SS-18-2) as a genetic system to investigate mechanisms regulating natural variation in seed dormancy. This included introduction of a set of quantitative trait loci (QTL) enhancing seed dormancy into the non-dormant genetic background of cultivated rice (EM93-1) to clone and...

  14. The SEED Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  15. COFFEE SEED PHYSIOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are more than 70 species of Coffea (Rubiaceae), but only C. arabica and C. canephora are used commercially. Better understanding of seed physiology within Coffea will facilitate the incorporation of genetic traits for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses from wild relatives into commerci...

  16. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  17. SEED Software Annotations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethke, Dee; And Others

    This document provides a composite index of the first five sets of software annotations produced by Project SEED. The software has been indexed by title, subject area, and grade level, and it covers sets of annotations distributed in September 1986, April 1987, September 1987, November 1987, and February 1988. The date column in the index…

  18. The National SEED Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Cathy L.

    1991-01-01

    The National SEED (Seeking Educational Equity and Diversity) project on Inclusive Curriculum provides K-12 teachers an opportunity for renewal and consideration of gender-inclusive and multicultural curricula. Seminars, led from multiple perspectives, immerse participants in recent scholarship on inclusive education and model teaching strategies…

  19. The Seeds of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Herman J.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses "Seeds of Change," a Columbian quincentenary exhibition at the Smithsonian Institution. Describes the rapid transformation of the Americas after contact with the Europeans. Reports that the exhibit explores the destruction of the native population by disease, war, slavery, the ongoing decimation of the rain forest, and the transformation…

  20. Seeds: A Celebration of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Bob

    The Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) Project offered science classes at the 5-12 and college levels the opportunity to conduct experiments involving tomato seeds that had been space-exposed over long periods of time. SEEDS kits were complete packages obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for…

  1. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    MedlinePlus

    ... small as poppy seeds. They come from a plant in the mint family. Chia seeds are considered to be a "super food" by many, delivering several important nutrients in just a few calories. You can eat this nutty-flavored seed in many ways.

  2. Corridors cause differential seed predation.

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John L.; Damschen, Ellen I.

    2005-06-01

    Orrock, John, L., and Ellen I. Damschen. 2005. Corridors cause differential seed predation. Ecol. Apps. 15(3):793-798. Abstract. Corridors that connect disjunct populations are heavily debated in conservation, largely because the effects of corridors have rarely been evaluated by replicated, large-scale studies. Using large-scale experimental landscapes, we found that, in addition to documented positive effects, corridors also have negative impacts on bird-dispersed plants by affecting seed predation, and that overall predation is a function of the seeds primary consumer (rodents or arthropods). Both large-seeded Prunus serotina and small-seeded Rubus allegheniensis experienced greater predation in connected patches. However, P. serotina experienced significantly less seed predation compared to R. allegheniensis in unconnected patches, due to decreased impacts of rodent seed predators on this large-seeded species. Viewed in light of previous evidence that corridors have beneficial impacts by increasing pollination and seed dispersal, this work demonstrates that corridors may have both positive and negative effects for the same plant species at different life stages. Moreover, these effects may differentially affect plant species within the same community: seeds primarily consumed by rodents suffer less predation in unconnected patches. By shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators, corridors constructed for plant conservation could lead to shifts in the seed bank.

  3. Tomato Seed Coat Permeability to Selected Carbon Nanomaterials and Enhancement of Germination and Seedling Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ratnikova, Tatsiana A.; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao M.; Taylor, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    Seed coat permeability was examined using a model that tested the effects of soaking tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) seeds in combination with carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNMs) and ultrasonic irradiation (US). Penetration of seed coats to the embryo by CBNMs, as well as CBNMs effects on seed germination and seedling growth, was examined. Two CBNMs, C60(OH)20 (fullerol) and multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs), were applied at 50 mg/L, and treatment exposure ranged from 0 to 60 minutes. Bright field, fluorescence, and electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy provided corroborating evidence that neither CBNM was able to penetrate the seed coat. The restriction of nanomaterial (NM) uptake was attributed to the semipermeable layer located at the innermost layer of the seed coat adjacent to the endosperm. Seed treatments using US at 30 or 60 minutes in the presence of MWNTs physically disrupted the seed coat; however, the integrity of the semipermeable layer was not impaired. The germination percentage and seedling length and weight were enhanced in the presence of MWNTs but were not altered by C60(OH)20. The combined exposure of seeds to NMs and US provided insight into the nanoparticle-seed interaction and may serve as a delivery system for enhancing seed germination and early seedling growth. PMID:26495423

  4. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  5. Tree Seed Technology Training Course: Student Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, F. T.; And Others

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses and covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling,…

  6. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  7. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  8. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  9. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  10. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  11. Control of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana by atmospheric oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, A.; Crispi, M.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Seed development is known to be inhibited completely when plants are grown in oxygen concentrations below 5.1 kPa, but apart from reports of decreased seed weight little is known about embryogenesis at subambient oxygen concentrations above this critical level. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants were grown full term under continuous light in premixed atmospheres with oxygen partial pressures of 2.5, 5.1, 10.1, 16.2 and 21.3 kPa O2, 0.035 kPa CO2 and the balance nitrogen. Seeds were harvested for germination tests and microscopy when siliques had yellowed. Seed germination was depressed in O2 treatments below 16.2 kPa, and seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2 did not germinate at all. Fewer than 25% of the seeds from plants grown in 5.1 kPa oxygen germinated and most of the seedlings appeared abnormal. Light and scanning electron microscopic observation of non-germinated seeds showed that these embryos had stopped growing at different developmental stages depending upon the prevailing oxygen level. Embryos stopped growing at the heart-shaped to linear cotyledon stage in 5.1 kPa O2, at around the curled cotyledon stage in 10.1 kPa O2, and at the premature stage in 16.2 kPa O2. Globular and heart-shaped embryos were observed in sectioned seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2. Tissue degeneration caused by cell autolysis and changes in cell structure were observed in cotyledons and radicles. Transmission electron microscopy of mature seeds showed that storage substances, such as protein bodies, were reduced in subambient oxygen treatments. The results demonstrate control of embryo development by oxygen in Arabidopsis.

  12. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. PMID:26812088

  13. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  14. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight through diet and exercise or have serious health problems caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the ...

  15. Crop protection by seed coating.

    PubMed

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  16. Overexpression of Sinapine Esterase BnSCE3 in Oilseed Rape Seeds Triggers Global Changes in Seed Metabolism1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Clauß, Kathleen; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Böttcher, Christoph; Roth, Mary R.; Welti, Ruth; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Scheel, Dierk; Milkowski, Carsten; Strack, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Sinapine (O-sinapoylcholine) is the predominant phenolic compound in a complex group of sinapate esters in seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Sinapine has antinutritive activity and prevents the use of seed protein for food and feed. A strategy was developed to lower its content in seeds by expressing an enzyme that hydrolyzes sinapine in developing rape seeds. During early stages of seedling development, a sinapine esterase (BnSCE3) hydrolyzes sinapine, releasing choline and sinapate. A portion of choline enters the phospholipid metabolism, and sinapate is routed via 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose into sinapoylmalate. Transgenic oilseed rape lines were generated expressing BnSCE3 under the control of a seed-specific promoter. Two distinct single-copy transgene insertion lines were isolated and propagated to generate homozygous lines, which were subjected to comprehensive phenotyping. Sinapine levels of transgenic seeds were less than 5% of wild-type levels, whereas choline levels were increased. Weight, size, and water content of transgenic seeds were significantly higher than those of wild-type seeds. Seed quality parameters, such as fiber and glucosinolate levels, and agronomically important traits, such as oil and protein contents, differed only slightly, except that amounts of hemicellulose and cellulose were about 30% higher in transgenic compared with wild-type seeds. Electron microscopic examination revealed that a fraction of the transgenic seeds had morphological alterations, characterized by large cavities near the embryonic tissue. Transgenic seedlings were larger than wild-type seedlings, and young seedlings exhibited longer hypocotyls. Examination of metabolic profiles of transgenic seeds indicated that besides suppression of sinapine accumulation, there were other dramatic differences in primary and secondary metabolism. Mapping of these changes onto metabolic pathways revealed global effects of the transgenic BnSCE3 expression on seed metabolism. PMID

  17. PREVENTING WEIGHT REGAIN AFTER WEIGHT LOSS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For most dieters, a regaining of lost weight is an all too common experience. Indeed, virtually all interventions for weight loss show limited or even poor long-term effectiveness. This sobering reality was reflected in a comprehensive review of nonsurgical treatments of obesity conducted by the Ins...

  18. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  19. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  20. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  1. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  2. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  3. Loss-of-function mutations affecting a specific Glycine max R2R3 MYB transcription factor result in brown hilum and brown seed coats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although modern soybean cultivars feature yellow seed coats, with the only color variation found at the hila, the ancestral condition is black seed coats. Both seed coat and hila coloration are due to the presence of phenylpropanoid pathway derivatives, principally anthocyanins. The genetics of soyb...

  4. The Effects of Seed Size on Hybrids Formed between Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) and Wild Brown Mustard (B. juncea)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-bo; Tang, Zhi-xi; Darmency, Henri; Stewart, C. Neal; Di, Kun; Wei, Wei; Ma, Ke-ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Seed size has significant implications in ecology, because of its effects on plant fitness. The hybrid seeds that result from crosses between crops and their wild relatives are often small, and the consequences of this have been poorly investigated. Here we report on plant performance of hybrid and its parental transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and wild B. juncea, all grown from seeds sorted into three seed-size categories. Methodology/Principal Findings Three seed-size categories were sorted by seed diameter for transgenic B. napus, wild B. juncea and their transgenic and non-transgenic hybrids. The seeds were sown in a field at various plant densities. Globally, small-seeded plants had delayed flowering, lower biomass, fewer flowers and seeds, and a lower thousand-seed weight. The seed-size effect varied among plant types but was not affected by plant density. There was no negative effect of seed size in hybrids, but it was correlated with reduced growth for both parents. Conclusions Our results imply that the risk of further gene flow would probably not be mitigated by the small size of transgenic hybrid seeds. No fitness cost was detected to be associated with the Bt-transgene in this study. PMID:22745814

  5. Elevation-dependent responses of tree mast seeding to climate change over 45 years

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Robert B; Hurst, Jennifer M; Portier, Jeanne; Richardson, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    We use seed count data from a New Zealand mono-specific mountain beech forest to test for decadal trends in seed production along an elevation gradient in relation to changes in climate. Seedfall was collected (1965 to 2009) from seed trays located on transect lines at fixed elevations along an elevation gradient (1020 to 1370 m). We counted the number of seeds in the catch of each tray, for each year, and determined the number of viable seeds. Climate variables were obtained from a nearby (<2 km) climate station (914-m elevation). Variables were the sum or mean of daily measurements, using periods within each year known to correlate with subsequent interannual variation in seed production. To determine trends in mean seed production, at each elevation, and climate variables, we used generalized least squares (GLS) regression. We demonstrate a trend of increasing total and viable seed production, particularly at higher elevations, which emerged from marked interannual variation. Significant changes in four seasonal climate variables had GLS regression coefficients consistent with predictions of increased seed production. These variables subsumed the effect of year in GLS regressions with a greater influence on seed production with increasing elevation. Regression models enforce a view that the sequence of climate variables was additive in their influence on seed production throughout a reproductive cycle spanning more than 2 years and including three summers. Models with the most support always included summer precipitation as the earliest variable in the sequence followed by summer maximum daily temperatures. We interpret this as reflecting precipitation driven increases in soil nutrient availability enhancing seed production at higher elevations rather than the direct effects of climate, stand development or rising atmospheric CO2 partial pressures. Greater sensitivity of tree seeding at higher elevations to changes in climate reveals how ecosystem responses to

  6. ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE Activity Potentiates Carotenoid Degradation in Maturing Seed1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Lipka, Alexander E.; Angelovici, Ruthie; DellaPenna, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway has enabled altering the composition and content of carotenoids in various plants, but to achieve desired nutritional impacts, the genetic components regulating carotenoid homeostasis in seed, the plant organ consumed in greatest abundance, must be elucidated. We used a combination of linkage mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and pathway-level analysis to identify nine loci that impact the natural variation of seed carotenoids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE (ZEP) was the major contributor to carotenoid composition, with mutants lacking ZEP activity showing a remarkable 6-fold increase in total seed carotenoids relative to the wild type. Natural variation in ZEP gene expression during seed development was identified as the underlying mechanism for fine-tuning carotenoid composition, stability, and ultimately content in Arabidopsis seed. We previously showed that two CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE enzymes, CCD1 and CCD4, are the primary mediators of seed carotenoid degradation, and here we demonstrate that ZEP acts as an upstream control point of carotenoid homeostasis, with ZEP-mediated epoxidation targeting carotenoids for degradation by CCD enzymes. Finally, four of the nine loci/enzymatic activities identified as underlying natural variation in Arabidopsis seed carotenoids also were identified in a recent GWAS of maize (Zea mays) kernel carotenoid variation. This first comparison of the natural variation in seed carotenoids in monocots and dicots suggests a surprising overlap in the genetic architecture of these traits between the two lineages and provides a list of likely candidates to target for selecting seed carotenoid variation in other species. PMID:27208224

  7. Empty Seeds Are Not Always Bad: Simultaneous Effect of Seed Emptiness and Masting on Animal Seed Predation

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

  8. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Seed Germination and Seedling Vigor in Brassica rapa Reveals QTL Hotspots and Epistatic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Basnet, Ram K.; Duwal, Anita; Tiwari, Dev N.; Xiao, Dong; Monakhos, Sokrat; Bucher, Johan; Visser, Richard G. F.; Groot, Steven P. C.; Bonnema, Guusje; Maliepaard, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The genetic basis of seed germination and seedling vigor is largely unknown in Brassica species. We performed a study to evaluate the genetic basis of these important traits in a B. rapa doubled haploid population from a cross of a yellow-seeded oil-type yellow sarson and a black-seeded vegetable-type pak choi. We identified 26 QTL regions across all 10 linkage groups for traits related to seed weight, seed germination and seedling vigor under non-stress and salt stress conditions illustrating the polygenic nature of these traits. QTLs for multiple traits co-localized and we identified eight hotspots for quantitative trait loci (QTL) of seed weight, seed germination, and root and shoot lengths. A QTL hotspot for seed germination on A02 mapped at the B. rapa Flowering Locus C (BrFLC2). Another hotspot on A05 with salt stress specific QTLs co-located with the B. rapa Fatty acid desaturase 2 (BrFAD2) locus. Epistatic interactions were observed between QTL hotspots for seed germination on A02 and A10 and with a salt tolerance QTL on A05. These results contribute to the understanding of the genetics of seed quality and seeding vigor in B. rapa and can offer tools for Brassica breeding. PMID:26648948

  9. Seed thioredoxin h.

    PubMed

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki; Shahpiri, Azar; Buchanan, Bob B; Henriksen, Anette; Svensson, Birte

    2016-08-01

    Thioredoxins are nearly ubiquitous disulfide reductases involved in a wide range of biochemical pathways in various biological systems, and also implicated in numerous biotechnological applications. Plants uniquely synthesize an array of thioredoxins targeted to different cell compartments, for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses on occurrence, reaction mechanisms, specificity, target protein identification, three-dimensional structure and various applications. The aim is to provide a general background as well as an update covering the most recent findings. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. PMID:26876537

  10. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 Regulates the Accumulation of Seed Storage Reserves in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingxun; Zhang, Bin; Li, Chengxiang; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Chew, Fook Tim; Yu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Seed storage reserves mainly consist of starch, triacylglycerols, and storage proteins. They not only provide energy for seed germination and seedling establishment, but also supply essential dietary nutrients for human beings and animals. So far, the regulatory networks that govern the accumulation of seed storage reserves in plants are still largely unknown. Here, we show that TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), which encodes a WD40 repeat transcription factor involved in many aspects of plant development, plays an important role in mediating the accumulation of seed storage reserves in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The dry weight of ttg1-1 embryos significantly increases compared with that of wild-type embryos, which is accompanied by an increase in the contents of starch, total protein, and fatty acids in ttg1-1 seeds. FUSCA3 (FUS3), a master regulator of seed maturation, binds directly to the TTG1 genomic region and suppresses TTG1 expression in developing seeds. TTG1 negatively regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins partially through transcriptional repression of 2S3, a gene encoding a 2S albumin precursor. TTG1 also indirectly suppresses the expression of genes involved in either seed development or synthesis/modification of fatty acids in developing seeds. In addition, we demonstrate that the maternal allele of the TTG1 gene suppresses the accumulation of storage proteins and fatty acids in seeds. Our results suggest that TTG1 is a direct target of FUS3 in the framework of the regulatory hierarchy controlling seed filling and regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins and fatty acids during the seed maturation process. PMID:26152712

  11. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 Regulates the Accumulation of Seed Storage Reserves in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingxun; Zhang, Bin; Li, Chengxiang; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Chew, Fook Tim; Yu, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Seed storage reserves mainly consist of starch, triacylglycerols, and storage proteins. They not only provide energy for seed germination and seedling establishment, but also supply essential dietary nutrients for human beings and animals. So far, the regulatory networks that govern the accumulation of seed storage reserves in plants are still largely unknown. Here, we show that TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), which encodes a WD40 repeat transcription factor involved in many aspects of plant development, plays an important role in mediating the accumulation of seed storage reserves in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The dry weight of ttg1-1 embryos significantly increases compared with that of wild-type embryos, which is accompanied by an increase in the contents of starch, total protein, and fatty acids in ttg1-1 seeds. FUSCA3 (FUS3), a master regulator of seed maturation, binds directly to the TTG1 genomic region and suppresses TTG1 expression in developing seeds. TTG1 negatively regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins partially through transcriptional repression of 2S3, a gene encoding a 2S albumin precursor. TTG1 also indirectly suppresses the expression of genes involved in either seed development or synthesis/modification of fatty acids in developing seeds. In addition, we demonstrate that the maternal allele of the TTG1 gene suppresses the accumulation of storage proteins and fatty acids in seeds. Our results suggest that TTG1 is a direct target of FUS3 in the framework of the regulatory hierarchy controlling seed filling and regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins and fatty acids during the seed maturation process. PMID:26152712

  12. Inter-annual variation in characteristics of endozoochory by wild Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato

    2014-01-01

    Endozoochory is important to the dynamics and regeneration of forest ecosystems. Despite the universality of inter-annual variation in fruit production, few studies have addressed the sign (seed predation versus seed dispersal) and strength (frequency and quantity) of fruit-frugivore interaction and the effectiveness of endozoochory in response to the long-term temporal context. In this study I evaluated the characteristics of endozoochorous dispersal by wild Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata inhabiting deciduous forest in northern Japan for five different years. I collected 378 fecal samples from the macaques in fall (September to November) and quantified the proportion of feces containing seeds, number of seeds per fecal sample, ratio of intact seeds, and seed diversity. The proportion of feces containing seeds of any species (five-year mean: 85.9%, range: 78-97%) did not show significant inter-annual variation, while species-level proportions did. The intact ratio of seeds (mean: 83%, range: 61-98%) varied significantly both between years and between months, and this varied among dominant plant species. The number of seeds per fecal sample (mean: 78, range: 32-102) varied monthly but did not between years, and the seed diversity (mean: 0.66, range: 0.57-0.81) did not show significant inter-annual variation, both of which were attributed to longer duration of macaques' gastro-intestinal passage time of seeds exceed their feeding bouts. This study demonstrated that frequency and success of seed dispersal over seed predation of macaque endozoochory showed inter-annual variation, indicating low specificity across the seed-macaque network. The temporal variability in the quality of seed dispersal may provide evidence of high resilience in response to fluctuating environmental conditions in the temperate forests. PMID:25272286

  13. 14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum allowable weights. 375.23 Section... Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...

  14. 14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum allowable weights. 375.23 Section... Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...

  15. Seed-to-seed-to-seed growth and development of Arabidopsis in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Link, Bruce M; Busse, James S; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2014-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves. PMID:25317938

  16. Seed-to-Seed-to-Seed Growth and Development of Arabidopsis in Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bruce M.; Busse, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves. Key Words: Arabidopsis—Branch—Inflorescence—Microgravity—Morphology—Seed—Space. Astrobiology 14, 866–875. PMID:25317938

  17. S-SEED Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-11-21

    This code simulates the transient response of two self-electrooptic-effect devices (SEEDs) connected in series to form an S-SEED pair as used in all-optical high-speed switching. Both optical beam propagation and carrier motion is assumed to be normal to the epi plane, so the code is inherently 1D in nature. For each SEED, an optical input in W/cm**2 is specified as a function of time (usually a step function input). The signal is absorbed during amore » double pass through the intrinsic region, with a spatially-dependent absorption coefficient that is dependent on the transient local electric field. This absorption generates electron-hole pairs that then contribute to the device current, and a transient optical output is predicted. Carriers in the semiconductor layers are generated through thermal excitation or optical absorption, move under the action of diffusion and self-consistent electric fields updated at each time step by a 1D Poisson solver, and recombine at density-dependent rates. The different epi layers are independently specified by position, thickness, doping type and density, and thus space charge effects and junction capacitance are included automatically.« less

  18. Determination and toxicity of saponins from Amaranthus cruentus seeds.

    PubMed

    Oleszek, W; Junkuszew, M; Stochmal, A

    1999-09-01

    The concentrations of four triterpene saponins present in amaranth seeds were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. It was shown that the total concentration of saponins in seeds was 0. 09-0.1% of dry matter. In germinating seeds an increase in concentration to 0.18% was observed after 4 days of germination, which remained stable for the next 3 days and later dropped to 0.09%. Highly purified extracts from the seeds were tested for their toxicity against hamsters. The hydrophobic fraction obtained by the extraction of seeds with methylene chloride showed no toxicity; the behavior of tested animals was similar to that of the group given an equivalent dose of rapeseed oil. A crude saponin fraction, containing approximately 70% of pure saponins in the matrix, showed some toxicity; the approximate lethal dose was calculated as 1100 mg/kg of body weight. It is concluded that low contents of saponins in amaranth seeds and their relatively low toxicity guarantee that amaranth-derived products create no significant hazard for the consumer. PMID:10552705

  19. Variation of the Side Chain Branch Position Leads to Vastly Improved Molecular Weight and OPV Performance in 4,8-dialkoxybenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene/2,1,3-benzothiadiazole Copolymers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Coffin, Robert C.; MacNeill, Christopher M.; Peterson, Eric D.; Ward, Jeremy W.; Owen, Jack W.; McLellan, Claire A.; Smith, Gregory M.; Noftle, Ronald E.; Jurchescu, Oana D.; Carroll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Tmore » hrough manipulation of the solubilizing side chains, we were able to dramatically improve the molecular weight ( M w ) of 4,8-dialkoxybenzo[1,2- b :4,5- b ′ ]dithiophene (BDT)/2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BT) copolymers. When dodecyl side chains ( P1 ) are employed at the 4- and 8-positions of the BDT unit, we obtain a chloroform-soluble copolymer fraction with M w of 6.3 kg/mol. Surprisingly, by moving to the commonly employed 2-ethylhexyl branch ( P2 ), M w decreases to 3.4 kg/mol.his is despite numerous reports that this side chain increases solubility and M w . By moving the ethyl branch in one position relative to the polymer backbone (1-ethylhexyl, P3 ), M w is dramatically increased to 68.8 kg/mol. As a result of this M w increase, the shape of the absorption profile is dramatically altered, with λ max = 637 nm compared with 598 nm for P1 and 579 nm for P2 .he hole mobility as determined by thin film transistor (TFT) measurements is improved from ~ 1 × 10 − 6  cm 2 /Vs for P1 and P2 to 7 × 10 − 4  cm 2 /Vs for P3 , while solar cell power conversion efficiency in increased to 2.91 % for P3 relative to 0.31 % and 0.19 % for P1 and P2 , respectively.« less

  20. Isolation of nuclear proteins from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed coats for gene expression regulation studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While seed biology is well characterized and numerous studies have focused on this subject over the past years, the regulation of seed coat development and metabolism is for the most part still non-elucidated. It is well known that the seed coat has an essential role in seed development and its features are associated with important agronomical traits. It also constitutes a rich source of valuable compounds such as pharmaceuticals. Most of the cell genetic material is contained in the nucleus; therefore nuclear proteins constitute a major actor for gene expression regulation. Isolation of nuclear proteins responsible for specific seed coat expression is an important prerequisite for understanding seed coat metabolism and development. The extraction of nuclear proteins may be problematic due to the presence of specific components that can interfere with the extraction process. The seed coat is a rich source of mucilage and phenolics, which are good examples of these hindering compounds. Findings In the present study, we propose an optimized nuclear protein extraction protocol able to provide nuclear proteins from flax seed coat without contaminants and sufficient yield and quality for their use in transcriptional gene expression regulation by gel shift experiments. Conclusions Routinely, around 250 μg of nuclear proteins per gram of fresh weight were extracted from immature flax seed coats. The isolation protocol described hereafter may serve as an effective tool for gene expression regulation and seed coat-focused proteomics studies. PMID:22230709

  1. Biochemical and biophysical changes associated with magnetopriming in germinating cucumber seeds.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Jyotsna; Anand, Anjali; Nagarajan, Shantha

    2012-08-01

    Seeds of cucumber were exposed to static magnetic field strength from 100 to 250 mT for 1, 2 or 3 h. Germination-percentage, rate of germination, length of seedling and dry weight increased by 18.5, 49, 34 and 33% respectively in magnetoprimed seeds compared to unexposed seeds. Among different magnetic field doses, 200 mT for 1 h showed significant effect on germination parameters and hence selected for studying changes in water uptake, (1)H transverse relaxation time (T(2)), hydrolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzyme system in germinating seeds. Water uptake and T(2) values were significantly higher in treated seeds during imbibition. The activities of hydrolytic enzymes, amylase and protease were greater than the untreated controls by 51% and 13% respectively. Superoxide radicals also enhanced by 40% and hydrogen peroxide by 8% in magnetically exposed seeds. In magetoprimed seeds, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (8%), catalase (83%) and glutathione reductase (77%) over control was recorded. We report that magnetopriming of dry seeds can be effectively used as a pre-sowing treatment for seed invigoration in cucumber. Unlike other priming treatments seed is not required to be dehydrated after priming, allowing easy storage. PMID:22683465

  2. Sunflower seed allergy.

    PubMed

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients' IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient's anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  3. Differences in seed rain composition in small and large fragments in the northeast Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Knörr, U C; Gottsberger, G

    2012-09-01

    Tropical forests are seriously threatened by fragmentation and habitat loss. The impact of fragment size and forest configuration on the composition of seed rain is insufficiently studied. For the present study, seed rain composition of small and large forest fragments (8-388 ha) was assessed in order to identify variations in seed abundance, species richness, seed size and dispersal mode. Seed rain was documented during a 1-year period in three large and four small Atlantic Forest fragments that are isolated by a sugarcane matrix. Total seed rain included 20,518 seeds of 149 species of trees, shrubs, palms, lianas and herbs. Most species and seeds were animal-dispersed. A significant difference in the proportion of seeds and species within different categories of seed size was found between small and large fragments. Small fragments received significantly more very small-sized seeds (<0.3 cm) and less large-seeded species (>1.5 cm) that were generally very rare, with only one species in small and eight in large fragments. We found a negative correlation between the inflow of small-sized seeds and the percentage of forest cover. Species richness was lower in small than in large fragments, but the difference was not very pronounced. Given our results, we propose changing plant species pools through logging, tree mortality and a high inflow of pioneer species and lianas, especially in small forest fragments and areas with low forest cover. Connecting forest fragments through corridors and reforestation with local large-seeded tree species may facilitate the maintenance of species diversity. PMID:22372687

  4. Effect of Electron Seeding on Experimentally Measured Multipactor Discharge Threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noland, Jonathan; Graves, Timothy; Lemon, Colby; Looper, Mark; Farkas, Alex

    2012-10-01

    Multipactor is a vacuum phenomenon in which electrons, moving in resonance with an externally applied electric field, impact material surfaces. If the number of secondary electrons created per primary electron impact averages more than unity, the resonant interaction can lead to an electron avalanche. Multipactor is a generally undesirable phenomenon, as it can cause local heating, absorb power, or cause detuning of RF circuits. In order to increase the probability of multipactor initiation, test facilities often employ various seeding sources such as radioactive sources (Cesium 137, Strontium 90), electron guns, or photon sources. Even with these sources, the voltage for multipactor initiation is not certain as parameters such as material type, RF pulse length, and device wall thickness can all affect seed electron flux and energy in critical gap regions, and hence the measured voltage threshold. This study investigates the effects of seed electron source type (e.g., photons versus beta particles), material type, gap size, and RF pulse length variation on multipactor threshold. In addition to the experimental work, GEANT4 simulations will be used to estimate the production rate of low energy electrons (< 5 keV) by high energy electrons and photons. A comparison of the experimental fluxes to the typical energetic photon and particle fluxes experienced by spacecraft in various orbits will also be made. Initial results indicate that for a simple, parallel plate device made of aluminum, there is no threshold variation (with seed electrons versus with no seed electrons) under continuous-wave RF exposure.

  5. Seeds, browse, and tooth wear: a sheep perspective.

    PubMed

    Ramdarshan, Anusha; Blondel, Cécile; Brunetière, Noël; Francisco, Arthur; Gautier, Denis; Surault, Jérôme; Merceron, Gildas

    2016-08-01

    While grazing as a selective factor towards hypsodont dentition on mammals has gained a lot of attention, the importance of fruits and seeds as fallback resources for many browsing ungulates has caught much less attention. Controlled-food experiments, by reducing the dietary range, allow for a direct quantification of the effect of each type of items separately on enamel abrasion. We present the results of a dental microwear texture analysis on 40 ewes clustered into four different controlled diets: clover alone, and then three diets composed of clover together with either barley, corn, or chestnuts. Among the seed-eating groups, only the barley one shows higher complexity than the seed-free group. Canonical discriminant analysis is successful at correctly classifying the majority of clover- and seed-fed ewes. Although this study focuses on diets which all fall within a single dietary category (browse), the groups show variations in dental microwear textures in relation with the presence and the type of seeds. More than a matter of seed size and hardness, a high amount of kernels ingested per day is found to be correlated with high complexity on enamel molar facets. This highlights the high variability of the physical properties of the foods falling under the browsing umbrella. PMID:27547337

  6. Phenotypic and Transcriptional Analysis of Divergently Selected Maize Populations Reveals the Role of Developmental Timing in Seed Size Determination1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Hirsch, Candice N.; Childs, Kevin L.; Breitzman, Matthew W.; Kell, Paul; Duvick, Susan; Spalding, Edgar P.; Buell, C. Robin; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.

    2014-01-01

    Seed size is a component of grain yield and an important trait in crop domestication. To understand the mechanisms governing seed size in maize (Zea mays), we examined transcriptional and developmental changes during seed development in populations divergently selected for large and small seed size from Krug, a yellow dent maize cultivar. After 30 cycles of selection, seeds of the large seed population (KLS30) have a 4.7-fold greater weight and a 2.6-fold larger size compared with the small seed population (KSS30). Patterns of seed weight accumulation from the time of pollination through 30 d of grain filling showed an earlier onset, slower rate, and earlier termination of grain filling in KSS30 relative to KLS30. This was further supported by transcriptome patterns in seeds from the populations and derived inbreds. Although the onset of key genes was earlier in small seeds, similar maximum transcription levels were observed in large seeds at later stages, suggesting that functionally weaker alleles, rather than transcript abundance, may be the basis of the slow rate of seed filling in KSS30. Gene coexpression networks identified several known genes controlling cellularization and proliferation as well as novel genes that will be useful candidates for biotechnological approaches aimed at altering seed size in maize and other cereals. PMID:24710068

  7. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape. PMID:18780144

  8. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  9. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  10. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... below the minimum number of calories you need. Breastfeeding If you are breastfeeding, you will want to lose weight slowly. Weight ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you ...

  11. Weighted network modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Illés; Ábel, Dániel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás

    2007-06-01

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos Rényi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs.

  12. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine released updated guidelines for weight gain ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the ...

  13. Watching Your Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity shared at an inservice teacher workshop and suitable for middle school in which students predict their ideal weight in kilograms based on tables giving ideal weights for given heights. (MDH)

  14. The mechanical defence advantage of small seeds.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Evan C; Wright, S Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Seed size and toughness affect seed predators, and size-dependent investment in mechanical defence could affect relationships between seed size and predation. We tested how seed toughness and mechanical defence traits (tissue density and protective tissue content) are related to seed size among tropical forest species. Absolute toughness increased with seed size. However, smaller seeds had higher specific toughness both within and among species, with the smallest seeds requiring over 2000 times more energy per gram to break than the largest seeds. Investment in mechanical defence traits varied widely but independently of the toughness-mass allometry. Instead, a physical scaling relationship confers a toughness advantage on small seeds independent of selection on defence traits and without a direct cost. This scaling relationship may contribute to seed size diversity by decreasing fitness differences among large and small seeds. Allometric scaling of toughness reconciles predictions and conflicting empirical relationships between seed size and predation. PMID:27324185

  15. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  16. The Effect of Camellia Seed Oil Intake on Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    PubMed

    Satou, Tadaaki; Sato, Naoko; Kato, Haruyo; Kawamura, Mana; Watanabe, Sanae; Koike, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Camellia seed oil has mainly been applied to the production of cosmetics, and research into its dietary effects is required. Alterations in lipid metabolism by the intake of camellia seed oil were investigated. Health parameters such as diet intake, weight gain, fat mass, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in mice fed a high fat diet containing camellia seed oil; comparisons were made to a normal diet and a high fat diet containing either soybean oil or olive oil as controls. No significant differences in weight gain and diet intake were observed between the groups. However, the camellia seed oil diet suppressed epididymal fat weight similarly to the olive oil diet. In total cholesterol and HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels, the soybean oil, olive oil and camellia seed oil diet groups showed significant increases compared with the normal diet. However, increases in LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels were inhibited by the camellia seed oil diet similarly to the olive oil diet. As the high oleic acid content of camellia seed oil is similar to that of olive oil, it is proposed that its presence mitigated fat accumulation and plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:27396207

  17. Localisation and quantification of elements within seeds of Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox by micro-PIXE.

    PubMed

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Kump, Peter; Necemer, Marijan; Simcic, Jure; Pelicon, Primoz; Budnar, Milos; Povh, Bogdan; Regvar, Marjana

    2007-05-01

    Cd, Zn and Pb accumulation, spatial distribution within seeds and germinating seedlings, and seeds fitness of metal hyperaccumulating Thlaspi praecox were investigated in order to gain more knowledge on plant reproductive success at metal polluted sites. The seeds contained up to 1351 microg g-1 (dry weight) of Cd, 121 microg g-1 of Zn and 17 microg g-1 of Pb. Seed fitness was negatively influenced by seed Cd hyperaccumulation. Nevertheless, the viability of seeds was decreased by maximally 20%, indicating very efficient tolerance of the plant embryos to Cd. Localisation by micro-PIXE revealed preferential storage of most elements in the embryonic axis. Cd and Zn were preferentially localised in the epidermis of cotyledons. The restriction of seed Pb and Zn uptake and hyperaccumulation of Cd, accompanied by partitioning of Cd in the epidermal tissues of cotyledons, may enable the survival of T. praecox embryos and seedlings in Cd polluted environments. PMID:17070633

  18. Genetic analysis of phytosterol content in sunflower seeds.

    PubMed

    Merah, Othmane; Langlade, Nicolas; Alignan, Marion; Roche, Jane; Pouilly, Nicolas; Lippi, Yannick; Vear, Felicity; Cerny, Muriel; Bouniols, Andrée; Mouloungui, Zephirin; Vincourt, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Interest in phytosterol contents due to their potential benefits for human health has been largely documented in several crop species. Studies were focused mainly on total sterol content and their concentration or distribution in seed. This study aimed at providing new insight into the genetic control of total and individual sterol contents in sunflower seed through QTL analyses in a RIL population characterized over 2 years showing contrasted rainfall during seed filling. Results indicated that 13 regions on 9 linkage groups were involved in different phytosterol traits. Most of the QTL mapped were stable across years in spite of contrasted growing conditions. Some of them explained up to 30 % of phenotypic variation. Two QTL, located on LG10, near b1, and on LG14, were found to co-localize with QTL for oil content, indicating that likely, a part of the genetic variation for sterol content is only the result of genetic variation for oil content. However, three other QTL, stable over the 2 years, were found on LG1, LG4 and LG7 each associated with a particular class of sterols, suggesting that some enzymes known to be involved in the sterol metabolic pathway may determine the specificity of sterol profiles in sunflower seeds. These results suggest that it may be possible to introduce these traits as criteria in breeding programmes for quality in sunflower. The molecular markers linked to genetic factors controlling phytosterol contents could help selection during breeding programs. PMID:22824968

  19. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  20. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  1. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  2. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  3. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  4. Within canopy distribution of cotton seed N

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole cotton seeds can be an important component of dairy rations. Nitrogen content of the seed is an important determinant of the feed value of the seed. Efforts to increase the seed value as feed will be enhanced with knowledge of the range and distribution of seed N within the cotton crop. This s...

  5. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  6. Seed mucilage from Ipomoea dasysperma.

    PubMed

    Singh, V; Pandey, M; Srivastava, A; Srivastava, V

    2007-04-01

    A non-ionic water-soluble galactomannan, having galactose and mannose in 1:6 molar ratio, was isolated from endosperm of the seeds of Ipomoea dasysperma. The seed mucilage was found to have a structure having a linear chain of beta (1-->4) linked mannopyranosyl units with D-galactose side chains attached through alpha (1-->6) linkage to the main chain. I. dasysperma seed gum possesses non-ionic characteristics of commercial seed gums and has potential to be used in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:17346904

  7. Field performance of maize grown from Fusarium verticillioides-inoculated seed.

    PubMed

    Yates, I E; Widstrom, N W; Bacon, C W; Glenn, A; Hinton, D M; Sparks, D; Jaworski, A J

    2005-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is an important fungus occupying dual roles in the maize plant. The fungus functions as an endophyte, a fungal/host interaction beneficial to the growth of some plants. At other times, the fungus may function as a mycotoxin producing pathogen. The advantages and/or disadvantages of the endophytic relationship must be established in order to target appropriate sites for controlling diseases and mycotoxins in maize. One possibility could be to ensure seed maize is fungal free prior to planting. Reciprocal inoculations were made with two fungal isolates on seed of two maize genotypes. Yield was measured at harvest by ear and seed characters and vegetative growth at one-month intervals for plant survival, height, weight and stem diameter. Yield and vegetative growth differed among mature plants only once based on seed inoculation status. In 1998, plant weight was reduced and seed weight per ear was increased for the dent maize, GT-MAS: gk, grown from F. verticillioides RRC 374-inoculated seed compared to other seed treatments. Most vegetative characters were reduced at the first collection for Silver Queen plants grown from F. verticillioides-inoculated seed in 1997 and 1999, but not in 1998. However, no significant differences occurred among mature Silver Queen plants during any of the three growing seasons. In conclusion, yield and vegetative growth of mature maize plants grown from F. verticillioides-inoculated seed were equal to or greater than plants grown from non-inoculated seed under south Georgia field conditions during 1997, 1998, and 1999. PMID:15750733

  8. Body weight of hypersonic aircraft, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    The load bearing body weight of wing-body and all-body hypersonic aircraft is estimated for a wide variety of structural materials and geometries. Variations of weight with key design and configuration parameters are presented and discussed. Both hot and cool structure approaches are considered in isotropic, organic composite, and metal matrix composite materials; structural shells are sandwich or skin-stringer. Conformal and pillow-tank designs are investigated for the all-body shape. The results identify the most promising hypersonic aircraft body structure design approaches and their weight trends. Geometric definition of vehicle shapes and structural analysis methods are presented in appendices.

  9. Bromus tectorum: Variation in Seed Dormancy Among Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is an exotic invasive annual grass that has invaded millions of hectares of rangelands throughout the west. The introduction and invasion of cheatgrass has increased the chance, rate and spread of wildfires. Cheatgrass truncates secondary succession as it outcompetes nat...

  10. Inter-Annual Variation in Characteristics of Endozoochory by Wild Japanese Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Yamato

    2014-01-01

    Endozoochory is important to the dynamics and regeneration of forest ecosystems. Despite the universality of inter-annual variation in fruit production, few studies have addressed the sign (seed predation versus seed dispersal) and strength (frequency and quantity) of fruit-frugivore interaction and the effectiveness of endozoochory in response to the long-term temporal context. In this study I evaluated the characteristics of endozoochorous dispersal by wild Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata inhabiting deciduous forest in northern Japan for five different years. I collected 378 fecal samples from the macaques in fall (September to November) and quantified the proportion of feces containing seeds, number of seeds per fecal sample, ratio of intact seeds, and seed diversity. The proportion of feces containing seeds of any species (five-year mean: 85.9%, range: 78–97%) did not show significant inter-annual variation, while species-level proportions did. The intact ratio of seeds (mean: 83%, range: 61–98%) varied significantly both between years and between months, and this varied among dominant plant species. The number of seeds per fecal sample (mean: 78, range: 32–102) varied monthly but did not between years, and the seed diversity (mean: 0.66, range: 0.57–0.81) did not show significant inter-annual variation, both of which were attributed to longer duration of macaques’ gastro-intestinal passage time of seeds exceed their feeding bouts. This study demonstrated that frequency and success of seed dispersal over seed predation of macaque endozoochory showed inter-annual variation, indicating low specificity across the seed–macaque network. The temporal variability in the quality of seed dispersal may provide evidence of high resilience in response to fluctuating environmental conditions in the temperate forests. PMID:25272286

  11. The role of the persistent fruit wall in seed water regulation in Raphanus raphanistrum (Brassicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Cousens, Roger D.; Young, Kenneth R.; Tadayyon, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Dry fruits remain around the seeds at dispersal in a number of species, especially the Brassicaceae. Explanations for this vary, but usually involve mechanisms of innate dormancy. We speculate that, instead, a persistent fruit may give additional protection through control of dehydration, to species growing in arid or Mediterranean environments where water is sporadic. Methods X-rays and weight measurements were used to determine the extent to which Raphanus raphanistrum seeds within mature fruits imbibe water, and germination tests determined the roles of the fruit and seed coat in seed dormancy. Rates of water uptake and desiccation, and seedling emergence were compared with and without the fruit. Finally, germinability of seeds extracted from fruits was determined after various periods of moist conditions followed by a range of dry conditions. Key Results Most seeds rapidly take up water within the fruit, but they do not fully imbibe when compared with naked seeds. The seed coat is more important than the dry fruit wall in maintaining seed dormancy. The presence of a dry fruit slows emergence from the soil by up to 6–8 weeks. The fruit slows the rate of desiccation of the seed to a limited extent. The presence of the fruit for a few days during imbibition somehow primes more seeds to germinate than if the fruit is absent; longer moist periods within the pod appear to induce dormancy. Conclusions The fruit certainly modifies the seed environment as external conditions change between wet and dry, but not to a great extent. The major role seems to be: (a) the physical restriction of imbibition and germination; and (b) the release and then re-imposition of dormancy within the seed. The ecological significance of the results requires more research under field conditions. PMID:19889801

  12. Kriging without negative weights

    SciTech Connect

    Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

    1987-08-01

    Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

  13. Structural weight analysis of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    The weights of major structural components of hypersonic, liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft are estimated and discussed. The major components are the body structure, body thermal protection system tankage and wing structure. The method of estimating body structure weight is presented in detail while the weights of the other components are estimated by methods given in referenced papers. Two nominal vehicle concepts are considered. The advanced concept employs a wing-body configuration and hot structure with a nonintegral tank, while the potential concept employs an all body configuration and cold, integral pillow tankage structure. Characteristics of these two concepts are discussed and parametric data relating their weight fractions to variations in vehicle shape and size design criteria and mission requirements, and structural arrangement are presented. Although the potential concept is shown to have a weight advantage over the advanced, it involves more design uncertainties since it is farther removed in design from existing aircraft.

  14. The role of exercise in weight loss.

    PubMed

    Blix, G G; Blix, A G

    1995-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has traditionally been viewed as a critical component of most weight-reduction programs. The resulting weight loss from the exercise alone, however, is often disappointing. Researchers too frequently fail to take into account the normal energy expenditure associated with living; the degree of obesity; the intensity and duration of the exercise itself; the activity during the recovery period; food intake before and after the exercise; and the age, gender, and training status of the individuals. Nor do they consider variations in baseline resting metabolic rates. In this article, the authors explore the effect of the intensity of aerobic exercise on weight loss, emphasizing the inability of many obese individuals to maintain an intensity level sufficient to produce significant weight loss. Aerobic exercise should be emphasized for its health benefits rather than as a short-term method of enhancing weight loss. PMID:7579773

  15. Seed-cotton Cleaning Effects on Seed Coat Fragments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing problems in textile mills have been linked to seed coat fragments (SCF), so cotton ginning facilities should take steps to prevent them from forming. The objective of this experiment was to determine if the use of seed-cotton cleaners prior to the extractor-feeder/gin stand caused increa...

  16. Seed to Seed, The Secret Life of Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a book review of "Seed to Seed, The Secret Life of Plants", by Nicholas Harberd. The book is a diary of ruminations/introspections about plant development and about the main research topic of Nick Harberd’s laboratory. His intended audience is initially nonscientists; many of the explanation...

  17. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  18. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  19. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  20. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...