Kunugi, Tomoaki; Pham, Son; Kawara, Zensaku; Yokomine, Takehiko
The annular two-phase flow on rod bundle keeps an important role in many heat exchange systems but our knowledge about it, especially the interaction between the liquid film flowing on the rods' surfaces and the spacers is very limited. This study is aimed to the investigation of how the spacer affects the disturbance waves of the flow in a 3 × 3 simulating BWR fuel rod bundle test section. Firstly, the characteristics of the disturbance waves at both upstream and downstream locations of the spacer were obtained by using reflected light arrangement with a high speed camera Phantom V7.1 (Vision Research Inc.) and a Nikon macro lens 105mm f/2.8. The data showed that the parameters such as frequency and circumferential coherence of the disturbance waves are strongly modified when they go through the spacer. Then, the observations at the locations right before and after the spacer were performed by using the back light arrangement with the same high speed camera and a Cassegrain optical system (Seika Cooperation). The obtained images at micro-scale of time and space provided the descriptions of the wavy interface behaviors right before and after the spacer as well as different droplets creation processes caused by the presence of this spacer.
Frequently used in a pejorative sense, "disease mongering" connotes a widening of the diagnostic boundaries of illness. Pharmaceutical companies conduct disease awareness campaigns on the pretext of educating the public about the prevention of illness or the promotion of health. Encouraged by disease awareness advertisements, people gradually become filled with concern that they are ill and need medical treatment. As a result, pharmacotherapy is increasingly being applied to ever-milder conditions, leading to potentially unnecessary medication, wasted resources, and even adverse side effects. Among all fields of clinical medicine, psychiatry is undoubtedly the most vulnerable to the danger of disease mongering. In Japan, depression provides the most drastic example of the impact of disease awareness campaigns on the number of patients seeking treatment. Until the late 1990s, Japanese psychiatrists focused almost exclusively on psychosis and endogenous depression, the latter being severe enough to require conventional forms of antidepressants, known as tricyclic antidepressants, and even hospitalization. At this time, people's attitude toward depression was generally unfavorable. Indeed, the Japanese word for clinical depression, utubyo, has a negative connotation, implying severe mental illness. This situation, however, changed immediately after fluvoxiamine (Luvox-Fujisawa, Depromel-Meiji Seika), the first selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) to receive approval in Japan, was introduced in 1999. In order to aid the drug's acceptance by the Japanese public, pharmaceutical companies began using the catchphrase kokoro no kaze, which literally means "a cold of the soul". Thus armed with this phrase, the pharmaceutical industry embarked on a campaign to lessen the stigma surrounding depression. According to national data from the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the number of patients with a diagnosis of mood disorder increased from 327,000 in 1999 to 591