Science.gov

Sample records for seis anos estudo

  1. SEI: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, Lewis L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An update on the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include the key prerequisites of human exploration, project planning, Mars and lunar explorations, supporting technologies, near-term strategies for SEI, human support elements, and Space Station Freedom SEI accommodations.

  2. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE (SEI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) is a federally funded research and development center established in 1984 by the U.S. Department of Defense and operated by Carnegie Mellon University. SEI has a broad charter to provide leadership in the practice of software engineering t...

  3. Third SEI Technical Interchange: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Given here are the proceedings of the 3rd Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Technical Interchange. Topics covered include the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), the Lunar Resource Mapper, lunar rovers, lunar habitat concepts, lunar shelter construction analysis, thermoelectric nuclear power systems for SEI, cryogenic storage, a space network for lunar communications, the moon as a solar power satellite, and off-the-shelf avionics for future SEI missions.

  4. Mars SEIS Experiment : Development Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schibler, P.; Mimoun, D.; Lognonne, P.; Giardini, D.; Pike, W. T.; Banerdt, B.

    2006-12-01

    The objective of the Mars SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars. In particular, geophysical parameters of first importance, such as the state (liquid/solid) and size of the core, as far as structure of the mantle and shape of discontinuities will be determined by the experience. The instrument integrates a Very Broad Band two axis seismometer, completed by a third axis short period seismometer, and environmental sensors for pressure, infrasounds and temperature. The sensors measure signals in an ultra-broad band, from the tidal frequencies (0.05 mHz) up to the short period frequencies (50 Hz). Long term VBB bias will be actively decorrelated from temperature and pressure variations, allowing the sensor to operate in a thermal environment with daily variations of about 40 °K. Infrasounds, which might be associated to dust devils and atmospheric discharge, will be also monitored. The overall mass of the SEIS instrument is under 2 kg, including all sensors, data control processors and installation devices. Acquisition will be performed by a series of 24 bits A/D converters, while the thermal and drift control will be performed by a feedback generated by a 24 bits D/A converter. We are currently at the end of the B phase, with a breadboard of the VBB axis already delivered by industry (EADS-Sodern). Most critical parts have been tested, including shock tests (200g, 20 ms) for pivot, electronics components and displacement sensors. The electronics breadboard has also been delivered and was under extensive performance tests at ETH facilities. The Sphere (phase B Breadboard), including the two VBB axis, has been delivered by industry (EADS-Sodern). Structural and Thermal Model (STM) of Sphere has been delivered at the end of 2005. Full seismic calibration and environmental tests are planned in 2007. Preliminary and functional results are satisfying and noise optimization is under process. Preliminary noise results are encouraging. Tests at lab in seismic vault show that the instrumental noise is equivalent to standard terrestrial seismometers. The SEIS is one of the core instruments of the Geophysical and Environment Package (GEP) included in the baseline of ExoMars mission which has been approved by ESA, with a launching planned in 2011. The idea for the GEP and SEIS is also to built progressively a network on Mars, for several martian years of operation by participating to other NASA missions (2011 and later).

  5. The GEMS-2 SEIS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillier, S.; De Raucourt, S.; Mimoun, D.; Lognonne, P.; Giardini, D.; Christensen, U. R.; Pike, W. T.; Banerdt, B.; Laudet, P.; Kerjean, L.; Hurst, K. J.; Zweifel, P.; Mance, D.; Roll, R.; Bierwirth, M.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Nibut, T.; Robert, O.; Gabsi, T.; Pot, O.; Lecomte, B.; Schibler, P.; Mocquet, A.; Garcia, R.

    2011-12-01

    The SEIS experiment is the primary payload of the Geophysical Monitoring Station (GEMS) Mission Proposal, submitted to NASA in the frame of the 2010 Discovery program, and recently selected for the phase A study. The objective of the GEMS SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars. In particular, geophysical parameters of first importance, such as the state (liquid/solid) and size of the core, as well as structure of the mantle and shape of discontinuities will be determined by the experiment. It will measure seismic activity in a very broad band of signal, from the tidal frequencies (0.05 mHz) up to the short period frequencies (50 Hz), to address the widest range of scientific questions, from the state of the inner core to the meteoritic rate measurement. Infrasound, which might be associated to dust devils and atmospheric discharge, will be also monitored. The instrument integrates a Very Broad Band (VBB) 3 axis seismometer, completed by another trihedron of MEMS short period seismometers, environmental sensors for pressure, wind and temperature, and an infrasound sensor is additionally considered. The sensors will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm from the Phoenix lander platform and protected by a wind and thermal shield. The sensor assembly, which contains all seismic sensors, the leveling system, as well as house-keeping and temperature measurements, will be deployed on the soil in order to allow the best possible mechanical coupling with the ground motion. Thanks to the wind and thermal shield, together with the sensors' specific containers (vacuum sphere for VBBs), long term VBB bias will be protected from both temperature and pressure variations (as well as passively compensated), allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment. A dedicated electronics will manage the overall experiment and ultra-low noise, space qualified 24 bits A/D converters will perform the acquisition. The overall mass of the SEIS instrument is about 9.6 kg, including all sensors, data control processors and installation devices, while power consumption is not exceeding 2W. The proposed instrument has been developed up to PDR in the frame of the ExoMars Humbold payload, and further developments were achieved in the frame of the Japanese SELENE2 project. Most critical parts have been tested, including shock tests for pivots, electronics components and displacement sensors. TRL 6 is expected at the end of 2011. The GEMS phase A will end by March 2012, and the final NASA continuation decision is due in June 2012. GEMS is planned to be launched in 2016.

  6. The GEMS-2 Seis Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoun, D.; de Raucourt, S.; Lognonne, P.; Giardini, D.; Christensen, U. R.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Pike, T.; Nebut, T.; Tillier, S.; Robert, O.; Gabsi, T.; Pot, O.; Lecomte, B.; Escande, N.; Mocquet, A.; Zweifel, P.; Mance, D.; Roll, R.; Bierwirth, M.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the Mars SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars. In particular, geophysical parameters of first importance, such as the state (liquid/solid) and size of the core, as far as structure of the mantle and shape of discontinuities will be determined by the experience. It will measure seismic activity in a very broad band of signal, from the tidal frequencies (0.05 mHz) up to the short period frequencies (50 Hz), to address the widest range of scientific questions, from the state of the inner core to the meteoritic rate measurement. The instrument integrates a Very Broad Band 3 axis seismometer, completed by another trihedron of MEMS short period seismometers, and environmental sensors for pressure, wind and temperature. The sensors will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm and protected by a wind and thermal shield. Long term VBB bias will be protected from both temperature and pressure variations (as well as passively compensated), allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment. The sensor assembly, which contains all seismic sensors, as well as house-keeping and temperature measurements, will be deployed on the ground, in order to allow the best possible mechanical coupling. Infrasound, which might be associated to dust devils and atmospheric discharge, will be also monitored. The overall mass of the SEIS instrument is about 6 kg, including all sensors, data control processors and installation devices. A dedicated electronics will manage the overall experiment and ultra-low noise, space qualified 24 bits A/D converters will perform the acquisition. The instrument operation is designed to be very simple. It will operate in a “deploy and forget” strategy (with a deployment and closely monitored during the first month however) uploading data and events of interests at each pass of the relay satellite. When relay is not available, the data will be stored on-board. The upload of data will be made on the basis of raw compressed data, plus an excerpt of the high frequency events of the day. The proposed instrument has been developed up to PDR in the frame of the ExoMars Humbold payload. Most critical parts have been tested, including shock tests for pivot, electronics components and displacement sensors. TRL 6 is expected at the end of 2011. SEIS has been proposed onboard the GEMS Mission Proposal, submitted to NASA in the frame of the 2010 Discovery AO.

  7. The INSIGHT SEIS VBB Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillier, S.; De Raucourt, S.; Lognonne, P. H.; Banerdt, B.; Mimoun, D.; Giardini, D.; Christensen, U. R.; Pike, W. T.; Zweifel, P.; Mance, D.; Bierwirth, M.; Laudet, P.; Perez, R.; Kerjean, L.; Hurst, K. J.; Mocquet, A.; Garcia, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    The SEIS experiment is the primary payload of the Interior Structure investigation using Seismology and Heat Transport (INSIGHT) Mission Proposal, submitted to NASA in the frame of the 2010 Discovery program, and selected for a competitive phase A study, together with two other projects. The objective of the INSIGHT SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars. In particular, geophysical parameters of first importance, such as the state (liquid/solid) and size of the core, structure of the mantle, shape of discontinuities, thickness of the crust will be determined by the experiment. It will measure seismic activity in a very broad band of signal, from the tidal frequencies (0.05 mHz) up to the short period frequencies (50 Hz), to address the widest range of scientific questions, from the state of the core to the meteoritic impact and quake rates. The instrument integrates a Very Broad Band (VBB) 3 axis seismometer, completed by another trihedron of MEMS short period seismometers, environmental sensors for pressure, wind and temperature, The sensors will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm from a Phoenix-type lander platform and protected by a wind and thermal shield. The sensor assembly, which contains all seismic sensors, the leveling system, as well as house-keeping and temperature measurements, will be deployed on the soil in order to allow the best possible mechanical coupling with the ground motion. The wind and thermal shield, the sensors' specific containers (vacuum sphere for VBBs) and a passive thermal compensation system will achieve a very high protection of the VBB against temperature and pressure variations, allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment while reaching a deection threshold below 10-9 ms-2 Hz-1/2 in the VBB bandwidth. A dedicated electronics will manage the overall experiment and ultra-low noise, space qualified 24 bits A/D converters will perform the acquisition. The proposed instrument has been developed up to PDR in the frame of the ExoMars Humbold payload in 2009, and further developments were achieved in the frame of the Japanese SELENE2 project and the phase A of the INSIGHT project. During the INSIGHT Phase A, Tests of the Earth version of the VBB have been performed in either low noise seismic vault, in the Black Forest Observatory, or in more realistic conditions under wind and thermal shield at the Reunion Island. Most critical parts have been thoroughly tested, and the qualification models are ready to be produced in case of selection. The INSIGHT phase A has ended in March 2012, and the final NASA continuation decision is due in August 2012. If selected, INSIGHT will be launched in 2016.

  8. The SEIS Experiment: A Mars Seismic Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schibler, P.; Lognonne, P.; Giardini, D.; Banerdt, B.; Karczewski, J. F.; Mimoun, D.; Zweifel, P.; Pike, T.; Ammann, J.; Anglade, A.

    2003-01-01

    This experiment will integrate a VBB (Very Broad Band) two axis seismometer, a three axis Short Period seismometer and a series of environmental sensors for pressure, infra-sounds and temperature. IPGP (France) has the overall responsibility of the experiment and is responsible for the VBB and environmental sensors. ETHZ (Switzerland) is responsible for the electronics of the experiment and JPL (USA) for the SP (Short Period) sensors. SEIS instrument was first proposed and accepted for NetLander mission (and will also be in charge of data acquisition for SPICE experiment). This seismic package should also be proposed for future missions.

  9. LLNL contributions to MPD thrusters for SEI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, Edwin Bickford

    1991-01-01

    Some of the topics covered with respect to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) contributions to Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) Thrusters for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) include: an IR camera, plasma-induced erosion/redeposition, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B), the Thruster Lifetime Test Facility, the RACE Compact Torus Accelerator Facility, and a RACE program summary. Some of the other topics addressed include: flux contours for HAM simulation, comparison of RACE data of plasma ring formation with the HAM 2-D magnetohydrodynamic code, and the 2-D Ring Acceleration Code (TRAC).

  10. The Mars SEIS Experiment : First Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schibler, P.; Mimoun, D.; Lognonne, P.; Giardini, D.; Banerdt, B.; Zweifel, P.

    2005-12-01

    The objective of the Mars SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars. In particular, geophysical parameters of first importance, such as the state (liquid/solid) and size of the core, as far as structure of the mantle and shape of discontinuities will be determined by the experience. The experiment integrates a Very Broad Band 2 axis seismometer, a 3 axis short period seismometer and environmental sensors for pressure, infrasounds and temperature. The sensors measure signals in an ultra-broad band, from the tidal frequencies (0.05 mHz) up to the short period frequencies (50 Hz). Long term VBB bias will be actively decorrelated from temperature and pressure variations, allowing the sensor to operate in a thermal environment with daily variations of about 40°K Infrasounds, which might be associated to dust devils and atmospheric discharge, will be also monitored. The overall mass of the SEIS experiment is 2.3 kg, including all sensors, data control processors and installation devices. Acquisition will be performed by a series of 24 bits A/D converters, while the thermal and drift control will be performed by a feedback generated by a 24 bits D/A converter. We are currently at the end of the B phase, with a breadboard of the VBB axis already delivered by industry (EADS-Sodern) in July 2004. Most critical parts have been tested, including shock tests (200g, 20 ms) for pivot, electronics components and displacement sensors. The electronics breadboard has also been delivered and was under extensive performance tests at ETH facilities. The Sphere (phase B Breadboard), including the 2 VBB axis, has be delivered by industry (EADS-Sodern) at summer 2005. Structural and Thermal Model (STM) of Sphere will be be delivered at the end of 2005. Full Seismic calibration and environmental tests are planned beginning 2006. Preliminary results: Functional results are satisfying and noise optimization is under process. Preliminary noise results are encouraging. We expect to demonstrate that we have reached the STS2 noise level in the incoming monthes The SEIS is one of the core instruments of the former Netlander mission, which objective is to deploy a network of 4 stations on Mars for one Martian year of operation. This design allows also an implementation under the form of a ``geophysical package'' to be dropped on Mars by other Martian missions (NASA or ESA), in 2011 for instance.

  11. The Mars SEIS experiment:: first tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schibler, P.; Mimoun, D.; Lognonne, P.; Giardini, D.; Pike, W. T.; Mars Seis Team

    The objective of the Mars SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars In particular geophysical parameters of first importance such as the state liquid solid and size of the core as far as structure of the mantle and shape of discontinuities will be determined by the experience The instrument integrates a Very Broad Band two axis seismometer completed by a third axis short period seismometer and environmental sensors for pressure infrasounds and temperature The sensors measure signals in an ultra-broad band from the tidal frequencies 0 05 mHz up to the short period frequencies 50 Hz Long term VBB bias will be actively decorrelated from temperature and pressure variations allowing the sensor to operate in a thermal environment with daily variations of about 40 oK Infrasounds which might be associated to dust devils and atmospheric discharge will be also monitored The overall mass of the SEIS instrument is 2 3 kg including all sensors data control processors and installation devices Acquisition will be performed by a series of 24 bits A D converters while the thermal and drift control will be performed by a feedback generated by a 24 bits D A converter We are currently at the end of the B phase with a breadboard of the VBB axis already delivered by industry EADS-Sodern in July 2004 Most critical parts have been tested including shock tests 200g 20 ms for pivot electronics components and displacement sensors The electronics breadboard has also been delivered and was under extensive performance tests at ETH

  12. Evaluation of the SEI using a multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry model

    SciTech Connect

    Dufek, Eric J.

    2014-08-28

    A multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) model has been developed to characterize SEI formation. The model, which consists of two Cauchy layers, is constructed with an inner layer meant to model primarily inorganic compounds adjacent to an electrode and an outer layer which mirrors polymeric, organic constituents on the exterior of the SEI. Comparison of 1:1 EC:EMC and 1:4 EC:EMC with 1.0 M LiPF₆ shows distinct differences in the two modeled layers. The data suggest that the thickness of both layers change over a wide potential range. These changes have been linked with other reports on the growth of the SEI.

  13. Evaluation of the SEI using a multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry model

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Dufek

    2014-08-01

    A multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) model has been developed to characterize SEI formation. The model, which consists of two Cauchy layers, is constructed with an inner layer meant to model primarily inorganic compounds adjacent to an electrode and an outer layer which mirrors polymeric, organic constituents on the exterior of the SEI. Comparison of 1:1 EC:EMC and 1:4 EC:EMC with 1.0 M LiPF6 shows distinct differences in the two modeled layers. The data suggest that the thickness of both layers change over a wide potential range. These changes have been linked with other reports on the growth of the SEI.

  14. SeisComP 3 - Where are we now?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saul, Joachim; Becker, Jan; Hanka, Winfried; Heinloo, Andres; Weber, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    The seismological software SeisComP has evolved within the last approximately 10 years from a pure acquisition modules to a fully featured real-time earthquake monitoring software. The now very popular SeedLink protocol for seismic data transmission has been the core of SeisComP from the very beginning. Later additions included simple, purely automatic event detection, location and magnitude determination capabilities. Especially within the development of the 3rd-generation SeisComP, also known as "SeisComP 3", automatic processing capabilities have been augmented by graphical user interfaces for vizualization, rapid event review and quality control. Communication between the modules is achieved using a a TCP/IP infrastructure that allows distributed computing and remote review. For seismological metadata exchange export/import to/from QuakeML is avalable, which also provides a convenient interface with 3rd-party software. SeisComP is the primary seismological processing software at the GFZ Potsdam. It has also been in use for years in numerous seismic networks in Europe and, more recently, has been adopted as primary monitoring software by several tsunami warning centers around the Indian Ocean. In our presentation we describe the current status of development as well as future plans. We illustrate its possibilities by discussing different use cases for global and regional real-time earthquake monitoring and tsunami warning.

  15. Future needs for space robots for SEI. [Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.; Price, Charles R.; Cooke, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    High level systems engineering modeling and analysis activities for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are reviewed, with emphasis on planet surface systems. Particular attention is given to SEI studies, preliminary space robotic system requirements, and usefulness of space robotic systems developed to operate on planetary surfaces on earth. It is concluded that supervised intelligent systems on the planet surfaces are necessary to make SEI planet surface activities reliable and productive and encompass capabilities for control and monitoring of all elements, including supervised autonomous robotic systems. Amplification of human capabilities due to applying more knowledge and reasoning in more flexible and appropriate ways than conventional automation approaches will provide more robust performance, greater choice of interaction modes with operators, and greater transparency of operation.

  16. Communications systems evolutionary scenarios for Martian SEI support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, P. W.; Bruno, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    A set of architectures for the Mars-earth SEI space communications link is identified and characterized. A 'road map' is defined that illustrates the most logical and efficient evolutionary paths for the SEI Mars-earth link. The major features of the road map include three alternative evolutionary paths meeting the data rate requirements that may grow from 10 Mbps to 1 Gbps in the 2008-2025 time frame. All three paths begin with a Ka-band MRS-EST baseline link in 2000, and diverge from this baseline as time progresses.

  17. The Mars SEIS Experiment: A Mars Seismic Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mimoun, D.; Lognonne, P.; Banerdt, W. B.; Schibler, P.; Giardini, D.; Pont, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars SEIS experiment. The SEIS experiment was first proposed by IPGP (and accepted) for the NetLander mission. It integrates two VBB (Very Broad Band) seismometers, a three axis Short Period seismometer and a series of environmental sensors for pressure, infra-sounds and temperature. IPGP (France) has the overall responsibility of the experiment and is responsible for the seismic and environmental sensors. ETHZ (Switzerland) is responsible for the electronics of the experiment and JPL (USA) for the SP (Short Period) sensors. As NetLander mission has been cancelled (while fortunately the development still goes on), this seismic package can be proposed for future Mars missions.

  18. 76 FR 72729 - SEI Investments Management Corporation, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... COMMISSION SEI Investments Management Corporation, et al. November 18, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application under section 6(c) of the Investment Company... Application: Applicants request an order to permit open-end management investment companies relying on...

  19. The CASSIOPE/e-POP Suprathermal Electron Imager (SEI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, D. J.; Burchill, J. K.; Cameron, T. G.; Enno, G. A.; Howarth, A.; Yau, A. W.

    2015-06-01

    The Suprathermal Electron Imager (SEI) on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) experiment uses a microchannel-plate-intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) detector to record two-dimensional, energy-angle images of electron distributions for energies up to 350 eV. Alternatively, the SEI can be biased to measure positive ions at energies that include the ambient ionospheric population (<1 eV) and extending to 350 eV. At the highest measurement resolution, distribution images are 64 pixels in diameter and are read out at a rate of 100 images per second. The SEI's field of view is 360∘×±4∘, and includes viewing of the nadir and ram directions, nominally. At high latitude the nominal orientation allows coverage of most pitch angles. The SEI is included on e-POP to address the mission's principal scientific objectives, the first being to characterize polar ion outflow and its drivers including ambipolar electric fields generated by suprathermal electron populations, and direct energization of ions by plasma waves or through frictional heating. In addition, the SEI's focus on low energies and high time resolution allows a unique view of suprathermal particle populations and their role in wave-particle interactions, in support of e-POP's second scientific objective: to study plasma waves and wave propagation in the high-latitude ionosphere. Observations taken within geophysically quiet regions indicate that the instrument can track bulk ion flow velocity with a resolution of order 25 m/s or better.

  20. MatSeis: A Seismic toolbox for MATLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.M.; Young, C.J.

    1996-08-01

    To support the signal processing and data visualization needs of CTBT related projects at SNL, a MATLAB based GUI was developed. This program is known as MatSeis. MatSeis was developed quickly using the available MATLAB functionality. It provides a time-distance profile plot integrating origin, waveform, travel-time, and arrival data. Graphical plot controls, data manipulation, and signal processing functions provide a user friendly seismic analysis package. In addition, the full power of MATLAB (the premier tool for general numeric processing and visualization) is available for prototyping new functions by end users. This package is being made available to the seismic community in the hope that it will aid CTBT research and will facilitate cooperative signal processing development. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Robotic on-orbit fueling of SEI vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Margaret M.; Haines, David E.; Mauceri, A. J.

    Research to investigate the feasibility of, and to develop concepts for, the robotic supply of consumables on orbit is examined, with emphasis on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) assets. Principal methods for effecting propellant transfer on orbit are summarized, and the pros and cons of applying robotics to each method are discussed. Methods include direct transfer of fuel and oxidizer, assembly of tanks to the vehicle, and assembly of propulsion modules to the vehicles. Guidelines are developed for the automated/robotic cryogenic propellant transfer mechanism to accomplish on-orbit consumable supply of SEI vehicles by direct fluid transfer. The development of initial design concepts for the LEO fueling of the Mars Transfer System is traced.

  2. SEI in-space operations and support challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Ronald

    A modeling and assessment process used to integrate SEI operations and support (OAS) planning processes with the systems engineering design, and system integration disciplines. Four areas of the OAS activity require the development of large infrastructures to maintain an operational capability: earth, orbital, transorbital, and lunar/Martian surface locations. An analytical process that can be used to develop OAS requirements is illustrated. Relationships of manufacturing, prelaunch operations, and orbital operations when deriving requirements are shown. If a concurrent engineering process is used, a more operationally efficient design can be defined early in the program to support all functions. Challenges associated with SEI logistics, the necessity for using functional analyses in the development of system requirements, some candidate operational lunar or Mars systems, and analytical modeling results on the candidate designs are discussed.

  3. Surface Wave Simulation and Processing with MatSeis

    SciTech Connect

    THOMPSON,BEVERLY D.; CHAEL,ERIC P.; YOUNG,CHRISTOPHER J.; WALTER,WILLIAM R.; PASYANOS,MICHAEL E.

    2000-08-07

    In order to exploit the information on surface wave propagation that is stored in large seismic event datasets, Sandia and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories have developed a MatSeis interface for performing phase-matched filtering of Rayleigh arrivals. MatSeis is a Matlab-based seismic processing toolkit which provides graphical tools for analyzing seismic data from a network of stations. Tools are available for spectral and polarization measurements, as well as beam forming and f-k analysis with array data, to name just a few. Additionally, one has full access to the Matlab environment and any functions available there. Previously the authors reported the development of new MatSeis tools for calculating regional discrimination measurements. The first of these performs Lg coda analysis as developed by Mayeda and coworkers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A second tool measures regional phase amplitude ratios for an event and compares the results to ratios from known earthquakes and explosions. Release 1.5 of MatSeis includes the new interface for the analysis of surface wave arrivals. This effort involves the use of regionalized dispersion models from a repository of surface wave data and the construction of phase-matched filters to improve surface wave identification, detection, and magnitude calculation. The tool works as follows. First, a ray is traced from source to receiver through a user-defined grid containing different group velocity versus period values to determine the composite group velocity curve for the path. This curve is shown along with the upper and lower group velocity bounds for reference. Next, the curve is used to create a phase-matched filter, apply the filter, and show the resultant waveform. The application of the filter allows obscured Rayleigh arrivals to be more easily identified. Finally, after screening information outside the range of the phase-matched filter, an inverse version of the filter is applied to obtain a cleaned raw waveform which can be used for amplitude measurements. Because all the MatSeis tools have been written as Matlab functions, they can be easily modified to experiment with different processing details. The performance of the propagation models can be evaluated using any event available in the repository of surface wave events.

  4. 77 FR 5491 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...; request for information. SUMMARY: NMFS announces a 5-year review of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis... of any such information on sei whales that has become available since that has become available...

  5. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teoría del Aprendizaje Significativo de David Ausubel, se buscó desenvolver la propuesta a partir de un modelo didáctico que simula las Fases de la Luna, usando como base las concepciones previas de los estudiantes. Los indicios del aprendizaje fueron verificados a través de registros de memorias de la actividad. Por los resultados obtenidos creemos que la propuesta alcanzó sus objetivos, una vez que los estudiantes consiguieron identificar y transferir el fenómeno de las fases de la Luna para nuevos contextos. Así, se concluye que una metodología con enfoque en un contenido significativo para el estudiante es fundamental para la construcción y comprensión genuina de lo que está siendo aprendido.

  6. The VBB SEIS experiment of InSight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Raucourt, Sebastien; Gabsi, Taoufik; Tanguy, Nebut; Mimoun, David; Lognonne, Philippe; Gagnepain-Beyneix, Jeannine; Banerdt, William; Tillier, Sylvain; Hurst, Kenneth

    2012-07-01

    SEIS is the core payload of InSight, one of the three missions selected for competitive phase A in the frame of the 2010 Discovery AO. It aims at providing unique observation of the interior structure of Mars and to monitor seismic activity of Mars. SEIS will provide the first seismic model from another planet than Earth. SEIS is an hybrid seismometer composed of 3 SPs and 3 VBBs axes providing ground motion measurement from Dc to 50Hz. A leveling system will ensure the coupling between the ground and the sensors as well as the horizontality of the VBB sphere. This assembly will be deployed on the ground of Mars and will be shielded by a strong thermal insulation and a wind shield. The 24 bits low noise acquisition electronics will remain in the warm electronic box of the lander with the sensors feedback and leveling system electronics. The VBB sphere enclosed three single axis sensors. Those sensors are based on an inverted leaf spring pendulum, which convert ground acceleration into mobile mass displacement. A capacitive displacement sensor monitors this mass displacement to provide a measurement. A force feedback allows transfer function and sensitivity tuning. The VBB sensor has a very strong heritage from previous project and benefits from recent work to improve its performances. Both the mechanical design and the displacement sensors have optimized to improve performances while reducing technological risk and keeping a high TRL. From those development a self-noise well below 10 ^{-9} m.s ^{-2}/sqrt Hz is expected. Environmental sensitivity of SEIS has been minimized by the design of a very efficient wind and thermal shield. Remaining noise is expected to be very close to the VBB self-noise. Associated sources and budget will be discussed. If InSight is selected to fly in 2016, this experiment will provide very high quality seismic signal measurement with a wider bandwidth, higher sensitivity and lower noise than previous Mars seismometer (Viking and Optimism/Mars 96).

  7. Expression of calcium-activated chloride channels Ano1 and Ano2 in mouse taste cells.

    PubMed

    Cherkashin, Alexander P; Kolesnikova, Alisa S; Tarasov, Michail V; Romanov, Roman A; Rogachevskaja, Olga A; Bystrova, Marina F; Kolesnikov, Stanislav S

    2016-02-01

    Specialized Ca(2+)-dependent ion channels ubiquitously couple intracellular Ca(2+) signals to a change in cell polarization. The existing physiological evidence suggests that Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are functional in taste cells. Because Ano1 and Ano2 encode channel proteins that form CaCCs in a variety of cells, we analyzed their expression in mouse taste cells. Transcripts for Ano1 and Ano2 were detected in circumvallate (CV) papillae, and their expression in taste cells was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. When dialyzed with CsCl, taste cells of the type III exhibited no ion currents dependent on cytosolic Ca(2+). Large Ca(2+)-gated currents mediated by TRPM5 were elicited in type II cells by Ca(2+) uncaging. When TRPM5 was inhibited by triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), ionomycin stimulated a small but resolvable inward current that was eliminated by anion channel blockers, including T16Ainh-A01 (T16), a specific Ano1 antagonist. This suggests that CaCCs, including Ano1-like channels, are functional in type II cells. In type I cells, CaCCs were prominently active, blockable with the CaCC antagonist CaCCinh-A01 but insensitive to T16. By profiling Ano1 and Ano2 expressions in individual taste cells, we revealed Ano1 transcripts in type II cells only, while Ano2 transcripts were detected in both type I and type II cells. P2Y agonists stimulated Ca(2+)-gated Cl(-) currents in type I cells. Thus, CaCCs, possibly formed by Ano2, serve as effectors downstream of P2Y receptors in type I cells. While the role for TRPM5 in taste transduction is well established, the physiological significance of expression of CaCCs in type II cells remains to be elucidated. PMID:26530828

  8. Low frequency vocalizations attributed to sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis).

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Mark F; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Wenzel, Frederick W; Tremblay, Christopher J; Carter Esch, H; Warde, Ann M

    2008-08-01

    Low frequency (<100 Hz) downsweep vocalizations were repeatedly recorded from ocean gliders east of Cape Cod, MA in May 2005. To identify the species responsible for this call, arrays of acoustic recorders were deployed in this same area during 2006 and 2007. 70 h of collocated visual observations at the center of each array were used to compare the localized occurrence of this call to the occurrence of three baleen whale species: right, humpback, and sei whales. The low frequency call was significantly associated only with the occurrence of sei whales. On average, the call swept from 82 to 34 Hz over 1.4 s and was most often produced as a single call, although pairs and (more rarely) triplets were occasionally detected. Individual calls comprising the pairs were localized to within tens of meters of one another and were more similar to one another than to contemporaneous calls by other whales, suggesting that paired calls may be produced by the same animal. A synthetic kernel was developed to facilitate automatic detection of this call using spectrogram-correlation methods. The optimal kernel missed 14% of calls, and of all the calls that were automatically detected, 15% were false positives. PMID:18681619

  9. Communications system evolutionary scenarios for Martian SEI support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Paulman W.; Bruno, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    In the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) mission scenarios, expanding human presence is the primary driver for high data rate Mars-Earth communications. To support an expanding human presence, the data rate requirement will be gradual, following the phased implementation over time of the evolving SEI mission. Similarly, the growth and evolution of the space communications infrastructure to serve this requirement will also be gradual to efficiently exploit the useful life of the installed communications infrastructure and to ensure backward compatibility with long-term users. In work conducted over the past year, a number of alternatives for supporting high data rate Mars-Earth communications have been analyzed with respect to their compatibility with gradual evolution of the space communications infrastructure. The alternatives include RF, millimeter wave (MMW), and optical implementations, and incorporate both surface and space-based relay terminals in the Mars and Earth regions. Each alternative is evaluated with respect to its ability to efficiently meet a projected growth in data rate over time, its technology readiness, and its capability to satisfy the key conditions and constraints imposed by evolutionary transition. As a result of this analysis, a set of attractive alternative communications architectures have been identified and described, and a road map is developed that illustrates the most rational and beneficial evolutionary paths for the communications infrastructure.

  10. Communications system evolutionary scenarios for Martian SEI support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, Paulman W.; Bruno, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    In the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) mission scenarios, expanding human presence is the primary driver for high data rate Mars-Earth communications. To support an expanding human presence, the data rate requirement will be gradual, following the phased implementation over time of the evolving SEI mission. Similarly, the growth and evolution of the space communications infrastructure to serve this requirement will also be gradual to efficiently exploit the useful life of the installed communications infrastructure and to ensure backward compatibility with long-term users. In work conducted over the past year, a number of alternatives for supporting high data rate Mars-Earth communications have been analyzed with respect to their compatibility with gradual evolution of the space communications infrastructure. The alternatives include RF, millimeter wave (MMW), and optical implementations, and incorporate both surface and space-based relay terminals in the Mars and Earth regions. Each alternative is evaluated with respect to its ability to efficiently meet a projected growth in data rate over time, its technology readiness, and its capability to satisfy the key conditions and constraints imposed by evolutionary transition. As a result of this analysis, a set of attractive alternative communications architectures have been identified and described, and a road map is developed that illustrates the most rational and beneficial evolutionary paths for the communications infrastructure.

  11. NTP system definition and comparison process for SEI

    SciTech Connect

    Corban, R.R. )

    1993-01-20

    The concept definition, trade-offs, and ultimate selection of a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system that will enable the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to Mars will require a rigorous systems engineering approach. A systems engineering process to provide a consistent comparison has been established to allow for evolving SEI mission requirements, level of concept definition and changing customer'' requirements, while continuing to improve the process as more data becomes available. All concepts will be evaluated against an established baseline NTP system to compare system benefits and merits. Establishing the evaluation criteria is extremely challenging and critical to the evaluation and selection process. Quality function deployment (QFD) will be utilized to provide structure and focus in obtaining the critical needs and attributes of the NTP system. System performance, cost, and risk analysis tools will be integrated into the process to provide the quantitative data required to allow for an informative decision on concept and technology decisions. This process will initiate the framework for design and development of a robust, reliable, cost effective NTP engine within NASA's philosophy for space systems to be developed faster, better, and cheaper.''

  12. Outpatient treatment of fissure-in-ano.

    PubMed

    Badejo, O A

    1984-12-01

    A review of 86 cases of fissure-in-ano as seen in Ife is presented. The method of management is described and compared with other conservative methods of treatment. The results show a complete healing of the condition within two weeks as compared with four to six weeks recorded in other series. Healing was confirmed by a complete resolution of symptoms together with re-epithelisation of the fissure on inspection at proctoscopy. It is suggested that the described surgical management is simple, fast, cost reducing and time saving in the treatment of fissure-in-ano. It is further envisaged that this procedure may also serve as a means of relief to our already congested hospitals. PMID:6528355

  13. Ground test facility for SEI nuclear rocket engines

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, C.D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.; Shipers, L.R.

    1992-08-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) has been identified as a critical technology in support of the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). In order to safely develop a reliable, reusable, long-lived flight engine, facilities are required that will support ground tests to qualify the nuclear rocket engine design. Initial nuclear fuel element testing will need to be performed in a facility that supports a realistic thermal and neutronic environment in which the fuel elements will operate at a fraction of the power of a flight weight reactor/engine. Ground testing of nuclear rocket engines is not new. New restrictions mandated by the National Environmental Protection Act of 1970, however, now require major changes to be made in the manner in which reactor engines are now tested. These new restrictions now preclude the types of nuclear rocket engine tests that were performed in the past from being done today. A major attribute of a safely operating ground test facility is its ability to prevent fission products from being released in appreciable amounts to the environment. Details of the intricacies and complications involved with the design of a fuel element ground test facility are presented in this report with a strong emphasis on safety and economy.

  14. Mineralogical aspects of Morro de Seis Lagos deposit (Amazonas, Brazil).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehara, Lucy; Almeida, Marcelo; Silveira, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    The alkaline body Morro dos Seis Lagos, situated in the northwest Amazonian region, is a Nb bearing deposit formed by thick lateritic regolith as circular geological feature about 5 km in diameter. The host rock of this deposit is an intensely weathered siderite carbonatite. The alkaline intrusion body was formed during the late Mesozoic and enriched during the Cenozoic by process of denudation of the surrounding rocks and formation of lateritic cover with thickness in the order of hundreds of meters. In this process, enrichment of Nb, Fe, Ti, Mn, P and rare earth elements (REE) occurred where the lateritic regolith represents the major Nb mineralization, with estimated inferred reserves of 2.9 billion ton@ 2.8 % Nb2O5, one of the largest deposits of Nb in the world. The mineralogical composition of the lateritic regolith has the predominance of the goethite and hematite, followed by oxy - hydroxides of Mn, Ti - Nb oxides, pyrochlore, cerianite and phosphates. The lateritic regolith samples showed high contents of Fe2O3 < 89.0%, TiO2 (< 12.54 %) and MnO2 (< 9.90 %). The goethite minerals show several generations that are related to different environmental conditions with dissolution and precipitation process, which indicate intense movement of the solutions with Fe in the aqueous medium. The main Nb minerals are ilmenorutile, rutile and brookite where the ilmenorutile can have content up to 20 % Nb2O5. The P-rich minerals, like monazite and its alteration products, is the main REE phases. These minerals have high concentration of Ce2O3, La2O3 and Nb2O3, where ∑REE > 40 %, and is followed by elevated Th concentration, which locally has concentration higher than (18%). Another REE mineral is the cerianite. The main manganese minerals are hollandite, romanechite (BaMn9O16[OH4] - mixtures of manganese oxides) and amorphous Mn oxy - hydroxides. The higher concentration of MnO2 (about 40 %) is restricted to manganesiferous range, where manganese minerals occur as layers and filling voids, indicating strong remobilization by later process.

  15. Low-frequency vocalizations of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Calderan, Susannah; Miller, Brian; Collins, Kym; Ensor, Paul; Double, Michael; Leaper, Russell; Barlow, Jay

    2014-12-01

    Simultaneous sightings and acoustic detections of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) are scarce, and there are few published data describing their vocalizations. Analysis of recordings from directional frequency analysis and recording sonobuoys in the presence of sei whales in the Southern Ocean in March 2013 identified both downsweep and upsweep calls. Sound frequencies within all calls were between 34 and 87 Hz with an average call duration of 1.1 s. These very low-frequency sounds share characteristics with sei whale calls recorded near the Hawaiian Islands and off Cape Cod in winter and summer, respectively, but are the first documented sei whale calls in the Southern Ocean that are clearly less than 100 Hz. PMID:25480092

  16. 77 FR 62214 - Travel Management Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), Eldorado National Forest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... Forest Service Travel Management Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), Eldorado National... Eldorado National Forest Public Wheeled Motorized Travel Management Final Environmental Impact Statement... open for public motor vehicle use and prohibited cross country travel. In 2009 a complaint was...

  17. Solid state NMR study of SEI formation in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dachun

    Recently, rechargeable lithium ion batteries, which offer high energy density and long cycle life, are in great demand as power sources for our mobile electronic society. The formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the surface of electrodes in lithium ion batteries plays an essential role in their performance. This thesis presents solid state NMR and MAS NMR results on the SEI, which contribute to our understanding of SEI formation on both cathodes and anodes. This thesis is organized as following: Chapter 1 surveys the history of batteries and the challenges to further development of the lithium ion battery. Fundamental aspects and SEI formation mechanisms are also included in Chapter l. Chapter 2 deals with the principles and experimental techniques of solid state NMR. Chapter 3 presents studies of SEI formation on anode and cathode in lithium ion batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and NMR. The results provide EIS and NMR evidence that cells containing electrolytes with high EC content display less irreversible capacity after high temperature storage. The irreversible capacity is attributed to SEI growth on electrode surfaces. NMR results on cathodes, on the other hand, imply that the presence of Ni in the cathode may reduce cell performance due to the oxidation of Ni 3+ to Ni4+. Our simulations show that a lower EC/DMC ratio is associated with a smaller SEI intensity for the cathode and higher intensity for the anode. Chapter 4 discusses the effect of temperature on SEI formation on anodes and cathodes. NMR measurements show that MCMB graphite based anodes exhibit high stability no chemical shift is evident over a wide temperature range. On cathodes, however, NMR does reveal changes in SEI intensity as a function of temperature. These changes are believed to be the result of decomposition of the SEI. Evidently, then, changes in the performance of the cell as a factor of temperature are, at least in part, due to changes in the SEI with temperature. In Chapter 5 we report on the use of NMR to study the effect of electrolyte/solvent and electrode structure on SEI formation. The intensity of the SEI in a cell containing LiBOB electrolyte with EC and DEC is greater than that in a cell with LiPF6 electrolyte with EC and DMC. This implies that the cell containing LiBOB electrolyte with EC and DEC is more stable. From the analysis of NMR of the cathode, it was found that it is easier to form SEI in layered structure cathode than in a spinel structure, suggesting that spinel structure materials may be better choices as cathode in lithium ion batteries. Evidently, then, the choice of electrolyte/solvent materials and electrode materials are key factors in determining the performance of lithium ion batteries.

  18. ANO1 (TMEM16A) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).

    PubMed

    Sauter, D R P; Novak, I; Pedersen, S F; Larsen, E H; Hoffmann, E K

    2015-07-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has one of the worst survival rates of all cancers. ANO1 (TMEM16A) is a recently identified Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CaCC) that is upregulated in several tumors. Although ANO1 was subject to extensive studies in the recent years, its pathophysiological function has only been poorly understood. The aim of the present study is to establish the significance of ANO1 in PDAC behavior and demarcate its roles in PDAC from those of the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC). We performed qPCR and Western blot measurements on different PDAC cell lines (Panc-1, Mia PaCa 2, Capan-1, AsPC-1, BxPC-3) and compared the results to those obtained in a human pancreatic ductal epithelium (HPDE) cell line. All cancer cell lines showed an upregulation of ANO1 on mRNA and protein levels. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings identified large Ca(2+) and voltage-dependent Cl(-) currents in PDAC cells. Using siRNA knockdown of ANO1 and three ANO1 inhibitors (T16Ainh-A01, CaCCinh-A01, and NS3728), we found that ANO1 is the main constituent of CaCC current in PDAC cells. We further characterized these three inhibitors and found that they had unspecific effects on the free intracellular calcium concentration. Functional studies on PDAC behavior showed that surprisingly inhibition of ANO1 did not influence cellular proliferation. On the other hand, we found ANO1 channel to be pivotal in PDAC cell migration as assessed in wound healing experiments. PMID:25163766

  19. Controlling SEI Formation on SnSb-Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Na Ion Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Liwen; Gu, Meng; Shao, Yuyan; Li, Xiaolin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-05-14

    Porous carbon nanofiber (CNF)-supported tin-antimony (SnSb) alloys is synthesized and applied as sodium ion battery anode. The chemistry and morphology of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film and its correlation with the electrode performance are studied. The addition of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) in electrolyte significantly reduces electrolyte decomposition and creates a very thin and uniform SEI layer on the cycled electrode surface which could promote the kinetics of Na-ion migration/transportation, leading to excellent electrochemical performance.

  20. SEI power source alternatives for rovers and other multi-kWe distributed surface applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Kohout, L. L.; Mckissock, Barbara I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Withrow, C. A.; Colozza, A.; Hanlon, James C.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    1991-01-01

    To support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), a study was performed to investigate power system alternatives for the rover vehicles and servicers that were subsequently generated for each of these rovers and servicers, candidate power sources incorporating various power generation and energy storage technologies were identified. The technologies were those believed most appropriate to the SEI missions, and included solar, electrochemical, and isotope systems. The candidates were characterized with respect to system mass, deployed area, and volume. For each of the missions a preliminary selection was made. Results of this study depict the available power sources in light of mission requirements as they are currently defined.

  1. Calcium-activated and apoptotic phospholipid scrambling induced by Ano6 can occur independently of Ano6 ion currents.

    PubMed

    Kmit, A; van Kruchten, R; Ousingsawat, J; Mattheij, N J A; Senden-Gijsbers, B; Heemskerk, J W M; Schreiber, R; Bevers, E M; Kunzelmann, K

    2013-01-01

    Immune cells and platelets maintain plasma membrane phospholipid asymmetry. Upon activation, this asymmetry is disrupted by phospholipid scrambling (PS), which is a major step during activation of immune cells, hemostasis and apoptosis. Anoctamin 6 (Ano6; TMEM16F) causes chloride (Cl(-)) and cation currents and is required for Ca(2+)-dependent PS. It is defective in blood cells from patients with Scott syndrome, a rare bleeding disorder. We examined if Cl(-) currents and PS are related, whether both processes are Ca(2+) dependent, and whether Ca(2+)-independent scrambling during intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis is controlled by Ano6. Ca(2+) increase by ionomycin activated Ano6 Cl(-) currents and PS in normal lymphocytes, but not in B-lymphocytes from two different patients with Scott syndrome. Fas ligand (FasL) did not increase intracellular Ca(2+), but activated Cl(-) currents in normal but not in Scott lymphocytes. Whole-cell currents were inhibited by Cl(-) channel blockers and by siRNA knockdown of Ano6. In contrast, intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis by ABT-737 did not induce Cl(-) currents in lymphocytes. PS was not inhibited by blockers of Ano6 or removal of Cl(-) ions. Remarkably, Ca(2+)-independent scrambling due to extrinsic (FasL) or intrinsic (ABT-737) apoptosis was unchanged in Scott cells. We conclude that: (i) Ano6 Cl(-) currents are activated by increase in cytosolic Ca(2+), or Ca(2+) independent by stimulation of Fas receptors; (ii) Ca(2+)-dependent PS induced by Ano6 does not require Cl(-) currents; (iii) Ca(2+)-independent PS does not require Ano6; (iv) Ano6 is necessary for Ca(2+)-dependent PS, but not by increasing intracellular Ca(2+). PMID:23618909

  2. Calcium-activated and apoptotic phospholipid scrambling induced by Ano6 can occur independently of Ano6 ion currents

    PubMed Central

    Kmit, A; van Kruchten, R; Ousingsawat, J; Mattheij, N J A; Senden-Gijsbers, B; Heemskerk, J W M; Schreiber, R; Bevers, E M; Kunzelmann, K

    2013-01-01

    Immune cells and platelets maintain plasma membrane phospholipid asymmetry. Upon activation, this asymmetry is disrupted by phospholipid scrambling (PS), which is a major step during activation of immune cells, hemostasis and apoptosis. Anoctamin 6 (Ano6; TMEM16F) causes chloride (Cl−) and cation currents and is required for Ca2+-dependent PS. It is defective in blood cells from patients with Scott syndrome, a rare bleeding disorder. We examined if Cl− currents and PS are related, whether both processes are Ca2+ dependent, and whether Ca2+-independent scrambling during intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis is controlled by Ano6. Ca2+ increase by ionomycin activated Ano6 Cl− currents and PS in normal lymphocytes, but not in B-lymphocytes from two different patients with Scott syndrome. Fas ligand (FasL) did not increase intracellular Ca2+, but activated Cl− currents in normal but not in Scott lymphocytes. Whole-cell currents were inhibited by Cl− channel blockers and by siRNA knockdown of Ano6. In contrast, intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis by ABT-737 did not induce Cl− currents in lymphocytes. PS was not inhibited by blockers of Ano6 or removal of Cl− ions. Remarkably, Ca2+-independent scrambling due to extrinsic (FasL) or intrinsic (ABT-737) apoptosis was unchanged in Scott cells. We conclude that: (i) Ano6 Cl− currents are activated by increase in cytosolic Ca2+, or Ca2+ independent by stimulation of Fas receptors; (ii) Ca2+-dependent PS induced by Ano6 does not require Cl− currents; (iii) Ca2+-independent PS does not require Ano6; (iv) Ano6 is necessary for Ca2+-dependent PS, but not by increasing intracellular Ca2+. PMID:23618909

  3. Normal Proliferation and Tumorigenesis but Impaired Pancreatic Function in Mice Lacking the Cell Cycle Regulator Sei1

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Pantoja, Cristina; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Agueda; Martin, Nicholas; Flores, Juana M.; Valverde, Angela M.; Hara, Eiji; Serrano, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Sei1 is a positive regulator of proliferation that promotes the assembly of Cdk4-cyclin D complexes and enhances the transcriptional activity of E2f1. The potential oncogenic role of Sei1 is further suggested by its overexpression in various types of human cancers. To study the role of Sei1, we have generated a mouse line deficient for this gene. Sei1-null fibroblasts did not show abnormalities regarding proliferation or susceptibility to neoplastic transformation, nor did we observe defects on Cdk4 complexes or E2f activity. Sei1-null mice were viable, did not present overt pathologies, had a normal lifespan, and had a normal susceptibility to spontaneous and chemically-induced cancer. Pancreatic insulin-producing cells are known to be particularly sensitive to Cdk4-cyclin D and E2f activities, and we have observed that Sei1 is highly expressed in pancreatic islets compared to other tissues. Interestingly, Sei1-null mice present lower number of islets, decreased β-cell area, impaired insulin secretion, and glucose intolerance. These defects were associated to nuclear accumulation of the cell-cycle inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 in islet cells. We conclude that Sei1 plays an important role in pancreatic β-cells, which supports a functional link between Sei1 and the core cell cycle regulators specifically in the context of the pancreas. PMID:20090907

  4. 76 FR 43985 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ...The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) announces the availability for public review of the draft Recovery Plan (Plan) for the sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis). NMFS is soliciting review and comment from the public and all interested parties on the Plan, and will consider all substantive comments received during the review period before submitting the Plan for final...

  5. 75 FR 16731 - Young Dodge SEIS; Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... FR 14315) on February 22, 2008, and the notice of the Final EIS (70 FR 38131) on May 1, 2008. The... Forest Service Young Dodge SEIS; Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, MT AGENCY: Forest Service... District, Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, Montana, and seven miles northwest of Eureka,...

  6. 76 FR 60017 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Decision for Tritium Supply and Recycling (64 FR 26369) announced the selection of TVA's Watts Bar Unit 1.... program for surplus plutonium disposition (75 FR 41850. July 19, 2010). Proposed Action and Alternatives... Statement (SEIS) for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor AGENCY: National...

  7. Required number of records for ASCE/SEI 7 ground-motion scaling procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reyes, Juan C.; Kalkan, Erol

    2011-01-01

    The procedures and criteria in 2006 IBC (International Council of Building Officials, 2006) and 2007 CBC (International Council of Building Officials, 2007) for the selection and scaling ground-motions for use in nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) of structures are based on ASCE/SEI 7 provisions (ASCE, 2005, 2010). According to ASCE/SEI 7, earthquake records should be selected from events of magnitudes, fault distance, and source mechanisms that comply with the maximum considered earthquake, and then scaled so that the average value of the 5-percent-damped response spectra for the set of scaled records is not less than the design response spectrum over the period range from 0.2Tn to 1.5Tn sec (where Tn is the fundamental vibration period of the structure). If at least seven ground-motions are analyzed, the design values of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) are taken as the average of the EDPs determined from the analyses. If fewer than seven ground-motions are analyzed, the design values of EDPs are taken as the maximum values of the EDPs. ASCE/SEI 7 requires a minimum of three ground-motions. These limits on the number of records in the ASCE/SEI 7 procedure are based on engineering experience, rather than on a comprehensive evaluation. This study statistically examines the required number of records for the ASCE/SEI 7 procedure, such that the scaled records provide accurate, efficient, and consistent estimates of" true" structural responses. Based on elastic-perfectly-plastic and bilinear single-degree-of-freedom systems, the ASCE/SEI 7 scaling procedure is applied to 480 sets of ground-motions. The number of records in these sets varies from three to ten. The records in each set were selected either (i) randomly, (ii) considering their spectral shapes, or (iii) considering their spectral shapes and design spectral-acceleration value, A(Tn). As compared to benchmark (that is, "true") responses from unscaled records using a larger catalog of ground-motions, it is demonstrated that the ASCE/SEI 7 scaling procedure is overly conservative if fewer than seven ground-motions are employed. Utilizing seven or more randomly selected records provides a more accurate estimate of the EDPs accompanied by reduced record-to-record variability of the responses. Consistency in accuracy and efficiency is achieved only if records are selected on the basis of their spectral shape and A(Tn).

  8. 75 FR 39916 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Notice of Intent to Prepare a Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Intent to Prepare a Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... recovery plan; request for information. SUMMARY: The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) is announcing its intent to prepare a recovery plan for the Sei Whale (Balaenoptera borealis) and...

  9. SEI power source alternatives for rovers and other multi-kWe distributed surface applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Mckissock, B. I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Withrow, C. A.; Colozza, A.; Hanlon, J. C.; Schmitz, P. C.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the study performed to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which investigated power system alternatives for the rover vehicles and servicers that would be used for construction and operation of a lunar base is described. Using the mission requirements and power profiles that were subsequently generated for each of these rovers and servicers, candidate power sources incorporating various power generation and energy storage technologies were identified. The technologies were those believed most appropriate to the SEI missions, and included solar, electrochemical, and isotope systems. The candidates were characterized with respect to system mass, deployed area and volume. For each of the missions a preliminary selection was made. Results of this study depict the available power sources in light of the mission requirements as they are currently defined.

  10. On the use of Space Station Freedom in support of the SEI - Life science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leath, K.; Volosin, J.; Cookson, S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) for life sciences research is evaluated from the standpoint of requirements for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). SEI life sciences research encompasses: (1) biological growth and development in space; (2) life support and environmental health; (3) physiological/psychological factors of extended space travel; and (4) space environmental factors. The platforms required to support useful study in these areas are listed and include ground-based facilities, permanently manned spacecraft, and the Space Shuttle. The SSF is shown to be particularly applicable to the areas of research because its facilities can permit the study of gravitational biology, life-support systems, and crew health. The SSF can serve as an experimental vehicle to derive the required knowledge needed to establish a commitment to manned Mars missions and colonization plans.

  11. The SEIS Experiment for the Insight Mission: Development and management plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudet, P.

    2015-10-01

    SEIS is a Mars seismometer, provided by CNES to JPL to be the threshold instrument of the next Mars mission, InSight, to be launched by NASA in March 2016. Discovery missions leads to a very strict frame of development, where schedule is driving development and qualification plans. We will explain how this constraint has been taken into account during development phases, until delivery of flight model, with a context of international cooperation without exchange of founds between partners.

  12. SeisCode: A seismological software repository for discovery and collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabant, C.; Reyes, C. G.; Clark, A.; Karstens, R.

    2012-12-01

    SeisCode is a community repository for software used in seismological and related fields. The repository is intended to increase discoverability of such software and to provide a long-term home for software projects. Other places exist where seismological software may be found, but none meet the requirements necessary for an always current, easy to search, well documented, and citable resource for projects. Organizations such as IRIS, ORFEUS, and the USGS have websites with lists of available or contributed seismological software. Since the authors themselves do often not maintain these lists, the documentation often consists of a sentence or paragraph, and the available software may be outdated. Repositories such as GoogleCode and SourceForge, which are directly maintained by the authors, provide version control and issue tracking but do not provide a unified way of locating geophysical software scattered in and among countless unrelated projects. Additionally, projects are hosted at language-specific sites such as Mathworks and PyPI, in FTP directories, and in websites strewn across the Web. Search engines are only partially effective discovery tools, as the desired software is often hidden deep within the results. SeisCode provides software authors a place to present their software, codes, scripts, tutorials, and examples to the seismological community. Authors can choose their own level of involvement. At one end of the spectrum, the author might simply create a web page that points to an existing site. At the other extreme, an author may choose to leverage the many tools provided by SeisCode, such as a source code management tool with integrated issue tracking, forums, news feeds, downloads, wikis, and more. For software development projects with multiple authors, SeisCode can also be used as a central site for collaboration. SeisCode provides the community with an easy way to discover software, while providing authors a way to build a community around their software packages. IRIS invites the seismological community to browse and to submit projects to https://seiscode.iris.washington.edu/

  13. MatSeis and the GNEM R&E regional seismic anaylsis tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Chael, Eric Paul; Hart, Darren M.; Young, Christopher John; Merchant, Bion John

    2003-08-01

    To improve the nuclear event monitoring capability of the U.S., the NNSA Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research & Engineering (GNEM R&E) program has been developing a collection of products known as the Knowledge Base (KB). Though much of the focus for the KB has been on the development of calibration data, we have also developed numerous software tools for various purposes. The Matlab-based MatSeis package and the associated suite of regional seismic analysis tools were developed to aid in the testing and evaluation of some Knowledge Base products for which existing applications were either not available or ill-suited. This presentation will provide brief overviews of MatSeis and each of the tools, emphasizing features added in the last year. MatSeis was begun in 1996 and is now a fairly mature product. It is a highly flexible seismic analysis package that provides interfaces to read data from either flatfiles or an Oracle database. All of the standard seismic analysis tasks are supported (e.g. filtering, 3 component rotation, phase picking, event location, magnitude calculation), as well as a variety of array processing algorithms (beaming, FK, coherency analysis, vespagrams). The simplicity of Matlab coding and the tremendous number of available functions make MatSeis/Matlab an ideal environment for developing new monitoring research tools (see the regional seismic analysis tools below). New MatSeis features include: addition of evid information to events in MatSeis, options to screen picks by author, input and output of origerr information, improved performance in reading flatfiles, improved speed in FK calculations, and significant improvements to Measure Tool (filtering, multiple phase display), Free Plot (filtering, phase display and alignment), Mag Tool (maximum likelihood options), and Infra Tool (improved calculation speed, display of an F statistic stream). Work on the regional seismic analysis tools (CodaMag, EventID, PhaseMatch, and Dendro) began in 1999 and the tools vary in their level of maturity. All rely on MatSeis to provide necessary data (waveforms, arrivals, origins, and travel time curves). CodaMag Tool implements magnitude calculation by scaling to fit the envelope shape of the coda for a selected phase type (Mayeda, 1993; Mayeda and Walter, 1996). New tool features include: calculation of a yield estimate based on the source spectrum, display of a filtered version of the seismogram based on the selected band, and the output of codamag data records for processed events. EventID Tool implements event discrimination using phase ratios of regional arrivals (Hartse et al., 1997; Walter et al., 1999). New features include: bandpass filtering of displayed waveforms, screening of reference events based on SNR, multivariate discriminants, use of libcgi to access correction surfaces, and the output of discrim{_}data records for processed events. PhaseMatch Tool implements match filtering to isolate surface waves (Herrin and Goforth, 1977). New features include: display of the signal's observed dispersion and an option to use a station-based dispersion surface. Dendro Tool implements agglomerative hierarchical clustering using dendrograms to identify similar events based on waveform correlation (Everitt, 1993). New features include: modifications to include arrival information within the tool, and the capability to automatically add/re-pick arrivals based on the picked arrivals for similar events.

  14. Functions of Discourse Markers "Ano and Sono" in Written Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Yasuko

    Through examination of the discourse markers "ano" and "sono" in Japanese, this paper explores how these linguistic devices function differently in conversation. The focus of this analysis is the mental and social functions through which a speaker attempts to achieve an interpersonal rapport with a listener. In particular, the question addresses

  15. AnoGen: A Program for Generating ANOVA Data Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jeff

    1999-01-01

    Describes a computer program called AnoGen that automates the process of generating data sets for ANOVA designs and operates within DOS and Windows compatible computers. Explains that the program runs in both student and teacher modes and is freely available for noncommercial use through the Internet. (CMK)

  16. El Ano Nuevo en Costa Rica: A Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Jennie; Sloan, Maritza

    An instructional unit for Spanish second language instruction, based on an original story "El Ano Neuvo en Costa Rica" (New Year's in Costa Rica) written by Maritza Sloan, is presented. An introductory section outlines briefly the process of planning a thematic unit and its outcomes, and suggests categories of activities to support instruction.

  17. Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by in situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren L.; Parent, Lucas R.; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.; Unocic, Raymond R.

    2013-12-20

    Deposition of Li is a major safety concern existing in Li-ion secondary batteries. Here we perform the first in situ high spatial resolution measurement coupled with real-time quantitative electrochemistry to characterize SEI formation on gold using a standard battery electrolyte. We demonstrate that a dendritic SEI forms prior to Li deposition and that it remains on the surface after Li electrodissolution.

  18. SEIS/INSIGHT and Mars seismology: Development status and focus on the Impact detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, Philippe; Banerdt, William; Pike, Tom; Giardini, Domenico; Christensen, Ulli; Banfield, Don; Mimoun, David; Laudet, Philippe; de Raucourt, Sebastien; Bierwirth, Marco; Zweifel, Peter; Calcutt, Simon; Hurst, Ken; Bruce, Carl

    2014-05-01

    The INSIGHT NASA Discovery mission will deploy in September 2016 a 3 axis Very Broad band seismometer and a 3 axis SP seismometer, as well as other instruments enabling the installation of a complete geophysical observatory recording seismic, heat flow, magnetic and geodetic signals, in addition to atmospheric wind, pressure and temperature. We first present the science goals status of the SEIS experiment and its development status. The SEIS sensor assembly, which contains both the VBB and SP seismometer, will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm from a Phoenix-type lander platform and protected by a wind and thermal shield. The wind and thermal shield, a vacuum sphere for VBBs and a passive compensation system will achieve a very high protection of the seismometers against temperature and pressure variations, allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment while reaching a detection threshold below 10^(-9) m/s/s Hz^(-1/2) in the VBB bandwidth and 10^(-8) m/s/s Hz^(-1/2) for the SP. A levelling system will allow the VBB to operate, while providing to both seismometer the best possible mechanical coupling with the ground motion. The SEIS instrument will be provided by CNES, which will coordinate a wide set of international contributors from the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, the Imperial College from London and the Open University, the Max-Planck Insitute of Lindau, the École polytechnique fédérale de Zurich (ETHZ), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Institut de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace from Toulouse. We then illustrate the science goals by a focus on the capability of INSIGHT to detect either seismic or acoustic signals from impacts, with both the seismometers and the pressure sensor, and present both amplitude and occurrence expectation, based on comparative modeling between Mars, Earth and the Moon.

  19. Advanced data Processing system for SeisSchool project in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, P.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Husebye, E.

    2003-04-01

    Initially the seismic records from our SeisSchool Norway network (http://pcg1.ifjf.uib.no/) were stored in an ordinary file system which soon proved impractical due many users and at present more than 50000 waveform segments stored. Design goals fast and easy access to a multitude of users -- experts and amateurs alike. Facing the same problem as large seismological data centers we developed a three-tiered system for i) data collection, ii) station operations control and iii) data access and processing. The core of our system is a data base management system (DBMS) that allows us to store in a logical manner more than 50000 waveform records, stations parameters, detector and signal processing parameters and postprocessing results. An important design feature is that the DBMS provides independence data storage representation from applications thus allowing significant reduction in developing time. The main tool for developing signal processing schemes is OCTAVE -- a free mathematical language package compatible to MATLAB. We have implemented binding between OCTAVE and our DBMS for scientists, and a Web interface for other user categories so we a convenient platform for various type of signal processing and other seismological research disciplines from simple to advanced levels. In this presentation we discuss in detail our DBMS structure, network data access and developed signal processing schemes. We note that only free software is used in order to significant reducing total cost of our SeisSchool Network.

  20. The SEIS Experiment for the InSight mission: status and performance expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoun, David; Lognonne, Philippe; Banerdt, W. Bruce; Laudet, Philippe; De Raucourt, Sébastien; IJpelaan, Frans; Kerjean, Laurent; Perez, Rene; Pont, Gabriel; Sylvestre-Baron, Annick; verdier, Nicolas; Denise, Robert; Feldman, Jason; Hurst, Ken; Klein, Kerry; Giardini, Domenico; Zweifel, Peter; Pike, W. Tom; Calcutt, Simon; Bramanti, Christina

    2015-04-01

    The Insight NASA Discovery mission, led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, will deploy in September 2016 a very broadband seismometer on the Mars surface, SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure). It is a hybrid 3-axes instrument, which encloses 3 very broadband oblique sensors and 3 short period sensors. The sensor assembly and its wind and thermal shield will by deployed on the Mars surface from the Phoenix-like spacecraft by a robotic arm (IDS). The acquisition system will be hosted in the spacecraft warm electronics box, and connected to the deployed sensor assembly by a tether. The SEIS experiment is provided by CNES, the French Space Agency that makes the coordination of a wide consortium including IPGP of Paris (SEIS PI Institution), Imperial College of London, Oxford University, MPS of Göttingen, ETH of Zürich, ISAE from Toulouse and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of Pasadena. In addition to the seismometer, the Insight payload will also include a suite of instruments complementary to the seismometer, such as a precision temperature sensor, a micro-barometer, a magnetometer and a wind sensor, making it the first geophysical multi-parameter station on another planet. A heat flow sensor and geodetic measurements will provide additional science measurements, in order to constrain the internal structure of Mars. Several challenges have been overcome to design and realize the planetary seismometer, which will exhibit a noise of about 10-9 m/s2/sqrt(Hz) in its seismic bandwidth bandwidth (0.01-1 Hz) for the very broadband component. These challenges include a very efficient insulation from the external temperature variations, and a finely crafted mechanical design to keep the extreme sensitivity of the seismometer, while allowing enough robustness for the harsh mechanical environment encountered during the launch and landing sequences. Also, specific attention has been paid to understanding the various environment contributions to the noise figure. A discussion will be presented, on how to understand the seismometer performance figure in a changing environment, and how to secure the mission science goals in the challenging environment of the Mars surface.

  1. Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES) Investigation of the Silicon Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Young, Benjamin T; Heskett, David R; Nguyen, Cao Cuong; Nie, Mengyun; Woicik, Joseph C; Lucht, Brett L

    2015-09-16

    Binder-free silicon (BF-Si) nanoparticle anodes were cycled with 1.2 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), or EC with 15% FEC (EC:FEC), extracted from cells and analyzed by Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES). All of the electrolytes generate an SEI which is integrated with Si containing species. The EC and EC:FEC electrolytes result in the generation of LixSiOy after the first cycle while LixSiOy is only observed after five cycles for the FEC electrolyte. The SEI initially generated from the EC electrolyte is primarily composed of lithium ethylene dicarbonate (LEDC) and LiF. However, after five cycles, the composition changes, especially near the surface of silicon because of decomposition of the LEDC. The SEI generated from the EC:FEC electrolytes contains LEDC, LiF, and poly(FEC) and small changes are observed upon additional cycling. The SEI generated with the FEC electrolyte contains LiF and poly(FEC) and small changes are observed upon additional cycling. The stability of the SEI correlates with the observed capacity retention of the cells. PMID:26305165

  2. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.; Lee, J.H.; McCulloch, W.H.; Sawyer, J.C. Jr.; Bari, R.A.; Brown, N.W.; Cullingford, H.S.; Hardy, A.C.; Niederauer, G.F.; Remp, K.; Rice, J.W.; Sholtis, J.A.

    1992-09-01

    An Interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top- level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  3. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.; Sawyer, J.C. Jr.; Bari, R.A.; Brown, N.W.; Cullingford, H.S.; Hardy, A.C.; Lee, J.H.; Mcculloch, W.H.; Niederauer, G.F.; Remp, K. NASA, Washington Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY General Electric Co., San Jose, CA NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Tn L

    1992-07-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of safety functional requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed. 9 refs.

  4. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.; Lee, J.H.; McCulloch, W.H. ); Sawyer, J.C. Jr. ); Bari, R.A. ); Brown, N.W. ); Cullingford, H.S.; Hardy, A.C. (National Aeronautics and Space Administ

    1992-01-01

    An Interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top- level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  5. Assessment of the state of the art in life support environmental control for SEI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonds, Charles H.; Noyes, Gary P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper defines the types of technology that would be used in a lunar base for environmental control and life support system and how it might relate to in situ materials utilization (ISMU) for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). There are three types of interaction between ISMU and the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS): (1) ISMU can reduce cost of water, oxygen, and possibly diluent gasses provided to ECLSS--a corollary to this fact is that the availability of indigenous resources can dramatically alter life support technology trade studies; (2) ISMU can use ECLSS waste systems as a source of reductant carbon and hydrogen; and (3) ECLSS and ISMU, as two chemical processing technologies used in spacecraft, can share technology, thereby increasing the impact of technology investments in either area.

  6. Gas evolution from cathode materials: A pathway to solvent decomposition concomitant to SEI formation.

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, Katie L; Baggetto, Loic; Unocic, Raymond R; Dudney, Nancy J; Veith, Gabriel M

    2013-01-01

    This work reports a method to explore the catalytic reactivity of electrode surfaces towards the decomposition of carbonate solvents [ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), and EC/DMC]. We show that the decomposition of a 1:1 wt% EC/DMC mixture is accelerated over certain commercially available LiCoO2 materials resulting in the formation of CO2 while over pure EC or DMC the reaction is much slower or negligible. The solubility of the produced CO2 in carbonate solvents is high (0.025 grams/mL) which masks the effect of electrolyte decomposition during storage or use. The origin of this decomposition is not clear but it is expected to be present on other cathode materials and may affect the analysis of SEI products as well as the safety of Li-ion batteries.

  7. Interim Columbia and Snake rivers flow improvement measures for salmon: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Public comments are sought on this final SEIS, which supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis (OA)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation proposes five alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. These are: (1) Without Project (no action) Alternative, (2) the 1992 Operation, (3) the 1992 Operation with Libby/Hungry Horse Sensitivity, (4) a Modified 1992 Operation with Improvements to Salmon Flows from Dworshak, and (5) a Modified 1992 Operation with Upper Snake Sensitivity. Alternative 4, Modified 1992 Operations, has been identified as the preferred alternative.

  8. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Brown, Neil W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Lee, James H.; McCulloch, William H.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry

    1992-07-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of safety functional requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  9. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Brown, Neil W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry

    1992-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of safety functional requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  10. 76 FR 336 - Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for PacRim Coal's Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... (71 FR 33446). On October 31, 2010, the EPA's authority to issue and enforce mining permits in Alaska... the Alaska Surface Coal Mining Control and Reclamation Act (ASCMCRA) permit, which governs all aspects... (SEIS) for PacRim Coal's Proposed Chuitna Coal Project AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD....

  11. An approach for finding long period elliptical orbits for precursor SEI missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraietta, Michael F.; Bond, Victor R.

    1993-01-01

    Precursors for Solar System Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions may require long period elliptical orbits about a planet. These orbits will typically have periods on the order of tens to hundreds of days. Some potential uses for these orbits may include the following: studying the effects of galactic cosmic radiation, parking orbits for engineering and operational test of systems, and ferrying orbits between libration points and low altitude orbits. This report presents an approach that can be used to find these orbits. The approach consists of three major steps. First, it uses a restricted three-body targeting algorithm to determine the initial conditions which satisfy certain desired final conditions in a system of two massive primaries. Then the initial conditions are transformed to an inertial coordinate system for use by a special perturbation method. Finally, using the special perturbation method, other perturbations (e.g., sun third body and solar radiation pressure) can be easily incorporated to determine their effects on the nominal trajectory. An algorithm potentially suitable for on-board guidance will also be discussed. This algorithm uses an analytic method relying on Chebyshev polynomials to compute the desired position and velocity of the satellite as a function of time. Together with navigation updates, this algorithm can be implemented to predict the size and timing for AV corrections.

  12. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-05-16

    Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

  13. Identification of a lipid scrambling domain in ANO6/TMEM16F

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kuai; Whitlock, Jarred M; Lee, Kyleen; Ortlund, Eric A; Yuan Cui, Yuan; Hartzell, H Criss

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipid scrambling (PLS) is a ubiquitous cellular mechanism involving the regulated bidirectional transport of phospholipids down their concentration gradient between membrane leaflets. ANO6/TMEM16F has been shown to be essential for Ca2+-dependent PLS, but controversy surrounds whether ANO6 is a phospholipid scramblase or an ion channel like other ANO/TMEM16 family members. Combining patch clamp recording with measurement of PLS, we show that ANO6 elicits robust Ca2+-dependent PLS coinciding with ionic currents that are explained by ionic leak during phospholipid translocation. By analyzing ANO1-ANO6 chimeric proteins, we identify a domain in ANO6 necessary for PLS and sufficient to confer this function on ANO1, which normally does not scramble. Homology modeling shows that the scramblase domain forms an unusual hydrophilic cleft that faces the lipid bilayer and may function to facilitate translocation of phospholipid between membrane leaflets. These findings provide a mechanistic framework for understanding PLS and how ANO6 functions in this process. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06901.001 PMID:26057829

  14. Identification of a lipid scrambling domain in ANO6/TMEM16F.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuai; Whitlock, Jarred M; Lee, Kyleen; Ortlund, Eric A; Cui, Yuan Yuan; Hartzell, H Criss

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipid scrambling (PLS) is a ubiquitous cellular mechanism involving the regulated bidirectional transport of phospholipids down their concentration gradient between membrane leaflets. ANO6/TMEM16F has been shown to be essential for Ca(2+)-dependent PLS, but controversy surrounds whether ANO6 is a phospholipid scramblase or an ion channel like other ANO/TMEM16 family members. Combining patch clamp recording with measurement of PLS, we show that ANO6 elicits robust Ca(2+)-dependent PLS coinciding with ionic currents that are explained by ionic leak during phospholipid translocation. By analyzing ANO1-ANO6 chimeric proteins, we identify a domain in ANO6 necessary for PLS and sufficient to confer this function on ANO1, which normally does not scramble. Homology modeling shows that the scramblase domain forms an unusual hydrophilic cleft that faces the lipid bilayer and may function to facilitate translocation of phospholipid between membrane leaflets. These findings provide a mechanistic framework for understanding PLS and how ANO6 functions in this process. PMID:26057829

  15. In situ Raman spectroscopy of carbon-coated ZnFe2O4 anode material in Li-ion batteries - investigation of SEI growth.

    PubMed

    Cabo-Fernandez, Laura; Mueller, Franziska; Passerini, Stefano; Hardwick, Laurence J

    2016-03-11

    The (de)lithiation process of carbon-coated ZnFe2O4 has been investigated by in situ Raman spectroscopy. Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) products were detected. Their detection may result from a temporary surface enhancement Raman effect from Zn nanoparticles formed in the conversion reaction at a potential that coincides with SEI formation. PMID:26883178

  16. Identification of Li-Ion Battery SEI Compounds through (7)Li and (13)C Solid-State MAS NMR Spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huff, Laura A; Tavassol, Hadi; Esbenshade, Jennifer L; Xing, Wenting; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2016-01-13

    Solid-state (7)Li and (13)C MAS NMR spectra of cycled graphitic Li-ion anodes demonstrate SEI compound formation upon lithiation that is followed by changes in the SEI upon delithiation. Solid-state (13)C DPMAS NMR shows changes in peaks associated with organic solvent compounds (ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, EC/DMC) upon electrochemical cycling due to the formation of and subsequent changes in the SEI compounds. Solid-state (13)C NMR spin-lattice (T1) relaxation time measurements of lithiated Li-ion anodes and reference poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) powders, along with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry results, indicate that large-molecular-weight polymers are formed in the SEI layers of the discharged anodes. MALDI-TOF MS and NMR spectroscopy results additionally indicate that delithiated anodes exhibit a larger number of SEI products than is found in lithiated anodes. PMID:26653886

  17. Earthquake Monitoring: SeisComp3 at the Swiss National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, J. F.; Diehl, T.; Cauzzi, C.; Kaestli, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has an ongoing responsibility to improve the seismicity monitoring capability for Switzerland. This is a crucial issue for a country with low background seismicity but where a large M6+ earthquake is expected in the next decades. With over 30 stations with spacing of ~25km, the SED operates one of the densest broadband networks in the world, which is complimented by ~ 50 realtime strong motion stations. The strong motion network is expected to grow with an additional ~80 stations over the next few years. Furthermore, the backbone of the network is complemented by broadband data from surrounding countries and temporary sub-networks for local monitoring of microseismicity (e.g. at geothermal sites). The variety of seismic monitoring responsibilities as well as the anticipated densifications of our network demands highly flexible processing software. We are transitioning all software to the SeisComP3 (SC3) framework. SC3 is a fully featured automated real-time earthquake monitoring software developed by GeoForschungZentrum Potsdam in collaboration with commercial partner, gempa GmbH. It is in its core open source, and becoming a community standard software for earthquake detection and waveform processing for regional and global networks across the globe. SC3 was originally developed for regional and global rapid monitoring of potentially tsunamagenic earthquakes. In order to fulfill the requirements of a local network recording moderate seismicity, SED has tuned configurations and added several modules. In this contribution, we present our SC3 implementation strategy, focusing on the detection and identification of seismicity on different scales. We operate several parallel processing "pipelines" to detect and locate local, regional and global seismicity. Additional pipelines with lower detection thresholds can be defined to monitor seismicity within dense subnets of the network. To be consistent with existing processing procedures, the nonlinloc algorithm was implemented for manual and automatic locations using 1D and 3D velocity models; plugins for improved automatic phase picking and Ml computation were developed; and the graphical user interface for manual review was extended (including pick uncertainty definition; first motion focal mechanisms; interactive review of station magnitude waveforms; full inclusion of strong motion data). SC3 locations are fully compatible with those derived from the existing in-house processing tools and are stored in a database derived from the QuakeML data model. The database is shared with the SED alerting software, which merges origins from both SC3 and external sources in realtime and handles the alerting procedure. With the monitoring software being transitioned to SeisComp3, acquisition, archival and dissemination of SED waveform data now conforms to the seedlink and ArcLink protocols and continuous archives can be accessed via SED and all EIDA (European Integrated Data Archives) web-sites. Further, a SC3 module for waveform parameterisation has been developed, allowing rapid computation of peak values of ground motion and other engineering parameters within minutes of a new event. An output of this module is USGS ShakeMap XML. n minutes of a new event. An output of this module is USGS ShakeMap XML.

  18. Testing the ability of the INSIGHT-SEIS experiment to model Mars deep interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, M. P.; Beucler, E.; Mocquet, A.; Drilleau, M.; Lognonne, P. H.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2013-12-01

    In 2016, the SEIS experiment, part of the INSIGHT mission of NASA's Discovery program to Mars, is expected to provide the very first seismic records on this planet. This experiment consists in a single station that will record both short-period and broad-band data. The challenge of obtaining information on the location of seismic sources and on the deep seismic structure of the planet using a single station is tested against Earth analogues recorded at the German Black Forest Observatory (BFO), where the signal to noise ratios of the records are close to the values expected for the SEIS experiment on Mars. Estimates of tectonic activity from mapped fault features and thermal modeling suggest that, in addition to smaller events, it is reasonable to anticipate recording a few events with equivalent Earth moment magnitudes in the range 4.5 - 5, or even larger, within one Martian year (i.e. two Earth years). Taking into account the smaller planetary radius of Mars relative to the Earth and lower anticipated seismic noise, due primarily to the absence of oceans, this may allow for recording of multiple orbit surface waves. Considering geometrical scaling between Mars and the Earth, we take a dataset of Earth events with moment magnitudes between 6 and 6.5, which are just above the threshold for detectability of 3rd orbit fundamental mode Rayleigh waves (R3) on quiet stations, and explore the use of several single station techniques for the estimation of source location (distance and back-azimuth from the station) and interior structure. By using the group arrival times of the first three orbits of the fundamental mode surface waves of these events, we are able to estimate the origin time and epicentral distance of the events within the accuracy of the shortest period used in the analysis (here 40 s). The precision on the estimate of the epicentral distance is about one degree, i.e. approximately 55 km on Mars, while the origin time is estimated with an accuracy of approximately 20 seconds. Although these errors are large with respect to the much smaller errors in source location using standard network data on the Earth with some systematic biases due to unmodeled 3D structure, body wave picks on relatively small datasets of 8 or 9 events allow for inversion for reasonable models of mantle velocity structure within 250 m/s in S velocity and 500 m/s in P velocity, even with very limited a priori knowledge of expected seismic structure. The Bayesian inversion of the energy diagrams of multiple orbits surface waves in the 40 s - 200 s period range, further constrain the shear velocity structure of the 250 km uppermost mantle of the Earth, i.e. down to about 400 km within Mars. Single station techniques such as this will greatly increase our constraints on the interior structure of Mars when data becomes available in 2016.

  19. Electric Potential Gradient at the Buried Interface between Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes and the SEI Observed Using Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maibach, Julia; Lindgren, Fredrik; Eriksson, Henrik; Edström, Kristina; Hahlin, Maria

    2016-05-19

    The buried interface between the bulk electrode material and the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) in cycled Li-ion battery anodes is suggested to incorporate an electric potential gradient. This suggestion is based on photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) results from different anode materials that all show relative binding energy shifts between the components of the SEI and the active anode. Implications of this electric potential gradient on binding energy reference points in PES as well as on charge-transfer kinetics in Li-ion batteries are discussed. Specifically, we show that the separation of surface layer and bulk material spectral contributions (depth profiling) is crucial for consistent data interpretation. We conclude that previous interpretations of lithiation as cause for changes in PES spectra may need to be revised. PMID:27104985

  20. ANO1 as a marker of oral squamous cell carcinoma and silencing ANO1 suppresses migration of human scc-25 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yadong; Zhang, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to confirm that ANO1 correlates with occurrence and metastasis of OSCC. Study Design: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of ANO1 in 160 specimens of OSCC and normal tissues. Lentiviral silencing ANO1 was used in scc-25 cell line to study the cell migration and cell detachment. Results: Immunohistochemical staining revealed that ANO1 was expressed in a large majority (132 out of 160, 82.5%) of OSCC specimens and that the rate of ANO1 expression in OSCC was significantly higher than that of normal tissue (P<0.05); The rate of ANO1 expression was higher in metastatic tumors than in non-metastatic tumors, and the difference was significant (P<0.05). The results of cell migration assay showed that the percentage of cells through the membrane was 26.61 ±0.81 in assay group, and 54.26 ±3.74 in control group, respectively (t=-16.22,P<0.0001). The results of cell detachment assay showed that the percentage of cells detachment was 37.42 ±0.90 in assay group, and 87.38 ±1.59 in control group, respectively (t=-62.34, P<0.0001). The results of wound healing assay showed the assay group had a reduced migration rate compared with the control group in 32 h (F=1038.78, P<0.0001). Wound closure was no significantly different between the assay and control cells when DIDS was used in wound healing assay (F=4.61,P>0.05). Conclusions: Our study shows that abnormal expression of ANO1 correlated with the occurrence and metastasis of OSCC in clinical specimens and that silencing ANO1 greatly reduced migration ability of scc-25 cells. Calcium activated chloride channel activity of ANO1 promoted the cell migration. Thus, ANO1 could represent a new diagnostic biomarker and a potentially important therapeutic target of OSCC. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, chloride channel, metastasis. PMID:24316695

  1. Infantile Fistula-in-Ano: A Report of Two Patients and Review for Dermatologists.

    PubMed

    Finelt, Nika; Shen, Lisa Y; Chamlin, Sarah L; Browne, Marybeth; Mancini, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Infantile fistula-in-ano is a well-known entity to pediatric surgeons but less recognized by dermatologists. Because these patients may initially present to a dermatologist or pediatric dermatologist, familiarity with the presentation is important. We present two infants with fistula-in-ano and review the literature on this condition. PMID:26205239

  2. A causa das estações do ano: modelos mentais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, J. A. S.; de Araujo, J. F. S.

    2003-08-01

    A década de 70 do século passado foi marcada pelo estudo das concepções alternativas que os alunos trazem para a sala de aula. A identificação destas concepções foi o ponto de partida para promover a mudança conceitual, onde as pré-concepções seriam trocadas pelas concepções científicas. Na década seguinte, surgiram muitas propostas de estratégias educacionais para facilitar esta troca, na sua maioria baseadas na idéia do conflito cognitivo, proposta por Piaget. Entretanto, os resultados pouco animadores conduziram à percepção de que a mudança conceitual é um processo mais complexo. Pelas idéias da Ciência Cognitiva, a mudança conceitual é uma mudança progressiva dos modelos mentais que o aluno tem sobre o mundo físico, através de enriquecimento e revisão. A causa das Estações do Ano é um tópico sobre o qual a maioria dos estudantes apresenta concepções alternativas. Os autores fizeram um levantamento sobre as pré-concepções encontradas em trabalhos sobre o tema (16 referências), procurando encontrar elementos comuns que indicassem a presença de modelos mentais específicos. As pré-concepções encontradas na literatura foram obtidas usando-se diversas metodologias (desde entrevistas clínicas até questionários de múltipla escolha) e envolvendo alunos e professores de diferentes regiões geográficas. A partir de uma análise aprofundada de cada trabalho, e utilizando-se a técnica das Redes Sistêmicas, chegou-se a conclusão que as diversas pré-concepções identificadas (em torno de 50), poderiam ser representadas por 6 modelos mentais, onde a explicação da causa das estações do ano tem um mecanismo causal responsável. Os mecanismos causais identificados foram: a dependência da distância, a dependência da orientação, a dependência conjunta da distância e orientação, a dependência da obstrução, a dependência da velocidade e a dependência da inclinação dos raios solares. Foram ainda identificadas associações alternativas, que são um conjunto de pré-concepções, onde não existe a idéia de um modelo científico completo mas, sim, fragmentos de observação do dia a dia das pessoas.

  3. ANO2 is the cilial calcium-activated chloride channel that may mediate olfactory amplification.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Aaron B; Shum, Eleen Y; Hirsh, Sarah; Cygnar, Katherine D; Reisert, Johannes; Zhao, Haiqing

    2009-07-14

    For vertebrate olfactory signal transduction, a calcium-activated chloride conductance serves as a major amplification step. However, the molecular identity of the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) is unknown. Here we report a proteomic screen for cilial membrane proteins of mouse olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that identified all the known olfactory transduction components as well as Anoctamin 2 (ANO2). Ano2 transcripts were expressed specifically in OSNs in the olfactory epithelium, and ANO2::EGFP fusion protein localized to the OSN cilia when expressed in vivo using an adenoviral vector. Patch-clamp analysis revealed that ANO2, when expressed in HEK-293 cells, forms a CaCC and exhibits channel properties closely resembling the native olfactory CaCC. Considering these findings together, we propose that ANO2 constitutes the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel. PMID:19561302

  4. Automated infrasound signal detection algorithms implemented in MatSeis - Infra Tool.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Darren

    2004-07-01

    MatSeis's infrasound analysis tool, Infra Tool, uses frequency slowness processing to deconstruct the array data into three outputs per processing step: correlation, azimuth and slowness. Until now, an experienced analyst trained to recognize a pattern observed in outputs from signal processing manually accomplished infrasound signal detection. Our goal was to automate the process of infrasound signal detection. The critical aspect of infrasound signal detection is to identify consecutive processing steps where the azimuth is constant (flat) while the time-lag correlation of the windowed waveform is above background value. These two statements describe the arrival of a correlated set of wavefronts at an array. The Hough Transform and Inverse Slope methods are used to determine the representative slope for a specified number of azimuth data points. The representative slope is then used in conjunction with associated correlation value and azimuth data variance to determine if and when an infrasound signal was detected. A format for an infrasound signal detection output file is also proposed. The detection output file will list the processed array element names, followed by detection characteristics for each method. Each detection is supplied with a listing of frequency slowness processing characteristics: human time (YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS.SSS), epochal time, correlation, fstat, azimuth (deg) and trace velocity (km/s). As an example, a ground truth event was processed using the four-element DLIAR infrasound array located in New Mexico. The event is known as the Watusi chemical explosion, which occurred on 2002/09/28 at 21:25:17 with an explosive yield of 38,000 lb TNT equivalent. Knowing the source and array location, the array-to-event distance was computed to be approximately 890 km. This test determined the station-to-event azimuth (281.8 and 282.1 degrees) to within 1.6 and 1.4 degrees for the Inverse Slope and Hough Transform detection algorithms, respectively, and the detection window closely correlated to the theoretical stratospheric arrival time. Further testing will be required for tuning of detection threshold parameters for different types of infrasound events.

  5. Distribution of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) in the subarctic-subtropical transition area of the western North Pacific in relation to oceanic fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Hiroto; Hakamada, Takashi; Matsuoka, Koji; Nishiwaki, Shigetoshi; Inagake, Denzo; Okazaki, Makoto; Tojo, Naoki; Kitakado, Toshihide

    2014-09-01

    The subarctic-subtropical transition area of the western North Pacific is an important summer feeding grounds of sei whales. The oceanographic structure and circulation of this area are largely determined by strong oceanic fronts and associated geostrophic currents, namely the Polar Front (PF), Subarctic Front (SAF) and Kuroshio Extension Front (KEF). The relationship between the distribution of sei whales and oceanographic fronts was investigated using a generalized additive model (GAM), and the cetacean sighting survey data and oceanographic observations in July from 2000 to 2007 were used in the analysis. The number of individual sei whales was used as the response variable while the distances from the PF, SAF, and KEF to the whales were used as explanatory variables along with the longitude values. Sei whales were concentrated north and south of the SAF and the areas from 250 to 300 km north and from 100 to 200 km south of the SAF were estimated as high-density areas of sei whales. The entire inter-frontal zone between the PF and SAF featured an elevated concentration of sei whales, and the area south of the PF and along the SAF was identified as an important feeding ground of sei whales in July from 2000 to 2007.

  6. A novel exon in the human Ca2+-activated Cl- channel Ano1 imparts greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca2.

    PubMed

    Strege, Peter R; Bernard, Cheryl E; Mazzone, Amelia; Linden, David R; Beyder, Arthur; Gibbons, Simon J; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2015-11-01

    Anoctamin 1 (Ano1; TMEM16A) is a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CACC) expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal. The mechanisms by which Ca(2+) regulates Ano1 are incompletely understood. In the gastrointestinal tract, Ano1 is required for normal slow wave activity and is involved in regulating cell proliferation. Splice variants of Ano1 have varying electrophysiological properties and altered expression in disease states. Recently, we identified a transcript for human Ano1 containing a novel exon-"exon 0" upstream of and in frame with exon 1. The electrophysiological properties of this longer Ano1 isoform are unknown. Our aim was to determine the functional contribution of the newly identified exon to the Ca(2+) sensitivity and electrophysiological properties of Ano1. Constructs with [Ano1(+0)] or without [Ano1(-0)] the newly identified exon were transfected into human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Voltage-clamp electrophysiology was used to determine voltage- and time-dependent parameters of whole cell Cl(-) currents between isoforms with varying concentrations of intracellular Ca(2+), extracellular anions, or Cl(-) channel inhibitors. We found that exon 0 did not change voltage sensitivity and had no impact on the relative permeability of Ano1 to most anions. Ano1(+0) exhibited greater changes in current density but lesser changes in kinetics than Ano1(-0) in response to varying intracellular Ca(2+). The CACC inhibitor niflumic acid inhibited current with greater efficacy and higher potency against Ano1(+0) compared with Ano1(-0). Likewise, the Ano1 inhibitor T16Ainh-A01 reduced Ano1(+0) more than Ano1(-0). In conclusion, human Ano1 containing exon 0 imparts its Cl(-) current with greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca(2+) and CACC inhibitors. PMID:26359375

  7. Conceptualizing ¬the Abstractions of Earthquakes Through an Instructional Sequence Using SeisMac and the Rapid Earthquake Viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.; Wysession, M.

    2007-12-01

    Newsworthy earthquakes provide an engaging hook for students in Earth science classes, particularly when discussing their effects on people and the landscape. However, engaging students in an analysis of earthquakes that extends beyond death and damage, is frequently hampered by the abstraction of recorded ground motion data in the form of raw seismograms and the inability of most students to personally relate to ground accelerations. To overcome these challenges, an educational sequence has been developed using two software tools: SeisMac by Daniel Griscom, and the Rapid Earthquake Viewer (REV) developed by the University of South Carolina in collaboration with IRIS and DLESE. This sequence presents a unique opportunity for Earth Science teachers to "create" foundational experiences for students as they construction a framework of understanding of abstract concepts. The first activity is designed to introduce the concept of a three-component seismogram and to directly address the very abstract nature of seismograms through a kinesthetic experience. Students first learn to take the pulse of their classroom through a guided exploration of SeisMac, which displays the output of the laptop's built-in Sudden Motion Sensor (a 3-component accelerometer). This exploration allows students to view a 3-component seismogram as they move or tap the laptop and encourages them to propose and carry out experiments to explain the meaning of the 3-component seismogram. Once completed students are then asked to apply this new knowledge to a real 3-component seismogram printed from REV. Next the activity guides students through the process of identifying P and S waves and using SeisMac to connect the physical motion of the laptop to the "wiggles" they see on the SeisMac display and then comparing those to the "wiggles" they see on their seismogram. At this point students are more fully prepared to engage in an S-P location exercise such as those included in many state standards because they have a physical sense of what the wiggles indicate. As a result students are better positioned to identify S and P arrivals within the complexity of real data available through REV rather than using the canned or artificial data normally associated with a location exercise. REV provides easy access to recent and noteworthy earthquake data via a simple Web interface. Earthquake locations and near-real time ground motion data are accessed via the IRIS Data Management System, and data are automatically processed and selected so that only events with "good" data are presented within REV. Once students have completed the learning sequence using SeisMac, they will be better able to relate the trace of a seismogram to the physical motion of the ground. This can then lead to better understanding of more advanced exercises including detecting the core and finding the Moho. Building on an understanding of the basics of a seismogram, SeisMac can next be used to help student further understand earthquakes by provide a kinesthetic experience to model how hard the Earth shakes during earthquakes. Through another guided exploration students discover that the SeisMac display is calibrated in units of acceleration and can be related to the Modified Mercalli scale. They then compare shaking during an earthquake via video clips and ground shaking maps from the USGS "Did you feel it" Web site to the shaking of personal objects and the laptop.

  8. Activation of Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channel ANO1 by localized Ca(2+) signals.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Shah, Sihab; Du, Xiaona; Zhang, Hailin; Gamper, Nikita

    2016-01-01

    Ca(2+) -activated chloride channels (CaCCs) regulate numerous physiological processes including epithelial transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory processing. Anoctamin-1 (ANO1, TMEM16A) is a principal CaCC subunit in many cell types, yet our understanding of the mechanisms of ANO1 activation and regulation are only beginning to emerge. Ca(2+) sensitivity of ANO1 is rather low and at negative membrane potentials the channel requires several micromoles of intracellular Ca(2+) for activation. However, global Ca(2+) levels in cells rarely reach such levels and, therefore, there must be mechanisms that focus intracellular Ca(2+) transients towards the ANO1 channels. Recent findings indeed indicate that ANO1 channels often co-localize with sources of intracellular Ca(2+) signals. Interestingly, it appears that in many cell types ANO1 is particularly tightly coupled to the Ca(2+) release sites of the intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Such preferential coupling may represent a general mechanism of ANO1 activation in native tissues. PMID:25398532

  9. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  10. Results from the NEAREST-SEIS deep seismic cruise across the Gulf of Cadiz accretionary wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.; Gutscher, M.; Graindorge, D.; Sallares, V.; Bartolome, R.; Gracia, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz lies offshore of Southwest Iberia and Northwest Morocco where the famous Lisbon earthquake and tsunami struck in 1755. Here the plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia is complex, marked by a broad region of deformation spanning about 200 km in a north-south direction. Structurally, the Gulf of Cadiz is the presence of a thick tectonically deformed sedimentary wedge, interpreted as an accretionary wedge formed by the SW migration of the Rif-Betic block. Numerous marine geophysical surveys performed here recently, including multi-beam bathymetry and multi-channel seismics (MCS) help constrain the seafloor morphology and shallow crustal structure. MCS data reveal sediment thicknesses in the central Gulf of Cadiz (beneath the accretionary wedge) reaching a maximum of 12-13 km. Past wide-angle seismic surveys had difficulty penetrating below this thick sedimentary body. During the NEAREST-SEIS cruise on the B/O Hesperides (Nov. 2008), two wide-angle seismic lines were acquired in the Gulf of Cadiz area using a source composed of seven 1500liter Bolt airguns (4520 in3), shot at 90 s intervals. 19 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) from Ifremer and the University of Brest and 17 OBS from UTM-CSIC, Barcelona were deployed during the survey. The shorter profile, P2 trending NNE-SSW, was a line roughly perpendicular to the South Portuguese margin (inner part of the Gulf), crossing from Portimao Canyon, the frontal portion of the accretionary wedge, where the sedimentary cover is relatively thin. The main purpose was to determine the location of the transition between continental and oceanic crust. 15 OBS were deployed along this line with a ~7 nm spacing, which was extended by landstations (onshore in S. Portugal). The data generally show clear sedimentary refracted phases, deeper intracrustal phases, some arrivals refracted in the upper mantle and reflections at the boundary between the crust and the mantle (PmP). A layer-stripping modelling of the corresponding data is performed using a joint refraction/reflection traveltime tomography approach (1st arrivals and PmP phase are inverted jointly), following a Monte-Carlo type analysis. Information given by coincident MCS data is used to discuss and validate our velocity reconstructions. The Southern part of the model (south of 36.25° N) is characterized by thin crust, ~7 km thick, and a nearly flat Moho around 16 km depth. According to the Monte-Carlo simulation, most of the velocity model and Moho depth are very well constrained. This crust is interpreted as oceanic, based on its thickness and velocities. Preliminary modelling indicates a velocity of 7.5 km/s below the Moho, increasing to 8 km/s in a 4 km thick transition layer. The northern part of the model shows a clear and abrupt transition to a thick continental crust, Moho depth at ˜28 km at 36.36° N, compatible thicknesses obtained by landbased refraction seismics. The average crustal velocity here is ˜6.5 km/s over a ˜23 km maximum thickness and the velocity gradient is smooth, consistent with continental crust. The oceanic to continental transition occurs over a ˜30 km distance.

  11. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors facilitate ANO6 (TMEM16F) current activation and phosphatidylserine exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jong; Jun, Ikhyun; Yoon, Jae Seok; Jung, Jinsei; Kim, Yung Kyu; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Byung Joo; Song, Jaewoo; Kim, Sung Joon; Nam, Joo Hyun; Lee, Min Goo

    2015-11-01

    Anoctamin 6 (ANO6) is a member of the recently identified TMEM16/anoctamin protein family comprising Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels that generate outward-rectifying ionic currents in response to intracellular Ca(2+) increase. ANO6 is also essential for Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid scrambling required for blood coagulation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)--fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine-that are used for the treatment of major depressive disorders can increase the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding after chronic treatment. However, at the earlier stage of intake, which is 1-7 days after the treatment, the possibility of blood coagulation might also increase, but transiently. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether therapeutic SSRI concentrations affected the Cl(-) current or phospholipid scrambling activity of ANO6 by assessing ANO6 currents (I ANO6), phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, and platelet aggregation. In the whole-cell patch mode, SSRIs facilitated Ca(2+)-dependent activation of IANO6 in ANO6-transfected cells, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the delay of IANO6 generation. On the other hand, in the inside-out patch clamp configuration, SSRIs showed an inhibitory effect on ANO6 currents, suggesting that SSRIs activate ANO6 via an indirect mechanism in intact cells. SSRIs also facilitated Ca(2+)-dependent PS exposure and α-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. These results indicate that SSRIs at clinically relevant concentrations promote Ca(2+)-dependent activation of ANO6, which may have potential clinical implications such as the underlying mechanism of SSRI-induced adverse drug reactions. PMID:25630304

  12. Management of Fistula-In-Ano with Special Reference to Ligation of Intersphincteric Fistula Tract

    PubMed Central

    Khadia, Mohanlal; Muduli, Iswar Chandra; Das, Sushanta Kumar; Mallick, Sworupa Nanda; Bag, Laxman; Pati, Manas Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Context: The surgical management of fistula-in-ano is still debatable and no clear recommendations have been made available until now. The present study analyses the results of ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) technique in treating fistula-in-ano in particular with recurrence, healing time, and continence status. Aims: LIFT in the management of patients of fistula-in-ano of cryptoglandular origin. Settings and Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of 52 patients admitted from September 2012 to August 2014. Patients were managed with LIFT technique and results of LIFT technique were compared with other studies in terms of recurrence rate, incontinence rate, and other postoperative complications. Results: A total of 52 patients were studied. Median follow-up was 24 weeks. Primary healing was achieved in 32 (71.11%) patients. Thirteen patients (28.88%) had a recurrence. No patient reported any subjective decrease incontinence after the procedure. Conclusions: LIFT technique is simple and easy to learn. With this method fistula-in-ano could be easily treated even at primary health care level. LIFT technique is a simple and novel modified approach for the treatment of fistula-in-ano with rapid healing rate and without any resultant incontinence. PMID:27013849

  13. Overexpression of ANO1/TMEM16A, an arterial Ca2+-activated Cl- channel, contributes to spontaneous hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingxiang; Li, Chunlin; Huai, Ruituo; Qu, Zhiqiang

    2015-05-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) have been implicated in hypertension; however, the mechanism underlying their involvement is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether the CaCC ANO1 is involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous hypertension. Arterial ANO1 expression and the effects on blood pressure (BP) of inhibiting ANO1 with an ANO1 inhibitor, T16(Ainh)-A01, and in vivo RNAi, were examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Knockdown of ANO1 by siRNA prevented hypertensive development, and attenuation of ANO1 channel activity reduced BP in SHRs. Angiotensin II upregulated ANO1 expression in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The protein level and activity of cellular ANO1 positively correlated with VSMC proliferation. Our data indicate an important role of increased ANO1 expression and activity in inducing hypertension in SHRs. It may mediate angiotensin II-dependent vascular remodeling. Our results increase the mechanistic understanding of hypertension and suggest ANO1 as a possible therapeutic target for hypertension. PMID:25739000

  14. [Purification of recombinant DNA methyltransferase M2.BstSE from nickase-modification system NM.BstSEI and study of the enzyme properties].

    PubMed

    Chernukhin, v A; Seggewiss, J; Kashirina, Iu G; Gonchar, D A; Degtiarev, S Kh

    2009-01-01

    The operon of nickase-modification system from Bacillus stearothermophilus SE-589 (recognition site 5'-GAGTC-3') includes two DNA methyltransferase genes: bstSEIM1 and bstSEIM2. Gene encoding DNA methyltransferase M2.BstSEI was cloned in pJW vector and expressed in E. coli cells. The enzyme M2.BstSEI has been isolated by chromatographic purification. M2.BstSEI displays maximum activity at 55 degrees C and pH 7.5. The enzyme modifies adenine in DNA sequence 5'-GAGTC-3' and has substrate specificity 5'-GASTC-3'. The kinetic parameters of methylation reaction have been determined. The catalytic constant--2.2 min(-1), the Michaelis constant on T7 DNA--9.8 nM and on SAM--5.8 microM. PMID:19334521

  15. Unfolded ANO-1 fluxes using the LEPRICON methodology. [Least-squares EPRI CONsolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Wagschal, J.J.; Maerker, R.E.; Broadhead, B.L.; Williams, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Calculated fluxes at a one-quarter depth midplane location in the pressure vessel of the ANO-1 reactor were adjusted using the LEPRICON methodology. The adjustment was based on the LEPRICON benchmark database in combination with the ANO-1 cavity activation measurements. The LEPRICON database has been expanded and now also includes the PSF field, of which the analysis has been recently completed. The measured, calculated and adjusted ANO-1 activations are presented together with their corresponding uncertainties. However, the main purpose of this work is to obtain more credible flux values in the pressure vessel. The pressure-vessel flux adjustments and the reduction in the pressure vessel flux uncertainties are elaborated on in the concluding section.

  16. First-Principles Analysis of Defect Thermodynamics and Ion Transport in Inorganic SEI Compounds: LiF and NaF.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Handan; Kinaci, Alper; Chan, Maria K Y; Greeley, Jeffrey P

    2015-09-01

    The formation mechanism and composition of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) in lithium ion batteries has been widely explored. However, relatively little is known about the function of the SEI as a transport medium. Such critical information is directly relevant to battery rate performance, power loss, and capacity fading. To partially bridge this gap in the case of inorganic SEI compounds, we report herein the results of first-principles calculations on the defect thermodynamics, the dominant diffusion carriers, and the diffusion pathways associated with crystalline LiF and NaF, which are stable components of the SEI in Li-ion and Na-ion batteries, respectively. The thermodynamics of common point defects are computed, and the dominant diffusion carriers are determined over a voltage range of 0-4 V, corresponding to conditions relevant to both anode and cathode SEI's. Our analyses reveal that for both compounds, vacancy defects are energetically more favorable, therefore form more readily than interstitials, due to the close-packed nature of the crystal structures. However, the vacancy concentrations are very small for the diffusion processes facilitated by defects. Ionic conductivities are calculated as a function of voltage, considering the diffusion carrier concentration and the diffusion barriers as determined by nudged elastic band calculations. These conductivities are more than ten orders of magnitude smaller in NaF than in LiF. As compared to the diffusivity of Li in other common inorganic SEI compounds, such as Li2CO3 and Li2O, the cation diffusivity in LiF and NaF is quite low, with at least three orders of magnitude lower ionic conductivities. The results quantify the extent to which fluorides pose rate limitations in Li and Na batteries. PMID:26255641

  17. AB095. Increased expression of TMEM16A/Ano1 chloride channel associated with diabetic erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Yajun; Chen, Yingwei; Li, Mingchao; Wang, Tao; Yang, Jun; Rao, Ke; Wang, Shaogang; Yang, Weimin; Liu, Jihong; Ye, Zhangqun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the presence, location and functional role of TMEM16A/anotamin-1 (Ano1) calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) in the penile of rats with diabetic erectile dysfunction. Methods Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were administrated streptozotocin (diabetic) or citrate buffer (control) randomly. Erectile function was measured by cavernous nerve electrostimulation at 12th week after diabetes was induced. The effect of Ano1 specific inhibitor—T16Ainh-A01 on intracavernous pressure (ICP) was evaluated. Then the penile tissues were harvested for molecular exploration. Real-time PCR and Western Blotting were used to assess the expression of Ano1 in penile tissues. Immunofluorescent labelling of penile tissue allowed localization of Ano1. Cavernous smooth muscle cell (CSMC) was cultured in high glucose medium. The change of Ano1 was measured using Western Blotting. The proliferation of CSMC was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Results Erectile function was impaired in diabetic rats. The expression of Ano1 was increased in rats with diabetic erectile dysfunction at mRNA and protein levels. Immunofluorescent labelling revealed the presence of Ano1 mainly in cavernous smooth muscle cells. The inhibition of Ano1 increased the ICP of DED rats. High glucose in vitro enhanced the proliferation of CSMC and the expression level of Ano1. Conclusions Ano1 is expressed in rat penile tissue and is increased with diabetes mellitus. The inhibition of Ano1 increased the ICP of DED rats. The alerted Ano1 may be associated with diabetic erectile dysfunction. It is a potential therapy target for ED in the future.

  18. Activation of the Ano1 (TMEM16A) chloride channel by calcium is not mediated by calmodulin

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinqiu; Qu, Zhiqiang; Cui, Yuan-Yuan; Hartzell, H. Criss

    2014-01-01

    The Ca2+-activated Cl channel anoctamin-1 (Ano1; Tmem16A) plays a variety of physiological roles, including epithelial fluid secretion. Ano1 is activated by increases in intracellular Ca2+, but there is uncertainty whether Ca2+ binds directly to Ano1 or whether phosphorylation or additional Ca2+-binding subunits like calmodulin (CaM) are required. Here we show that CaM is not necessary for activation of Ano1 by Ca2+ for the following reasons. (a) Exogenous CaM has no effect on Ano1 currents in inside-out excised patches. (b) Overexpression of Ca2+-insensitive mutants of CaM have no effect on Ano1 currents, whereas they eliminate the current mediated by the small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK2) channel. (c) Ano1 does not coimmunoprecipitate with CaM, whereas SK2 does. Furthermore, Ano1 binds very weakly to CaM in pull-down assays. (d) Ano1 is activated in excised patches by low concentrations of Ba2+, which does not activate CaM. In addition, we conclude that reversible phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is not required for current activation by Ca2+ because the current can be repeatedly activated in excised patches in the absence of ATP or other high-energy compounds. Although Ano1 is blocked by the CaM inhibitor trifluoperazine (TFP), we propose that TFP inhibits the channel in a CaM-independent manner because TFP does not inhibit Ano1 when applied to the cytoplasmic side of excised patches. These experiments lead us to conclude that CaM is not required for activation of Ano1 by Ca2+. Although CaM is not required for channel opening by Ca2+, work of other investigators suggests that CaM may have effects in modulating the biophysical properties of the channel. PMID:24420770

  19. Inhibition of ANO1/TMEM16A Chloride Channel by Idebenone and Its Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yohan; Park, Jinhong; Kim, Minseo; Lee, Ho K; Kim, Jin-Hee; Jeong, Jin-Hyun; Namkung, Wan

    2015-01-01

    The expression levels of anoctamin 1 (ANO1, TMEM16A), a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), are significantly increased in several tumors, and inhibition of ANO1 is known to reduce cell proliferation and migration. Here, we performed cell-based screening of a collection of natural products and drug-like compounds to identify inhibitors of ANO1. As a result of the screening, idebenone, miconazole and plumbagin were identified as novel ANO1 inhibitors. Electrophysiological studies showed that idebenone, a synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10, completely blocked ANO1 activity in FRT cells expressing ANO1 without any effect on intracellular calcium signaling and CFTR, a cAMP-regulated chloride channel. The CaCC activities in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells expressing abundant endogenous ANO1 were strongly blocked by idebenone. Idebenone inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells, but not in A549 cells, which do not express ANO1. These data suggest that idebenone, a novel ANO1 inhibitor, has potential for use in cancer therapy. PMID:26196390

  20. Inhibition of ANO1/TMEM16A Chloride Channel by Idebenone and Its Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minseo; Lee, Ho K.; Kim, Jin-Hee; Jeong, Jin-Hyun; Namkung, Wan

    2015-01-01

    The expression levels of anoctamin 1 (ANO1, TMEM16A), a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), are significantly increased in several tumors, and inhibition of ANO1 is known to reduce cell proliferation and migration. Here, we performed cell-based screening of a collection of natural products and drug-like compounds to identify inhibitors of ANO1. As a result of the screening, idebenone, miconazole and plumbagin were identified as novel ANO1 inhibitors. Electrophysiological studies showed that idebenone, a synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10, completely blocked ANO1 activity in FRT cells expressing ANO1 without any effect on intracellular calcium signaling and CFTR, a cAMP-regulated chloride channel. The CaCC activities in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells expressing abundant endogenous ANO1 were strongly blocked by idebenone. Idebenone inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells, but not in A549 cells, which do not express ANO1. These data suggest that idebenone, a novel ANO1 inhibitor, has potential for use in cancer therapy. PMID:26196390

  1. A Coding Variant of ANO10, Affecting Volume Regulation of Macrophages, Is Associated with Borrelia Seropositivity

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Christian; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Sirianant, Lalida; Papiol, Sergi; Monnheimer, Mathieu; Faria, Diana; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Schramek, Natalie; Schmitt, Corinna; Margos, Gabriele; Michel, Angelika; Kraiczy, Peter; Pawlita, Michael; Schreiber, Rainer; Schulz, Thomas F; Fingerle, Volker; Tumani, Hayrettin; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In a first genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach to anti-Borrelia seropositivity, we identified two significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs17850869, P = 4.17E-09; rs41289586, P = 7.18E-08). Both markers, located on chromosomes 16 and 3, respectively, are within or close to genes previously connected to spinocerebellar ataxia. The risk SNP rs41289586 represents a missense variant (R263H) of anoctamin 10 (ANO10), a member of a protein family encoding Cl? channels and phospholipid scram-blases. ANO10 augments volume-regulated Cl? currents (IHypo) in Xenopus oocytes, HEK293 cells, lymphocytes and macrophages and controls volume regulation by enhancing regulatory volume decrease (RVD). ANO10 supports migration of macrophages and phagocytosis of spirochetes. The R263H variant is inhibitory on IHypo, RVD and intracellular Ca2+ signals, which may delay spirochete clearance, thereby sensitizing adaptive immunity. Our data demonstrate for the first time that ANO10 has a central role in innate immune defense against Borrelia infection. PMID:25730773

  2. Facet dependent SEI formation on the LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 cathode identified by in situ single particle atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran-Ran; Deng, Xin; Liu, Xing-Rui; Yan, Hui-Juan; Cao, An-Min; Wang, Dong

    2014-12-25

    A facile protocol is developed for the direct observation and characterization of a single particle electrode during the lithium ion battery operation by using in situ AFM. The SEI formation on the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 particle cathode surface is found to be highly related to the exposed planes. PMID:25371348

  3. An Artificial SEI Enables the Use of A LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 5 V Cathode with Conventional Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Juchuan ORNL; Baggetto, Loic ORNL; Martha, Surendra K ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M ORNL; Nanda, Jagjit ORNL; Liang, Chengdu ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J ORNL

    2013-01-01

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel is considered one of the most promising cathodes for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, the operation potential of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, ~4.75 V, is beyond the high voltage limit of the state-of-art electrolyte, ~4.3 V. Here, using thin films of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a model material, we show evidence that an artificial solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) enables the use of this 5 V cathode with conventional carbonate electrolytes. A thin coating of Lipon (lithium phosphorus oxynitride) as an artificial SEI on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 could remedy the decomposition of the electrolyte. The thickness of the Lipon artificial SEI is optimized by balancing the protection and additional resistance. The strategy of artificial SEI on cathodes is expected to enable the wide application of other high voltage cathodes for lithium ion batteries.

  4. Attitude of Academic Staff in Nigerian Tertiary Educational Institutions to Student Evaluation of Instruction (SEI): A Case Study of Cross River State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaka, Idaka I.; Joshua, Monday T.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the attitude of academic staff in Nigerian tertiary educational institutions to student evaluation of instruction (SEI) and to find out the variable factors that influenced the expressed attitude of members of the academic staff, using Cross River State University as a case study. The study was a survey and so a

  5. Attitude of Academic Staff in Nigerian Tertiary Educational Institutions to Student Evaluation of Instruction (SEI): A Case Study of Cross River State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaka, Idaka I.; Joshua, Monday T.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the attitude of academic staff in Nigerian tertiary educational institutions to student evaluation of instruction (SEI) and to find out the variable factors that influenced the expressed attitude of members of the academic staff, using Cross River State University as a case study. The study was a survey and so a…

  6. Connecting the irreversible capacity loss in Li-ion batteries with the electronic insulating properties of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Xiao; Liu, Zhe; Leung, Kevin; Chen, Long-Qing; Lu, Peng; Qi, Yue

    2016-03-01

    The formation and continuous growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer are responsible for the irreversible capacity loss of batteries in the initial and subsequent cycles, respectively. In this article, the electron tunneling barriers from Li metal through three insulating SEI components, namely Li2CO3, LiF and Li3PO4, are computed by density function theory (DFT) approaches. Based on electron tunneling theory, it is estimated that sufficient to block electron tunneling. It is also found that the band gap decreases under tension while the work function remains the same, and thus the tunneling barrier decreases under tension and increases under compression. A new parameter, η, characterizing the average distances between anions, is proposed to unify the variation of band gap with strain under different loading conditions into a single linear function of η. An analytical model based on the tunneling results is developed to connect the irreversible capacity loss, due to the Li ions consumed in forming these SEI component layers on the surface of negative electrodes. The agreement between the model predictions and experimental results suggests that only the initial irreversible capacity loss is due to the self-limiting electron tunneling property of the SEI.

  7. Connecting the irreversible capacity loss in Li-ion batteries with the electronic insulating properties of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) components.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Kevin; Lin, Yu -Xiao; Liu, Zhe; Chen, Long -Qing; Lu, Peng; Qi, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The formation and continuous growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer are responsible for the irreversible capacity loss of batteries in the initial and subsequent cycles, respectively. In this article, the electron tunneling barriers from Li metal through three insulating SEI components, namely Li2CO3, LiF and Li3PO4, are computed by density function theory (DFT) approaches. Based on electron tunneling theory, it is estimated that sufficient to block electron tunneling. It is also found that the band gap decreases under tension while the work function remains the same, and thus the tunneling barrier decreases under tension and increases under compression. A new parameter, η, characterizing the average distances between anions, is proposed to unify the variation of band gap with strain under different loading conditions into a single linear function of η. An analytical model based on the tunneling results is developed to connect the irreversible capacity loss, due to the Li ions consumed in forming these SEI component layers on the surface of negative electrodes. As a result, the agreement between the model predictions and experimental results suggests that only the initial irreversible capacity loss is due to the self-limiting electron tunneling property of the SEI.

  8. Connecting the irreversible capacity loss in Li-ion batteries with the electronic insulating properties of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) components.

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Leung, Kevin; Lin, Yu -Xiao; Liu, Zhe; Chen, Long -Qing; Lu, Peng; Qi, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The formation and continuous growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer are responsible for the irreversible capacity loss of batteries in the initial and subsequent cycles, respectively. In this article, the electron tunneling barriers from Li metal through three insulating SEI components, namely Li2CO3, LiF and Li3PO4, are computed by density function theory (DFT) approaches. Based on electron tunneling theory, it is estimated that sufficient to block electron tunneling. It is also found that the band gap decreases under tension while the work function remains the same, and thus the tunneling barrier decreases under tension and increases under compression.more » A new parameter, η, characterizing the average distances between anions, is proposed to unify the variation of band gap with strain under different loading conditions into a single linear function of η. An analytical model based on the tunneling results is developed to connect the irreversible capacity loss, due to the Li ions consumed in forming these SEI component layers on the surface of negative electrodes. As a result, the agreement between the model predictions and experimental results suggests that only the initial irreversible capacity loss is due to the self-limiting electron tunneling property of the SEI.« less

  9. Photoluminescence fatigue and inhomogeneous line broadening in semi-insulating Tl6SeI4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostina, S. S.; Peters, J. A.; Lin, W.; Chen, P.; Liu, Z.; Wang, P. L.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Wessels, B. W.

    2016-06-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) properties of semi-insulating Tl6SeI4 have been investigated. A broad emission band centered at 1.63 ± 0.02 eV was observed in all samples. The PL emission band is excitonic in nature and is tentatively attributed to a bound exciton emission. PL fatigue (a reduction in PL intensity under prolonged laser excitation) was always observed. The amount of PL fatigue depended on excitation power and temperature. PL fatigue kinetics are described by a stretched exponential with nominal lifetimes in the 10–265 s range. The recovery of the PL occurred within a few seconds of light cessation. The magnitude of PL fatigue in different samples correlated with inhomogeneous line broadening of the 1.63 eV emission band, such that broader bands exhibited more fatigue. An additional luminescence band centered at 1.78 eV was observed which increased in intensity under prolonged laser irradiation. The fatigue phenomenon is tentatively attributed to two mechanisms—the formation of photo-induced defects and the formation of quasi-stable particles. Both of these mechanisms introduce additional radiative and non-radiative recombination channels that lead to a decrease in the PL intensity under prolonged laser irradiation. Since inhomogeneous line broadening and PL fatigue are related to the concentration of defects or impurities, the measurement of these two parameters is an effective method to screen sample quality.

  10. Suppression of 14-3-3γ-mediated surface expression of ANO1 inhibits cancer progression of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Sun; Lee, Jae Kwang; Bae, Yeonju; Lee, Bok-Soon; Kim, Eunju; Cho, Chang-Hoon; Ryoo, Kanghyun; Yoo, Jiyun; Kim, Chul-Ho; Yi, Gwan-Su; Lee, Seok-Geun; Lee, C Justin; Kang, Sang Soo; Hwang, Eun Mi; Park, Jae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) acts as a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel in various normal tissues, and its expression is increased in several different types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the regulation of ANO1 surface expression is important for determining its physiological and pathophysiological functions. However, the trafficking mechanism of ANO1 remains elusive. Here, we report that segment a (N-terminal 116 amino acids) of ANO1 is crucial for its surface expression, and we identified 14-3-3γ as a binding partner for anterograde trafficking using yeast two-hybrid screening. The surface expression of ANO1 was enhanced by 14-3-3γ, and the Thr9 residue of ANO1 was critical for its interaction with 14-3-3γ. Gene silencing of 14-3-3γ and/or ANO1 demonstrated that suppression of ANO1 surface expression inhibited migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells. These findings provide novel therapeutic implications for glioblastomas, which are associated with poor prognosis. PMID:27212225

  11. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Chiyo; Sasaki, Motoki; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe(3+)) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  12. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  13. The frequency of lymphogranuloma venereum in persons with perirectal abscesses, fistulae in ano, or both

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, A. B.

    1963-01-01

    Altogether 94 patients with perirectal abscesses and/or fistulae in ano were tested for lymphogranuloma venereum in a Washington, D.C., clinic. They included men and women of low socio-economic status, many of the men being overt psycho-sexual hermaphrodites. The findings were compared with those in a control group of similar sex distribution (females, male homosexuals, male heterosexuals). All persons in the study were tested for lymphogranuloma venereum by the complement-fixation and Frei tests. Homosexuals and persons with rectal lesions were also examined by proctoscopy. Among other findings, a significantly higher frequency of Frei reactors or positive complement-fixation reactions was observed among patients (both male and female) with abscesses than among the controls and among male homosexuals than heterosexuals. The author concludes that lymphogranuloma venereum should be excluded in the differential diagnosis of perirectal abscess and fistual in ano, that homosexuals should be routinely tested for lymphogranuloma venereum, and that sexual perversion should be considered in male patients with ano-rectal disease of lymphogranuloma venereum origin. PMID:14107753

  14. Variomics Screen Identifies the Re-entrant Loop of the Calcium-activated Chloride Channel ANO1 That Facilitates Channel Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Bill, Anke; Popa, M. Oana; van Diepen, Michiel T.; Gutierrez, Abraham; Lilley, Sarah; Velkova, Maria; Acheson, Kathryn; Choudhury, Hedaythul; Renaud, Nicole A.; Auld, Douglas S.; Gosling, Martin; Groot-Kormelink, Paul J.; Gaither, L. Alex

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 regulates multiple physiological processes. However, little is known about the mechanism of channel gating and regulation of ANO1 activity. Using a high-throughput, random mutagenesis-based variomics screen, we generated and functionally characterized ∼6000 ANO1 mutants and identified novel mutations that affected channel activity, intracellular trafficking, or localization of ANO1. Mutations such as S741T increased ANO1 calcium sensitivity and rendered ANO1 calcium gating voltage-independent, demonstrating a critical role of the re-entrant loop in coupling calcium and voltage sensitivity of ANO1 and hence in regulating ANO1 activation. Our data present the first unbiased and comprehensive study of the structure-function relationship of ANO1. The novel ANO1 mutants reported have diverse functional characteristics, providing new tools to study ANO1 function in biological systems, paving the path for a better understanding of the function of ANO1 and its role in health and diseases. PMID:25425649

  15. [The past, presence and future of ligation of intersphincteric fistulous tract for the treatment of fistula in ano].

    PubMed

    Shao, Wanjin

    2015-12-01

    This paper is to summarize the successful rate, complication morbidity, and the impact of ligation of the intersphinteric fistula tract (LIFT) on anal continence, and to illustrate the efficacy of LIFT procedure for the treatment of high transphinteric fistula in ano and the challenging problems existed in practice through literature review retrospectively. LIFT procedure appears to be an effective sphincter conserving approach with less complications and minimal impact on anorectal function for the treatment of high transsphincteric fistula in ano. PMID:26703998

  16. A novel missense mutation in ANO5/TMEM16E is causative for gnathodiaphyseal dyplasia in a large Italian pedigree

    PubMed Central

    Marconi, Caterina; Brunamonti Binello, Paolo; Badiali, Giovanni; Caci, Emanuela; Cusano, Roberto; Garibaldi, Joseph; Pippucci, Tommaso; Merlini, Alberto; Marchetti, Claudio; Rhoden, Kerry J; Galietta, Luis J V; Lalatta, Faustina; Balbi, Paolo; Seri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by frequent bone fractures at a young age, bowing of tubular bones and cemento-osseus lesions of the jawbones. Anoctamin 5 (ANO5) belongs to the anoctamin protein family that includes calcium-activated chloride channels. However, recent data together with our own experiments reported here add weight to the hypothesis that ANO5 may not function as calcium-activated chloride channel. By sequencing the entire ANO5 gene coding region and untranslated regions in a large Italian GDD family, we found a novel missense mutation causing the p.Thr513Ile substitution. The mutation segregates with the disease in the family and has never been described in any database as a polymorphism. To date, only two mutations on the same cysteine residue at position 356 of ANO5 amino-acid sequence have been described in GDD families. As ANO5 has also been found to be mutated in two different forms of muscular dystrophy, the finding of this third mutation in GDD adds clues to the role of ANO5 in these disorders. PMID:23047743

  17. Ligation of Intersphincteric Fistula Tract: a Sphincter-Sparing Option for Complex Fistula-in-Ano.

    PubMed

    Lange, Erin O; Ferrari, Linda; Krane, Mukta; Fichera, Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    Fistulae-in-ano represent one of the more challenging anorectal diseases faced by surgeons, as appropriate management requires careful balance between the need for local sepsis control and patients' desire to maintain fecal continence. The ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) procedure, first described by Rojanasakul and colleagues in 2007, represents a sphincter-sparing technique for fistula management which has become our method of choice for transsphincteric fistulas. With this technique, patients frequently enjoy successful fistula healing., or, at worst, conversion to a less complex fistula tract. Here, we describe and illustrate our surgical approach and review success and recurrence rates presented in the published literature. PMID:26394877

  18. The Ca2+-activated Cl− channel ANO1/TMEM16A regulates primary ciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ruppersburg, Chelsey Chandler; Hartzell, H. Criss

    2014-01-01

    Many cells possess a single, nonmotile, primary cilium highly enriched in receptors and sensory transduction machinery that plays crucial roles in cellular morphogenesis. Although sensory transduction requires ion channels, relatively little is known about ion channels in the primary cilium (with the exception of TRPP2). Here we show that the Ca2+-activated Cl− channel anoctamin-1 (ANO1/TMEM16A) is located in the primary cilium and that blocking its channel function pharmacologically or knocking it down with short hairpin RNA interferes with ciliogenesis. Before ciliogenesis, the channel becomes organized into a torus-shaped structure (“the nimbus”) enriched in proteins required for ciliogenesis, including the small GTPases Cdc42 and Arl13b and the exocyst complex component Sec6. The nimbus excludes F-actin and coincides with a ring of acetylated microtubules. The nimbus appears to form before, or independent of, apical docking of the mother centriole. Our data support a model in which the nimbus provides a scaffold for staging of ciliary components for assembly very early in ciliogenesis and chloride transport by ANO1/TMEM16A is required for the genesis or maintenance of primary cilia. PMID:24694595

  19. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (143). Perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from chronic fistula-in-ano.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chia Ming; Tan, Cher Heng; Ho, Bernard Chi-Shern

    2012-12-01

    We report a case of mucinous adenocarcinoma arising in the perianal soft tissue in association with chronic fistula-in-ano in a 43-year-old man who had a relapse of perianal pain and bloody discharge after six years of defaulted follow-up. He underwent magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography imaging with correct identification of the disease entity on imaging. Mesh-like septations and an enhancing solid component with high diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and intermediate apparent diffusion coefficient signals were observed. He underwent abdominoperineal resection of the tumour but succumbed due to postoperative complications. Literature on the MR imaging features of this tumour remains scarce. We highlight the MR imaging features, including those seen on DWI, which were useful in making the correct diagnosis. Though uncommon, this would be an important condition to recognise since assessment of fistula-in-ano by MR imaging is considered to be the standard of care in current clinical practice. The clinical features of this entity are also briefly discussed. PMID:23268160

  20. [Ano-rectal injuries in civilian practice in Cameroon. 10 case reports].

    PubMed

    Yao, J G; Masso-Misse, P; Malonga, E

    1994-01-01

    At the Central Hospital of Yaoundé, Cameroon, 10 ano-rectal injuries were treated over a period of 5 years. There were the same number of men and women and all patients were young (range: 7 to 35 years). The cause was illegal abortion in 2 cases and impalement following a fall from a tree in 3. The time lapse between injury and treatment was longer than 24 hours in 5 patients. In 2 cases the lesions were minor and simple debridement was possible. In the remaining 8 cases, construction of a colostomy was required using either the Hartmann terminal-type technique (n = 5) or the exclusion technique (n = 3). Three patients died: one from traumatic shock and two from septic shock. Complications were observed in 4 patients: 2 infections and 2 mechanical complications. Two patients presented permanent sequels including one with partial fecal incontinence. This study confirms the difficulty in management of ano-rectal injuries with limited facilities and reveals the variety of situations that can lead to these injuries especially in children in Africa. PMID:7934784

  1. The Ca2+-activated Cl- channel ANO1/TMEM16A regulates primary ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ruppersburg, Chelsey Chandler; Hartzell, H Criss

    2014-06-01

    Many cells possess a single, nonmotile, primary cilium highly enriched in receptors and sensory transduction machinery that plays crucial roles in cellular morphogenesis. Although sensory transduction requires ion channels, relatively little is known about ion channels in the primary cilium (with the exception of TRPP2). Here we show that the Ca(2+)-activated Cl ((-)) channel anoctamin-1 (ANO1/TMEM16A) is located in the primary cilium and that blocking its channel function pharmacologically or knocking it down with short hairpin RNA interferes with ciliogenesis. Before ciliogenesis, the channel becomes organized into a torus-shaped structure ("the nimbus") enriched in proteins required for ciliogenesis, including the small GTPases Cdc42 and Arl13b and the exocyst complex component Sec6. The nimbus excludes F-actin and coincides with a ring of acetylated microtubules. The nimbus appears to form before, or independent of, apical docking of the mother centriole. Our data support a model in which the nimbus provides a scaffold for staging of ciliary components for assembly very early in ciliogenesis and chloride transport by ANO1/TMEM16A is required for the genesis or maintenance of primary cilia. PMID:24694595

  2. Mutations in ANO3 Cause Dominant Craniocervical Dystonia: Ion Channel Implicated in Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, Gavin; Plagnol, Vincent; Holmström, Kira M.; Bras, Jose; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Preza, Elisavet; Rubio-Agusti, Ignacio; Ryten, Mina; Schneider, Susanne A.; Stamelou, Maria; Trabzuni, Daniah; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Wood, Nicholas W.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we combined linkage analysis with whole-exome sequencing of two individuals to identify candidate causal variants in a moderately-sized UK kindred exhibiting autosomal-dominant inheritance of craniocervical dystonia. Subsequent screening of these candidate causal variants in a large number of familial and sporadic cases of cervical dystonia led to the identification of a total of six putatively pathogenic mutations in ANO3, a gene encoding a predicted Ca2+-gated chloride channel that we show to be highly expressed in the striatum. Functional studies using Ca2+ imaging in case and control fibroblasts demonstrated clear abnormalities in endoplasmic-reticulum-dependent Ca2+ signaling. We conclude that mutations in ANO3 are a cause of autosomal-dominant craniocervical dystonia. The locus DYT23 has been reserved as a synonym for this gene. The implication of an ion channel in the pathogenesis of dystonia provides insights into an alternative mechanism that opens fresh avenues for further research. PMID:23200863

  3. Mechanism of non-specific-fistula-in-ano: Hormonal aspects-Review.

    PubMed

    El-Tawil, A M

    2012-02-01

    Abscesses could occur anywhere, but quite few that could proceed forward and develop fistulae. Crypto glandular abscess formation concept has been forming the basis for almost all designed strategies for management of cases of idiopathic fistula-in-ano for ages. Yet, this hypothesis failed to explain the reason(s) for the recorded lower incidences of idiopathic anal fistula in females than in males. Gram negative bacteria are largely the causative agents for these anal glands' abscesses that processed further and developed fistulae. Lipopolysaccharide component (LPS) of the bacterial cell wall could significantly attenuate the expression of mRNA of the oestrogen receptors and accordingly reduces the down signalling pathway. Yet, this kind of action could be inhibited in the presence of oestrogen. In addition, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) is a key proinflammatory cytokine that induces the secretion of other cytokines and enzymes in various cells and tissues. And LPS could activate pro-inflammatory cytokine by activating plasma membrane proteins (e.g. the toll like receptor 4 [TLR4] and CD14 that leads to the production of TNFα and other pro-inflammatory cytokines). This activation could be enhanced by testosterone but inhibited by oestrogen. These are likely the reasons for the higher prevalence of idiopathic fistula-in-ano in males than in females. PMID:21840183

  4. CU’s Department of Geological Sciences - Science Education Initiative Project (GEOL-SEI): A five-year plan for introducing and supporting an evidence-based and scientific approach to teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthurs, L.; Budd, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Science Education Initiative (SEI) at the University of Colorado at Boulder was conceived in 2006 with the goal of improving science education at the undergraduate level by changing the basic approach to teaching in science departments. Five departments were selected on a competitive basis for participation in the SEI. The SEI is operating as a five year plan with funding of ~$1 million/year for the five departments. The goal of the SEI is to implement sustainable department-level change for an evidence-based and scientific approach to teaching. Among the five departments receiving funding for discipline-specific SEI projects is the Department of Geological Sciences (GEOL-SEI). The GEOL-SEI has worked to transform geology courses beginning with lower division large enrollment courses and moving towards upper division courses. They are transformed on the basis of existing research into how people learn, and they are characterized by the use of learning goals and effective instructional approaches. Furthermore, a natural component of the transformation towards evidence-based and scientific approaches to teaching is geocognition and geoscience education research. This research focuses on how students think about geologic concepts (e.g. misconceptions) and the effectiveness of different instructional approaches (e.g. the implementation of instructional technologies, peer learning activities, homework, and labs). The research is conducted by post-doctoral fellows (with PhDs in geology and pedagogical training) in collaboration with the instructional faculty members. The directorate of CU’s Science Education Initiative provides the fellows with training useful for conducting the research. Currently, into the 4th year of its 5-year plan, the GEOL-SEI is working towards publishing its findings and exploring options for sustaining various changes made to courses and new departmental programs that support student learning (e.g. GEOL Tutoring & Study Room).

  5. SM1.3 Seismic Centers Data Acquisition: an introduction to Antelope, EarthWorm, SeisComP and their usage around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Sleeman, Reinoud

    2010-05-01

    Many medium to big size seismic data centers around the world are facing the same question: which software to use to acquire seismic data in real-time? A home-made or a commercial one? Both choices have pros and cons. The in-house development of software usually requires an increased investment in human resources rather than a financial investment. However, the advantage of fully accomplishing your own needs could be put in danger when the software engineer quits the job! Commercial software offers the advantage of being maintained, but it may require both a considerable financial investment and training. The main seismic software data acquisition suites available nowadays are the public domain SeisComP and EarthWorm packages and the commercial package Antelope. Nanometrics, Guralp and RefTek also provide seismic data acquisition software, but they are mainly intended for single station/network acquisition. Antelope is a software package for real-time acquisition and processing of seismic network data, with its roots in the academic seismological community. The software is developed by Boulder Real Time Technology (BRTT) and commercialized by Kinemetrics. It is used by IRIS affiliates for off-line data processing and it is the main acquisition tool for the USArray program and data centers in Europe like the ORFEUS Data Center, OGS (Italy), ZAMG (Austria), ARSO (Slovenia) and GFU (Czech Republic). SeisComP was originally developed for the GEOFON global network to provide a system for data acquisition, data exchange (SeedLink protocol) and automatic processing. It has evolved into to a widely distributed, networked seismographic system for data acquisition and real-time data exchange over Internet and is supported by ORFEUS as the standard seismic data acquisition tool in Europe. SeisComP3 is the next generation of the software and was developed for the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). SeisComP is licensed by GFZ (free of charge) and maintained by a private company (GEMPA). EarthWorm was originally developed by United States Geological Survey (USGS) to exchange data with the Canadian seismologists. Its is now used by several institution around the world. It is maintained and developed by a commercial software house, ISTI.

  6. First results from the NEAREST-SEIS deep seismic cruise across the Gulf of Cadiz accretionary wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.; Gutscher, M.-A.; Graindorge, D.; Sallarès, V.; Bartolome, R.; Gracia, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz lies offshore of Southwest Iberia and Northwest Morocco, bounded to the West by the Azores-Gibraltar transform and to the East by the Betic-Rif mountain belt. The region is famous for the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami. Here the plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia is complex, marked by a broad region of deformation spanning about 200 km in a north-south direction. One of the most striking structures characterizing the Gulf of Cadiz is the presence of a thick tectonically deformed sedimentary wedge, which is interpreted as an accretionary wedge formed by the W to SW migration of the Rif-Betic block. Two types of geodynamic models have been proposed to explain the recent tectonics and formation of this region: those invoking delamination of continental lithosphere beneath the Betic-Rif Alboran Sea region, and those favouring subduction of oceanic lithosphere, with associated roll-back. Numerous marine geophysical surveys were performed in the Gulf of Cadiz area during the last years, many as part of the NEAREST European project. Multi-beam bathymetry and multi-channel seismic (MCS) data were acquired, which help constrain the upper crustal structures. Deep structural maps demonstrate that sediment thicknesses in the central Gulf of Cadiz (beneath the accretionary wedge) reach a maximum of 12-13 km. Additional wide-angle seismic records acquired during the SISMAR experiment (2001) testify to the difficulty of even low-frequency waves to penetrate below this thick sedimentary body. Nevertheless, from the resulting models a 7-to-10-km thick basement is inferred beneath the western and central Gulf, which forms a roughly E-W oriented trough between the thicker (20-30 km) continental crust of SW Iberia and NW Morocco. During the NEAREST-SEIS cruise on the B/O Hesperides (nov. 2008), two wide-angle seismic lines were acquired in the Gulf of Cadiz area using a seismic source composed of seven 1500LL Bolt airguns (4520 in3), shot at 90 s intervals. 19 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) from Ifremer and the University of Brest and 17 OBS from UTM-CSIC, Barcelona were on board. The longer profile was shot NW-SE in the western part of the Gulf, crossing from Tagus plain to Seine abyssal plain (profile 1, 29 OBS deployments). The shorter one was a line roughly perpendicular to the South Portuguese margin (inner part of the Gulf), crossing from Portimao Canyon, the frontal portion of the accretionary wedge frontal, where the sedimentary cover is still relatively thin (profile 2, tending NNE-SSW). Here we focus on profile 2, the main purpose being to determine an accurate location of the transition between continental and oceanic crust. 15 OBS were deployed along this line with a ~7 nm spacing, and it was extended on land by landstations (Portuguese side). Most of the wide-angle data were of good quality, despite the rapid decrease of the amplitude arrivals with increasing offset, due to the combination of a lack of source energy and the particular nature of material constituting the accretionary wedge. The following processing was applied to all sections: deconvolution, 4-16 Hz Butterworth filter, equalization. The data generally show clear sedimentary refracted phases, deeper intracrustal phases, some arrivals refracted in the upper mantle and reflections at the boundary between the crust and the mantle (PmP). A first modelling of the corresponding data is performed using a joint refraction/reflection traveltime tomography approach (1st arrivals and PmP phase are inverted jointly), following a Monte-Carlo type analysis to avoid the dependency on the starting model and provide velocity uncertainties. A checkerboard test is also computed to estimate the resolvability of the different parts of the resulting model. Information given by coincident MCS data (profile SWIM-01; SWIM experiment, 2006) is used to discuss and validate our velocity reconstructions. The wide-angle velocity model obtained along profile 2 images for the first time the evolution of basement structures (down to the Moho) from the South Portuguese coasts to the Northwest Morocco continental platform.

  7. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Linghan; Liu, Wen; Guan, Lizhao; Lu, Min; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy. PMID:26305547

  8. Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia: report of a family with a novel mutation of the ANO5 gene.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hannah A; Le, Karen T; Soulema, Albert L; Yueh, Ronald H; Scheuner, Maren T; Holick, Michael F; Christensen, Russell; Tajima, Tracey L; Leung, Angela M; Mallya, Sanjay M

    2016-05-01

    Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by florid osseous dysplasia of the jaws, bone fragility, and diaphyseal cortical thickening and bowing of long bones. We present a family with previously undiagnosed GDD. The disorder was identified by the characteristic gnathic and skeletal manifestations in the father. Clinical and radiologic examination of the patient's son also revealed the characteristic features of GDD. Gene sequencing revealed a novel mutation (c. 1067 G>A, p. Cys356 Tyr) in the ANO5 gene, which is causative for GDD. This mutation was predicted to be detrimental by computational analyses and by structural modeling of the protein. The implications for recognition and management of this disease are discussed. PMID:27068316

  9. Comparing Ksharasutra (Ayurvedic Seton) and open fistulotomy in the management of fistula-in-ano

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Gouranga; Bain, Jayanta; Ray, Ajay Kumar; Dey, Soumedhik; Das, Nandini; Das, Biswanath

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most commonly practiced surgical “lay open” technique to treat fistula-in-ano (a common anorectal pathology) has high rate of recurrence and anal incontinence. Alternatively, a nonsurgical cost efficient treatment with Ksharasutra (cotton Seton coated with Ayurvedic medicines) has minimal complications. In our study, we have tried to compare these two techniques. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized control study was designed involving patients referred to the Department of General Surgery in RG Kar Medical College, Kolkata, India, from January 2010 to September 2011. Results: Among 50 patients, 26 were in Ksharasutra and 24 were in fistulotomy group. 86% patients were male and 54% of the patients were in the fourth decade. About 74% fistulas are inter-sphincteric and 26% were of trans-sphincteric variety. Severe postoperative pain was more (7.7% vs. 25%) in fistulotomy group, while wound discharge was more associated with Ksharasutra group (15.3% vs. 8.3%). Wound scarring, bleeding, and infection rate were similar in both groups. Ksharasutra group took more time to heal (mean: 53 vs. 35.7 days, P = 0.002) despite reduced disruption to their routine work (2.7 vs. 15.5 days work off, P <0.001). Interestingly, pain experienced was less in Ksharasutra group, there was no open wound in contrast to fistulotomy and it was significantly cost effective (Rupees 166 vs. 464). Conclusion: Treatment of fistula-in-ano with Ksharasutra is a simple with low complications and minimal cost. PMID:26283840

  10. Comparative study of Ksharasutra suturing and Lord's anal dilatation in the management of Parikartika (chronic fissure-in-ano)

    PubMed Central

    Dudhamal, Tukaram S.; Baghel, Madhav Singh; Bhuyan, Chaturbhuja; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parikartika resembles fissure-in-ano which is very common among all ano-rectal disorders. In Ayurvedic texts, Parikartika is described as a complication of Vamana and Virechana as well as complication of Atisara. Ksharasutra was proved successful in the management of fistula-in-ano, piles, and there is a need to try its efficacy in fissure-in-ano. Aim: To evaluate the role of Ksharasutra suturing (KSS) in fissure bed in chronic fissure-in-ano. Materials and Methods: Total 100 patients of chronic fissure-in-ano were selected and randomly divided into two groups (50 in each group). In group-A, patients were undergone by KSS; while in patients of Group-B Lord's anal dilatation followed by KSS was done under spinal anesthesia. The KSS was done once and after slough out of Ksharasutra, the wound was treated for 4 weeks and assessment of the result was done on the basis of gradation adopted. Results: The pain relief on 14th day in Group-A was 86% while in Group-B 100% was observed. As on 7th day in Group-A, oozing was stopped in 68% patients, while in Group-B, oozing was stopped in 82% patients. On 21st day, Group-B showed more healing (85%) as compared to Group-A (69%). In this study 68% of patients were cured. Conclusion: In Group-B (KSS with Lord's anal dilatation) patients were cured early as compared to patients of Group-A (KSS alone). PMID:25558158

  11. Ano1/TMEM16A Overexpression Is Associated with Good Prognosis in PR-Positive or HER2-Negative Breast Cancer Patients following Tamoxifen Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huizhe; Guan, Shu; Sun, Mingli; Yu, Zhaojin; Zhao, Lin; He, Miao; Zhao, Haishan; Yao, Weifan; Wang, Enhua; Jin, Feng; Xiao, Qinghuan; Wei, Minjie

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-activated chloride channel Ano1 (TMEM16A) is overexpressed in many tumors. Although Ano1 overexpression is found in breast cancer due to 11q13 amplification, it remains unclear whether signaling pathways are involved in Ano1 overexpression during breast cancer tumorigenesis in vivo. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) have been known to contribute to breast cancer progression. It is unclear whether Ano1 is associated with clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients with different ER, PR and HER2 status. In the present study, we investigated the Ano1 expression in 431 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma and 46 patients with fibroadenoma, using immunohistochemistry, and analyzed the association between Ano1 expression and clinical characteristics and outcomes of breast cancer patients with different ER, PR, and HER2 status. Ano1 was overexpressed in breast cancer compared with fibroadenoma. Ano1 was significantly more associated with breast cancer with the lower clinical stage (stage I or II), or triple-negative status. Mostly importantly, Ano1 overexpression was associated with good prognosis in patients with the PR-positive or HER2-negative status, and in patients following tamoxifen treatment. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that Ano1 overexpression was a prognostic factor for longer overall survival in PR-positive or HER2-negative patients, and a predictive factor for longer overall survival in patients following tamoxifen treatment. Our findings suggest that Ano1 may be a potential marker for good prognosis in PR-positive or HER2-negative patients following tamoxifen treatment. The PR and HER2 status defines a subtype of breast cancer in which Ano1 overexpression is associated with good prognosis following tamoxifen treatment. PMID:25961581

  12. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  13. Física e Arte nas Estações do Ano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; da Conceição Barbosa Lima, Maria; Navarro Vasconcellos das Mercês, Maria

    2004-12-01

    The paper deals with the subject of the Four Seasons, exploring elements of Science and the Art in order to motivate students or public of museums of science and technology to understand it from their current cultural experiences and of old times. Physics joins to Astronomy to explain the phenomenon, while the use of Music and Painting make possible the immersion in the subject in way to many trips to the imagination capable to awake emotions.A proposal didactic is presented and justified for some consensus of the research in the area of teaching-learning of science, since that related to the persistent alternative conceptions concerning the causes of the changes observed at the different times of the year until the qualitative modelling of phenomena that appeals three-dimensional pedagogical models. Such proposal was developed in the activity named " Hiper interesting Talk: The Four Seasons, Science and Art" in the first Sunday of August/2003 in the Museum of Astronomy, MAST. O artigo trata do tema das Estações do Ano, explorando elementos da Ciência e da Arte como forma de motivar estudantes ou público de museus de ciência e tecnologia a compreendê-lo a partir de vivências culturais atuais e de outras épocas. A Física se junta à Astronomia para explicar o fenômeno, enquanto a Música e a Pintura possibilitam a imersão no tema em meio a muitas viagens à imaginação capazes de despertar emoções.Uma proposta didática é apresentada e justificada por consensos das muitas pesquisas na área de ensino-aprendizagem de ciências, desde os que se referem às persistentes concepções alternativas acerca das causas das mudanças observadas nas diferentes épocas do ano até à modelagem qualitativa de fenômenos que recorre a modelos pedagógicos tridimensionais. Tal proposta foi desenvolvida na atividade "Bate papo Hiperinteressante: As Quatro Estações, Ciência e Arte" realizada no primeiro domingo do mês de agosto de 2003 no Museu de Astronomia.

  14. The proposed use of radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of fistula-in-ano.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Kenneth M; Smart, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Fistula in ano is a very common presentation to colorectal clinic. Embarrassment due to the symptoms makes accurate estimations of incidence difficult. It is estimated that up to 40% of peri-anal abscess will be accompanied by or preceded by a fistula. Fistulae can be classified into simple fistulae that involve no or minimal sphincter muscle and complex, which involve significant amounts of the anal sphincter muscle, possibly with multiple tracts. For complex fistulae a seton suture is usually placed through the tract and out through the anus to form a loop allowing pockets of sepsis to drain internally and externally and a mature tract of fibrous tissue to develop. Following this period definitive fistula treatment is considered. This can involve a number of procedures that have tremendously varied success rates in the literature. The first stage of surgical treatment is often a core fistulectomy, which entails surgical removal of the tract. This may be followed by insertion of fibrin glue, a collagen plug or formation of a rotation skin flap from surrounding tissue in order to close the resultant tissue defect. All current treatments have a significant failure rate. If this wound breaks down the surgery can leave a large painful peri-anal wound that can lead to ongoing fistulation. Should this occur resiting of the seton will be required with the patient only getting back to square one after months of healing around the seton. In addition removing cores of fibrous tissue passing through the sphincter can threaten the sphincter function resulting in impaired continence. Having seen radiofrequency ablation used to close varicose veins the authors propose that one could use similar techniques to close a fibrous tract matured with a seton in order to close a fistula. The authors propose that a short length radiofrequency catheter could be used to treat fistula in ano. This would in theory be less painful with less tissue destruction. In addition there would be no necessity for extensive incisions. As the energy penetration can be controlled the procedure will be safe even if it fails, without causing a large wound or tissue necrosis. All other treatment options will still be available. PMID:26804594

  15. ANO1 contributes to angiotensin-II-activated Ca2+-dependent Cl- current in human atrial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    El Chemaly, Antoun; Norez, Caroline; Magaud, Christophe; Bescond, Jocelyn; Chatelier, Aurelien; Fares, Nassim; Findlay, Ian; Jayle, Christophe; Becq, Frederic; Faivre, Jean-François; Bois, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts are an integral part of the myocardial tissue and contribute to its remodelling. This study characterises for the first time the calcium-dependent chloride channels (CaCC) in the plasma membrane of primary human atrial cardiac fibroblasts by means of the iodide efflux and the patch clamp methods. The calcium ionophore A23187 and Angiotensin II (Ang II) activate a chloride conductance in cardiac fibroblasts that shares pharmacological similarities with calcium-dependent chloride channels. This chloride conductance is depressed by RNAi-mediated selective Anoctamine 1 (ANO1) but not by Anoctamine 2 (ANO2) which has been revealed as CaCC and is inhibited by the selective ANO1 inhibitor, T16inh-A01. The effect of Ang II on anion efflux is mediated through AT1 receptors (with an EC50 = 13.8 ± 1.3 nM). The decrease of anion efflux by calphostin C and bisindolylmaleimide I (BIM I) suggests that chloride conductance activation is dependent on PKC. We conclude that ANO1 contributes to CaCC current in human cardiac fibroblasts and that this is regulated by Ang II acting via the AT1 receptor pathway. PMID:24412532

  16. Final report to the Office of Aeronautics, Exploration and Technology National Aeronautics and Space Administration on Assessment of Technologies for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics solicited from individual members of the aerospace profession new technical ideas or approaches applicable to the SEI. These submissions were assessed for their value in (1) reducing the costs or risks of human flight beyond low earth orbit or the time needed to do so, or (2) enabling the accomplishment of more useful space exploration objectives with the available resources. In addition to evaluating the innovations submitted in response to the AIAA solicitation, the assessment team also developed a rational framework in which to consider them: an overall architecture which features several different options. The present document contains sections on architecture and systems (with implementation phases for the moon and Mars), and on technologies (transportation, human support, planetary surfaces, and infrastructure). Conclusions and recommendations on near-term technologies and on technologies with future promise are presented.

  17. The Multi-factor Predictive Seis &Gis Model of Ecological, Genetical, Population Health Risk and Bio-geodynamic Processes In Geopathogenic Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, Y.

    I. Goal and Scope. Human birth rate decrease, death-rate growth and increase of mu- tagenic deviations risk take place in geopathogenic and anthropogenic hazard zones. Such zones create unfavourable conditions for reproductive process of future genera- tions. These negative trends should be considered as a protective answer of the com- plex biosocial system to the appearance of natural and anthropogenic risk factors that are unfavourable for human health. The major goals of scientific evaluation and de- crease of risk of appearance of hazardous processes on the territory of Dnipropetrovsk, along with creation of the multi-factor predictive Spirit-Energy-Information Space "SEIS" & GIS Model of ecological, genetical and population health risk in connection with dangerous bio-geodynamic processes, were: multi-factor modeling and correla- tion of natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and those of human health; determination of indicators that show the risk of destruction structures appearance on different levels of organization and functioning of the city ecosystem (geophys- ical and geochemical fields, soil, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere); analysis of regularities of natural, anthropogenic, and biological rhythms' interactions. II. Meth- ods. The long spatio-temporal researches (Y. Bondarenko, 1996, 2000) have proved that the ecological, genetic and epidemiological processes are in connection with de- velopment of dangerous bio-geophysical and bio-geodynamic processes. Mathemat- ical processing of space photos, lithogeochemical and geophysical maps with use of JEIS o and ERDAS o computer systems was executed at the first stage of forma- tion of multi-layer geoinformation model "Dnipropetrovsk ARC View GIS o. The multi-factor nonlinear correlation between solar activity and cosmic ray variations, geophysical, geodynamic, geochemical, atmospheric, technological, biological, socio- economical processes and oncologic case rate frequency, general and primary popula- tion sickness cases in Dnipropetrovsk City (1.2 million persons) are described by the multi-factor predictive SEIS & GIS model of geopathogenic zones that determines the human health risk and hazards. Results and Conclusions. We have created the SEIS system and multi-factor predictive SEIS model for the analysis of phase-metric spatio- 1 temporal nonlinear correlation and variations of rhythms of human health, ecological, genetic, epidemiological risks, demographic, socio-economic, bio-geophysical, bio- geodynamic processes in geopathogenic hazard zones. Cosmophotomaps "CPM" of vegetation index, anthropogenic-landscape and landscape-geophysical human health risk of Dnipropetrovsk City present synthesis-based elements of multi-layer GIS, which include multispectral images SPOT o, maps of different geophysical, geochem- ical, anthropogenic and citogenic risk factors, maps of integral oncologic case rate frequency, general and primary population sickness cases for administrative districts. Results of multi-layer spatio-temporal correlation of geophysical field parameters and variations of population sickness rate rhythms have enabled us to state grounds and to develop medico-biological and bio-geodynamic classification of geopathogenic zones. Bio-geodynamic model has served to define contours of anthropogenic-landscape and landscape-geophysical human health risk in Dnipropetrovsk City. Biorhythmic vari- ations give foundation for understanding physiological mechanisms of organism`s adaptation to extreme helio-geophysical and bio-geodynamic environmental condi- tions, which are dictated by changes in Multi-factor Correlation Stress Field "MCSF" with deformation of 5D SEIS. Interaction between organism and environment results in continuous superpositioning of external (exogenic) Nuclear-Molecular-Cristallic "NMC" MCSF rhythms on internal (endogenic) Nuclear-Molecular-Cellular "NMCl" MCSF rhythms. Their resonance wave (energy-information) integration and disinte- gration are responsible for structural and functional state of different physiological systems. Herewith, complex restructurization of defense functions blocks the adapta- tion process and may turn to be the primary reason for phase shifting, process and biorhythms hindering, appearance of different deseases. Interaction of biorhythms with natural and anthropogenic rhythms specify the peculiar features of environ- mental adaptation of living species. Such interaction results in correlation of sea- sonal rhythms in variations of thermo-baro-geodynamic "TBG" parameters of am- bient air with toxic concentration and human health risk in Dnipropetrovsk City. Bio-geodynamic analysis of medical and demographic situations has provided for search of spatio-temporal correlation between rhythms of general and primary pop- ulation sickness cases and oncologic case rate frequency, other medico-demographic rhythms, natural processes (helio-geophysical, thermodynamic, geodynamic) and an- thropogenic processes (industrial and houschold waste disposal, toxic emissions and their concentration in ambient air). The year of 1986, the year of minimum helio- geophysical activity "2G1dG1" and maximum anthropogenic processes associated with changes in sickness and death rates of the population of Earth were synchronized. With account of quantum character of SEIS rhythms, 5 reference levels of desyn- chronized helio-geophysical and bio-geodynamic processes affecting population sick- ness rate have been specified within bio-geodynamic models. The first reference level 2 of SEIS desynchronization includes rhythms with period of 22,5 years: ... 1958,2; 1980,7; 2003,2; .... The second reference level of SEIS desynchronization includes rhythms with period of 11,25 years: ... 1980,7; 1992; 2003,2;.... The third reference level covers 5,625-years periodic rhythms2:... 1980,7; 1986,3; 1992; 1997,6; 2003,2; .... The fourth quantum reference level includes rhythms 3 with period of 2,8125 years: ... 1980,7; 1983,5; 1986,3; 1989,1; 1992; 1994,8; 1997,6; 2000,4; 2003,2; .... Rhythms with 1,40625-years period fall is fifth reference level of SEIS desynchro- nization: ...1980,7; 1982,1; 1983,5; 1984,9; 1986,3; 1987,7; 1989,1; 1990,5; 1992; 1993,3; 1994,8; 1996,2; 1997,6; 1999; 2000,4; 2001,8; 2003,2;.... Analysis of alternat- ing medical and demographic situation in Ukraine (1981-1992)and in Dnipropetrovsk (1988-1995)has allowed to back up theoretical model of various-level rhythm quan- tum, with non-linear regularities due to phase-metric spatio-temporal deformation be- ing specified. Application of new technologies of Risk Analysis, Sinthesis and SEIS Modeling at the choice of a burial place for dangerous radioactive wastes in the zone of Chernobyl nuclear disaster (Shestopalov V., Bondarenko Y...., 1998) has shown their very high efficiency in comparison with GIS Analysis. IV.Recommendations and Outlook. In order to draw a conclusion regarding bio-geodynamic modeling of spatio-temporal structure of areas where common childhood sickness rate exists, it is necessary to mention that the only thing that can favour to exact predicting of where and when important catastrophes and epidemies will take place is correct and complex bio-geodynamic modeling. Imperfection of present GIS is the result of the lack of interactive facilities for multi-factor modeling of nonlinear natural and an- thropogenic processes. Equations' coefficients calculated for some areas are often irrelevant when applied to others. In this connection there arises a number of prob- lems concerning practical application and reliability of GIS-models that are used to carry out efficient ecological monitoring. References Bondarenko Y., 1997, Drawing up Cosmophotomaps and Multi-factor Forecasting of Hazard of Development of Dan- gerous Geodynamic Processes in Dnipropetrovsk,The Technically-Natural Problems of failures and catastrophes in connection with development of dangerous geological processes, Kiev, Ukraine, 1997. Bondarenko Y., 1997, The Methodology of a State the Value of Quality of the Ground and the House Level them Ecology-Genetic-Toxic of the human health risk based on multi-layer cartographical model", Experience of application GIS - Technologies for creating Cadastral Systems, Yalta, Ukraine, 1997, p. 39-40. Shestopalov V., Bondarenko Y., Zayonts I., Rudenko Y. , Bohuslavsky A., 1998, Complexation of Structural-Geodynamical and Hydrogeological Methods of Studying Areas to Reveal Geological Structural Perspectives for Deep Isolation of Radioactive Wastes, Field Testing and Associated Modeling of Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Geologic Disposal Sites, Berkeley, USA, 1998, p.81-82. 3

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of the MBT plant in Ano Liossia, Athens, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Abeliotis, Konstadinos; Kalogeropoulos, Alexandros; Lasaridi, Katia

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the operation of an MBT plant in Greece based on LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare four different MBT operating scenarios (among them and with landfilling). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Utilization of the MBT compost and metals generates the most environmental gains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal exploitation of RDF improves further the environmental performance of the plant. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the application of Life Cycle Assessment to the operation of the MBT facility of Ano Liossia in the region of Attica in Greece. The region of Attica is home to almost half the population of Greece and the management of its waste is a major issue. In order to explicitly analyze the operation of the MBT plant, five scenarios were generated. Actual operation data of the MBT plant for the year 2008 were provided by the region of Attica and the LCA modeling was performed via the SimaPro 5.1 software while impact assessment was performed utilizing the Eco-indicator'99 method. The results of our analysis indicate that even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Among the scenarios of MBT operation, the one with complete utilization of the MBT outputs, i.e. compost, RDF, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, is the one that generates the most environmental gains. Our analysis indicates that the exploitation of RDF via incineration is the key factor towards improving the environmental performance of the MBT plant. Our findings provide a quantitative understanding of the MBT plant. Interpretation of results showed that proper operation of the modern waste management systems can lead to substantial reduction of environmental impacts and savings of resources.

  19. Fistula-in-Ano Complicated by Fournier's Gangrene Our Experience in North-Eastern Region of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Ali, Nuhu; Gadam, Ibrahim A; Gali, Bata M; Tahir, Chubado; Yawe, KDT; Dahiru, Adamu B; Mohammed, Baba S; Wadinga, Dauda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fistula-in-ano when complicated by Fournier's gangrene is an unusual finding and always carries high morbidity. This study details our experience in managing 10 cases. Methods of Study: Case files of all patients managed in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital and Federal Medical Center of Yola and Gombe from January, 2007 to December, 2011 were retrieved from Medical Record Departments and other Hospital Records. These were analyzed for demographic, clinical and pathological variables, the type of treatment and follow-up. Results: A total of 10 men with a mean age of 50.5 years (35-60) were managed in the period of study. Nearly, 50% of the patients were farmers, 30% businessmen and 20% were civil servant. 7 (70%) of these patients presented with Fournier's gangrene within 4 weeks of development of fistula-in-ano and the rest within 8 weeks. 4 (40%) of these patients had inadequate drainage of their perianal abscess and 2 (20%) had incision and drainage. Another 4 (40%) had spontaneously rupture of the perianal abscess. 6 (60%) of the fistula-in-ano was submuscular, 30% subcutaneous and 10% were complex or recurrent. Nearly, 20% of patients had fistulotomy and seton application for adequate drainage. Mucosal advancement flap was performed in 5 (50%) and fistulotomy in 3 (30%) patients. Another 30% had fistulotomy and continuing sitz bath. Conclusion: Cryptoglandular infection is an important cause of perianal abscesses and fistula-in-ano and if poorly managed results in Fournier's gangrene. Early broad spectrum parenteral antibiotic therapy and primary surgical treatment can prevent Fournier's gangrene. PMID:24497752

  20. Low-Cost Al2O3 Coating Layer As a Preformed SEI on Natural Graphite Powder To Improve Coulombic Efficiency and High-Rate Cycling Stability of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tianyu; Xu, Youlong; Zhang, Zhengwei; Du, Xianfeng; Sun, Xiaofei; Xiong, Lilong; Rodriguez, Raul; Holze, Rudolf

    2016-03-16

    Coulombic efficiency especially in the first cycle, cycling stability, and high-rate performance are crucial factors for commercial Li-ion batteries (LIBs). To improve them, in this work, Al2O3-coated natural graphite powder was obtained through a low-cost and facile sol-gel method. Based on a comparison of various coated amounts, 0.5 mol % Al(NO3)3 (vs mole of graphite) could bring about a smooth Al2O3 coating layer with proper thickness, which could act as a preformed solid electrolyte interface (SEI) to reduce the regeneration of SEI and lithium-ions consumption during subsequent cycling. Furthermore, we examined the advantages of Al2O3 coating by relating energy levels in LIBs using density functional theory calculations. Owing to its proper bandgap and lithium-ion conduction ability, the coating layer performs the same function as a SEI does, preventing an electron from getting to the outer electrode surface and allowing lithium-ion transport. Therefore, as a preformed SEI, the Al2O3 coating layer reduces extra cathode consumption observed in commercial LIBs. PMID:26913475

  1. Reactions to self-sampling for ano-rectal sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Joshua G; Dodge, Brian; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2011-04-01

    Little is known about men's potential motivations and barriers associated with specific sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing methods. In this study, we examined experiences of self-sampling for ano-rectal STI among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a midwestern community in the U.S. A total of 75 MSM were recruited from community venues throughout Indianapolis, Indiana. Participants completed semi-structured interviews, were asked to obtain ano-rectal self-sample in a private restroom, and were asked open-ended questions about their experiences with ano-rectal self-sampling for STI. Participants included 35 White, 27 Black, and 13 Latino MSM who ranged in age from 18 to 57 years. Regardless of sexual practices, most participants who obtained an ano-rectal self-sample (68/75) reported that the sampling procedure was relatively painless and physically easy. However, regardless of previous receptive anal sex, participants also expressed concerns about the nature of the test (i.e., inserting something into their rectum), which required increased levels of privacy and cleanliness compared to collection of urine samples. Self-sampling proved to be a feasible and acceptable method of collecting ano-rectal STI specimens among MSM. Increased testing for ano-rectal STI among MSM may require addressing the location of sampling and testing sites, existing negative perceptions of ano-rectal self-sampling, and the measures in place to promote privacy and cleanliness. PMID:19847636

  2. PERFACT procedure to treat supralevator fistula-in-ano: A novel single stage sphincter sparing procedure

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively perform the PERFACT procedure in supralevator anal fistula/abscess. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging was done preoperatively in all the patients. Proximal cauterization around the internal opening, emptying regularly of fistula tracts and curettage of tracts (PERFACT) was done in all patients with supralevator fistula or abscess. All types of anal fistula and/or abscess with supralevator extension, whether intersphincteric or transsphincteric, were included in the study. The internal opening along with the adjacent mucosa was electrocauterized. The resulting wound was left open to heal by secondary intention so as to heal (close) the internal opening by granulation tissue. The supralevator tract/abscess was drained and thoroughly curetted. It was regularly cleaned and kept empty in the postoperative period. The primary outcome parameter was complete fistula healing. The secondary outcome parameters were return to work and change in incontinence scores (Vaizey objective scoring system) assessed preoperatively and at 3 mo after surgery. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were prospectively enrolled and followed for a median of 13 mo (range 5-21 mo). Mean age was 41.1 ± 13.4 years, M:F - 15:2. Fourteen (82.4%) had a recurrent fistula, 8 (47.1%) had an associated abscess, 14 (82.4%) had multiple tracts and 5 (29.4%) had horseshoe fistulae. Infralevator part of fistula was intersphincteric in 4 and transsphincteric in 13 patients. Two patients were excluded. Eleven out of fifteen (73.3%) were cured and 26.7% (4/15) had a recurrence. Two patients with recurrence were reoperated on with the same procedure and one was cured. Thus, the overall healing rate was 80% (12/15). All the patients could resume normal work within 48 h of surgery. There was no deterioration in incontinence scores (Vaizey objective scoring system). This is the largest series of supralevator fistula-in-ano (SLF) published to date. CONCLUSION: PERFACT procedure is an effective single step sphincter saving procedure to treat SLF with minimal risk of incontinence. PMID:27152140

  3. Surgery for fistula-in-ano in a specialist colorectal unit: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several techniques have been described for the management of fistula-in-ano, but all carry their own risks of recurrence and incontinence. We conducted a prospective study to assess type of presentation, treatment strategy and outcome over a 5-year period. Methods Between 1st January 2005 and 31st March 2011 247 patients presenting with anal fistulas were treated at the University Hospital Tor Vergata and were included in the present prospective study. Mean age was 47 years (range 16-76 years); minimum follow-up period was 6 months (mean 40, range 6-74 months). Patients were treated using 4 operative approaches: fistulotomy, fistulectomy, seton placement and rectal advancement flap. Data analyzed included: age, gender, type of fistula, operative intervention, healing rate, postoperative complications, reinterventions and recurrence. Results Etiologies of fistulas were cryptoglandular (n = 218), Crohn's disease (n = 26) and Ulcerative Colitis (n = 3). Fistulae were classified as simple -intersphincteric 57 (23%), low transphincteric 28 (11%) and complex -high transphicteric 122 (49%), suprasphincteric 2 (0.8%), extrasphinteric 2 (0.8%), recto-vaginal 7 (2.8%) Crohn 26 (10%) and UC 3 (1.2%). The most common surgical procedure was the placement of seton (62%), usually applied in case of complex fistulae and Crohn's patients. Eighty-five patients (34%) underwent fistulotomy, mainly for intersphincteric and mid/low transphincteric tracts. Crohn's patients were submitted to placement of one or more loose setons. The main treatment successfully eradicated the primary fistula tract in 151/247 patients (61%). Three cases of major incontinence (1.3%) were detected during the follow-up period; Furthermore, three patients complained minor incontinence that was successfully treated by biofeedback and permacol injection into the internal anal sphincter. Conclusions This prospective audit demonstrates an high proportion of complex anal fistulae treated by seton placement that was the most common surgical technique adopted to treat our patients as a first line. Nevertheless, a good outcome was achieved in the majority of patients with a limited rate of faecal incontinence (6/247 = 2.4%). New technologies provide promising alternatives to traditional methods of management particularly in case of complex fistulas. There is, however, a real need for high-quality randomized control trials to evaluate the different surgical and non surgical treatment options. PMID:22070555

  4. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales

    PubMed Central

    KITAYAMA, Chiyo; SASAKI, Motoki; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KONDOH, Daisuke; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe3+) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  5. Investigation of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film on LiCoO2 cathode in fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC)-containing electrolyte by 2D correlation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yeonju; Shin, Su Hyun; Hwang, Hoon; Lee, Sung Man; Kim, Sung Phil; Choi, Hyun Chul; Jung, Young Mee

    2014-07-01

    The effects of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) on the electrochemical performance of the LiCoO2 cathode were investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge testing and cyclic voltammetry (CV). It was found that FEC has a positive effect on cycling stability and also improves cell performance. We also studied solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film on the LiCoO2 cathode, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and 2D correlation spectroscopy. The 2D correlation XPS spectra showed that, initially, the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) binder and electrolyte components are decomposed, after which SEI components are formed on the LiCoO2 cathode surface. In the FEC-containing electrolyte, the polycarbonate components are more abundant than in the FEC-free electrolyte. The formed carbonates in SEI film can act as Li+-conducting materials in reducing the electrode/electrolyte interfacial impedance. This hypothesis is supported by the results of an electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) analysis.

  6. Inhibition of cell proliferation by a selective inhibitor of the Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup -} channel, Ano1

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzone, Amelia; Eisenman, Seth T.; Strege, Peter R.; Yao, Zhen; Ordog, Tamas; Gibbons, Simon J.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T16A{sub inh}-A01 blocked Ano1 currents in HEK cells expressing Ano1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T16A{sub inh}-A01 reduced proliferation in ICC primary cultures and CFPAC-1 cell line. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T16A{sub inh}-A01 reduced proliferation of ICC in intact smooth muscle strips. -- Abstract: Background: Ion channels play important roles in regulation of cellular proliferation. Ano1 (TMEM16A) is a Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup -} channel expressed in several tumors and cell types. In the muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract Ano1 is selectively expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and appears to be required for normal gastrointestinal slow wave electrical activity. However, Ano1 is expressed in all classes of ICC, including those that do not generate slow waves suggesting that Ano1 may have other functions. Indeed, a role for Ano1 in regulating proliferation of tumors and ICC has been recently suggested. Recently, a high-throughput screen identified a small molecule, T16A{sub inh}-A01 as a specific inhibitor of Ano1. Aim: To investigate the effect of the T16A{sub inh}-A01 inhibitor on proliferation in ICC and in the Ano1-expressing human pancreatic cancer cell line CFPAC-1. Methods: Inhibition of Ano1 was demonstrated by whole cell voltage clamp recordings of currents in cells transfected with full-length human Ano1. The effect of T16A{sub inh}-A01 on ICC proliferation was examined in situ in organotypic cultures of intact mouse small intestinal smooth muscle strips and in primary cell cultures prepared from these tissues. ICC were identified by Kit immunoreactivity. Proliferating ICC and CFPAC-1 cells were identified by immunoreactivity for the nuclear antigen Ki67 or EdU incorporation, respectively. Results: T16A{sub inh}-A01 inhibited Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup -} currents by 60% at 10 {mu}M in a voltage-independent fashion. Proliferation of ICC was significantly reduced in primary cultures from BALB/c mice following treatment with T16A{sub inh}-A01. Proliferation of the CFPAC-1 human cell-line was also reduced by T16A{sub inh}-A01. In organotypic cultures of smooth muscle strips from mouse jejunum, the proliferation of ICC was reduced but the total number of proliferating cells/confocal stack was not affected, suggesting that the inhibitory effect was specific for ICC. Conclusions: The selective Ano1 inhibitor T16A{sub inh}-A01 inhibited Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup -} currents, reduced the number of proliferating ICC in culture and inhibited proliferation in the pancreatic cancer cell line CFPAC-1. These data support the notion that chloride channels in general and Ano1 in particular are involved in the regulation of proliferation.

  7. Meta-Analyses of Microarray Datasets Identifies ANO1 and FADD as Prognostic Markers of Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ram Bhupal; Bhat, Anupama Rajan; James, Bonney Lee; Govindan, Sindhu Valiyaveedan; Mathew, Rohit; Dr, Ravindra; Hedne, Naveen; Illiayaraja, Jeyaram; Kekatpure, Vikram; Khora, Samanta S; Hicks, Wesley; Tata, Pramila; Kuriakose, Moni A; Suresh, Amritha

    2016-01-01

    The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) transcriptome has been profiled extensively, nevertheless, identifying biomarkers that are clinically relevant and thereby with translational benefit, has been a major challenge. The objective of this study was to use a meta-analysis based approach to catalog candidate biomarkers with high potential for clinical application in HNSCC. Data from publically available microarray series (N = 20) profiled using Agilent (4X44K G4112F) and Affymetrix (HGU133A, U133A_2, U133Plus 2) platforms was downloaded and analyzed in a platform/chip-specific manner (GeneSpring software v12.5, Agilent, USA). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and clustering analysis was carried out iteratively for segregating outliers; 140 normal and 277 tumor samples from 15 series were included in the final analysis. The analyses identified 181 differentially expressed, concordant and statistically significant genes; STRING analysis revealed interactions between 122 of them, with two major gene clusters connected by multiple nodes (MYC, FOS and HSPA4). Validation in the HNSCC-specific database (N = 528) in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) identified a panel (ECT2, ANO1, TP63, FADD, EXT1, NCBP2) that was altered in 30% of the samples. Validation in treatment naïve (Group I; N = 12) and post treatment (Group II; N = 12) patients identified 8 genes significantly associated with the disease (Area under curve>0.6). Correlation with recurrence/re-recurrence showed ANO1 had highest efficacy (sensitivity: 0.8, specificity: 0.6) to predict failure in Group I. UBE2V2, PLAC8, FADD and TTK showed high sensitivity (1.00) in Group I while UBE2V2 and CRYM were highly sensitive (>0.8) in predicting re-recurrence in Group II. Further, TCGA analysis showed that ANO1 and FADD, located at 11q13, were co-expressed at transcript level and significantly associated with overall and disease-free survival (p<0.05). The meta-analysis approach adopted in this study has identified candidate markers correlated with disease outcome in HNSCC; further validation in a larger cohort of patients will establish their clinical relevance. PMID:26808319

  8. Meta-Analyses of Microarray Datasets Identifies ANO1 and FADD as Prognostic Markers of Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Ram Bhupal; Bhat, Anupama Rajan; James, Bonney Lee; Govindan, Sindhu Valiyaveedan; Mathew, Rohit; DR, Ravindra; Hedne, Naveen; Illiayaraja, Jeyaram; Kekatpure, Vikram; Khora, Samanta S.; Hicks, Wesley; Tata, Pramila; Kuriakose, Moni A.; Suresh, Amritha

    2016-01-01

    The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) transcriptome has been profiled extensively, nevertheless, identifying biomarkers that are clinically relevant and thereby with translational benefit, has been a major challenge. The objective of this study was to use a meta-analysis based approach to catalog candidate biomarkers with high potential for clinical application in HNSCC. Data from publically available microarray series (N = 20) profiled using Agilent (4X44K G4112F) and Affymetrix (HGU133A, U133A_2, U133Plus 2) platforms was downloaded and analyzed in a platform/chip-specific manner (GeneSpring software v12.5, Agilent, USA). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and clustering analysis was carried out iteratively for segregating outliers; 140 normal and 277 tumor samples from 15 series were included in the final analysis. The analyses identified 181 differentially expressed, concordant and statistically significant genes; STRING analysis revealed interactions between 122 of them, with two major gene clusters connected by multiple nodes (MYC, FOS and HSPA4). Validation in the HNSCC-specific database (N = 528) in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) identified a panel (ECT2, ANO1, TP63, FADD, EXT1, NCBP2) that was altered in 30% of the samples. Validation in treatment naïve (Group I; N = 12) and post treatment (Group II; N = 12) patients identified 8 genes significantly associated with the disease (Area under curve>0.6). Correlation with recurrence/re-recurrence showed ANO1 had highest efficacy (sensitivity: 0.8, specificity: 0.6) to predict failure in Group I. UBE2V2, PLAC8, FADD and TTK showed high sensitivity (1.00) in Group I while UBE2V2 and CRYM were highly sensitive (>0.8) in predicting re-recurrence in Group II. Further, TCGA analysis showed that ANO1 and FADD, located at 11q13, were co-expressed at transcript level and significantly associated with overall and disease-free survival (p<0.05). The meta-analysis approach adopted in this study has identified candidate markers correlated with disease outcome in HNSCC; further validation in a larger cohort of patients will establish their clinical relevance. PMID:26808319

  9. Covalency hinders AnO2(H2O)(+)→ AnO(OH)2(+) isomerisation (An = Pa-Pu).

    PubMed

    Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2016-02-21

    The enthalpies of the reactions AnO2(+)→ AnO(+) + O and AnO2(+) + H2O → AnO2(H2O)(+), and those of the isomerisation of the latter to AnO(OH)2(+), have been calculated for An = Pa-Pu. The data match previous experimental and computational values very closely, and the computed enthalpy for the isomerisation of PaO2(H2O)(+) to PaO(OH)2(+), requested by the authors of Inorg. Chem., 2015, 54, 7474, is found to be 0.8 kJ mol(-1). The NPA, NBO and QTAIM approaches are used to probe covalency in the An-Oyl bond of AnO2(H2O)(+), and all metrics agree that these bonds become increasingly covalent as the 5f series is crossed, providing rationalisation for the increasingly endothermic isomerisation reactions. QTAIM analysis indicates that the An[double bond, length as m-dash]O and An-OH bonds in the oxide hydroxide isomers also become increasingly covalent as the 5f series is crossed. PMID:26781751

  10. New Constraints on Buried Triassic Basins of the Eastern North American Margin and Implications for Regional Tectonics from Reanalysis of SeisData6 Seismic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, C. C.; Akintunde, O. M.; Knapp, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) is most significant due to the complexity and regional extent of this mature Mesozoic passive margin rift system encompassing: (1) a large volume and regional extent of related magmatism, (2) a preserved complete stratigraphic column that records the post-rift evolution in several basins, (3) preserved lithospheric-scale pre-rift structures including Paleozoic sutures, and (4) a wide-range of geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies both onshore and offshore. The short-lived but most voluminous magmatic event associated with the initiation of rifting, the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), is one of the most significant magmatic events in North America. The South Georgia Rift (SGR) basin is believed to be the largest and probably the most geologically complex Mesozoic graben of the ENAM formed during crustal extension associated with the breakup of Pangea and later opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The separation of the African and North American plates, the formation of the Atlantic Ocean and the associated zones of weakness in eastern North America have been stated as the initial events in the breakup of Pangea. At least four major unanswered questions of regional tectonic significance derive from a previous study of the USGS SeisData6 seismic profile across the Coastal Plain of South East Georgia and are now addressed through reprocessing. These issues are: (1) the stratigraphy, structural composition, extent and thickness of this buried basin which have remained unknown, (2) whether or not the SGR basin is connected with the Riddleville and Dunbarton basins in Georgia and South Carolina, (3) whether or not the Augusta fault, an inferred crustal scale thrust fault which approximately represents the Piedmont-Coastal Plain boundary in Georgia and South Carolina, extends underneath the Coastal Plain sediments, and (4) weather there is evidence of CAMP basalt flows or sills within the SGR basin along this transect. A key significant discovery of this study is the substantiation of the presence of a buried Triassic basin inferred to be the subsurface convergence of the Riddleville and Dunbarton basins. Both basins appear to be subsidiaries of the main SGR basin. The SGR basin is about 2.2 km deep, 170 km wide and it appears to be bounded in the south-east by normal faults resembling graben-like structures. Basin-bounding faults reactivated as reverse faults during Cretaceous and Cenozoic times are common in many of the buried Mesozoic rift basins of the Southern Appalachians. The basin fill is mostly sedimentary rocks and no basalt was encountered. Absence of basalt in this area implies that erosion, uplift and possibly fault reactivation may have limited the regional extent of voluminous basaltic flows extruded during ENAM's magmatism. Seismically, we found no evidence to suggest that the Augusta fault extends underneath the Coastal Plain sediments in the study area. Based on correlation of seismic and well data, we interpret the lack of reflections in the NW-end of the profile to be due to the presence of non-reflective metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont Province.

  11. Crustal nature and seismic structure of the geological provinces offshore the SW Iberia: Highlights of the NEAREST-SEIS wide-angle seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Loriente, S.; Sallares, V.; Gailler, A.; Bartolome, R.; Gracia, E.; Gutscher, M.; Diaz, J.

    2011-12-01

    The SW Iberian margin hosts the present day NW-SE plate convergence between the European and African Plates at a rate of 4.5 mm/yr causing seismic activity of moderate magnitude. During fall 2008 and in the frame of the EU-funded NEAREST project, was carried out a wide-angle seismic survey (NEAREST-SEIS cruise) consisting in 2 profiles. The main objectives of the survey were to gather information about the geometry of the crust-mantle boundary, identify the nature of the different geological provinces, obtain the physical properties of the crust, and unveil the deep geometry of the interfaces between main faults. A total of 30 OBS were deployed along profile P1, which is 356 km long and trends NW-SE running from the Tagus Abyssal Plain (TAP), Gorringe Bank (GB), Horseshoe Abyssal Plain (HAP), Coral Patch Ridge (CPR), and finally reaching the thrust-and-fold belt of the Seine Abyssal Plain (SAP). The inverted model shows four well-differentiated domains in terms of seismic structure. In the TAP there is a 3-4 km-thick sediment layer with low velocity, lying above a basement showing a remarkably high velocity (< 7 km/s), similar to that of the basement outcropping in the GB. In the HAP the sedimentary cover is thicker, showing an uppermost unit with very low velocity corresponding to the Upper Miocene Horseshoe Gravitational Unit, on top of a higher velocity lower unit, which corresponds to the Mesozoic sedimentary sequence, with a total thickness of 5 km. The basement shows the same velocity distribution as in TAP and GB, suggesting a common nature and origin. According to its seismic structure, we interpret this basement as very serpentinized, exhumed upper mantle. In contrast, the CPR and SAP show evidence for the presence of a well-developed, 6-7 km-thick oceanic crust, underlying the 2-3 km thick Mesozoic and Neogene sedimentary sequence. Profile P2 is 256 km long and trends N-S, across the Iberian margin shelf, Portimao Bank, Gulf of Cadiz imbricated wedge and ending at easternmost SAP beyond the NW Moroccan margin. A total of 15 OBS and 7 land-stations were deployed along this profile. The inverted model shows three domains. The northern part is characterized by a ~30 km thick continental crust, corresponding to the continental Variscan basement. In the central part, there is a 60 km-wide transition zone, where the crust abruptly thins to ~20 km. On its southern half, we identified a ~4 km-thick pile of low velocity unconsolidated sediments, corresponding to the Upper Miocene Gulf of Cadiz sedimentary wedge, overlying a 1-3 km-thick section of Mesozoic to Eocene sediments, and a 7-8 km-thick old, oceanic crust. According to tectonic reconstructions, this band of oceanic crust should have been emplaced during the early phases of seafloor spreading between Iberia and Nubia plates (Jurassic age).

  12. Seismic structure of the main geological provinces off the SW Iberian margin: first results from the NEAREST-SEIS wide-angle seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallarès, Valentí; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Gailler, Audrey; Bartolomé, Rafael; Gutscher, Marc-André; Graindorge, David; Lia Grácia, Eulà; Díaz, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    The region offshore the SW Iberian margin hosts the present-day NW-SE plate convergence between the European and African Plates at a rate of 4.5 mm/yr, fact that causes continuous seismic activity of moderate magnitude. In autumn 2008 a Spanish-French team carried out a refraction and wide-angle reflection seismic survey in the area (NEAREST-SEIS cruise), in the framework of the EU, FP6-funded NEAREST project. During the survey two long seismic profiles were acquired using a pool of 36 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS), with the objectives of providing information about the geometry of the crust-mantle boundary and the physical properties of the crust, revealing the deep geometry of the main fault interfaces, and identifying the nature of the basement and the limits of the different geological provinces in the region. A total of 30 OBS were deployed along profile P1, which is 356 km long and trends NW-SE from the Tagus abyssal plain (TAP), crossing the Gorringe bank (GB), the Horseshoe abyssal plain (HAP) and the Coral Patch Ridge (CPR), up to the thrust-and-fold belt of the Seine abyssal plain (SAP). The acquired data were modeled by joint refraction and reflection travel time inversion, following a layer-stripping strategy. The inverted model show four well-differentiated domains in terms of its seismic structure: In the TAP a 3-4 km-thick, low velocity sedimentary layer covers the basement, which shows a remarkably high velocity (>7 km/s), similar to that of the basement outcropping in the Gorringe bank. In the HAP the sedimentary cover is thicker, showing an upper unit with low velocity corresponding to the Horseshoe gravitational unit, on top of a higher velocity lower unit, which may represent the highly consolidated Mesozoic sedimentary sequence. The thickness of the two units together exceeds 5 km. The basement shows the same velocity distribution as in TAP and GB, suggesting a common nature and origin. According to its seismic structure, and considering that there is no evidence for the presence of a basal reflector (e.g. Moho) in the record sections, we interpret this basement as highly serpentinized, exhumed mantle. In contrast, the CPR and SAP show evidences for the presence of a well-developed, 6-7 km-thick oceanic crust, underlying the 2-3 km-thick, moderate velocity, Mesozoic sedimentary sequence. Profile P2 is 256 km long, and trends S-N from the easternmost SAP beyond the NW Moroccan margin, crossing the Gulf of Cadiz imbricated wedge and the Portimao bank ending at the Iberian margin shelf. 15 OBS and 7 land-stations were deployed along this profile, and the recorded data were modeled following the same approach and strategy as for P1. The inverted model shows two main domains: In the southern half, there is a 3-4 km-thick cover of low velocity sediments, which represents the western edge of the sedimentary wedge that covers the internal Gulf of Cadiz, overlying a 7-8 km-thick oceanic crust. According to recent tectonic reconstructions, this crustal segment should have been emplaced there during the early phase of continental spreading between Iberia and Africa, in the context of Mesozoic Atlantic spreading. The northern part of P2 displays a relatively sharp ocean-continent transition zone concentrated in a ~50 km-wide band, that ends with the ~30 km-thick continental crust of the SW Iberian shelf.

  13. Seismic structure and crustal nature of the geological provinces off the SW Iberian margin: results of the NEAREST-SEIS wide-angle seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallares, V.; Martinez, S.; Gailler, A.; Gutscher, M.; Bartolome, R.; Gracia, E.; Diaz, J.

    2010-12-01

    The region offshore the SW Iberian margin hosts the present-day NW-SE plate convergence between the European and African Plates causing continuous seismic activity of moderate magnitude. In autumn 2008 a Spanish-French team carried out a wide-angle seismic survey in the area (NEAREST-SEIS cruise), in the framework of the EU-funded NEAREST project. During the survey two long profiles were acquired using a pool of 36 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS), to provide information about the crustal structure and nature of the different geological provinces, and to reveal the deep geometry of the main fault interfaces. A total of 30 OBS were deployed along profile P1, which is 356 km long and trends NW-SE from the Tagus abyssal plain (TAP), crossing the Gorringe bank (GB), the Horseshoe abyssal plain (HAP) and the Coral Patch Ridge (CPR), up to the thrust-and-fold belt of the Seine abyssal plain (SAP). The inverted model along this profile show four different domains. In the TAP a 3-4 km-thick, low velocity sedimentary layer covers the basement, which shows a velocity >7 km/s just 2-3 km below its top, similarly to that of the basement outcropping in the Gorringe bank. In the HAP the sedimentary cover is thicker, showing an upper unit with low velocity corresponding to the Horseshoe gravitational unit, on top of a higher velocity lower unit, which may represent the highly consolidated Mesozoic sedimentary sequence, with a total thickness of 5 km. The basement shows the same velocity distribution as in TAP and GB, suggesting a common nature and origin. According to its seismic structure, we interpret this basement as highly serpentinized, exhumed mantle. In contrast, the CPR and SAP show evidences for the presence of a well-developed, 6-7 km-thick oceanic crust, underlying the sedimentary sequence. Profile P2 is 256 km long, and trends S-N from the easternmost SAP beyond the NW Moroccan margin, crossing the Gulf of Cadiz imbricated wedge and the Portimao bank ending at the Iberian margin shelf. 15 OBS and 7 land-stations were deployed along this profile. The inverted model shows two main domains: In the southern half, there is a 3-4 km-thick cover of low velocity sediments, which represents the western edge of the wedge that covers the internal Gulf of Cadiz, overlying a 7-8 km-thick oceanic crust. According to recent tectonic reconstructions, this crustal segment should have been emplaced there during the early phase of continental spreading between Iberia and Africa, in the context of Mesozoic Atlantic spreading. The northern part of P2 displays a relatively sharp ocean-continent transition zone concentrated in a ˜50 km-wide band, that ends with the ˜30 km-thick continental crust of the SW Iberian shelf.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF PRENATAL STRESS ON THE ANO-GENITAL DISTANCE AND GROWTH HORMONE IMMUNO-POSITIVE CELLS IN THE PITUITARY GLAND OF THE PIG

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposing pregnant mammals to prenatal stress has been shown to alter the stress response of their resulting offspring. Research in rodents has shown that prenatal stress can modify aspects of gender behavior and morphology. Our objective was to determine if prenatal stress altered the ano-genital di...

  15. The reactions of para-halo diaryl diselenides with halogens. A structural investigation of the CT compound (p-FC6H4)2Se2I2, and the first reported “RSeI3” compound, (p-ClC6H4)SeI·I2, which contains a covalent Se-I bond.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nicholas A; Godfrey, Stephen M; Hughes, Jill; Khan, Rana Z; Mushtaq, Imrana; Ollerenshaw, Ruth T A; Pritchard, Robin G; Sarwar, Shamsa

    2013-02-28

    The reactions of the diaryl-diselenides (p-FC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2) and (p-ClC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2) with diiodine have been investigated. Species of stoichiometry "RSeI" are formed when the ratio employed is 1:1. The solid-state structure of "(p-FC(6)H(4))SeI" has been determined, and shown to be a charge-transfer (CT) adduct, (p-FC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2)I(2), where the Se-Se bond is retained and the diiodine molecule interacts with only one of the selenium atoms. The Se-I bond in (p-FC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2)I(2) is 2.9835(12) Å, which is typical for a (10-I-2) Se-I-I CT system. When diiodine is reacted in a 3:1 ratio with (p-XC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2) (X = F, Cl) species of stoichiometry "RSeI(3)" are formed. The structure of "(p-ClC(6)H(4))SeI(3)" reveals that this is not a selenium(IV) compound, but is better represented as a selenium(II) CT adduct, (p-ClC(6)H(4))SeI·I(2). The Se-I bond to the diiodine molecule is typical in magnitude for a CT adduct, Se-I: 2.8672(5) Å, whereas the other Se-I bond is much shorter, Se-I: 2.5590(6) Å, and is a genuine example of a rarely observed covalent Se-I bond, which appears to be stabilised by a weak Se···I interaction from a neighbouring iodine atom. The reaction of (p-ClC(6)H(4))SeI with Ph(3)P results in the formation of a CT adduct, Ph(3)PSe(p-ClC(6)H(4))I, which has a T-shaped geometry at selenium (10-Se-3). By contrast, the reaction of (p-FC(6)H(4))SeI with Ph(3)P does not form an adduct, but results in the formation of Ph(3)PI(2) and (p-FC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2). PMID:23229685

  16. Revisiting an ancient treatment for transphincteric fistula-in-ano ‘There is nothing new under the sun’ Ecclesiastes 1v9

    PubMed Central

    Sturgeon, G; Hargest, R

    2015-01-01

    Objective The history of treatments for fistula-in-ano can be traced back to ancient times. Current treatment of transphincteric fistulae is controversial, with many options available. We reviewed the history of treatment using cutting setons and present our series of transphincteric fistulae in the light of the series in the literature. Design Literature review and case series. Setting Hospital based coloproctology service Participants 140 consecutive patients presenting with fistula-in-ano were included. Main Outcome Measures The literature pertaining to treatment of transphincteric fistula was reviewed, along with the outcome of various treatment methods for this condition. Data were collected for 140 consecutive patients presenting with fistula- in-ano were assessed for fistula healing, recurrence and complications. Results A total of 140 consecutive patients with fistula-in-ano were identified, of which 111 were cryptoglandular (79.3%). Eighty-one of these 111 were transphincteric (73.0%). At a median follow-up of 35 months (range, 2–83 months), 70 transphincteric fistulae had healed (86.4%), 10 were still undergoing treatment (12.3%) and one patient was lost to follow-up prior to treatment (1.2%). Two patients in this group required a stoma (2.5%), six patients developed recurrence (7.4%); three ‘true’ recurrences (3.7%). One (1.2%) developed a chronic fissure. There were no reported cases of incontinence. Conclusions The management of transphincteric fistula-in-ano is complex and controversial, for which no clear surgical procedure has gained acceptance as the gold standard. This study demonstrates that transphincteric fistulae can be successfully treated using cutting setons. A high healing rate (86.4%), low recurrence rate (7.4%) and a low complication rate (3.7%) are shown, which compares favourably with published rates over a long follow-up. PMID:26152674

  17. A Pore Idea: the ion conduction pathway of TMEM16/ANO proteins is composed partly of lipid.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Jarred M; Hartzell, H Criss

    2016-03-01

    Since their first descriptions, ion channels have been conceived as proteinaceous conduits that facilitate the passage of ionic cargo between segregated environments. This concept is reinforced by crystallographic structures of cation channels depicting ion conductance pathways completely lined by protein. Although lipids are sometimes present in fenestrations near the pore or may be involved in channel gating, there is little or no evidence that lipids inhabit the ion conduction pathway. Indeed, the presence of lipid acyl chains in the conductance pathway would curse the design of the channel's aqueous pore. Here, we make a speculative proposal that anion channels in the TMEM16/ANO superfamily have ion conductance pathways composed partly of lipids. Our reasoning is based on the idea that TMEM16 ion channels evolved from a kind of lipid transporter that scrambles lipids between leaflets of the membrane bilayer and the modeled structural similarity between TMEM16 lipid scramblases and TMEM16 anion channels. This novel view of the TMEM16 pore offers explanation for the biophysical and pharmacological oddness of TMEM16A. We build upon the recent X-ray structure of nhTMEM16 and develop models of both TMEM16 ion channels and lipid scramblases to bolster our proposal. It is our hope that this model of the TMEM16 pore will foster innovative investigation into TMEM16 function. PMID:26739711

  18. Haploinsufficiency of ANO6, NELL2 and DBX2 in a boy with intellectual disability and growth delay.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Ellen Ø; Frengen, Eirik; Fannemel, Madeleine; Misceo, Doriana

    2015-08-01

    We report on a 10-year-old-boy presenting with moderate intellectual disability (ID), impaired motor skills, hypotonia, growth delay, minor anomalies, misaligned teeth, pectus excavatum, small hands and feet, widely spaced nipples, and a 1.13 Mb de novo deletion on HSA12q12 (chr12:44,830,147-45,964,945 bp, hg19), deleting ANO6, NELL2, and DBX2 and the pseudogenes PLEKHA8P1 and RACGAP1P. We suggest DBX2 and NELL2 as disease-causing genes and their haploinsufficiency to be involved in the psychomotor delay in the patient. DBX2 encodes a homeobox protein, highly expressed during neuronal development and regulating differentiation of interneurons in brain and spinal cord. NELL2 is expressed in most of the central and peripheral nervous system, with highest expression in hippocampus and cerebellum, maximizing during neuronal differentiation. The deletion in our patient is the smallest in HSA12q12 reported to date, and it is included in the deletion carried by four previously reported patients. The clinical presentation of these patients points to the recurrence of the following manifestation, possibly delineating a 12q12 deletion syndrome phenotype: moderate to severe developmental/intellectual delay, hypotonia, postnatal growth retardation, skeletal and dental anomalies, minor facial anomalies including strabismus, down slanting palpebral fissures, and large/low-set ears. PMID:25846056

  19. Innovative approach in the management of horse-shoe fistula-in-ano with Kṣārasūtra.

    PubMed

    Wali, Amruta A; Dongargaon, Tajahmed N; Shilpa, M P; Toshikhane, Hemant D

    2015-01-01

    Fistula-in-ano is a common surgical problem. Horse-shoe fistulas usually have an internal opening in the posterior midline and extend anteriorly and laterally to one or both ischiorectal spaces by way of the deep potential space. The "Śambukāvarta Bhagandara" described by Suśruta can be correlated with the horse-shoe type of fistula. In this condition, neither fistulotomy nor "Kṣārasūtra" treatment alone, are useful hence there is a need for newer innovative surgical techniques to tackle this challenging disease. An integral approach of incision and drainage of both the abscess on the arms of the horse-shoe fistula with Kṣārasūtra ligation at 6 o' clock position proves to be successful. We have tried the same technique with good results. No recurrence was found in the patients during the follow-up period of 6 months. A 45-year-old female with a known case of diabetes mellitus and hypertension approached with both right and left ischiorectal fossa inflammatory swelling. An innovative approach was used to manage horse-shoe fistula by making an additional opening below the anus at 6 o'clock position. Apāmārga Kṣārasūtra (medicated thread made using apāmārga) was ligated through the additional opening to the internal opening at 6 o'clock position for draining through both the cavities. Kṣārasūtra was changed weekly and the fistula healed completely by 3 months. PMID:26120231

  20. Innovative approach in the management of horse-shoe fistula-in-ano with Kṣārasūtra

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Amruta A.; Dongargaon, Tajahmed N.; Shilpa, M. P.; Toshikhane, Hemant D.

    2015-01-01

    Fistula-in-ano is a common surgical problem. Horse-shoe fistulas usually have an internal opening in the posterior midline and extend anteriorly and laterally to one or both ischiorectal spaces by way of the deep potential space. The “Śambukāvarta Bhagandara” described by Suśruta can be correlated with the horse-shoe type of fistula. In this condition, neither fistulotomy nor “Kṣārasūtra” treatment alone, are useful hence there is a need for newer innovative surgical techniques to tackle this challenging disease. An integral approach of incision and drainage of both the abscess on the arms of the horse-shoe fistula with Kṣārasūtra ligation at 6 o’ clock position proves to be successful. We have tried the same technique with good results. No recurrence was found in the patients during the follow-up period of 6 months. A 45-year-old female with a known case of diabetes mellitus and hypertension approached with both right and left ischiorectal fossa inflammatory swelling. An innovative approach was used to manage horse-shoe fistula by making an additional opening below the anus at 6 o’clock position. Apāmārga Kṣārasūtra (medicated thread made using apāmārga) was ligated through the additional opening to the internal opening at 6 o’clock position for draining through both the cavities. Kṣārasūtra was changed weekly and the fistula healed completely by 3 months. PMID:26120231

  1. Microscopic theory of the insulating electronic ground states of the actinide dioxides AnO2 (An = U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, M.-T.; Magnani, N.; Oppeneer, P. M.

    2013-11-01

    The electronic states of the actinide dioxides AnO2 (with An = U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm) are investigated employing first-principles calculations within the framework of the local density approximation +U (LDA+U) approach, implemented in a full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave scheme. A systematic analysis of the An-5f states is performed which provides intuitive connections between the electronic structures and the local crystalline fields of the f states in the AnO2 series. Particularly the mechanisms leading to the experimentally observed insulating ground states are investigated. These are found to be caused by the strong spin-orbit and Coulomb interactions of the 5f orbitals; however, as a result of the different configurations, this mechanism works in distinctly different ways for each of the AnO2 compounds. In agreement with experimental observations, the nonmagnetic states of plutonium and curium dioxide are computed to be insulating, whereas those of uranium, neptunium, and americium dioxides require additional symmetry breaking to reproduce the insulator ground states, a condition which is met with magnetic phase transitions. We show that the occupancy of the An-f orbitals is closely connected to each of the appearing insulating mechanisms. We furthermore investigate the detailed constitution of the noncollinear multipolar moments for transverse 3q magnetic ordered states in UO2 and longitudinal 3q high-rank multipolar ordered states in NpO2 and AmO2.

  2. The Anopheles arabiensis genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 and its application potential for the sterile insect technique in integrated vector management programmes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hanano; Vreysen, Marc J B; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tschirk, Wolfgang; Chadee, Dave D; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2015-02-01

    The Anopheles arabiensis genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 was developed based on a dieldrin resistant mutation. The strain has been shown to be practical and reliable in terms of female elimination by dieldrin treatments at larval stages, but has provided some difficulties when treatments were applied at the egg stage. The high natural sterility of this strain has advantages and disadvantages in both mass rearing and the sterilization process. In addition, its recombination rate, although relatively low, poses a threat of strain deterioration if left unchecked in a mass-rearing setting. The males of the ANO IPCL1 have been shown to be equally competitive as lab-reared males of the wild-type Dongola strain, but competitiveness decreased by half when irradiated with 75 Gy—a dose conferring >98% sterility. More controversial issues surround the use of dieldrin—a highly persistent organochlorine that is known to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The prospective use of large volumes of dieldrin in a mass-rearing facility and the retention of its residues by the male mosquitoes makes the use of the strain in the context of the sterile insect technique against this vector highly questionable, and therefore its implementation at a large scale cannot be recommended. PMID:25438257

  3. Whole exome sequencing links dental tumor to an autosomal-dominant mutation in ANO5 gene associated with gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia and muscle dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, T V; Tyazhelova, T V; Rykalina, V N; Gusev, F E; Goltsov, A Yu; Zolotareva, O I; Aliseichik, M P; Borodina, T A; Grigorenko, A P; Reshetov, D A; Ginter, E K; Amelina, S S; Zinchenko, R A; Rogaev, E I

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the jaws may represent different human disorders and frequently associate with pathologic bone fractures. In this report, we analyzed two affected siblings from a family of Russian origin, with a history of dental tumors of the jaws, in correspondence to original clinical diagnosis of cementoma consistent with gigantiform cementoma (GC, OMIM: 137575). Whole exome sequencing revealed the heterozygous missense mutation c.1067G > A (p.Cys356Tyr) in ANO5 gene in these patients. To date, autosomal-dominant mutations have been described in the ANO5 gene for gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD, OMIM: 166260), and multiple recessive mutations have been described in the gene for muscle dystrophies (OMIM: 613319, 611307); the same amino acid (Cys) at the position 356 is mutated in GDD. These genetic data and similar clinical phenotypes demonstrate that the GC and GDD likely represent the same type of bone pathology. Our data illustrate the significance of mutations in single amino-acid position for particular bone tissue pathology. Modifying role of genetic variations in another gene on the severity of the monogenic trait pathology is also suggested. Finally, we propose the model explaining the tissue-specific manifestation of clinically distant bone and muscle diseases linked to mutations in one gene. PMID:27216912

  4. SEI needs for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W.; Cataldo, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) for transportation to the moon and Mars is examined, and the use on Mars and moon bases of thermal conversion subsystems based on either a Brayton or a Stirling cycle is examined. It is shown that both cycles are attractive alternatives for those applications where continuous field operation is desired. Nuclear power systems have a clear advantage with regard to the moon and a lesser one with regard to Mars.

  5. Comparison of EPA's QMS to SEI's CMMI.

    PubMed

    Mills, P; Braun, L; Marohl, D

    2001-01-01

    EPA and other government organizations make decisions based on environmental measurements. How good are the data? How well are the data generators performing? What measurements apply to them? How can the data life cycle processes be improved so data generators can continually provide the best data? EPA's Quality Management System requirements go beyond evaluation of environmental data quality itself to examine systems associated with production, collection, processing (validation/verification), transfer, reduction, storage, and retrieval of data throughout a life cycle. This QMS specifies minimum quality requirements for particular environmental programs. But how can you measure and compare programs that go well beyond the minimum, towards optimal quality? This paper compares EPA's requirements for Quality Management Systems (R2) and Project Plans (R5) to the Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model (CMMISM). The CMMISM model provides for growth (staged or continuous) and a comprehensive assessment that is not yet provided in EPA's R2 or R5. Properly implemented, the CMMISM model serves as a quality framework for integrating and aligning organizational processes and implementing a program of continual process improvements. It identifies process areas ("things to do"), and provides measures of performance ("how well things are done") against specific goals and practices. CMMISM uses a Systems Engineering Management approach, built on process models, that helps identify "how good" the system is. Goodness is defined as stages in a complete model for optimal operation. CMMISM provides two methods for evaluating the goodness of the project. The Staged model in CMMISM provides a Maturity Level that is a well-defined evolutionary plateau describing the manner in which a specified set of processes are performed. As the organization advances in maturity, these levels become more defined and processes are tailored for specific project needs. The other method is called the Continuous Model in CMMISM, and it allows you to achieve Capability Levels. These are used to describe how well each project is doing in relationship to the different process areas. There are six Capability Levels from 0-5 that apply to individual process areas. Organizations using the Capability Level approach can select individual process areas that are important to specific projects and work to improve the processes. Improving capability in individual process areas raises the organization's overall quality of products delivered. The Continuous Model, unlike the Staged Model, lets you pick higher maturity level process areas before completing all of the ones below. Environmental measurement programs need to focus on the quality of the systems where data are collected, processed, transferred, and so forth. DynCorp built on the quality foundation from our experience with R2 to successfully implement CMMISM practices in the development of Forms II Lite and other applications. DynCorp is now migrating to the CMMISM model that has evolved from the existing CMM model. The CMMISM model focuses on the full cycle of Requirements Management from identification, development, collection, refinement, analysis, and validation throughout a project life cycle. It also has a more refined focus on the identification, development, collection, analysis, and evaluation of meaningful measurements, so the results can be used to improve a process or product. PMID:12553079

  6. Randomised Prospective Controlled Trial of Topical 2 % Diltiazem Versus Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy for the Treatment of Chronic Fissure in Ano.

    PubMed

    Vaithianathan, Rajan; Panneerselvam, Senthil

    2015-12-01

    Fissure in ano is a very common disorder of the anorectal region. Internal sphincter hypertonia with decreased relaxation coupled with mucosal ischemia of posterior anal canal are the major pathologies in chronic anal fissure (CAF). Though lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) remains the gold standard of treatment for the disease, it is accompanied by the potential complication of incontinence to both flatus and faecal matter. The aim of our study was to explore the role of topical diltiazem as an effective and a safe alternative to sphincterotomy for chronic anal fissure. Ninety patients with CAF were randomly assigned to group A and group B, with 45 patients each. Group A patients received 2 % diltiazem topical application, twice daily, and group B patients underwent LIS. All the patients were reviewed at first, fourth and sixth week after initiation of treatment. Visual analogue scores for pain and healing of fissure by visual inspection were recorded and compared. In group A, 71 % had complete healing of fissure at 6 weeks, with fair amount of pain relief (mean VAS-3.38), and in group B, 96 % showed healing of fissure, with excellent pain relief (mean VAS-1.87). Headache and flushing were noted in two patients in group A while no patients in group B developed incontinence. We conclude that LIS is more effective than topical diltiazem in the treatment of CAF. Topical diltiazem may be employed as an initial conservative treatment option before considering the surgical alternative. PMID:27011607

  7. Study of the Local Horizon. (Spanish Title: Estudio del Horizonte Local.) Estudo do Horizonte Local

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-12-01

    The study of the horizon is fundamental to easy the first observations of the students at any education center. A simple model, to be developed in each center, allows to easy the study and comprehension of the rudiments of astronomy. The constructed model is presented in turn as a simple equatorial clock, other models (horizontal and vertical) may be constructed starting from it. El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical). O estudo do horizonte é fundamental para facilitar as primeiras observações dos alunos num centro educativo. Um modelo simples, que deve ser feito para cada centro, permite facilitar o estudo e a compreensão dos primeiros rudimentos astronômicos. O modelo construído apresenta-se, por sua vez, como um modelo simples de relógio equatorial e a partir dele pode-se construir outros modelos (horizontal e vertical)

  8. Static electric dipole polarizabilities of An5+/6+ and AnO2+/2+ (An = U, Np, and Pu) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Payal; Peterson, Kirk A.; Clark, Aurora E.

    2014-12-01

    The parallel components of static electric dipole polarizabilities have been calculated for the lowest lying spin-orbit states of the penta- and hexavalent oxidation states of the actinides (An) U, Np, and Pu, in both their atomic and molecular diyl ion forms (An5+/6+ and AnO2+/2+) using the numerical finite-field technique within a four-component relativistic framework. The four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock method formed the reference for MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations, while multireference Fock space coupled-cluster (FSCC), intermediate Hamiltonian Fock space coupled-cluster (IH-FSCC) and Kramers restricted configuration interaction (KRCI) methods were used to incorporate additional electron correlation. It is observed that electron correlation has significant (5 a.u.3) impact upon the parallel component of the polarizabilities of the diyls. To the best of our knowledge, these quantities have not been previously reported and they can serve as reference values in the determination of various electronic and response properties (for example intermolecular forces, optical properties, etc.) relevant to the nuclear fuel cycle and material science applications. The highest quality numbers for the parallel components (?zz) of the polarizability for the lowest ? levels corresponding to the ground electronic states are (in a.u.3) 44.15 and 41.17 for UO2+ and UO22+, respectively, 45.64 and 41.42 for NpO2+ and NpO22+, respectively, and 47.15 for the PuO2+ ion.

  9. Static electric dipole polarizabilities of An(5+/6+) and AnO2 (+/2+) (An = U, Np, and Pu) ions.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Payal; Peterson, Kirk A; Clark, Aurora E

    2014-12-21

    The parallel components of static electric dipole polarizabilities have been calculated for the lowest lying spin-orbit states of the penta- and hexavalent oxidation states of the actinides (An) U, Np, and Pu, in both their atomic and molecular diyl ion forms (An(5+/6+) and AnO2 (+/2+)) using the numerical finite-field technique within a four-component relativistic framework. The four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock method formed the reference for MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations, while multireference Fock space coupled-cluster (FSCC), intermediate Hamiltonian Fock space coupled-cluster (IH-FSCC) and Kramers restricted configuration interaction (KRCI) methods were used to incorporate additional electron correlation. It is observed that electron correlation has significant (?5 a.u.(3)) impact upon the parallel component of the polarizabilities of the diyls. To the best of our knowledge, these quantities have not been previously reported and they can serve as reference values in the determination of various electronic and response properties (for example intermolecular forces, optical properties, etc.) relevant to the nuclear fuel cycle and material science applications. The highest quality numbers for the parallel components (?zz) of the polarizability for the lowest ? levels corresponding to the ground electronic states are (in a.u.(3)) 44.15 and 41.17 for UO2 (+) and UO2 (2+), respectively, 45.64 and 41.42 for NpO2 (+) and NpO2 (2+), respectively, and 47.15 for the PuO2 (+) ion. PMID:25527932

  10. Estudo da região HII galática NGC 2579

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffel, R.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    Desde a descoberta dos gradientes de abundância química em galáxias espirais, as regiões HII galáticas têm sido intensamente estudadas com o objetivo de determinar a forma do gradiente de abundância química na Via-Láctea. Entretanto, a forma do gradiente galático continua controversa e existem muitas regiões HII que continuam inexploradas. A região HII galática NGC 2579 é um objeto que aparece em imagens Ha, como uma pequena mancha brilhante de aproximadamente 2 segundos de arco de diâmetro a 20 segundos de arco ao leste de RCW 20, sendo NGC 2579 muitas vezes confundida com esta última. Apesar de seu alto brilho superficial, NGC 2579 é um objeto pouco estudado provavelmente por problemas de identificação deste objeto. Como parte de um projeto de reavaliação dos gradientes de abundância química das regiões HII na Via-Láctea, estamos realizando um estudo extensivo das propriedades físicas básicas como temperatura eletrônica, densidade eletrônica e composição química da região HII galática NGC 2579. Analisamos dados espectrofotométricos de fenda longa na faixa de 3700Å a 7750Å obtidos com o telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO, Chile, em 2002. Determinamos a temperatura eletrônica usando a razão entre as linhas do [OIII] (l4959+l5007/l4363) e a densidade eletrônica pela razão entre as linhas do [SII] (l6716/l6731). As abundâncias químicas do O, N, Cl, S, Ne e He foram determinadas. Realizamos um estudo de imagens fotométricas nas bandas UBVRI obtidas em 2000 no observatório astronômico San Pedro Mártir, México, para identificar e classificar as estrelas ionizantes de NGC 2579 e determinar a distância deste objeto.

  11. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro programa de formação continuada neste tema. O estudo se justifica mediante o fato de que planejamentos de cursos como estes só se adequarão à realidade do professor (e do aluno) se houver uma investigação antecipada sobre o que os docentes precisam saber e saber fazer a respeito da Astronomia, o que se concretizou em nosso caso pela interpretação dos discursos de uma amostra de professores coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, utilizando para interpretação os princípios e métodos da análise do discurso em sua linha francesa. Os resultados da pesquisa indicaram dificuldades de ordem pessoal, metodológica, de formação, de infra-estrutura e outras relacionadas às fontes de informações para docentes. Este artículo que relata las dificultades de los profesores en relación a la enseñanza da laAstronomía es parte de un estudio preliminar para la implantación dela Astrnomía enla formación de profesores de ls primeros años del ciclo primario.El estudio considera las concepciones alternativas de alumnos y profesores respecto a los fenómenos astronómicos, los errores conceptuales en los libros didácticos y las sugerencias de contenidos de Astronomía que constan en los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales del Brasil. Caracterizar las dificultades de los profesores constituye la cuestión central de este texto, apuntando para el objetivo de contribuir para un futuro programa de educación contínua en este tema. El estudio se justifica mediante el hecho que la planificación de cursos de este tipo solo se adecuarán a la realidade del profesor (y del alumno) si existe una investigación anterior a respecto de lo que los docentes precisan saber y saber realizar en Astronomía, lo cual se concretó en nuestro caso por medio de la interpretación de los discursos de una muestra de profesores obtenidos através de entrevistas semiestructuradas, utilizand para esta interpretación los principios y métodos de análisis del discurso en su línea francesa. Los resultados mostraron dificultades de orden personal, metodológica, formativa, de infraestructura y otras relacionadas a las fuentes de información para los docentes.

  12. Effect of spin-orbit coupling on the actinide dioxides AnO2 (An=Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, and Am): A screened hybrid density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Martin, Richard L.; Roy, Lindsay E.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Rudin, Sven P.; Batista, Enrique R.; McCleskey, Thomas M.; Scott, Brian L.; Bauer, Eve; Joyce, John J.; Durakiewicz, Tomasz

    2012-10-01

    We present a systematic comparison of the lattice structures, electronic density of states, and band gaps of actinide dioxides, AnO2 (An=Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, and Am) predicted by the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof screened hybrid density functional (HSE) with the self-consistent inclusion of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The computed HSE lattice constants and band gaps of AnO2 are in consistently good agreement with the available experimental data across the series, and differ little from earlier HSE results without SOC. ThO2 is a simple band insulator (f 0), while PaO2, UO2, and NpO2 are predicted to be Mott insulators. The remainders (PuO2 and AmO2) show considerable O2p/An5f mixing and are classified as charge-transfer insulators. We also compare our results for UO2, NpO2, and PuO2 with the PBE+U, self interaction correction (SIC), and dynamic mean-field theory (DMFT) many-body approximations.

  13. A Reappraising of Cosmography: the Interface Between Astronomical and Geographic Studies. (Breton Title: Releitura do Conceito de Cosmografia: a Interface Entre os Estudos Astronômicos e Geográficos.) Una Relectura del Concepto de Cosmografía: la Interfase Entre los Estudios Astronómicos y Geográficos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "Cosmography" is in disuse since the 80s of the last century, but the astronomical themes previously discussed in the school subjects of Geography and Cosmography remain in current textbooks. The use of term "Cosmography" was rescued in this research, and the study of its re-signification prompted the appearance of the term Geographic Cosmography. The Geographic Cosmography is a field of studies of the Geography, whose set of knowledge and skills is predominantly scholar. It studies the interface between terrestrial and celestial knowledge, and assigns a geographic significance to them. It examines human and natural relationships with Sidereal Space and its consequences for society and nature. O conceito de "Cosmografia" está em desuso desde os anos 80 do século XX, mas os temas astronômicos anteriormente abordados nas disciplinas escolares de Cosmografia e de Geografia permanecem nos atuais livros didáticos. O uso do termo "Cosmografia" foi resgatado nesta pesquisa e o estudo de sua ressignificação proporcionou o surgimento do termo Cosmografia Geográfica. A Cosmografia Geográfica é um campo de estudos da Geografia, cujo conjunto de conhecimentos e habilidades é predominantemente escolar. Estuda a interface entre os conhecimentos terrestres e os celestes e lhes atribui significância geográfica. Analisa as relações humanas e naturais com o Espaço Sideral e suas consequências para a sociedade e a natureza.

    Aunque el concepto de "Cosmografía" no se usa desde la década de los '80 del siglo pasado, los temas astronómicos que se enseñaban anteriormente en las asignaturas escolares de Cosmografía y de Geografía permanecen en los actuales libros didácticos. El uso del término "Cosmografía" fue rescatado en esta investigación y el estudio de su resignificación proporcionó el surgimiento del término Cosmografía Geográfica. La Cosmografía Geográfica es un campo de estudio de la Geografía, donde el conjunto de conocimientos y habilidades es predominantemente escolar. Estudia la interfase entre los conocimientos terrestres y los celestes, dándoles un significado geográfico. Analiza las relaciones humanas y naturales con el Espacio Sideral y sus consecuencias para la sociedad y la naturaleza.

  14. Assessment of the Olfactory Function in Italian Patients with Type 3 von Willebrand Disease Caused by a Homozygous 253 Kb Deletion Involving VWF and TMEM16B/ANO2

    PubMed Central

    Cenedese, Valentina; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Morgan, Anna; Marino, Renato; Ettorre, Cosimo Pietro; Margaglione, Maurizio; Gasparini, Paolo; Menini, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Type 3 Von Willebrand disease is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the virtual absence of the von Willebrand factor (VWF). A rare 253 kb gene deletion on chromosome 12, identified only in Italian and German families, involves both the VWF gene and the N-terminus of the neighbouring TMEM16B/ANO2 gene, a member of the family named transmembrane 16 (TMEM16) or anoctamin (ANO). TMEM16B is a calcium-activated chloride channel expressed in the olfactory epithelium. As a patient homozygous for the 253 kb deletion has been reported to have an olfactory impairment possibly related to the partial deletion of TMEM16B, we assessed the olfactory function in other patients using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). The average UPSIT score of 4 homozygous patients was significantly lower than that of 5 healthy subjects with similar sex, age and education. However, 4 other members of the same family, 3 heterozygous for the deletion and 1 wild type, had a slightly reduced olfactory function indicating that socio-cultural or other factors were likely to be responsible for the observed difference. These results show that the ability to identify odorants of the homozygous patients for the deletion was not significantly different from that of the other members of the family, showing that the 253 kb deletion does not affect the olfactory performance. As other genes may compensate for the lack of TMEM16B, we identified some predicted functional partners from in silico studies of the protein-protein network of TMEM16B. Calculation of diversity for the corresponding genes for individuals of the 1000 Genomes Project showed that TMEM16B has the highest level of diversity among all genes of the network, indicating that TMEM16B may not be under purifying selection and suggesting that other genes in the network could compensate for its function for olfactory ability. PMID:25635880

  15. SEI rover solar-electrochemical power system options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Bents, David J.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    A trade study of power system technology for proposed lunar vehicles and servicers is presented. A variety of solar-based power systems were selected and analyzed for each. The analysis determined the power system mass, volume, and deployed area. A comparison was made between periodic refueling/recharging systems and onboard power systems to determine the most practical system. The trade study concluded that the power system significantly impacts the physical characteristics of the vehicle. The refueling/recharging systems were lighter and more compact, but dependent on availability of established lunar base infrastructure. Onboard power systems pay a mass penalty for being fully developed systems.

  16. Near-term thermoelectric nuclear power options for SEI missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Jerry R.

    1992-01-01

    Three different types of thermoelectric nuclear space power systems are discussed. First, the general purpose heat source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG), which was qualified and flown on Galileo/Ulysses and is in development for Cassini, is discussed. Second, the modular RTG, which is undergoing life verification, is discussed. Finally, the SP-100 is discussed. The information is presented in viewgraph form.

  17. Software engineering activities at SEI (Software Engineering Institute)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittister, Clyde

    1990-01-01

    Prototyping was shown to ease system specification and implementation, especially in the area of user interfaces. Other prototyping approaches do not allow for the evolution of the prototype into a production system or support maintenance after the system is fielded. A set of goals is presented for a modern user interface environment and Serpent, a prototype implementation that achieves these goals, is described.

  18. Camus: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Seies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bree, Germaine, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Germaine Bree, Nicola Chairmonte, Serge Doubrovsky, Justin O'Brien, Wilfrid Sheed, Roger Quilliot, Thomas L. Hanna, Bernard C. Murchland, Henri Peyre, S. Beynon John, Rachel Bespaloff, Jean-Paul Sartre, Robert Champigny,…

  19. SeiVis: An Interactive Visual Subsurface Modeling Application.

    PubMed

    Hollt, T; Freiler, W; Gschwantner, F; Doleisch, H; Heinemann, G; Hadwiger, M

    2012-12-01

    The most important resources to fulfill today's energy demands are fossil fuels, such as oil and natural gas. When exploiting hydrocarbon reservoirs, a detailed and credible model of the subsurface structures is crucial in order to minimize economic and ecological risks. Creating such a model is an inverse problem: reconstructing structures from measured reflection seismics. The major challenge here is twofold: First, the structures in highly ambiguous seismic data are interpreted in the time domain. Second, a velocity model has to be built from this interpretation to match the model to depth measurements from wells. If it is not possible to obtain a match at all positions, the interpretation has to be updated, going back to the first step. This results in a lengthy back and forth between the different steps, or in an unphysical velocity model in many cases. This paper presents a novel, integrated approach to interactively creating subsurface models from reflection seismics. It integrates the interpretation of the seismic data using an interactive horizon extraction technique based on piecewise global optimization with velocity modeling. Computing and visualizing the effects of changes to the interpretation and velocity model on the depth-converted model on the fly enables an integrated feedback loop that enables a completely new connection of the seismic data in time domain and well data in depth domain. Using a novel joint time/depth visualization, depicting side-by-side views of the original and the resulting depth-converted data, domain experts can directly fit their interpretation in time domain to spatial ground truth data. We have conducted a domain expert evaluation, which illustrates that the presented workflow enables the creation of exact subsurface models much more rapidly than previous approaches. PMID:26357130

  20. Estudo espectral em raios-X duros de fontes do tipo Z com o HEXTE/RXTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, F.; Heindl, W. A.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de um estudo espectral em raios-X de fontes do tipo Z. As fontes do tipo Z são binárias de raios-X de baixa massa (BXBM) com campo magnético intermediário (B~109G). Esta classe de fontes é composta por apenas 6 fontes Galácticas (a saber: ScoX-1, 9, 7, CygX-2, 5 e 0). A nossa análise se concentra na faixa de raios-X duros (E ~ 20keV), até cerca de 200keV, faixa ótima de operação do telescópio "High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment" (HEXTE), um dos três telescópios de raios-X à bordo do Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Nossa motivação para tal estudo, uma busca de caudas em raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z, foi o pouco conhecimento sobre a emissão nesta faixa de energia das referidas fontes quando comparadas, por exemplo, as fontes do tipo atoll (também BXBM). Apresentam-se a análise/redução de dados e explicita-se a maneira como o HEXTE mede o ru1do de fundo. Especial atenção é direcionada a este item devido a localização das fontes do tipo Z e também ao problema de contaminação por fontes próximas. Com exceção de ScoX-1, nenhuma cauda em raios-X duros foi encontrada para as outras fontes, a despeito de resultados de detecção dessas caudas em algumas fontes pelo satélite BeppoSAX. As interpretações deste resultado serão apresentadas. Do ponto de vista deste estudo, nós deduzimos que a produção de caudas de raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z é um processo disparado quando, pelo menos, uma condição é satisfeita: o brilho da componente térmica do espectro precisa estar acima de um certo valor limiar de ~4´1036ergs-1.

  1. The mechanism of the reduction of [AnO2]2+ (An = U, Np, Pu) in aqueous solution, and by Fe(II) containing proteins and mineral surfaces, probed by DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Mahesh; Assary, Rajeev S; Hillier, Ian H; Vaughan, David J

    2011-11-14

    The fate of actinyl species in the environment is closely linked to oxidation state, since the reduction of An(VI) to An(IV) greatly decreases their mobility due to the precipitation of the relatively insoluble An(IV) species. Here we study the mechanism of the reduction of [AnO(2)](2+) (An = U, Np, Pu) both in aqueous solution and by Fe(II) containing proteins and mineral surfaces, using density functional theory calculations. We find a disproportionation mechanism involving a An(V)-An(V) cation-cation complex, and we have investigated how these complexes are formed in the different environments. We find that the behaviour of U and Pu complexes are similar, but the reduction of Np(V) to Np(IV) would seems to be more difficult, in line with the experimental finding that Np(V) is generally more stable than U(V) or Pu(V). Although the models we have used are somewhat idealised, our calculations suggest that there are strong similarities between the biotic and abiotic reduction pathways. PMID:21837318

  2. Estudios Sociales Para ninos de cinco anos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Sara S.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that kindergarten teachers should once a week bring to class a news photograph which they can discuss with the children. Such an exercise can be used to create among the children a wider awareness of the world and to counter their tendency to focus exclusively on the self. (Author/RH)

  3. Um estudo espectrofotométrico da variável cataclísmica V3885 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. M. A.; Diaz, M. P.

    2003-08-01

    Variáveis Cataclísmicas são sistemas binários cerrados compostos de uma anã vermelha que transfere matéria para uma anã branca, em sistemas não magnéticos ocorre a formação de um disco de acresção em torno da anã branca. V3885 Sgr é uma variável cataclísmica classificada como sendo do tipo nova-like. É apresentado um estudo espectrofotométrico de V3885 Sgr de alta resolução temporal feito na região do visível. A região observada é centrada em Ha e abrange também a linha de HeI 6678. O primeiro resultado obtido neste estudo é a determinação do período orbital a partir de medidas da velocidade radial da linha de Ha como sendo 0,20716071(22) dias, resolvendo inconsistências quanto a esse valor na literatura e definindo uma efeméride a longo prazo para o sistema. Com este período e as medidas de velocidade radial do perfil de linha de Ha foi construído um diagrama de massas, através do qual restringimos as massas das componentes estelares do sistema e limitamos a inclinação orbital do sistema. Foram construídos diagramas de Greenstein para as linhas de Ha e HeI, onde os espectros médios em cada intervalo de fase são representados lado a lado em escala de cinza, indicando a existência de uma emissão intensa proveniente da parte posterior do disco. A partir da tomografia Doppler obtivemos perfis de emissividade radial para o disco tanto para a linha de Ha como para HeI. Os resultados obtidos são comparados com os de outros sistemas estudados com a mesma técnica. Serão apresentados também resultados da tomografia de flickering para o sistema.

  4. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    Research developed with 95 students of the 6th year of elementary education in a public school of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. It was a continuous work from February to December 2013, which led the students to participate in activities of observation of the environment, specifically the sky, analyzing the changes occurred. We focused on the study of variations in temperature, rainfall, day length, variations in the size of the shadows and changes in the aspect of the Moon. Our focus of analysis targeted the discussion of the knowledge that these students had about the topics indicated and as they entered the stage during the implementation of the proposal. The results showed a limited perception that students have of their environment, however, lately expanded due to the undertaken activities, especially in relation to the Moon. Working with systematic measure procedures reveals the careful handling of data so that they become understandable to students, and working with the shadows points towards the students first understand how shadows are formed, and then apply this knowledge to Astronomy. Finally, we conclude that the lived process consisted of an initial step of a work that should be encouraged for the subsequent years of training of these students. Proyecto de investigación desarrollado con 95 alumnos del sexto año de primaria en una escuela pública de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Fue un trabajo continuo, de febrero a diciembre de 2013, que llevó a los estudiantes a participar en actividades de observación de su entorno, entre ellas, el cielo, analizando los cambios ocurridos. Nos centramos en el estudio de las variaciones en la temperatura, las precipitaciones, la duración del día, las variaciones en el tamaño de las sombras y los cambios en los aspectos de la Luna. Nuestro foco de análisis se centró en discutir el conocimiento que estos estudiantes tenían sobre los temas indicados al inicio y término de la propuesta. Los resultados mostraron una percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  5. Robotic Lunar Rover Technologies and SEI Supporting Technologies at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klarer, Paul R.

    1992-01-01

    Existing robotic rover technologies at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) can be applied toward the realization of a robotic lunar rover mission in the near term. Recent activities at the SNL-RVR have demonstrated the utility of existing rover technologies for performing remote field geology tasks similar to those envisioned on a robotic lunar rover mission. Specific technologies demonstrated include low-data-rate teleoperation, multivehicle control, remote site and sample inspection, standard bandwidth stereo vision, and autonomous path following based on both internal dead reckoning and an external position location update system. These activities serve to support the use of robotic rovers for an early return to the lunar surface by demonstrating capabilities that are attainable with off-the-shelf technology and existing control techniques. The breadth of technical activities at SNL provides many supporting technology areas for robotic rover development. These range from core competency areas and microsensor fabrication facilities, to actual space qualification of flight components that are designed and fabricated in-house.

  6. 77 FR 40406 - Cancellation of Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS); Travis County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... County, TX AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration, DOT. ACTION: Cancellation of Notice of Intent to... (TxDOT) are issuing this notice to advise the public that the Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare a.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 15, 2008, TxDOT, in cooperation with the FHWA, announced its intent...

  7. Relation of the lunar power system to the SEI program and to landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, David R.; Waldron, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    The people of Earth will need more than 20,000 billion watts (GWe) of electric power by 2050 for a high level of prosperity. Power needs in the 22nd Century could exceed 100,000 GWe. By 2100 the total quantity of thermal energy used could fully deplete the known inventory (10(exp 7) GWt-Y) of all non-renewable sources on Earth except for deuterium and hydrogen for use in proposed fusion reactors. The labor, capital, and mass of power plants required to produce 1 GWe-Y of energy from present-day power plants is summarized. Fossil and nuclear plants respectively consume 80 to 190 M$ and 12 to 48 M$ of fuel per GWe-Y. The Lunar Power System (LPS) uses solar power bases on the moon to beam electric power to Earth. The LPS in the figure supplies load-following power to rectennas on Earth. Additional solar power conversion units are located across the lunar limb from their respective Earthward transmitting stations. LPS can be augmented by mirrors in polar orbit about the moon. The construction of rectennas on Earth determines the base cost (0.001s$/kWe-H) of LPS power. A manned International Lunar Base (ILB) can accelerate the development of LPS by providing the initial transportation and habitation facilities and base operations. ILB can greatly reduce up front costs and risks by emplacing a moderate scale LPS (1-100 GWe). LPS can accelerate the development of the ILB by providing greater funding than is reasonable to expect for purely scientific research. An international ILB/LPS program can foster world trust and prosperity.

  8. Geografia de America Latina. Grados Seis-Diez (Geography of Latin America. Grades Six-Ten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This publication, intended for Spanish-speaking students in grades 6-10, has three main objectives. First, it serves as an introduction (or refresher) to basic geographic concepts. Second, it is an examination of the physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, it is designed to help students examine maps in a critical manner. The

  9. Space Station Freedom (SSF) crew systems SE&I. [System Engineering and Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station program office planning and requirements activity has accelerated during the past year to bring the Space Station Freedom Program (SSF) through the program requirements review phase during 1988. The preliminary design review cycle began in Jan. 89, and is now planned for completion, with formal preliminary design reviews between Apr. and Sept., 1990. This paper briefly describes the PROGRAMMATIC aspects of the engineering and integration management of the SSF crew systems. Emphasis is given to the Crew Health Care System, which includes the Health Maintenance Facility, the Exercise Countermeasure Facility, and the Environmental Health System; all managed within the Man-Systems, one of the twelve 'distributed systems.' Medical and engineering requirements to meet the needs of the mature Space Station operations environment and highlights of critical technologies and equipment in development will be reviewed.

  10. Application of existing launch and flight system hardware for early SEI mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, W. H.; Garvey, J. M.

    1992-08-01

    The paper discusses the three elements of the Space Exploration Initative: the launch systems, the spacecraft, and the management. It is shown that current systems and technologies can be used for missions desligned to explore the moon and Mars. The early initiatives will require coupling the available boosters with evolving upper stages and spacecraft that employ new technologies and subsystems for investigations of the resources, topography, gravity, and the sites for future manned expeditions. It is shown that these early programs can be carried out within limited budgets by applying 'fast track' management techiques. Examples are presented of such efforts that achieved significant returns in 1- to 2-year spans, and, at the same time, meeting all federal regulations.

  11. Relation of the lunar power system to the SEI program and to landers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criswell, David R.; Waldron, Robert D.

    The people of Earth will need more than 20,000 billion watts (GWe) of electric power by 2050 for a high level of prosperity. Power needs in the 22nd Century could exceed 100,000 GWe. By 2100 the total quantity of thermal energy used could fully deplete the known inventory (10(exp 7) GWt-Y) of all non-renewable sources on Earth except for deuterium and hydrogen for use in proposed fusion reactors. The labor, capital, and mass of power plants required to produce 1 GWe-Y of energy from present-day power plants is summarized. Fossil and nuclear plants respectively consume 80 to 190 M$ and 12 to 48 M$ of fuel per GWe-Y. The Lunar Power System (LPS) uses solar power bases on the moon to beam electric power to Earth. The LPS in the figure supplies load-following power to rectennas on Earth. Additional solar power conversion units are located across the lunar limb from their respective Earthward transmitting stations. LPS can be augmented by mirrors in polar orbit about the moon. The construction of rectennas on Earth determines the base cost (0.001s$/kWe-H) of LPS power. A manned International Lunar Base (ILB) can accelerate the development of LPS by providing the initial transportation and habitation facilities and base operations. ILB can greatly reduce up front costs and risks by emplacing a moderate scale LPS (1-100 GWe). LPS can accelerate the development of the ILB by providing greater funding than is reasonable to expect for purely scientific research. An international ILB/LPS program can foster world trust and prosperity.

  12. 75 FR 65005 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), Mississippi Barrier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...The Mobile District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), intends to prepare a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (DSEIS) to the MsCIP Comprehensive Plan and Integrated Programmatic EIS, prepared in June 2009, which evaluated comprehensive water resource improvements associated with hurricane and storm damage risk reduction, shoreline erosion, salt water intrusion and fish and......

  13. Geografia de America Latina. Grados Seis-Diez (Geography of Latin America. Grades Six-Ten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This publication, intended for Spanish-speaking students in grades 6-10, has three main objectives. First, it serves as an introduction (or refresher) to basic geographic concepts. Second, it is an examination of the physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, it is designed to help students examine maps in a critical manner. The…

  14. An interagency space nuclear propulsion safety policy for SEI - Issues and discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, A. C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety topics include reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the safety policy and the issues and considerations that are addressed by the NSPWG recommendations.

  15. Apparent Motion of the Sun, Shadows of Objects and Measurement of Time in the View of Seventh Grade Students of Middle School. (Breton Title: Movimento Aparente do Sol, Sombras dos Objetos e Medição do Tempo na Visão de Alunos do Sétimo Ano do Ensino Fundamental.) Movimiento Aparente del Sol, Sombras de los Objetos y Medición del Tiempo en la Visión de Estudiantes del Séptimo Grado del Ciclo Pirmario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The apparent motion of the Sun on the celestial sphere and the behavior of the shadows of objects over time are observable phenomena in everyday life. However, students often do not have a proper understanding of such occurrences, and can even display misconceptions about them. Therefore, we performed a research in order to know students' notions about these subjects and to evaluate the contribution to their understanding brought about by an activity performed with an interactive sundial in an informal learning environment. We investigated the ideas of 43 students from the seventh grade of middle school by applying a test with open questions before and after an activity with an analemmatic sundial, conducted by a monitor. A significant proportion of students were initially unaware of most of the phenomena treated. The intervention performed helped the students to assimilate new concepts, providing the contact with new phenomena and to a lesser degree, the development of explanations about them, indicating an educational potential of this action. However, the contribution to the understanding of some of the ideas explored was small, pointing to the need to make additional observations, studies and discussions. O movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste e o comportamento das sombras dos objetos com o passar do tempo são fenômenos observáveis no dia a dia. No entanto, muitas vezes os estudantes não possuem uma compreensão adequada de tais ocorrências, podendo inclusive exibir concepções alternativas a seu respeito. Por isso, efetuou-se uma pesquisa com o intuito de conhecer as noções dos alunos sobre esses temas e avaliar a contribuição para seu entendimento propiciada por uma atividade feita com um relógio de Sol interativo, em um ambiente de ensino informal. Foram investigadas as ideias de 43 alunos do sétimo ano do Ensino Fundamental mediante a aplicação de um teste com questões abertas antes e depois de uma atividade com um relógio de Sol analemático, conduzida por um monitor. Uma proporção significativa de estudantes desconhecia inicialmente a maioria dos fenômenos tratados. A intervenção realizada colaborou para uma parte dos alunos assimilar novos conceitos, propiciando o contato com novos fenômenos e, em menor grau, a elaboração de explicações a respeito destes, indicando um potencial educativo dessa ação. Porém, a contribuição para o entendimento de algumas das ideias exploradas foi pequena, apontando para a necessidade de se fazer observações, estudos e discussões complementares. El movimiento aparente del Sol en la esfera celeste y el comportamiento de las sombras de los objetos a lo largo del tiempo son fenómenos observables en la vida cotidiana. Sin embargo, los estudiantes a menudo no tienen una adecuada comprensión de dichos problemas, e incluso pueden mostrar conceptos erróneos acerca de ellos. Por lo tanto, se realizó una investigación a fin de conocer las nociones de los estudiantes acerca de estas cuestiones y evaluar la contribución a su comprensión proporcionada por una actividad realizada con un reloj de Sol interactivo, en un entorno informal de aprendizaje. Se investigaron las ideas de 43 estudiantes del séptimo grado del ciclo primario mediante la aplicación de un test con preguntas abiertas antes y después de una actividad con un reloj de Sol analemático, dirigida por un monitor. Una proporción significativa de los estudiantes inicialmente desconocía la mayoría de los fenómenos tratados. La intervención realizada contribuyó para que los estudiantes asimilasen nuevos conceptos, proporcionando el contacto con nuevos fenómenos y, en menor medida, desarrollasen explicaciones acerca de estos, lo que indica un potencial educativo de esta acción. Sin embargo, la contribución a la comprensión de algunas de las ideas exploradas fue pequeña, lo que apunta a la necesidad de hacer observaciones, estudios y debates adicionales.

  16. Estudo em microondas do aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em explosões solares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosal, A. C.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação rápida e intensa do brilho que ocorre nas chamadas regiões ativas da atmosfera, constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética. Os modelos de explosões solares atuais, discutidos na literatura, apresentam características de aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em ambientes magnéticos simplificados. Neste trabalho, nos propusemos a separar a emissão dos elétrons aprisionados da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação apenas a partir da emissão em microondas, melhorando portanto o controle sobre o conjunto de parâmetros inferidos. A emissão em microondas da população em precipitação é bastante fraca e portanto da nossa base de dados de 130 explosões observadas pelo Rádio Polarímetro de Nobeyama, em sete freqüências, apenas para 32 foi possível separar as duas componentes de emissão com uma boa razão sinal/ruído. A partir de estudos das escalas de tempo das emissões devidas à variação gradual da emissão no aprisionamento e da variação rápida da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação foi possível obter a separação utilizando um filtro temporal nas emissões resultantes. Em nossa análise destas explosões estudamos os espectros girossincrotrônicos da emissão gradual, a qual associamos provir do topo dos arcos magnéticos e da emissão de variação rápida associada aos elétrons em precipitação. Estes espectros foram calculados e dos quais inferimos que a indução magnética efetiva do topo e dos pés foi em média, Btopo = 236 G e Bpés = 577 G, inferidas das freqüências de pico dos espectros em ntopo = 11,8 GHz e npés = 14,6 GHz com leve anisotropia (pequeno alargamento espectral). O índice espectral da distribuição não-térmica de elétrons d, inferido do índice espectral de fótons da emissão em regime opticamente fino, foi de dtopo = 3,3 e dpés = 3,9. Estes parâmetros são típicos da maioria das análises realizadas em ambiente único de emissão e a relação dos índices espectrais, dpés > dtopo prioriza as interpretações com difusão em ângulo de passo devida a colisões Coulombianas. Nesta difusão o déficit de elétrons energéticos na precipitação seria uma conseqüência natural da dependência em e-3/2 das colisões elétron-próton (onde e é a energia dos elétrons).

  17. Construção de um catálogo de aglomerados abertos para estudo da dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, I. M.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Os aglomerados abertos são objetos de grande valor para o estudo da dinâmica da Galáxia devido esses objetos terem uma faixa de idade relativamente ampla. O trabalho visa estudar a dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia principalmente através do uso desses aglomerados, uma vez que o estudo da cinemática desses objetos é fundamental para esse objetivo. Nosso grupo trabalha no sentido de construir uma base de dados de aglomerados abertos contendo coordenadas, distância, idade, movimentos próprios e velocidades radiais e já disponibiliza uma nova versão do catálogo de aglomerados abertos o qual é uma compilação de edições anteriores, principalmente Lynga (1987), Mermilliod (1995) e ESO-B (Lauberts 1982). Nossa amostra possui cerca de 1630 aglomerados, mas nem todos os parâmetros acima citados foram determinados em sua totalidade. Para determinarmos esses parâmetros, derivamos as cores intrínsecas das estrelas membro de cada aglomerado a partir de seus tipos espectrais (busca feita no SIMBAD) obtendo assim o excesso de cor individual. A distribuição dos excessos de cor foi então utilizada para derivarmos o avermelhamento médio para cada aglomerado. De maneira similar, os tipos espectrais foram usados para estimar as magnitudes absolutas, e com as magnitudes absolutas e aparentes determinamos a respectiva distribuição do módulo de distância e finalmente a distância. Para determinar as idades foram confeccionados os diagramas cor-magnitude das estrelas de cada aglomerado onde foram superpostas a Seqüência Principal de Idade Zero (ZAMS). Superpomos a ZAMS de Schmidt-Kaler e isócronas de composição solar. Essas isócronas foram usadas para determinação das idades dos aglomerados. Uma vez que não temos ainda resultados finais, apresentamos então alguns diagramas cor-magnitude os quais foram usados para determinação, principalmente, da distância e idade dos aglomerados.

  18. Mixed-Methods Study that Examines Nine Science Teachers' Perceptions of Slooh Robotic Telescope for Teaching Astronomy. (Breton Title: Métodos Mistos de Estudo que Examinam a Percepção de Nove Professores de Ciências sobre o Telescópio Robótico Slooh Para Ensino de Astronomia.) Métodos Mixtos de Estudio que Examinan la Percepcion de Nueve Profesores de Ciencias sobre EL Telescopio Robótico Slooh Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, Daniel C.; Slater, Timothy F.; Berryhill, Katie J.

    2014-07-01

    Although previous studies show that robotic telescopes have the potential to enhance student learning, there is comparatively little research that focuses on teacher perceptions of this technology. This study investigates: "what is the academic merit of using SLOOH robotic telescopes to teach astronomy as perceived by science teachers?" Our sample consists of nine science teachers of students aged 13-18 years. Pre- and post-tests, interviews, and surveys were collected during two weeks of a summer online course about robotic telescopes. While pre and post-tests do not reveal a statistically significant gain in astronomy content knowledge, analysis of qualitative data reveals five themes which describe the most important aspects of using SLOOH according to participants: "Images," "Interface," "Classroom Application," "Instructor Impact," and "Logistical Issues." Analysis of these themes suggests that SLOOH can provide an interactive and social learning environment with capabilities to incorporate crossdisciplinary themes. Embora estudos anteriores mostram que os telescópios robóticos têm o potencial de melhorar a aprendizagem dos alunos, há relativamente pouca investigação focada nas percepções de professores a respeito desta tecnologia. Este estudo investiga: "qual é o mérito acadêmico da utilização de telescópios robóticos Slooh para ensinar astronomia, tal como percebido pelos professores de ciências?" Nossa amostra é composta por nove professores de ciências de estudantes com idades entre 13-18 anos pré e pós-testes, entrevistas, e levantamentos foram coletados durante duas semanas de um curso on-line de verão sobre telescópios robóticos. Enquanto os testes pré e pós não revelaram um ganho estatisticamente significativo no conhecimento do conteúdo astronomia, a análise de dados qualitativos revela cinco temas que descrevem os aspectos mais importantes da utilização Slooh de acordo aos participantes: "Imagens", "Interface", "Aplicação em sala de aula", "Impacto no Instrutor" e "Questões logísticas". A análise desses temas sugere que Slooh pode proporcionar um ambiente de aprendizagem interativo e social com capacidade de incorporar temas interdisciplinares. Aunque estudios previos muostraron que los telescopios robóticos tienen el potencial de mejorar el aprendizaje del estudiante, hay relativamente poca investigación centrada en las percepciones de lós profesores respecto de esta tecnología. Este estudio investiga: "¿cuál es el mérito académico de la utilización de telescopios robóticos SLOOH para enseñar astronomía según la percepción de los profesores de ciências?" Nuestra muestra está formada por nueve profesores de ciencias de estudiantes entre 13 a 18 años pre-y post-tests, entrevistas, y. encuestas se recogieron durante dos semanas de un curso on-line de verano sobre los telescopios robóticos. Si bien lós tests antes y después de las pruebas no revelaron un aumento estadísticamente significativo en el conocimiento de contenido astronómico, el análisis de lós datos cualitativos reveló cinco temas que describen los aspectos más importantes de la utilización de SLOOH de acuerdo con los participantes:. "Imágenes", "Interface", "aplicación en el aula", "Impacto en el Instructor" y "problemas logísticos" . El análisis de estos temas sugiere que SLOOH puede proporcionar un ambiente de aprendizaje interactivo y social, con capacidad para incorporar temas transversales.

  19. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  20. 77 FR 36032 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and To Conduct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Order 13337 of April 30, 2004 (69 FR 25299), as amended. To issue a Permit, the Department of State must... border in Phillips County, Montana to Steele City, Nebraska and avoids the Sand Hills region of Nebraska. The Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality has identified the Sand Hills region and is...

  1. 78 FR 16565 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and To Conduct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Statement for the proposed Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership, Line 67 Capacity Expansion Project. Under E.... Enbridge proposes to increase the capacity up to 570,000 bpd by adding horsepower to existing pumping units... additional horsepower to these pumping stations. Enbridge further seeks authority to increase the...

  2. Catholic Educational Publishing between the Two Wars: The Case of the Publishers SEI of Turin and La Scuola of Brescia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Only at the beginning of the Twentieth century, a confessional type of publishing, directed mainly at schools and teachers and devoted, almost exclusively, to publishing textbooks for every level and type of school, came into existence in Italy. In the period between the two World Wars and especially after the Gentile Reform (1923), this type of

  3. Early SEI milestones - Underwater habitats and Antarctic research outposts as analogs for long duration spaceflight and lunar and Mars outposts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Wharton, Robert A.; Andersen, Dale T.; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1992-01-01

    The use of analog environments for space research is considered focusing on underwater habitats and Antarctic research sites as analogous settings to long-duration space flight. It is pointed out that the use of these earth analogs can provide engineers, scientists, and future crew members with critical 'mission' experience at a relatively low cost.

  4. Buen Comienzo, Buen Futuro: El Bebe de Seis Meses (Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Six-Month Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Distributed by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Education, and Health and Human Services, this Spanish-language pamphlet provides parents with information and advice about their infants in the sixth month of life. Following a brief description of developmental characteristics at this age, the pamphlet offers advice on a variety of topics,…

  5. 75 FR 52589 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the Cal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement... (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to address issues arising from the 1993 10th Circuit U.S. Court of...

  6. Cinco Anos Despues: A Preliminary Critique of the Sixteen Point/Spanish Speaking Program - Five Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    In 1970, the Spanish Speaking Program was launched as the Sixteen-Point Program to increase the number of Hispanic employees in the Federal Service. It functioned as part of the government-wide Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Program. In 1973 the U.S. Civil Service Commission's Federal Personnel Manual required agencies to take specific actions…

  7. Ano Nuevo to Santa Cruz, California : a photographic tour of the coastline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chezar, Henry; Wong, Florence L.

    2000-01-01

    This interactive CD ROM contains over 500 overlapping photographic images of the California coastline from A?o Nuevo to Santa Cruz. The images were taken from the R/V David Johnston to illustrate the coastal geology adjacent to part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The introductory home page starts a series of links to a regional map, more detailed area maps, and finally the individual photographic images.

  8. Analisis de las Condiciones de Salud del Nino de 0-6 anos en Honduras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matamoros, Douglas Alberto

    1987-01-01

    Examines the National Pediatric Service and the research program of the Maternity-Infant-Hospital-School in Honduras. Reports that health conditions of young children (birth to six years) in Honduras are appalling and that available funds for health services are inadequate, reflecting the country's economic and social crisis. (NH)

  9. Reading: Birth to Age 5 = La Lectura: Desde El Nacimiento Hasta Los 5 Anos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), 2005

    2005-01-01

    Besides a change in the expectations of parents, other shifts are occurring in society that impact the youngest children (Bowman, Donovan, & Burns, 2000): (1) More women are in the workforce than ever before, which means more children are in child care or preschool; (2) There is increasing evidence of, and conviction from educators, that preschool…

  10. 450 Years of Chicano History in Pictures/450 Anos del Pueblo Chicano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicano Communications Center, Albuquerque, NM.

    For use with junior and senior high school students, this book presents more than 250 drawings and pictures, with an introduction and brief texts in English and Spanish, depicting 450 years of Chicano history. The book covers: Mexico before the Spanish Conquests, Spain's colonization of the Southwest, the United States war on Mexico, events in the…

  11. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano IV, No. 8 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume IV, No. 8).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  12. Cinco Anos Despues: A Preliminary Critique of the Sixteen Point/Spanish Speaking Program - Five Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    In 1970, the Spanish Speaking Program was launched as the Sixteen-Point Program to increase the number of Hispanic employees in the Federal Service. It functioned as part of the government-wide Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Program. In 1973 the U.S. Civil Service Commission's Federal Personnel Manual required agencies to take specific actions

  13. Consideraciones medicas y psicologicas en ninos de 5 y 6 anos de 6 guarderias infantiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSilva, Milagros Guerra; DeViloria, Carmen Leon

    1975-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of attendance at state kindergartens of a group of 181 five- and six-year-olds from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The effects of a supplemental nutritional program as well as the children's attitudes toward attendance were considered. (MS)

  14. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano III, No. 7 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume III, No. 7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  15. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano 1, No. 2 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume 1, No. 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  16. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano III, No. 6 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume III, No. 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  17. Anxiety ano Academic Performance: A Review of the Literature on Conceptualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert F.

    The current focus on individualization of instructional procedures in the "new technology of teaching" has provided impetus for reexamination of anxiety as a variable in academic behavior. Existing literature is reviewed, suggesting the need for a taxonomy to provide some order and the basis for improving research and application. A preliminary

  18. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano 3, No. 5 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume 3, No. 5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  19. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano V, No. 9 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume V, No. 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  20. 450 Years of Chicano History in Pictures/450 Anos del Pueblo Chicano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicano Communications Center, Albuquerque, NM.

    For use with junior and senior high school students, this book presents more than 250 drawings and pictures, with an introduction and brief texts in English and Spanish, depicting 450 years of Chicano history. The book covers: Mexico before the Spanish Conquests, Spain's colonization of the Southwest, the United States war on Mexico, events in the

  1. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano 2, No. 3. (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume 2, No. 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  2. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano 2, No. 4 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume 2, No. 4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  3. Hispanics in the Community/Junior Colleges: Donde Estamos en el Ano 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de los Santos, Alfredo G., Jr.

    After presenting an overview of the history of the community college from the late 1800's to the present, and a discussion of the philosophic bases and accepted functions and purposes of the community college, this article presents a picture of Hispanic students in community and junior colleges in 1978. General demographic data on Hispanics in the

  4. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Año: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseñanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnômon ao Longo de um Ano: Observações Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    Many misconceptions are recognized among the various groups of students, especially in the elementary school. Among them, the apparent motion of the Sun, in spite of its daily occurrence, is subject to varied interpretations. Thus, the observation and recording of the motion of the stars in the celestial vault is a necessary task for astronomy education. The work presented here proposes the presentation of the results of observations of the apparent movement of the sun by marking the shadow of a vertical gnomon by the students in a class of sixth graders of elementary rural school of Paraná. The project itself was conducted in four stages, on dates near the March equinox, the June solstice, the September equinox and the December solstice. In addition, lectures were developed in the classroom. Such methods sought to build concepts around the apparent movement of the Sun and the alternation of the seasons. Given the results of the activities, an evaluation was applied and the data demonstrated a desired student learning such as: the recognition of the cardinal points, the description of the apparent solar motion and the occurrence of the seasons and their alternation from astronomical observations at naked eye. Muchos conceptos aternativos son conocidos entre los distintos grupos de alumnos, sobre todo en la educación básica. Entre ellos, el movimiento aparente del Sol, por más cotidiano que sea, se presta a interpretaciones variadas. Por lo tanto, observar y registrar el movimiento de las estrellas en la bóveda celeste se torna una tarea necesaria para la educación en astronomía. El trabajo que aquí se presenta propone la presentación de los resultados de la observación del movimiento aparente del sol a través de la marcación de la sombra del gnomon vertical a cargo de los estudiantes en una división de sexto grado de de la escuela primaria rural de Paraná. El proyecto en sí se llevó a cabo en cuatro etapas, en fechas cercanas al equinoccio de marzo, al solsticio de junio, al equinoccio de septiembre y al solsticio de diciembre. Además, se dictaron clases teóricas en la sala de aula. Estos métodos buscaron construir conceptos en torno al movimiento aparente del Sol y la sucesión de las estaciones. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de las actividades se aplicó una evaluación cuyos datos demuestran la existencia de un aprendizaje deseado por los estudiantes en cuanto a: el reconocimiento de los puntos cardinales, la descripción del movimiento solar aparente y la aparición de las estaciones y su alternancia a partir de observaciones astronómicas visuales sin instrumentos. Muitas concepções alternativas são reconhecidas entre os diversos grupos de estudantes, em especial nos da educação básica. Dentre elas, o movimento aparente do Sol, por mais quotidiano que seja, proporciona variadas interpretações. Deste modo, observar e registrar o movimento dos astros na abóboda celeste é uma tarefa necessária ao ensino de Astronomia. O trabalho que ora se apresenta propõe a apresentação dos resultados da observação do movimento aparente do Sol por intermédio da marcação da sombra de um gnômon vertical por alunos de uma turma do sexto ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola do campo do Paraná. O projeto em si ocorreu em quatro etapas, em datas próximas do equinócio de março, do solstício de junho, do equinócio de setembro e do solstício de dezembro. Além disso, foram desenvolvidas aulas teóricas em sala de aula. Tais métodos buscaram construir conceitos em torno da movimentação aparente do Sol e da alternância das estações do ano. Diante dos resultados provenientes das atividades desenvolvidas foi aplicada uma avaliação e os dados demonstraram um aprendizado desejado dos alunos quanto: ao reconhecimento dos pontos cardeais; à descrição do movimento solar aparente e a ocorrência das estações do ano e sua alternância a partir de observações astronômicas a olho nu.

  5. Using the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) and Individual Placement and Support (IPS) models to improve employment and clinical outcomes of homeless youth with mental illness1

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youth. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-informed and evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining employment and concurrently addressing mental health challenges. However, there are few examples to date of these models with homeless youth with mental illness. The purpose of this article was thus to describe a methodology for establishing a university-agency research partnership to design, implement, evaluate, and replicate evidence-informed and evidence-based interventions with homeless youth with mental illness to enhance their employment, mental health, and functional outcomes. Data from two studies are used to illustrate the relationship between vocational skill-building/employment and mental health among homeless youth. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of conducting community-based participatory employment and clinical intervention research. The author highlights the opportunities and tensions associated with this approach. PMID:24294127

  6. The Role of Electrolyte Upon the SEI Formation Characteristics and Low Temperature Performance of Lithium-Ion Cells With Graphite Anodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M.; Ratnakumar, B.; Greenbaum, S.; Surampudi, S.

    1998-01-01

    Quarternary lithium-ion battery electrolyte solutions containing ester co-solvents in mixtures of carbonates have been demonstrated to have high conductivity at low temperatures (<-20 degrees Celcius).

  7. The Role of Electrolyte Upon the SEI Formation Characteristics and Low Temperature Performance of Lithium-Ion Cells With Graphite Anodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Greenbaum, S.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Quarternary lithium-ion battery electrolyte solutions containing ester co-solvents in mixtures of carbonates have been demonstrated to have high conductivity at low temperatures (< -20C). However, in some cases the presence of such co-solvents does not directly translate into improved low temperature cell performance, presumably due to the formation of ionically resistive surface films on carbonaceous anodes. In order to understand this behavior, a number of lithium-graphite cells have been studied containing electrolytes with various ester co-solvents, including methyl acetate (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), ethyl propionate (EP), and ethyl butyrate (EB). The charge/discharge characterization of these cells indicates that the higher molecular weight esters result in electrolytes which possess superior low temperature performance in contrast to the lower molecular weight ester-containing solutions, even though these solutions display lower conductivity values.

  8. A CCD search of short period variable stars in six selected fields. (Italian Title: Ricerca CCD di variabili a breve periodo in sei campi selezionati)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, S.

    2013-12-01

    A search of variable stars was carried out, using a new software specifically created by the author, on a series of images acquired at the Astronomical Observatory of Santa Lucia di Stroncone (Terni, Italy) between October 2010 and March 2012. This research, named Fast Variable Stars Survey (FVSS), arose from the idea to verify if the log files pr oduced by the software Astrometrica (H. Raab), could be used as a basis for rapid detection of short-period variable stars. The r esults obtained showed that the idea is very valid, so that the new software has allowed the identification and the correct determination of the period of thirty-two new variable stars in the six stellar fields subjected to analysis.

  9. A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam a astronomia, como por exemplo a propagação do som no vácuo observado na maioria dos filmes de f icção científica ou da existência das estações do ano em função da distância da Terra ao Sol, em conformidade com o questionário aplicado.

  10. Como ayudar a su hijo durante los primeros anos de la adolescencia: Para los padres con ninos entre las edades de 10 a 14 anos (Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence: For Parents of Children from 10 through 14).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy

    Recognizing that parents and families can greatly influence the development of their 10- through 14-year-olds, this Spanish-language booklet is part of a national effort to provide parents with the latest research and practical information to help them support their children both at home and in school. The booklet is organized in 13 sections…

  11. Informacion Bibliografica: Ano 3, Num. 9, Enero-Febrero, 1972 (Bibliographic Information: Volume 3, Number 9, January-February 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Martinez, Antonio L., Ed.

    This bulletin contains several articles on various topics concerning information science. The first article is a report on the November 1971 Seminar on Documentation and Pedagogical Information in Latin America held in Panama. The second article, entitled "Informatica," provides a discussion of information science by three Soviet writers;…

  12. Perfil de Estudiantes de Primer Ano 1984-85 = Profile of First-Year Students 1984-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilarino de Medina, Ivonne

    In August 1984, a study was conducted to develop a profile of first-year students at Ponce Technological University College (PTUC), as part of a student follow-up project undertaken at all University of Puerto Rico system units. A questionnaire designed by the University of Puerto Rico Institutional Research Committee was administered to freshmen…

  13. El curriculo creativo para ninos de cero a tres anos (The Creative Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.; Dodge, Diane Trister

    Stemming from the core idea that infant and toddler care should be based on building relationships, this curriculum in Spanish-language version provides a foundation for staff development. Section 1, "Why a Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers?" examines key quality indicators, discusses curriculum components, describes how to use the curriculum to…

  14. Soy Tu Hijo: Los Primeros Anos Marcan Para Siempre (I Am Your Child: The First Years Last Forever). [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner Foundation, Washington, DC.

    New research in brain development reveals the vital importance of the relationship between caregiver and child in the critical first years of life. This Spanish-language video explores the role of parents in stimulating early childhood development. The 28-minute video discusses: (1) attachment and the role of touch in creating a bond between…

  15. Multi-Informant Assessment of Anxiety regarding Ano-Genital Examinations for Suspected Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribano, Philip V.; Hornor, Gail; Rhoda, Dale; Curran, Sherry; Stevens, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Given the commonly held belief that physical examinations for child sexual abuse (CSA) are very distressing, our primary objective was to evaluate anxiety during these assessments using the Multidimensional Anxiety Score for Children (MASC-10). A second objective was to compare self-reported anxiety to parental report using the MASC-10…

  16. Soy Tu Hijo: Los Primeros Anos Marcan Para Siempre (I Am Your Child: The First Years Last Forever). [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner Foundation, Washington, DC.

    New research in brain development reveals the vital importance of the relationship between caregiver and child in the critical first years of life. This Spanish-language video explores the role of parents in stimulating early childhood development. The 28-minute video discusses: (1) attachment and the role of touch in creating a bond between

  17. El curriculo creativo para ninos de cero a tres anos (The Creative Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.; Dodge, Diane Trister

    Stemming from the core idea that infant and toddler care should be based on building relationships, this curriculum in Spanish-language version provides a foundation for staff development. Section 1, "Why a Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers?" examines key quality indicators, discusses curriculum components, describes how to use the curriculum to

  18. Perfil de Estudiantes de Primer Ano 1984-85 = Profile of First-Year Students 1984-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilarino de Medina, Ivonne

    In August 1984, a study was conducted to develop a profile of first-year students at Ponce Technological University College (PTUC), as part of a student follow-up project undertaken at all University of Puerto Rico system units. A questionnaire designed by the University of Puerto Rico Institutional Research Committee was administered to freshmen

  19. Desafios que Enfrentaran las Administraciones Universitarias en los Proximos Anos (Challenges for University Administration in the Years Ahead).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Ten important issues surround the challenges that Latin American university administrations will face in the near future. Those issues are: (1) the importance of administration to higher education and the need for analyzing situations, resolving problems, making decisions, and communicating at all administrative levels; (2) the uniqueness of

  20. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano VI, No. 10/11 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume VI, No. 10/11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  1. Boletin Estadistico de la Educacion: Ano VI, No. 1 (Statistical Bulletin on Education: Volume VI, No. 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Oficina de Planeamiento Integral de la Educacion.

    This booklet presents statistics concerning primary education in Guatemala. The first section covers enrollment, considering such factors as type of school and location. Other sections provide statistics on teachers, their locations, the number of schools, enrollment in terms of students repeating grades or leaving school, students advancing out

  2. America o Aztlan? Los Chicanos En El Ano 2001 (America or Aztalan? Chicanos in the year 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ortego y Gasca, Felipe

    The future, more than any time in the past, will require of Chicanos a collective effort if they are to preserve their legacy of language and culture for their children. To prepare for the year 2001, Chicanos should be aware of future concerns and take action to address them. Chicanos could best realize national visibility and importance by

  3. Multi-Informant Assessment of Anxiety regarding Ano-Genital Examinations for Suspected Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribano, Philip V.; Hornor, Gail; Rhoda, Dale; Curran, Sherry; Stevens, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Given the commonly held belief that physical examinations for child sexual abuse (CSA) are very distressing, our primary objective was to evaluate anxiety during these assessments using the Multidimensional Anxiety Score for Children (MASC-10). A second objective was to compare self-reported anxiety to parental report using the MASC-10

  4. The Universe in a Box: Introduction to the Study of Astronomy in the Initial Formation of Physics Teachers. (Spanish Title: El Universo Representado en Una Caja: Introducción al Estudio de la Astronomía en la Formación Inicial de Profesores de Física.) O Universo Representado em Uma Caixa: Introdução ao Estudo da Astronomia NA Formação Inicial de Professores de Física

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2009-07-01

    This is a report of an activity of introduction to the study of Astronomy developed with a group of future Physics teachers at a Brazilian public university. Such activity had the goal of giving privileged emphasis to notions of spatiality, alternative conceptions of the participants and the process of interaction among peers, and consisted of the representation, in a three dimensional space, of the models of the universe that the participants had. The results, which were categorized as miscellaneous, geocentric, heliocentric and acentric models of the universe, were qualitatively analyzed. Analyses of the activity in the perspective of the participants are indicated and additional considerations are made regarding its use as a resource for teaching Astronomy and for teacher training. Este es el informe de una actividad para presentar un estudio introductorio de la Astronomía, desarrollado con una clase de futuros profesores de física en una universidad pública brasileña. Esta actividad tuvo como objetivo centrar las nociones de espacialidad, las concepciones alternativas de los participantes y el proceso de interacción entre pares, y consistió en la representación en un espacio tridimensional, de los modelos del universo que los participantes habían. Los resultados, que se clasificaron en universo miscelania, geocéntrico, heliocéntrico y acentrico, se analizaron cualitativamente. Son identificadas análisis de la actividad por los participantes, e hizo observaciones sobre su uso como recurso para la enseñanza de la astronomía y la formación de docentes. Trata-se do relato de uma atividade de introdução ao estudo da Astronomia, desenvolvida com uma turma de futuros professores de Física, em uma universidade pública brasileira. Tal atividade teve como meta privilegiar noções de espacialidade, as concepções alternativas dos participantes e o processo de interação entre pares e constou da representação, em um espaço tridimensional, dos modelos de universo que os participantes possuíam. Os resultados, que foram categorizados em universo miscelânea, geocêntrico, heliocêntrico e acêntrico, foram analisados qualitativamente. São apontadas as análises da atividade na ótica dos participantes, além de tecidas considerações sobre seu emprego como recurso ao ensino de Astronomia e na formação docente.

  5. Caregivers' Practical Help. A Six Session Course for Informal Caregivers = Ayuda Practica para las Personas Que Cuidan a Envejecientes. Curso de Seis Sesiones para las Personas Que Informalmente Cuidan a Envejecientes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office for the Aging, Albany.

    This document is a six-session course designed for those individuals who provide care to their homebound elderly relatives and friends and who need practical information and skills to support their caregiving role. The course helps caregivers identify and use community services. It provides an opportunity to acquire personal care skills and…

  6. On the Formation of a Study Group to the Realization of Workshops for Teachers: Astronomy in Basic Education in Umuarama-Pr (Spanish Title: De la Formación de un Grupo de Estudios a la Realización de los Talleres Para los Profesores: la Astronomía en la Educación Básica en Umuarama-Pr ) Da Formação de um Grupo de Estudos À Realização de Oficinas Para Professores: a Astronomia na Educação Básica em Umuarama-Pr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusso, Diane; Akira Sakai, Otávio

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we aimed to present the activities developed by the Astronomy Study Group (ASG) to contribute to the dissemination and improvement of the astronomy teaching-learning. The results of a research carried out in schools of Umuarama-PR are shown, with the intention of checking the students' knowledge and interest in relation to Astronomy. It is reported the realization of workshops for Science teachers linked to the Education Regional Nucleus. The research and the workshop execution promoted the direct contact of the study group with the community; the results were used to diagnose the state of astronomy teaching-learning, in the basic education in Umuarama-PR. En este artículo se intenta presentar las actividades desarrolladas por el Grupo de Estudios de Astronomía (GEA) y contribuir para la divulgación y mejoría de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la Astronomía. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación realizada en las escuelas de Umuarama-PR, con la intención de determinar el grado de conocimiento y el interés de los estudiantes en relación a la astronomía. Se relata la realización de talleres de capacitación para los profesores de ciencias vinculados al Núcleo Regional del Educación. La ejecución de la investigación y de los talleres promovió el contacto directo del grupo de estudios con la comunidad; los resultados sirvieron de diagnóstico de la enseñanza aprendizaje de la astronomía en la educación básica en Umuarama-PR. Neste artigo, objetiva-se apresentar as atividades desenvolvidas pelo Grupo de Estudos de Astronomia (GEA) e contribuir para a divulgação e melhoria do ensino-aprendizagem de astronomia. São apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa realizada nas escolas de Umuarama-PR, com o intuito de averiguar o conhecimento e o interesse dos estudantes em relação à astronomia. Relata-se a realização de oficinas de capacitação para professores de ciências vinculados ao Núcleo Regional de Educação. A execução da pesquisa e das oficinas promoveu o contato direto do grupo de estudos com a comunidade; os resultados serviram de diagnóstico do ensino-aprendizagem de astronomia, na educação básica, em Umuarama-PR.

  7. Sugerencias para la Evolucion del Desarrollo: 0-5 Anos (Stages for the Development of Discovery [Learning in] 0-5 Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization of American States, Washington, DC.

    Some points that may serve as a foundation of experience and reference in the stimulation of mentally retarded children during the years of one through five are presented. Points of development are given for the following breakdowns of time: three months, six months, nine months, 12 months, 18 months, two years, three years, four years, and five…

  8. La Educacion en America Latina y El Caribe Durante Los Proximos 25 Anos. (Education in Latin America and the Caribbean during the Next 25 Years.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roggi, Luis Osvaldo, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The nine papers appearing in this document review both limitations and progress in education in Latin America, study the future of education in Latin America and the Caribbean, and make recommendations to the Regional Program for Educational Development (PREDE). There is, in addition, a lengthy transcription of a discussion, among eight of the…

  9. Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura. Trinta Anos de Organizacao e Situacao Atual (Ministry of Education and Culture [Brazil]. Thirty Years Ago and Now). Volumes I and III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Norma Carneiro Monteiro

    The economic rather than the educational aspect of Brazil's Ministry of Education and Culture is presented in this historical summary. The study was done as part of Brazil's national program of educational reform. Brazil is currently re-evaluating its school system with the view of adopting a nationally-administered system similar to that in…

  10. Co-operativity among defect sites in AnO2+ and An4O9 (An = U, Np or Pu)

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Anders David; Lezama Pacheco, Juan; Uberuaga, Blas P; Conradson, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    Actinide dioxides derived from the AnO{sub 2} fluorite lattice are of high technological relevance due to their application in nuclear reactor fuels. Oxidation of AnO{sub 2} compounds emerges as a central theme in fuel fabrication, reactor operation, long-term storage forms for both spent fuels and surplus weapons materials, and environmental actinide migration. In this paper, we use density functional theory calculations to study the oxidation of uranium, neptunium and plutonium dioxides, AnO{sub 2} (An = U, Np or Pu), in O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O environments. We pay particular attention to the formation of oxygen clusters (co-operativity) in AnO{sub 2+x} and how this phenomenon govern oxidation thermodynamics and the development of ordered An{sub 4}O{sub 9} compounds. The so-called split di-interstitial, which is composed of two nearest neighbor octahedral oxygen interstitials that are distorted in such a way that they dislocate one regular fluorite lattice oxygen ion to form a cluster of triangular geometry, is predicted to be the fundamental building block of the most stable cluster configurations. We also identify how the formation of oxygen defect clusters and the degree of oxidation in AnO{sub 2+x} are both governed by the characer of the An-5f to excess O-2p charger transfer, i.e. the charge transfer to the O-2p orbitals of the interstitial-like (+x) ions, and the ability of the excess O-2p orbitals to hybridize with regular fluorite lattice ions.

  11. Me escuchas? Como conversar con ninos de cuatro a doce anos (Are You Listening to Me? Communicating with Children from Four to Twelve Years Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfos, Martine F.

    Although talking to children is a daily activity for almost everyone at some stage in one's life and an essential activity for professionals who work with children, there is little research on activity. This Spanish-language book describes communication with children between the ages of 4 and 12 years, focusing on open question-and-answer sessions…

  12. La Educacion en America Latina y El Caribe Durante Los Proximos 25 Anos. (Education in Latin America and the Caribbean during the Next 25 Years.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roggi, Luis Osvaldo, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The nine papers appearing in this document review both limitations and progress in education in Latin America, study the future of education in Latin America and the Caribbean, and make recommendations to the Regional Program for Educational Development (PREDE). There is, in addition, a lengthy transcription of a discussion, among eight of the

  13. A Parent's Guide to Infant/Toddler Programs = Guia para los padres sobre los programas de cuidado infantil de 0-3 anos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.

    Information on how warm and responsive care can help shape infants' and toddlers' development and their ability to learn can be reassuring for concerned parents. This guide, in English and Spanish versions, presents quality child care as a partnership between the child caregiver and the parents with the primary goal of benefiting the child. The…

  14. Indice Bibliografico Ciencias de la Educacion. Ano 1988. Volume II No. 1. (Bibliographic Index of the Education Sciences. 1988. Volume II No.1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro de Investigacion, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Documentacion.

    Published quarterly, this annotated bibliography indexes articles from scholarly Spanish journals, as well as significant foreign journals, considered important in the field of education. References are organized alphabetically according to subject and within each subject by number, author, and content. A users' information description is provided…

  15. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

  16. Swath Bathymetry Surveys of the Monterey Bay Area from Point Ano Nuevo to Moss Landing, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes swath bathymetry and backscatter data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey on the continental shelf within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary between Point A?o Nuevo and Moss Landing, in San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, Calif. The survey was done for the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), in field activities S-7-09-MB and S-10-09-MB, by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The data were aquired in two seperate surveys: (1) between August 13, 2009 and September 3, 2009, personnel from WCMG completed field activity S-7-09-MB, from Point A?o Nuevo south to Table Rock, as well as a block west of Soquel Canyon; (2) between October 12 and December 16, 2009, WCMG conducted field activity S-10-09-MB, surveying between Table Rock and Moss Landing.

  17. Guia para la ensenanza de la Lengua Nacional (segundo ano) (A Guide to the Teaching of the National Language (second year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1500 words) of a guide based on the results of experiments conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia in its pilot school and other schools in Mexico, D. F. The foreword points out that there are two aspects of language teaching in elementary schools--the first year class to read…

  18. Near-infrared photoluminescence and ligand K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopies of AnO2Cl42-(An:u, NP, Pu)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Marianne P; Berg, John M; Clark, David L; Conradson, Steven D; Hobart, David E; Kozimor, Stosh A; Scott, Brian L

    2008-01-01

    We have used photoluminescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopies to investigate electronic structures and metal-ligand bonding of a series of An02CI/ ' (An = U, Np, Pu) compounds. Specifically, we will discuss time-resolved near-infrared emission spectra of crystalline Cs2U(An)02C14 (An = Np and Pu) both at 23 K and 75 K, as well as chlorine Kedge X-ray absorption spectra ofCs2An02CI4 (An = U, Np).

  19. Guia para Padres Intervencion Temprana en Pennsylvania para Bebes desde el Nacimiento a los Tres Anos (A Parent Guide to Early Intervention in Pennsylvania for Infants and Toddlers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent Education Network, York, PA.

    This guide, in Spanish, is intended to help Pennsylvania parents of infants and toddlers with disabilities to understand their rights and assist in the design of an appropriate early intervention preschool educational program. An overview of special education laws focus on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Parts B and C. The main…

  20. "Cien Anos de Soledad" y el concepto de la "Caida Afortunada" ("One Hundred Years of Solitude" and the Concept of the "Fortunate Fall")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dario Carrillo, German; Stults, Barry

    1972-01-01

    Shows the influence of R.W.B. Lewis' work about the fall of Adam on the Marquez novel. Marquez' view coincides with Lewis' that Adam's fall should be considered not as a lapse from divine favor, but as an actual rise to the normal human level. (DS)

  1. 1,6-anhydro-2, 3-di-O-benzyl-5C-[(R)-ethoxycarbonyl(hydroxy)methyl]-beta-L-altrofur ano se.

    PubMed

    Taillefumier, C; Charron, C; Chapleur, Y; Aubry, A

    2000-09-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, C(24)H(28)O(8), has been determined. The conformation of the furanose ring can be described as 58% ideal envelope (O)E conformer and 42% ideal twisted (O)T(1) conformer. The 1,3-dioxane ring adopts a chair conformation with the anhydro-O atom pointing upwards. Both phenyl rings are quasi-perpendicular to the mean plane of the furanose ring. The hydrogen bonding is intermolecular and consists of infinite chains parallel to the a axis. PMID:10986521

  2. La Educacion Especial para Ninos con Impedimentos Desde Recien Nacidos Hasta Cinco Anos de Edad = Special Education for Handicapped Children Birth to Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    The manual, in Spanish, describes programs and resources available for preschool handicapped children and their families in conjunction with the New York State Education Department. Section 1 on assistance in securing services, reviews the service provided by Early Childhood Direction Centers, and outlines the role of local Committees on the

  3. 10 Anos de ensenanza bilingue, 1979-80 - 1989-90, 24 Euskara Zerbitzua Zablkunde-Lanak (Ten Years of Bilingual Education, 1979-80 - 1989-90).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basque Autonomous Community, Vitoria (Spain). Dept. of Education, Universities, and Research.

    This report provides an overview of bilingual education in the Basque area of Spain over the last 10 years. Since 1982, a government decree established that public education was to be conducted following 1 of 3 models of bilingual education: 1) instruction is basically in Spanish, with Basque taught as a separate course; 2) content instruction is

  4. Un Paso Adelante a los Tres Anos de Edad: Guia para las Familias (Step Ahead at Age 3: A Guide for Families).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Pamela, Ed.; And Others

    This publication guides Spanish-speaking parents in Kansas communities as they plan for the transition of young children with special needs from the Infant-Toddler Services program to Early Childhood Special Education Services and/or other community services. Information is provided on the seven-step process: (1) planning ahead; (2) the transition

  5. Financial Aid for Students Workbook, 1994-95 School Year = Ayuda Financiera para Estudiantes, Libreta del Ano Escolar 1994-95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Student Aid Commission, Sacramento.

    Presented in both English and Spanish language formats, this workbook explains how California residents can qualify for and obtain student financial aid in the form of federal and state grants and loans, work-study programs, institutional grants, federal campus-based programs, and the Federal Family Education Loan Program loans. A calendar of

  6. A Parent's Guide to Infant/Toddler Programs = Guia para los padres sobre los programas de cuidado infantil de 0-3 anos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.

    Information on how warm and responsive care can help shape infants' and toddlers' development and their ability to learn can be reassuring for concerned parents. This guide, in English and Spanish versions, presents quality child care as a partnership between the child caregiver and the parents with the primary goal of benefiting the child. The

  7. Indice Bibliografico Ciencias de la Educacion. Ano 1988. Volume II No. 1. (Bibliographic Index of the Education Sciences. 1988. Volume II No.1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro de Investigacion, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Documentacion.

    Published quarterly, this annotated bibliography indexes articles from scholarly Spanish journals, as well as significant foreign journals, considered important in the field of education. References are organized alphabetically according to subject and within each subject by number, author, and content. A users' information description is provided

  8. Literacy Learning Parties for 3-5 Year Olds. Activity Book = Fiestas de aprendizaje de alfabetismo para ninos de 3-5 anos. Libro de actividades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Ellen R.

    Noting that family members are a child's first teachers and set the course for future success, this activity book of "literacy learning parties" presents 10 activities that can be used at home to practice the skills and ideas learned at parent literacy workshops. Presented in English and Spanish versions, the activity book discusses the importance

  9. 1990: Ano Internacional de la alfabetizacion: Acciones sugeridas para America Latina y el Caribe = 1990 International Literacy Year: Suggested Actions for Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Michoacan (Mexico). Regional Office for Educ. in Latin America & Caribbean.

    This booklet discusses the needs for literacy education in Latin America and the Caribbean during International Literacy Year. Particular focus is on the objectives of International Literacy Year and suggested actions are provided in the four following areas: (1) operative strategies for the realization of the International Literacy Year,

  10. La Educacion Especial para Ninos con Impedimentos Desde Recien Nacidos Hasta Cinco Anos de Edad = Special Education for Handicapped Children Birth to Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    The manual, in Spanish, describes programs and resources available for preschool handicapped children and their families in conjunction with the New York State Education Department. Section 1 on assistance in securing services, reviews the service provided by Early Childhood Direction Centers, and outlines the role of local Committees on the…

  11. Guia para la ensenanza de la Lengua Nacional (segundo ano) (A Guide to the Teaching of the National Language (second year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1500 words) of a guide based on the results of experiments conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia in its pilot school and other schools in Mexico, D. F. The foreword points out that there are two aspects of language teaching in elementary schools--the first year class to read

  12. Literacy Learning Parties for 3-5 Year Olds. Activity Book = Fiestas de aprendizaje de alfabetismo para ninos de 3-5 anos. Libro de actividades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Ellen R.

    Noting that family members are a child's first teachers and set the course for future success, this activity book of "literacy learning parties" presents 10 activities that can be used at home to practice the skills and ideas learned at parent literacy workshops. Presented in English and Spanish versions, the activity book discusses the importance…

  13. Cost-effectiveness of screening for anal cancer using regular digital ano-rectal examinations in men who have sex with men living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Jason J; Fairley, Christopher K; Carroll, Susan; Walker, Sandra; Chen, Marcus; Read, Tim; Grulich, Andrew; Bradshaw, Catriona; Kaldor, John; Clarke, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anal cancer in men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV is an important issue but there are no consistent guidelines for how to screen for this cancer. In settings where screening with anal cytology is unavailable, regular anal examinations have been proposed in some guidelines but their cost-effectiveness is unknown. Methods Our objective was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of regular anal examinations to screen for anal cancer in HIV-positive MSM living in Australia using a probabilistic Markov model. Data sources were based on the medical literature and a clinical trial of HIV-positive MSM receiving an annual anal examination in Australia. The main outcome measures for calculating effectiveness were undiscounted and discounted (at 3%) lifetime costs, life years gained, quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results Base-case analysis estimated the average cost of screening for and management of anal cancer ranged from $195 for no screening to $1,915 for lifetime annual screening of men aged ≥ 50. Screening of men aged ≥ 50 generated ICERs of $29,760 per QALY gained (for screening every four years), $32,222 (every three years) and $45,484 (every two years). Uncertainty for ICERs was mostly influenced by the cost (financially and decrease in quality of life) from a false-positive result, progression rate of anal cancer, specificity of the anal examination, the probability of detection outside a screening program and the discount rate. Conclusions Screening for anal cancer by incorporating regular anal examinations into routine HIV care for MSM aged ≥ 50 is most likely to be cost-effective by conventional standards. Given that anal pap smears are not widely available yet in many clinical settings, regular anal exams for MSM living with HIV to detect anal cancer earlier should be implemented. PMID:26942721

  14. Estudo de não gaussianidade nas anisotropias da RCF medidas Wmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, A. P. A.; Wuensche, C. A.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.

    2003-08-01

    A investigação do campo de flutuações da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) pode oferecer um importante teste para os modelos cosmológicos que descrevem a origem e a evolução das flutuações primordiais. De um lado, apresenta-se o modelo inflacionário que prevê um espectro de flutuações adiabáticas distribuídas segundo uma gaussiana e, de outro, os modelos de defeitos topológicos (dentre outros) que descrevem um mecanismo para a geração de flutuações de isocurvatura que obedecem a uma distribuição não gaussiana. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar traços do modelo não gaussiano de campo misto (entre flutuações adiabáticas e de isocurvatura) nos mapas do Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Simulações das anisotropias da RCF no contexto de mistura indicam traços marcantes na distribuição das flutuações de temperatura, mesmo quando consideradas pequenas contribuições do campo de isocurvatura (da ordem de 0.001). O efeito da mistura entre os campos resulta na transferência de potência de flutuações em escalas angulares intermediárias para flutuações em pequenas escalas angulares. Este efeito pode ser caracterizado pela relação entre as amplitudes dos primeiros picos acústicos no espectro de potência da RCF. Neste trabalho, investigamos a contribuição do campo de isocurvatura, no contexto de mistura, sobre as observações recentes da RCF realizadas pelo WMAP. As previsões do modelo de campo misto, uma vez confrontadas com as observações em pequenas escalas angulares, podem ajudar a revelar a natureza das flutuações primordiais.

  15. Barotrauma em peixes em usinas hidrelétricas: ferramentas para o estudo

    SciTech Connect

    Do Vale Beirao, Bernardo; Castelo Branco Marciano, Natlia; de Souza Dias, Luma; Carvalho Falco, Ricardo; Wander Dias, Edson; Leite Fabrino, Daniela; Barreira Martinez, Carlos; Martins Da Silva, Luiz Gustavo; Walker, Ricardo W.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-09-30

    The main source of electric power generation in Brazil comes from hydropower plants, nevertheless, the installed power is expected to raise 56.8%, reaching a total of 116,000 MW at the year 2020. The increase at the hydroelectric sector will be responsible for a series of fish community impacts. One of the impacts over the fish community is related to fish kills due to downstream passage through turbines or fish entrance at the draft tube from the tailrace. Usually when there is a maneuver and the turbine stops, fish get attracted and enter the draft tube and, just as the downstream passage through a turbine, when the turbine starts, a rapid decompression occurs and can cause barotrauma. When such events happen, according to Boyle’s law (P1V1=P2V2), swim bladder volume expands at the same rate that the pressure decreases, which can lead to the organ’s rupture.

  16. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  17. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  18. A correlação índice espectral vs. luminosidade em QSOs e suas implicações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rissmann, A.

    2003-08-01

    Estudos de variabilidade de núcleos ativos já demonstraram ser comum o fato de seu contínuo óptico/UV tornar-se mais "duro" à medida que a luminosidade aumenta. Essa tendência ocorre tanto de forma individual quanto global, e pode ter implicações importantes (1) para estudos fotométricos de variabilidade conduzidos numa banda fixa no referencial do observador, comparando objetos a diferentes redshifts, e (2) no cálculo da correção K, com consequente impacto na determinação de massas de buracos negros e bojos de galáxias hospedeiras (através da relação de Magorrian). Confirmo aqui as correlações positivas entre o índice espectral e a luminosidade óptica, utilizando dados espectroscópicos de 11 QSOs monitorados no Brasil e no Chile, durante ~2 anos. O estudo é complementado com parâmetros extraídos de espectros e de dados fotométricos públicos de quasares. Destaco ainda as diferenças observadas em tais correlações para objetos do tipo radio-loud e radio-quiet. Este projeto é financiado pelo I. Milênio/CNPq.

  19. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada (DELTA): Novos Estudos em Gamatica Gerativa (Journal of Documentary Studies in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics [DELTA]: New Studies in Generative Grammar).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains the following articles: "Resumption and Last Resort" (Joseph Aoun); "Existentials, A-Chains, and Reconstruction" (Norbert Hornstein); "How Long Was the Nineteenth Century" (David Lightfoot); "Formal Features and Parameter Setting: A View From Portuguese Past Participles and Romance Future Tenses" (Lucia Lobata); "Revisiting…

  20. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada (DELTA): Novos Estudos em Gamatica Gerativa, 2001 (Journal of Documentary Studies in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics [DELTA]: New Studies in Generative Grammar, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Rajagopalan, Kanavillil, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These two issues of volume 17, include the following articles: "The Competing Motivation Model in the Functional Domains of Negation" (M. Angelica Furtado da Cunha); "Discursive Resonance and Politeness in Reading and Writing Practices" (Silvana Serrani Infante); "The Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Brazilian Portuguese" (Maria Cecilia…

  1. National Migrant Education Program: Early Childhood Development Skills--Birth Through 5 Years (Desarrollo de Destrezas en la Temprana Infancia--Desde el Nacimiento Hasta los Cinco Anos de Edad).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    Compiled to ensure cooperation between states and to provide continuity of reporting on developmental skills for the migrant child from birth through five years of age, this booklet lists the psychomotor, cognitive, and affective skills which are reported through the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS). Published in both English and…

  2. Effect of Spin-Orbit Coupling on the Actinide Dioxides AnO2 (An=Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, and Am): A Screened Hybrid Density Functional Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Xiaodong; Martin, Richard L.; Roy, Lindsay E.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Rudin, Sven P.; Batista, Enrique R.; McCleskey, Thomas M.; Scott, Brian L.; Bauer, Eve; Joyce, John J.; Durakiewicz, Tomasz

    2012-10-21

    We present a systematic comparison of the lattice structures, electronic density of states, and band gaps of actinide dioxides, AnO₂ (An=Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, and Am) predicted by the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof screened hybrid density functional (HSE) with the self-consistent inclusion of spin-orbit coupling(SOC). The computed HSE lattice constants and band gaps of AnO₂ are in consistently good agreement with the available experimental data across the series, and differ little from earlier HSE results without SOC. ThO₂ is a simple band insulator (f⁰), while PaO₂, UO₂, and NpO₂ are predicted to be Mott insulators. The remainders (PuO₂ and AmO₂) show considerable O2p/An5f mixing and are classified as charge-transfer insulators. We also compare our results for UO₂, NpO₂, and PuO₂with the PBE+U, self interaction correction (SIC), and dynamic mean-field theory (DMFT) many-body approximations.

  3. Como ayudar a su hijo a ser un buen lector: Con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 6 anos (Helping Your Child Become a Reader: With Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Fran; Osborn, Jean

    When parents and other family members read with their children, help them with homework, talk with their teachers, and participate in school or other learning activities, they give their children a tremendous advantage. The foundation for learning to read is in place long before children enter school and begin formal reading instruction. Families…

  4. Como ayudar a su hijo durante la edad preescolar, con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 5 anos (Helping Your Preschool Child, with Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    The first 5 yeas of a child's life are a time of tremendous physical, emotional, social, and cognitive growth. Noting that research shows that children are more likely to succeed in learning when their families actively support them, this Spanish-language booklet is intended for families and caregivers who want to help their preschool children…

  5. National Migrant Education Program: Early Childhood Development Skills--Birth Through 5 Years (Desarrollo de Destrezas en la Temprana Infancia--Desde el Nacimiento Hasta los Cinco Anos de Edad).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    Compiled to ensure cooperation between states and to provide continuity of reporting on developmental skills for the migrant child from birth through five years of age, this booklet lists the psychomotor, cognitive, and affective skills which are reported through the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS). Published in both English and

  6. El buen comienzo de la lectura: Lo que pueden hacer los padres durante los primeros cinco anos (Reading Right from the Start: What Parents Can Do in the First Five Years).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickart, Toni S.; Dodge, Diane Trister

    Intended to provide concrete ways for parents to help children become readers and writers, this Spanish-language, easy-to-read, illustrated booklet uses the everyday routines that parents follow with their children--bathing and dressing, eating, shopping, doing household chores--to demonstrate how to build vocabulary, learn about conversations,…

  7. Como ayudar a su hijo a tener exito en la escuela, con actividades para ninos entre las edades de 5 a 11 anos (Helping Your Child Succeed in School, with Activities for Children Ages 5 through 11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy

    At the heart of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is a promise to raise standards for all children and to help all children meet those standards. This Spanish-language booklet provides information that parents can use to help their child succeed in school. Following an introduction, the second section of the booklet, "The Basics," offers…

  8. International Symposium on Visually Handicapped Infants and Young Children: Birth to Seven (2nd, Aruba, 1987). "The First Steps." Proceedings = Simpasio Internacional sobre Ninos Visualmente Deficientes de Nacimiento hasta Siete Anos (2nd, Aruba, 1987). "Los Primeros Pasos."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Lillian, Ed.; And Others

    This symposium focused on the special needs of visually handicapped infants and young children. Texts of 48 papers are presented, including keynote addresses by W. Aubrey Webson ("The First Steps") and Heather Hewitt ("First Steps--Parenting, Prevention and Programming"). Regional reports are provided for Japan, Bangladesh, the Middle East, the…

  9. El buen comienzo de la lectura: Lo que pueden hacer los padres durante los primeros cinco anos (Reading Right from the Start: What Parents Can Do in the First Five Years).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickart, Toni S.; Dodge, Diane Trister

    Intended to provide concrete ways for parents to help children become readers and writers, this Spanish-language, easy-to-read, illustrated booklet uses the everyday routines that parents follow with their children--bathing and dressing, eating, shopping, doing household chores--to demonstrate how to build vocabulary, learn about conversations,

  10. Little Steps for New Parents: A Week-by-Week Guide and Journal for Baby's First Year = Pasitos para nuevos padres: Una guia y diario semanal para el primer ano del bebe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Sandy

    Providing young infants with a loving and interesting environment through play will have a positive impact on their future. This book, designed for first time parents, provides simple and enjoyable activities intended to promote brain development during the first year. The book's introduction discusses the importance of the environment during the

  11. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e é tal situação que este trabalho busca, em parte, reverter.

  12. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  13. Como os Alunos do Ensino Mdio da Rede Estadual de So Paulo obtm Conhecimentos Astronmicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2005-08-01

    Atualmente vivencia-se um mundo globalizado onde os computadores e a internet permitiram um acesso rpido e seguro a todo tipo de informao e conhecimento. O presente trabalho visa analisar a maneira pela qual alunos de segundo grau da rede estadual da cidade de So Paulo obtiveram, caso tenham, conhecimentos bsicos de astronomia quanto aos fenmenos celestes que os rodeiam, tais como a sucesso dos dias e das estaes do ano, alm de question~los sobre fatos genricos tais como: o que vem a ser o Sol, o Big Bang, o que ocasionou a extino dos dinossauros. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulrio constando de questes de mltipla escolha, o qual foi aplicado no primeiro colegial diurno da Escola Estadual Guilherme de Almeida. Num espao amostral de 44 alunos constatou-se que 41% dos alunos adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronmicos na escola e 59% atravs da mdia em geral. Neste mesmo espao amostral apenas 11% dos alunos usaram computadores na escola, 41% na residncia, 5% no trabalho e 43% no utilizaram. O presente estudo revelou tambm que para 50% dos alunos o professor jamais utilizou um programa de computador a respeito de astronomia ou fez alguma apresentao sobre o tema. Embora em sua fase inicial este estudo revela claramente que a maioria dos alunos no obtm na escola seus conhecimentos astronmicos, estes provm de fontes no especificamente didtico-pedaggicas tais como filmes e revistas populares que no raramente geram conhecimentos incompletos e em muitos casos inclusive falhos.

  14. 76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ..., combined. The 2000 SEIS analyzed the environmental impacts of up to five solid-propellant strap-on rocket... government. Under the Proposed Action in the 2000 SEIS, up to five solid- propellant strap-on rocket...

  15. Análise da cinemática interna das regiões HII gigantes e das galáxias HII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plana, H.; Telles, E.; Maíz-Apellániz, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho nós mostramos os primeiros resultados de um estudo sobre a cinemática das Regiões HII Gigantes (GHIIRs) em galáxias próximas. Essas regiões HII têm um diâmetro médio entre 100 pc e 1000 pc e uma taxa de formação estelar de 106 M¤ / ano sendo equivalente à observada em galáxias de tipo tardio correspondendo a uma taxa de formação estelar por unidade de volume uma ordem de magnitude maior que a observada em regiões HII normais. Usando espectros de fenda longas em várias posições, nós construímos mapas de velocidades, de dispersão e de intensidade para várias linhas de emissão como Ha, Hb, [NII]6584 Å, [OIII]5007 Å e o doublet de [SII], para cinco regiões gigantes: NGC 2403 II e IV, NGC 595, NGC 5461, NGC 5471, NGC 5455. O estudo da cinemática (mapas de velocidades e da dispersão) mostrou, por exemplo, a presença de cascas em expansão em NGC 595 ou perfis de emissão com várias componentes em NGC 5461. Os perfis de emissão também mostram velocidades supersônicas. Os resultados são discutidos em comparação com os de estudos anteriores realizados.

  16. Systems engineering and integration and management for manned space flight programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Owen

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the history of SE&I management of the overall program architecture, organizational structure and the relationship of SE&I to other program organizational elements. A brief discussion of the method of executing the SE&I process, a summary of some of the major lessons learned, and identification of things that have proven successful are included.

  17. A Study of Arizona's Teachers of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Gonzalez Canche, Manuel S.; Moll, Luis C.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: In September 2007, the Arizona State Board of Education adopted the Structured English Immersion (SEI) model proposed by the Arizona English Language Learner (ELL) Task Force.During the 2008-2009 academic year, it required all school districts to implement the SEI model.The SEI program, best known as the 4-hour English Language

  18. Operando Measurement of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation at Working Electrode of Li-Ion Battery by Time-Slicing Neutron Reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Kawaura, Hiroyuki; Harada, Masashi; Kondo, Yasuhito; Kondo, Hiroki; Suganuma, Yoshitake; Takahashi, Naoko; Sugiyama, Jun; Seno, Yoshiki; Yamada, Norifumi L

    2016-04-20

    We report the first operando measurement of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation at an electrode using in situ neutron reflectometry. The results revealed the growth of the SEI and intercalation of ions during the charge reaction. Furthermore, we propose a way of evaluating the charge used for the SEI formation. PMID:27031783

  19. Science and Engineering Indicators 2010. NSB 10-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehming, Rolf F.; Alt, Martha Naomi; Chen, Xianglei; Hall, Leslie; Burton, Lawrence; Burrelli, Joan S.; Kannankutty, Nirmala; Proudfoot, Steven; Regets, Mark C.; Boroush, Mark; Moris, Francisco A.; Wolfe, Raymond M.; Britt, Ronda; Christovich, Leslie; Hill, Derek; Falkenheim, Jaquelina C.; Dunnigan, Paula C.

    2010-01-01

    "Science and Engineering Indicators" (SEI) is first and foremost a volume of record comprising the major high-quality quantitative data on the U.S. and international science and engineering enterprise. SEI is factual and policy neutral. It does not offer policy options, and it does not make policy recommendations. SEI employs a variety of…

  20. Science and Engineering Indicators 2012. NSB 12-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Science and Engineering Indicators (SEI) is first and foremost a volume of record comprising the major high-quality quantitative data on the U.S. and international science and engineering enterprise. SEI is factual and policy neutral. It does not offer policy options, and it does not make policy recommendations. SEI employs a variety of…

  1. A Study of Arizona's Teachers of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Gonzalez Canche, Manuel S.; Moll, Luis C.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: In September 2007, the Arizona State Board of Education adopted the Structured English Immersion (SEI) model proposed by the Arizona English Language Learner (ELL) Task Force.During the 2008-2009 academic year, it required all school districts to implement the SEI model.The SEI program, best known as the 4-hour English Language…

  2. Estudo de cavidade reentrante supercondutora a ser utilizada nos transdutores paramétricos do detector brasileiro de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, K. L.; Furtado, S. R.; Aguiar, O. D.; Frajuca, C.

    2003-08-01

    Cavidades reentrantes de nióbio vêm sendo utilizadas pelo grupo Australiano nos transdutores eletromecânicos paramétricos do detector de ondas gravitacionais Niobè. Esses transdutores paramétricos são ativados por um sinal AC na faixa de microondas (banda X), que é modulado pelo sinal mecânico da vibração da antena esférica, com a variação de um parâmetro, que, no caso, é a capacitância da cavidade. Nós estudamos esse tipo de cavidade, com o objetivo de transformá-la de reentrante aberta para reentrante fechada, de forma a utilizá-la nos transdutores paramétricos do detector brasileiro Mario Schenberg. O desempenho do transdutor depende de alguns parâmetros da cavidade, como a sua Figura de Mérito (Q elétrico) e o seu acoplamento elétrico com o circuito externo. Neste trabalho mostramos a medida do Q elétrico como função do acoplamento, do acabamento superficial interno e do vazamento de microondas da cavidade, e mostramos o desempenho esperado para o detector Mario Schenberg usando uma cavidade supercondutora reentrante fechada de nióbio.

  3. Estudo da Oscilação de Neutrinos Muônicos Usando Dados Atmosféricos e de Acelerador nos Experimentos MINOS e MINOS+

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, Michelle Mesquita de

    2015-01-01

    The MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) and MINOS+ experiments were designed to study neutrino oscillations using a muon neutrino beam which is detected in two different locations, in the Near Detector and in the Far Detector. The distance between the detectors allows the beam neutrinos to oscillate to a different flavor. Therefore, a disappearance of the muon neutrinos from the beam is observed in the Far Detector. The Far Detector has a special apparatus which makes possible the selection of atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos. These come from interactions of cosmic rays with the Earth’s atmosphere. Both detectors have a magnetic field, allowing the distiction between neutrinos and antineutrinos interactions. This thesis presents the first combined analysis of data from the MINOS and MINOS+ experiments. We have analyzed the combined neutrino energy spectrum from the complete MINOS beam data and the first, more energetic, MINOS+ beam data. The disappearance of the muon neutrinos was observed and the data has shown to be congruent with the oscillation model. Beyond that, we have measured the atmospheric oscillation parameters of the beam and atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos from MINOS combined with the atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos from MINOS+. Assuming the same oscillation parameters for both neutrinos and antineutrinos, the best fit is obtained for inverted hierarchy and lower octant with Δm2 32 = 2:37 X 10-3 eV2 and sin2 θ 23 = 0:43, and the limits m2 32 = [2,29 - 2,49] 10-3 eV2 (68%) and sin2 θ23 = 0.36 - 0.66 (90%). These results are the most precise measurement of the neutrinos mass splitting using muon neutrino disappearance data only.

  4. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Liguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 1998 (Journal of Documentary Studies in Linguistic Theory and Application, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Rajagopalan, Kanavillil, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of three issues of DELTA, comprising its entire output for 1998. DELTA is a journal of theoretical and applied linguistics and covers a wide variety of material related to language, speech, and education. The journal publishes only original research and ideas presented in the form of articles, debates, squibs, overviews,…

  5. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 1999 (Journal of Documentary Studies in Linguistic Theory and Application, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Rajagopalan, Kanavillil, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These issues include the following articles: "Portuguese Philology in Brazil" (Heitor Megale, Cesar Nardelli Cambraia); "Implications of Brazilian Portuguese Data for Current Controversies in Phonetics: Towards Sharpening Articulatory Phonology" (Eleonora Cavalconte Albano); "Morphological Studies in Brazil: Data and Issues" (Margarida Maria de…

  6. Conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de las facultades de educacion y ciencias naturales de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, recinto de Rio Piedras, acerca de la ciencia y la pseudociencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Medina, Hector A.

    Esta investigacion describe las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de tercer ano o mas a nivel de bachillerato de los programas de Educacion en Ciencia y Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Rio Piedras, acerca de lo establecido en la literatura para distinguir el conocimiento cientifico de las creencias pseudocientificas. Este estudio se guio por un diseno tipo encuesta transversal que permitio conocer de manera consistente las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes encuestados acerca de la Ciencia y la Pseudociencia. Ademas, permitio desarrollar inferencias estadisticas relacionadas a la poblacion de estudio, sus conceptuaciones y su inclinacion teorica en torno al Realismo y al Racionalismo cientifico moderados. El instrumento utilizado fue el Cuestionario acerca de las concepciones de la ciencia y la pseudocienca en estudiantes universitarios, Reyes (2015). Este cuestionario fue validado mediante la recopilacion de diversas fuentes de evidencias, entre estas se encuentran las evidencias basadas en el contenido, el proceso de respuesta, la estructura interna y de constructo. Tambien, se calculo el Alfa de Crombach para la escala total y para cada componente y se realizo un analisis de factores que demostro la presencia de seis componentes claramente definidos de acuerdo a lo esperado sobre las caracteristicas originales del instrumento. Las estadisticas utilizadas fueron descriptivas. Participaron 302 alumnos, de las facultades de educacion y ciencias naturales. Se encontro que las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de ambas facultades se inclinan en un 66.2% a favor con lo establecido en el modelo teorico en torno al Realismo y al Racionalismo cientifico moderados. Sin embargo, aun hay un 33.8% de los estudiantes de ambas facultades que poseen conceptuaciones distintas al modelo teorico propuesto.

  7. Variação temporal do gradiente radial de o/h a partir de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, W. J.; Costa, R. D. D.; Uchida, M. M. M.

    2003-08-01

    Gradientes radiais de abundância são observados no disco de nossa Galáxia e também em outras galáxias espirais. No caso da Galáxia, o principal problema relativo aos gradientes é sua variação temporal, que constitui um dos principais vínculos aos modelos de evolução química da Galáxia. As nebulosas planetárias são particularmente interessantes no estudo dos gradientes e suas variações, tanto espaciais como temporais. São objetos brilhantes, podendo ser observadas a grandes distâncias, e têm abundâncias relativamente precisas de diversos elementos químicos. Além disso, sendo originadas de estrelas com massas entre 0.8 e 8 massas solares na sequência principal, incluem objetos com idades e populações diferentes, o que as torna especialmente interessantes ao estudo da variação temporal dos gradientes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos resultados recentes sobre a variação temporal do gradiente de O/H a partir de uma amostra contendo cerca de 200 nebulosas, para as quais obtivemos distâncias por métodos estatísticos. As abundâncias foram parcialmente obtidas a partir de observações em Itajubá e La Silla, sendo as restantes obtidas da literatura. Os resultados mostram, pela primeira vez, evidências de um achatamento do gradiente de O/H, de -0.11 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 9 giga-anos ou de -0.08 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 5 giga-anos. Esses valores apresentam um bom acordo com alguns modelos recentes para a evolução química da Galáxia. (FAPESP/CNPq)

  8. Uso de modelos mecânicos em curso informal de astronomia para deficientes visuais. Resgate de uma experiência

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, E. T., Jr.; Klafke, J. C.

    2003-08-01

    O presente trabalho propõe-se a resgatar uma experiência que teve lugar no Planetário de São Paulo nos anos 60. Em 1962, o Sr. Acácio, então com 37 anos, deficiente visual desde os 27, passou a assistir às aulas ministradas pelo Prof. Aristóteles Orsini aos integrantes do corpo de servidores do Planetário. O Sr. Acácio era o único deficiente da turma e, embora possuísse conhecimentos básicos e relativamente avançados de matemática, enfrentava dificuldades na compreensão e acompanhamento da exposição, como também em estudos posteriores. Com o intuito de auxiliá-lo na superação desses problemas, o Prof. Orsini solicitou a construção de modelos mecânicos que, através do sentido do tato, permitissem o acompanhamento das aulas e a transposição do modelo para o "constructo" mental. Essa prática mostrou-se tão eficaz que facilitou sobejamente o aprendizado da matéria pelo sujeito. O Sr. Acácio passou a integrar o corpo de professores do Planetário/Escola Municipal de Astrofísica, tendo ficado responsável pelo curso de "Introdução à Astronomia" por vários anos. Além disso, a experiência foi tão bem sucedida que alguns dos modelos tiveram seus elementos constitutivos pintados diferencialmente para serem utilizados em cursos regulares do Planetário, tornando-se parte integrante do conjunto de recursos didáticos da instituição. É pensando nessa eficácia, tanto em seu objetivo original permitir o aprendizado de um deficiente visual quanto no subsidiário recurso didático sistemático da instituição que decidimos resgatar essa experiência. Estribados nela, acreditamos ser extremamente produtivo, em termos educacionais, o aperfeiçoamento dos modelos originais, agora resgatados e restaurados, e a criação de outros que pudessem ser utilizados no ensino dessa ciência a deficientes visuais.

  9. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy activities for…

  10. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 1st Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 1er Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  11. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 2nd Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 2do Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  12. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your Kindergartner Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Jardin Infantil (Kindergarten) Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  13. Despacio y constantemente, preparenme: El Libro de Instrucciones que Crece con su Nino(a). Un Manual para los Padres y las Madres para Ninos desde el Nacimento hasta la Edad de 5 Anos (Slow and Steady, Get Me Ready: The How-To-Book that Grows with the Child. A Parents' Handbook for Children from Birth to Age 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberlander, June R.

    This Spanish-language handbook, which was written by a retired kindergarten teacher with over 25 years of experience, is intended to help parents and caregivers prepare their child for formal schooling. It describes 260 learning activities, each based on a different developmental concept, and most requiring materials usually found in the home. An…

  14. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to…

  15. El juego entre el nacimiento y los 7 anos: Un manual para ludotecarias. Investigacion-accion sobre la Familia y la Primera Infancia. UNESCO Sector de Educacion Monografia (Play between Birth and 7 Years: A Manual for Preschool Teachers. Action Research in Family and Early Childhood. UNESCO Education Sector Monograph).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grellet, Carolina

    The purpose of this Spanish-language manual is to help preschool teachers better understand theoretical concepts related to children's play. Following a preface that discusses UNESCO's activities related to early childhood education, the two main sections of the manual discuss children's play between 0-2 years and 2-7 years. Each section includes…

  16. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para los cuidadores de ninos pequenos: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Caregivers: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for caregivers, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth chart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that caregivers (family child care providers and the teachers, staff, and volunteers in child development programs) can use to help young children…

  17. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para las familias: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Families: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for families, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth wallchart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that families (adults who have nurturing relationships with a child--a mother, father, grandparent, other relative, or close friend) can use to…

  18. O Passado como Nacao: Imagens do Imperio nas Falas Reacionarias dos Anos 30 e 40 do Seculo XX: Uma Pequena Arqueologia do Debate Publico e Privado (The Past as Nation: Images of the Empire in the Reactionary Words of the 30s and 40s in the 20th Century: A Small Archaeology of the Public Debate versus the Private One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Marcos Cezar

    1998-01-01

    Suggests an archaeology of the public debate versus the private one in Brazil through analysis of the reactionary speech of a religious leader, Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha, which produced innumerable representations of the Brazilian Empire. (PA)

  19. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  20. Algunas Premisas Metodologicas y Conceptuales sobre el Desarrollo de los Movimientos en el Primer Ano de Vida (0-12 Meses) (Some Methodological and Conceptual Premises about the Development of Movement in the First Year of Life (0-12 Months)).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bequer Diaz, Gladys

    1997-01-01

    Examined the emergence of principal and secondary movements in Cuban children in their first year of life. Based on 35 examples of observed movements, an integrated program of activity is developed to assist in the development of physical skills which are essential to the development of a well-rounded personality. (AS)

  1. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  2. ...And That's How It All Began: Putting Information about Your Child's Growth, Health and Safety All within Your Reach...Because the First Years Last Forever! = ...Y asi es como empezo todo: Ponemos a su alcance en forma conjunta la informacion sobre el crecimiento, la salud y la seguridad de su hijo...Porque los primeros anos duran para siempre!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Partnership for Children, Raleigh.

    Smart Start is North Carolina's model early childhood initiative to help all North Carolina children enter school healthy and prepared for success. This resource guide, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to provide parents with information on infant and child development, health care, and resources for further assistance. Presented in an…

  3. Reading: Students' Attitudes and Interests in Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Grades in Official Portuguese Schools in the USA (A Leitura: Atitudes e Preferencias dos Educandos do 4th, 5th, e 6th Anos de Escolaridade nas Escolas Oficiais Portuguesas nos Estados Unidos da America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castanho, Maria da Graca Borges

    A study investigated attitudes and preferences concerning reading among fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students in Portuguese-language schools in the United States. Extrinsic factors influencing students (parents, teachers) were also analyzed. The research took place in 10 schools in 5 states. Data were obtained using questionnaires (students)…

  4. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  5. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  6. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 7th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Septimo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  7. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 9th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Noveno Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  8. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 5th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 5to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  9. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 10th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Decimo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Education Oversight Committee, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  10. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to

  11. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 6th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 6to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  12. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 11th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Grado 11 Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  13. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  14. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 12th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Grado 12 Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Education Oversight Committee, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  15. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 4th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 4to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  16. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  17. ...And That's How It All Began: Putting Information about Your Child's Growth, Health and Safety All within Your Reach...Because the First Years Last Forever! = ...Y asi es como empezo todo: Ponemos a su alcance en forma conjunta la informacion sobre el crecimiento, la salud y la seguridad de su hijo...Porque los primeros anos duran para siempre!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Partnership for Children, Raleigh.

    Smart Start is North Carolina's model early childhood initiative to help all North Carolina children enter school healthy and prepared for success. This resource guide, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to provide parents with information on infant and child development, health care, and resources for further assistance. Presented in an

  18. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  19. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 8th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Octavo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  20. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy activities for

  1. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 3rd Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 3er Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  2. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  3. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    SciTech Connect

    Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2012-10-01

    The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

  4. Analysis of lithium ion concentration and stress in the solid electrolyte interphase on the graphite anode.

    PubMed

    He, Yaolong; Hu, Hongjiu

    2015-09-28

    One of the critical challenges in advancing lithium ion battery performance is increasing mechanical stability of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers. Our work aims at developing a mathematical model to study the lithium ion concentration and stress in the SEI on the graphite anode. The main influence factors on the SEI stress have been thoroughly investigated. We find that the ion transportation of the SEI has the underlying effects on the maximum stress in the graphite active layer, especially at a high charging rate. The physical properties of the SEI should be taken into account to obtain an accurate anode stress. The tensile SEI stress along the hoop direction is dominant, and should be regarded as the leading cause of mechanical failure for the SEI. Moreover, the peak stress in the SEI is independent of the charging rate, but can be effectively reduced by rationally designing geometric and material properties of anode components by: (1) decreasing modulus of the SEI itself; (2) enhancing tensile stiffness of the current collector; and (3) making the ratio of anode radius to thickness larger than ten. PMID:26299210

  5. Disordered eating links to body-relevant and body-irrelevant influences on self-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Halley E; Rizk, Marianne T; Wang, Shirley S; Treat, Teresa A

    2014-04-01

    We investigated eating- and weight-related correlates of self-evaluation influences (SEIs) and examined the extent to which such SEIs can be both over- and undervalued and the extent to which measurement strategy affects SEIs. A female undergraduate sample (n = 549) completed 3 measures of SEI importance and questionnaires assessing disordered eating (DE), body mass index (BMI), and depression. SEI measures included Likert scale, rank ordering, and pairwise forced choice; a subset (n = 62) also completed the Shape- and Weight-Based Self-Esteem Scale (SAWBS). Only rank ordering, forced choice, and SAWBS constrain choices among SEIs, such that prioritizing one SEI necessarily deprioritizes another, which reflects real-world restrictions on individuals' allotment of time and energy (e.g., spending hours exercising daily necessarily reduces time available for other activities). By any measure, women with DE overvalue body shape and weight. The constraining measures reveal systematic undervaluation of intelligence and achievement among women with DE and an enhanced effect of DE on the overvaluation of weight and on the undervaluation of being a good person among those with higher BMI. Depressed women's self-evaluations overemphasize appearance and underemphasize interpersonal relationships. Self-evaluations of women with DE are marked by both over- and undervaluation of relevant SEIs; the overvaluation of shape and weight in DE may be associated with costs. Future use of constraining measures, such as forced choice or rank ordering, may enhance our understanding of both over- and underemphasized SEIs among women with DE. PMID:24854805

  6. Organizational Considerations for Implementing Systems Engineering and Integration in the Ares Projects Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, LeAnn; Doreswamy, Rajiv N.

    2008-01-01

    Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) is a critical discipline in developing new space systems. In 2005, NASA performed an internal study of 24 agency and Department of Defense (DoD) programs to evaluate methods of integrating SE&I practices and determine their effectiveness. The goal of the study was to determine the best SE&I implementation strategy for the Ares Projects Office. The study identified six SE&I organizational structures: 1. Lead systems integrator (LSI) with SE&I responsibility and government technical insight. 2a. Integration contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government insight). 2b. Integration contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 3a. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government insight). 3b. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 3c. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government/industry partnership). 4a.Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government insight). 4b. Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 4d.Prime contractors with total system performance responsibility (TSPR). 5. Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility and integration products through a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC). 6. Government/FFRDC in-house development with SE&I responsibility and function. The organizational structure used most often was number 4, using a prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility and government technical insight. However, data analyses did not establish a positive relationship between program development costs and specific SE&I organizational types, nor did it positively determine the relationship between successful programs or projects and their SE&I structure. The SE&I study reached the following conclusions: (1) Large, long-duration, technically complex programs or projects reach their technical goals, but rarely meet schedule or cost goals. NASA's recent successes have been smaller, short-duration development projects using heritage hardware/software, focused technology development, technical oversight and stable external factors. (2) Programs and projects have failed or been terminated due to lack of technical insight, relaxing of SE&I processes, and unstable external factors. (3) The study did not find a single, clear optimum SE&I organization type to fit all projects. However, while any organizational structure can be made to work, the fewer complexities in the program, the better the likelihood of success. (4) The most common successful SE&I organization structure type in the study was type 4b, where the government maintained integration responsibility, with the prime contractor providing SE&I products and the government providing technical oversight. This study was instrumental in helping the APO select organization structure 4, following the same SE&I and oversight process used during humanlund7s last voyages to the Moon.

  7. Desenvolvimento das câmeras de raios-X duros do satélite MIRAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Rothschild, R.; Staubert, R.; Heise, J.; Remillard, R.; D'Amico, F.; Jablonski, F.; Mejía, J.; Carvalho, H.; Heindl, B.; Matteson, J.; Kendziorra, E.; Wilms, J.; in't Zand, J.; Kuulkers, E.

    2003-08-01

    O MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de RAios-X) é um projeto de desenvolvimento de um pequeno satélite astronômico de raios-X (~200 kg, ~240 W). A estratégia básica da missão será observar continuamente (~9 meses por ano) a região central (~1000 graus2) do plano Galáctico e realizar estudos espectroscópicos de banda larga (2-200 keV) e alta sensibilidade de um grande conjunto de fontes através de imagens com resolução de ~6'. Isso proporcionará uma cobertura inédita do "espaço de descobertas" através da detecção, localização, identificação e estudo detalhado de fenômenos imprevisíveis, tais como transientes fracos de raios-X, novas rápidas de raios-X e bursts de raios gama, assim como o estudo de fontes com emissão persistente. Neste trabalho apresentamos o projeto das duas câmeras de raios-X duros (CXDs) do MIRAX, que irão operar na faixa de 10 a 200 keV. Cada CXD consistirá de um plano de detectores CZT (Cd0,9Zn0,1Te) de 0,5 mm de resolução espacial e 370 cm2 de área total, e de uma máscara codificada com elementos quadrados de 1,3 mm de lado e 0,5 cm de espessura. A máscara terá dimensões de 315 cm ´ 275 cm e será montada a 700 cm de distância dos detectores. Com essa configuração as CXDs terão 6' de resolução angular e, quando colocadas a um ângulo de 29° entre si, as duas câmeras propiciam um campo totalmente codificado de 39° ´ 6°12' e um campo total de 76° ´ 44°. Serão apresentadas simulações de observações da região do plano Galáctico com o conjunto formado pelas duas CXDs.

  8. A Introdução de Astronomia Básica para Estudantes de 5 e 6 Séries do Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, E. P.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Com intuito de despertar o interesse pelo estudo da astronomia, desenvolveu-se entre 2003 e 2006 no Centro Educacional do Serviço Social da Indústria situado no município de Mauá, São Paulo, um trabalho com duração de 12 meses para turmas de 11 e 12 anos, sendo três turmas por período (2003 / 2004, 2004 / 2005 e 2005 / 2006). O trabalho realizado, objetivando a introdução da astronomia básica com observações de constelações e das fases da Lua, permitindo estender-se a outros corpos celestes, iniciou-se com visita ao planetário Mundo Estelar, localizado no Ipiranga, São Paulo levantou-se a questão da importância do estudo da astronomia e foi lançado aos estudantes um trabalho de observação, com a proposta de localizar as constelações e compreender as fases da Lua, para o registro de tais observações, foram distribuídos mapas celestes, pastas, planilhas de anotações com lacunas para, constelações, fases da Lua e relatos, onde os estudantes acrescentaram pesquisas e relatórios. Os resultados dos 346 estudantes foram que 86,7% (300) concluíram a etapa de observação, destes 300 estudantes 43,3% (130) pesquisaram sobre as constelações e 19,0% (57) localizaram até quatro constelações. Dos 346 estudantes, 44,2% (153) registraram as fases da Lua equivocadamente e 10,4% (36) anexaram reportagens sobre astronomia. Conclui-se que os estudantes se dividiram em pesquisadores, sendo os estudantes que registraram e anexaram informações e, os observadores que preencheram as planilhas de observações, além de desenvolverem habilidades e competências relacionadas ao estudo da astronomia.

  9. Senkyunolide I protects rat brain against focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by up-regulating p-Erk1/2, Nrf2/HO-1 and inhibiting caspase 3.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yangye; Duan, Muyin; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Yi

    2015-04-24

    Oxidative damage and apoptosis are critical factors contributing to neuronal death during a stroke. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of senkyunolide I (SEI) on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats, and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 2h, followed by 24h reperfusion, and then randomly assigned into four groups: Sham (sham-operated), Vehicle (tMCAO +normal saline), SEI-L (tMCAO +SEI 36 mg/kg) and SEI-H (tMCAO +SEI 72 mg/kg) groups. SEI was administered intravenously, 15 min after occlusion. Neurological deficit, brain edema and infarct volume were detected after 24h of reperfusion. Histological structures of cortices and hippocampus were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Biochemical indexes in the cortex were assayed by colorimetry. The impact of SEI on the Nrf2-ARE-interaction was assayed using a luciferase reporter gene. Western blotting was performed to analysis the expressions of proteins related to anti-oxidation and apoptosis. SEI administration significantly ameliorated the neurological deficit, reduced the infarct volume and brain edema, reversed the cerebral morphologic damage, decreased the levels of MDA and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase. Furthermore, the high dose SEI could significantly activate the Nrf2/ARE pathway by up-regulating the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation with enhanced HO-1 and NQO1 expressions. Additionally, treatment with SEI remarkably promoted the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and inhibited the expressions of cleaved caspase 3 and caspase 9. These results suggest that the neuroprotective mechanisms of SEI are associated with its anti-oxidation and anti-apoptosis properties. PMID:25698615

  10. 78 FR 42527 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... baculovirus production (allowing high- throughput production with limited screening) Higher efficiency cloning...--Combinatorial Cloning Platform. Licensing Contact: Susan Ano, Ph.D.; 301-435-5515; anos@mail.nih.gov ....

  11. Anoctamin 1 (TMEM16A) is essential for testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Joo Young; Wee, Jungwon; Jung, Jooyoung; Jang, Yongwoo; Lee, Byeongjun; Hong, Gyu-Sang; Chang, Beom Chul; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee; Min, Hye-Young; Lee, Ho-Young; Na, Tae-Young; Lee, Mi-Ock; Oh, Uhtaek

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by an enlargement of the prostate, causing lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly men worldwide. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH is unclear. Anoctamin1 (ANO1) encodes a Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) that mediates various physiological functions. Here, we demonstrate that it is essential for testosterone-induced BPH. ANO1 was highly amplified in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated prostate epithelial cells, whereas the selective knockdown of ANO1 inhibited DHT-induced cell proliferation. Three androgen-response elements were found in the ANO1 promoter region, which is relevant for the DHT-dependent induction of ANO1. Administration of the ANO1 blocker or Ano1 small interfering RNA, inhibited prostate enlargement and reduced histological abnormalities in vivo. We therefore concluded that ANO1 is essential for the development of prostate hyperplasia and is a potential target for the treatment of BPH. PMID:26153424

  12. Anoctamin 1 (TMEM16A) is essential for testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Cha, Joo Young; Wee, Jungwon; Jung, Jooyoung; Jang, Yongwoo; Lee, Byeongjun; Hong, Gyu-Sang; Chang, Beom Chul; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee; Min, Hye-Young; Lee, Ho-Young; Na, Tae-Young; Lee, Mi-Ock; Oh, Uhtaek

    2015-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by an enlargement of the prostate, causing lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly men worldwide. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH is unclear. Anoctamin1 (ANO1) encodes a Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel (CaCC) that mediates various physiological functions. Here, we demonstrate that it is essential for testosterone-induced BPH. ANO1 was highly amplified in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated prostate epithelial cells, whereas the selective knockdown of ANO1 inhibited DHT-induced cell proliferation. Three androgen-response elements were found in the ANO1 promoter region, which is relevant for the DHT-dependent induction of ANO1. Administration of the ANO1 blocker or Ano1 small interfering RNA, inhibited prostate enlargement and reduced histological abnormalities in vivo. We therefore concluded that ANO1 is essential for the development of prostate hyperplasia and is a potential target for the treatment of BPH. PMID:26153424

  13. Improving Teaching Effectiveness through the Application of SPC Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadden, David; Driscoll, Vincent; Thompson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    One method used extensively to aid in determining instruction effectiveness is Student Evaluations of Instruction (SEI). This paper examines the use of statistical Process Control charts as a way to correctly measure teaching effectiveness. This field studying SEIs has produced a significant literature. It is not surprising that there is…

  14. An Examination of the Validity of Two Measures of Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Amy L.; Betts, Joseph; Appleton, James J.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of two measures of student engagement, the Student Engagement Instrument (SEI) and the Motivation-Engagement Scale (MES), with adolescents in the southeastern United States. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed an acceptable fit of the SEI and a relatively poor fit of the MES in this sample.…

  15. A parametric study of non-thermal plasma synthesis of silicon nanoparticles from a chlorinated precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yi; Yamada, Riku; Gresback, Ryan; Zhou, Shu; Pi, Xiaodong; Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2014-12-01

    Silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) synthesized in non-thermal plasma with silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) are anticipated as a non-toxic and inexpensive Si source for important applications. This study examines the crystallinity, yield, and size distribution of Si NPs in terms of specific energy input (SEI) for 2.5-65?J?cm?3 and the H2/SiCl4 ratio (1-10). The particle growth mechanism is discussed comprehensively. Atomic hydrogen (H) production using non-thermal plasma is the primary important step for SiCl4 dechlorination at low temperatures. The Si NP yield increases with SEI (plasma power divided by total gas flow) because SiCl4 conversion increases with energy fed into the unit volume of the feed gas. At low SEI, Si NPs were mostly in amorphous material because of insufficient plasma heating. A maximum yield of 50?wt% was obtained when SEI = 10?J?cm?3 (H2/SiCl4 = 10) with a crystal fraction of about 1%. Increased SEI is necessary to improve crystal fraction, but excessive SEI decreases the NP yield remarkably. The NP yield losses correspond to increasing NP-free thin film growth on the reactor wall. Mass spectrometry shows that SiCl4 is highly decomposed with greater SEI. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) increases as a by-product. At higher SEI, particle nucleation and subsequent growth are suppressed.

  16. 77 FR 25151 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Impact Statement (SEIS) on the findings of a flood risk management study along the Rio Grande from San... substantially reduce the risk of damage from floods emanating from the Rio Grande. The local cost-sharing... draft SEIS has been prepared to evaluate effects of revised levee design and additional...

  17. Reading and Language Outcomes of a Five-Year Randomized Evaluation of Transitional Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy; Calderon, Margarita; Chamberlain, Anne; Hennessy, Megan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the fifth-year results of a study comparing the English and Spanish language and reading performance of Spanish-dominant children randomly assigned beginning in kindergarten to Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE) or Structured English Immersion (SEI). This is the first randomized study to compare TBE and SEI reading…

  18. In situ atomic force microscopy study of initial solid electrolyte interphase formation on silicon electrodes for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Tokranov, Anton; Sheldon, Brian W; Li, Chunzeng; Minne, Stephen; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2014-05-14

    Precise in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to monitor the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on Si electrodes. The stability of these passivation films on negative electrodes is critically important in rechargeable Li-ion batteries, and high capacity materials such as Si present substantial challenges because of the large volume changes that occur with Li insertion and removal. The results reported here show that the initial rapid SEI formation can be stabilized before significant Li insertion into the Si begins and that the rate at which this occurs varies significantly with the nature of the surface. The initial cycling conditions also have a substantial impact on the SEI that forms, with faster rates leading to a smoother, thinner SEI film. To quantitatively interpret the SEI measurements, irreversible expansion of the Si during the first cycle was also monitored in situ with specifically designed specimen configurations. On the basis of the experimental results, relatively simple models were also used to describe the initial formation and stabilization of the SEI and to describe the relationship between the SEI thickness and expected SEI degradation mechanisms. PMID:24670933

  19. Role of surface oxides in the formation of solid-electrolyte interphases at silicon electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Kjell W; Dylla, Anthony G; Harris, Stephen J; Webb, Lauren J; Stevenson, Keith J

    2014-12-10

    Nonaqueous solvents in modern battery technologies undergo electroreduction at negative electrodes, leading to the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). The mechanisms and reactions leading to a stable SEI on silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries are still poorly understood. This lack of understanding inhibits the rational design of electrolyte additives, active material coatings, and the prediction of Li-ion battery life in general. We prepared SEI with a common nonaqueous solvent (LiPF6 in PC and in EC/DEC 1:1 by wt %) on silicon oxide and etched silicon (001) surfaces in various states of lithiation to understand the role of surface chemistry on the SEI formation mechanism and SEI structure. Anhydrous and anoxic techniques were used to prevent air and moisture contamination of prepared SEI films, allowing for more accurate characterization of SEI chemical stratification and composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) depth profiling. Additionally, multivariate statistical methods were used to better understand TOF-SIMS depth profiling studies. We conclude that the absence of native-oxide layer on silicon has a significant impact on the formation, composition, structure, and thickness of the SEI. PMID:25402271

  20. Exploring Family Environment Characteristics and Multiple Abuse Experiences among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study used data from the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) pilot study, a comprehensive vocational training program with integrated clinical services for homeless youth. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 homeless youth participating in the SEI study to explore their perceptions of family environment characteristics and…

  1. 78 FR 32281 - ProShares Advisors LLC, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... COMMISSION ProShares Advisors LLC, et al.; Notice of Application May 21, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... exemption from sections 12(d)(1)(A) and (B) of the Act. Applicants: ProShares Advisors LLC (``ProShares''), ProShares Trust (the ``Trust''), and SEI Investments Distribution Co. (``SEI''). Summary...

  2. Understanding surface reactivity of Si electrodes in Li-ion batteries by in operando scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ventosa, E; Wilde, P; Zinn, A-H; Trautmann, M; Ludwig, A; Schuhmann, W

    2016-05-21

    In operando SECM is employed to monitor the evolution of the electrically insulating character of a Si electrode surface during (de-)lithiation. The solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) formed on Si electrodes is shown to be intrinsically electrically insulating. However, volume changes upon (de-)lithiation lead to the loss of the protecting character of the initially formed SEI. PMID:27136966

  3. Factor Validity and Reliability of the Self-Esteem Index: Finding Inconsistencies between Normative and Field Study Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Larry G.; King, Debra A.

    This study offers field estimates of the factor validity and internal consistency reliability of the Self-Esteem Index (SEI) using SEI data from 208 regular and special education students in grades 3, 4, and 5. Exploratory factor analytic results support the existence of four factors as anticipated; however, various inconsistencies are noted…

  4. 78 FR 78948 - Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Route 460 Location Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Norfolk District, as joint lead federal agencies, and in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT), will prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the Route 460 Location Study Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS). The purpose of this SEIS is to......

  5. 78 FR 8119 - Cancellation of the Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft and Final Supplemental Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Register, August 9, 2006 (71 FR 45539). The USACE issued an NOA for the Draft SEIS on December 22, 2006 (71 FR 77013). A public meeting was held in Clewiston on January 10, 2007 to present the Draft SEIS. The USACE issued a second NOI, published in the Federal Register, August 31, 2009 (74 FR 44828), due to...

  6. 76 FR 38676 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Deepwater Horizon event and spill and new regulatory requirements. This Draft SEIS provides updates on the... Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sale for the 2007-2012 5-Year OCS Program...)). SUMMARY: BOEMRE has prepared a Draft SEIS on an oil and gas lease sale tentatively scheduled in...

  7. A theory and a simulation capability for the growth of a solid electrolyte interphase layer at an anode particle in a Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejovitzky, Elisha; Di Leo, Claudio V.; Anand, Lallit

    2015-05-01

    A major mechanism for electrochemical aging of Li-ion batteries is the growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on the surface of anode particles, which leads to capacity fade and also results in a rise in cell resistance. We have formulated a continuum theory for the growth of an SEI layer-a theory which accounts for the generation of the attendant growth stresses. The theory has been numerically implemented in a finite-element program. This simulation capability for SEI growth is coupled with our previously published chemo-mechanical simulation capability for intercalation of Li-ions in electrode particles. Using this new combined capability we have simulated the formation and growth of an SEI layer during cyclic lithiation and delithiation of an anode particle, and predicted the evolution of the growth stresses in the SEI layer. The evolution of the stress state within the SEI layer and at the SEI/anode-particle interface for spherical- and spheroidal-shaped graphite particles is studied. This knowledge of the local interfacial stresses provides a good estimate for the propensity of potential delamination of an SEI layer from an anode particle.

  8. Concurrent and Predictive Validity of the Student Engagement Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovelace, Matthew D.; Reschly, Amy L.; Appleton, James J.; Lutz, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    The Student Engagement Instrument (SEI) is a self-report measure of cognitive and affective engagement with school. Prior SEI validation studies have focused primarily on construct validity through analyses of internal consistency, factor analysis, and measurement invariance. Results are presented here from a two-pronged study of the criterion…

  9. 78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Register (69 FR 23492-23493) announcing the agencies' proposal to add the insecticide tebufenozide (trade... States: A Cooperative Approach (see 60 FR 61698). A notice of availability for the draft SEIS was..., 2008 (73 FR 54397, Docket No. ER-FRL-8585-7), and a notice of availability regarding the final SEIS...

  10. The calcium-activated chloride channel Anoctamin 1 contributes to the regulation of renal function.

    PubMed

    Faria, Diana; Rock, Jason R; Romao, Ana M; Schweda, Frank; Bandulik, Sascha; Witzgall, Ralph; Schlatter, Eberhard; Heitzmann, Dirk; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Herrmann, Edwin; Kunzelmann, Karl; Schreiber, Rainer

    2014-06-01

    The role of calcium-activated chloride channels for renal function is unknown. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrate dominant expression of the recently identified calcium-activated chloride channels, Anoctamin 1 (Ano1, TMEM16A) in human and mouse proximal tubular epithelial (PTE) cells, with some expression in podocytes and other tubular segments. Ano1-null mice had proteinuria and numerous large reabsorption vesicles in PTE cells. Selective knockout of Ano1 in podocytes (Ano1-/-/Nphs2-Cre) did not impair renal function, whereas tubular knockout in Ano1-/-/Ksp-Cre mice increased urine protein excretion and decreased urine electrolyte concentrations. Purinergic stimulation activated calcium-dependent chloride currents in isolated proximal tubule epithelial cells from wild-type but not from Ano1-/-/Ksp-Cre mice. Ano1 currents were activated by acidic pH, suggesting parallel stimulation of Ano1 chloride secretion with activation of the proton-ATPase. Lack of calcium-dependent chloride secretion in cells from Ano1-/-/Ksp-Cre mice was paralleled by attenuated proton secretion and reduced endosomal acidification, which compromised proximal tubular albumin uptake. Tubular knockout of Ano1 enhanced serum renin and aldosterone concentrations, probably leading to enhanced compensatory distal tubular reabsorption, thus maintaining normal blood pressure levels. Thus, Ano1 has a role in proximal tubular proton secretion and protein reabsorption. The results correspond to regulation of the proton-ATPase by the Ano1-homolog Ist2 in yeast. PMID:24476694

  11. From a lunar outpost to Mars: science, policy and the U.S. Space Exploration Initiative.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, C B

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is aimed at the establishment of an outpost for humans on the Moon, followed by the human exploration of Mars. It also encompasses robotic missions to the Moon and Man that will precede and perhaps accompany human presence. Science plays a dual role in SEI. First, many scientific questions must be answered to insure the health and safety of human explorers. Second, scientific investigations will be among the central objectives of human explorers. A substantial body of U.S. policy on SEI has been announced by President Bush. Its implementation is coordinated by the U.S. National Space Council under the Chairmanship of Vice President Quayle. That policy directs the early focus of SEI to be on technology development, including the identification of "high leverage technologies," and the identification of alternative mission architectures. It also envisions international cooperation as an important beneficial aspect of SEI. PMID:11538161

  12. Influence of the solid electrolyte interphase on the performance of redox shuttle additives in Li-ion batteries - A rotating ring-disc electrode study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaymaksiz, Serife; Wachtler, Mario; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret

    2015-01-01

    Redox shuttle electrolyte additives (RSAs) can be applied for reversible overcharge protection of batteries. Their successful operation involves their oxidation at the cathode and reduction at the anode. The most common anodes in lithium-ion batteries are graphite or amorphous carbon, which are normally covered with a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The reduction of RSAs at these anodes is in apparent contradiction with the common understanding of the SEI, which is thought to be electronically insulating. In this communication the reduction behaviour of ferrocene and 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene is studied at un-filmed and SEI-filmed electrodes. It is found that it depends strongly on the type of RSA and/or composition of the SEI. The rotating ring-disc electrode (RRDE) is introduced as a powerful diagnostic tool to study the reaction mechanism of RSAs in general and the influence of the SEI in particular.

  13. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  14. Estudo da utilizacao da biomassa florestal como fonte de produtos quimicos e energia atraves de processos quimicos e biotechnologicos (Utilization of forest biomass for chemicals and energy by chemical and biotechnological processes). Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    de Miranda, I.M.S.S.

    1989-04-01

    The chemical composition and the non-structural carbohydrate composition were determined for 1-year-old Eucalyptus globulus Labill trees, grown in an experimental plantation with different nutrient and water supplies (C-trees, where no treatment was made and IL-trees, which received a nutrient supply and irrigation). Leaf carbohydrates were determined for the same conditions. Pulping experiments were made using kraft cooks of eucalyptus wood. The results of the pretreatments are complemented with scanning electron microscopy observations. Average wood composition was: ash 1.6%, total extractives 5.2%, Klason lignin 21.0%, soluble lignin 3.1% (% of o.d. weight). The results did not show statistical significant differences between the two growth conditions. The average wood carbohydrate composition was: glucose 2.7%, frutose 4.1% sucrose 1.3% and starch 0.5%. The average carbohydrate composition of leaves was: glucose 1.0%, frutose 1.7%, sucrose 0.1% and starch 4.1%. The average yield for the kraft wood delinification was 49%. The saccharification of pretreated eucalyptus chips with a steam-explosion pretreatment was: For H2SO4 impregnation 26.6% and for H2O impregnation 44.2%.

  15. Qual o Papel da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    É amplamente reconhecido que as pessoas em geral têm grande fascínio e interesse pela Astronomia. Por outro lado, o conteúdo dessa área incluído no ensino formal está longe de ser abrangente e suficiente para suprir a demanda. Esse interesse permite aperfeiçoar a divulgação e o ensino não formal de Astronomia através da mídia aliando a adequação do conteúdo à expectativa das pessoas. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros tem introduzido Astronomia desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1180 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um formulário contendo questões que abordavam conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia, como foram adquiridos tais conhecimentos e à infra-estrutura da escola. Para 66,1% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de Astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 54,4% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 18,4% através da televisão e 27,1% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, livros didáticos, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio no meio em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia busca não somente sua difusão, mas a disponibilização desse conhecimento de maneira correta, que às vezes, não é atingido, apresentando conceitos sem fundamentação e incorretos. Por outro lado, no dia-a-dia escolar, é comum encontrar professores que vêm para as aulas com concepções prévias, que podem diferir substancialmente das idéias a serem ensinadas, dificultando o aprendizado de futuros conceitos científicos. Uma avaliação criteriosa, avaliando as dificuldades dos professores em determinar o sentido correto dos conceitos e observando a metodologia que utilizam no ensino, poderá proporcionar uma melhor compreensão sobre as concepções alternativas, presentes no ensino de Astronomia.

  16. Galbahe C1 y C2 Tests de Lengua (Castellano. Escalas 1 y 2). Medida del nivel de Castellano para ninos de 7-8 y 10-11 anos. Manual de Aplicacion. Glotodidaktika-Lanak 27. (Galbahe Language Tests C1 and C2--Spanish, Scales 1 and 2. Measure of Level of Spanish for Children 7-8 and 10-11 years. Test administration Manual. Glotodidaktika-Lanak Series Number 27).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Josu; Olaziregi, Ibon

    The Galbahe Language Tests C1 and C2 measure the Spanish language proficiency of children aged 7 to 8 years (C1) and those aged 10 to 11 years (C2). Equivalent tests E1 and E2 measure the Basque language achievement of the same age groups, respectively. Both tests were designed as part of a study of teaching of the Basque language in parts of…

  17. BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.

    2003-08-01

    Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

  18. Analysis of the solid electrolyte interphase formed with an ionic liquid electrolyte for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Shizhao; Xie, Kai; Blomberg, Erik; Jacobsson, Per; Matic, Aleksandar

    2014-04-01

    We have investigated the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on lithium electrodes in the presence of an ionic liquid electrolyte with a particular focus on the influence of polysulfides present in the electrolyte on the SEI. The electrochemical performance of symmetric cells with lithium electrodes and electrolytes composed of N-Methyl-(n-butyl)pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14-TFSI) and LiTFSI, with and without the addition of polysulfides, were analyzed as well as the chemical composition of the SEI, before and after cycling. The cycling behavior of the symmetrical cells shows that the SEI films are relatively stable in the ionic liquid electrolyte, also in the presence of polysulfides. However, the presence of polysulfides results in a higher SEI layer resistance (RSEI) and a higher activation energy. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra (XPS), with argon-ion sputtering for depth profiling, we find that the SEI is formed by decomposition products from both cations and anions of the electrolyte. The XPS spectra show that the presence of polysulfides alters the decomposition process of the electrolyte, resulting in a SEI film with different chemical composition and structure, in line with the results from the electrochemical performance.

  19. Ligand Efficiency Outperforms pIC50 on Both 2D MLR and 3D CoMFA Models: A Case Study on AR Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiazhong; Bai, Fang; Liu, Huanxiang; Gramatica, Paola

    2015-12-01

    The concept of ligand efficiency is defined as biological activity in each molecular size and is widely accepted throughout the drug design community. Among different LE indices, surface efficiency index (SEI) was reported to be the best one in support vector machine modeling, much better than the generally and traditionally used end-point pIC50 . In this study, 2D multiple linear regression and 3D comparative molecular field analysis methods are employed to investigate the structure-activity relationships of a series of androgen receptor antagonists, using pIC50 and SEI as dependent variables to verify the influence of using different kinds of end-points. The obtained results suggest that SEI outperforms pIC50 on both MLR and CoMFA models with higher stability and predictive ability. After analyzing the characteristics of the two dependent variables SEI and pIC50 , we deduce that the superiority of SEI maybe lie in that SEI could reflect the relationship between molecular structures and corresponding bioactivities, in nature, better than pIC50 . This study indicates that SEI could be a more rational parameter to be optimized in the drug discovery process than pIC50 . PMID:26198098

  20. Surface Characterization and Osteoconductivity Evaluation of Micro/Nano Surface Formed on Titanium Using Anodic Oxidation Combined with H2O2 Etching and Hydrothermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jin; Song, Yo-Han; Hwang, Moon-Jin; Song, Ho-Jun; Park, Yeong-Joon

    2015-08-01

    In this study, surface characteristics and osteoconductivity were investigated for the micro/nanostructured oxide layers fabricated on titanium using anodic oxidation (ANO), chemical etching (Et), and hydrothermal treatment (HT). Commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) disks were anodic-oxidized using DC-type power supply in 1 M phosphoric acid electrolyte (P-ANO group). These specimens were further chemically etched using 30% H2O2 solution at 60 C for 10 min (P-ANO-Et group). The P-ANO-Et-HT group was fabricated by hydrothermally treating the P-ANO-Et specimens in phosphorus-containing alkaline solution at 190 C for 8 hrs. The P-ANO group showed a porous surface that was evenly covered with micro- and sub-micro pores. The size of these pores was decreased in the P-ANO-Et group. The P-ANO-Et-HT group showed a porous surface that was covered with nano-sized crystallites. Anatase TiO2 structure was observed in P-ANO-Et-HT group. The results of XPS demonstrated that the P-ANO-Et-HT group had a well-crystallized TiC2 structure, while the P-ANO and P-ANO-Et groups had an amorphous and phosphate-containing structure. Hydrophilicity of the P-ANO-Et-HT group was the highest. After MG63 osteoblast-like cells were cultured on the specimens for 3 hrs, SEM images of the cells cultured on P-ANO-Et-HT group specimens showed low initial adhesion. However, the osteoconductivity of these specimens increased more rapidly compared to that of the micro-structured surfaces. These results could be applied to fabricate titanium implants with an optimum micro/nano-surface for enhancing their osteoconductivity. PMID:26369213

  1. Projeto observatórios virtuais: educação através de telescópios robóticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, P. H. S.; Shida, R. Y.

    2003-08-01

    O principal objetivo do projeto Observatórios Virtuais é o ensino na área de ciências através de atividades práticas desenvolvidas em colaboração entre instituições de pesquisa em astronomia e escolas de ensino médio e fundamental. Este ano deverá ser concluída a implantação do programa piloto de estudos, pesquisas e observação astronômica direta, com utilização em tempo real de telescópios robóticos, que assim funcionarão como "observatórios virtuais". O objetivo pedagógico das atividades práticas baseadas nas imagens atronômicas é desenvolver as habilidades e competências dos alunos no uso do método científico. Para isso, serão realizados projetos interdisciplinares, a partir de observações astronômicas, já que a astronomia é uma área interdisciplinar por excelência. Essas atividades terão níveis diferenciados de complexidade, que podem ser adequados aos vários graus do ensino e realidades regionais. Será dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento e aplicação em São Paulo, onde atua a equipe do IAG/USP. Como resultados apresentados no presente trabalho, temos a criação de um software em português para o processamento de imagens obtidas através de CCDs e a elaboração de material para as atividades educacionais relacionadas.

  2. População nuclear e extranuclear em rádio-galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimann, D. I.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Quintana, H.; Alloin, D.; Hunstead, R.; Wisotzki, L.

    2003-08-01

    A natureza do contínuo UV/ótico em rádio-galáxias é muito importante para o seu entendimento. Em baixos redshifts existem evidências de que muitas delas são dominadas no ótico por luz de estrelas velhas, características de galáxias early-type e em altos redshifts a característica dominante é um excesso de luz no UV, freqüentemente associado com estruturas que estão alinhadas aos eixos das estruturas rádio em grande escala. Inicialmente esse excesso foi interpretado como devido a episódios intensos de formação estelar nas galáxias hospedeiras. Entretanto, as descobertas dos alinhamentos entre as estruturas UV e rádio modificaram essa idéia. Foi proposto que a formação estelar é iniciada pela passagem do jato rádio através do meio interestelar das galáxias hospedeiras. A natureza do excesso UV começou a ser compreendida em um estudo detalhado do continuo ótico da 3C321, onde se concluiu que o contínuo desta galáxia tem origem multicomponente, com contribuições de populações velhas e intermediárias, de luz espalhada oriunda de um quasar obscurecido e do contínuo nebular. No presente trabalho estudamos a população nuclear e extranuclear de uma amostra de 24 rádio-galáxias, utilizando espectros óticos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal/ruído. Através do método de síntese espectral de populações estelares, foram estimadas as contribuições de populações estelares de diferentes idades (e de um contínuo tipo lei de potência devido a um AGN, FC) para a luz integrada das galáxias, em 4020Å. As principais conclusões deste trabalho são: apenas quatro dos objetos estudados têm contribuições significativas (maiores do que 10%) das populações de 100 milhões de anos ou mais jovens (ou de FC) ao longo da região espacial estudada (6 kpc centrais); nenhuma das rádio-galáxias de tipo FRI estudadas tem contribuição significativa destas populações ao longo desta região; duas (de oito) de tipo FRII tem contribuições significativas da luz que vem do AGN, na região nuclear; uma tem contribuição significativa das populações de 100 milhões de anos e mais jovens ao longo dos 4 kpc centrais, indicando claramente a presença de formação estelar recente. Comparando estes resultados com aqueles obtidos para uma amostra de galáxias não ativas de mesmo tipo de Hubble das rádio, encontramos que a principal diferença entre as duas amostras está na contribuição da população de 1 bilhão de anos, geralmente maior nas rádio-galáxias.

  3. Direct determination of solid-electrolyte interphase thickness and composition as a function of state of charge on a silicon anode

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Veith, Gabriel M.; Doucet, Mathieu; Baldwin, J. K.; Sacci, Robert L.; Fears, Tyler M.; Wang, Yongqiang; Browning, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Using neutron reflectometry we have determined the thickness and chemistry of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer grown on a silicon anode as a function of state of charge and during cycling. We show the chemistry of this SEI layer becomes more LiF like with increasing lithiation and more Li-C-O-F like with delithiation. More importantly the SEI layer thickness appears to increase (about 250 ) as the electrode becomes less lithiated and thins to 180 with increasing Li content (Li3.7Si). We attribute this breathing to the continual consumption of electrolyte with cycling.

  4. Direct determination of solid-electrolyte interphase thickness and composition as a function of state of charge on a silicon anode

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, Gabriel M.; Doucet, Mathieu; Baldwin, J. K.; Sacci, Robert L.; Fears, Tyler M.; Wang, Yongqiang; Browning, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Using neutron reflectometry we have determined the thickness and chemistry of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer grown on a silicon anode as a function of state of charge and during cycling. We show the chemistry of this SEI layer becomes more LiF like with increasing lithiation and more Li-C-O-F like with delithiation. More importantly the SEI layer thickness appears to increase (about 250 ) as the electrode becomes less lithiated and thins to 180 with increasing Li content (Li3.7Si). We attribute this breathing to the continual consumption of electrolyte with cycling.

  5. Direct determination of solid-electrolyte interphase thickness and composition as a function of state of charge on a silicon anode

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, Gabriel M.; Doucet, Mathieu; Baldwin, J. K.; Sacci, Robert L.; Fears, Tyler M.; Wang, Yongqiang; Browning, Jim

    2015-08-17

    Using neutron reflectometry we have determined the thickness and chemistry of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer grown on a silicon anode as a function of state of charge and during cycling. We show the chemistry of this SEI layer becomes more LiF like with increasing lithiation and more Li-C-O-F like with delithiation. More importantly the SEI layer thickness appears to increase (about 250 ) as the electrode becomes less lithiated and thins to 180 with increasing Li content (Li3.7Si). We attribute this breathing to the continual consumption of electrolyte with cycling.

  6. Cellular functions of TMEM16/anoctamin.

    PubMed

    Oh, Uhtaek; Jung, Jooyoung

    2016-03-01

    Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are a class of Cl(-) channels activated by intracellular Ca(2+) that are known to mediate numerous physiological functions. In 2008, the molecular identity of CaCCs was found to be anoctamin 1 (ANO1/TMEM16A). Its roles have been studied in electrophysiological, histological, and genetic aspects. ANO1 is known to mediate Cl(-) secretion in secretory epithelia such as airways, salivary glands, intestines, renal tubules, and sweat glands. ANO1 is a heat sensor activated by noxious heat in somatosensory neurons and mediates acute pain sensation as well as chronic pain. ANO1 is also observed in vascular as well as airway smooth muscles, controlling vascular tone as well as airway hypersensitivity. ANO1 is upregulated in numerous types of cancers and thus thought to be involved in tumorigenesis. ANO1 is also found in proliferating cells. In addition to ANO1, involvement of its paralogs in pathophysiological conditions was also reported. ANO2 is involved in olfaction, whereas ANO6 works as a scramblase whose mutation causes a rare bleeding disorder, the Scott syndrome. ANO5 is associated with muscle and bone diseases. Recently, an X-ray crystal structure of a fungal TMEM16 was reported, which explains a precise molecular gating mechanism as well as ion conduction or phospholipid transport across the plasma membrane. PMID:26811235

  7. 50 CFR 216.271 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... concern: Beaked whale of any species, dwarf or pygmy sperm whales, short-finned pilot whales, humpback whales, sperm whales, blue whales, fin whales, or sei whales. (iii) A group of 2 or more cetaceans of...

  8. 76 FR 5216 - Notice of Availability of Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Nichols Ranch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... processing. However, given the substantial environmental impact from implementing of these alternatives, they... Management System (ADAMS), which provides text and image files of the NRC's public documents. The SEIS...

  9. 76 FR 6828 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... STEM Education Programs Update STEM Innovators--Current and Future Advancement: Discussion in the Context of Recent STEM Education Policy Developments Committee on Science and Engineering Indicators (SEI... Force Teleconference Discussion of Task Force Future Activities Committee on Education and...

  10. 50 CFR 216.271 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... following marine mammals of concern: Beaked whale of any species, dwarf or pygmy sperm whales, short-finned pilot whales, humpback whales, sperm whales, blue whales, fin whales, or sei whales. (iii) A group of...

  11. 50 CFR 218.71 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of concern: beaked whale of any species, Kogia spp., Risso's dolphin, melon-headed whale, pilot whale, humpback whale, sperm whale, blue whale, fin whale, sei whale, or monk seal. (iii) A group of two or...

  12. 50 CFR 216.271 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... following marine mammals of concern: Beaked whale of any species, dwarf or pygmy sperm whales, short-finned pilot whales, humpback whales, sperm whales, blue whales, fin whales, or sei whales. (iii) A group of...

  13. 50 CFR 218.81 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... concern: beaked whale of any species, Kogia spp., Risso's dolphin, melon-headed whale, pilot whale, North Atlantic right whale, humpback whale, sperm whale, blue whale, fin whale, or sei whale. (iii) A group...

  14. The Gambia: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on Petro-Canada International Assistance Corp. performance on an onshore seismic program to complement data and geologic interpretations of two offshore zones by Teledyne International and SeisTech.

  15. Decomposing self-estimates of intelligence: structure and sex differences across 12 nations.

    PubMed

    von Stumm, Sophie; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-05-01

    This study examines the structure of self-estimates of intelligence (SEI) across 12 nations (Australia, Austria, Brazil, France, Iran, Israel, Malaysia, South Africa, Spain, Turkey, UK and US). Participants rated themselves on general and specific abilities from three popular models of intelligence: Gardner's multiple intelligences, Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, and Goleman's emotional intelligence. The results showed that (a) laypeople across nations have similar and invariant concepts of intelligence, (b) concepts of intelligence are cross-culturally closely related to academic notions of intellectual ability and (c) sex differences in general and specific SEI favouring men are consistent across countries. Male hubris and female humility in SEI seem independent of sex differences in actual cognitive ability and national levels of masculinity-femininity. Furthermore, international mean differences in general SEI could not be attributed to discrepancies in national intelligence quotient (IQ) levels or to cultural variations. PMID:18851768

  16. Mars direct - A coherent architecture for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert M.; Baker, David A.; Gwynne, Owen

    1991-01-01

    The coherency of the conventional earth-orbital assembly/Mars orbital rendezvous is analyzed in terms of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) architecture and an alternate approach is given. The coherency - defined as a combination of simplicity, robustness, and cost-effectiveness - of the conventional SEI is found to be inadequate. The Mars Direct plan is described in detail and proposed as an efficient alternative for both Martian and lunar applications. In situ propellant production on the target-planet's surface is described, and candidate vehicle designs are set forth. Objectives and problems associated with a manned mission are outlined, and details regarding surface activities and support are given. Nuclear thermal rocket propulsion is determined to be an efficient way to improve mission capability, and the Mars Direct SEI architecture can integrate such technology. The Mars Direct SEI is concluded to be a more effective plan than the conventional rendezvous mission.

  17. Direct Visualization of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Sacci, Robert L.; Adamczyk, Leslie A.; Alsem, Daan Hein; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie

    2014-08-01

    Complex, electrochemically driven transport processes form the basis of electrochemical energy storage devices. The direct imaging of electrochemical processes at high spatial resolution and within their native liquid electrolyte would significantly enhance our understanding of device functionality, but has remained elusive. In this work we use a recently developed liquid cell for in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy to obtain insight into the electrolyte decomposition mechanisms and kinetics in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries by characterizing the dynamics of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and evolution. Here we are able to visualize the detailed structure of the SEI that forms locally at the electrode/electrolyte interface during lithium intercalation into natural graphite from an organic Li-ion battery electrolyte. We quantify the SEI growth kinetics and observe the dynamic self-healing nature of the SEI with changes in cell potential.

  18. Mitochondrial Myopathies

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle cells and nerve cells have especially high energy needs, muscular and ease), mitochondrial diseases are so- ... and coordination, sei- eases affect the mitochondria — tiny energy zures and learning deficits — are common factories found ...

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase supplemental environmental impact statement. Implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Implementation Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) has two primary purposes: (1) To report on the results of the scoping process (2) To provide guidance for preparing SEIS-II SEIS-II will be the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review for WIPP`s disposal phase. Chapter 1 of this plan provides background on WIPP and this NEPA review. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and need for action by the Department of Energy (hereafter DOE or the Department), as well as a description of the Proposed Action and alternatives being considered. Chapter 3 describes the work plan, including the schedule, responsibilities, and planned consultations with other agencies and organizations. Chapter 4 describes the scoping process, presents major issues identified during the scoping process, and briefly indicates how issues will be addressed in SEIS-II.

  20. Characterisation of the solid electrolyte interface during lithiation/delithiation of germanium in an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Abhishek; Borisenko, Natalia; Borodin, Andriy; Olschewski, Mark; Endres, Frank

    2016-02-10

    In this paper, we present investigations of the interface of electrodeposited Ge during lithiation/delithiation in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide containing 0.5 M lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI/[Py1,4]TFSI). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and infrared spectroscopy were used to study the electrochemistry and the changes in the electrolyte during the Li intercalation/deintercalation processes. From infrared spectroscopic analysis, it was found that the TFSI(-) anion decomposes during the lithiation process, resulting in the formation of a solid-liquid interface (SEI) layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyse the composition of the SEI layer and the changes in the electrodeposited germanium. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the changes in the SEI layer which showed that the SEI layer was inhomogenous and changed during the lithiation/delithiation processes. PMID:26863589

  1. 77 FR 6581 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Idaho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National... prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park... preparing a supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for a Winter Use Plan for...

  2. Exploration technology prioritization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dula, Alex

    1992-01-01

    A series of outlines and graphs describing NASA's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) technology prioritization are presented. Prioritization criteria and preliminary critical technology priorities for a first lunar outpost and a Mars and permanently-manned lunar mission are addressed.

  3. 75 FR 25206 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... services for domestic companies. Customer Contact, Market Entry, Logistics, and Marketing will be SEI's...; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export... for the provisions of Export Trade Facilitation Services; b. Engage in promotional and...

  4. 78 FR 55093 - Dog Management Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... Rancho Corral de Tierra as a recently- acquired GGNRA site evaluated under the Plan/SEIS. DATES: All... recently transferred to GGNRA, Rancho Corral de Tierra, was added to the park sites considered in the...

  5. Socio-economic inequality and HIV in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The linkage between the socio-economic inequality and HIV outcomes was analysed using data from a population-based household survey that employed multistage-stratified sampling. The goal is to help refocus attention on how HIV is linked to inequalities. Methods A socio-economic index (SEI) score, derived using Multiple Correspondence Analysis of measures of ownership of durable assets, was used to generate three SEI groups: Low (poorest), Middle, and Upper (no so poor). Distribution of HIV outcomes (i.e. HIV prevalence, access to HIV/AIDS information, level of stigma towards HIV/AIDS, perceived HIV risk and sexual behaviour) across the SEI groups, and other background characteristics was assessed using weighted data. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the covariates of the HIV outcomes across the socio-economic groups. The study sample include 14,384 adults 15 years and older. Results More women (57.5%) than men (42.3%) were found in the poor SEI [P<0.001]. HIV prevalence was highest among the poor (20.8%) followed by those in the middle (15.9%) and those in the upper SEI (4.6%) [P<0.001]. It was also highest among women compared to men (19.7% versus 11.4% respectively) and among black Africans (20.2%) compared to other races [P<0.001]. Individuals in the upper SEI reported higher frequency of HIV testing (59.3%) compared to the low SEI (47.7%) [P< 0.001]. Only 20.5% of those in poor SEI had “good access to HIV/AIDS information” compared to 79.5% in the upper SEI (P<0.001). A higher percentage of the poor had a stigmatizing attitude towards HIV/AIDS (45.6%) compared to those in the upper SEI (34.8%) [P< 0.001]. There was a high personal HIV risk perception among the poor (40.0%) and it declined significantly to 10.9% in the upper SEI. Conclusions Our findings underline the disproportionate burden of HIV disease and HIV fear among the poor and vulnerable in South Africa. The poor are further disadvantaged by lack of access to HIV information and HIV/AIDS services such as testing for HIV infection. There is a compelling urgency for the national HIV/AIDS response to maximizing program focus for the poor particularly women. PMID:24180366

  6. Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with lithium on the surface of the anode to form a beneficial SEI. Apparently, nitrides and oxides that result from reduction of lithium dinitramide on the anode produce a thin, robust SEI different from the SEIs formed from organic SEI promoters. The SEI formed from lithium dinitramide is more electronically insulating than is the film formed in the presence of an otherwise identical electrolyte that does not include lithium dinitramide. SEI promotion with lithium dinitramide is useful in batteries with metallic lithium and lithium alloy anodes.

  7. Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.

    2003-08-01

    Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao final, temos uma lista de linhas atômicas com mais de 24.000 linhas e uma lista molecular com as moléculas CN, CH, OH, NH, MgH, C2, TiO Gama, CO, FeH, adequadas ao estudo de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas.

  8. Earth and Heavens: Two Separate Universes? (Spanish Title: Tierra y Cielos: ¿Dos Universos Separados?) Terra e Céus: Dois Universos Separados?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Jaime; Gil-Pérez, Daniel; Solbes, Jordi; Vilches, Amparo

    2005-12-01

    The study of gravitation constitutes an exceptional occasion to show the richness and complexity of science and technology, contemplating, among other things: the problematic situations which are at the heart of the scientific knowledge, the difficulties encountered in the construction of knowledge and, especially, the necessity of overcoming "common-sense evidence" that proclaimed the existence of an insurmountable barrier between Earth and Heavens, hindering scientific development during many centuries. In this paper we present a program of activities to orient the study of Gravitation atUpperHigh School, favoring students' participation in the reconstruction of this first scientific revolution and giving them the opportunity to see the importance of Astronomy both in the history of science and today. El estudio de la gravitación constituye una ocasión excepcional para mostrar la ciencia y la tecnología en toda su riqueza y complejidad, considerando, entre otros aspectos:

  9. Las situaciones problemáticas relevantes que llevaron a la construcción de los conocimientos,
  10. las dificultades de todo tipo con las que hubo que enfrentarse y, muy en particular,
  11. la necesidad de superar las "evidencias de sentido común" que establecían una supuesta barrera infranqueable entre la Tierray los Cielos y que obstaculizaron durante siglos el desarrollo científico.
  12. En este trabajo presentamos un programa de actividades para el estudio de la gravitación en la secundaria superior, orientado a favorecer la participación de los estudiantes, en alguna medida, en la reconstrucción de este proceso que constituyó la denominada primera gran revolución científica y asomándonos al estudio de una de las ciencias más antiguas, la Astronomía, que hoy sigue despertando gran interés. O estudo da gravitação constitui uma ocasião excepcional para mostrar a ciência e a tecnologia em toda sua riqueza e complexidade, considerando, entre outros aspectos: as situações problemáticas relevantes que levaram à construção dos conhecimentos, as dificuldades de todo tipo que se teve que enfrentar nessa construção e, muito em particular,a necessidade de se superar as "evidências do senso comum" que estabeleciam uma suposta barreira intransponível entre a Terra e os Céus e que foram um obstáculo durante séculos para o desenvolvimento científico. Neste trabalho apresentamos um programa de atividades para o estudo da gravitação nos últimos anos do ensino médio, orientado a favorecer a participação dos estudantes, em alguma medida, na reconstrução deste processo que constituiu a denominada primeira grande revolução científica e a nos aproximarmos do estudo de uma das ciências mais antigas, a Astronomia, que hoje continua despertando grande interesse.

  13. Science and application missions of the near future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Sanctis, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of missions under study for NASA at the Marshall Space Flight Center in support of space science, SEI, and the Mission to Planet Earth are discussed. These science and application payloads including the laser atmospheric wind sounder, inner magnetosphere imager, large lunar telescope, and lunar transit telescope will utilize the capabilities of the Space Station, the earth observing system, GEO, and SEI infrastructure. Attention is given to controls, astrophysics, and structures experiment in space.

  14. An Artificial Solid Electrolyte Interphase Layer for Stable Lithium Metal Anodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Nian-Wu; Yin, Ya-Xia; Yang, Chun-Peng; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-03-01

    A Li3 PO4 solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer is demonstrated to be stable in the organic electrolyte, even during the Li deposition/dissolution process. Thus, the Li-conducting Li3 PO4 SEI layer with a high Young's modulus can effectively reduce side reactions between Li metal and the electrolyte and can restrain Li dendrite growth in lithium-metal batteries during cycling. PMID:26698171

  15. The Space Exploration Initiative: a challenge to advanced life support technologies: keynote presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, W. W.

    1991-01-01

    President Bush has enunciated an unparalleled, open-ended commitment to human exploration of space called the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). At the heart of the SEI is permanent human presence beyond Earth orbit, which implies a new emphasis on life science research and life support system technology. Proposed bioregenerative systems for planetary surface bases will require carefully designed waste processing elements whose development will lead to streamlined and efficient and efficient systems for applications on Earth.

  16. The Space Exploration Initiative: a challenge to advanced life support technologies: keynote presentation.

    PubMed

    Mendell, W W

    1991-10-01

    President Bush has enunciated an unparalleled, open-ended commitment to human exploration of space called the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). At the heart of the SEI is permanent human presence beyond Earth orbit, which implies a new emphasis on life science research and life support system technology. Proposed bioregenerative systems for planetary surface bases will require carefully designed waste processing elements whose development will lead to streamlined and efficient and efficient systems for applications on Earth. PMID:11537682

  17. 'Safer environment interventions': a qualitative synthesis of the experiences and perceptions of people who inject drugs.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Ryan; Small, Will

    2014-04-01

    There is growing acknowledgment that social, structural, and environmental forces produce vulnerability to health harms among people who inject drugs (PWID), and safer environment interventions (SEI) have been identified as critical to mitigating the impacts of these contextual forces on drug-related harm. To date, however, SEIs have been under-theorized in the literature, and how they minimize drug-related risks across intervention types and settings has not been adequately examined. This article presents findings from a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies reporting PWID's experiences with three types of SEIs (syringe exchange programmes, supervised injection facilities and peer-based harm reduction interventions) published between 1997 and 2012. This meta-synthesis sought to develop a comprehensive understanding of SEIs informed by the experiences of PWID. Twenty-nine papers representing twenty-one unique studies that included an aggregate of more than 800 PWID were included in this meta-synthesis. This meta-synthesis found that SEIs fostered social and physical environments that mitigated drug-related harms and increased access to social and material resources. Specifically, SEIs: (1) provided refuge from street-based drug scenes; (2) enabled safer injecting by reshaping the social and environmental contexts of injection drug use; (3) mediated access to resources and health care services; and, (4) were constrained by drug prohibition and law enforcement activities. These findings indicate that it is critical to situate SEIs in relation to the lived experiences of PWID, and in particular provide broader environmental support to PWID. Given that existing drug laws limit the effectiveness of interventions, drug policy reforms are needed to enable public health, and specifically SEIs, to occupy a more prominent role in the response to injection drug use. PMID:24561777

  18. ‘Safer Environment Interventions’: A qualitative synthesis of the experiences and perceptions of people who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Ryan; Small, Will

    2014-01-01

    There is growing acknowledgment that social, structural, and environmental forces produce vulnerability to health harms among people who inject drugs (PWID), and safer environment interventions (SEI) have been identified as critical to mitigating the impacts of these contextual forces on drug-related harm. To date, however, SEIs have been under-theorized in the literature, and how they minimize drug-related risks across intervention types and settings has not been adequately examined. This article presents findings from a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies reporting PWID’s experiences with three types of SEIs (syringe exchange programmes, supervised injection facilities and peer-based harm reduction interventions) published between 1997 and 2012. This meta-synthesis seeks to develop a comprehensive understanding of SEIs informed by the experiences of PWID. Twenty-nine papers representing twenty-one unique studies that included an aggregate of more than 800 PWID were included in this meta-synthesis. This meta- synthesis found that SEIs fostered social and physical environments that mitigated drug-related harms and increased access to social and material resources. Specifically, SEIs: (1) provided refuge from street-based drug scenes; (2) enabled safer injecting by reshaping the social and environmental contexts of injection drug use; (3) mediated access to resources and health care services; and, (4) were constrained by drug prohibition and law enforcement activities. These findings indicate that it is critical to situate SEIs in relation to the lived experiences of PWID, and in particular provide broader environmental support to PWID. Given that existing drug laws limit the effectiveness of interventions, drug policy reforms are needed to enable public health, and specifically SEIs, to occupy a more prominent role in the response to injection drug use. PMID:24561777

  19. On the performance of atomic natural orbital basis sets: A full configuration interaction study

    SciTech Connect

    Illas, F. Departament de Quimica Fisica, Grup de Quimica Quantica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, C Ricart, J.M. ); Rubio, J. ); Bagus, P.S. )

    1990-10-01

    The performance of atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets has been studied by comparing self-consistant field (SCF) and full configuration interaction (CI) results obtained for the first row atoms and hydrides. The ANO results have been compared with those obtained using a segmented basis set containing the same number of contracted basis functions. The total energies obtained with the ANO basis sets are always lower than the one obtained by using the segmented one. However, for the hydrides, differential electronic correlation energy obtained with the ANO basis set may be smaller than the one recovered with the segmented set. We relate this poorer differential correlation energy for the ANO basis set to the fact that only one contracted {ital d} function is used for the ANO and segmented basis sets.

  20. Degradation of the solid electrolyte interphase induced by the deposition of manganese ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hosop; Park, Jonghyun; Sastry, Ann Marie; Lu, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The deposition of manganese ions dissolved from the cathode onto the interface between the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and graphite causes severe capacity fading in manganese oxide-based cells. The evolution of the SEI layer containing these Mn compounds and the corresponding instability of the layer are thoroughly investigated by artificially introducing soluble Mn ions into a 1 mol L-1 LiPF6 electrolyte solution. Deposition of dissolved Mn ions induces an oxygen-rich SEI layer that results from increased electrolyte decomposition, accelerating SEI growth. The spatial distribution of Mn shows that dissolved Mn ions diffuse through the porous layer and are deposited mostly at the inorganic layer/graphite interface. The Mn compound deposited on the anode, identified as MnF2, originates from a metathesis reaction between LiF and dissolved Mn ion. It is confirmed that ion-exchange reaction occurs in the inorganic layer, converting SEI species to Mn compounds. Some of the Mn is observed inside the graphite; this may cause surface structural disordering in the graphite, limiting lithium-ion intercalation. The continuous reaction that occurs at the inorganic layer/graphite interfacial regions and the modification of the original SEI layer in the presence of Mn ions are critically related to capacity fade and impedance rise currently plaguing Li-ion cells.

  21. Atomic force microscopy study on the stability of a surface film formed on a graphite negative electrode at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Minoru; Tomiyasu, Hanako; Tasaka, Akimasa; Jeong, Soon-Ki; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2004-02-17

    The stability at elevated temperatures of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on a graphite negative electrode in lithium ion batteries was investigated by storage tests and in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) observation. When the fully discharged graphite electrode was stored at elevated temperatures, the irreversible capacity in the following cycle increased remarkably. On the other hand, when the electrode was stored at the fully charged state at elevated temperatures, it was severely self-discharged during storage. AFM observation of the SEI layer formed on a model electrode of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite revealed two important facts on the stability of the SEI at elevated temperatures: (i) dissolution and agglomeration of the SEI layer at the discharged state and (ii) serious SEI growth at the charged state. These phenomena well explain the results of the charge and discharge tests. It was also shown that the addition of vinylene carbonate greatly improves the stability of the SEI at elevated temperatures, and gives good charge and discharge performance after storage. PMID:15803718

  22. The complex electrochemistry of graphite electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, Petr; Joho, Felix; Lanz, Martin; Rykart, Beat; Panitz, Jan-Christoph; Alliata, Dario; Kötz, Rüdiger; Haas, Otto

    This paper discusses the interrelated phenomena of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and the irreversible charge consumption which occurs during the first cycle of a graphite electrode, as well as their relevance to the cycling stability of lithium-ion batteries. Thus, results from relevant characterization methods, namely, in situ mass spectrometry, in situ infrared spectroscopy, in situ Raman and video microscopy, in situ scanning probe microscopy, in situ quartz crystal microbalance, and differential scanning calorimetry were combined for a more thorough understanding of observations made in cycling experiments. From electrochemical cycling tests, we have learned that a high specific charge (˜360 Ah/kg of carbon), satisfactory cycle life of the graphite electrodes (1000 deep cycles), and an irreversible charge of <7% during SEI formation can only be obtained when water contamination of the cell is avoided. Under such conditions, a good-quality SEI film is formed on the carbon surface. We conclude that during SEI film formation, at first the carbonate solvent(s) are reduced, forming ethylene gas, organic radicals, oligomers, and polymers. Then a SEI film is precipitated on the surface via a nucleation and growth mechanism. The irreversible charge consumption due to SEI formation is proportional to the BET specific surface area of the graphite and rapidly increases with increasing water content in the cell.

  23. The seirena B Class Floral Homeotic Mutant of California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica) Reveals a Function of the Enigmatic PI Motif in the Formation of Specific Multimeric MADS Domain Protein Complexes[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Matthias; Orashakova, Svetlana; Lange, Sabrina; Melzer, Rainer; Theißen, Günter; Smyth, David R.; Becker, Annette

    2013-01-01

    The products of B class floral homeotic genes specify petal and stamen identity, and loss of B function results in homeotic conversions of petals into sepals and stamens into carpels. Here, we describe the molecular characterization of seirena-1 (sei-1), a mutant from the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) that shows homeotic changes characteristic of floral homeotic B class mutants. SEI has been previously described as EScaGLO, one of four B class–related MADS box genes in California poppy. The C terminus of SEI, including the highly conserved PI motif, is truncated in sei-1 proteins. Nevertheless, like the wild-type SEI protein, the sei-1 mutant protein is able to bind CArG-boxes and can form homodimers, heterodimers, and several higher order complexes with other MADS domain proteins. However, unlike the wild type, the mutant protein is not able to mediate higher order complexes consisting of specific B, C, and putative E class related proteins likely involved in specifying stamen identity. Within the PI motif, five highly conserved N-terminal amino acids are specifically required for this interaction. Several families lack this short conserved sequence, including the Brassicaceae, and we propose an evolutionary scenario to explain these functional differences. PMID:23444328

  24. The seirena B class floral homeotic mutant of California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica) reveals a function of the enigmatic PI motif in the formation of specific multimeric MADS domain protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Lange, Matthias; Orashakova, Svetlana; Lange, Sabrina; Melzer, Rainer; Theißen, Günter; Smyth, David R; Becker, Annette

    2013-02-01

    The products of B class floral homeotic genes specify petal and stamen identity, and loss of B function results in homeotic conversions of petals into sepals and stamens into carpels. Here, we describe the molecular characterization of seirena-1 (sei-1), a mutant from the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) that shows homeotic changes characteristic of floral homeotic B class mutants. SEI has been previously described as EScaGLO, one of four B class-related MADS box genes in California poppy. The C terminus of SEI, including the highly conserved PI motif, is truncated in sei-1 proteins. Nevertheless, like the wild-type SEI protein, the sei-1 mutant protein is able to bind CArG-boxes and can form homodimers, heterodimers, and several higher order complexes with other MADS domain proteins. However, unlike the wild type, the mutant protein is not able to mediate higher order complexes consisting of specific B, C, and putative E class related proteins likely involved in specifying stamen identity. Within the PI motif, five highly conserved N-terminal amino acids are specifically required for this interaction. Several families lack this short conserved sequence, including the Brassicaceae, and we propose an evolutionary scenario to explain these functional differences. PMID:23444328

  1. In Situ Potentiodynamic Analysis of the Electrolyte/Silicon Electrodes Interface Reactions - A Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Yonatan; Han, Hui-Ling; Ross, Philip N; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2016-01-27

    The key factor in long-term use of batteries is the formation of an electrically insulating solid layer that allows lithium ion transport but stops further electrolyte redox reactions on the electrode surface, hence solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). We have studied a common electrolyte, 1.0 M LiPF6/ethylene carbonate (EC)/diethyl carbonate (DEC), reduction products on crystalline silicon (Si) electrodes in a lithium (Li) half-cell system under reaction conditions. We employed in situ sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) with interface sensitivity in order to probe the molecular composition of the SEI surface species under various applied potentials where electrolyte reduction is expected. We found that, with a Si(100)-hydrogen terminated wafer, a Si-ethoxy (Si-OC2H5) surface intermediate forms due to DEC decomposition. Our results suggest that the SEI surface composition varies depending on the termination of Si surface, i.e., the acidity of the Si surface. We provide the evidence of specific chemical composition of the SEI on the anode surface under reaction conditions. This supports an electrochemical electrolyte reduction mechanism in which the reduction of the DEC molecule to an ethoxy moiety plays a key role. These findings shed new light on the formation mechanism of SEI on Si anodes in particular and on SEI formation in general. PMID:26651259

  2. Component-/structure-dependent elasticity of solid electrolyte interphase layer in Li-ion batteries: Experimental and computational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hosop; Park, Jonghyun; Han, Sangwoo; Sastry, Ann Marie; Lu, Wei

    2015-03-01

    The mechanical instability of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) layer in lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries causes significant side reactions resulting in Li-ion consumption and cell impedance rise by forming further SEI layers, which eventually leads to battery capacity fade and power fade. In this paper, the composition-/structure-dependent elasticity of the SEI layer is investigated via Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements coupled with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and atomistic calculations. It is observed that the inner layer is stiffer than the outer layer. The measured Young's moduli are mostly in the range of 0.2-4.5 GPa, while some values above 80 GPa are also observed. This wide variation of the observed elastic modulus is elucidated by atomistic calculations with a focus on chemical and structural analysis. The numerical analysis shows the Young's moduli range from 2.4 GPa to 58.1 GPa in the order of the polymeric, organic, and amorphous inorganic components. The crystalline inorganic component (LiF) shows the highest value (135.3 GPa) among the SEI species. This quantitative observation on the elasticity of individual components of the SEI layer must be essential to analyzing the mechanical behavior of the SEI layer and to optimizing and controlling it.

  3. Evaluating the solid electrolyte interphase formed on silicon electrodes: a comparison of ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ neutron reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Fears, T M; Doucet, M; Browning, J F; Baldwin, J K S; Winiarz, J G; Kaiser, H; Taub, H; Sacci, R L; Veith, G M

    2016-05-18

    This work details the in situ characterization of the interface between a silicon electrode and an electrolyte using a linear fluorinated solvent molecule, 0.1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in deuterated dimethyl perfluoroglutarate (d6-PF5M2) (1.87 × 10(-2) mS cm(-1)). The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) composition and thickness determined via in situ neutron reflectometry (NR) and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were compared. The data show that SEI expansion and contraction (breathing) during electrochemical cycling were observed via both techniques; however, ex situ XPS suggests that the SEI thickness increases during Si lithiation and decreases during delithiation, while in situ NR suggests the opposite. The most likely cause of this discrepancy is the selective removal of SEI components (top 20 nm of the SEI) during the electrode rinse process, which is required to remove the electrolyte residue prior to ex situ analysis, demonstrating the necessity of performing SEI characterization in situ. PMID:27149427

  4. Calmodulin-dependent activation and inactivation of anoctamin calcium-gated chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Vocke, Kerstin; Dauner, Kristin; Hahn, Anne; Ulbrich, Anne; Broecker, Jana; Keller, Sandro; Frings, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-dependent chloride channels serve critical functions in diverse biological systems. Driven by cellular calcium signals, the channels codetermine excitatory processes and promote solute transport. The anoctamin (ANO) family of membrane proteins encodes three calcium-activated chloride channels, named ANO 1 (also TMEM16A), ANO 2 (also TMEM16B), and ANO 6 (also TMEM16F). Here we examined how ANO 1 and ANO 2 interact with Ca2+/calmodulin using nonstationary current analysis during channel activation. We identified a putative calmodulin-binding domain in the N-terminal region of the channel proteins that is involved in channel activation. Binding studies with peptides indicated that this domain, a regulatory calmodulin-binding motif (RCBM), provides two distinct modes of interaction with Ca2+/calmodulin, one at submicromolar Ca2+ concentrations and one in the micromolar Ca2+ range. Functional, structural, and pharmacological data support the concept that calmodulin serves as a calcium sensor that is stably associated with the RCBM domain and regulates the activation of ANO 1 and ANO 2 channels. Moreover, the predominant splice variant of ANO 2 in the brain exhibits Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent inactivation, a loss of channel activity within 30 s. This property may curtail ANO 2 activity during persistent Ca2+ signals in neurons. Mutagenesis data indicated that the RCBM domain is also involved in ANO 2 inactivation, and that inactivation is suppressed in the retinal ANO 2 splice variant. These results advance the understanding of Ca2+ regulation in anoctamin Cl− channels and its significance for the physiological function that anoctamin channels subserve in neurons and other cell types. PMID:24081981

  5. Cell Adhesion and in Vivo Osseointegration of Sandblasted/Acid Etched/Anodized Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mu-Hyon; Park, Kyeongsoon; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Se Eun; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a new type of titanium (Ti) implant as a Modi-anodized (ANO) Ti implant, the surface of which was treated by sandblasting, acid etching (SLA), and anodized techniques. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the adhesion of MG-63 cells to Modi-ANO surface treated Ti in vitro and to investigate its osseointegration characteristics in vivo. Four different types of Ti implants were examined, that is, machined Ti (control), SLA, anodized, and Modi-ANO Ti. In the cell adhesion study, Modi-ANO Ti showed higher initial MG-63 cell adhesion and induced greater filopodia growth than other groups. In vivo study in a beagle model revealed the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) of Modi-ANO Ti (74.20% ± 10.89%) was much greater than those of machined (33.58% ± 8.63%), SLA (58.47% ± 12.89), or ANO Ti (59.62% ± 18.30%). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Modi-ANO Ti implants produced by sandblasting, acid etching, and anodizing improve cell adhesion and bone ongrowth as compared with machined, SLA, or ANO Ti implants. These findings suggest that the application of Modi-ANO surface treatment could improve the osseointegration of dental implant. PMID:25955650

  6. Modulating Ca(2+) signals: a common theme for TMEM16, Ist2, and TMC.

    PubMed

    Kunzelmann, Karl; Cabrita, Ines; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida; Benedetto, Roberta; Schreiber, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    Since the discovery of TMEM16A (anoctamin 1, ANO1) as Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel, the protein was found to serve different physiological functions, depending on the type of tissue. Subsequent reports on other members of the anoctamin family demonstrated a broad range of yet poorly understood properties. Compromised anoctamin function is causing a wide range of diseases, such as hearing loss (ANO2), bleeding disorder (ANO6), ataxia and dystonia (ANO3, 10), persistent borrelia and mycobacteria infection (ANO10), skeletal syndromes like gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia and limb girdle muscle dystrophy (ANO5), and cancer (ANO1, 6, 7). Animal models demonstrate CF-like airway disease, asthma, and intestinal hyposecretion (ANO1). Although present data indicate that ANO1 is a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel, it remains unclear whether all anoctamins form plasma membrane-localized or intracellular chloride channels. We find Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents appearing by expression of most anoctamin paralogs, including the Nectria haematococca homologue nhTMEM16 and the yeast homologue Ist2. As recent studies show a role of anoctamins, Ist2, and the related transmembrane channel-like (TMC) proteins for intracellular Ca(2+) signaling, we will discuss the role of these proteins in generating compartmentalized Ca(2+) signals, which may give a hint as to the broad range of cellular functions of anoctamins. PMID:26700940

  7. Anoctamin Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels May Modulate Inhibitory Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Parthier, Daniel; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin (alias TMEM16) protein family fulfill critical functions in epithelial fluid transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory signal processing. Little is known, however, about their contribution to information processing in the central nervous system. Here we examined the recent finding that a calcium-dependent chloride conductance impacts on GABAergic synaptic inhibition in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We asked whether anoctamin channels may underlie this chloride conductance. We identified two anoctamin channel proteins, ANO1 and ANO2, in the cerebellar cortex. ANO1 was expressed in inhibitory interneurons of the molecular layer and the granule cell layer. Both channels were expressed in Purkinje cells but, while ANO1 appeared to be retained in the cell body, ANO2 was targeted to the dendritic tree. Functional studies confirmed that ANO2 was involved in a calcium-dependent mode of ionic plasticity that reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. ANO2 channels attenuated GABAergic transmission by increasing the postsynaptic chloride concentration, hence reducing the driving force for chloride influx. Our data suggest that ANO2 channels are involved in a Ca2+-dependent regulation of synaptic weight in GABAergic inhibition. Thus, in balance with the chloride extrusion mechanism via the co-transporter KCC2, ANO2 appears to regulate ionic plasticity in the cerebellum. PMID:26558388

  8. Cell adhesion and in vivo osseointegration of sandblasted/acid etched/anodized dental implants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mu-Hyon; Park, Kyeongsoon; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Se Eun; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a new type of titanium (Ti) implant as a Modi-anodized (ANO) Ti implant, the surface of which was treated by sandblasting, acid etching (SLA), and anodized techniques. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the adhesion of MG-63 cells to Modi-ANO surface treated Ti in vitro and to investigate its osseointegration characteristics in vivo. Four different types of Ti implants were examined, that is, machined Ti (control), SLA, anodized, and Modi-ANO Ti. In the cell adhesion study, Modi-ANO Ti showed higher initial MG-63 cell adhesion and induced greater filopodia growth than other groups. In vivo study in a beagle model revealed the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) of Modi-ANO Ti (74.20%10.89%) was much greater than those of machined (33.58%8.63%), SLA (58.47%12.89), or ANO Ti (59.62%18.30%). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Modi-ANO Ti implants produced by sandblasting, acid etching, and anodizing improve cell adhesion and bone ongrowth as compared with machined, SLA, or ANO Ti implants. These findings suggest that the application of Modi-ANO surface treatment could improve the osseointegration of dental implant. PMID:25955650

  9. Co-expression of anoctamins in cilia of olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Bastian; Drose, Daniela R; Ackels, Tobias; Oberland, Sonja; Spehr, Marc; Neuhaus, Eva M

    2015-02-01

    Vertebrates can sense and identify a vast array of chemical cues. The molecular machinery involved in chemodetection and transduction is expressed within the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons. Currently, there is only limited information available on the distribution and density of individual signaling components within the ciliary compartment. Using super-resolution microscopy, we show here that cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels and calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin family are localized to discrete microdomains in the ciliary membrane. In addition to ANO2, a second anoctamin, ANO6, also localizes to ciliary microdomains. This observation, together with the fact that ANO6 and ANO2 co-localize, indicates a role for ANO6 in olfactory signaling. We show that both ANO2 and ANO6 can form heteromultimers and that this heteromerization alters the recombinant channels' physiological properties. Thus, we provide evidence for interaction of ANO2 and ANO6 in olfactory cilia, with possible physiological relevance for olfactory signaling. PMID:25500808

  10. Los manuales de quimica en Espana (1788--1845): Protagonistas, terminologia, clasificaciones y orden pedagogico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Bello, Maria Rosa

    La presente tesis doctoral es una investigacion sobre los manuales de quimica utilizados en Espana de 1788 a 1845. Este trabajo proporciona una perspectiva general de un tema relevante en las ultimas decadas en Historia de la Ciencia, el estudio de los libros de texto. De acuerdo con las ultimas investigaciones realizadas en este terreno, el acto pedagogico es considerado como un proceso creativo, como espacio de encuentro de actores e intereses muy diversos, matizando las ideas defendidas por Thomas S. Kuhn. Recordemos que segun Kuhn, los libros de texto ofrecen una vision consensuada y normalizada del estado de la ciencia de su epoca, por lo que sus autores eliminan deliberadamente toda controversia y presentan asi una imagen distorsionada de la actividad cientifica. En cambio, se ha mostrado, por ejemplo, que en la ensenanza participan no solamente profesores y alumnos sino tambien otros muchos actores y todos ellos no unicamente con intereses puramente pedagogicos sino tambien con diversos intereses politicos y economicos que pueden conocerse a traves del estudio de los manuales. En esta tesis se pretende analizar los manuales de quimica en Espana desde 1788 hasta 1845. Para poder llevar a cabo la investigacion ha sido necesario precisar el objeto de estudio (libro de texto de quimica) durante el periodo estudiado (1788-1845) ya que no es adecuado adoptar la imagen actual de una disciplina que sufrio sustanciales cambios durante la epoca estudiada. Esta investigacion se centra en un momento especialmente importante para la quimica y que algunos historiadores han llegado a considerar "revolucionario". Durante estos anos se produjo un cambio importante en las teorias quimicas sobre la combustion y el concepto de elemento, asi como una reforma terminologica que originaron la aparicion de importantes controversias. Ademas, debido a la relacion de la quimica con otras disciplinas como la historia natural o la fisica ha sido necesario restringir el objeto de estudio para poder llegar a conclusiones validas. Por ello, se ha adoptado como nucleo de este trabajo la definicion de libro de texto basada en su destino y no en su funcion, es decir, los libros que de forma explicita expresan su finalidad didactica, tanto en el titulo o como en las declaraciones del autor reflejadas en el prologo de la obra, en los que ademas aparezca la palabra quimica en su titulo. El estudio comienza en 1788 con la publicacion de algunos de los primeros manuales de quimica modernos, y acaba con la reforma educativa de 1845, que tuvo importantes consecuencias en el mercado de libros de texto en Espana. Esta reforma separaba la ensenanza media de la propiamente universitaria y, de este modo, fue impulsora de la creacion de institutos provinciales de segunda ensenanza, algunos de los cuales habian comenzado su andadura en los anos anteriores. Las regulaciones introducidas suponian una fuerte limitacion para los profesores en la eleccion de los manuales de ensenanza que debian ser aprobados cada tres anos por el Consejo de Instruccion Publica. Ademas supuso una reglamentacion clara de los estudios de filosofia y su division en los estudios elementales y superiores. La investigacion se ha distribuido a lo largo de seis capitulos: Introduccion, los protagonista, el vocabulario de la quimica, poniendo orden: las clasificaciones quimicas, conclusiones y apendice. En primer lugar, se ha elaborado un repertorio bibliografico, incluido en el apendice, constituido por 76 obras de quimica publicadas en Espana desde 1788 hasta 1845 que permite realizar un analisis estadistico de su produccion. Posteriormente, se intenta conocer los principales protagonistas en la creacion del libro: editores, impresores, autores, traductores y lectores. Tradicionalmente los historiadores de la ciencia han dado mas importancia a los laboratorios y a los personajes de la investigacion cientifica, frente a las aulas y a los protagonistas de la ensenanza. La situacion ha cambiado en las ultimas decadas pues los trabajos mas recientes han mostrado la labor creativa que se desarrolla en las aulas de ciencias, su importante influencia en la configuracion de las sucesivas generaciones de cientificos y, por ello, la necesidad de prestar atencion a los profesores y estudiantes de ciencias, a los autores, impresores y editores de los libros de texto y otros personajes poco conocidos. Siguiendo estas tendencias, se revisa los principales protagonistas de la edicion de los libros de texto: (1) Los editores, impresores y libreros (incluyendo tambien la regulacion del mercado editorial), (2) Los autores y los traductores de las obras, (3) Los publicos destinatarios. Se ofrece una descripcion general de las principales tendencias y retratos colectivos que se combinan con detalles de algunos de los protagonistas y situaciones particulares que pueden ser reveladoras de cuestiones importantes que no pueden ser abordadas mediante graficas o estadisticas. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  11. Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Materials Prepared with Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavanagh, Andrew S.

    As the world consumes the dwindling supply of fossil fuels, an alternative to gasoline powered vehicles will become necessary. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are emerging as the dominant power source for portable electronics, and are seen as a promising energy source in the development of electric vehicles. Current LIB technology is not well suited for vehicles, increases in the energy density, power density and durability are needed before LIB are ready for widespread use in electric vehicles. LiCoO2 and graphite are the dominant cathode and anode active materials, respectively in LIBs. On the cathode side, instabilities in LiCoO 2 can lead to the deterioration of the LIB. Decomposition of electrolyte on the graphite anode surface to form a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) consumes lithium from the cathode resulting in a lower battery capacity. Instabilities in the in the SEI can result in catastrophic battery failure. Previous studies have employed metal oxides films, typically grown with wet chemical techniques, to stabilize LiCoO2 and mitigate the formation of the SEI on graphite. The thicknesses of films grown with wet chemical techniques was typically 50--1000 A. In order to achieve higher power densities, the particle size of LIB active materials is being scaled down. As active materials get smaller the mass contribution of a protective film can become a significant fraction of the total mass. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been used to grow ultra thin films of Al2O3 on LiCoO2 and graphite. By altering the interaction between the active material and the battery electrolyte it was possible to improve the stability of both LiCoO2 and graphite electrodes in LIBs. In the case of graphite, the Al2O3 film may be thought of as an artificial SEI. During the initial charge-discharge cycle of a LIB, the electrolyte decomposes on the anode to form the SEI. The formation of the SEI is believed to prevent further decomposition of the electrolyte on the anode surface. The SEI contains electrolyte decomposition products including Li2CO3, Li2O, LiOH, LiF and R-OLi. In order to grow a truly artificial SEI on the graphite anode, i.e. grow a film that mimics the SEI that forms during charge-discharge cycling, new ALD chemistries for the growth of Li2CO3 and LiOH have been developed. The ALD of an artificial SEI layer may limit lithium loss and improve the capacity stability during charge-discharge cycles.

  12. Characterization of Cardiac Anoctamin1 Ca2+-Activated Chloride Channels and Functional Role in Ischemia-Induced Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhen; Wu, Ming-Ming; Wang, Chun-Yu; Li, Yan-Chao; Yu, Chang-Jiang; Gong, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Song, Bin-Lin; Yu, Kuai; Hartzell, H. Criss; Duan, Dayue Darrel; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Zhi-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Anoctamin1 (ANO1) encodes a Ca2+-activated chloride (Cl?) channel (CaCC) in variety tissues of many species. Whether ANO1 expresses and functions as a CaCC in cardiomyocytes remain unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize the molecular and functional expression of ANO1 in cardiac myocytes and the role of ANO1-encoded CaCCs in ischemia-induced arrhythmias in the heart. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining assays, and immunohistochemistry identified the molecular expression, location, and distribution of ANO1 in mouse ventricular myocytes (mVMs). Patch-clamp recordings combined with pharmacological analyses found that ANO1 was responsible for a Ca2+-activated Cl? current (ICl.Ca) in cardiomyocytes. Myocardial ischemia led to a significant increase in the current density of ICl.Ca, which was inhibited by a specific ANO1 inhibitor, T16Ainh-A01, and an antibody targeting at the pore area of ANO1. Moreover, cardiomyocytes isolated from mice with ischemia-induced arrhythmias had an accelerated early phase 1 repolarization of action potentials (APs) and a deeper spike and dome compared to control cardiomyocytes from non-ischemia mice. Application of the antibody targeting at ANO1 pore prevented the ischemia-induced early phase 1 repolarization acceleration and caused a much shallower spike and dome. We conclude that ANO1 encodes CaCC and plays a significant role in the phase 1 repolarization of APs in mVMs. The ischemia-induced increase in ANO1 expression may be responsible for the increased density of ICl.Ca in the ischemic heart and may contribute, at least in part, to ischemia-induced arrhythmias. PMID:24962810

  13. Anoctamin 1 (Tmem16A) Ca2+-activated chloride channel stoichiometrically interacts with an ezrin-radixin-moesin network.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cornejo, Patricia; Gokhale, Avanti; Duran, Charity; Cui, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Qinghuan; Hartzell, H Criss; Faundez, Victor

    2012-06-26

    The newly discovered Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CaCC), Anoctamin 1 (Ano1 or TMEM16A), has been implicated in vital physiological functions including epithelial fluid secretion, gut motility, and smooth muscle tone. Overexpression of Ano1 in HEK cells or Xenopus oocytes is sufficient to generate Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents, but the details of channel composition and the regulatory factors that control channel biology are incompletely understood. We used a highly sensitive quantitative SILAC proteomics approach to obtain insights into stoichiometric protein networks associated with the Ano1 channel. These studies provide a comprehensive footprint of putative Ano1 regulatory networks. We find that Ano1 associates with the signaling/scaffolding proteins ezrin, radixin, moesin, and RhoA, which link the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton with very high stoichiometry. Ano1, ezrin, and moesin/radixin colocalize apically in salivary gland epithelial cells, and overexpression of moesin and Ano1 in HEK cells alters the subcellular localization of both proteins. Moreover, interfering RNA for moesin modifies Ano1 current without affecting its surface expression level. Another network associated with Ano1 includes the SNARE and SM proteins VAMP3, syntaxins 2 and -4, and syntaxin-binding proteins munc18b and munc18c, which are integral to translocation of vesicles to the plasma membrane. A number of other regulatory proteins, including GTPases, Ca(2+)-binding proteins, kinases, and lipid-interacting proteins are enriched in the Ano1 complex. These data provide stoichiometrically prioritized information about mechanisms regulating Ano1 function and trafficking to polarized domains of the plasma membrane. PMID:22685202

  14. Anoctamin 1 (Tmem16A) Ca2+-activated chloride channel stoichiometrically interacts with an ezrinradixinmoesin network

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Cornejo, Patricia; Gokhale, Avanti; Duran, Charity; Cui, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Qinghuan; Hartzell, H. Criss; Faundez, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The newly discovered Ca2+-activated Cl? channel (CaCC), Anoctamin 1 (Ano1 or TMEM16A), has been implicated in vital physiological functions including epithelial fluid secretion, gut motility, and smooth muscle tone. Overexpression of Ano1 in HEK cells or Xenopus oocytes is sufficient to generate Ca2+-activated Cl? currents, but the details of channel composition and the regulatory factors that control channel biology are incompletely understood. We used a highly sensitive quantitative SILAC proteomics approach to obtain insights into stoichiometric protein networks associated with the Ano1 channel. These studies provide a comprehensive footprint of putative Ano1 regulatory networks. We find that Ano1 associates with the signaling/scaffolding proteins ezrin, radixin, moesin, and RhoA, which link the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton with very high stoichiometry. Ano1, ezrin, and moesin/radixin colocalize apically in salivary gland epithelial cells, and overexpression of moesin and Ano1 in HEK cells alters the subcellular localization of both proteins. Moreover, interfering RNA for moesin modifies Ano1 current without affecting its surface expression level. Another network associated with Ano1 includes the SNARE and SM proteins VAMP3, syntaxins 2 and -4, and syntaxin-binding proteins munc18b and munc18c, which are integral to translocation of vesicles to the plasma membrane. A number of other regulatory proteins, including GTPases, Ca2+-binding proteins, kinases, and lipid-interacting proteins are enriched in the Ano1 complex. These data provide stoichiometrically prioritized information about mechanisms regulating Ano1 function and trafficking to polarized domains of the plasma membrane. PMID:22685202

  15. Characterization of Cardiac Anoctamin1 Ca²⁺-Activated Chloride Channels and Functional Role in Ischemia-Induced Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhen; Wu, Ming-Ming; Wang, Chun-Yu; Li, Yan-Chao; Yu, Chang-Jiang; Gong, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Song, Bin-Lin; Yu, Kuai; Hartzell, H Criss; Duan, Dayue Darrel; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Zhi-Ren

    2015-02-01

    Anoctamin1 (ANO1) encodes a Ca(2+)-activated chloride (Cl(-)) channel (CaCC) in variety tissues of many species. Whether ANO1 expresses and functions as a CaCC in cardiomyocytes remain unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize the molecular and functional expression of ANO1 in cardiac myocytes and the role of ANO1-encoded CaCCs in ischemia-induced arrhythmias in the heart. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining assays, and immunohistochemistry identified the molecular expression, location, and distribution of ANO1 in mouse ventricular myocytes (mVMs). Patch-clamp recordings combined with pharmacological analyses found that ANO1 was responsible for a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current (I(Cl.Ca)) in cardiomyocytes. Myocardial ischemia led to a significant increase in the current density of I(Cl.Ca), which was inhibited by a specific ANO1 inhibitor, T16A(inh)-A01, and an antibody targeting at the pore area of ANO1. Moreover, cardiomyocytes isolated from mice with ischemia-induced arrhythmias had an accelerated early phase 1 repolarization of action potentials (APs) and a deeper "spike and dome" compared to control cardiomyocytes from non-ischemia mice. Application of the antibody targeting at ANO1 pore prevented the ischemia-induced early phase 1 repolarization acceleration and caused a much shallower "spike and dome". We conclude that ANO1 encodes CaCC and plays a significant role in the phase 1 repolarization of APs in mVMs. The ischemia-induced increase in ANO1 expression may be responsible for the increased density of I(Cl.Ca) in the ischemic heart and may contribute, at least in part, to ischemia-induced arrhythmias. PMID:24962810

  16. Anoctamin 1 calcium-activated chloride channel downregulates estrogen production in mouse ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meiyan; Sui, Yujie; Li, Lihua; Su, Weiheng; Hao, Feng; Zhu, Qi; Di, Weihua; Gao, Hongwen; Ma, Tonghui

    2014-08-01

    Calcium-dependent chloride conductances have been described in chicken and human granulosa cells (GCs) and may be involved in steroidogenesis. However, the molecular identities of corresponding chloride channels remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the expression and function of the Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) in mouse ovary. ANO1 mRNA and protein expression was identified in mouse ovary GCs by RT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunostaining. Patch-clamp analysis on freshly isolated GCs identified an outwardly rectifying Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current that was completely blocked by a selective ANO1 inhibitor T16Ainh-A01. Knockdown of ANO1 mRNA or incubation with a selective inhibitor T16Ainh-A01 enhanced estradiol production, whereas a selective ANO1 activator Eact significantly inhibited estradiol production in primary cultured GCs. The ANO1 expression or activation increases the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and decreases aromatase expression. The ANO1 expression level is remarkably higher at the proestrous and estrous stages in the estrous cycle. In vivo study indicated a profound induction of ANO1 expression in ovarian GCs by pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) that can be further augmented by hCG treatment, suggesting that both FSH and LH may upregulate ANO1 expression at the proestrous and estrous stages. ANO1 expression was remarkably reduced in DHEA-induced PCOS ovary. These data identified for the first time the expression of ANO1 Ca(2+) activated Cl(-) channel in mouse ovarian GCs and determined its negative regulation on estrogen production possibly through MEK-ERK signaling cascade. The present study provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms for the regulation of folliculogenesis and ovulation. PMID:24823391

  17. Clinical significance of Anoctamin-1 gene at 11q13 in the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Juan P.; Menéndez, Sofía Tirados; Hermida-Prado, Francisco; Álvarez-Teijeiro, Saúl; Villaronga, M. Ángeles; Alonso-Durán, Laura; Vallina, Aitana; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Astudillo, Aurora; Suárez, Carlos; María García-Pedrero, Juana

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the clinical significance of Anoctamin-1 gene mapping at 11q13 amplicon in both the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). ANO1 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 372 surgically treated HNSCC patients and also in 35 laryngeal precancerous lesions. ANO1 gene amplification was determined by real-time PCR in all the laryngeal premalignancies and 60 of the HNSCCs, and molecular data correlated with clinical outcome. ANO1 gene amplification was frequently detected in both premalignant lesions (63%) and HNSCC tumours (58%), whereas concomitant ANO1 expression occurred at a much lower frequency (20 and 22%). Interestingly, laryngeal dysplasias harbouring ANO1 gene amplification showed a higher risk of malignant transformation (HR = 3.62; 95% CI 0.79–16.57; P = 0.097; Cox regression). ANO1 expression and gene amplification showed no significant associations with clinicopathological parameters in HNSCC. However, remarkably ANO1 expression differentially influenced patient survival depending on the tumour site. Collectively, this study provides original evidence demonstrating the distinctive impact of ANO1 expression on HNSCC prognosis depending on the tumour site. PMID:26498851

  18. Clinical significance of Anoctamin-1 gene at 11q13 in the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Juan P; Menéndez, Sofía Tirados; Hermida-Prado, Francisco; Álvarez-Teijeiro, Saúl; Villaronga, M Ángeles; Alonso-Durán, Laura; Vallina, Aitana; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Astudillo, Aurora; Suárez, Carlos; María García-Pedrero, Juana

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the clinical significance of Anoctamin-1 gene mapping at 11q13 amplicon in both the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). ANO1 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 372 surgically treated HNSCC patients and also in 35 laryngeal precancerous lesions. ANO1 gene amplification was determined by real-time PCR in all the laryngeal premalignancies and 60 of the HNSCCs, and molecular data correlated with clinical outcome. ANO1 gene amplification was frequently detected in both premalignant lesions (63%) and HNSCC tumours (58%), whereas concomitant ANO1 expression occurred at a much lower frequency (20 and 22%). Interestingly, laryngeal dysplasias harbouring ANO1 gene amplification showed a higher risk of malignant transformation (HR = 3.62; 95% CI 0.79-16.57; P = 0.097; Cox regression). ANO1 expression and gene amplification showed no significant associations with clinicopathological parameters in HNSCC. However, remarkably ANO1 expression differentially influenced patient survival depending on the tumour site. Collectively, this study provides original evidence demonstrating the distinctive impact of ANO1 expression on HNSCC prognosis depending on the tumour site. PMID:26498851

  19. Anoctamin-6 Controls Bone Mineralization by Activating the Calcium Transporter NCX1*

    PubMed Central

    Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Schreiber, Rainer; Wuelling, Manuela; Vortkamp, Andrea; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Anoctamin-6 (Ano6, TMEM16F) belongs to a family of putative Ca2+-activated Cl− channels and operates as membrane phospholipid scramblase. Deletion of Ano6 leads to reduced skeleton size, skeletal deformities, and mineralization defects in mice. However, it remains entirely unclear how a lack of Ano6 leads to a delay in bone mineralization by osteoblasts. The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger NCX1 was found to interact with Ano6 in a two-hybrid split-ubiquitin screen. Using human osteoblasts and osteoblasts from Ano6−/− and WT mice, we demonstrate that NCX1 requires Ano6 to efficiently translocate Ca2+ out of osteoblasts into the calcifying bone matrix. Ca2+-activated anion currents are missing in primary osteoblasts isolated from Ano6 null mice. Our findings demonstrate the importance of NCX1 for bone mineralization and explain why deletion of an ion channel leads to the observed mineralization defect: Ano6 Cl− currents are probably required to operate as a Cl− bypass channel, thereby compensating net Na+ charge movement by NCX1. PMID:25589784

  20. Anoctamin 1 mediates thermal pain as a heat sensor.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hawon; Oh, Uhtaek

    2013-12-01

    Vertebrates can sense and avoid noxious heat that evokes pain. Many thermoTRP channels are associated with temperature sensation. TRPV1 is a representative ion channel that is activated by noxious heat. Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) is a Cl- channel activated by calcium that is highly expressed in small sensory neurons, colocalized with markers for nociceptors, and most surprisingly, activated by noxious heat over 44oC. Although ANO1 is a Cl- channel, opening of this channel leads to depolarization of sensory neurons, suggesting a role in nociception. Indeed, the functional deletion of ANO1 in sensory neurons triggers the reduction in thermal pain sensation. Thus, it seems clear that ANO1 is a heat sensor in a nociceptive pathway. Since ANO1 modulators are developed for the purpose of treating chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis, this finding is likely to predict unwanted effects and provide a guide for better developmental strategy. PMID:24396339

  1. Anoctamin 1 Mediates Thermal Pain as a Heat Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hawon; Oh, Uhtaek

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates can sense and avoid noxious heat that evokes pain. Many thermoTRP channels are associated with temperature sensation. TRPV1 is a representative ion channel that is activated by noxious heat. Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) is a Cl- channel activated by calcium that is highly expressed in small sensory neurons, colocalized with markers for nociceptors, and most surprisingly, activated by noxious heat over 44oC. Although ANO1 is a Cl- channel, opening of this channel leads to depolarization of sensory neurons, suggesting a role in nociception. Indeed, the functional deletion of ANO1 in sensory neurons triggers the reduction in thermal pain sensation. Thus, it seems clear that ANO1 is a heat sensor in a nociceptive pathway. Since ANO1 modulators are developed for the purpose of treating chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis, this finding is likely to predict unwanted effects and provide a guide for better developmental strategy PMID:24396339

  2. Artificial Solid Electrolyte Interphase to Address the Electrochemical Degradation of Silicon Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, Nancy J; Nanda, Jagjit; Liang, Chengdu; Li, Juchuan

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation on Si anodes prevents them from being successfully used in lithium-ion full cells. Unlike the case of graphite anodes, natural solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films generated from carbonate electrolyte do not self-passivate on Si and causes continuous electrolyte decomposition. In this work we aim at solving the issue of electrochemical degradation by fabricating artificial SEI films using a solid electrolyte material, lithium phosphor oxynitride (Lipon), that conducts Li ions and blocks electrons. For Si anodes coated with Lipon of 50 nm or thicker, significant effect is observed in suppressing the electrolyte decomposition, while Lipon of thinner than 40 nm has little effect. Ionic and electronic conductivity measurement reveals that the artificial SEI is effective when it is a pure ionic conductor, and the electrolyte decomposition is not suppressed when the artificial SEI is a mixed electronic-ionic conductor. The critical thickness for this transition in conducting behavior is found to be 40~50 nm. This work provides guidance for designing artificial SEI for high capacity lithium-ion battery electrodes using solid electrolyte materials.

  3. Phosphorus Enrichment as a New Composition in the Solid Electrolyte Interphase of High-Voltage Cathodes and Its Effects on Battery Cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Kuppan, Saravanan; Li, Qiuyan; Lv, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Chen, Guoying; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-11-10

    Immersion of a solid into liquid often leads to the modification of both the structure and chemistry of surface of the solid, which subsequently affects the chemical and physical properties of the system. For the case of the rechargeable lithium ion battery, such a surface modification is termed as solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer, which has been perceived to play critical role for the stable operation of the batteries. However, the structure and chemical composition of SEI layer and its spatial distribution and dependence on the battery operating condition remain unclear. By using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with ultra-high sensitive energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, we probed the structure and chemistry of SEI layer on several high voltage cathodes. We show that layer-structured cathodes, when cycled at a high cut off voltage, can form a P-rich SEI layer on their surface, which is a direct evidence of Li-salt (LiPF6) decomposition. Our systematical investigations indicate such cathode/Li-salt side reaction shows strong dependence on structure of the cathode materials, operating voltage and temperature, indicating the feasibility of SEI engineering. These findings provide us valuable insights into the complex interface between the high-voltage cathode and the electrolyte.

  4. Electronic structure of lithium battery interphase compounds: comparison between inelastic x-ray scattering measurements and theory.

    PubMed

    Fister, Tim T; Schmidt, Moritz; Fenter, Paul; Johnson, Chris S; Slater, Michael D; Chan, Maria K Y; Shirley, Eric L

    2011-12-14

    In lithium ion batteries, decomposition of the electrolyte and its associated passivation of the electrode surface occurs at low potentials, resulting in an electronically insulating, but Li-ion conducting, solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The products of the SEI and their chemical constituents/properties play an important role in the long-term stability and performance of the battery. Reactivity and the sub-keV core binding energies of lithium, carbon, oxygen, and fluorine species in the SEI present technical challenges in the spectroscopy of these compounds. Using an alternative approach, nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering, we examine the near-edge spectra of bulk specimens of common SEI compounds, including LiF, Li(2)CO(3), LiOH, LiOH·H(2)O, and Li(2)O. By working at hard x-ray energies, we also experimentally differentiate the s- and p-symmetry components of lithium's unoccupied states using the evolution of its K edge with momentum transfer. We find good agreement with theoretical spectra calculated using a Bethe-Salpeter approach in all cases. These results provide an analytical and diagnostic foundation for better understanding of the makeup of SEIs and the mechanism of their formation. PMID:22168709

  5. Electronic structure of lithium battery interphase compounds: Comparison between inelastic x-ray scattering measurements and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fister, Tim T.; Schmidt, Moritz; Fenter, Paul; Johnson, Chris S.; Slater, Michael D.; Chan, Maria K. Y.; Shirley, Eric L.

    2011-12-01

    In lithium ion batteries, decomposition of the electrolyte and its associated passivation of the electrode surface occurs at low potentials, resulting in an electronically insulating, but Li-ion conducting, solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The products of the SEI and their chemical constituents/properties play an important role in the long-term stability and performance of the battery. Reactivity and the sub-keV core binding energies of lithium, carbon, oxygen, and fluorine species in the SEI present technical challenges in the spectroscopy of these compounds. Using an alternative approach, nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering, we examine the near-edge spectra of bulk specimens of common SEI compounds, including LiF, Li2CO3, LiOH, LiOH.H2O, and Li2O. By working at hard x-ray energies, we also experimentally differentiate the s- and p-symmetry components of lithium's unoccupied states using the evolution of its K edge with momentum transfer. We find good agreement with theoretical spectra calculated using a Bethe-Salpeter approach in all cases. These results provide an analytical and diagnostic foundation for better understanding of the makeup of SEIs and the mechanism of their formation.

  6. Relationships Between Social-Emotional Intelligence and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Lando-King, Elizabeth; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gower, Amy L; Shlafer, Rebecca J; McMorris, Barbara J; Pettingell, Sandra; Sieving, Renee E

    2015-01-01

    Social-emotional intelligence (SEI) has been linked with a number of health behaviors in adolescent populations. However, little is known about the influence of SEI on sexual behavior. This study examined associations between three indicators of SEI (intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, stress management skills) and adolescent girls' sexual risk behaviors. Data come from a cross-sectional sample of sexually active adolescent girls (ages 13 to 17 years) at high risk for pregnancy (N = 253), recruited from health care clinics in a Midwest metropolitan area during 2007 and 2008. Results of multivariable regression models controlling for participants' age and race/ethnicity indicated that each aspect of SEI was related to distinct sexual risk behaviors. Specifically, girls with greater intrapersonal skills had significantly fewer male sex partners in the past six months (b = -0.16). Participants with greater interpersonal skills reported earlier communication with their sexual partner about sexual risk (b = 0.14), and those with a better ability to manage stress reported more consistent condom use (b = 0.31). Study findings suggest that SEI may provide a protective buffer against sexual risk behaviors. Building adolescent girls' social and emotional skills may be an effective strategy for reducing their risk for early pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:25621508

  7. Temperature effects on Li4Ti5O12 electrode/electrolyte interfaces at the first cycle: A X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Scanning Auger Microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieu, J.-B.; Courrèges, C.; El Ouatani, L.; Tessier, C.; Martinez, H.

    2016-06-01

    Li4Ti5O12-based negative electrodes for Lithium-ion batteries are of interest because of the high reversibility of Li+ insertion/extraction. In this study, the surface of cycled electrodes is analysed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) to investigate the effects of cycling temperature (room temperature, 60 °C and 85 °C) upon the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation, which plays a major role in batteries electrochemical performances. Half-cells, with a vinylene carbonate containing electrolyte, are galvanostatically cycled at different steps of the first cycle: the mid-plateau during the first discharge, the end of the first discharge at 1.2 V and the end of the first charge at 2.0 V. XPS analysis evidences that higher temperatures promote the formation of a thicker SEI, which can explain the increase of the irreversible capacity with temperature. SAM mappings (allowing high spatial resolution ∼10-100 nm) evidence that this SEI homogeneously covers the electrode surface, regardless of the cycling temperature. During charge, the SEI is partially dissolved at room temperature, more slightly at 60 °C whereas at 85 °C, no clear evidence of layer thinning is observed. The SEI chemical composition is also investigated and reveals a majority of organic species and an increasing proportion of LiF with the temperature.

  8. A novel finding of anoctamin 5 expression in the rodent gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Song, Hai-Yan; Tian, Yue-Min; Zhang, Yi-Min; Zhou, Li; Lian, Hui; Zhu, Jin-Xia

    2014-08-22

    Anoctamin 5 (Ano5) belongs to the anoctamin gene family and acts as a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). A mutation in the Ano5 gene causes limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2L, the third most common LGMD in Northern and Central Europe. Defective sarcolemmal membrane repair has been reported in patients carrying this Ano5 mutant. It has also been noted that LGMD patients often suffer from nonspecific pharyngoesophageal motility disorders. One study reported that 8/19 patients carrying Ano5 nutations suffered from dysphagia, including the feeling that solid food items become lodged in the upper portion of the esophagus. Ano5 is widely distributed in bone, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, brain, heart, kidney and lung tissue, but no report has examined its expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of Ano5 in the GI tracts of mice via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. The results indicated that Ano5 mRNA and protein are widely expressed in the esophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the colon and the rectum but that Ano5 immunoreactivity was only detected in the mucosal layer, except for the muscular layer of the upper esophagus, which consists of skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our present results demonstrate for the first time the expression of Ano5 in the GI epithelium and in skeletal muscle in the esophagus. This novel finding facilitates clinical differential diagnosis and treatment. However, further investigation of the role of Ano5 in GI function is required. PMID:25094048

  9. Modelagem do vento e da fotosfera de AG Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.

    2003-08-01

    A trajetória evolutiva das estrelas de alta massa depende fortemente de suas taxas de perda de massa. Apesar do rápido progresso no estudo destas estrelas, a taxa de perda de massa e outros parâmetros físicos básicos, como a temperatura superficial e a velocidade terminal do vento ainda não estão bem determinados. Isto ocorre devido à presença de ventos irregulares, rápidos e fortes ao redor destas estrelas, tornando a interpretação dos seus espectros uma tarefa difícil. Assim, a modelagem do vento e da fotosfera dessas estrelas está sendo cada vez mais usada para obter tais parâmetros a partir dos espectros. O aumento da taxa de perda de massa durante a fase LBV (Variáveis Luminosas Azuis), comparado com outros tipos de estrelas, tem sido atribuído a instabilidades do tipo S Doradus. Dispomos de uma base de dados espectroscópicos cobrindo 22 anos de observações de AG Carinae, incluindo um ciclo S Doradus completo, com espectros CCD em alta resolução na faixa óptica e infravermelha. Utilizamos o programa desenvolvido por Schmutz (1997) para uma análise preliminar desse ciclo, obtendo a taxa de perda de massa a partir da linha do Ha. Não existe uma correlação clara da taxa de perda de massa com mudanças da temperatura efetiva, do raio da estrela e do fluxo na banda V. A estrela atingiu seu mínimo fotométrico (raio mínimo) em 1990 e o máximo fotométrico (raio máximo) em 1995, enquanto que o fluxo máximo da linha do Ha ocorreu em 1996. Além disso a taxa de perda de massa não segue esse ciclo, contrariamente às idéias correntes. Para fazer um modelo mais realista estamos usando o programa CMFGEN (Hillier & Miller), que trata a fotosfera e o vento estelar de forma consistente, considerando a radiação fora do equilíbrio termodinâmico (NLTE) e com blanketting total de linhas. Simulamos o espectro de AG Carinae em duas épocas extremas do ciclo S Dor para testar os resultados obtidos com o modelo mais simplificado.

  10. Estatística de lentes gravitacionais e o gás de chaplygin generalizado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. L. S.

    2003-08-01

    A estatística de lentes gravitacionais constitui uma poderosa ferramenta utilizada na obtenção de vínculos sobre parâmetros cosmológicos, principalmente sobre modelos com uma constante cosmológica. Embora de forma às vezes controversa, antes de 1998, a análise tradicional mostrava que modelos com o parâmetro de densidade da matéria da ordem da unidade são preferidos. Esse resultado começou a ser questionado, alguns anos atrás, com as indicações, advindas da análise de supernovas com alto valor de desvio para o vermelho, de que nosso Universo está acelerando. Atualmente há enorme interesse em saber qual é a natureza da componente responsável pela aceleração cósmica. Energia escura é a denominação usual dessa componente e sua característica principal é possuir pressão negativa. Nos modelos cosmológicos tradicionais, além da energia escura, considera-se também uma outra componente de origem desconhecida. Ela é denominada matéria escura e possui pressão nula. Mais recentemente modelos unificadores em que energia escura e matéria escura são manifestações distintas de um mesmo fluido (altas densidades matéria escura, baixas densidades energia escura) foram sugeridos. Um desses modelos é conhecido como Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado que é o modelo que investigaremos. Em nosso trabalho apresentamos vínculos sobre parâmetros desse modelo usando a estatística de lentes gravitacionais. Usamos observações de quasares na faixa do visível e consideramos extinção em nosso estudo. Análises semelhantes anteriores com esse tipo de objetos e que não consideram extinção são inconsistentes. Comparação dos vínculos obtidos através de lentes gravitacionais com outros advindos de outros testes será também apresentada.

  11. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  12. Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco-Davila, D.; Hernandez, R.; Meza, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-03-15

    The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins. (author) [Spanish] La colonia actualmente usada para controlar la mosca mexicana de la fruta, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), en Mexico tiene mas de 10 anos en cria masiva. Los insectos esteriles son liberados en una gran variedad de condiciones ambientales como parte de un control integrado para suprimir diversas poblaciones de esta plaga dentro de la Republica Mexicana. El objetivo de este documento esta dirigido a revisar el desempeno de las moscas esteriles frente a poblaciones silvestres procedentes de diferentes ambientes y para esto se realizaron comparaciones de compatibilidad y competitividad sexual de las moscas esteriles contra poblaciones silvestres de seis estados representativos de la Republica Mexicana: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan y Chiapas. Los resultados obtenidos manifiestan diferencias en el horario de inicio de llamado y mayor actividad sexual del macho entre las moscas provenientes de cada estado. Sin embargo el indice de aislamiento (ISI) reflejo compatibilidad sexual entre la cepa de laboratorio y todas las poblaciones analizadas, indicando que los individuos esteriles pueden aparearse satisfactoriamente con las poblaciones silvestres de los seis estados. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento del macho (MRPI) reflejo de manera global que los machos esteriles son tan efectivos para copular como los silvestres. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento de la hembra (FRPI) reflejo que en la mayoria de los estados las hembras silvestres copularon en mayor proporcion que las hembras esteriles, excepto para las poblaciones de Tamaulipas y Chiapas. En general, la baja participacion de las hembras esteriles en el campo permitio al macho esteril ampliar su probabilidad de apareamiento con las hembras silvestres. En cuanto al indice de esterilidad relativa (RSI), observamos que la aceptacion de las hembras silvestres al macho esteril (25-55%) fue similar a la de los machos silvestres. Las hembras de la poblacion de Chiapas registro la menor aceptacion. Finalmente, los resultados obtenidos en la prueba de Fried, la cual determina la esterilidad inducida presentaron un coeficiente de competitividad entre 0.2 y 0.5. Esto sugiere que los machos esteriles compliten exitosamente y son compatibles con moscas de diferentes origenes geograficos. (author)

  13. Educacao Intercultural e a Dificuldade de sua Pratica: Um Estudo da Imagem do Migrante e sua Familia em Livros Didaticos Alemaes. (Intercultural Education and the Difficulty of Its Practice: A Study of the Image of the Migrant and His Family in German Textbooks.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Wivian

    1995-01-01

    Provides a brief historical report on pedagogical efforts to improve the integration of migrants and their families into German society. Examines the way in which the migrants' social situation has been dealt with in textbooks, particularly in books on politics, history, geography, and occupational education. (PA)

  14. Telecommunications, navigation and information management concept overview for the Space Exploration Initiative program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jerome A.; Stephens, Elaine; Barton, Gregg

    1991-01-01

    An overview is provided of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) concepts for telecommunications, information systems, and navigation (TISN), and engineering and architecture issues are discussed. The SEI program data system is reviewed to identify mission TISN interfaces, and reference TISN concepts are described for nominal, degraded, and mission-critical data services. The infrastructures reviewed include telecommunications for robotics support, autonomous navigation without earth-based support, and information networks for tracking and data acquisition. Four options for TISN support architectures are examined which relate to unique SEI exploration strategies. Detailed support estimates are given for: (1) a manned stay on Mars; (2) permanent lunar and Martian settlements; short-duration missions; and (4) systematic exploration of the moon and Mars.

  15. Brief report: Associations between adolescent girls’ social emotional intelligence and violence perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Gower, Amy L.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Polan, Julie; McRee, Annie-Laurie; McMorris, Barbara J.; Pettingell, Sandra L.; Sieving, Renee E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined associations between social emotional intelligence (SEI) and two measures of violence perpetration (relational aggression and physical violence) in a cross-sectional sample of high-risk adolescent girls (N = 253). We evaluated three aspects of SEI: stress management, intrapersonal, and interpersonal skills. Results of a multiple linear regression model accounting for participants’ age, race/ethnicity, and experiences of relational aggression victimization indicated that girls with better stress management skills were less likely to perpetrate relational aggression. A parallel model for perpetration of physical violence showed a similar pattern of results. Study findings suggest that SEI, and stress management skills in particular, may protect adolescent girls – including those who have been victims of violence – from perpetrating relational aggression and physical violence. Interventions that build adolescent girls’ social and emotional skills may be an effective strategy for reducing their perpetration of violence. PMID:24331306

  16. Baseline studies of health status in north Atlantic Baleen whale populations

    SciTech Connect

    Lambertsen, R.H. )

    1988-09-01

    This study investigated the health status of fin and sei whale populations of the central North Atlantic to establish a baseline for comparison with stranded whales in more heavily contaminated coastal zones. Systematic necropsy examinations were conducted on 150 fin whales and 42 sei whales caught by commercial whalers off the west coast of Iceland. Gas chromatographic measurements showed detectable tissue levels of organochlorine pesticides, but these levels were low, ranging from 0.2 ppb (gamma-BHC) to 1540 ppb (p,p{prime} DDE). Relevant to the comparative evaluation of contaminant effects was the finding that both the fin and sei whale, despite very similar life histories, suffered from a distinct complement of natural disease problems. From the high incidence and contaminative route of transmission of the major parasitic diseases found, it is predicted that population-level health effects, including increments in mortality rate potentially caused by environmental contamination, will increase with population density.

  17. Launching facility constraints on the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kadett; Montoya, Alex J.

    A quantitative tool is developed for envisioning, evaluating, and optimizing the ground and launch operations in order to meet Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) objectives. These objectives include the establishment and operation of the Space Station Freedom, lunar missions, and Mars missions. A Simulation of Logistics model (SIMLOG) is developed to assess which facilities and operations limit the maximum launch rate. This model produces the maximum achievable launch rate for each individual vehicle. The maximum launch rates are then input data for the Launch Vehicle Selection Model (LVSM), a linear integer programming model which selects the optimal number of each launch vehicle from a number of existing and proposed vehicles in order to minimize the overall multiyear launching cost of the SEI program. The simulation indicates that the SEI LEO requirement of 2.1 million lbs can be met with a mixed fleet consisting of current vehicles, a Shuttle C, and the proposed HLLV. Other results are also reported.

  18. Atomic force microscopy studies on molybdenum disulfide flakes as sodium-ion anodes.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Steven D; Wan, Jiayu; von Wald Cresce, Arthur; Russell, Selena M; Dai, Jiaqi; Bao, Wenzhong; Xu, Kang; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-02-11

    A microscale battery comprised of mechanically exfoliated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) flakes with copper connections and a sodium metal reference was created and investigated as an intercalation model using in situ atomic force microscopy in a dry room environment. While an ethylene carbonate-based electrolyte with a low vapor pressure allowed topographical observations in an open cell configuration, the planar microbattery was used to conduct in situ measurements to understand the structural changes and the concomitant solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation at the nanoscale. Topographical observations demonstrated permanent wrinkling behavior of MoS2 electrodes upon sodiation at 0.4 V. SEI formation occurred quickly on both flake edges and planes at voltages before sodium intercalation. Force spectroscopy measurements provided quantitative data on the SEI thickness for MoS2 electrodes in sodium-ion batteries for the first time. PMID:25549278

  19. Systems engineering and integration processes involved with manned mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranz, Eugene F.; Kraft, Christopher C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss three mission operations functions that are illustrative of the key principles of operations SE&I and of the processes and products involved. The flight systems process was selected to illustrate the role of the systems product line in developing the depth and cross disciplinary skills needed for SE&I and providing the foundation for dialogue between participating elements. FDDD was selected to illustrate the need for a structured process to assure that SE&I provides complete and accurate results that consistently support program needs. The flight director's role in mission operations was selected to illustrate the complexity of the risk/gain tradeoffs involved in the development of the flight techniques and flight rules process as well as the absolute importance of the leadership role in developing the technical, operational, and political trades.

  20. Brief report: Associations between adolescent girls' social-emotional intelligence and violence perpetration.

    PubMed

    Gower, Amy L; Shlafer, Rebecca J; Polan, Julie; McRee, Annie-Laurie; McMorris, Barbara J; Pettingell, Sandra L; Sieving, Renee E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between social-emotional intelligence (SEI) and two measures of violence perpetration (relational aggression and physical violence) in a cross-sectional sample of high-risk adolescent girls (N = 253). We evaluated three aspects of SEI: stress management, intrapersonal, and interpersonal skills. Results of a multiple linear regression model accounting for participants' age, race/ethnicity, and experiences of relational aggression victimization indicated that girls with better stress management skills were less likely to perpetrate relational aggression. A parallel model for perpetration of physical violence showed a similar pattern of results. Study findings suggest that SEI, and stress management skills in particular, may protect adolescent girls - including those who have been victims of violence - from perpetrating relational aggression and physical violence. Interventions that build adolescent girls' social and emotional skills may be an effective strategy for reducing their perpetration of violence. PMID:24331306

  1. 2D Raman correlation analysis of formation mechanism of passivating film on overcharged LiCoO2 electrode with additive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yeonju; Shin, Su Hyun; Lee, Sung Man; Kim, Sung Phil; Choi, Hyun Chul; Jung, Young Mee

    2014-07-01

    The effect of vinylene carbonate (VC) as solid electrolyte interface (SEI)-forming additive on the electrochemical performance of the LiCoO2 cathode was investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge testing as well as Raman and 2D correlation spectroscopy. It was found that VC-containing electrolyte has a positive effect on capacity fading. An analysis of the 2D Raman correlation spectra suggested that even though the same SEI components (i.e., Co3O4 and Li2O) are produced on the cathode surface, the electrochemical reaction kinetics in the cathode/electrolyte interface differ according to the non-use or use of VC: in the latter case, formation of the SEI components is delayed.

  2. Needs for supervised space robots in space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.

    1992-01-01

    The areas of application for space robots in the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are examined by reviewing the roles of SEI supervised robots particularly with planet-surface systems (PSSs). Treatment is given to both teleoperated conventional robot systems and autonomous intelligent systems for comparison in terms of safety, reliability, and productivity. Two development stages are proposed including one with a robotic actor, human observer, and a human supervisor and a second in which a closed-loop control and monitoring system is established. The use of remote control is shown to require robustness, self-calibration and -diagnosis, adjustable autonomy, and multitask capability. The requirements of intelligent control are also listed so that the PSSs of the SEI can be used to enable surface exploration, local-resource utilization potential, and reductions of human tasks.

  3. Homogeneous lithium electrodeposition with pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Grande, Lorenzo; von Zamory, Jan; Koch, Stephan L; Kalhoff, Julian; Paillard, Elie; Passerini, Stefano

    2015-03-18

    In this study, we report on the electroplating and stripping of lithium in two ionic liquid (IL) based electrolytes, namely N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide (Pyr14FSI) and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI), and mixtures thereof, both on nickel and lithium electrodes. An improved method to evaluate the Li cycling efficiency confirmed that homogeneous electroplating (and stripping) of Li is possible with TFSI-based ILs. Moreover, the presence of native surface features on lithium, directly observable via scanning electron microscope imaging, was used to demonstrate the enhanced electrolyte interphase (SEI)-forming ability, that is, fast cathodic reactivity of this class of electrolytes and the suppressed dendrite growth. Finally, the induced inhomogeneous deposition enabled us to witness the SEI cracking and revealed previously unreported bundled Li fibers below the pre-existing SEI and nonrod-shaped protuberances resulting from Li extrusion. PMID:25714124

  4. An assessment of prospects for international cooperation on the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, Lynn F. H.; Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the unique characteristics of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which will have to be taken into account if the Initiative is to become an international one; the technical capabilities offered by prospective international partners; the political and economic prospects for proceeding with the Initiative both in the United States and elsewhere; and the advantages and disadvantages of various possible approaches to international cooperation on SEI. SEI preparatory activities are likely to extend over a several-year period. Such an extended preparatory period should provide the time needed for coordinating studies, for identifing interests and potential contributions, and for resolving the numerous planning, budgeting, organizational and political issues which will have to be dealt with if such a complex undertaking is to be successfully internationalized.

  5. An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  6. In-situ TEM Characterization of Electrochemical Processess in Energy Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Raymond R; Adamczyk, Leslie A; Dudney, Nancy J; Alsem, D. H.; Salmon, Norman; More, Karren Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The accelerated development of materials for utilization in electrical energy storage systems will hinge critically upon our understanding of how interfaces (particularly electrode-electrolyte solid liquid interfaces) control the physical and electrochemical energy conversion processes in energy storage systems. A prime example is found in Lt ion-based battery systems, where a passive multiphase layer grows at the electrode/electrolyte interface due to the decomposition of the liquid electrolyte [ l]. Once formed, this solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) protects the active electrode materials from degradation and also regulates the transport and intercalation of Lt ions during battery charge/discharge cycling [2]. Due to the dynamically evolving nature of this nm-scaled interface, it has proven difficult to design experiments that will not only elucidate the fundamental mechanisms controlling SEI nucleation and growth, but will enable the SEI microstructural and chemical evolution as a function of charge/discharge cycling to be monitored in real time.

  7. SQA on five dollars a day

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Software safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems; software use control assessment; Testing: Beyond theory; Software process improvement: Formalized unit testing; Software defect analysis for a nuclear weapons application; Function point analysis for estimation of software development schedules; SEI maturity in the Work for Other Program; SSEC SEI experiences; Planning for a Software Engineering Institute (SEI) assessment; Software process improvement, metrics; Software engineering technology plank: Building quality in; Software quality assurance at Y-12; Total quality and SQA at the Kansas City plant; The Software Technology Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Software engineering technology transfer in a scientific R&D laboratory; and Institutionalizing the information engineering environment: A practitioner`s perspective.

  8. An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  9. Gassing behavior of lithium titanate based lithium ion batteries with different types of electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiali; Bian, Peiwen; Li, Jia; Ji, Wenjiao; Hao, Hao; Yu, Aishui

    2015-07-01

    Gassing behavior of LiMn2O4/Li4Ti5O12 full cell with different electrolytes that stored at elevated temperature of 70 °C is investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used to study the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formed in battery formation and storage processes. The results suggest that the SEI film is formed as a consequence of intrinsic reaction between Li4Ti5O12 electrode and electrolyte solvents. A smooth SEI layer is formed on Li4Ti5O12 electrode with full coverage in propylene carbonate (PC) based electrolyte during lithium intercalation process while gradually dissolved with lithium extraction. Moreover, the gas specificities generated in the different electrolyte solvents are also determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis and the reaction mechanisms of LTO electrode with electrolyte solvents are proposed.

  10. Socioeconomic status and the incidence of non-central nervous system childhood embryonic tumours in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer differs from most common adult cancers, suggesting a distinct aetiology for some types of childhood cancer. Our objective in this study was to test the difference in incidence rates of 4 non-CNS embryonic tumours and their correlation with socioeconomic status (SES) in Brazil. Methods Data was obtained from 13 Brazilian population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) of neuroblastoma (NB), Wilms'tumour (WT), retinoblastoma (RB), and hepatoblastoma (HB). Incidence rates by tumour type, age, and gender were calculated per one million children. Correlations between social exclusion index (SEI) as an indicator of socioeconomic status (SES) and incidence rates was investigated using the Spearman's test. Results WT, RB, and HB presented with the highest age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIRs) in 1 to 4 year old of both genders, whereas NB presented the highest AAIR in ≤11 month-olds. However, differences in the incidence rates among PBCRs were observed. Higher incidence rates were found for WT and RB, whereas lower incidence rates were observed for NB. Higher SEI was correlated with higher incidences of NB (0.731; p = 0.0117), whereas no SEI correlation was observed between incidence rates for WT, RB, and HB. In two Brazilian cities, the incidence rates of NB and RB were directly correlated with SEI; NB had the highest incidence rates (14.2, 95% CI, 8.6-19.7), and RB the lowest (3.5, 95% CI, 0.7-6.3) in Curitiba (SEI, 0.730). In Natal (SEI, 0.595), we observed just the opposite; the highest incidence rate was for RB and the lowest was for NB (4.6, 95% CI, 0.1-9.1). Conclusion Regional variations of SES and the incidence of embryonal tumours were observed, particularly incidence rates for NB and RB. Further studies are necessary to investigate risk factors for embryonic tumours in Brazil. PMID:21545722

  11. Anoctamin 2 identified as an autoimmune target in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ayoglu, Burcu; Mitsios, Nicholas; Kockum, Ingrid; Khademi, Mohsen; Zandian, Arash; Sjöberg, Ronald; Forsström, Björn; Bredenberg, Johan; Lima Bomfim, Izaura; Holmgren, Erik; Grönlund, Hans; Guerreiro-Cacais, André Ortlieb; Abdelmagid, Nada; Uhlén, Mathias; Waterboer, Tim; Alfredsson, Lars; Mulder, Jan; Schwenk, Jochen M; Olsson, Tomas; Nilsson, Peter

    2016-02-23

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and also is regarded as an autoimmune condition. However, the antigenic targets of the autoimmune response in MS have not yet been deciphered. In an effort to mine the autoantibody repertoire within MS, we profiled 2,169 plasma samples from MS cases and population-based controls using bead arrays built with 384 human protein fragments selected from an initial screening with 11,520 antigens. Our data revealed prominently increased autoantibody reactivity against the chloride-channel protein anoctamin 2 (ANO2) in MS cases compared with controls. This finding was corroborated in independent assays with alternative protein constructs and by epitope mapping with peptides covering the identified region of ANO2. Additionally, we found a strong interaction between the presence of ANO2 autoantibodies and the HLA complex MS-associated DRB1*15 allele, reinforcing a potential role for ANO2 autoreactivity in MS etiopathogenesis. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis in human MS brain tissue showed ANO2 expression as small cellular aggregates near and inside MS lesions. Thus this study represents one of the largest efforts to characterize the autoantibody repertoire within MS. The findings presented here demonstrate that an ANO2 autoimmune subphenotype may exist in MS and lay the groundwork for further studies focusing on the pathogenic role of ANO2 autoantibodies in MS. PMID:26862169

  12. Anoctamin 2 identified as an autoimmune target in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ayoglu, Burcu; Mitsios, Nicholas; Kockum, Ingrid; Khademi, Mohsen; Zandian, Arash; Sjöberg, Ronald; Forsström, Björn; Bredenberg, Johan; Lima Bomfim, Izaura; Holmgren, Erik; Grönlund, Hans; Guerreiro-Cacais, André Ortlieb; Abdelmagid, Nada; Uhlén, Mathias; Waterboer, Tim; Alfredsson, Lars; Mulder, Jan; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Olsson, Tomas; Nilsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and also is regarded as an autoimmune condition. However, the antigenic targets of the autoimmune response in MS have not yet been deciphered. In an effort to mine the autoantibody repertoire within MS, we profiled 2,169 plasma samples from MS cases and population-based controls using bead arrays built with 384 human protein fragments selected from an initial screening with 11,520 antigens. Our data revealed prominently increased autoantibody reactivity against the chloride-channel protein anoctamin 2 (ANO2) in MS cases compared with controls. This finding was corroborated in independent assays with alternative protein constructs and by epitope mapping with peptides covering the identified region of ANO2. Additionally, we found a strong interaction between the presence of ANO2 autoantibodies and the HLA complex MS-associated DRB1*15 allele, reinforcing a potential role for ANO2 autoreactivity in MS etiopathogenesis. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis in human MS brain tissue showed ANO2 expression as small cellular aggregates near and inside MS lesions. Thus this study represents one of the largest efforts to characterize the autoantibody repertoire within MS. The findings presented here demonstrate that an ANO2 autoimmune subphenotype may exist in MS and lay the groundwork for further studies focusing on the pathogenic role of ANO2 autoantibodies in MS. PMID:26862169

  13. Anoctamin 6 regulates C2C12 myoblast proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Piming; Torcaso, Audrey; Mariano, Andrew; Xu, Li; Mohsin, Sadia; Zhao, Lixia; Han, Renzhi

    2014-01-01

    Anoctamin 6 (Ano6) belongs to a conserved gene family (TMEM16) predicted to code for eight transmembrane proteins with putative Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) activity. Recent work revealed that disruption of ANO6 leads to a blood coagulation defect and impaired skeletal development. However, its function in skeletal muscle cells remains to be determined. By using a RNA interference mediated (RNAi) loss-of-function approach, we show that Ano6 regulates C2C12 myoblast proliferation. Ano6 is highly expressed in C2C12 myoblasts and its expression decreases upon differentiation. Knocking down Ano6 significantly reduces C2C12 myoblast proliferation but has minimal effect on differentiation. Ano6 deficiency significantly reduces ERK/AKT phosphorylation, which has been shown to be involved in regulation of cancer cell proliferation by another Anoctamin member. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that Ano6 plays an essential role in C2C12 myoblast proliferation, likely via regulating the ERK/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:24663380

  14. Anoctamin 6 Regulates C2C12 Myoblast Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Mariano, Andrew; Xu, Li; Mohsin, Sadia; Zhao, Lixia; Han, Renzhi

    2014-01-01

    Anoctamin 6 (Ano6) belongs to a conserved gene family (TMEM16) predicted to code for eight transmembrane proteins with putative Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) activity. Recent work revealed that disruption of ANO6 leads to a blood coagulation defect and impaired skeletal development. However, its function in skeletal muscle cells remains to be determined. By using a RNA interference mediated (RNAi) loss-of-function approach, we show that Ano6 regulates C2C12 myoblast proliferation. Ano6 is highly expressed in C2C12 myoblasts and its expression decreases upon differentiation. Knocking down Ano6 significantly reduces C2C12 myoblast proliferation but has minimal effect on differentiation. Ano6 deficiency significantly reduces ERK/AKT phosphorylation, which has been shown to be involved in regulation of cancer cell proliferation by another Anoctamin member. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that Ano6 plays an essential role in C2C12 myoblast proliferation, likely via regulating the ERK/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:24663380

  15. Enabling the space exploration initiative: NASA's exploration technology program in space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    Space power requirements for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are reviewed, including the results of a NASA 90-day study and reports by the National Research Council, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), NASA, the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, and the Synthesis Group. The space power requirements for the SEI robotic missions, lunar spacecraft, Mars spacecraft, and human missions are summarized. Planning for exploration technology is addressed, including photovoltaic, chemical and thermal energy conversion; high-capacity power; power and thermal management for the surface, Earth-orbiting platform and spacecraft; laser power beaming; and mobile surface systems.

  16. A technology assessment of alternative communications systems for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.; Sohn, Philip Y.

    1990-01-01

    Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) services are vital to accomplish the ambitious goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). A technology assessment is provided for four alternative lunar and Mars operational TNIM systems based on detailed communications link analyses. The four alternative systems range from a minimum to a fully enhanced capability and use frequencies from S-band, through ka-band, and up to optical wavelengths. Included are technology development schedules as they relate to present SEI mission architecture time frames.

  17. A technology assessment of alternative communications systems for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.; Sohn, Philip Y.

    1990-01-01

    Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) services are vital to accomplish the ambitious goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). A technology assessment is provided for four alternative lunar and Mars operational TNIM systems based on detailed communications link analyses. The four alternative systems range from a minimum to a fully enhanced capability and use frequencies from S-band, through Ka-band, and up to optical wavelengths. Included are technology development schedules as they relate to present SEI mission architecture time frames.

  18. Application of multiple criteria decision methods in space exploration initiative design and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masud, Abu S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Fellowship activities were directed towards the identification of opportunities for application of the Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques in the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) domain. I identified several application possibilities and proposed demonstration application in these three areas: evaluation and ranking of SEI architectures, space mission planning and selection, and space system design. Here, only the first problem is discussed. The most meaningful result of the analysis is the wide separation between the two top ranked architectures, indicating a significant preference difference between them. It must also be noted that the final ranking reflects, to some extent, the biases of the evaluators and their understanding of the architecture.

  19. How to estimate solid-electrolyte-interphase features when screening electrolyte materials.

    PubMed

    Husch, Tamara; Korth, Martin

    2015-09-21

    Computational screening of battery electrolyte components is an extremely challenging task because very complex features like solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) formation and graphite exfoliation need to be taken into account at least in the final screening stage. We present estimators for both SEI formation and graphite exfoliation based on a combinatorial approach using quantum chemistry calculations on model system reactions, which can be applied automatically for a large number of compounds and thus allows for the systematic first assessment of the relevant properties using screening approaches. The thermodynamic effects are assessed using quantum mechanical calculations, while a more heuristic approach is used to estimate the kinetic effects. PMID:26264287

  20. The MPD thruster program at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, John; Goodfellow, Keith; Polk, James; Pivirotto, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The main topics covered include: (1) the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) context; (2) critical issues of MPD Thruster design; and (3) the Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) Thruster Program at JPL. Under the section on the SEI context the nuclear electric propulsion system and some electric thruster options are addressed. The critical issues of MPD Thruster development deal with the requirements, status, and approach taken. The following areas are covered with respect to the MPD Thruster Program at JPL: (1) the radiation-cooled MPD thruster; (2) the High-Current Cathode Test Facility; (3) thruster component thermal modeling; and (4) alkali metal propellant studies.

  1. Structure of spontaneously formed solid-electrolyte interphase on lithiated graphite determined using small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sacci, Robert L.; Banuelos, Jose Leobardo; Veith, Gabriel M.; Littrell, Ken C.; Cheng, Yongqiang Q.; Wildgruber, Christoph U.; Jones, Lacy L.; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J.; Rother, Gernot; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2015-03-25

    We report the first small-angle neutron scattering of a chemically formed solid-electrolyte interphase from LixC6 reacting with ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbon solvent. This provides a different and perhaps simpler view of SEI formation than the usual electrochemically-driven reaction. We show that an organic layer coats the graphite particles filling in micro-pores and is polymeric in nature being 1-3 nm thick. We used inelastic neutron scattering to probe the chemistry, and we found that the SEI showed similar inelastic scattering to polyethylene oxide.

  2. The U.S. Antarctic Program's operational goals, strategies, and concepts - Correlations and lessons learned for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, Corinne; Guerra, Lisa

    1992-01-01

    Results of an assessment of two programs, NASA SEI and the National Science Foundation's U.S. Antarctic Program (USAP) are presented. The assessment was aimed at determining the elements of USAP's operations which are relevant to living and working on the moon and Mars and at identifying operational concepts, procedures, and techniques which might be considered by NASA as it formulates the SEI concept. The assessment shows strong similarities in goals, related operational functions and accommodations, and fundamental strategies and policies for mission execution. Besides, both programs share logistical and operational constraints. There are differences in concepts for execution because of the unique aspects of accessing, living, and working in these environments.

  3. Structure of spontaneously formed solid-electrolyte interphase on lithiated graphite determined using small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sacci, Robert L; Banuelos, Jose Leo; Veith, Gabriel M; Littrell, Ken; Cheng, Yongqiang; Wildgruber, Christoph U; Jones, Lacy L; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J; Rother, Gernot; Dudney, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    We report the first small-angle neutron scattering of a chemically formed solid-electrolyte interphase from LixC6 reacting with ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbon solvent. This provides a different and perhaps simpler view of SEI formation than the usual electrochemically-driven reaction. We show that an organic layer coats the graphite particles filling in micro-pores and is polymeric in nature being 1-3 nm thick. We used inelastic neutron scattering to probe the chemistry, and we found that the SEI showed similar inelastic scattering to polyethylene oxide.

  4. Enabling the Space Exploration Initiative - NASA's Exploration Technology Program in space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    Space power requirements for SEI are reviewed, including the results of a NASA 90-day study and reports by the National Research Council, AIAA, NASA, the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, and the Synthesis Group. The space power requirements for the SEI robotic missions, lunar spacecraft, Mars spacecraft, and human missions are summarized. Planning for the exploration technology is addressed, including: photovoltaic, chemical, and thermal energy conversion; power management; thermal management; space nuclear power; high-capacity power; power and thermal management for the surface, earth-orbiting platform, and spacecraft; laser power beaming; and mobile surface systems.

  5. Structure of Spontaneously Formed Solid-Electrolyte Interphase on Lithiated Graphite Determined Using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sacci, Robert L.; Bañuelos, José Leobardo; Veith, Gabriel M.; Littrell, Ken C.; Cheng, Yongqiang Q.; Wildgruber, Christoph U.; Jones, Lacy L.; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J.; Rother, Gernot; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2015-05-07

    We report the first small-angle neutron scattering of a chemically formed solid-electrolyte interphase from LixC6 reacting with ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbon solvent. This provides a different and perhaps simpler view of SEI formation than the usual electrochemically-driven reaction. We show that an organic layer coats the graphite particles filling in micro-pores and is polymeric in nature being 1-3 nm thick. We used inelastic neutron scattering to probe the chemistry, and we found that the SEI showed similar inelastic scattering to polyethylene oxide.

  6. Data compression for full motion video transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Sayood, Khalid

    1991-01-01

    Clearly transmission of visual information will be a major, if not dominant, factor in determining the requirements for, and assessing the performance of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) communications systems. Projected image/video requirements which are currently anticipated for SEI mission scenarios are presented. Based on this information and projected link performance figures, the image/video data compression requirements which would allow link closure are identified. Finally several approaches which could satisfy some of the compression requirements are presented and possible future approaches which show promise for more substantial compression performance improvement are discussed.

  7. Anoctamin 1 dysregulation alters bronchial epithelial repair in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, Manon; Voland, Mélanie; Marie, Solenne; Bonora, Monique; Blanchard, Elise; Blouquit-Laye, Sabine; Naline, Emmanuel; Puyo, Philippe; Le Rouzic, Philippe; Guillot, Loic; Corvol, Harriet; Clement, Annick; Tabary, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelium is constantly subjected to injury events due to chronic infection and inflammation. Moreover, abnormalities in CF airway epithelium repair have been described and contribute to the lung function decline seen in CF patients. In the last past years, it has been proposed that anoctamin 1 (ANO1), a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel, might offset the CFTR deficiency but this protein has not been characterized in CF airways. Interestingly, recent evidence indicates a role for ANO1 in cell proliferation and tumor growth. Our aims were to study non-CF and CF bronchial epithelial repair and to determine whether ANO1 is involved in airway epithelial repair. Here, we showed, with human bronchial epithelial cell lines and primary cells, that both cell proliferation and migration during epithelial repair are delayed in CF compared to non-CF cells. We then demonstrated that ANO1 Cl(-) channel activity was significantly decreased in CF versus non-CF cells. To explain this decreased Cl(-) channel activity in CF context, we compared ANO1 expression in non-CF vs. CF bronchial epithelial cell lines and primary cells, in lung explants from wild-type vs. F508del mice and non-CF vs. CF patients. In all these models, ANO1 expression was markedly lower in CF compared to non-CF. Finally, we established that ANO1 inhibition or overexpression was associated respectively with decreases and increases in cell proliferation and migration. In summary, our study demonstrates involvement of ANO1 decreased activity and expression in abnormal CF airway epithelial repair and suggests that ANO1 correction may improve this process. PMID:24080196

  8. Survival protein anoctamin-6 controls multiple platelet responses including phospholipid scrambling, swelling, and protein cleavage.

    PubMed

    Mattheij, Nadine J A; Braun, Attila; van Kruchten, Roger; Castoldi, Elisabetta; Pircher, Joachim; Baaten, Constance C F M J; Wülling, Manuela; Kuijpers, Marijke J E; Köhler, Ralf; Poole, Alastair W; Schreiber, Rainer; Vortkamp, Andrea; Collins, Peter W; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Kunzelmann, Karl; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Heemskerk, Johan W M

    2016-02-01

    Scott syndrome is a rare bleeding disorder, characterized by altered Ca(2+)-dependent platelet signaling with defective phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and microparticle formation, and is linked to mutations in the ANO6 gene, encoding anoctamin (Ano)6. We investigated how the complex platelet phenotype of this syndrome is linked to defective expression of Anos or other ion channels. Mice were generated with heterozygous of homozygous deficiency in Ano6, Ano1, or Ca(2+)-dependent KCa3.1 Gardos channel. Platelets from these mice were extensively analyzed on molecular functions and compared with platelets from a patient with Scott syndrome. Deficiency in Ano1 or Gardos channel did not reduce platelet responses compared with control mice (P > 0.1). In 2 mouse strains, deficiency in Ano6 resulted in reduced viability with increased bleeding time to 28.6 min (control 6.4 min, P < 0.05). Platelets from the surviving Ano6-deficient mice resembled platelets from patients with Scott syndrome in: 1) normal collagen-induced aggregate formation (P > 0.05) with reduced PS exposure (-65 to 90%); 2) lowered Ca(2+)-dependent swelling (-80%) and membrane blebbing (-90%); 3) reduced calpain-dependent protein cleavage (-60%); and 4) moderately affected apoptosis-dependent PS exposure. In conclusion, mouse deficiency of Ano6 but not of other channels affects viability and phenocopies the complex changes in platelets from hemostatically impaired patients with Scott syndrome.-Mattheij, N. J. A., Braun, A., van Kruchten, R., Castoldi, E., Pircher, J., Baaten, C. C. F. M. J., Wülling, M., Kuijpers, M. J. E., Köhler, R., Poole, A. W., Schreiber, R., Vortkamp, A., Collins, P. W., Nieswandt, B., Kunzelmann, K., Cosemans, J. M. E. M., Heemskerk, J. W. M. Survival protein anoctamin-6 controls multiple platelet responses including phospholipid scrambling, swelling, and protein cleavage. PMID:26481309

  9. Boosting properties of 3D binder-free manganese oxide anodes by preformation of a solid electrolyte interphase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haitao; Wang, Xuehang; Sheridan, Edel; Chen, De

    2015-04-24

    Huge irreversible capacity loss prevents the successful use of metal oxide anodes in Li-ion full cells. Here, we focus on the critical prelithiation step and demonstrate the challenge of electrolyte decomposition on a pristine anode in a full cell. Both an electrochemical activation process (54 h) with Li metal and a new electrolytic process (75 min) without Li metal were used to preform complete solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers on 3 D binder-free MnOy -based anodes. The preformed SEI layers mitigated the electrolyte decomposition effectively and widened the working voltage for the MnOy /LiMn2 O4 full cell, which resulted in a big boost of the specific energy to 300 and 200 W h kgcathode (-1) , largely improved cycling stability, and much higher specific power (4200 W h kgtotal (-1) ) compared to conventional Li-ion batteries. Detailed characterization, such as cyclic voltammetry, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy, gives mechanistic insight into SEI preformation. This work provides guidance for the design of anode SEI layers and enables the application of oxides for Li-ion battery full cells. PMID:25760685

  10. The Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure of a Welsh Translation of the School Short Form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Peter R.; Francis, Leslie J.; Thomas, Enlli

    2007-01-01

    The psychometric properties and factor structure of a Welsh translation of the school short form of the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (SEI-SSF), which is widely used as a measure of children's global self-esteem, was investigated among a sample of 681 pupils attending Welsh-medium primary schools in Wales. It has generally been assumed that…

  11. Severely Emotionally Impaired/Program Expansion/Project Find/Pre-Primary Impaired. Product Evaluation Report, 1990-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Richard N.; And Others

    This report details the continuation and expansion of four special education programs in Saginaw, Michigan, which received Public Law 94-142 funding during the 1990-91 school year. The four programs are the Severely Emotionally Impaired (SEI) program, Program Expansion, Program Find, and the Pre Primary Impaired (PPI) program. Information provided…

  12. 77 FR 70486 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Dewey-Burdock In-Situ Uranium Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Statement for In-Situ Leach Uranium Milling Facilities,'' May 2009. By letter dated August 10, 2009... (SEIS) is required for issuance of a license to possess and use source material for uranium milling (see... Statement for In-Situ Leach Uranium Milling Facilities'' (herein referred to as the GEIS). In the GEIS,...

  13. Effect of water on solid electrolyte interphase formation in Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M.; Fujita, M.; Aoki, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.; Yasuda, K.; Ishigami, R.; Nakata, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Time-of-flight-elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA) with 20 MeV Cu ions has been applied to measure the depth profiles of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers on the negative electrode of lithium ion batteries (LIB). In order to obtain quantitative depth profiles, the detector efficiency was first assessed, and the test highlighted a strong mass and energy dependence of the recoiled particles, especially H and He. Subsequently, we prepared LIB cells with different water contents in the electrolyte, and subjected them to different charge-discharge cycle tests. TOF-ERDA, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), gas chromatography (GC), ion chromatography (IC), and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) were applied to characterize the SEI region of the negative electrode. The results showed that the SEI layer is formed after 300 cycle tests, and a 500 ppm water concentration in the electrolyte does not appear to cause significant differences in the elemental and organic content of the SEI.

  14. 50 CFR 216.241 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .../calf pair of any of the following marine mammals of concern: beaked whale of any species, dwarf or pygmy sperm whales, melon-headed whales, pilot whales, right whales, humpback whales, sperm whales, blue whales, fin whales, or sei whales. (iii) A group of 2 or more cetaceans of any species...

  15. 50 CFR 216.171 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or mother/calf pair of any of the following marine mammals of concern: Beaked whale of any species, Kogia sp., Risso's dolphin, melon-headed whale, pilot whales, humpback whales, sperm whales, blue whales, fin whales, sei whales, or monk seal. (iii) A group of 2 or more cetaceans of any species...

  16. 50 CFR 218.122 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the rule must be maintained. (4) Level B Harassment: (i) Mysticetes: (A) Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)—6,975 (an average of 1,395 annually); (B) Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)—55185 (an average of 11,037 annually); (C) Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus)—10 (an average of 2 annually); (D) Sei...

  17. 50 CFR 216.241 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pair of any of the following marine mammals of concern: beaked whale of any species, dwarf or pygmy sperm whales, melon-headed whales, pilot whales, right whales, humpback whales, sperm whales, blue whales, fin whales, or sei whales. (iii) A group of 2 or more cetaceans of any species...

  18. 50 CFR 218.122 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the rule must be maintained. (4) Level B Harassment: (i) Mysticetes: (A) Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)—6,975 (an average of 1,395 annually); (B) Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)—55185 (an average of 11,037 annually); (C) Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus)—10 (an average of 2 annually); (D) Sei...

  19. 50 CFR 216.241 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pair of any of the following marine mammals of concern: beaked whale of any species, dwarf or pygmy sperm whales, melon-headed whales, pilot whales, right whales, humpback whales, sperm whales, blue whales, fin whales, or sei whales. (iii) A group of 2 or more cetaceans of any species...

  20. 50 CFR 218.122 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the rule must be maintained. (4) Level B Harassment: (i) Mysticetes: (A) Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)—6,975 (an average of 1,395 annually); (B) Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)—55185 (an average of 11,037 annually); (C) Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus)—10 (an average of 2 annually); (D) Sei...