Science.gov

Sample records for seis anos estudo

  1. SEI: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, Lewis L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An update on the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include the key prerequisites of human exploration, project planning, Mars and lunar explorations, supporting technologies, near-term strategies for SEI, human support elements, and Space Station Freedom SEI accommodations.

  2. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE (SEI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) is a federally funded research and development center established in 1984 by the U.S. Department of Defense and operated by Carnegie Mellon University. SEI has a broad charter to provide leadership in the practice of software engineering t...

  3. Third SEI Technical Interchange: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Given here are the proceedings of the 3rd Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Technical Interchange. Topics covered include the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), the Lunar Resource Mapper, lunar rovers, lunar habitat concepts, lunar shelter construction analysis, thermoelectric nuclear power systems for SEI, cryogenic storage, a space network for lunar communications, the moon as a solar power satellite, and off-the-shelf avionics for future SEI missions.

  4. The GEMS-2 Seis Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoun, D.; de Raucourt, S.; Lognonne, P.; Giardini, D.; Christensen, U. R.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Pike, T.; Nebut, T.; Tillier, S.; Robert, O.; Gabsi, T.; Pot, O.; Lecomte, B.; Escande, N.; Mocquet, A.; Zweifel, P.; Mance, D.; Roll, R.; Bierwirth, M.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the Mars SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars. In particular, geophysical parameters of first importance, such as the state (liquid/solid) and size of the core, as far as structure of the mantle and shape of discontinuities will be determined by the experience. It will measure seismic activity in a very broad band of signal, from the tidal frequencies (0.05 mHz) up to the short period frequencies (50 Hz), to address the widest range of scientific questions, from the state of the inner core to the meteoritic rate measurement. The instrument integrates a Very Broad Band 3 axis seismometer, completed by another trihedron of MEMS short period seismometers, and environmental sensors for pressure, wind and temperature. The sensors will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm and protected by a wind and thermal shield. Long term VBB bias will be protected from both temperature and pressure variations (as well as passively compensated), allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment. The sensor assembly, which contains all seismic sensors, as well as house-keeping and temperature measurements, will be deployed on the ground, in order to allow the best possible mechanical coupling. Infrasound, which might be associated to dust devils and atmospheric discharge, will be also monitored. The overall mass of the SEIS instrument is about 6 kg, including all sensors, data control processors and installation devices. A dedicated electronics will manage the overall experiment and ultra-low noise, space qualified 24 bits A/D converters will perform the acquisition. The instrument operation is designed to be very simple. It will operate in a “deploy and forget” strategy (with a deployment and closely monitored during the first month however) uploading data and events of interests at each pass of the relay satellite. When relay is not available, the data will be stored on-board. The upload of data will be made on the basis of raw compressed data, plus an excerpt of the high frequency events of the day. The proposed instrument has been developed up to PDR in the frame of the ExoMars Humbold payload. Most critical parts have been tested, including shock tests for pivot, electronics components and displacement sensors. TRL 6 is expected at the end of 2011. SEIS has been proposed onboard the GEMS Mission Proposal, submitted to NASA in the frame of the 2010 Discovery AO.

  5. The GEMS-2 SEIS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillier, S.; De Raucourt, S.; Mimoun, D.; Lognonne, P.; Giardini, D.; Christensen, U. R.; Pike, W. T.; Banerdt, B.; Laudet, P.; Kerjean, L.; Hurst, K. J.; Zweifel, P.; Mance, D.; Roll, R.; Bierwirth, M.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Nibut, T.; Robert, O.; Gabsi, T.; Pot, O.; Lecomte, B.; Schibler, P.; Mocquet, A.; Garcia, R.

    2011-12-01

    The SEIS experiment is the primary payload of the Geophysical Monitoring Station (GEMS) Mission Proposal, submitted to NASA in the frame of the 2010 Discovery program, and recently selected for the phase A study. The objective of the GEMS SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars. In particular, geophysical parameters of first importance, such as the state (liquid/solid) and size of the core, as well as structure of the mantle and shape of discontinuities will be determined by the experiment. It will measure seismic activity in a very broad band of signal, from the tidal frequencies (0.05 mHz) up to the short period frequencies (50 Hz), to address the widest range of scientific questions, from the state of the inner core to the meteoritic rate measurement. Infrasound, which might be associated to dust devils and atmospheric discharge, will be also monitored. The instrument integrates a Very Broad Band (VBB) 3 axis seismometer, completed by another trihedron of MEMS short period seismometers, environmental sensors for pressure, wind and temperature, and an infrasound sensor is additionally considered. The sensors will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm from the Phoenix lander platform and protected by a wind and thermal shield. The sensor assembly, which contains all seismic sensors, the leveling system, as well as house-keeping and temperature measurements, will be deployed on the soil in order to allow the best possible mechanical coupling with the ground motion. Thanks to the wind and thermal shield, together with the sensors' specific containers (vacuum sphere for VBBs), long term VBB bias will be protected from both temperature and pressure variations (as well as passively compensated), allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment. A dedicated electronics will manage the overall experiment and ultra-low noise, space qualified 24 bits A/D converters will perform the acquisition. The overall mass of the SEIS instrument is about 9.6 kg, including all sensors, data control processors and installation devices, while power consumption is not exceeding 2W. The proposed instrument has been developed up to PDR in the frame of the ExoMars Humbold payload, and further developments were achieved in the frame of the Japanese SELENE2 project. Most critical parts have been tested, including shock tests for pivots, electronics components and displacement sensors. TRL 6 is expected at the end of 2011. The GEMS phase A will end by March 2012, and the final NASA continuation decision is due in June 2012. GEMS is planned to be launched in 2016.

  6. The INSIGHT SEIS VBB Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillier, S.; De Raucourt, S.; Lognonne, P. H.; Banerdt, B.; Mimoun, D.; Giardini, D.; Christensen, U. R.; Pike, W. T.; Zweifel, P.; Mance, D.; Bierwirth, M.; Laudet, P.; Perez, R.; Kerjean, L.; Hurst, K. J.; Mocquet, A.; Garcia, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    The SEIS experiment is the primary payload of the Interior Structure investigation using Seismology and Heat Transport (INSIGHT) Mission Proposal, submitted to NASA in the frame of the 2010 Discovery program, and selected for a competitive phase A study, together with two other projects. The objective of the INSIGHT SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars. In particular, geophysical parameters of first importance, such as the state (liquid/solid) and size of the core, structure of the mantle, shape of discontinuities, thickness of the crust will be determined by the experiment. It will measure seismic activity in a very broad band of signal, from the tidal frequencies (0.05 mHz) up to the short period frequencies (50 Hz), to address the widest range of scientific questions, from the state of the core to the meteoritic impact and quake rates. The instrument integrates a Very Broad Band (VBB) 3 axis seismometer, completed by another trihedron of MEMS short period seismometers, environmental sensors for pressure, wind and temperature, The sensors will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm from a Phoenix-type lander platform and protected by a wind and thermal shield. The sensor assembly, which contains all seismic sensors, the leveling system, as well as house-keeping and temperature measurements, will be deployed on the soil in order to allow the best possible mechanical coupling with the ground motion. The wind and thermal shield, the sensors' specific containers (vacuum sphere for VBBs) and a passive thermal compensation system will achieve a very high protection of the VBB against temperature and pressure variations, allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment while reaching a deection threshold below 10-9 ms-2 Hz-1/2 in the VBB bandwidth. A dedicated electronics will manage the overall experiment and ultra-low noise, space qualified 24 bits A/D converters will perform the acquisition. The proposed instrument has been developed up to PDR in the frame of the ExoMars Humbold payload in 2009, and further developments were achieved in the frame of the Japanese SELENE2 project and the phase A of the INSIGHT project. During the INSIGHT Phase A, Tests of the Earth version of the VBB have been performed in either low noise seismic vault, in the Black Forest Observatory, or in more realistic conditions under wind and thermal shield at the Reunion Island. Most critical parts have been thoroughly tested, and the qualification models are ready to be produced in case of selection. The INSIGHT phase A has ended in March 2012, and the final NASA continuation decision is due in August 2012. If selected, INSIGHT will be launched in 2016.

  7. Millimeter wavelength communications applications for the SEI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.; Spence, Rodney L.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.

    1991-09-01

    The potentially complex missions of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) require advanced lunar and Mars Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) systems to provide data, voice, and image transmissions. The objectives of the study are to determine which SEI telecommunications applications will benefit from millimeter wave technology, assess the state-of-the-art in millimeter wave technology and describe the technology development shortfalls with respect to potential mission time frames. The assumptions for the analysis as well as other issues, not related to performance, are also presented.

  8. The SEIS InSight VBB Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebut, T.; Lognonne, P. H.; Banerdt, W. B.; De Raucourt, S.; Beyneix, J.; Dandonneau, P. A.; Gabsi, T.; Robert, O.; Tillier, S.; Hurst, K. J.; Mimoun, D.; Christensen, U. R.; Bierwierth, M.; Roll, R.; Pike, W. T.; Calcutt, S. B.; Giardini, D.; Mance, D.; Zweifel, P.; Laudet, P.; Kerjean, L.; Perez, R.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The SEIS experiment is the primary payload of the Interior Structure Investigation using Seismology and Heat Transport (InSight) mission selected by NASA in August 2012 to be the next Mars mission. The objective of the InSight SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars. In particular, geophysical parameters of first importance, such as the state (liquid/solid) and size of the core, structure of the mantle, shape of discontinui-ties and thickness of the crust will be determined by the experiment. It will measure seismic activity over a very broad frequency band, from tidal frequencies (0.05 mHz) up to high frequencies (50 Hz), to address a wide range of scientific questions, from the state of the core to the meteoritic impact rate, marsquake rate and the response of the planet to the Phobos tide. Description of the instrument: The instrument includes notably a Very Broad Band (VBB) 3 axis seis-mometer which is developed by the ';Institut du Globe de Paris' (IPGP) under the funding of CNES. The sensor assembly, which also contains a MEMS short-period seismometer, will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm from a Phoenix-type lander platform and will be protected by a wind and thermal shield. The wind and thermal shield,together with a vacuum sphere and a passive compensation system will achieve a very high protection of the VBB against temperature and pressure variations, allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment while reaching a detection threshold below 10-9 ms-2 Hz-1/2 in the VBB bandwidth. Conclusion: Performance has been demonstrated with previous prototypes and the SEIS experiment of the InSight mission will therefore provide high-quality seismic signal acquisition and associated seismic information during one martian year. The delivery of the payload is planned for the end of 2014 and the launch is in March 2016 SEIS deployed on the ground next to the lander Single-axis VBB-prototype with proximity electronics

  9. Prototype Tool Support for SEI Process and Risk Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M.; Kelly, J.; Kiper, J.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a prototype of tool support for risk assessment that uses selected components of the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) information, specifically: Capability Maturity Model (CMM) process activities, CMM process goals and the SEI taxonomy of software project risks.

  10. The SEIS Experiment: A Mars Seismic Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schibler, P.; Lognonne, P.; Giardini, D.; Banerdt, B.; Karczewski, J. F.; Mimoun, D.; Zweifel, P.; Pike, T.; Ammann, J.; Anglade, A.

    2003-01-01

    This experiment will integrate a VBB (Very Broad Band) two axis seismometer, a three axis Short Period seismometer and a series of environmental sensors for pressure, infra-sounds and temperature. IPGP (France) has the overall responsibility of the experiment and is responsible for the VBB and environmental sensors. ETHZ (Switzerland) is responsible for the electronics of the experiment and JPL (USA) for the SP (Short Period) sensors. SEIS instrument was first proposed and accepted for NetLander mission (and will also be in charge of data acquisition for SPICE experiment). This seismic package should also be proposed for future missions.

  11. LLNL contributions to MPD thrusters for SEI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, Edwin Bickford

    1991-01-01

    Some of the topics covered with respect to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) contributions to Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) Thrusters for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) include: an IR camera, plasma-induced erosion/redeposition, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B), the Thruster Lifetime Test Facility, the RACE Compact Torus Accelerator Facility, and a RACE program summary. Some of the other topics addressed include: flux contours for HAM simulation, comparison of RACE data of plasma ring formation with the HAM 2-D magnetohydrodynamic code, and the 2-D Ring Acceleration Code (TRAC).

  12. Evaluation of the SEI using a multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dufek, Eric J.

    2014-08-28

    A multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) model has been developed to characterize SEI formation. The model, which consists of two Cauchy layers, is constructed with an inner layer meant to model primarily inorganic compounds adjacent to an electrode and an outer layer which mirrors polymeric, organic constituents on the exterior of the SEI. Comparison of 1:1 EC:EMC and 1:4 EC:EMC with 1.0 M LiPF? shows distinct differences in the two modeled layers. The data suggest that the thickness of both layers change over a wide potential range. These changes have been linked with other reports on the growth of the SEI.

  13. Evaluation of the SEI using a multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry model

    SciTech Connect

    Dufek, Eric J.

    2014-08-28

    A multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) model has been developed to characterize SEI formation. The model, which consists of two Cauchy layers, is constructed with an inner layer meant to model primarily inorganic compounds adjacent to an electrode and an outer layer which mirrors polymeric, organic constituents on the exterior of the SEI. Comparison of 1:1 EC:EMC and 1:4 EC:EMC with 1.0 M LiPF₆ shows distinct differences in the two modeled layers. The data suggest that the thickness of both layers change over a wide potential range. These changes have been linked with other reports on the growth of the SEI.

  14. Evaluation of the SEI using a multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry model

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Dufek

    2014-08-01

    A multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) model has been developed to characterize SEI formation. The model, which consists of two Cauchy layers, is constructed with an inner layer meant to model primarily inorganic compounds adjacent to an electrode and an outer layer which mirrors polymeric, organic constituents on the exterior of the SEI. Comparison of 1:1 EC:EMC and 1:4 EC:EMC with 1.0 M LiPF6 shows distinct differences in the two modeled layers. The data suggest that the thickness of both layers change over a wide potential range. These changes have been linked with other reports on the growth of the SEI.

  15. The CASSIOPE/e-POP Suprathermal Electron Imager (SEI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, D. J.; Burchill, J. K.; Cameron, T. G.; Enno, G. A.; Howarth, A.; Yau, A. W.

    2015-06-01

    The Suprathermal Electron Imager (SEI) on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) experiment uses a microchannel-plate-intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) detector to record two-dimensional, energy-angle images of electron distributions for energies up to 350 eV. Alternatively, the SEI can be biased to measure positive ions at energies that include the ambient ionospheric population (<1 eV) and extending to 350 eV. At the highest measurement resolution, distribution images are 64 pixels in diameter and are read out at a rate of 100 images per second. The SEI's field of view is 360?ױ4?, and includes viewing of the nadir and ram directions, nominally. At high latitude the nominal orientation allows coverage of most pitch angles. The SEI is included on e-POP to address the mission's principal scientific objectives, the first being to characterize polar ion outflow and its drivers including ambipolar electric fields generated by suprathermal electron populations, and direct energization of ions by plasma waves or through frictional heating. In addition, the SEI's focus on low energies and high time resolution allows a unique view of suprathermal particle populations and their role in wave-particle interactions, in support of e-POP's second scientific objective: to study plasma waves and wave propagation in the high-latitude ionosphere. Observations taken within geophysically quiet regions indicate that the instrument can track bulk ion flow velocity with a resolution of order 25 m/s or better.

  16. Future needs for space robots for SEI. [Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.; Price, Charles R.; Cooke, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    High level systems engineering modeling and analysis activities for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are reviewed, with emphasis on planet surface systems. Particular attention is given to SEI studies, preliminary space robotic system requirements, and usefulness of space robotic systems developed to operate on planetary surfaces on earth. It is concluded that supervised intelligent systems on the planet surfaces are necessary to make SEI planet surface activities reliable and productive and encompass capabilities for control and monitoring of all elements, including supervised autonomous robotic systems. Amplification of human capabilities due to applying more knowledge and reasoning in more flexible and appropriate ways than conventional automation approaches will provide more robust performance, greater choice of interaction modes with operators, and greater transparency of operation.

  17. Communications systems evolutionary scenarios for Martian SEI support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, P. W.; Bruno, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    A set of architectures for the Mars-earth SEI space communications link is identified and characterized. A 'road map' is defined that illustrates the most logical and efficient evolutionary paths for the SEI Mars-earth link. The major features of the road map include three alternative evolutionary paths meeting the data rate requirements that may grow from 10 Mbps to 1 Gbps in the 2008-2025 time frame. All three paths begin with a Ka-band MRS-EST baseline link in 2000, and diverge from this baseline as time progresses.

  18. Communications systems evolutionary scenarios for Martian SEI support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, P. W.; Bruno, R. C.

    1991-09-01

    A set of architectures for the Mars-earth SEI space communications link is identified and characterized. A 'road map' is defined that illustrates the most logical and efficient evolutionary paths for the SEI Mars-earth link. The major features of the road map include three alternative evolutionary paths meeting the data rate requirements that may grow from 10 Mbps to 1 Gbps in the 2008-2025 time frame. All three paths begin with a Ka-band MRS-EST baseline link in 2000, and diverge from this baseline as time progresses.

  19. Idiopathic fistula-in-ano

    PubMed Central

    Shawki, Sherief; Wexner, Steven D

    2011-01-01

    Fistula-in-ano is the most common form of perineal sepsis. Typically, a fistula includes an internal opening, a track, and an external opening. The external opening might acutely appear following infection and/or an abscess, or more insiduously in a chronic manner. Management includes control of infection, assessment of the fistulous track in relation to the anal sphincter muscle, and finally, definitive treatment of the fistula. Fistulotomy was the most commonly used mode of management, but concerns about post-fistulotomy incontinence prompted the use of sphincter preserving techniques such as advancement flaps, fibrin glue, collagen fistula plug, ligation of the intersphincteric fistula track, and stem cells. Many descriptive and comparative studies have evaluated these different techniques with variable outcomes. The lack of consistent results, level I evidence, or long-term follow-up, as well as the heterogeneity of fistula pathology has prevented a definitive treatment algorithm. This article will review the most commonly available modalities and techniques for managing idiopathic fistula-in-ano. PMID:21876614

  20. 76 FR 72729 - SEI Investments Management Corporation, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... COMMISSION SEI Investments Management Corporation, et al. November 18, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application under section 6(c) of the Investment Company... Application: Applicants request an order to permit open-end management investment companies relying on...

  1. MatSeis developer's guide:version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, Lane Christopher; Young, Christopher John

    2007-05-01

    This guide is intended to enable researchers working with seismic data, but lacking backgrounds in computer science and programming, to develop seismic algorithms using the MATLAB-based MatSeis software. Specifically, it presents a series of step-by-step instructions to write four specific functions of increasing complexity, while simultaneously explaining the notation, syntax, and general program design of the functions being written. The ultimate goal is that that the user can use this guide as a jumping off point from which he or she can write new functions that are compatible with and expand the capabilities of the current MatSeis software that has been developed as part of the Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEMRE) program at Sandia National Laboratories.

  2. MatSeis: A Seismic toolbox for MATLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.M.; Young, C.J.

    1996-08-01

    To support the signal processing and data visualization needs of CTBT related projects at SNL, a MATLAB based GUI was developed. This program is known as MatSeis. MatSeis was developed quickly using the available MATLAB functionality. It provides a time-distance profile plot integrating origin, waveform, travel-time, and arrival data. Graphical plot controls, data manipulation, and signal processing functions provide a user friendly seismic analysis package. In addition, the full power of MATLAB (the premier tool for general numeric processing and visualization) is available for prototyping new functions by end users. This package is being made available to the seismic community in the hope that it will aid CTBT research and will facilitate cooperative signal processing development. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  3. TOF SIMS characterization of SEI layer on battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veryovkin, I. V.; Tripa, C. E.; Zinovev, A. V.; Baryshev, S. V.; Li, Y.; Abraham, D. P.

    2014-08-01

    In the last decade, many studies applied surface analysis techniques (SEM, XPS and SIMS) to understand the formation of SEI layers on Li-ion battery electrodes. This work was meant as a comparative model study of the SEI layer formation, which combined in situ SEM imaging with TOF SIMS depth profiling of four samples of the same graphite electrode material, which was subjected to different charge-discharge cycling schemes in a Li-ion battery. Besides comparing compositions of sub-surface regions of these differently processed electrodes, we wanted to know whether these compositions depend on after-cycling sample preparation, in particular if a brief exposure of these samples to air would affect the compositions measured by TOF SIMS. We found that the exposure to air (1) increases secondary ion yield for all species, and (2) changes shapes of SIMS depth profiles for some key species. For selected samples, we also conducted a comparison between the conventional single beam TOF-SIMS depth profiling and a high resolution dual beam depth profiling and found that the former approach can detect the same features in depth profiles as the latter one. We interpreted this as an indication that the sample surface morphology (high roughness) could be a limiting factor in this SEI study, suggesting that specially designed model samples with smooth surfaces are a better choice for future studies.

  4. 77 FR 40406 - Cancellation of Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS); Travis County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Federal Highway Administration Cancellation of Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS); Travis County, TX AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration, DOT. ACTION: Cancellation of Notice of Intent to Prepare a SEIS. SUMMARY: The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and Texas Department of...

  5. The VBB SEIS experiment of InSight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Raucourt, Sebastien; Gabsi, Taoufik; Tanguy, Nebut; Mimoun, David; Lognonne, Philippe; Gagnepain-Beyneix, Jeannine; Banerdt, William; Tillier, Sylvain; Hurst, Kenneth

    2012-07-01

    SEIS is the core payload of InSight, one of the three missions selected for competitive phase A in the frame of the 2010 Discovery AO. It aims at providing unique observation of the interior structure of Mars and to monitor seismic activity of Mars. SEIS will provide the first seismic model from another planet than Earth. SEIS is an hybrid seismometer composed of 3 SPs and 3 VBBs axes providing ground motion measurement from Dc to 50Hz. A leveling system will ensure the coupling between the ground and the sensors as well as the horizontality of the VBB sphere. This assembly will be deployed on the ground of Mars and will be shielded by a strong thermal insulation and a wind shield. The 24 bits low noise acquisition electronics will remain in the warm electronic box of the lander with the sensors feedback and leveling system electronics. The VBB sphere enclosed three single axis sensors. Those sensors are based on an inverted leaf spring pendulum, which convert ground acceleration into mobile mass displacement. A capacitive displacement sensor monitors this mass displacement to provide a measurement. A force feedback allows transfer function and sensitivity tuning. The VBB sensor has a very strong heritage from previous project and benefits from recent work to improve its performances. Both the mechanical design and the displacement sensors have optimized to improve performances while reducing technological risk and keeping a high TRL. From those development a self-noise well below 10 ^{-9} m.s ^{-2}/sqrt Hz is expected. Environmental sensitivity of SEIS has been minimized by the design of a very efficient wind and thermal shield. Remaining noise is expected to be very close to the VBB self-noise. Associated sources and budget will be discussed. If InSight is selected to fly in 2016, this experiment will provide very high quality seismic signal measurement with a wider bandwidth, higher sensitivity and lower noise than previous Mars seismometer (Viking and Optimism/Mars 96).

  6. 77 FR 5491 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...; request for information. SUMMARY: NMFS announces a 5-year review of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis... of any such information on sei whales that has become available since that has become available...

  7. Communications system evolutionary scenarios for Martian SEI support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, Paulman W.; Bruno, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    In the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) mission scenarios, expanding human presence is the primary driver for high data rate Mars-Earth communications. To support an expanding human presence, the data rate requirement will be gradual, following the phased implementation over time of the evolving SEI mission. Similarly, the growth and evolution of the space communications infrastructure to serve this requirement will also be gradual to efficiently exploit the useful life of the installed communications infrastructure and to ensure backward compatibility with long-term users. In work conducted over the past year, a number of alternatives for supporting high data rate Mars-Earth communications have been analyzed with respect to their compatibility with gradual evolution of the space communications infrastructure. The alternatives include RF, millimeter wave (MMW), and optical implementations, and incorporate both surface and space-based relay terminals in the Mars and Earth regions. Each alternative is evaluated with respect to its ability to efficiently meet a projected growth in data rate over time, its technology readiness, and its capability to satisfy the key conditions and constraints imposed by evolutionary transition. As a result of this analysis, a set of attractive alternative communications architectures have been identified and described, and a road map is developed that illustrates the most rational and beneficial evolutionary paths for the communications infrastructure.

  8. NTP system definition and comparison process for SEI

    SciTech Connect

    Corban, R.R. )

    1993-01-20

    The concept definition, trade-offs, and ultimate selection of a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system that will enable the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to Mars will require a rigorous systems engineering approach. A systems engineering process to provide a consistent comparison has been established to allow for evolving SEI mission requirements, level of concept definition and changing customer'' requirements, while continuing to improve the process as more data becomes available. All concepts will be evaluated against an established baseline NTP system to compare system benefits and merits. Establishing the evaluation criteria is extremely challenging and critical to the evaluation and selection process. Quality function deployment (QFD) will be utilized to provide structure and focus in obtaining the critical needs and attributes of the NTP system. System performance, cost, and risk analysis tools will be integrated into the process to provide the quantitative data required to allow for an informative decision on concept and technology decisions. This process will initiate the framework for design and development of a robust, reliable, cost effective NTP engine within NASA's philosophy for space systems to be developed faster, better, and cheaper.''

  9. Communications system evolutionary scenarios for Martian SEI support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Paulman W.; Bruno, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    In the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) mission scenarios, expanding human presence is the primary driver for high data rate Mars-Earth communications. To support an expanding human presence, the data rate requirement will be gradual, following the phased implementation over time of the evolving SEI mission. Similarly, the growth and evolution of the space communications infrastructure to serve this requirement will also be gradual to efficiently exploit the useful life of the installed communications infrastructure and to ensure backward compatibility with long-term users. In work conducted over the past year, a number of alternatives for supporting high data rate Mars-Earth communications have been analyzed with respect to their compatibility with gradual evolution of the space communications infrastructure. The alternatives include RF, millimeter wave (MMW), and optical implementations, and incorporate both surface and space-based relay terminals in the Mars and Earth regions. Each alternative is evaluated with respect to its ability to efficiently meet a projected growth in data rate over time, its technology readiness, and its capability to satisfy the key conditions and constraints imposed by evolutionary transition. As a result of this analysis, a set of attractive alternative communications architectures have been identified and described, and a road map is developed that illustrates the most rational and beneficial evolutionary paths for the communications infrastructure.

  10. Early Track NEP system options for SEI missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilland, J. H.; George, J. A.

    1992-07-01

    A development option for nuclear electric propulsion, the 'Early Track' option, is considered from system and mission application viewpoints. The intent of this development option is to address demanding missions of the future, such as robotic outer planet exploration or the Space Exploration Initiative. The 'Early Track' scheme utilizes existing technologies, such as the SP-100 space reactor and radiator components, as well as subsystems scalable from existing programs, such as 50 to 100 kWe ion thrusters. Up to 1.5 MWe of powder can be generated by the existing 2.4 MWt SP-100 reactor through the use of dynamic Rankine or Brayton power conversion. The performance characteristics of these systems are projected, and assessed for SEI missions currently under consideration.

  11. Expression of calcium-activated chloride channels Ano1 and Ano2 in mouse taste cells.

    PubMed

    Cherkashin, Alexander P; Kolesnikova, Alisa S; Tarasov, Michail V; Romanov, Roman A; Rogachevskaja, Olga A; Bystrova, Marina F; Kolesnikov, Stanislav S

    2016-02-01

    Specialized Ca(2+)-dependent ion channels ubiquitously couple intracellular Ca(2+) signals to a change in cell polarization. The existing physiological evidence suggests that Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are functional in taste cells. Because Ano1 and Ano2 encode channel proteins that form CaCCs in a variety of cells, we analyzed their expression in mouse taste cells. Transcripts for Ano1 and Ano2 were detected in circumvallate (CV) papillae, and their expression in taste cells was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. When dialyzed with CsCl, taste cells of the type III exhibited no ion currents dependent on cytosolic Ca(2+). Large Ca(2+)-gated currents mediated by TRPM5 were elicited in type II cells by Ca(2+) uncaging. When TRPM5 was inhibited by triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), ionomycin stimulated a small but resolvable inward current that was eliminated by anion channel blockers, including T16Ainh-A01 (T16), a specific Ano1 antagonist. This suggests that CaCCs, including Ano1-like channels, are functional in type II cells. In type I cells, CaCCs were prominently active, blockable with the CaCC antagonist CaCCinh-A01 but insensitive to T16. By profiling Ano1 and Ano2 expressions in individual taste cells, we revealed Ano1 transcripts in type II cells only, while Ano2 transcripts were detected in both type I and type II cells. P2Y agonists stimulated Ca(2+)-gated Cl(-) currents in type I cells. Thus, CaCCs, possibly formed by Ano2, serve as effectors downstream of P2Y receptors in type I cells. While the role for TRPM5 in taste transduction is well established, the physiological significance of expression of CaCCs in type II cells remains to be elucidated. PMID:26530828

  12. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teoría del Aprendizaje Significativo de David Ausubel, se buscó desenvolver la propuesta a partir de un modelo didáctico que simula las Fases de la Luna, usando como base las concepciones previas de los estudiantes. Los indicios del aprendizaje fueron verificados a través de registros de memorias de la actividad. Por los resultados obtenidos creemos que la propuesta alcanzó sus objetivos, una vez que los estudiantes consiguieron identificar y transferir el fenómeno de las fases de la Luna para nuevos contextos. Así, se concluye que una metodología con enfoque en un contenido significativo para el estudiante es fundamental para la construcción y comprensión genuina de lo que está siendo aprendido.

  13. Anorectal Abscess and Fistula-in-Ano

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Adam M.; DeNobile, John W.

    1988-01-01

    The etiology of anorectal abscess and fistula-in-ano is discussed. The anatomy, which is vital to the understanding and treatment of the above, is reviewed, with two of the more common classifications of fistula-in-ano presented. The different methods of treating each are discussed, and some of the common complications of the procedure are listed. A true understanding of the disease process and anatomy is needed before treatment of fistulous abscesses is begun, but, with it, successful outcomes will occur in most cases. PMID:3074175

  14. Ground test facility for SEI nuclear rocket engines

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, C.D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.; Shipers, L.R.

    1992-08-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) has been identified as a critical technology in support of the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). In order to safely develop a reliable, reusable, long-lived flight engine, facilities are required that will support ground tests to qualify the nuclear rocket engine design. Initial nuclear fuel element testing will need to be performed in a facility that supports a realistic thermal and neutronic environment in which the fuel elements will operate at a fraction of the power of a flight weight reactor/engine. Ground testing of nuclear rocket engines is not new. New restrictions mandated by the National Environmental Protection Act of 1970, however, now require major changes to be made in the manner in which reactor engines are now tested. These new restrictions now preclude the types of nuclear rocket engine tests that were performed in the past from being done today. A major attribute of a safely operating ground test facility is its ability to prevent fission products from being released in appreciable amounts to the environment. Details of the intricacies and complications involved with the design of a fuel element ground test facility are presented in this report with a strong emphasis on safety and economy.

  15. Mineralogical aspects of Morro de Seis Lagos deposit (Amazonas, Brazil).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehara, Lucy; Almeida, Marcelo; Silveira, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    The alkaline body Morro dos Seis Lagos, situated in the northwest Amazonian region, is a Nb bearing deposit formed by thick lateritic regolith as circular geological feature about 5 km in diameter. The host rock of this deposit is an intensely weathered siderite carbonatite. The alkaline intrusion body was formed during the late Mesozoic and enriched during the Cenozoic by process of denudation of the surrounding rocks and formation of lateritic cover with thickness in the order of hundreds of meters. In this process, enrichment of Nb, Fe, Ti, Mn, P and rare earth elements (REE) occurred where the lateritic regolith represents the major Nb mineralization, with estimated inferred reserves of 2.9 billion ton@ 2.8 % Nb2O5, one of the largest deposits of Nb in the world. The mineralogical composition of the lateritic regolith has the predominance of the goethite and hematite, followed by oxy - hydroxides of Mn, Ti - Nb oxides, pyrochlore, cerianite and phosphates. The lateritic regolith samples showed high contents of Fe2O3 < 89.0%, TiO2 (< 12.54 %) and MnO2 (< 9.90 %). The goethite minerals show several generations that are related to different environmental conditions with dissolution and precipitation process, which indicate intense movement of the solutions with Fe in the aqueous medium. The main Nb minerals are ilmenorutile, rutile and brookite where the ilmenorutile can have content up to 20 % Nb2O5. The P-rich minerals, like monazite and its alteration products, is the main REE phases. These minerals have high concentration of Ce2O3, La2O3 and Nb2O3, where ?REE > 40 %, and is followed by elevated Th concentration, which locally has concentration higher than (18%). Another REE mineral is the cerianite. The main manganese minerals are hollandite, romanechite (BaMn9O16[OH4] - mixtures of manganese oxides) and amorphous Mn oxy - hydroxides. The higher concentration of MnO2 (about 40 %) is restricted to manganesiferous range, where manganese minerals occur as layers and filling voids, indicating strong remobilization by later process.

  16. [Effect of Sei-hai-to on ion transport in airway epithelial cells].

    PubMed

    Chiyotani, A; Tamaoki, J; Tagaya, E; Konno, K

    1994-09-01

    The effect of Sei-hai-to on ion transport in airway epithelial cells and its mechanism of action were investigated. Measurement of short-circuit current (Isc) using cultured epithelial cells from canine tracheal mucosa under short-circuit conditions showed that Isc was dose-dependently increased by the submucosal administration of Sei-hai-to. The response of Isc to this drug was not affected by pretreatment the cells with amiloride, but abolished by furosemide, or Cl-free condition. These results suggest that Sei-hai-to stimulates Cl ion transport selectively and may affect the subsequent movement of water across the airway mucosa to the lumen. PMID:7802606

  17. Low-frequency vocalizations of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Calderan, Susannah; Miller, Brian; Collins, Kym; Ensor, Paul; Double, Michael; Leaper, Russell; Barlow, Jay

    2014-12-01

    Simultaneous sightings and acoustic detections of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) are scarce, and there are few published data describing their vocalizations. Analysis of recordings from directional frequency analysis and recording sonobuoys in the presence of sei whales in the Southern Ocean in March 2013 identified both downsweep and upsweep calls. Sound frequencies within all calls were between 34 and 87?Hz with an average call duration of 1.1?s. These very low-frequency sounds share characteristics with sei whale calls recorded near the Hawaiian Islands and off Cape Cod in winter and summer, respectively, but are the first documented sei whale calls in the Southern Ocean that are clearly less than 100?Hz. PMID:25480092

  18. 75 FR 39916 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Notice of Intent to Prepare a Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Intent to Prepare a Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... its intent to prepare a recovery plan for the Sei Whale (Balaenoptera borealis) and requests... ``Sei Whale Recovery Plan Information'' 3. Mail: National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of...

  19. Solid state NMR study of SEI formation in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dachun

    Recently, rechargeable lithium ion batteries, which offer high energy density and long cycle life, are in great demand as power sources for our mobile electronic society. The formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the surface of electrodes in lithium ion batteries plays an essential role in their performance. This thesis presents solid state NMR and MAS NMR results on the SEI, which contribute to our understanding of SEI formation on both cathodes and anodes. This thesis is organized as following: Chapter 1 surveys the history of batteries and the challenges to further development of the lithium ion battery. Fundamental aspects and SEI formation mechanisms are also included in Chapter l. Chapter 2 deals with the principles and experimental techniques of solid state NMR. Chapter 3 presents studies of SEI formation on anode and cathode in lithium ion batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and NMR. The results provide EIS and NMR evidence that cells containing electrolytes with high EC content display less irreversible capacity after high temperature storage. The irreversible capacity is attributed to SEI growth on electrode surfaces. NMR results on cathodes, on the other hand, imply that the presence of Ni in the cathode may reduce cell performance due to the oxidation of Ni 3+ to Ni4+. Our simulations show that a lower EC/DMC ratio is associated with a smaller SEI intensity for the cathode and higher intensity for the anode. Chapter 4 discusses the effect of temperature on SEI formation on anodes and cathodes. NMR measurements show that MCMB graphite based anodes exhibit high stability no chemical shift is evident over a wide temperature range. On cathodes, however, NMR does reveal changes in SEI intensity as a function of temperature. These changes are believed to be the result of decomposition of the SEI. Evidently, then, changes in the performance of the cell as a factor of temperature are, at least in part, due to changes in the SEI with temperature. In Chapter 5 we report on the use of NMR to study the effect of electrolyte/solvent and electrode structure on SEI formation. The intensity of the SEI in a cell containing LiBOB electrolyte with EC and DEC is greater than that in a cell with LiPF6 electrolyte with EC and DMC. This implies that the cell containing LiBOB electrolyte with EC and DEC is more stable. From the analysis of NMR of the cathode, it was found that it is easier to form SEI in layered structure cathode than in a spinel structure, suggesting that spinel structure materials may be better choices as cathode in lithium ion batteries. Evidently, then, the choice of electrolyte/solvent materials and electrode materials are key factors in determining the performance of lithium ion batteries.

  20. Source level estimates for sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) vocalizations off the Azores.

    PubMed

    Romagosa, Miriam; Boisseau, Oliver; Cucknell, Anna-Christina; Moscrop, Anna; McLanaghan, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Sei whale calls have been documented on very few occasions and never in the Azores Archipelago, an area transited by this species during their migration to northern latitudes in spring and early summer. Using a combination of video range tracking (VRT) and acoustic methods, vocalizations are described from an encounter with two sei whales in April 2012 off Pico Island, Azores. Recordings analyzed post-survey revealed 53 low frequency downsweep calls with average maximum frequencies of 100?Hz [standard deviation (SD?=?14?Hz)] down to 37?Hz (SD?=?8?Hz) over 1.21?s (SD?=?0.33?s). Apparent source levels of 177?dB (SD?=?5?dB) root-mean-square (rms) re 1??Pa were recorded. Vocalizations were attributed to the pair of sei whales encountered using a combination of the VRT data and differences in arrival time of calls at the hydrophones. These calls are similar to those reported from sei whales off New England and similar to those recorded off Hawaii. The growing body of acoustic data on sei whale vocalizations may contribute to the understanding of this species' distribution and population identity; key information is needed to guide future conservation efforts for this species. PMID:26520318

  1. [Perineo-ano-rectal injuries: clinical experience].

    PubMed

    La Greca, Gaetano; Gagliardo, Salvatrice; Sofia, Maria; Barbagallo, Francesco; Chisari, Andrea; Latteri, Saverio; Pontillo, Tindaro; Politi, Antonio; Russello, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic lesions involving the rectum, perineum and anus are infrequent but difficult to treat, requiring experience with trauma and colo-proctological surgery. The aim of the treatment is to repair the lesions and to minimise the early complications which are the main cause of failure and of late complications and disability. The most complicated lesions present problems concerning either the surgical strategy or the surgical timing, both of which are essential for a successful outcome. The Authors analyse their recent clinical experience with 7 patients with complex traumatic lesions involving the rectum, perineum and anus, excluding those of gynaecological/obstetric origin and those not involving the sphincter. They evaluated the clinical history, causes and types of lesions, as well as treatment, complications and outcomes. Five of the lesions were caused by impalement, one by an explosion and one by a motorboat propeller blade. Six of the patients (85.7%) were treated by direct primary repair and one (14.3%) by secondary repair after a previous colostomy. All 7 patients achieved complete recovery of the lesions. Only two cases (28.6%) of early complications and one case (14.3%) of persistent minimal sphincter dysfunction occurred. On the basis of these good results, the clinical experience and the literature, the Authors suggest that these perineo-ano-rectal lesions, though often complex, may often be cured by early surgery, confining colostomy only to particular cases. In addition to experience with trauma and the timing of colo-proctological surgery, a knowledge of all the available surgical options is mandatory to achieve the best results. PMID:18389752

  2. SEI power source alternatives for rovers and other multi-kWe distributed surface applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Kohout, L. L.; Mckissock, Barbara I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Withrow, C. A.; Colozza, A.; Hanlon, James C.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    1991-01-01

    To support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), a study was performed to investigate power system alternatives for the rover vehicles and servicers that were subsequently generated for each of these rovers and servicers, candidate power sources incorporating various power generation and energy storage technologies were identified. The technologies were those believed most appropriate to the SEI missions, and included solar, electrochemical, and isotope systems. The candidates were characterized with respect to system mass, deployed area, and volume. For each of the missions a preliminary selection was made. Results of this study depict the available power sources in light of mission requirements as they are currently defined.

  3. Controlling SEI Formation on SnSb-Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Na Ion Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Liwen; Gu, Meng; Shao, Yuyan; Li, Xiaolin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-05-14

    Porous carbon nanofiber (CNF)-supported tin-antimony (SnSb) alloys is synthesized and applied as sodium ion battery anode. The chemistry and morphology of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film and its correlation with the electrode performance are studied. The addition of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) in electrolyte significantly reduces electrolyte decomposition and creates a very thin and uniform SEI layer on the cycled electrode surface which could promote the kinetics of Na-ion migration/transportation, leading to excellent electrochemical performance.

  4. Management of Fistula-in-Ano-The Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Parvez; Baakza, Atef

    2014-12-01

    Successful treatment for fistula in ano has eluded most surgeons. To choose the right surgery has been made more difficult, with new surgeries being added in the last decade. This article discusses the various accepted surgeries for fistula in ano - their pros & cons, & attempts to provide the status of the various procedures as it stands today. PMID:25614724

  5. How many records should be used in ASCE/SEI-7 ground motion scaling procedure?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reyes, Juan C.; Kalkan, Erol

    2012-01-01

    U.S. national building codes refer to the ASCE/SEI-7 provisions for selecting and scaling ground motions for use in nonlinear response history analysis of structures. Because the limiting values for the number of records in the ASCE/SEI-7 are based on engineering experience, this study examines the required number of records statistically, such that the scaled records provide accurate, efficient, and consistent estimates of true structural responses. Based on elasticperfectly plastic and bilinear single-degree-of-freedom systems, the ASCE/SEI-7 scaling procedure is applied to 480 sets of ground motions; the number of records in these sets varies from three to ten. As compared to benchmark responses, it is demonstrated that the ASCE/SEI-7 scaling procedure is conservative if fewer than seven ground motions are employed. Utilizing seven or more randomly selected records provides more accurate estimate of the responses. Selecting records based on their spectral shape and design spectral acceleration increases the accuracy and efficiency of the procedure.

  6. 76 FR 60017 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Decision for Tritium Supply and Recycling (64 FR 26369) announced the selection of TVA's Watts Bar Unit 1.... program for surplus plutonium disposition (75 FR 41850. July 19, 2010). Proposed Action and Alternatives... Statement (SEIS) for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor AGENCY: National...

  7. 75 FR 16731 - Young Dodge SEIS; Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... FR 14315) on February 22, 2008, and the notice of the Final EIS (70 FR 38131) on May 1, 2008. The... Forest Service Young Dodge SEIS; Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, MT AGENCY: Forest Service..., Eureka Ranger Station, Rexford Ranger District, 949 Highway 93 North, Eureka, MT 59917. FOR...

  8. 75 FR 54420 - Cancellation of Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS); Travis County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Statement (SEIS) would be prepared for the proposed SH 71 roadway between Riverside Drive and SH 130 in... for proposed improvements to State Highway (SH) 71 from Riverside Drive to SH 130, in Travis County... to 40 CFR 1508.22 and 43 TAC Sec. 2.5(e)(2) for proposed improvement of SH 71 from Riverside Drive...

  9. Characterization of SEI layers on LiMn2O4 cathodes with in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Jinglei; Li, Lingjie; Kostecki, Robert; Muller, Rolf; McLarnon, Frank

    2004-08-30

    In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to study the initial stage of SEI layer formation on thin-film LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} electrodes. It was found that the SEI layer formed immediately upon exposure of the electrode to EC/DMC (1:1 by vol) 1.0 M LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte. The SEI layer thickness then increased in proportion to a logarithmic function of elapsed time. In comparison, the SEI layer thickness on a cycled electrode increased in proportion to a linear function of the number of cycles.

  10. Required number of records for ASCE/SEI 7 ground-motion scaling procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reyes, Juan C.; Kalkan, Erol

    2011-01-01

    The procedures and criteria in 2006 IBC (International Council of Building Officials, 2006) and 2007 CBC (International Council of Building Officials, 2007) for the selection and scaling ground-motions for use in nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) of structures are based on ASCE/SEI 7 provisions (ASCE, 2005, 2010). According to ASCE/SEI 7, earthquake records should be selected from events of magnitudes, fault distance, and source mechanisms that comply with the maximum considered earthquake, and then scaled so that the average value of the 5-percent-damped response spectra for the set of scaled records is not less than the design response spectrum over the period range from 0.2Tn to 1.5Tn sec (where Tn is the fundamental vibration period of the structure). If at least seven ground-motions are analyzed, the design values of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) are taken as the average of the EDPs determined from the analyses. If fewer than seven ground-motions are analyzed, the design values of EDPs are taken as the maximum values of the EDPs. ASCE/SEI 7 requires a minimum of three ground-motions. These limits on the number of records in the ASCE/SEI 7 procedure are based on engineering experience, rather than on a comprehensive evaluation. This study statistically examines the required number of records for the ASCE/SEI 7 procedure, such that the scaled records provide accurate, efficient, and consistent estimates of" true" structural responses. Based on elastic-perfectly-plastic and bilinear single-degree-of-freedom systems, the ASCE/SEI 7 scaling procedure is applied to 480 sets of ground-motions. The number of records in these sets varies from three to ten. The records in each set were selected either (i) randomly, (ii) considering their spectral shapes, or (iii) considering their spectral shapes and design spectral-acceleration value, A(Tn). As compared to benchmark (that is, "true") responses from unscaled records using a larger catalog of ground-motions, it is demonstrated that the ASCE/SEI 7 scaling procedure is overly conservative if fewer than seven ground-motions are employed. Utilizing seven or more randomly selected records provides a more accurate estimate of the EDPs accompanied by reduced record-to-record variability of the responses. Consistency in accuracy and efficiency is achieved only if records are selected on the basis of their spectral shape and A(Tn).

  11. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERINCIA DO COMIT DE TICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SADE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo relatar a experincia do Comit de tica em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Sade do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o perodo de 10 anos a partir de sua fundao. Trata-se de uma avaliao descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N 052/08) nesse perodo. As pendncias mais freqentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de oramento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no perodo de 10 anos revelou, atravs de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de anlise tica dos protocolos visando proteo dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  12. SEI power source alternatives for rovers and other multi-kWe distributed surface applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Mckissock, B. I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Withrow, C. A.; Colozza, A.; Hanlon, J. C.; Schmitz, P. C.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the study performed to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which investigated power system alternatives for the rover vehicles and servicers that would be used for construction and operation of a lunar base is described. Using the mission requirements and power profiles that were subsequently generated for each of these rovers and servicers, candidate power sources incorporating various power generation and energy storage technologies were identified. The technologies were those believed most appropriate to the SEI missions, and included solar, electrochemical, and isotope systems. The candidates were characterized with respect to system mass, deployed area and volume. For each of the missions a preliminary selection was made. Results of this study depict the available power sources in light of the mission requirements as they are currently defined.

  13. On the use of Space Station Freedom in support of the SEI - Life science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leath, K.; Volosin, J.; Cookson, S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) for life sciences research is evaluated from the standpoint of requirements for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). SEI life sciences research encompasses: (1) biological growth and development in space; (2) life support and environmental health; (3) physiological/psychological factors of extended space travel; and (4) space environmental factors. The platforms required to support useful study in these areas are listed and include ground-based facilities, permanently manned spacecraft, and the Space Shuttle. The SSF is shown to be particularly applicable to the areas of research because its facilities can permit the study of gravitational biology, life-support systems, and crew health. The SSF can serve as an experimental vehicle to derive the required knowledge needed to establish a commitment to manned Mars missions and colonization plans.

  14. The SEIS Experiment for the Insight Mission: Development and management plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudet, P.

    2015-10-01

    SEIS is a Mars seismometer, provided by CNES to JPL to be the threshold instrument of the next Mars mission, InSight, to be launched by NASA in March 2016. Discovery missions leads to a very strict frame of development, where schedule is driving development and qualification plans. We will explain how this constraint has been taken into account during development phases, until delivery of flight model, with a context of international cooperation without exchange of founds between partners.

  15. Electronic structure and defect properties of Tl6SeI4: Density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Koushik; Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J.

    2012-10-01

    We report density functional calculations of electronic structure, phase diagram, and dielectric, optical, and defect properties of Tl6SeI4. We discuss how electronic structure and defect properties affect resistivity and carrier mobility-lifetime (??) products in Tl6SeI4. We find large Born effective charges due to covalency involving Tl-6p states. High Born charges generally enhance the static dielectric constant. This provides a mechanism for effective screening of charged defects and impurities. We find that high resistivity can be obtained under near-stoichiometric growth conditions via Fermi level pinning near the middle of the band gap by shallow donors and acceptors, as opposed to deep traps that can give high resistivity, but at the expense of short carrier drift lengths. Defect calculations also reveal the presence of deep native donors that may cause electron trapping. The experimentally observed good ?? products may be explained by a combination of small effective masses and effective screening of charged defects. High resistivity and good ?? products make Tl6SeI4 a promising room-temperature radiation detector material. We also show the calculated defect diffusion barriers, which affect defect migration under external bias in a detector.

  16. SeisCode: A seismological software repository for discovery and collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabant, C.; Reyes, C. G.; Clark, A.; Karstens, R.

    2012-12-01

    SeisCode is a community repository for software used in seismological and related fields. The repository is intended to increase discoverability of such software and to provide a long-term home for software projects. Other places exist where seismological software may be found, but none meet the requirements necessary for an always current, easy to search, well documented, and citable resource for projects. Organizations such as IRIS, ORFEUS, and the USGS have websites with lists of available or contributed seismological software. Since the authors themselves do often not maintain these lists, the documentation often consists of a sentence or paragraph, and the available software may be outdated. Repositories such as GoogleCode and SourceForge, which are directly maintained by the authors, provide version control and issue tracking but do not provide a unified way of locating geophysical software scattered in and among countless unrelated projects. Additionally, projects are hosted at language-specific sites such as Mathworks and PyPI, in FTP directories, and in websites strewn across the Web. Search engines are only partially effective discovery tools, as the desired software is often hidden deep within the results. SeisCode provides software authors a place to present their software, codes, scripts, tutorials, and examples to the seismological community. Authors can choose their own level of involvement. At one end of the spectrum, the author might simply create a web page that points to an existing site. At the other extreme, an author may choose to leverage the many tools provided by SeisCode, such as a source code management tool with integrated issue tracking, forums, news feeds, downloads, wikis, and more. For software development projects with multiple authors, SeisCode can also be used as a central site for collaboration. SeisCode provides the community with an easy way to discover software, while providing authors a way to build a community around their software packages. IRIS invites the seismological community to browse and to submit projects to https://seiscode.iris.washington.edu/

  17. [Effect of enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion on Ano1 physiological feature].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kai; Xu, Hui-Jing; Zang, Yu-Xuan; Hou, Yi-Ju; Zhang, Li; Yang, Hai-Ou; Zhu, Jie; Fang, Fang; Hao, Feng

    2015-12-25

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the physiological features of Ano1 were affected by enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusing at Ano1 C-terminal. The eukaryotic expression vectors of Ano1 and EGFP-Ano1 were constructed, and these plasmids were transfected into Fischer rat thyroid follicular epithelial (FRT) cells using liposome. The expression and location of Ano1 were examined by using inverted fluorescence microscope. The ability of Ano1 to transport iodide was detected by kinetics experiment of fluorescence quenching. The results showed that both Ano1 and EGFP-Ano1 were expressed on FRT cell membrane and could be activated by Ca(2+). There was no significant difference of the ability to transport iodide between Ano1 and EGFP-Ano1. These results suggest Ano1 and EGFP-Ano1 have similar physiological feature. PMID:26701639

  18. SEIS/INSIGHT and Mars seismology: Development status and focus on the Impact detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, Philippe; Banerdt, William; Pike, Tom; Giardini, Domenico; Christensen, Ulli; Banfield, Don; Mimoun, David; Laudet, Philippe; de Raucourt, Sebastien; Bierwirth, Marco; Zweifel, Peter; Calcutt, Simon; Hurst, Ken; Bruce, Carl

    2014-05-01

    The INSIGHT NASA Discovery mission will deploy in September 2016 a 3 axis Very Broad band seismometer and a 3 axis SP seismometer, as well as other instruments enabling the installation of a complete geophysical observatory recording seismic, heat flow, magnetic and geodetic signals, in addition to atmospheric wind, pressure and temperature. We first present the science goals status of the SEIS experiment and its development status. The SEIS sensor assembly, which contains both the VBB and SP seismometer, will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm from a Phoenix-type lander platform and protected by a wind and thermal shield. The wind and thermal shield, a vacuum sphere for VBBs and a passive compensation system will achieve a very high protection of the seismometers against temperature and pressure variations, allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment while reaching a detection threshold below 10^(-9) m/s/s Hz^(-1/2) in the VBB bandwidth and 10^(-8) m/s/s Hz^(-1/2) for the SP. A levelling system will allow the VBB to operate, while providing to both seismometer the best possible mechanical coupling with the ground motion. The SEIS instrument will be provided by CNES, which will coordinate a wide set of international contributors from the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, the Imperial College from London and the Open University, the Max-Planck Insitute of Lindau, the cole polytechnique fdrale de Zurich (ETHZ), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Institut de l'Aronautique et de l'Espace from Toulouse. We then illustrate the science goals by a focus on the capability of INSIGHT to detect either seismic or acoustic signals from impacts, with both the seismometers and the pressure sensor, and present both amplitude and occurrence expectation, based on comparative modeling between Mars, Earth and the Moon.

  19. Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by in situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren L.; Parent, Lucas R.; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.; Unocic, Raymond R.

    2013-12-20

    Deposition of Li is a major safety concern existing in Li-ion secondary batteries. Here we perform the first in situ high spatial resolution measurement coupled with real-time quantitative electrochemistry to characterize SEI formation on gold using a standard battery electrolyte. We demonstrate that a dendritic SEI forms prior to Li deposition and that it remains on the surface after Li electrodissolution.

  20. Direct visualization of initial SEI morphology and growth kinetics during lithium deposition by in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sacci, Robert L; Dudney, Nancy J; More, Karren L; Parent, Lucas R; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D; Unocic, Raymond R

    2014-02-28

    Deposition of Li is a major safety concern existing in Li-ion secondary batteries. Here we perform the first in situ high spatial resolution measurement coupled with real-time quantitative electrochemistry to characterize SEI formation on gold using a standard battery electrolyte. We demonstrate that a dendritic SEI forms prior to Li deposition and that it remains on the surface after Li electrodissolution. PMID:24413070

  1. Functions of Discourse Markers "Ano and Sono" in Written Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Yasuko

    Through examination of the discourse markers "ano" and "sono" in Japanese, this paper explores how these linguistic devices function differently in conversation. The focus of this analysis is the mental and social functions through which a speaker attempts to achieve an interpersonal rapport with a listener. In particular, the question addresses

  2. AnoGen: A Program for Generating ANOVA Data Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jeff

    1999-01-01

    Describes a computer program called AnoGen that automates the process of generating data sets for ANOVA designs and operates within DOS and Windows compatible computers. Explains that the program runs in both student and teacher modes and is freely available for noncommercial use through the Internet. (CMK)

  3. El Ano Nuevo en Costa Rica: A Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Jennie; Sloan, Maritza

    An instructional unit for Spanish second language instruction, based on an original story "El Ano Neuvo en Costa Rica" (New Year's in Costa Rica) written by Maritza Sloan, is presented. An introductory section outlines briefly the process of planning a thematic unit and its outcomes, and suggests categories of activities to support instruction.

  4. Advanced data Processing system for SeisSchool project in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, P.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Husebye, E.

    2003-04-01

    Initially the seismic records from our SeisSchool Norway network (http://pcg1.ifjf.uib.no/) were stored in an ordinary file system which soon proved impractical due many users and at present more than 50000 waveform segments stored. Design goals fast and easy access to a multitude of users -- experts and amateurs alike. Facing the same problem as large seismological data centers we developed a three-tiered system for i) data collection, ii) station operations control and iii) data access and processing. The core of our system is a data base management system (DBMS) that allows us to store in a logical manner more than 50000 waveform records, stations parameters, detector and signal processing parameters and postprocessing results. An important design feature is that the DBMS provides independence data storage representation from applications thus allowing significant reduction in developing time. The main tool for developing signal processing schemes is OCTAVE -- a free mathematical language package compatible to MATLAB. We have implemented binding between OCTAVE and our DBMS for scientists, and a Web interface for other user categories so we a convenient platform for various type of signal processing and other seismological research disciplines from simple to advanced levels. In this presentation we discuss in detail our DBMS structure, network data access and developed signal processing schemes. We note that only free software is used in order to significant reducing total cost of our SeisSchool Network.

  5. The SEIS Experiment for the InSight mission: status and performance expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoun, David; Lognonne, Philippe; Banerdt, W. Bruce; Laudet, Philippe; De Raucourt, Sébastien; IJpelaan, Frans; Kerjean, Laurent; Perez, Rene; Pont, Gabriel; Sylvestre-Baron, Annick; verdier, Nicolas; Denise, Robert; Feldman, Jason; Hurst, Ken; Klein, Kerry; Giardini, Domenico; Zweifel, Peter; Pike, W. Tom; Calcutt, Simon; Bramanti, Christina

    2015-04-01

    The Insight NASA Discovery mission, led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, will deploy in September 2016 a very broadband seismometer on the Mars surface, SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure). It is a hybrid 3-axes instrument, which encloses 3 very broadband oblique sensors and 3 short period sensors. The sensor assembly and its wind and thermal shield will by deployed on the Mars surface from the Phoenix-like spacecraft by a robotic arm (IDS). The acquisition system will be hosted in the spacecraft warm electronics box, and connected to the deployed sensor assembly by a tether. The SEIS experiment is provided by CNES, the French Space Agency that makes the coordination of a wide consortium including IPGP of Paris (SEIS PI Institution), Imperial College of London, Oxford University, MPS of Göttingen, ETH of Zürich, ISAE from Toulouse and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of Pasadena. In addition to the seismometer, the Insight payload will also include a suite of instruments complementary to the seismometer, such as a precision temperature sensor, a micro-barometer, a magnetometer and a wind sensor, making it the first geophysical multi-parameter station on another planet. A heat flow sensor and geodetic measurements will provide additional science measurements, in order to constrain the internal structure of Mars. Several challenges have been overcome to design and realize the planetary seismometer, which will exhibit a noise of about 10-9 m/s2/sqrt(Hz) in its seismic bandwidth bandwidth (0.01-1 Hz) for the very broadband component. These challenges include a very efficient insulation from the external temperature variations, and a finely crafted mechanical design to keep the extreme sensitivity of the seismometer, while allowing enough robustness for the harsh mechanical environment encountered during the launch and landing sequences. Also, specific attention has been paid to understanding the various environment contributions to the noise figure. A discussion will be presented, on how to understand the seismometer performance figure in a changing environment, and how to secure the mission science goals in the challenging environment of the Mars surface.

  6. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.; Lee, J.H.; McCulloch, W.H.; Sawyer, J.C. Jr.; Bari, R.A.; Brown, N.W.; Cullingford, H.S.; Hardy, A.C.; Niederauer, G.F.; Remp, K.; Rice, J.W.; Sholtis, J.A.

    1992-09-01

    An Interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top- level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  7. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.; Lee, J.H.; McCulloch, W.H. ); Sawyer, J.C. Jr. ); Bari, R.A. ); Brown, N.W. ); Cullingford, H.S.; Hardy, A.C. (National Aeronautics and Space Administ

    1992-01-01

    An Interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top- level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  8. Interim Columbia and Snake rivers flow improvement measures for salmon: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Public comments are sought on this final SEIS, which supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis (OA)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation proposes five alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. These are: (1) Without Project (no action) Alternative, (2) the 1992 Operation, (3) the 1992 Operation with Libby/Hungry Horse Sensitivity, (4) a Modified 1992 Operation with Improvements to Salmon Flows from Dworshak, and (5) a Modified 1992 Operation with Upper Snake Sensitivity. Alternative 4, Modified 1992 Operations, has been identified as the preferred alternative.

  9. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Brown, Neil W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry

    1992-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of safety functional requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  10. Assessment of the state of the art in life support environmental control for SEI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonds, Charles H.; Noyes, Gary P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper defines the types of technology that would be used in a lunar base for environmental control and life support system and how it might relate to in situ materials utilization (ISMU) for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). There are three types of interaction between ISMU and the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS): (1) ISMU can reduce cost of water, oxygen, and possibly diluent gasses provided to ECLSS--a corollary to this fact is that the availability of indigenous resources can dramatically alter life support technology trade studies; (2) ISMU can use ECLSS waste systems as a source of reductant carbon and hydrogen; and (3) ECLSS and ISMU, as two chemical processing technologies used in spacecraft, can share technology, thereby increasing the impact of technology investments in either area.

  11. Gas evolution from cathode materials: A pathway to solvent decomposition concomitant to SEI formation.

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, Katie L; Baggetto, Loic; Unocic, Raymond R; Dudney, Nancy J; Veith, Gabriel M

    2013-01-01

    This work reports a method to explore the catalytic reactivity of electrode surfaces towards the decomposition of carbonate solvents [ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), and EC/DMC]. We show that the decomposition of a 1:1 wt% EC/DMC mixture is accelerated over certain commercially available LiCoO2 materials resulting in the formation of CO2 while over pure EC or DMC the reaction is much slower or negligible. The solubility of the produced CO2 in carbonate solvents is high (0.025 grams/mL) which masks the effect of electrolyte decomposition during storage or use. The origin of this decomposition is not clear but it is expected to be present on other cathode materials and may affect the analysis of SEI products as well as the safety of Li-ion batteries.

  12. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Brown, Neil W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Lee, James H.; McCulloch, William H.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry

    1992-07-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of safety functional requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  13. Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES) Investigation of the Silicon Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Young, Benjamin T; Heskett, David R; Nguyen, Cao Cuong; Nie, Mengyun; Woicik, Joseph C; Lucht, Brett L

    2015-09-16

    Binder-free silicon (BF-Si) nanoparticle anodes were cycled with 1.2 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), or EC with 15% FEC (EC:FEC), extracted from cells and analyzed by Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES). All of the electrolytes generate an SEI which is integrated with Si containing species. The EC and EC:FEC electrolytes result in the generation of LixSiOy after the first cycle while LixSiOy is only observed after five cycles for the FEC electrolyte. The SEI initially generated from the EC electrolyte is primarily composed of lithium ethylene dicarbonate (LEDC) and LiF. However, after five cycles, the composition changes, especially near the surface of silicon because of decomposition of the LEDC. The SEI generated from the EC:FEC electrolytes contains LEDC, LiF, and poly(FEC) and small changes are observed upon additional cycling. The SEI generated with the FEC electrolyte contains LiF and poly(FEC) and small changes are observed upon additional cycling. The stability of the SEI correlates with the observed capacity retention of the cells. PMID:26305165

  14. RapidSeis: Enabling User-Defined Seismological Waveform Data Processing over the Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Heath, Andy; Koestjer, Jos; Trani, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this JISC-funded pilot project was to remove perceived barriers to uptake of an application that performs analysis of seismic waveform data. The aim was to provide the seismological community with a simplified system that overcame important barriers such as installation and understanding of the analysis package, location and transfer of large amounts of input data and visualisation of results. The project combined the expertise of three distinct teams. The Orfeus Data Centre provided discovery services and access management to distributed earthquake waveform data and metadata, supported by technologies such as webservices, SPARQL/RDF and a JSR-168 portal framework based on the WSRP portlet architecture. Analysis and visualisation of the waveform data were performed by SDX (Seismic Data eXplorer) developed at the University of Liverpool. SDX formed the core processing engine - this application's functionality can be extended via user-defined algorithms coded as plugins. The processing engine was supported by several webservice-enabled modules used for data and plugin exchange. The user, data and processing infrastructure were connected using the Rapid framework created by the UK National e-Science Centre. Rapid generates intuitive interfaces to the processing core in the form of two self-contained JSR-168 remote portlets. One portlet facilitated plugin creation, whilst the other allowed execution of plugin code within the processing core running on a campus or national Grid infrastructure. The RapidSeis system was deployed within a community gateway: the NERIES web portal. Although RapidSeis originated within the seismological community we suggest it forms a framework which could be exploited in different domains or scientific gateways where users can discover data, store data within a cart and wish to apply specialised processing algorithms remotely through a web browser. Processing performed on Grid infrastructure is completely transparent: the execution portlet handles submission and scheduling. The processing algorithms can be created online, stored and shared between users of the community web portal. The data and algorithm metadata are described in RDF and exchanged within the architecture which is commonly geographically distributed. Further investigation is required to improve the provenance metadata to enable better traceability of both data and processing activities. The API used by the plugin code also requires additional development and the user-interface could be made even more intuitive with further modification of the Rapid framework.

  15. Teaching with Real-time Earthquake Data in jAmaSeis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, T. K.; Coleman, B.; Taber, J.

    2011-12-01

    Earthquakes can capture the attention of students and inspire them to explore the Earth. The Incorporated Research Institutions in Seismology (IRIS) and Moravian College are collaborating to develop cross-platform software (jAmaSeis) that enables students to access real-time earthquake waveform data. Users can record their own data from several different types of educational seismometers, and they can obtain data in real-time from other jAmaseis users nationwide. Additionally, the ability to stream data from the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) is under development. Once real-time data is obtained, users of jAmaseis can study seismological concepts in the classroom. The user interface of the software is carefully designed to lead students through the steps to interrogate seismic data following a large earthquake. Users can process data to determine characteristics of seismograms such as time of occurrence, distance from the epicenter to the station, magnitude, and location (via triangulation). Along the way, the software provides graphical clues to assist student interpretations. In addition to the inherent pedagogical features of the software, IRIS provides pre-packaged data and instructional activities to help students learn the analysis steps. After using these activities, students can apply their skills to interpret seismic waves from their own real-time data.

  16. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-05-16

    Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

  17. Earthquake Monitoring: SeisComp3 at the Swiss National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, J. F.; Diehl, T.; Cauzzi, C.; Kaestli, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has an ongoing responsibility to improve the seismicity monitoring capability for Switzerland. This is a crucial issue for a country with low background seismicity but where a large M6+ earthquake is expected in the next decades. With over 30 stations with spacing of ~25km, the SED operates one of the densest broadband networks in the world, which is complimented by ~ 50 realtime strong motion stations. The strong motion network is expected to grow with an additional ~80 stations over the next few years. Furthermore, the backbone of the network is complemented by broadband data from surrounding countries and temporary sub-networks for local monitoring of microseismicity (e.g. at geothermal sites). The variety of seismic monitoring responsibilities as well as the anticipated densifications of our network demands highly flexible processing software. We are transitioning all software to the SeisComP3 (SC3) framework. SC3 is a fully featured automated real-time earthquake monitoring software developed by GeoForschungZentrum Potsdam in collaboration with commercial partner, gempa GmbH. It is in its core open source, and becoming a community standard software for earthquake detection and waveform processing for regional and global networks across the globe. SC3 was originally developed for regional and global rapid monitoring of potentially tsunamagenic earthquakes. In order to fulfill the requirements of a local network recording moderate seismicity, SED has tuned configurations and added several modules. In this contribution, we present our SC3 implementation strategy, focusing on the detection and identification of seismicity on different scales. We operate several parallel processing "pipelines" to detect and locate local, regional and global seismicity. Additional pipelines with lower detection thresholds can be defined to monitor seismicity within dense subnets of the network. To be consistent with existing processing procedures, the nonlinloc algorithm was implemented for manual and automatic locations using 1D and 3D velocity models; plugins for improved automatic phase picking and Ml computation were developed; and the graphical user interface for manual review was extended (including pick uncertainty definition; first motion focal mechanisms; interactive review of station magnitude waveforms; full inclusion of strong motion data). SC3 locations are fully compatible with those derived from the existing in-house processing tools and are stored in a database derived from the QuakeML data model. The database is shared with the SED alerting software, which merges origins from both SC3 and external sources in realtime and handles the alerting procedure. With the monitoring software being transitioned to SeisComp3, acquisition, archival and dissemination of SED waveform data now conforms to the seedlink and ArcLink protocols and continuous archives can be accessed via SED and all EIDA (European Integrated Data Archives) web-sites. Further, a SC3 module for waveform parameterisation has been developed, allowing rapid computation of peak values of ground motion and other engineering parameters within minutes of a new event. An output of this module is USGS ShakeMap XML. n minutes of a new event. An output of this module is USGS ShakeMap XML.

  18. Testing the ability of the INSIGHT-SEIS experiment to model Mars deep interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, M. P.; Beucler, E.; Mocquet, A.; Drilleau, M.; Lognonne, P. H.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2013-12-01

    In 2016, the SEIS experiment, part of the INSIGHT mission of NASA's Discovery program to Mars, is expected to provide the very first seismic records on this planet. This experiment consists in a single station that will record both short-period and broad-band data. The challenge of obtaining information on the location of seismic sources and on the deep seismic structure of the planet using a single station is tested against Earth analogues recorded at the German Black Forest Observatory (BFO), where the signal to noise ratios of the records are close to the values expected for the SEIS experiment on Mars. Estimates of tectonic activity from mapped fault features and thermal modeling suggest that, in addition to smaller events, it is reasonable to anticipate recording a few events with equivalent Earth moment magnitudes in the range 4.5 - 5, or even larger, within one Martian year (i.e. two Earth years). Taking into account the smaller planetary radius of Mars relative to the Earth and lower anticipated seismic noise, due primarily to the absence of oceans, this may allow for recording of multiple orbit surface waves. Considering geometrical scaling between Mars and the Earth, we take a dataset of Earth events with moment magnitudes between 6 and 6.5, which are just above the threshold for detectability of 3rd orbit fundamental mode Rayleigh waves (R3) on quiet stations, and explore the use of several single station techniques for the estimation of source location (distance and back-azimuth from the station) and interior structure. By using the group arrival times of the first three orbits of the fundamental mode surface waves of these events, we are able to estimate the origin time and epicentral distance of the events within the accuracy of the shortest period used in the analysis (here 40 s). The precision on the estimate of the epicentral distance is about one degree, i.e. approximately 55 km on Mars, while the origin time is estimated with an accuracy of approximately 20 seconds. Although these errors are large with respect to the much smaller errors in source location using standard network data on the Earth with some systematic biases due to unmodeled 3D structure, body wave picks on relatively small datasets of 8 or 9 events allow for inversion for reasonable models of mantle velocity structure within 250 m/s in S velocity and 500 m/s in P velocity, even with very limited a priori knowledge of expected seismic structure. The Bayesian inversion of the energy diagrams of multiple orbits surface waves in the 40 s - 200 s period range, further constrain the shear velocity structure of the 250 km uppermost mantle of the Earth, i.e. down to about 400 km within Mars. Single station techniques such as this will greatly increase our constraints on the interior structure of Mars when data becomes available in 2016.

  19. Identification and characterization of ANO9 in stage II and III colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunxiang; Cai, Sanjun; Wang, Xishan; Jiang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The precise role and potential underlying mechanisms of anoctamin 9 (ANO9) remain largely unknown. This study aims to characterize the role and oncogenic mechanisms of ANO9 in stage II and III colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: We examined the expression of ANO9 in colorectal cancerous tissues and cells using real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Multiple cellular and molecular approaches such as gene transfection, CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, and invasion assay were also performed to explore its oncogenic mechanisms. Furthermore, the clinical significance of ANO9 in clinical CRC specimens was assessed by clinical correlation and survival analyses. Results: Lower expression of ANO9 messenger RNA (mRNA) was frequently detected both in CRC tissues with recurrence and metastasis-derived cell lines. Compared with matched nontumorous tissues, lower expression of ANO9 protein was observed in tumors, which was significantly correlated with tumorigenesis (p < 0.05). In vitro functional studies showed that ANO9 contributed to tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion. Moreover, investigation of clinical CRC specimens showed that ANO9 were markedly overexpressed in metastatic tissue compared with primary tissue. Decreased expression of ANO9 was correlated with poor prognostic outcomes. Conclusions: This study highlighted the role of ANO9 in progression and metastasis of stage II and III CRC. These findings suggested that up-regulation of ANO9, as a metastasis-related gene, could be a novel approach for inhibiting CRC progression. PMID:26317553

  20. In situ Raman spectroscopy of carbon-coated ZnFe2O4 anode material in Li-ion batteries - investigation of SEI growth.

    PubMed

    Cabo-Fernandez, Laura; Mueller, Franziska; Passerini, Stefano; Hardwick, Laurence J

    2016-03-11

    The (de)lithiation process of carbon-coated ZnFe2O4 has been investigated by in situ Raman spectroscopy. Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) products were detected. Their detection may result from a temporary surface enhancement Raman effect from Zn nanoparticles formed in the conversion reaction at a potential that coincides with SEI formation. PMID:26883178

  1. Identification of Li-Ion Battery SEI Compounds through (7)Li and (13)C Solid-State MAS NMR Spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huff, Laura A; Tavassol, Hadi; Esbenshade, Jennifer L; Xing, Wenting; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2016-01-13

    Solid-state (7)Li and (13)C MAS NMR spectra of cycled graphitic Li-ion anodes demonstrate SEI compound formation upon lithiation that is followed by changes in the SEI upon delithiation. Solid-state (13)C DPMAS NMR shows changes in peaks associated with organic solvent compounds (ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, EC/DMC) upon electrochemical cycling due to the formation of and subsequent changes in the SEI compounds. Solid-state (13)C NMR spin-lattice (T1) relaxation time measurements of lithiated Li-ion anodes and reference poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) powders, along with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry results, indicate that large-molecular-weight polymers are formed in the SEI layers of the discharged anodes. MALDI-TOF MS and NMR spectroscopy results additionally indicate that delithiated anodes exhibit a larger number of SEI products than is found in lithiated anodes. PMID:26653886

  2. Automated infrasound signal detection algorithms implemented in MatSeis - Infra Tool.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Darren

    2004-07-01

    MatSeis's infrasound analysis tool, Infra Tool, uses frequency slowness processing to deconstruct the array data into three outputs per processing step: correlation, azimuth and slowness. Until now, an experienced analyst trained to recognize a pattern observed in outputs from signal processing manually accomplished infrasound signal detection. Our goal was to automate the process of infrasound signal detection. The critical aspect of infrasound signal detection is to identify consecutive processing steps where the azimuth is constant (flat) while the time-lag correlation of the windowed waveform is above background value. These two statements describe the arrival of a correlated set of wavefronts at an array. The Hough Transform and Inverse Slope methods are used to determine the representative slope for a specified number of azimuth data points. The representative slope is then used in conjunction with associated correlation value and azimuth data variance to determine if and when an infrasound signal was detected. A format for an infrasound signal detection output file is also proposed. The detection output file will list the processed array element names, followed by detection characteristics for each method. Each detection is supplied with a listing of frequency slowness processing characteristics: human time (YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS.SSS), epochal time, correlation, fstat, azimuth (deg) and trace velocity (km/s). As an example, a ground truth event was processed using the four-element DLIAR infrasound array located in New Mexico. The event is known as the Watusi chemical explosion, which occurred on 2002/09/28 at 21:25:17 with an explosive yield of 38,000 lb TNT equivalent. Knowing the source and array location, the array-to-event distance was computed to be approximately 890 km. This test determined the station-to-event azimuth (281.8 and 282.1 degrees) to within 1.6 and 1.4 degrees for the Inverse Slope and Hough Transform detection algorithms, respectively, and the detection window closely correlated to the theoretical stratospheric arrival time. Further testing will be required for tuning of detection threshold parameters for different types of infrasound events.

  3. Production of cloned sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer using enucleated pig oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunsong; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Musharraf Uddin; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Matsuoka, Kohji; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the feasibility of using subzonal cell injection with electrofusion for interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) to produce sei whale embryos and to improve their developmental capacity by investigating the effect of osmolarity and macromolecules in the culture medium on the in vitro developmental capacity. Hybrid embryos produced by the electrofusion of fetal whale fibroblasts with enucleated porcine oocytes were cultured in modified porcine zygote medium-3 to examine the effects of osmolarity and fetal serum on their in vitro developmental capacity. More than 66% of the whale somatic cells successfully fused with the porcine oocytes following electrofusion. A portion (60~81%) of the iSCNT whale embryos developed to the two- to four-cell stages, but no embryos were able to reach the blastocyst stage. This developmental arrest was not overcome by increasing the osmolarity of the medium to 360 mOsm or by the addition of fetal bovine or fetal whale serum. Our results demonstrate that sei whale-porcine hybrid embryos may be produced by SCNT using subzonal injection and electrofusion. The pig oocytes partly supported the remodeling and reprogramming of the sei whale somatic cell nuclei, but they were unable to support the development of iSCNT whale embryos to the blastocyst stage. PMID:19934592

  4. Current trends of management for fissure in ano.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pravin J

    2002-03-01

    There are many options to treat chronic fissures in ano. Some of them are non-surgical while the others are surgical. The efficacy claimed by each of the prevalent method is very high but the inconsistencies and contraindications are equally strong. To date, lateral sphincterotomy has been favoured by most of the proctologists, because it is the least extensive surgical procedure and is offering a long lasting relief in sphincter spasm. About 10 different techniques are presented in brief with their efficacy and fallacy. A new method combining the age-old technique of Lord's manual dilatation followed by radio surgery is also highlighted. The addition of radio surgery is found useful for refreshing the edges of the fissure and to tackle pathologies namely sentinel pile, small internal piles or hypertrophied anal papillae often found associated with chronic fissures. Revisiting the trends of treatment of chronic anal fissures, the most preferred options are the manual dilatation with radio surgery and the subcutaneous lateral anal sphincterotomy. Both methods are easy to perform, have negligible complications and no special setup is needed, except the radio surgical unit, in case of the first procedure. However, all the options should be presented to the patient with complete information about the method, cure rates, complications, and reversibility of the complications and the final choice should be left in his hands. PMID:12096310

  5. [Ano-genital injuries in female victims of sexual assault].

    PubMed

    Kindermann, G; Carsten, P M; Maassen, V

    1996-01-01

    Sexual assault continues to represent the most rapidly growing violent crime in the USA. Statistics prove a persistent rise in rape incidence with poor conviction rates. This knowledge, along with the vast multitude of emotional sequilae of rape and self-perceived inferior legal status of the involved females results in a high percentage of unreported cases. This presented paper reports of ano-genital trauma in case of sexual assault. Under 2970 victims of sexual assault, examined and treated between 1967-1985 in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics Charlottenburg (Free University of Berlin), a percentage of almost 40% was represented by children in the age of 0-14. Therefore, only 1696 patients with complete gynecological examination with correct case history examination for injuries and traces of sperm, infections could be presented. The total rate of injuries was: Perineum 8.4%, vulva 5.4%, vagina 1.8%, pelvis/thighs 14.2%. The highest risk to be injured in case of sexual assault had the age group of victims over 55 years (nearly 50%). The lowest rate of injury has been encountered in the age groups 0-5 years, 6-10 years, 26-35 years: Under 10%. A solitary anal-injury has not been found. Specific training in emergent and chronic care for the victims, both physical and mental, in conjunction with preventive measures to genital infections and pregnancy, are necessary when the gynecologist is involved. PMID:8871257

  6. Results from the NEAREST-SEIS deep seismic cruise across the Gulf of Cadiz accretionary wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.; Gutscher, M.; Graindorge, D.; Sallares, V.; Bartolome, R.; Gracia, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz lies offshore of Southwest Iberia and Northwest Morocco where the famous Lisbon earthquake and tsunami struck in 1755. Here the plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia is complex, marked by a broad region of deformation spanning about 200 km in a north-south direction. Structurally, the Gulf of Cadiz is the presence of a thick tectonically deformed sedimentary wedge, interpreted as an accretionary wedge formed by the SW migration of the Rif-Betic block. Numerous marine geophysical surveys performed here recently, including multi-beam bathymetry and multi-channel seismics (MCS) help constrain the seafloor morphology and shallow crustal structure. MCS data reveal sediment thicknesses in the central Gulf of Cadiz (beneath the accretionary wedge) reaching a maximum of 12-13 km. Past wide-angle seismic surveys had difficulty penetrating below this thick sedimentary body. During the NEAREST-SEIS cruise on the B/O Hesperides (Nov. 2008), two wide-angle seismic lines were acquired in the Gulf of Cadiz area using a source composed of seven 1500liter Bolt airguns (4520 in3), shot at 90 s intervals. 19 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) from Ifremer and the University of Brest and 17 OBS from UTM-CSIC, Barcelona were deployed during the survey. The shorter profile, P2 trending NNE-SSW, was a line roughly perpendicular to the South Portuguese margin (inner part of the Gulf), crossing from Portimao Canyon, the frontal portion of the accretionary wedge, where the sedimentary cover is relatively thin. The main purpose was to determine the location of the transition between continental and oceanic crust. 15 OBS were deployed along this line with a ~7 nm spacing, which was extended by landstations (onshore in S. Portugal). The data generally show clear sedimentary refracted phases, deeper intracrustal phases, some arrivals refracted in the upper mantle and reflections at the boundary between the crust and the mantle (PmP). A layer-stripping modelling of the corresponding data is performed using a joint refraction/reflection traveltime tomography approach (1st arrivals and PmP phase are inverted jointly), following a Monte-Carlo type analysis. Information given by coincident MCS data is used to discuss and validate our velocity reconstructions. The Southern part of the model (south of 36.25° N) is characterized by thin crust, ~7 km thick, and a nearly flat Moho around 16 km depth. According to the Monte-Carlo simulation, most of the velocity model and Moho depth are very well constrained. This crust is interpreted as oceanic, based on its thickness and velocities. Preliminary modelling indicates a velocity of 7.5 km/s below the Moho, increasing to 8 km/s in a 4 km thick transition layer. The northern part of the model shows a clear and abrupt transition to a thick continental crust, Moho depth at ˜28 km at 36.36° N, compatible thicknesses obtained by landbased refraction seismics. The average crustal velocity here is ˜6.5 km/s over a ˜23 km maximum thickness and the velocity gradient is smooth, consistent with continental crust. The oceanic to continental transition occurs over a ˜30 km distance.

  7. Distribution of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) in the subarctic-subtropical transition area of the western North Pacific in relation to oceanic fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Hiroto; Hakamada, Takashi; Matsuoka, Koji; Nishiwaki, Shigetoshi; Inagake, Denzo; Okazaki, Makoto; Tojo, Naoki; Kitakado, Toshihide

    2014-09-01

    The subarctic-subtropical transition area of the western North Pacific is an important summer feeding grounds of sei whales. The oceanographic structure and circulation of this area are largely determined by strong oceanic fronts and associated geostrophic currents, namely the Polar Front (PF), Subarctic Front (SAF) and Kuroshio Extension Front (KEF). The relationship between the distribution of sei whales and oceanographic fronts was investigated using a generalized additive model (GAM), and the cetacean sighting survey data and oceanographic observations in July from 2000 to 2007 were used in the analysis. The number of individual sei whales was used as the response variable while the distances from the PF, SAF, and KEF to the whales were used as explanatory variables along with the longitude values. Sei whales were concentrated north and south of the SAF and the areas from 250 to 300 km north and from 100 to 200 km south of the SAF were estimated as high-density areas of sei whales. The entire inter-frontal zone between the PF and SAF featured an elevated concentration of sei whales, and the area south of the PF and along the SAF was identified as an important feeding ground of sei whales in July from 2000 to 2007.

  8. Identification of a lipid scrambling domain in ANO6/TMEM16F.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuai; Whitlock, Jarred M; Lee, Kyleen; Ortlund, Eric A; Cui, Yuan Yuan; Hartzell, H Criss

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipid scrambling (PLS) is a ubiquitous cellular mechanism involving the regulated bidirectional transport of phospholipids down their concentration gradient between membrane leaflets. ANO6/TMEM16F has been shown to be essential for Ca(2+)-dependent PLS, but controversy surrounds whether ANO6 is a phospholipid scramblase or an ion channel like other ANO/TMEM16 family members. Combining patch clamp recording with measurement of PLS, we show that ANO6 elicits robust Ca(2+)-dependent PLS coinciding with ionic currents that are explained by ionic leak during phospholipid translocation. By analyzing ANO1-ANO6 chimeric proteins, we identify a domain in ANO6 necessary for PLS and sufficient to confer this function on ANO1, which normally does not scramble. Homology modeling shows that the scramblase domain forms an unusual hydrophilic cleft that faces the lipid bilayer and may function to facilitate translocation of phospholipid between membrane leaflets. These findings provide a mechanistic framework for understanding PLS and how ANO6 functions in this process. PMID:26057829

  9. Infantile Fistula-in-Ano: A Report of Two Patients and Review for Dermatologists.

    PubMed

    Finelt, Nika; Shen, Lisa Y; Chamlin, Sarah L; Browne, Marybeth; Mancini, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Infantile fistula-in-ano is a well-known entity to pediatric surgeons but less recognized by dermatologists. Because these patients may initially present to a dermatologist or pediatric dermatologist, familiarity with the presentation is important. We present two infants with fistula-in-ano and review the literature on this condition. PMID:26205239

  10. A causa das estações do ano: modelos mentais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, J. A. S.; de Araujo, J. F. S.

    2003-08-01

    A década de 70 do século passado foi marcada pelo estudo das concepções alternativas que os alunos trazem para a sala de aula. A identificação destas concepções foi o ponto de partida para promover a mudança conceitual, onde as pré-concepções seriam trocadas pelas concepções científicas. Na década seguinte, surgiram muitas propostas de estratégias educacionais para facilitar esta troca, na sua maioria baseadas na idéia do conflito cognitivo, proposta por Piaget. Entretanto, os resultados pouco animadores conduziram à percepção de que a mudança conceitual é um processo mais complexo. Pelas idéias da Ciência Cognitiva, a mudança conceitual é uma mudança progressiva dos modelos mentais que o aluno tem sobre o mundo físico, através de enriquecimento e revisão. A causa das Estações do Ano é um tópico sobre o qual a maioria dos estudantes apresenta concepções alternativas. Os autores fizeram um levantamento sobre as pré-concepções encontradas em trabalhos sobre o tema (16 referências), procurando encontrar elementos comuns que indicassem a presença de modelos mentais específicos. As pré-concepções encontradas na literatura foram obtidas usando-se diversas metodologias (desde entrevistas clínicas até questionários de múltipla escolha) e envolvendo alunos e professores de diferentes regiões geográficas. A partir de uma análise aprofundada de cada trabalho, e utilizando-se a técnica das Redes Sistêmicas, chegou-se a conclusão que as diversas pré-concepções identificadas (em torno de 50), poderiam ser representadas por 6 modelos mentais, onde a explicação da causa das estações do ano tem um mecanismo causal responsável. Os mecanismos causais identificados foram: a dependência da distância, a dependência da orientação, a dependência conjunta da distância e orientação, a dependência da obstrução, a dependência da velocidade e a dependência da inclinação dos raios solares. Foram ainda identificadas associações alternativas, que são um conjunto de pré-concepções, onde não existe a idéia de um modelo científico completo mas, sim, fragmentos de observação do dia a dia das pessoas.

  11. ANO2 is the cilial calcium-activated chloride channel that may mediate olfactory amplification.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Aaron B; Shum, Eleen Y; Hirsh, Sarah; Cygnar, Katherine D; Reisert, Johannes; Zhao, Haiqing

    2009-07-14

    For vertebrate olfactory signal transduction, a calcium-activated chloride conductance serves as a major amplification step. However, the molecular identity of the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) is unknown. Here we report a proteomic screen for cilial membrane proteins of mouse olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that identified all the known olfactory transduction components as well as Anoctamin 2 (ANO2). Ano2 transcripts were expressed specifically in OSNs in the olfactory epithelium, and ANO2::EGFP fusion protein localized to the OSN cilia when expressed in vivo using an adenoviral vector. Patch-clamp analysis revealed that ANO2, when expressed in HEK-293 cells, forms a CaCC and exhibits channel properties closely resembling the native olfactory CaCC. Considering these findings together, we propose that ANO2 constitutes the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel. PMID:19561302

  12. A novel exon in the human Ca2+-activated Cl- channel Ano1 imparts greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca2.

    PubMed

    Strege, Peter R; Bernard, Cheryl E; Mazzone, Amelia; Linden, David R; Beyder, Arthur; Gibbons, Simon J; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2015-11-01

    Anoctamin 1 (Ano1; TMEM16A) is a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CACC) expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal. The mechanisms by which Ca(2+) regulates Ano1 are incompletely understood. In the gastrointestinal tract, Ano1 is required for normal slow wave activity and is involved in regulating cell proliferation. Splice variants of Ano1 have varying electrophysiological properties and altered expression in disease states. Recently, we identified a transcript for human Ano1 containing a novel exon-"exon 0" upstream of and in frame with exon 1. The electrophysiological properties of this longer Ano1 isoform are unknown. Our aim was to determine the functional contribution of the newly identified exon to the Ca(2+) sensitivity and electrophysiological properties of Ano1. Constructs with [Ano1(+0)] or without [Ano1(-0)] the newly identified exon were transfected into human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Voltage-clamp electrophysiology was used to determine voltage- and time-dependent parameters of whole cell Cl(-) currents between isoforms with varying concentrations of intracellular Ca(2+), extracellular anions, or Cl(-) channel inhibitors. We found that exon 0 did not change voltage sensitivity and had no impact on the relative permeability of Ano1 to most anions. Ano1(+0) exhibited greater changes in current density but lesser changes in kinetics than Ano1(-0) in response to varying intracellular Ca(2+). The CACC inhibitor niflumic acid inhibited current with greater efficacy and higher potency against Ano1(+0) compared with Ano1(-0). Likewise, the Ano1 inhibitor T16Ainh-A01 reduced Ano1(+0) more than Ano1(-0). In conclusion, human Ano1 containing exon 0 imparts its Cl(-) current with greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca(2+) and CACC inhibitors. PMID:26359375

  13. Activation of Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channel ANO1 by localized Ca(2+) signals.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Shah, Sihab; Du, Xiaona; Zhang, Hailin; Gamper, Nikita

    2016-01-01

    Ca(2+) -activated chloride channels (CaCCs) regulate numerous physiological processes including epithelial transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory processing. Anoctamin-1 (ANO1, TMEM16A) is a principal CaCC subunit in many cell types, yet our understanding of the mechanisms of ANO1 activation and regulation are only beginning to emerge. Ca(2+) sensitivity of ANO1 is rather low and at negative membrane potentials the channel requires several micromoles of intracellular Ca(2+) for activation. However, global Ca(2+) levels in cells rarely reach such levels and, therefore, there must be mechanisms that focus intracellular Ca(2+) transients towards the ANO1 channels. Recent findings indeed indicate that ANO1 channels often co-localize with sources of intracellular Ca(2+) signals. Interestingly, it appears that in many cell types ANO1 is particularly tightly coupled to the Ca(2+) release sites of the intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Such preferential coupling may represent a general mechanism of ANO1 activation in native tissues. PMID:25398532

  14. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors facilitate ANO6 (TMEM16F) current activation and phosphatidylserine exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jong; Jun, Ikhyun; Yoon, Jae Seok; Jung, Jinsei; Kim, Yung Kyu; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Byung Joo; Song, Jaewoo; Kim, Sung Joon; Nam, Joo Hyun; Lee, Min Goo

    2015-11-01

    Anoctamin 6 (ANO6) is a member of the recently identified TMEM16/anoctamin protein family comprising Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels that generate outward-rectifying ionic currents in response to intracellular Ca(2+) increase. ANO6 is also essential for Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid scrambling required for blood coagulation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)--fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine-that are used for the treatment of major depressive disorders can increase the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding after chronic treatment. However, at the earlier stage of intake, which is 1-7 days after the treatment, the possibility of blood coagulation might also increase, but transiently. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether therapeutic SSRI concentrations affected the Cl(-) current or phospholipid scrambling activity of ANO6 by assessing ANO6 currents (I ANO6), phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, and platelet aggregation. In the whole-cell patch mode, SSRIs facilitated Ca(2+)-dependent activation of IANO6 in ANO6-transfected cells, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the delay of IANO6 generation. On the other hand, in the inside-out patch clamp configuration, SSRIs showed an inhibitory effect on ANO6 currents, suggesting that SSRIs activate ANO6 via an indirect mechanism in intact cells. SSRIs also facilitated Ca(2+)-dependent PS exposure and ?-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. These results indicate that SSRIs at clinically relevant concentrations promote Ca(2+)-dependent activation of ANO6, which may have potential clinical implications such as the underlying mechanism of SSRI-induced adverse drug reactions. PMID:25630304

  15. Modulation and application of PRESToPLUS on K-SEIS to the southern Korean peninsula seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Chi, H.; Lim, I.; Elia, L.; Festa, G.; Emolo, A.

    2013-12-01

    KMA(Korea Meteorological Agency) and KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources) have started a project to construct EEWS(Earthquake Early Warning System) from 2007 in South Korea. After preliminary test of PRESTo, we have changed PRESToPLUS to make applicable it on K-SEIS(Korea-Speedy Earthquake Information System) enlarging the number of stations and study area belong to KIGAM and KMA around the Korean Peninsula. PRESToPLUS has been changed to be applied on K-SEIS with powerful performance allowing more than 100 stations real-time streaming and larger study area including off-shore areas around the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. For the modulation the code of PRESToPLUS has been revised in the Linux OS and Windows 64 bit machines respectively. Whole earthquake catalog was play-backed in PRESToPLUS in order to get parameterization to account for Korean seismicity and existing network. A new regression law for magnitude estimation (RTMag Module) was defined by extraction of Magnitude, hypocentral distance and Pd measured on 4s P-waves signal at all stations. The new law of RTMag is logPd= -4.012+0.583M-1.033logR. With extraction of PGD, PGA, PGV, epicentral distance at stations from the earthquake catalog we can derive new Ground Motion Prediction Equations to use in PGx prediction at target sites in PRESToPLUS. The new regression law is logPGA=0.615+0.7M-1.68log(R^2+100)^(1/2). Theoretical analysis of the number of triggered stations for all possible events across Korea was done to derive the best parameterization of time windows for the earthquake detection (Binder Module). After analysis of performance PRESToPLUS we can conclude 8 picks and 8 second condition might be best for reliable event detection with current station network setting.

  16. [Purification of recombinant DNA methyltransferase M2.BstSE from nickase-modification system NM.BstSEI and study of the enzyme properties].

    PubMed

    Chernukhin, v A; Seggewiss, J; Kashirina, Iu G; Gonchar, D A; Degtiarev, S Kh

    2009-01-01

    The operon of nickase-modification system from Bacillus stearothermophilus SE-589 (recognition site 5'-GAGTC-3') includes two DNA methyltransferase genes: bstSEIM1 and bstSEIM2. Gene encoding DNA methyltransferase M2.BstSEI was cloned in pJW vector and expressed in E. coli cells. The enzyme M2.BstSEI has been isolated by chromatographic purification. M2.BstSEI displays maximum activity at 55 degrees C and pH 7.5. The enzyme modifies adenine in DNA sequence 5'-GAGTC-3' and has substrate specificity 5'-GASTC-3'. The kinetic parameters of methylation reaction have been determined. The catalytic constant--2.2 min(-1), the Michaelis constant on T7 DNA--9.8 nM and on SAM--5.8 microM. PMID:19334521

  17. First-Principles Analysis of Defect Thermodynamics and Ion Transport in Inorganic SEI Compounds: LiF and NaF.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Handan; Kinaci, Alper; Chan, Maria K Y; Greeley, Jeffrey P

    2015-09-01

    The formation mechanism and composition of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) in lithium ion batteries has been widely explored. However, relatively little is known about the function of the SEI as a transport medium. Such critical information is directly relevant to battery rate performance, power loss, and capacity fading. To partially bridge this gap in the case of inorganic SEI compounds, we report herein the results of first-principles calculations on the defect thermodynamics, the dominant diffusion carriers, and the diffusion pathways associated with crystalline LiF and NaF, which are stable components of the SEI in Li-ion and Na-ion batteries, respectively. The thermodynamics of common point defects are computed, and the dominant diffusion carriers are determined over a voltage range of 0-4 V, corresponding to conditions relevant to both anode and cathode SEI's. Our analyses reveal that for both compounds, vacancy defects are energetically more favorable, therefore form more readily than interstitials, due to the close-packed nature of the crystal structures. However, the vacancy concentrations are very small for the diffusion processes facilitated by defects. Ionic conductivities are calculated as a function of voltage, considering the diffusion carrier concentration and the diffusion barriers as determined by nudged elastic band calculations. These conductivities are more than ten orders of magnitude smaller in NaF than in LiF. As compared to the diffusivity of Li in other common inorganic SEI compounds, such as Li2CO3 and Li2O, the cation diffusivity in LiF and NaF is quite low, with at least three orders of magnitude lower ionic conductivities. The results quantify the extent to which fluorides pose rate limitations in Li and Na batteries. PMID:26255641

  18. Management of Fistula-In-Ano with Special Reference to Ligation of Intersphincteric Fistula Tract

    PubMed Central

    Khadia, Mohanlal; Muduli, Iswar Chandra; Das, Sushanta Kumar; Mallick, Sworupa Nanda; Bag, Laxman; Pati, Manas Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Context: The surgical management of fistula-in-ano is still debatable and no clear recommendations have been made available until now. The present study analyses the results of ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) technique in treating fistula-in-ano in particular with recurrence, healing time, and continence status. Aims: LIFT in the management of patients of fistula-in-ano of cryptoglandular origin. Settings and Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of 52 patients admitted from September 2012 to August 2014. Patients were managed with LIFT technique and results of LIFT technique were compared with other studies in terms of recurrence rate, incontinence rate, and other postoperative complications. Results: A total of 52 patients were studied. Median follow-up was 24 weeks. Primary healing was achieved in 32 (71.11%) patients. Thirteen patients (28.88%) had a recurrence. No patient reported any subjective decrease incontinence after the procedure. Conclusions: LIFT technique is simple and easy to learn. With this method fistula-in-ano could be easily treated even at primary health care level. LIFT technique is a simple and novel modified approach for the treatment of fistula-in-ano with rapid healing rate and without any resultant incontinence. PMID:27013849

  19. MineSeis -- A MATLAB GUI program to calculate synthetic seismograms from a linear, multi-shot blast source model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.

    1998-12-31

    Modeling ground motions from multi-shot, delay-fired mining blasts is important to the understanding of their source characteristics such as spectrum modulation. MineSeis is a MATLAB{reg_sign} (a computer language) Graphical User Interface (GUI) program developed for the effective modeling of these multi-shot mining explosions. The program provides a convenient and interactive tool for modeling studies. Multi-shot, delay-fired mining blasts are modeled as the time-delayed linear superposition of identical single shot sources in the program. These single shots are in turn modeled as the combination of an isotropic explosion source and a spall source. Mueller and Murphy`s (1971) model for underground nuclear explosions is used as the explosion source model. A modification of Anandakrishnan et al.`s (1997) spall model is developed as the spall source model. Delays both due to the delay-firing and due to the single-shot location differences are taken into account in calculating the time delays of the superposition. Both synthetic and observed single-shot seismograms can be used to construct the superpositions. The program uses MATLAB GUI for input and output to facilitate user interaction with the program. With user provided source and path parameters, the program calculates and displays the source time functions, the single shot synthetic seismograms and the superimposed synthetic seismograms. In addition, the program provides tools so that the user can manipulate the results, such as filtering, zooming and creating hard copies.

  20. Attitude of Academic Staff in Nigerian Tertiary Educational Institutions to Student Evaluation of Instruction (SEI): A Case Study of Cross River State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaka, Idaka I.; Joshua, Monday T.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the attitude of academic staff in Nigerian tertiary educational institutions to student evaluation of instruction (SEI) and to find out the variable factors that influenced the expressed attitude of members of the academic staff, using Cross River State University as a case study. The study was a survey and so a

  1. Connecting the irreversible capacity loss in Li-ion batteries with the electronic insulating properties of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) components.

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Leung, Kevin; Lin, Yu -Xiao; Liu, Zhe; Chen, Long -Qing; Lu, Peng; Qi, Yue

    2016-02-05

    The formation and continuous growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer are responsible for the irreversible capacity loss of batteries in the initial and subsequent cycles, respectively. In this article, the electron tunneling barriers from Li metal through three insulating SEI components, namely Li2CO3, LiF and Li3PO4, are computed by density function theory (DFT) approaches. Based on electron tunneling theory, it is estimated that sufficient to block electron tunneling. It is also found that the band gap decreases under tension while the work function remains the same, and thus the tunneling barrier decreases under tension and increases under compression.more » A new parameter, η, characterizing the average distances between anions, is proposed to unify the variation of band gap with strain under different loading conditions into a single linear function of η. An analytical model based on the tunneling results is developed to connect the irreversible capacity loss, due to the Li ions consumed in forming these SEI component layers on the surface of negative electrodes. As a result, the agreement between the model predictions and experimental results suggests that only the initial irreversible capacity loss is due to the self-limiting electron tunneling property of the SEI.« less

  2. Connecting the irreversible capacity loss in Li-ion batteries with the electronic insulating properties of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Xiao; Liu, Zhe; Leung, Kevin; Chen, Long-Qing; Lu, Peng; Qi, Yue

    2016-03-01

    The formation and continuous growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer are responsible for the irreversible capacity loss of batteries in the initial and subsequent cycles, respectively. In this article, the electron tunneling barriers from Li metal through three insulating SEI components, namely Li2CO3, LiF and Li3PO4, are computed by density function theory (DFT) approaches. Based on electron tunneling theory, it is estimated that sufficient to block electron tunneling. It is also found that the band gap decreases under tension while the work function remains the same, and thus the tunneling barrier decreases under tension and increases under compression. A new parameter, η, characterizing the average distances between anions, is proposed to unify the variation of band gap with strain under different loading conditions into a single linear function of η. An analytical model based on the tunneling results is developed to connect the irreversible capacity loss, due to the Li ions consumed in forming these SEI component layers on the surface of negative electrodes. The agreement between the model predictions and experimental results suggests that only the initial irreversible capacity loss is due to the self-limiting electron tunneling property of the SEI.

  3. Facet dependent SEI formation on the LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 cathode identified by in situ single particle atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran-Ran; Deng, Xin; Liu, Xing-Rui; Yan, Hui-Juan; Cao, An-Min; Wang, Dong

    2014-12-25

    A facile protocol is developed for the direct observation and characterization of a single particle electrode during the lithium ion battery operation by using in situ AFM. The SEI formation on the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 particle cathode surface is found to be highly related to the exposed planes. PMID:25371348

  4. An Artificial SEI Enables the Use of A LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 5 V Cathode with Conventional Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Juchuan ORNL; Baggetto, Loic ORNL; Martha, Surendra K ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M ORNL; Nanda, Jagjit ORNL; Liang, Chengdu ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J ORNL

    2013-01-01

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel is considered one of the most promising cathodes for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, the operation potential of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, ~4.75 V, is beyond the high voltage limit of the state-of-art electrolyte, ~4.3 V. Here, using thin films of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a model material, we show evidence that an artificial solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) enables the use of this 5 V cathode with conventional carbonate electrolytes. A thin coating of Lipon (lithium phosphorus oxynitride) as an artificial SEI on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 could remedy the decomposition of the electrolyte. The thickness of the Lipon artificial SEI is optimized by balancing the protection and additional resistance. The strategy of artificial SEI on cathodes is expected to enable the wide application of other high voltage cathodes for lithium ion batteries.

  5. SEI-component formation on sub 5 nm sized silicon nanoparticles in Li-ion batteries: the role of electrode preparation, FEC addition and binders.

    PubMed

    Jaumann, Tony; Balach, Juan; Klose, Markus; Oswald, Steffen; Langklotz, Ulrike; Michaelis, Alexander; Eckert, Jrgen; Giebeler, Lars

    2015-10-14

    Silicon is a promising negative electrode for secondary lithium-based batteries, but the electrochemical reversibility of particularly nanostructured silicon electrodes drastically depends on their interfacial characteristics, commonly known as the solid electrolyte interface (SEI). The beneficial origin of certain electrolyte additives or different binders is still discussed controversially owing to the challenging peculiarities of interfacial post-mortem investigations of electrodes. In this work, we address the common difficulties of SEI investigations of porous silicon/carbon nanostructures and study the addition of a fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) as a stabilizing additive as well as the use of two different binders, carboxymethyl cellulose/styrene-butadiene rubber (CMC/SBR) and polyacrylic acid (PAA), for the SEI formation. The electrode is composed of silicon nanocrystallites below 5 nm diameter allowing a detailed investigation of interfacial characteristics of silicon owing to the high surface area. We first performed galvanostatic long-term cycling (400 times) and carried out comprehensive ex situ characterization of the cycled nanocrystalline silicon electrodes with XRD, EDXS, TEM and XPS. We modified the preparation of the electrode for post-mortem characterization to distinguish between electrolyte components and the actual SEI. The impact of the FEC additive and two different binders on the interfacial layer is studied and the occurrence of diverse compounds, in particular LiF, Li2O and phosphates, is discussed. These results help to understand general issues in SEI formation and to pave the way for the development of advanced electrolytes allowing for a long-term performance of nanostructured Si-based electrodes. PMID:26343297

  6. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Chiyo; Sasaki, Motoki; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe(3+)) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  7. Activation of the Ano1 (TMEM16A) chloride channel by calcium is not mediated by calmodulin

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinqiu; Qu, Zhiqiang; Cui, Yuan-Yuan; Hartzell, H. Criss

    2014-01-01

    The Ca2+-activated Cl channel anoctamin-1 (Ano1; Tmem16A) plays a variety of physiological roles, including epithelial fluid secretion. Ano1 is activated by increases in intracellular Ca2+, but there is uncertainty whether Ca2+ binds directly to Ano1 or whether phosphorylation or additional Ca2+-binding subunits like calmodulin (CaM) are required. Here we show that CaM is not necessary for activation of Ano1 by Ca2+ for the following reasons. (a) Exogenous CaM has no effect on Ano1 currents in inside-out excised patches. (b) Overexpression of Ca2+-insensitive mutants of CaM have no effect on Ano1 currents, whereas they eliminate the current mediated by the small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK2) channel. (c) Ano1 does not coimmunoprecipitate with CaM, whereas SK2 does. Furthermore, Ano1 binds very weakly to CaM in pull-down assays. (d) Ano1 is activated in excised patches by low concentrations of Ba2+, which does not activate CaM. In addition, we conclude that reversible phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is not required for current activation by Ca2+ because the current can be repeatedly activated in excised patches in the absence of ATP or other high-energy compounds. Although Ano1 is blocked by the CaM inhibitor trifluoperazine (TFP), we propose that TFP inhibits the channel in a CaM-independent manner because TFP does not inhibit Ano1 when applied to the cytoplasmic side of excised patches. These experiments lead us to conclude that CaM is not required for activation of Ano1 by Ca2+. Although CaM is not required for channel opening by Ca2+, work of other investigators suggests that CaM may have effects in modulating the biophysical properties of the channel. PMID:24420770

  8. A Coding Variant of ANO10, Affecting Volume Regulation of Macrophages, Is Associated with Borrelia Seropositivity

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Christian; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Sirianant, Lalida; Papiol, Sergi; Monnheimer, Mathieu; Faria, Diana; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Schramek, Natalie; Schmitt, Corinna; Margos, Gabriele; Michel, Angelika; Kraiczy, Peter; Pawlita, Michael; Schreiber, Rainer; Schulz, Thomas F; Fingerle, Volker; Tumani, Hayrettin; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In a first genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach to anti-Borrelia seropositivity, we identified two significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs17850869, P = 4.17E-09; rs41289586, P = 7.18E-08). Both markers, located on chromosomes 16 and 3, respectively, are within or close to genes previously connected to spinocerebellar ataxia. The risk SNP rs41289586 represents a missense variant (R263H) of anoctamin 10 (ANO10), a member of a protein family encoding Cl? channels and phospholipid scram-blases. ANO10 augments volume-regulated Cl? currents (IHypo) in Xenopus oocytes, HEK293 cells, lymphocytes and macrophages and controls volume regulation by enhancing regulatory volume decrease (RVD). ANO10 supports migration of macrophages and phagocytosis of spirochetes. The R263H variant is inhibitory on IHypo, RVD and intracellular Ca2+ signals, which may delay spirochete clearance, thereby sensitizing adaptive immunity. Our data demonstrate for the first time that ANO10 has a central role in innate immune defense against Borrelia infection. PMID:25730773

  9. Next generation sequencing on patients with LGMD and nonspecific myopathies: Findings associated with ANO5 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Savarese, Marco; Di Fruscio, Giuseppina; Tasca, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Lucia; Janssens, Sandra; De Bleecker, Jan; Delpech, Marc; Musumeci, Olimpia; Toscano, Antonio; Angelini, Corrado; Sacconi, Sabrina; Santoro, Lucio; Ricci, Enzo; Claes, Kathleen; Politano, Luisa; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We studied 786 undiagnosed patients with LGMD or nonspecific myopathic features to investigate the role of ANO5 mutations in limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) and in nonspecific myopathies using the next generation sequencing (NGS) approach. In 160 LGMD patients, we first sequenced hotspot exons 5 and 20 and then sequenced the remaining part of the coding region. Another 626 patients, recruited using broader inclusion criteria, were directly analyzed by targeted NGS. By combining NGS and Sanger sequencing, we identified 33/786 (4%) patients carrying putative pathogenic changes in both alleles and 23 ANO5 heterozygotes (3%). The phenotypic spectrum is broader than expected, from hyperCKemia to myopathies, with lack of genotype/phenotype correlations. In particular, this is currently the largest screening of the ANO5 gene. The large number of heterozygotes for damaging mutations suggests that anoctaminopathies should be frequent and often nonpenetrant. We propose the multiple genetic testing by targeted NGS as a first step to analyze patients with nonspecific myopathic presentations. This represents a straightforward approach to overcome the difficulties of clinical heterogeneity of ANO5 patients, and to test, at the same time, many other genes involved in neuromuscular disorders. PMID:25891276

  10. Inhibition of ANO1/TMEM16A Chloride Channel by Idebenone and Its Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minseo; Lee, Ho K.; Kim, Jin-Hee; Jeong, Jin-Hyun; Namkung, Wan

    2015-01-01

    The expression levels of anoctamin 1 (ANO1, TMEM16A), a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), are significantly increased in several tumors, and inhibition of ANO1 is known to reduce cell proliferation and migration. Here, we performed cell-based screening of a collection of natural products and drug-like compounds to identify inhibitors of ANO1. As a result of the screening, idebenone, miconazole and plumbagin were identified as novel ANO1 inhibitors. Electrophysiological studies showed that idebenone, a synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10, completely blocked ANO1 activity in FRT cells expressing ANO1 without any effect on intracellular calcium signaling and CFTR, a cAMP-regulated chloride channel. The CaCC activities in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells expressing abundant endogenous ANO1 were strongly blocked by idebenone. Idebenone inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells, but not in A549 cells, which do not express ANO1. These data suggest that idebenone, a novel ANO1 inhibitor, has potential for use in cancer therapy. PMID:26196390

  11. Inhibition of ANO1/TMEM16A Chloride Channel by Idebenone and Its Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yohan; Park, Jinhong; Kim, Minseo; Lee, Ho K; Kim, Jin-Hee; Jeong, Jin-Hyun; Namkung, Wan

    2015-01-01

    The expression levels of anoctamin 1 (ANO1, TMEM16A), a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), are significantly increased in several tumors, and inhibition of ANO1 is known to reduce cell proliferation and migration. Here, we performed cell-based screening of a collection of natural products and drug-like compounds to identify inhibitors of ANO1. As a result of the screening, idebenone, miconazole and plumbagin were identified as novel ANO1 inhibitors. Electrophysiological studies showed that idebenone, a synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10, completely blocked ANO1 activity in FRT cells expressing ANO1 without any effect on intracellular calcium signaling and CFTR, a cAMP-regulated chloride channel. The CaCC activities in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells expressing abundant endogenous ANO1 were strongly blocked by idebenone. Idebenone inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells, but not in A549 cells, which do not express ANO1. These data suggest that idebenone, a novel ANO1 inhibitor, has potential for use in cancer therapy. PMID:26196390

  12. The Phenotypic Spectrum of DYT24 Due to ANO3 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Stamelou, Maria; Charlesworth, Gavin; Cordivari, Carla; Schneider, Susanne A; Kgi, Georg; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Rubio-Agusti, Ignacio; Batla, Amit; Houlden, Henry; Wood, Nicholas W; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2014-01-01

    Genes causing primary dystonia are rare. Recently, pathogenic mutations in the anoctamin 3 gene (ANO3) have been identified to cause autosomal dominant craniocervical dystonia and have been assigned to the dystonia locus dystonia-24 (DYT24). Here, we expand on the phenotypic spectrum of DYT24 and provide demonstrative videos. Moreover, tremor recordings were performed, and back-averaged electroencephalography, sensory evoked potentials, and C-reflex studies were carried out in two individuals who carried two different mutations in ANO3. Ten patients from three families are described. The age at onset ranged from early childhood to the forties. Cervical dystonia was the most common site of onset followed by laryngeal dystonia. The characteristic feature in all affected individuals was the presence of tremor, which contrasts DYT24 from the typical DYT6 phenotype. Tremor was the sole initial manifestation in some individuals with ANO3 mutations, leading to misdiagnosis as essential tremor. Electrophysiology in two patients with two different mutations showed co-contraction of antagonist muscles, confirming dystonia, and a 6-Hz arm tremor at rest, which increased in amplitude during action. In one of the studied patients, clinically superimposed myoclonus was observed. The duration of the myoclonus was in the range of 250 msec at about 3 Hz, which is more consistent with subcortical myoclonus. In summary, ANO3 causes a varied phenotype of young-onset or adult-onset craniocervical dystonia with tremor and/or myoclonic jerks. Patients with familial cervical dystonia who also have myoclonus-dystonia as well as patients with prominent tremor and mild dystonia should be tested for ANO3 mutations. 2014 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PMID:24442708

  13. Development of a SeisComP3 module for detecting micro earthquakes and its application to ocean bottom network data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To, A.; Becker, J.; Weber, B.; Takaesu, M.; Takahashi, N.; Fukao, Y.; Tsuboi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic data from local size networks and a semi-global size network are being received at Jamstec. In order to systematically handle the data of the different network sizes, we attempted to apply SeisComp3, which is an earthquake monitoring system originally designed for detecting earthquakes or tsunamis in global or semi-global scales. On the other hand, it has been reported that many micro earthquakes are recorded in one of the networks, DONET. DONET is a local size network of ocean bottom seismometers deployed offshore of Kii peninsula, the northern part of Nankai trough. It is important to efficiently detect and list these earthquakes for the full utilization of the network data, especially toward understanding the shallow subduction zone dynamics. However, since the earthquake detection algorithm used in SeisComP3 focuses more on locating relatively large size earthquakes and minimizing the chance of detecting false events, some of the micro earthquakes do not get detected by the existing function of SeisComP3. Here, we developed a new SeisComP3 module, which binds signals detected at multiple stations within a certain distance and time span. We applied this module, which we call 'binder', to one daylong DONET data and listed all the events obtained at the frequency range between 2 and 30 Hz. We confirmed that the binder is useful for detecting micro earthquakes. Moreover, one of the binder's advantages is that it works without assumptions on the velocity profile, thus it detected enigmatic events whose epicenters are located on the Kumano Basin and whose signal propagates at the velocity of around 1.5km/s throughout the stations placed on the basin. No clear P arrivals were observed for these events. The finding demonstrates the possibility of the binder to become a useful tool to further explore the data and to find out more of different types of events, which have not been identified yet.

  14. Treatment of Complex Fistula in Ano with Cable-Tie Seton: A Prospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Ayaz Ahmad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Azami, Rizwan; Zafar, Hasnain; Chawla, Tabish; Laghari, Altaf Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To determine the fecal incontinence and recurrence rate in patients with complex fistula in ano managed with cable tie seton at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods. This is a prospective case series of patients with complex anal fistula i.e. recurrent fistula or encircling >30% of external anal sphincter, managed with cable tie seton from March 2003 to March 2009. Patients were seen in the clinic after 72 hours of seton insertion under anesthesia and then every other week. Each time the cable-tie was tightened if found loose without anesthesia and incontinence was inquired according to wexner's score. Results. Seventy nine patients were treated during the study period with the age (mean standard deviation) of 41 10.6 years and. The seton was tightened with a median of six times (315 times range). Complete healing was achieved in 11.2 5.7 weeks. All the patients were followed for a minimum period of one year and none of the patients had any incontinence. Recurrence was found in 4 (5%) patients. Conclusion. The cable tie seton is safe, cost effective and low morbidity option for the treatment of complex fistulae-in-ano. It can, therefore, be recommended as the standard of treatment for complex fistulae-in-ano requiring the placement of a seton. PMID:22084768

  15. First results from the NEAREST-SEIS deep seismic cruise across the Gulf of Cadiz accretionary wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.; Gutscher, M.-A.; Graindorge, D.; Sallarès, V.; Bartolome, R.; Gracia, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz lies offshore of Southwest Iberia and Northwest Morocco, bounded to the West by the Azores-Gibraltar transform and to the East by the Betic-Rif mountain belt. The region is famous for the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami. Here the plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia is complex, marked by a broad region of deformation spanning about 200 km in a north-south direction. One of the most striking structures characterizing the Gulf of Cadiz is the presence of a thick tectonically deformed sedimentary wedge, which is interpreted as an accretionary wedge formed by the W to SW migration of the Rif-Betic block. Two types of geodynamic models have been proposed to explain the recent tectonics and formation of this region: those invoking delamination of continental lithosphere beneath the Betic-Rif Alboran Sea region, and those favouring subduction of oceanic lithosphere, with associated roll-back. Numerous marine geophysical surveys were performed in the Gulf of Cadiz area during the last years, many as part of the NEAREST European project. Multi-beam bathymetry and multi-channel seismic (MCS) data were acquired, which help constrain the upper crustal structures. Deep structural maps demonstrate that sediment thicknesses in the central Gulf of Cadiz (beneath the accretionary wedge) reach a maximum of 12-13 km. Additional wide-angle seismic records acquired during the SISMAR experiment (2001) testify to the difficulty of even low-frequency waves to penetrate below this thick sedimentary body. Nevertheless, from the resulting models a 7-to-10-km thick basement is inferred beneath the western and central Gulf, which forms a roughly E-W oriented trough between the thicker (20-30 km) continental crust of SW Iberia and NW Morocco. During the NEAREST-SEIS cruise on the B/O Hesperides (nov. 2008), two wide-angle seismic lines were acquired in the Gulf of Cadiz area using a seismic source composed of seven 1500LL Bolt airguns (4520 in3), shot at 90 s intervals. 19 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) from Ifremer and the University of Brest and 17 OBS from UTM-CSIC, Barcelona were on board. The longer profile was shot NW-SE in the western part of the Gulf, crossing from Tagus plain to Seine abyssal plain (profile 1, 29 OBS deployments). The shorter one was a line roughly perpendicular to the South Portuguese margin (inner part of the Gulf), crossing from Portimao Canyon, the frontal portion of the accretionary wedge frontal, where the sedimentary cover is still relatively thin (profile 2, tending NNE-SSW). Here we focus on profile 2, the main purpose being to determine an accurate location of the transition between continental and oceanic crust. 15 OBS were deployed along this line with a ~7 nm spacing, and it was extended on land by landstations (Portuguese side). Most of the wide-angle data were of good quality, despite the rapid decrease of the amplitude arrivals with increasing offset, due to the combination of a lack of source energy and the particular nature of material constituting the accretionary wedge. The following processing was applied to all sections: deconvolution, 4-16 Hz Butterworth filter, equalization. The data generally show clear sedimentary refracted phases, deeper intracrustal phases, some arrivals refracted in the upper mantle and reflections at the boundary between the crust and the mantle (PmP). A first modelling of the corresponding data is performed using a joint refraction/reflection traveltime tomography approach (1st arrivals and PmP phase are inverted jointly), following a Monte-Carlo type analysis to avoid the dependency on the starting model and provide velocity uncertainties. A checkerboard test is also computed to estimate the resolvability of the different parts of the resulting model. Information given by coincident MCS data (profile SWIM-01; SWIM experiment, 2006) is used to discuss and validate our velocity reconstructions. The wide-angle velocity model obtained along profile 2 images for the first time the evolution of basement structures (down to the Moho) from the South Portuguese coasts to the Northwest Morocco continental platform.

  16. SM1.3 Seismic Centers Data Acquisition: an introduction to Antelope, EarthWorm, SeisComP and their usage around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Sleeman, Reinoud

    2010-05-01

    Many medium to big size seismic data centers around the world are facing the same question: which software to use to acquire seismic data in real-time? A home-made or a commercial one? Both choices have pros and cons. The in-house development of software usually requires an increased investment in human resources rather than a financial investment. However, the advantage of fully accomplishing your own needs could be put in danger when the software engineer quits the job! Commercial software offers the advantage of being maintained, but it may require both a considerable financial investment and training. The main seismic software data acquisition suites available nowadays are the public domain SeisComP and EarthWorm packages and the commercial package Antelope. Nanometrics, Guralp and RefTek also provide seismic data acquisition software, but they are mainly intended for single station/network acquisition. Antelope is a software package for real-time acquisition and processing of seismic network data, with its roots in the academic seismological community. The software is developed by Boulder Real Time Technology (BRTT) and commercialized by Kinemetrics. It is used by IRIS affiliates for off-line data processing and it is the main acquisition tool for the USArray program and data centers in Europe like the ORFEUS Data Center, OGS (Italy), ZAMG (Austria), ARSO (Slovenia) and GFU (Czech Republic). SeisComP was originally developed for the GEOFON global network to provide a system for data acquisition, data exchange (SeedLink protocol) and automatic processing. It has evolved into to a widely distributed, networked seismographic system for data acquisition and real-time data exchange over Internet and is supported by ORFEUS as the standard seismic data acquisition tool in Europe. SeisComP3 is the next generation of the software and was developed for the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). SeisComP is licensed by GFZ (free of charge) and maintained by a private company (GEMPA). EarthWorm was originally developed by United States Geological Survey (USGS) to exchange data with the Canadian seismologists. Its is now used by several institution around the world. It is maintained and developed by a commercial software house, ISTI.

  17. Formation of an SEI on a LiMn(2)O(4) Cathode during Room Temperature Charge-Discharge Cycling Studied by Soft X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy at the Fluorine K-edge

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, K.Y.; Yang, X.; Yoon, W.-S.; Kim, K.-B.; Cho, B.-W.

    2011-11-01

    The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation on the surface of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} electrodes during room temperature charge-discharge cycling was studied using soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Fluorine (F) K-edge. LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} electrodes without any binder were prepared by electrostatic spray deposition to eliminate the signal originating from the PVDF binder in the F K-edge X-ray absorption spectra. The F K-edge absorption spectra show that the SEI layer forms at a very early stage of cycling. SEI growth takes place during discharge. In addition, LiF formation is accelerated if the discharge step follows a charge step. The F K-edge absorption spectra suggest that the major component of the SEI is LiF.

  18. CU’s Department of Geological Sciences - Science Education Initiative Project (GEOL-SEI): A five-year plan for introducing and supporting an evidence-based and scientific approach to teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthurs, L.; Budd, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Science Education Initiative (SEI) at the University of Colorado at Boulder was conceived in 2006 with the goal of improving science education at the undergraduate level by changing the basic approach to teaching in science departments. Five departments were selected on a competitive basis for participation in the SEI. The SEI is operating as a five year plan with funding of ~$1 million/year for the five departments. The goal of the SEI is to implement sustainable department-level change for an evidence-based and scientific approach to teaching. Among the five departments receiving funding for discipline-specific SEI projects is the Department of Geological Sciences (GEOL-SEI). The GEOL-SEI has worked to transform geology courses beginning with lower division large enrollment courses and moving towards upper division courses. They are transformed on the basis of existing research into how people learn, and they are characterized by the use of learning goals and effective instructional approaches. Furthermore, a natural component of the transformation towards evidence-based and scientific approaches to teaching is geocognition and geoscience education research. This research focuses on how students think about geologic concepts (e.g. misconceptions) and the effectiveness of different instructional approaches (e.g. the implementation of instructional technologies, peer learning activities, homework, and labs). The research is conducted by post-doctoral fellows (with PhDs in geology and pedagogical training) in collaboration with the instructional faculty members. The directorate of CU’s Science Education Initiative provides the fellows with training useful for conducting the research. Currently, into the 4th year of its 5-year plan, the GEOL-SEI is working towards publishing its findings and exploring options for sustaining various changes made to courses and new departmental programs that support student learning (e.g. GEOL Tutoring & Study Room).

  19. Ligation of Intersphincteric Fistula Tract: a Sphincter-Sparing Option for Complex Fistula-in-Ano.

    PubMed

    Lange, Erin O; Ferrari, Linda; Krane, Mukta; Fichera, Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    Fistulae-in-ano represent one of the more challenging anorectal diseases faced by surgeons, as appropriate management requires careful balance between the need for local sepsis control and patients' desire to maintain fecal continence. The ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) procedure, first described by Rojanasakul and colleagues in 2007, represents a sphincter-sparing technique for fistula management which has become our method of choice for transsphincteric fistulas. With this technique, patients frequently enjoy successful fistula healing., or, at worst, conversion to a less complex fistula tract. Here, we describe and illustrate our surgical approach and review success and recurrence rates presented in the published literature. PMID:26394877

  20. [The past, presence and future of ligation of intersphincteric fistulous tract for the treatment of fistula in ano].

    PubMed

    Shao, Wanjin

    2015-12-01

    This paper is to summarize the successful rate, complication morbidity, and the impact of ligation of the intersphinteric fistula tract (LIFT) on anal continence, and to illustrate the efficacy of LIFT procedure for the treatment of high transphinteric fistula in ano and the challenging problems existed in practice through literature review retrospectively. LIFT procedure appears to be an effective sphincter conserving approach with less complications and minimal impact on anorectal function for the treatment of high transsphincteric fistula in ano. PMID:26703998

  1. Identification of a candidate oncogene SEI-1 within a minimal amplified region at 19q13.1 in ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tang, Terence C-M; Sham, Jonathan S T; Xie, Dan; Fang, Yan; Huo, Ke-Ke; Wu, Qiu-Liang; Guan, Xin-Yuan

    2002-12-15

    High-level amplification of DNA sequence at 19q13.1 is one of the frequent genetic alterations in ovarian cancer. In an attempt to verify the minimal amplified region (MAR) at 19q13.1 and to identify the target oncogenes, 49 probes within a region from D19S425 to D19S907 ( approximately 19.5 cM) were used to survey the amplification status in four ovarian cancer cell lines that have been confirmed as containing amplification at 19q13.1. Two separated overlapping MARs, MAR1 (approximately 200 kb) and MAR2 (approximately 1.1 Mb), were identified at 19q13.1. Two candidate oncogenes, AKT2 and SEI-1, were identified in MAR2. Amplification and overexpression of these two genes in four ovarian cancer cell lines were confirmed by Southern and Northern blot analyses. The proliferation-related function of AKT2 and SEI-1 suggests that both genes are likely to be biological targets of an amplification event at 19q13.1 in ovarian cancer and to play important roles in ovarian tumorigenesis. PMID:12499249

  2. Variomics screen identifies the re-entrant loop of the calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 that facilitates channel activation.

    PubMed

    Bill, Anke; Popa, M Oana; van Diepen, Michiel T; Gutierrez, Abraham; Lilley, Sarah; Velkova, Maria; Acheson, Kathryn; Choudhury, Hedaythul; Renaud, Nicole A; Auld, Douglas S; Gosling, Martin; Groot-Kormelink, Paul J; Gaither, L Alex

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 regulates multiple physiological processes. However, little is known about the mechanism of channel gating and regulation of ANO1 activity. Using a high-throughput, random mutagenesis-based variomics screen, we generated and functionally characterized ?6000 ANO1 mutants and identified novel mutations that affected channel activity, intracellular trafficking, or localization of ANO1. Mutations such as S741T increased ANO1 calcium sensitivity and rendered ANO1 calcium gating voltage-independent, demonstrating a critical role of the re-entrant loop in coupling calcium and voltage sensitivity of ANO1 and hence in regulating ANO1 activation. Our data present the first unbiased and comprehensive study of the structure-function relationship of ANO1. The novel ANO1 mutants reported have diverse functional characteristics, providing new tools to study ANO1 function in biological systems, paving the path for a better understanding of the function of ANO1 and its role in health and diseases. PMID:25425649

  3. A novel missense mutation in ANO5/TMEM16E is causative for gnathodiaphyseal dyplasia in a large Italian pedigree.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Caterina; Brunamonti Binello, Paolo; Badiali, Giovanni; Caci, Emanuela; Cusano, Roberto; Garibaldi, Joseph; Pippucci, Tommaso; Merlini, Alberto; Marchetti, Claudio; Rhoden, Kerry J; Galietta, Luis J V; Lalatta, Faustina; Balbi, Paolo; Seri, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by frequent bone fractures at a young age, bowing of tubular bones and cemento-osseus lesions of the jawbones. Anoctamin 5 (ANO5) belongs to the anoctamin protein family that includes calcium-activated chloride channels. However, recent data together with our own experiments reported here add weight to the hypothesis that ANO5 may not function as calcium-activated chloride channel. By sequencing the entire ANO5 gene coding region and untranslated regions in a large Italian GDD family, we found a novel missense mutation causing the p.Thr513Ile substitution. The mutation segregates with the disease in the family and has never been described in any database as a polymorphism. To date, only two mutations on the same cysteine residue at position 356 of ANO5 amino-acid sequence have been described in GDD families. As ANO5 has also been found to be mutated in two different forms of muscular dystrophy, the finding of this third mutation in GDD adds clues to the role of ANO5 in these disorders. PMID:23047743

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of fistula-in-ano: STIR or SPIR?

    PubMed

    Halligan, S; Healy, J C; Bartram, C I

    1998-02-01

    Patients with clinically suspected anorectal sepsis were studied using MRI in order to determine if T2 weighted sequences with fat suppression conveyed any additional benefit over conventional short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. 23 consecutive patients (16 male) undergoing MRI for suspected perianal sepsis were studied prospectively using a 1.0 T whole body system and body coil. Axial and coronal T1 weighted turbo spin echo sequences were obtained, followed by STIR and T2 weighted spectral fat saturation inversion recovery (SPIR) sequences. Images were assessed for the presence of sepsis or fistula, and information provided by the sequences compared. Active disease was diagnosed in 17 patients, 14 of whom had fistula-in-ano; one intersphincteric, 10 transsphincteric and three extrasphincteric. Internal openings were identified in all of these 14 patients; anal in 10, rectal in two, and both in two. Diagnosis and fistula classification was possible in all of these 14 subjects on the basis of STIR sequences alone. The anal sphincters and pelvic floor musculature were better resolved by STIR than SPIR, leading to easier and more confident determination of fistula anatomy in eight of the 14 (57%). In no case did STIR sequences fail to resolve inflammation seen subsequently on SPIR, despite reduced track intensity. T1 weighted sequences were generally non-contributory. Both STIR and SPIR sequences are adequate to classify fistula-in-ano, but classification was easier with STIR due to superior resolution of pelvic floor structures. PMID:9579177

  5. Mutations in ANO3 Cause Dominant Craniocervical Dystonia: Ion Channel Implicated in Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, Gavin; Plagnol, Vincent; Holmstrm, KiraM.; Bras, Jose; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Preza, Elisavet; Rubio-Agusti, Ignacio; Ryten, Mina; Schneider, SusanneA.; Stamelou, Maria; Trabzuni, Daniah; Abramov, AndreyY.; Bhatia, KailashP.; Wood, NicholasW.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we combined linkage analysis with whole-exome sequencing of two individuals to identify candidate causal variants in a moderately-sized UK kindred exhibiting autosomal-dominant inheritance of craniocervical dystonia. Subsequent screening of these candidate causal variants in a large number of familial and sporadic cases of cervical dystonia led to the identification of a total of six putatively pathogenic mutations in ANO3, a gene encoding a predicted Ca2+-gated chloride channel that we show to be highly expressed in the striatum. Functional studies using Ca2+ imaging in case and control fibroblasts demonstrated clear abnormalities in endoplasmic-reticulum-dependent Ca2+ signaling. We conclude that mutations in ANO3 are a cause of autosomal-dominant craniocervical dystonia. The locus DYT23 has been reserved as a synonym for this gene. The implication of an ion channel in the pathogenesis of dystonia provides insights into an alternative mechanism that opens fresh avenues for further research. PMID:23200863

  6. The Ca2+-activated Cl- channel ANO1/TMEM16A regulates primary ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ruppersburg, Chelsey Chandler; Hartzell, H Criss

    2014-06-01

    Many cells possess a single, nonmotile, primary cilium highly enriched in receptors and sensory transduction machinery that plays crucial roles in cellular morphogenesis. Although sensory transduction requires ion channels, relatively little is known about ion channels in the primary cilium (with the exception of TRPP2). Here we show that the Ca(2+)-activated Cl ((-)) channel anoctamin-1 (ANO1/TMEM16A) is located in the primary cilium and that blocking its channel function pharmacologically or knocking it down with short hairpin RNA interferes with ciliogenesis. Before ciliogenesis, the channel becomes organized into a torus-shaped structure ("the nimbus") enriched in proteins required for ciliogenesis, including the small GTPases Cdc42 and Arl13b and the exocyst complex component Sec6. The nimbus excludes F-actin and coincides with a ring of acetylated microtubules. The nimbus appears to form before, or independent of, apical docking of the mother centriole. Our data support a model in which the nimbus provides a scaffold for staging of ciliary components for assembly very early in ciliogenesis and chloride transport by ANO1/TMEM16A is required for the genesis or maintenance of primary cilia. PMID:24694595

  7. The Ca2+-activated Cl? channel ANO1/TMEM16A regulates primary ciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ruppersburg, Chelsey Chandler; Hartzell, H. Criss

    2014-01-01

    Many cells possess a single, nonmotile, primary cilium highly enriched in receptors and sensory transduction machinery that plays crucial roles in cellular morphogenesis. Although sensory transduction requires ion channels, relatively little is known about ion channels in the primary cilium (with the exception of TRPP2). Here we show that the Ca2+-activated Cl? channel anoctamin-1 (ANO1/TMEM16A) is located in the primary cilium and that blocking its channel function pharmacologically or knocking it down with short hairpin RNA interferes with ciliogenesis. Before ciliogenesis, the channel becomes organized into a torus-shaped structure (the nimbus) enriched in proteins required for ciliogenesis, including the small GTPases Cdc42 and Arl13b and the exocyst complex component Sec6. The nimbus excludes F-actin and coincides with a ring of acetylated microtubules. The nimbus appears to form before, or independent of, apical docking of the mother centriole. Our data support a model in which the nimbus provides a scaffold for staging of ciliary components for assembly very early in ciliogenesis and chloride transport by ANO1/TMEM16A is required for the genesis or maintenance of primary cilia. PMID:24694595

  8. Stapled haemorrhoidopexy for haemorrhoids in combination with lateral internal sphincterotomy for fissure-in-ano.

    PubMed

    Kanellos, I; Angelopoulos, S; Zacharakis, E; Kanellos, D; Pramateftakis, M G; Blouhos, K; Betsis, D

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to describe the combined technique and results of stapled haemorrhoidopexy and lateral internal sphincterotomy for patients suffering from prolapsing 3rd-degree haemorrhoids and chronic fissure-in-ano. During the period from 1999 to 2004, 26 patients underwent combined surgical treatment for anal fissure and prolapsing symptomatic haemorrhoids. Preoperative and postoperative clinical evaluation and the patient's degree of satisfaction were recorded. Early complications included faecal urgency (3 patients) and pain (2 patients). Complete continence was restored within 10 weeks in all patients except 1 who had persisting incontinence to flatus. All fissures healed completely within 4 weeks. No haemorrhoidal or fissure recurrence has been observed during follow-up. The combination of stapled haemorrhoidopexy and lateral internal sphincterotomy is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of prolapsing 3rd-degree haemorrhoids and chronic anal fissures. PMID:16374015

  9. Ano1, a Ca2+-activated Cl? channel, coordinates contractility in mouse intestine by Ca2+ transient coordination between interstitial cells of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Raman Deep; Gibbons, Simon J; Saravanaperumal, Siva Arumugam; Du, Peng; Hennig, Grant W; Eisenman, Seth T; Mazzone, Amelia; Hayashi, Yujiro; Cao, Chike; Stoltz, Gary J; Ordog, Tamas; Rock, Jason R; Harfe, Brian D; Szurszewski, Joseph H; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells that generate electrical activity to drive contractility in the gastrointestinal tract via ion channels. Ano1 (Tmem16a), a Ca2+-activated Cl? channel, is an ion channel expressed in ICC. Genetic deletion of Ano1 in mice resulted in loss of slow waves in smooth muscle of small intestine. In this study, we show that Ano1 is required to maintain coordinated Ca2+ transients between myenteric ICC (ICC-MY) of small intestine. First, we found spontaneous Ca2+ transients in ICC-MY in both Ano1 WT and knockout (KO) mice. However, Ca2+ transients within the ICC-MY network in Ano1 KO mice were uncoordinated, while ICC-MY Ca2+ transients in Ano1 WT mice were rhythmic and coordinated. To confirm the role of Ano1 in the loss of Ca2+ transient coordination, we used pharmacological inhibitors of Ano1 activity and shRNA-mediated knock down of Ano1 expression in organotypic cultures of Ano1 WT small intestine. Coordinated Ca2+ transients became uncoordinated using both these approaches, supporting the conclusion that Ano1 is required to maintain coordination/rhythmicity of Ca2+ transients. We next determined the effect on smooth muscle contractility using spatiotemporal maps of contractile activity in Ano1 KO and WT tissues. Significantly decreased contractility that appeared to be non-rhythmic and uncoordinated was observed in Ano1 KO jejunum. In conclusion, Ano1 has a previously unidentified role in the regulation of coordinated gastrointestinal smooth muscle function through coordination of Ca2+ transients in ICC-MY. PMID:25063822

  10. Comparing Ksharasutra (Ayurvedic Seton) and open fistulotomy in the management of fistula-in-ano

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Gouranga; Bain, Jayanta; Ray, Ajay Kumar; Dey, Soumedhik; Das, Nandini; Das, Biswanath

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most commonly practiced surgical “lay open” technique to treat fistula-in-ano (a common anorectal pathology) has high rate of recurrence and anal incontinence. Alternatively, a nonsurgical cost efficient treatment with Ksharasutra (cotton Seton coated with Ayurvedic medicines) has minimal complications. In our study, we have tried to compare these two techniques. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized control study was designed involving patients referred to the Department of General Surgery in RG Kar Medical College, Kolkata, India, from January 2010 to September 2011. Results: Among 50 patients, 26 were in Ksharasutra and 24 were in fistulotomy group. 86% patients were male and 54% of the patients were in the fourth decade. About 74% fistulas are inter-sphincteric and 26% were of trans-sphincteric variety. Severe postoperative pain was more (7.7% vs. 25%) in fistulotomy group, while wound discharge was more associated with Ksharasutra group (15.3% vs. 8.3%). Wound scarring, bleeding, and infection rate were similar in both groups. Ksharasutra group took more time to heal (mean: 53 vs. 35.7 days, P = 0.002) despite reduced disruption to their routine work (2.7 vs. 15.5 days work off, P <0.001). Interestingly, pain experienced was less in Ksharasutra group, there was no open wound in contrast to fistulotomy and it was significantly cost effective (Rupees 166 vs. 464). Conclusion: Treatment of fistula-in-ano with Ksharasutra is a simple with low complications and minimal cost. PMID:26283840

  11. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetrias deficientes em hidrognio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Arajo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais caractersticas espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetrias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrognio. A origem e a evoluo dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evoluo estelar. Geralmente esses objetos so divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro tpico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de populao I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxignio em emisso. Existem evidncias que apontam a seguinte sequncia evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pr an-branca). No entanto, tal cenrio apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescpio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparao das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados esto de acordo com a sequncia evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Alm disso, os dados reforam a afirmao de que as [WCE] so as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrognio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponveis na literatura e a necessidade da obteno de parametros fsicos para estes objetos.

  12. Final report to the Office of Aeronautics, Exploration and Technology National Aeronautics and Space Administration on Assessment of Technologies for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics solicited from individual members of the aerospace profession new technical ideas or approaches applicable to the SEI. These submissions were assessed for their value in (1) reducing the costs or risks of human flight beyond low earth orbit or the time needed to do so, or (2) enabling the accomplishment of more useful space exploration objectives with the available resources. In addition to evaluating the innovations submitted in response to the AIAA solicitation, the assessment team also developed a rational framework in which to consider them: an overall architecture which features several different options. The present document contains sections on architecture and systems (with implementation phases for the moon and Mars), and on technologies (transportation, human support, planetary surfaces, and infrastructure). Conclusions and recommendations on near-term technologies and on technologies with future promise are presented.

  13. The Multi-factor Predictive Seis &Gis Model of Ecological, Genetical, Population Health Risk and Bio-geodynamic Processes In Geopathogenic Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, Y.

    I. Goal and Scope. Human birth rate decrease, death-rate growth and increase of mu- tagenic deviations risk take place in geopathogenic and anthropogenic hazard zones. Such zones create unfavourable conditions for reproductive process of future genera- tions. These negative trends should be considered as a protective answer of the com- plex biosocial system to the appearance of natural and anthropogenic risk factors that are unfavourable for human health. The major goals of scientific evaluation and de- crease of risk of appearance of hazardous processes on the territory of Dnipropetrovsk, along with creation of the multi-factor predictive Spirit-Energy-Information Space "SEIS" & GIS Model of ecological, genetical and population health risk in connection with dangerous bio-geodynamic processes, were: multi-factor modeling and correla- tion of natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and those of human health; determination of indicators that show the risk of destruction structures appearance on different levels of organization and functioning of the city ecosystem (geophys- ical and geochemical fields, soil, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere); analysis of regularities of natural, anthropogenic, and biological rhythms' interactions. II. Meth- ods. The long spatio-temporal researches (Y. Bondarenko, 1996, 2000) have proved that the ecological, genetic and epidemiological processes are in connection with de- velopment of dangerous bio-geophysical and bio-geodynamic processes. Mathemat- ical processing of space photos, lithogeochemical and geophysical maps with use of JEIS o and ERDAS o computer systems was executed at the first stage of forma- tion of multi-layer geoinformation model "Dnipropetrovsk ARC View GIS o. The multi-factor nonlinear correlation between solar activity and cosmic ray variations, geophysical, geodynamic, geochemical, atmospheric, technological, biological, socio- economical processes and oncologic case rate frequency, general and primary popula- tion sickness cases in Dnipropetrovsk City (1.2 million persons) are described by the multi-factor predictive SEIS & GIS model of geopathogenic zones that determines the human health risk and hazards. Results and Conclusions. We have created the SEIS system and multi-factor predictive SEIS model for the analysis of phase-metric spatio- 1 temporal nonlinear correlation and variations of rhythms of human health, ecological, genetic, epidemiological risks, demographic, socio-economic, bio-geophysical, bio- geodynamic processes in geopathogenic hazard zones. Cosmophotomaps "CPM" of vegetation index, anthropogenic-landscape and landscape-geophysical human health risk of Dnipropetrovsk City present synthesis-based elements of multi-layer GIS, which include multispectral images SPOT o, maps of different geophysical, geochem- ical, anthropogenic and citogenic risk factors, maps of integral oncologic case rate frequency, general and primary population sickness cases for administrative districts. Results of multi-layer spatio-temporal correlation of geophysical field parameters and variations of population sickness rate rhythms have enabled us to state grounds and to develop medico-biological and bio-geodynamic classification of geopathogenic zones. Bio-geodynamic model has served to define contours of anthropogenic-landscape and landscape-geophysical human health risk in Dnipropetrovsk City. Biorhythmic vari- ations give foundation for understanding physiological mechanisms of organism`s adaptation to extreme helio-geophysical and bio-geodynamic environmental condi- tions, which are dictated by changes in Multi-factor Correlation Stress Field "MCSF" with deformation of 5D SEIS. Interaction between organism and environment results in continuous superpositioning of external (exogenic) Nuclear-Molecular-Cristallic "NMC" MCSF rhythms on internal (endogenic) Nuclear-Molecular-Cellular "NMCl" MCSF rhythms. Their resonance wave (energy-information) integration and disinte- gration are responsible for structural and functional state of different physiological systems. Herewith, complex restructurization of defense functions blocks the adapta- tion process and may turn to be the primary reason for phase shifting, process and biorhythms hindering, appearance of different deseases. Interaction of biorhythms with natural and anthropogenic rhythms specify the peculiar features of environ- mental adaptation of living species. Such interaction results in correlation of sea- sonal rhythms in variations of thermo-baro-geodynamic "TBG" parameters of am- bient air with toxic concentration and human health risk in Dnipropetrovsk City. Bio-geodynamic analysis of medical and demographic situations has provided for search of spatio-temporal correlation between rhythms of general and primary pop- ulation sickness cases and oncologic case rate frequency, other medico-demographic rhythms, natural processes (helio-geophysical, thermodynamic, geodynamic) and an- thropogenic processes (industrial and houschold waste disposal, toxic emissions and their concentration in ambient air). The year of 1986, the year of minimum helio- geophysical activity "2G1dG1" and maximum anthropogenic processes associated with changes in sickness and death rates of the population of Earth were synchronized. With account of quantum character of SEIS rhythms, 5 reference levels of desyn- chronized helio-geophysical and bio-geodynamic processes affecting population sick- ness rate have been specified within bio-geodynamic models. The first reference level 2 of SEIS desynchronization includes rhythms with period of 22,5 years: ... 1958,2; 1980,7; 2003,2; .... The second reference level of SEIS desynchronization includes rhythms with period of 11,25 years: ... 1980,7; 1992; 2003,2;.... The third reference level covers 5,625-years periodic rhythms2:... 1980,7; 1986,3; 1992; 1997,6; 2003,2; .... The fourth quantum reference level includes rhythms 3 with period of 2,8125 years: ... 1980,7; 1983,5; 1986,3; 1989,1; 1992; 1994,8; 1997,6; 2000,4; 2003,2; .... Rhythms with 1,40625-years period fall is fifth reference level of SEIS desynchro- nization: ...1980,7; 1982,1; 1983,5; 1984,9; 1986,3; 1987,7; 1989,1; 1990,5; 1992; 1993,3; 1994,8; 1996,2; 1997,6; 1999; 2000,4; 2001,8; 2003,2;.... Analysis of alternat- ing medical and demographic situation in Ukraine (1981-1992)and in Dnipropetrovsk (1988-1995)has allowed to back up theoretical model of various-level rhythm quan- tum, with non-linear regularities due to phase-metric spatio-temporal deformation be- ing specified. Application of new technologies of Risk Analysis, Sinthesis and SEIS Modeling at the choice of a burial place for dangerous radioactive wastes in the zone of Chernobyl nuclear disaster (Shestopalov V., Bondarenko Y...., 1998) has shown their very high efficiency in comparison with GIS Analysis. IV.Recommendations and Outlook. In order to draw a conclusion regarding bio-geodynamic modeling of spatio-temporal structure of areas where common childhood sickness rate exists, it is necessary to mention that the only thing that can favour to exact predicting of where and when important catastrophes and epidemies will take place is correct and complex bio-geodynamic modeling. Imperfection of present GIS is the result of the lack of interactive facilities for multi-factor modeling of nonlinear natural and an- thropogenic processes. Equations' coefficients calculated for some areas are often irrelevant when applied to others. In this connection there arises a number of prob- lems concerning practical application and reliability of GIS-models that are used to carry out efficient ecological monitoring. References Bondarenko Y., 1997, Drawing up Cosmophotomaps and Multi-factor Forecasting of Hazard of Development of Dan- gerous Geodynamic Processes in Dnipropetrovsk,The Technically-Natural Problems of failures and catastrophes in connection with development of dangerous geological processes, Kiev, Ukraine, 1997. Bondarenko Y., 1997, The Methodology of a State the Value of Quality of the Ground and the House Level them Ecology-Genetic-Toxic of the human health risk based on multi-layer cartographical model", Experience of application GIS - Technologies for creating Cadastral Systems, Yalta, Ukraine, 1997, p. 39-40. Shestopalov V., Bondarenko Y., Zayonts I., Rudenko Y. , Bohuslavsky A., 1998, Complexation of Structural-Geodynamical and Hydrogeological Methods of Studying Areas to Reveal Geological Structural Perspectives for Deep Isolation of Radioactive Wastes, Field Testing and Associated Modeling of Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Geologic Disposal Sites, Berkeley, USA, 1998, p.81-82. 3

  14. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Linghan; Liu, Wen; Guan, Lizhao; Lu, Min; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy. PMID:26305547

  15. Comparative study of Ksharasutra suturing and Lord's anal dilatation in the management of Parikartika (chronic fissure-in-ano)

    PubMed Central

    Dudhamal, Tukaram S.; Baghel, Madhav Singh; Bhuyan, Chaturbhuja; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parikartika resembles fissure-in-ano which is very common among all ano-rectal disorders. In Ayurvedic texts, Parikartika is described as a complication of Vamana and Virechana as well as complication of Atisara. Ksharasutra was proved successful in the management of fistula-in-ano, piles, and there is a need to try its efficacy in fissure-in-ano. Aim: To evaluate the role of Ksharasutra suturing (KSS) in fissure bed in chronic fissure-in-ano. Materials and Methods: Total 100 patients of chronic fissure-in-ano were selected and randomly divided into two groups (50 in each group). In group-A, patients were undergone by KSS; while in patients of Group-B Lord's anal dilatation followed by KSS was done under spinal anesthesia. The KSS was done once and after slough out of Ksharasutra, the wound was treated for 4 weeks and assessment of the result was done on the basis of gradation adopted. Results: The pain relief on 14th day in Group-A was 86% while in Group-B 100% was observed. As on 7th day in Group-A, oozing was stopped in 68% patients, while in Group-B, oozing was stopped in 82% patients. On 21st day, Group-B showed more healing (85%) as compared to Group-A (69%). In this study 68% of patients were cured. Conclusion: In Group-B (KSS with Lord's anal dilatation) patients were cured early as compared to patients of Group-A (KSS alone). PMID:25558158

  16. The proposed use of radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of fistula-in-ano.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Kenneth M; Smart, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Fistula in ano is a very common presentation to colorectal clinic. Embarrassment due to the symptoms makes accurate estimations of incidence difficult. It is estimated that up to 40% of peri-anal abscess will be accompanied by or preceded by a fistula. Fistulae can be classified into simple fistulae that involve no or minimal sphincter muscle and complex, which involve significant amounts of the anal sphincter muscle, possibly with multiple tracts. For complex fistulae a seton suture is usually placed through the tract and out through the anus to form a loop allowing pockets of sepsis to drain internally and externally and a mature tract of fibrous tissue to develop. Following this period definitive fistula treatment is considered. This can involve a number of procedures that have tremendously varied success rates in the literature. The first stage of surgical treatment is often a core fistulectomy, which entails surgical removal of the tract. This may be followed by insertion of fibrin glue, a collagen plug or formation of a rotation skin flap from surrounding tissue in order to close the resultant tissue defect. All current treatments have a significant failure rate. If this wound breaks down the surgery can leave a large painful peri-anal wound that can lead to ongoing fistulation. Should this occur resiting of the seton will be required with the patient only getting back to square one after months of healing around the seton. In addition removing cores of fibrous tissue passing through the sphincter can threaten the sphincter function resulting in impaired continence. Having seen radiofrequency ablation used to close varicose veins the authors propose that one could use similar techniques to close a fibrous tract matured with a seton in order to close a fistula. The authors propose that a short length radiofrequency catheter could be used to treat fistula in ano. This would in theory be less painful with less tissue destruction. In addition there would be no necessity for extensive incisions. As the energy penetration can be controlled the procedure will be safe even if it fails, without causing a large wound or tissue necrosis. All other treatment options will still be available. PMID:26804594

  17. Física e Arte nas Estações do Ano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; da Conceição Barbosa Lima, Maria; Navarro Vasconcellos das Mercês, Maria

    2004-12-01

    The paper deals with the subject of the Four Seasons, exploring elements of Science and the Art in order to motivate students or public of museums of science and technology to understand it from their current cultural experiences and of old times. Physics joins to Astronomy to explain the phenomenon, while the use of Music and Painting make possible the immersion in the subject in way to many trips to the imagination capable to awake emotions.A proposal didactic is presented and justified for some consensus of the research in the area of teaching-learning of science, since that related to the persistent alternative conceptions concerning the causes of the changes observed at the different times of the year until the qualitative modelling of phenomena that appeals three-dimensional pedagogical models. Such proposal was developed in the activity named " Hiper interesting Talk: The Four Seasons, Science and Art" in the first Sunday of August/2003 in the Museum of Astronomy, MAST. O artigo trata do tema das Estações do Ano, explorando elementos da Ciência e da Arte como forma de motivar estudantes ou público de museus de ciência e tecnologia a compreendê-lo a partir de vivências culturais atuais e de outras épocas. A Física se junta à Astronomia para explicar o fenômeno, enquanto a Música e a Pintura possibilitam a imersão no tema em meio a muitas viagens à imaginação capazes de despertar emoções.Uma proposta didática é apresentada e justificada por consensos das muitas pesquisas na área de ensino-aprendizagem de ciências, desde os que se referem às persistentes concepções alternativas acerca das causas das mudanças observadas nas diferentes épocas do ano até à modelagem qualitativa de fenômenos que recorre a modelos pedagógicos tridimensionais. Tal proposta foi desenvolvida na atividade "Bate papo Hiperinteressante: As Quatro Estações, Ciência e Arte" realizada no primeiro domingo do mês de agosto de 2003 no Museu de Astronomia.

  18. Dust control research for SEI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Harris, Jeffrey R.

    A study, at NASA Johnson Space Center, of dust control requirements for surface habitats has focused on identification of the dust problem, identifying dust control techniques and dust control technology areas requiring research development. This research was performed for the Surface Habitats and Construction (SHAC) technology area. Dust control consists of two problems: (1) how to keep it out of the habitat; and (2) once the habitat or airlock is contaminated with dust, how to collect it. This paper describes the dust environment, the Apollo experience and dust control methods used, future EVA operational considerations, and dust control concepts for surface habitats.

  19. MineSeis -- A MATLAB{reg_sign} GUI program to calculate synthetic seismograms from a linear, multi-shot blast source model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.

    1998-04-01

    Large scale (up to 5 kt) chemical blasts are routinely conducted by mining and quarry industries around the world to remove overburden or to fragment rocks. Because of their ability to trigger the future International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), these blasts are monitored and studied by verification seismologists for the purpose of discriminating them from possible clandestine nuclear tests. One important component of these studies is the modeling of ground motions from these blasts with theoretical and empirical source models. The modeling exercises provide physical bases to regional discriminants and help to explain the observed signal characteristics. The program MineSeis has been developed to implement the synthetic seismogram modeling of multi-shot blast sources with the linear superposition of single shot sources. Single shot sources used in the modeling are the spherical explosion plus spall model mentioned here. Mueller and Murphy`s (1971) model is used as the spherical explosion model. A modification of Anandakrishnan et al.`s (1997) spall model is developed for the spall component. The program is implemented with the MATLAB{reg_sign} Graphical User Interface (GUI), providing the user with easy, interactive control of the calculation.

  20. Low-Cost Al2O3 Coating Layer As a Preformed SEI on Natural Graphite Powder To Improve Coulombic Efficiency and High-Rate Cycling Stability of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tianyu; Xu, Youlong; Zhang, Zhengwei; Du, Xianfeng; Sun, Xiaofei; Xiong, Lilong; Rodriguez, Raul; Holze, Rudolf

    2016-03-16

    Coulombic efficiency especially in the first cycle, cycling stability, and high-rate performance are crucial factors for commercial Li-ion batteries (LIBs). To improve them, in this work, Al2O3-coated natural graphite powder was obtained through a low-cost and facile sol-gel method. Based on a comparison of various coated amounts, 0.5 mol % Al(NO3)3 (vs mole of graphite) could bring about a smooth Al2O3 coating layer with proper thickness, which could act as a preformed solid electrolyte interface (SEI) to reduce the regeneration of SEI and lithium-ions consumption during subsequent cycling. Furthermore, we examined the advantages of Al2O3 coating by relating energy levels in LIBs using density functional theory calculations. Owing to its proper bandgap and lithium-ion conduction ability, the coating layer performs the same function as a SEI does, preventing an electron from getting to the outer electrode surface and allowing lithium-ion transport. Therefore, as a preformed SEI, the Al2O3 coating layer reduces extra cathode consumption observed in commercial LIBs. PMID:26913475

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of the MBT plant in Ano Liossia, Athens, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Abeliotis, Konstadinos; Kalogeropoulos, Alexandros; Lasaridi, Katia

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the operation of an MBT plant in Greece based on LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare four different MBT operating scenarios (among them and with landfilling). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Utilization of the MBT compost and metals generates the most environmental gains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal exploitation of RDF improves further the environmental performance of the plant. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the application of Life Cycle Assessment to the operation of the MBT facility of Ano Liossia in the region of Attica in Greece. The region of Attica is home to almost half the population of Greece and the management of its waste is a major issue. In order to explicitly analyze the operation of the MBT plant, five scenarios were generated. Actual operation data of the MBT plant for the year 2008 were provided by the region of Attica and the LCA modeling was performed via the SimaPro 5.1 software while impact assessment was performed utilizing the Eco-indicator'99 method. The results of our analysis indicate that even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Among the scenarios of MBT operation, the one with complete utilization of the MBT outputs, i.e. compost, RDF, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, is the one that generates the most environmental gains. Our analysis indicates that the exploitation of RDF via incineration is the key factor towards improving the environmental performance of the MBT plant. Our findings provide a quantitative understanding of the MBT plant. Interpretation of results showed that proper operation of the modern waste management systems can lead to substantial reduction of environmental impacts and savings of resources.

  2. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales

    PubMed Central

    KITAYAMA, Chiyo; SASAKI, Motoki; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KONDOH, Daisuke; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe3+) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  3. Surgery for fistula-in-ano in a specialist colorectal unit: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several techniques have been described for the management of fistula-in-ano, but all carry their own risks of recurrence and incontinence. We conducted a prospective study to assess type of presentation, treatment strategy and outcome over a 5-year period. Methods Between 1st January 2005 and 31st March 2011 247 patients presenting with anal fistulas were treated at the University Hospital Tor Vergata and were included in the present prospective study. Mean age was 47 years (range 16-76 years); minimum follow-up period was 6 months (mean 40, range 6-74 months). Patients were treated using 4 operative approaches: fistulotomy, fistulectomy, seton placement and rectal advancement flap. Data analyzed included: age, gender, type of fistula, operative intervention, healing rate, postoperative complications, reinterventions and recurrence. Results Etiologies of fistulas were cryptoglandular (n = 218), Crohn's disease (n = 26) and Ulcerative Colitis (n = 3). Fistulae were classified as simple -intersphincteric 57 (23%), low transphincteric 28 (11%) and complex -high transphicteric 122 (49%), suprasphincteric 2 (0.8%), extrasphinteric 2 (0.8%), recto-vaginal 7 (2.8%) Crohn 26 (10%) and UC 3 (1.2%). The most common surgical procedure was the placement of seton (62%), usually applied in case of complex fistulae and Crohn's patients. Eighty-five patients (34%) underwent fistulotomy, mainly for intersphincteric and mid/low transphincteric tracts. Crohn's patients were submitted to placement of one or more loose setons. The main treatment successfully eradicated the primary fistula tract in 151/247 patients (61%). Three cases of major incontinence (1.3%) were detected during the follow-up period; Furthermore, three patients complained minor incontinence that was successfully treated by biofeedback and permacol injection into the internal anal sphincter. Conclusions This prospective audit demonstrates an high proportion of complex anal fistulae treated by seton placement that was the most common surgical technique adopted to treat our patients as a first line. Nevertheless, a good outcome was achieved in the majority of patients with a limited rate of faecal incontinence (6/247 = 2.4%). New technologies provide promising alternatives to traditional methods of management particularly in case of complex fistulas. There is, however, a real need for high-quality randomized control trials to evaluate the different surgical and non surgical treatment options. PMID:22070555

  4. The Role of Fibrin Glue in the Treatment of High and Low Fistulas in Ano

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Atul; Shah, Sheerin; Nar, Amandeep Singh; Bawa, Ashvind

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of fibrin glue in high and low anal fistulas. Methods: A prospective, non-randomized trial was carried out on 30 patients who were diagnosed to have fistulas in ano. They were evaluated by categorizing them into high (with the internal opening above the anorectal ring)(14/30) and low anal fistulas (with the internal opening below the anorectal ring)(16/30). The fibrin glue was instilled in their anal tracts. The character of the anal tract, whether it was single or multiple and primary or recurrent, was analyzed. The outcome in terms of a postoperative discharge (failure), the incidence of a postoperative perianal pain/abscess and the glue reaction, was noted at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. A success was defined as the absence of any discharge at 6 months. Results: Fourteen patients with high anal fistulas and 16 with low anal fistulas (with a mean age of 48.5yrs) were treated with fibrin glue. 19 patients had primary tracts (7- high group and 12- low group) and 11 had recurrent tracts (7- high group and 4- low group). 20 fistulas were single tracted (8- high and 12- low) and ten were multiple tracted (6- high and 4-low). The success rate at 6 months was 57.14% in the high group and it was 81.25% in the low group. The failure rate was 85.71% in the recurrent high fistula group as compared to 25% in the recurrent low fistula group (p=0.049). 25% of the single tracted high fistulas failed to heal as compared to a 100% healing rate in the single low fistulas group (p=0.90). Conclusion: This procedure is thus, superior to the conventional surgical treatment, in terms of the patient comfort, an undisturbed sphincter function, a reduced overall hospital stay, wound pain and the complications and adverse reactions. It showed the best results in the primary, single tracted and the low anal fistulas. PMID:23814732

  5. Fistula-in-Ano Complicated by Fournier's Gangrene Our Experience in North-Eastern Region of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Ali, Nuhu; Gadam, Ibrahim A; Gali, Bata M; Tahir, Chubado; Yawe, KDT; Dahiru, Adamu B; Mohammed, Baba S; Wadinga, Dauda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fistula-in-ano when complicated by Fournier's gangrene is an unusual finding and always carries high morbidity. This study details our experience in managing 10 cases. Methods of Study: Case files of all patients managed in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital and Federal Medical Center of Yola and Gombe from January, 2007 to December, 2011 were retrieved from Medical Record Departments and other Hospital Records. These were analyzed for demographic, clinical and pathological variables, the type of treatment and follow-up. Results: A total of 10 men with a mean age of 50.5 years (35-60) were managed in the period of study. Nearly, 50% of the patients were farmers, 30% businessmen and 20% were civil servant. 7 (70%) of these patients presented with Fournier's gangrene within 4 weeks of development of fistula-in-ano and the rest within 8 weeks. 4 (40%) of these patients had inadequate drainage of their perianal abscess and 2 (20%) had incision and drainage. Another 4 (40%) had spontaneously rupture of the perianal abscess. 6 (60%) of the fistula-in-ano was submuscular, 30% subcutaneous and 10% were complex or recurrent. Nearly, 20% of patients had fistulotomy and seton application for adequate drainage. Mucosal advancement flap was performed in 5 (50%) and fistulotomy in 3 (30%) patients. Another 30% had fistulotomy and continuing sitz bath. Conclusion: Cryptoglandular infection is an important cause of perianal abscesses and fistula-in-ano and if poorly managed results in Fournier's gangrene. Early broad spectrum parenteral antibiotic therapy and primary surgical treatment can prevent Fournier's gangrene. PMID:24497752

  6. H/V ratio in Athens and the strong motion at the Ano Liosia site during the 1999 Athens earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpetsidaki, A.; Tselentis, G.-A.; Zahradnik, J.

    2003-04-01

    The damaging 1999 Athens earthquake of Mw=5.9 occurred at about 20km from the city center. The intensity distribution in the capital, ranging from V to IX, was quite irregular due to combination of the source, path and site effects. The 30-stations temporary network of the University of Patras, installed in the area of Attica for 50 days, recorded a significant part of the aftershock sequence. The aftershocks not only delineated the mainshock fault plane, but they also provided important site classification. The Horizontal-to-Vertical spectral ratio method was applied, and the most significant amplification (H/V exceeding 4 in the frequency range 1-4Hz) was found at the Ano Liosia site, belonging to the most heavily damaged zones with intensity IX. The site is situated in a shallow basin, whose surface extent is about 4x4 km, and the maximum depth is of about 150 m. Based on geological and geophysical data (Vp, Vs, Q) measured at the site, the numerical modeling of the seismic site response was carried out. The finite-differences technique was used for a 2D modeling, and significant edge effects were revealed, e.g. the amplification by a factor of 3, with respect to the outcropping bedrock. The 1D effects of the sediment layering, modeled by the matrix technique, would produce much weaker amplification, and simpler time history of the response. No recording of the mainshock is available from Ano Liosia. Nevertheless, based on the finite-extent source model validated by the existing strong motion records in Athens, we assume that the bedrock motion in Ano Liosia had its PGA ranging from 0.2 to 0.3 g, resulting from the relatively small epicentral distance (~ 10 km) and the forward source directivity (Serpetsidaki et al., session SM10). When combined with the above discussed site effect, the PGA values in Ano Liosia might locally exceed 0.6g.

  7. Long-term results in the treatment of fistula-in-ano with fibrin glue: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ba?konu?, ?lyas; Gkalp, Avni; Borazan, Ersin; Balk, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This prospective study was done to analyze the efficacy of commercial fibrin glue application in the healing of patients with fistulas-in-ano from a long-term (mean 4.5 years) research period. Methods This clinical trial of forty-six patients was performed during the period from January 2004 to February 2005. Thirty-nine men and seven women were treated for a fistula-in-ano with a commercial fibrin glue application. In the operating room, the patients underwent an anorectal examination under spinal anesthesia. The external and internal fistula tract openings were then identified. The fistula tract was curetted. Fibrin glue was injected into the external fistula opening until the fibrin glue could be seen coming from the internal opening. Results The overall initial success rate was 86.95% (40/46). Recurrence rate was 41.30% (19/46). Two patients underwent a re-application with fibrin glue and the fistulas of these patients closed. The total recurrence rate was 36.95% (17/46). The long-term overall success rate was 63.04% (29/46). Conclusion Fibrin glue application was thus found to be an easy, safe, acceptable, successful alternative treatment in the management of fistulas-in-ano. Choosing the patient correctly is very important because long (more than 4 cm) and non-ramificate fistula tracts usually close with commercial fibrin glue. PMID:22066118

  8. Assessment and classification of fistula-in-ano in patients with Crohn's disease by hydrogen peroxide enhanced transanal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Sloots, C E; Felt-Bersma, R J; Poen, A C; Cuesta, M A; Meuwissen, S G

    2001-09-01

    Crohn's disease is well known for its perianal complications, among which fistulas-in-ano are the most common abnormalities. Fistulas-in-ano in Crohn's disease tend to be complex and have a high recurrence rate. Therefore the role of surgery is generally more conservative. Hydrogen peroxide enhanced transanal ultrasound has proven superior to physical examination, fistulography, computed tomography, and conventional ultrasound in demonstrating the fistula tract. This study examined the fistula tracks in patients with Crohn's disease. Forty-one patients with Crohn's disease and fistula-in-ano were investigated using physical examination, sondage of the fistula, proctoscopy and transanal ultrasound. Hydrogen peroxide was infused via a small catheter into the fistula. The main track and the ramification of the fistula were classified according to the anatomical Parks' classification. Only 9 (22%) patients had a single inter- or transsphincteric fistula. In 5 (12%) patients a single supra- or extrasphincteric fistula (high fistula) was found, in 14 (34%) more than one fistula track (ramified), and in 13 (32%) an anovaginal fistula. Thus 78% of patients had a surgically difficult to treat fistula. In the ramified fistula the main track follows the Parks' classification, but ramifications can have a bizarre pattern which is not in agreement with this classification. Optimal documentation by means of hydrogen peroxide enhanced transanal ultrasound is therefore mandatory before surgery or before other therapies such as anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment. PMID:11686526

  9. Investigation of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film on LiCoO2 cathode in fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC)-containing electrolyte by 2D correlation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yeonju; Shin, Su Hyun; Hwang, Hoon; Lee, Sung Man; Kim, Sung Phil; Choi, Hyun Chul; Jung, Young Mee

    2014-07-01

    The effects of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) on the electrochemical performance of the LiCoO2 cathode were investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge testing and cyclic voltammetry (CV). It was found that FEC has a positive effect on cycling stability and also improves cell performance. We also studied solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film on the LiCoO2 cathode, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and 2D correlation spectroscopy. The 2D correlation XPS spectra showed that, initially, the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) binder and electrolyte components are decomposed, after which SEI components are formed on the LiCoO2 cathode surface. In the FEC-containing electrolyte, the polycarbonate components are more abundant than in the FEC-free electrolyte. The formed carbonates in SEI film can act as Li+-conducting materials in reducing the electrode/electrolyte interfacial impedance. This hypothesis is supported by the results of an electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) analysis.

  10. Identification and characterization of a novel promoter for the human ANO1 gene regulated by the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6)

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Amelia; Gibbons, Simon J.; Bernard, Cheryl E.; Nowsheen, Somaira; Middha, Sumit; Almada, Luciana L.; Ordog, Tamas; Kendrick, Michael L.; Reid Lombardo, KMarie; Shen, K. Robert; Galietta, Luis J. V.; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2015-01-01

    Anoctamin-1 (Ano1) is a widely expressed protein responsible for endogenous Ca2+-activated Cl? currents. Ano1 is overexpressed in cancer. Differential expression of transcriptional variants is also found in other diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying regulation of Ano1 are unknown. This study identifies the Ano1 promoter and defines a mechanism for regulating its expression. Next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis in human gastric muscle found a new exon upstream of the reported exon 1 and identified a promoter proximal to this new exon. Reporter assays in human embryonic kidney 293 cells showed a 6.7 2.1-fold increase in activity over empty vector. Treatment with a known regulator of Ano1 expression, IL-4, increased promoter activity by 1.6 0.02-fold over untreated cells. The promoter region contained putative binding sites for multiple transcription factors including signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6), a downstream effector of IL-4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments on T84 cells, which endogenously express Ano1, showed a 2.1 0.12-fold increase in binding of STAT6 to P0 after IL-4 treatment. These results were confirmed by mutagenesis, expression, and RNA interference techniques. This work allows deeper understanding of the regulation of Ano1 in physiology and as a potential therapeutic target in a variety of diseasesMazzone, A., Gibbons, S. J., Bernard, C. E., Nowsheen, S., Middha, S., Almada, L. L., Ordog, T., Kendrick, M. L., Reid Lombardo, KM., Shen, K. R., Galietta, L. J. V., Fernandez-Zapico, M. E., and Farrugia, G. Identification and characterization of a novel promoter for the human ANO1 gene regulated by the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6). PMID:25351986

  11. New Constraints on Buried Triassic Basins of the Eastern North American Margin and Implications for Regional Tectonics from Reanalysis of SeisData6 Seismic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, C. C.; Akintunde, O. M.; Knapp, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) is most significant due to the complexity and regional extent of this mature Mesozoic passive margin rift system encompassing: (1) a large volume and regional extent of related magmatism, (2) a preserved complete stratigraphic column that records the post-rift evolution in several basins, (3) preserved lithospheric-scale pre-rift structures including Paleozoic sutures, and (4) a wide-range of geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies both onshore and offshore. The short-lived but most voluminous magmatic event associated with the initiation of rifting, the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), is one of the most significant magmatic events in North America. The South Georgia Rift (SGR) basin is believed to be the largest and probably the most geologically complex Mesozoic graben of the ENAM formed during crustal extension associated with the breakup of Pangea and later opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The separation of the African and North American plates, the formation of the Atlantic Ocean and the associated zones of weakness in eastern North America have been stated as the initial events in the breakup of Pangea. At least four major unanswered questions of regional tectonic significance derive from a previous study of the USGS SeisData6 seismic profile across the Coastal Plain of South East Georgia and are now addressed through reprocessing. These issues are: (1) the stratigraphy, structural composition, extent and thickness of this buried basin which have remained unknown, (2) whether or not the SGR basin is connected with the Riddleville and Dunbarton basins in Georgia and South Carolina, (3) whether or not the Augusta fault, an inferred crustal scale thrust fault which approximately represents the Piedmont-Coastal Plain boundary in Georgia and South Carolina, extends underneath the Coastal Plain sediments, and (4) weather there is evidence of CAMP basalt flows or sills within the SGR basin along this transect. A key significant discovery of this study is the substantiation of the presence of a buried Triassic basin inferred to be the subsurface convergence of the Riddleville and Dunbarton basins. Both basins appear to be subsidiaries of the main SGR basin. The SGR basin is about 2.2 km deep, 170 km wide and it appears to be bounded in the south-east by normal faults resembling graben-like structures. Basin-bounding faults reactivated as reverse faults during Cretaceous and Cenozoic times are common in many of the buried Mesozoic rift basins of the Southern Appalachians. The basin fill is mostly sedimentary rocks and no basalt was encountered. Absence of basalt in this area implies that erosion, uplift and possibly fault reactivation may have limited the regional extent of voluminous basaltic flows extruded during ENAM's magmatism. Seismically, we found no evidence to suggest that the Augusta fault extends underneath the Coastal Plain sediments in the study area. Based on correlation of seismic and well data, we interpret the lack of reflections in the NW-end of the profile to be due to the presence of non-reflective metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont Province.

  12. Meta-Analyses of Microarray Datasets Identifies ANO1 and FADD as Prognostic Markers of Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ram Bhupal; Bhat, Anupama Rajan; James, Bonney Lee; Govindan, Sindhu Valiyaveedan; Mathew, Rohit; Dr, Ravindra; Hedne, Naveen; Illiayaraja, Jeyaram; Kekatpure, Vikram; Khora, Samanta S; Hicks, Wesley; Tata, Pramila; Kuriakose, Moni A; Suresh, Amritha

    2016-01-01

    The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) transcriptome has been profiled extensively, nevertheless, identifying biomarkers that are clinically relevant and thereby with translational benefit, has been a major challenge. The objective of this study was to use a meta-analysis based approach to catalog candidate biomarkers with high potential for clinical application in HNSCC. Data from publically available microarray series (N = 20) profiled using Agilent (4X44K G4112F) and Affymetrix (HGU133A, U133A_2, U133Plus 2) platforms was downloaded and analyzed in a platform/chip-specific manner (GeneSpring software v12.5, Agilent, USA). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and clustering analysis was carried out iteratively for segregating outliers; 140 normal and 277 tumor samples from 15 series were included in the final analysis. The analyses identified 181 differentially expressed, concordant and statistically significant genes; STRING analysis revealed interactions between 122 of them, with two major gene clusters connected by multiple nodes (MYC, FOS and HSPA4). Validation in the HNSCC-specific database (N = 528) in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) identified a panel (ECT2, ANO1, TP63, FADD, EXT1, NCBP2) that was altered in 30% of the samples. Validation in treatment nave (Group I; N = 12) and post treatment (Group II; N = 12) patients identified 8 genes significantly associated with the disease (Area under curve>0.6). Correlation with recurrence/re-recurrence showed ANO1 had highest efficacy (sensitivity: 0.8, specificity: 0.6) to predict failure in Group I. UBE2V2, PLAC8, FADD and TTK showed high sensitivity (1.00) in Group I while UBE2V2 and CRYM were highly sensitive (>0.8) in predicting re-recurrence in Group II. Further, TCGA analysis showed that ANO1 and FADD, located at 11q13, were co-expressed at transcript level and significantly associated with overall and disease-free survival (p<0.05). The meta-analysis approach adopted in this study has identified candidate markers correlated with disease outcome in HNSCC; further validation in a larger cohort of patients will establish their clinical relevance. PMID:26808319

  13. Meta-Analyses of Microarray Datasets Identifies ANO1 and FADD as Prognostic Markers of Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Ram Bhupal; Bhat, Anupama Rajan; James, Bonney Lee; Govindan, Sindhu Valiyaveedan; Mathew, Rohit; DR, Ravindra; Hedne, Naveen; Illiayaraja, Jeyaram; Kekatpure, Vikram; Khora, Samanta S.; Hicks, Wesley; Tata, Pramila; Kuriakose, Moni A.; Suresh, Amritha

    2016-01-01

    The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) transcriptome has been profiled extensively, nevertheless, identifying biomarkers that are clinically relevant and thereby with translational benefit, has been a major challenge. The objective of this study was to use a meta-analysis based approach to catalog candidate biomarkers with high potential for clinical application in HNSCC. Data from publically available microarray series (N = 20) profiled using Agilent (4X44K G4112F) and Affymetrix (HGU133A, U133A_2, U133Plus 2) platforms was downloaded and analyzed in a platform/chip-specific manner (GeneSpring software v12.5, Agilent, USA). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and clustering analysis was carried out iteratively for segregating outliers; 140 normal and 277 tumor samples from 15 series were included in the final analysis. The analyses identified 181 differentially expressed, concordant and statistically significant genes; STRING analysis revealed interactions between 122 of them, with two major gene clusters connected by multiple nodes (MYC, FOS and HSPA4). Validation in the HNSCC-specific database (N = 528) in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) identified a panel (ECT2, ANO1, TP63, FADD, EXT1, NCBP2) that was altered in 30% of the samples. Validation in treatment naïve (Group I; N = 12) and post treatment (Group II; N = 12) patients identified 8 genes significantly associated with the disease (Area under curve>0.6). Correlation with recurrence/re-recurrence showed ANO1 had highest efficacy (sensitivity: 0.8, specificity: 0.6) to predict failure in Group I. UBE2V2, PLAC8, FADD and TTK showed high sensitivity (1.00) in Group I while UBE2V2 and CRYM were highly sensitive (>0.8) in predicting re-recurrence in Group II. Further, TCGA analysis showed that ANO1 and FADD, located at 11q13, were co-expressed at transcript level and significantly associated with overall and disease-free survival (p<0.05). The meta-analysis approach adopted in this study has identified candidate markers correlated with disease outcome in HNSCC; further validation in a larger cohort of patients will establish their clinical relevance. PMID:26808319

  14. Inhibition of cell proliferation by a selective inhibitor of the Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup -} channel, Ano1

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzone, Amelia; Eisenman, Seth T.; Strege, Peter R.; Yao, Zhen; Ordog, Tamas; Gibbons, Simon J.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T16A{sub inh}-A01 blocked Ano1 currents in HEK cells expressing Ano1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T16A{sub inh}-A01 reduced proliferation in ICC primary cultures and CFPAC-1 cell line. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T16A{sub inh}-A01 reduced proliferation of ICC in intact smooth muscle strips. -- Abstract: Background: Ion channels play important roles in regulation of cellular proliferation. Ano1 (TMEM16A) is a Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup -} channel expressed in several tumors and cell types. In the muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract Ano1 is selectively expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and appears to be required for normal gastrointestinal slow wave electrical activity. However, Ano1 is expressed in all classes of ICC, including those that do not generate slow waves suggesting that Ano1 may have other functions. Indeed, a role for Ano1 in regulating proliferation of tumors and ICC has been recently suggested. Recently, a high-throughput screen identified a small molecule, T16A{sub inh}-A01 as a specific inhibitor of Ano1. Aim: To investigate the effect of the T16A{sub inh}-A01 inhibitor on proliferation in ICC and in the Ano1-expressing human pancreatic cancer cell line CFPAC-1. Methods: Inhibition of Ano1 was demonstrated by whole cell voltage clamp recordings of currents in cells transfected with full-length human Ano1. The effect of T16A{sub inh}-A01 on ICC proliferation was examined in situ in organotypic cultures of intact mouse small intestinal smooth muscle strips and in primary cell cultures prepared from these tissues. ICC were identified by Kit immunoreactivity. Proliferating ICC and CFPAC-1 cells were identified by immunoreactivity for the nuclear antigen Ki67 or EdU incorporation, respectively. Results: T16A{sub inh}-A01 inhibited Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup -} currents by 60% at 10 {mu}M in a voltage-independent fashion. Proliferation of ICC was significantly reduced in primary cultures from BALB/c mice following treatment with T16A{sub inh}-A01. Proliferation of the CFPAC-1 human cell-line was also reduced by T16A{sub inh}-A01. In organotypic cultures of smooth muscle strips from mouse jejunum, the proliferation of ICC was reduced but the total number of proliferating cells/confocal stack was not affected, suggesting that the inhibitory effect was specific for ICC. Conclusions: The selective Ano1 inhibitor T16A{sub inh}-A01 inhibited Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup -} currents, reduced the number of proliferating ICC in culture and inhibited proliferation in the pancreatic cancer cell line CFPAC-1. These data support the notion that chloride channels in general and Ano1 in particular are involved in the regulation of proliferation.

  15. Covalency hinders AnO2(H2O)(+)→ AnO(OH)2(+) isomerisation (An = Pa-Pu).

    PubMed

    Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2016-02-21

    The enthalpies of the reactions AnO2(+)→ AnO(+) + O and AnO2(+) + H2O → AnO2(H2O)(+), and those of the isomerisation of the latter to AnO(OH)2(+), have been calculated for An = Pa-Pu. The data match previous experimental and computational values very closely, and the computed enthalpy for the isomerisation of PaO2(H2O)(+) to PaO(OH)2(+), requested by the authors of Inorg. Chem., 2015, 54, 7474, is found to be 0.8 kJ mol(-1). The NPA, NBO and QTAIM approaches are used to probe covalency in the An-Oyl bond of AnO2(H2O)(+), and all metrics agree that these bonds become increasingly covalent as the 5f series is crossed, providing rationalisation for the increasingly endothermic isomerisation reactions. QTAIM analysis indicates that the An[double bond, length as m-dash]O and An-OH bonds in the oxide hydroxide isomers also become increasingly covalent as the 5f series is crossed. PMID:26781751

  16. Autologous adipose-tissue derived regenerative cells for the treatment of complex cryptoglandular fistula-in-ano: a report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Borowski, David W; Gill, Talvinder S; Agarwal, Anil K; Bhaskar, Pudhupalayam

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of complex fistulae-in-ano is challenging and often includes a number of operations due to high rates of recurrence. We report the successful treatment of three consecutive patients with long-standing cryptoglandular fistula-in-ano with a novel combination of mucosal advancement flap and adipose-tissue derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) obtained from a simple lipoaspiration procedure, using Celution technology. There was no operative morbidity; one patient who had a colostomy for faecal diversion has since undergone restoration of bowel continuity. All thee fistulae remain healed at 23-year follow-up. Lipofilling of cryptoglandular fistulae-in-ano with ADRC-enhanced lipofilling appears feasible and safe, and may add to the range of procedures that can be used to treat this difficult problem. PMID:23144344

  17. Um estudo espectrofotomtrico da varivel cataclsmica V3885 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. M. A.; Diaz, M. P.

    2003-08-01

    Variveis Cataclsmicas so sistemas binrios cerrados compostos de uma an vermelha que transfere matria para uma an branca, em sistemas no magnticos ocorre a formao de um disco de acreso em torno da an branca. V3885 Sgr uma varivel cataclsmica classificada como sendo do tipo nova-like. apresentado um estudo espectrofotomtrico de V3885 Sgr de alta resoluo temporal feito na regio do visvel. A regio observada centrada em Ha e abrange tambm a linha de HeI 6678. O primeiro resultado obtido neste estudo a determinao do perodo orbital a partir de medidas da velocidade radial da linha de Ha como sendo 0,20716071(22) dias, resolvendo inconsistncias quanto a esse valor na literatura e definindo uma efemride a longo prazo para o sistema. Com este perodo e as medidas de velocidade radial do perfil de linha de Ha foi construdo um diagrama de massas, atravs do qual restringimos as massas das componentes estelares do sistema e limitamos a inclinao orbital do sistema. Foram construdos diagramas de Greenstein para as linhas de Ha e HeI, onde os espectros mdios em cada intervalo de fase so representados lado a lado em escala de cinza, indicando a existncia de uma emisso intensa proveniente da parte posterior do disco. A partir da tomografia Doppler obtivemos perfis de emissividade radial para o disco tanto para a linha de Ha como para HeI. Os resultados obtidos so comparados com os de outros sistemas estudados com a mesma tcnica. Sero apresentados tambm resultados da tomografia de flickering para o sistema.

  18. Why do we have to review our experience in managing cases with idiopathic fistula-in-ano regularly?

    PubMed Central

    Fucini, Claudio; Giani, Iacopo

    2011-01-01

    Why do we have to review our experience in managing idiopathic fistula-in-ano regularly? In order to answer this apparently simple question, we reviewed our clinical and surgical cases and most important relevant literature to find a rational and scientific answer. It would appear that whatever method you adopt in fistula management, there is a price to pay regarding either rate of recurrence (higher with conservative methods) or impairment of continence (higher with traditional surgery). Since, at the moment, reliable data to identify a treatment as a gold standard in the management of anal fistulas are lacking, the correct approach to this condition must consider all the anatomic and clinicopathological aspects of the disease; this knowledge joined to an eclectic attitude of the surgeon, who should be familiar with different types of treatment, is the only guarantee for a satisfactory treatment. As a conclusion, it is worthwhile to remember that adequate initial treatment significantly reduces recurrence, which, when it occurs, is usually due to failure to recognise the tract and primary opening at the initial operation. PMID:21876617

  19. Haploinsufficiency of ANO6, NELL2 and DBX2 in a boy with intellectual disability and growth delay.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Ellen Ø; Frengen, Eirik; Fannemel, Madeleine; Misceo, Doriana

    2015-08-01

    We report on a 10-year-old-boy presenting with moderate intellectual disability (ID), impaired motor skills, hypotonia, growth delay, minor anomalies, misaligned teeth, pectus excavatum, small hands and feet, widely spaced nipples, and a 1.13 Mb de novo deletion on HSA12q12 (chr12:44,830,147-45,964,945 bp, hg19), deleting ANO6, NELL2, and DBX2 and the pseudogenes PLEKHA8P1 and RACGAP1P. We suggest DBX2 and NELL2 as disease-causing genes and their haploinsufficiency to be involved in the psychomotor delay in the patient. DBX2 encodes a homeobox protein, highly expressed during neuronal development and regulating differentiation of interneurons in brain and spinal cord. NELL2 is expressed in most of the central and peripheral nervous system, with highest expression in hippocampus and cerebellum, maximizing during neuronal differentiation. The deletion in our patient is the smallest in HSA12q12 reported to date, and it is included in the deletion carried by four previously reported patients. The clinical presentation of these patients points to the recurrence of the following manifestation, possibly delineating a 12q12 deletion syndrome phenotype: moderate to severe developmental/intellectual delay, hypotonia, postnatal growth retardation, skeletal and dental anomalies, minor facial anomalies including strabismus, down slanting palpebral fissures, and large/low-set ears. PMID:25846056

  20. A Pore Idea: the ion conduction pathway of TMEM16/ANO proteins is composed partly of lipid.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Jarred M; Hartzell, H Criss

    2016-03-01

    Since their first descriptions, ion channels have been conceived as proteinaceous conduits that facilitate the passage of ionic cargo between segregated environments. This concept is reinforced by crystallographic structures of cation channels depicting ion conductance pathways completely lined by protein. Although lipids are sometimes present in fenestrations near the pore or may be involved in channel gating, there is little or no evidence that lipids inhabit the ion conduction pathway. Indeed, the presence of lipid acyl chains in the conductance pathway would curse the design of the channel's aqueous pore. Here, we make a speculative proposal that anion channels in the TMEM16/ANO superfamily have ion conductance pathways composed partly of lipids. Our reasoning is based on the idea that TMEM16 ion channels evolved from a kind of lipid transporter that scrambles lipids between leaflets of the membrane bilayer and the modeled structural similarity between TMEM16 lipid scramblases and TMEM16 anion channels. This novel view of the TMEM16 pore offers explanation for the biophysical and pharmacological oddness of TMEM16A. We build upon the recent X-ray structure of nhTMEM16 and develop models of both TMEM16 ion channels and lipid scramblases to bolster our proposal. It is our hope that this model of the TMEM16 pore will foster innovative investigation into TMEM16 function. PMID:26739711

  1. THE EFFECTS OF PRENATAL STRESS ON THE ANO-GENITAL DISTANCE AND GROWTH HORMONE IMMUNO-POSITIVE CELLS IN THE PITUITARY GLAND OF THE PIG

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposing pregnant mammals to prenatal stress has been shown to alter the stress response of their resulting offspring. Research in rodents has shown that prenatal stress can modify aspects of gender behavior and morphology. Our objective was to determine if prenatal stress altered the ano-genital di...

  2. Revisiting an ancient treatment for transphincteric fistula-in-ano ‘There is nothing new under the sun’ Ecclesiastes 1v9

    PubMed Central

    Sturgeon, G; Hargest, R

    2015-01-01

    Objective The history of treatments for fistula-in-ano can be traced back to ancient times. Current treatment of transphincteric fistulae is controversial, with many options available. We reviewed the history of treatment using cutting setons and present our series of transphincteric fistulae in the light of the series in the literature. Design Literature review and case series. Setting Hospital based coloproctology service Participants 140 consecutive patients presenting with fistula-in-ano were included. Main Outcome Measures The literature pertaining to treatment of transphincteric fistula was reviewed, along with the outcome of various treatment methods for this condition. Data were collected for 140 consecutive patients presenting with fistula- in-ano were assessed for fistula healing, recurrence and complications. Results A total of 140 consecutive patients with fistula-in-ano were identified, of which 111 were cryptoglandular (79.3%). Eighty-one of these 111 were transphincteric (73.0%). At a median follow-up of 35 months (range, 2–83 months), 70 transphincteric fistulae had healed (86.4%), 10 were still undergoing treatment (12.3%) and one patient was lost to follow-up prior to treatment (1.2%). Two patients in this group required a stoma (2.5%), six patients developed recurrence (7.4%); three ‘true’ recurrences (3.7%). One (1.2%) developed a chronic fissure. There were no reported cases of incontinence. Conclusions The management of transphincteric fistula-in-ano is complex and controversial, for which no clear surgical procedure has gained acceptance as the gold standard. This study demonstrates that transphincteric fistulae can be successfully treated using cutting setons. A high healing rate (86.4%), low recurrence rate (7.4%) and a low complication rate (3.7%) are shown, which compares favourably with published rates over a long follow-up. PMID:26152674

  3. Anal fistula plug vs mucosa advancement flap in complex fistula-in-ano: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Qiang; Jin, Hei-Ying

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of the anal fistula plug (AFP) compared to the mucosa advancement flap (MAF), considered the best procedure for patients with a complex anal fistula. METHODS: The literature search included PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and OVID original studies on the topic of AFP compared to MAF for complex fistula-in-ano that had a deadline for publication by April 2011. Randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials and prospective cohort studies were included in the review. After information collection, a meta-analysis was performed using data on overall success rates as well as incidence of incontinence and morbidity. The quality of postoperative life was also included with the clinical results. RESULTS: Six studies involving 408 patients (AFP = 167, MAF = 241) were included in the meta-analysis. The differences in the overall success rates and incidence of fistula recurrence were not statistically significant between the AFP and MAF [risk difference (RD) = -0.12, 95%CI: -0.39 - 0.14; RD = 0.13; 95%CI: -0.18 - 0.43, respectively]. However, for the AFP, the risk of postoperative impaired continence was lower (RD = -0.08, 95%CI: -0.15 - -0.02) as was the incidence of other complications (RD = -0.06, 95%CI: -0.11 - -0.00). The postoperative quality of life, for patients treated using the AFP was superior to that of the MAF patients. Patients treated with the AFP had less persistent pain of a shorter duration and the healing time of the fistula and hospital stay were also reduced. CONCLUSION: The AFP is an effective procedure for patients with a complex anal fistula; it has the same success rate but a lower risk of complications than the MAF and may also be associated with an improved postoperative quality of life. Additional evidence is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23494149

  4. X-ray sterilization of the An. arabiensis genetic sexing strain 'ANO IPCL1' at pupal and adult stages.

    PubMed

    Ndo, C; Yamada, H; Damiens, D D; N'do, S; Seballos, G; Gilles, J R L

    2014-03-01

    With a view to area wide integrated pest management programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component against the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis, the effects of X-ray exposure of males of the genetic sexing strain (GSS) of An. arabiensis, "ANO IPCL1" have been tested. The suitability of X-ray was assessed in comparison to gamma-ray for mosquito sterilization in operational settings where the acquisition of gamma ray irradiators may be problematic. Pupae and adult males were sterilized using X-ray irradiation at 5 increasing doses and effects were observed in terms of fecundity and fertility. Irradiated pupae and adults were further observed for effects on longevity. The adult stage appeared to be more sensitive to radiation exposure than the pupal stage, with a residual fertility of 1% in adults irradiated at 75Gy and 0% at 105Gy, compared to 8%at 75Gy and 4% at 105Gy in adults irradiated at the pupal stage. All treatment groups except those irradiated at 60Gy were statistically different from the control groups in terms of adult longevity post treatment, however overall survival was not highly compromised in the 75Gy treatment group which showed 96% of induced sterility. To ensure the fine balance between the induced sterility and the fitness of the insect produced is achieved, irradiation of adults at this dose may be a good compromise for the SIT as applied for this species, especially in specific cases such as sterilization after female elimination by spiking blood meals. Investigation into the combined effects of blood spiking and irradiation at the adult stage and additional competitiveness studies both in laboratory and field cages will provide more insight into the radiation dose and mosquito stage to be used in the frame of future SIT programs targeting this important malaria vector. PMID:24361725

  5. Innovative approach in the management of horse-shoe fistula-in-ano with Kṣārasūtra

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Amruta A.; Dongargaon, Tajahmed N.; Shilpa, M. P.; Toshikhane, Hemant D.

    2015-01-01

    Fistula-in-ano is a common surgical problem. Horse-shoe fistulas usually have an internal opening in the posterior midline and extend anteriorly and laterally to one or both ischiorectal spaces by way of the deep potential space. The “Śambukāvarta Bhagandara” described by Suśruta can be correlated with the horse-shoe type of fistula. In this condition, neither fistulotomy nor “Kṣārasūtra” treatment alone, are useful hence there is a need for newer innovative surgical techniques to tackle this challenging disease. An integral approach of incision and drainage of both the abscess on the arms of the horse-shoe fistula with Kṣārasūtra ligation at 6 o’ clock position proves to be successful. We have tried the same technique with good results. No recurrence was found in the patients during the follow-up period of 6 months. A 45-year-old female with a known case of diabetes mellitus and hypertension approached with both right and left ischiorectal fossa inflammatory swelling. An innovative approach was used to manage horse-shoe fistula by making an additional opening below the anus at 6 o’clock position. Apāmārga Kṣārasūtra (medicated thread made using apāmārga) was ligated through the additional opening to the internal opening at 6 o’clock position for draining through both the cavities. Kṣārasūtra was changed weekly and the fistula healed completely by 3 months. PMID:26120231

  6. Microscopic theory of the insulating electronic ground states of the actinide dioxides AnO2 (An = U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, M.-T.; Magnani, N.; Oppeneer, P. M.

    2013-11-01

    The electronic states of the actinide dioxides AnO2 (with An = U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm) are investigated employing first-principles calculations within the framework of the local density approximation +U (LDA+U) approach, implemented in a full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave scheme. A systematic analysis of the An-5f states is performed which provides intuitive connections between the electronic structures and the local crystalline fields of the f states in the AnO2 series. Particularly the mechanisms leading to the experimentally observed insulating ground states are investigated. These are found to be caused by the strong spin-orbit and Coulomb interactions of the 5f orbitals; however, as a result of the different configurations, this mechanism works in distinctly different ways for each of the AnO2 compounds. In agreement with experimental observations, the nonmagnetic states of plutonium and curium dioxide are computed to be insulating, whereas those of uranium, neptunium, and americium dioxides require additional symmetry breaking to reproduce the insulator ground states, a condition which is met with magnetic phase transitions. We show that the occupancy of the An-f orbitals is closely connected to each of the appearing insulating mechanisms. We furthermore investigate the detailed constitution of the noncollinear multipolar moments for transverse 3q magnetic ordered states in UO2 and longitudinal 3q high-rank multipolar ordered states in NpO2 and AmO2.

  7. SEI needs for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W.; Cataldo, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) for transportation to the moon and Mars is examined, and the use on Mars and moon bases of thermal conversion subsystems based on either a Brayton or a Stirling cycle is examined. It is shown that both cycles are attractive alternatives for those applications where continuous field operation is desired. Nuclear power systems have a clear advantage with regard to the moon and a lesser one with regard to Mars.

  8. Comparison of EPA's QMS to SEI's CMMI.

    PubMed

    Mills, P; Braun, L; Marohl, D

    2001-01-01

    EPA and other government organizations make decisions based on environmental measurements. How good are the data? How well are the data generators performing? What measurements apply to them? How can the data life cycle processes be improved so data generators can continually provide the best data? EPA's Quality Management System requirements go beyond evaluation of environmental data quality itself to examine systems associated with production, collection, processing (validation/verification), transfer, reduction, storage, and retrieval of data throughout a life cycle. This QMS specifies minimum quality requirements for particular environmental programs. But how can you measure and compare programs that go well beyond the minimum, towards optimal quality? This paper compares EPA's requirements for Quality Management Systems (R2) and Project Plans (R5) to the Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model (CMMISM). The CMMISM model provides for growth (staged or continuous) and a comprehensive assessment that is not yet provided in EPA's R2 or R5. Properly implemented, the CMMISM model serves as a quality framework for integrating and aligning organizational processes and implementing a program of continual process improvements. It identifies process areas ("things to do"), and provides measures of performance ("how well things are done") against specific goals and practices. CMMISM uses a Systems Engineering Management approach, built on process models, that helps identify "how good" the system is. Goodness is defined as stages in a complete model for optimal operation. CMMISM provides two methods for evaluating the goodness of the project. The Staged model in CMMISM provides a Maturity Level that is a well-defined evolutionary plateau describing the manner in which a specified set of processes are performed. As the organization advances in maturity, these levels become more defined and processes are tailored for specific project needs. The other method is called the Continuous Model in CMMISM, and it allows you to achieve Capability Levels. These are used to describe how well each project is doing in relationship to the different process areas. There are six Capability Levels from 0-5 that apply to individual process areas. Organizations using the Capability Level approach can select individual process areas that are important to specific projects and work to improve the processes. Improving capability in individual process areas raises the organization's overall quality of products delivered. The Continuous Model, unlike the Staged Model, lets you pick higher maturity level process areas before completing all of the ones below. Environmental measurement programs need to focus on the quality of the systems where data are collected, processed, transferred, and so forth. DynCorp built on the quality foundation from our experience with R2 to successfully implement CMMISM practices in the development of Forms II Lite and other applications. DynCorp is now migrating to the CMMISM model that has evolved from the existing CMM model. The CMMISM model focuses on the full cycle of Requirements Management from identification, development, collection, refinement, analysis, and validation throughout a project life cycle. It also has a more refined focus on the identification, development, collection, analysis, and evaluation of meaningful measurements, so the results can be used to improve a process or product. PMID:12553079

  9. SP-100 materials technology for SEI applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ring, P. J.; Kangilaski, M.; Davies, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    General Electric and selected National laboratories are developing the SP-100 concept under the sponsorship of DOE,NASA and SDIO. Near term Space Exploration Initiative goals include the establishment of a lunar base, interplanetary manned missions, and the eventual establishment of a base on Mars. All of these projected missions have substantial power requirements. The SP-100 nuclear reactor has been identified as a promising power source to meet these requirements. This paper describes the material selections for SP-100, the factors driving the selection, and the progress to date in solving fabrication problems and producing the necessary properties data base.

  10. The Anopheles arabiensis genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 and its application potential for the sterile insect technique in integrated vector management programmes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hanano; Vreysen, Marc J B; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tschirk, Wolfgang; Chadee, Dave D; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2015-02-01

    The Anopheles arabiensis genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 was developed based on a dieldrin resistant mutation. The strain has been shown to be practical and reliable in terms of female elimination by dieldrin treatments at larval stages, but has provided some difficulties when treatments were applied at the egg stage. The high natural sterility of this strain has advantages and disadvantages in both mass rearing and the sterilization process. In addition, its recombination rate, although relatively low, poses a threat of strain deterioration if left unchecked in a mass-rearing setting. The males of the ANO IPCL1 have been shown to be equally competitive as lab-reared males of the wild-type Dongola strain, but competitiveness decreased by half when irradiated with 75 Gya dose conferring >98% sterility. More controversial issues surround the use of dieldrina highly persistent organochlorine that is known to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The prospective use of large volumes of dieldrin in a mass-rearing facility and the retention of its residues by the male mosquitoes makes the use of the strain in the context of the sterile insect technique against this vector highly questionable, and therefore its implementation at a large scale cannot be recommended. PMID:25438257

  11. Estudo e aplicao do cdigo de desembaraamento espectral - Korel - em sistemas triplos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, K. B. V.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2003-08-01

    O cdigo KOREL uma ferramenta adicional eficiente para a determinao simultnea de parmetros orbitais espectroscpicos para o desembarao de espectros individuais de sistemas estelares com at cinco componentes. Estudos j realizados (Torres,KBV,2002, Dissertao de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG) mostram as limitaes, aplicabilidade e eficincia do cdigo para sistemas com duas componentes. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, a continuao dos estudos para sistemas com trs componentes (sistemas hierrquicos), utilizando espectros sintticos "gabaritos" de estrelas individuais em rbitas cujos parmetros so conhecidos "a priori". Geramos os espectros compostos e verificamos como o cdigo reproduz os parmetros orbitais e espectros individuais em diversas situaes fsicas. apresentado, ainda, uma discusso da aplicabilidade do cdigo em sistemas reais como RV Crateris (Machado,ACM,1997, Dissertao de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG), um sistema triplo cujas componentes eclipsantes esto, provavelmente, ainda na fase pr-sequncia principal.

  12. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relao ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Aos de la Escuela Primaria en Relacin a la Enseanza de la Astronoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relao ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratrio para a insero da Astronomia na formao de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em considerao as concepes alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenmenos astronmicos, os erros conceituais em livros didticos e as sugestes de contedos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores a questo central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsdios para um futuro programa de formao continuada neste tema. O estudo se justifica mediante o fato de que planejamentos de cursos como estes s se adequaro realidade do professor (e do aluno) se houver uma investigao antecipada sobre o que os docentes precisam saber e saber fazer a respeito da Astronomia, o que se concretizou em nosso caso pela interpretao dos discursos de uma amostra de professores coletados atravs de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, utilizando para interpretao os princpios e mtodos da anlise do discurso em sua linha francesa. Os resultados da pesquisa indicaram dificuldades de ordem pessoal, metodolgica, de formao, de infra-estrutura e outras relacionadas s fontes de informaes para docentes. Este artculo que relata las dificultades de los profesores en relacin a la enseanza da laAstronoma es parte de un estudio preliminar para la implantacin dela Astrnoma enla formacin de profesores de ls primeros aos del ciclo primario.El estudio considera las concepciones alternativas de alumnos y profesores respecto a los fenmenos astronmicos, los errores conceptuales en los libros didcticos y las sugerencias de contenidos de Astronoma que constan en los Parmetros Curriculares Nacionales del Brasil. Caracterizar las dificultades de los profesores constituye la cuestin central de este texto, apuntando para el objetivo de contribuir para un futuro programa de educacin contnua en este tema. El estudio se justifica mediante el hecho que la planificacin de cursos de este tipo solo se adecuarn a la realidade del profesor (y del alumno) si existe una investigacin anterior a respecto de lo que los docentes precisan saber y saber realizar en Astronoma, lo cual se concret en nuestro caso por medio de la interpretacin de los discursos de una muestra de profesores obtenidos atravs de entrevistas semiestructuradas, utilizand para esta interpretacin los principios y mtodos de anlisis del discurso en su lnea francesa. Los resultados mostraron dificultades de orden personal, metodolgica, formativa, de infraestructura y otras relacionadas a las fuentes de informacin para los docentes.

  13. Static electric dipole polarizabilities of An5+/6+ and AnO2+/2+ (An = U, Np, and Pu) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Payal; Peterson, Kirk A.; Clark, Aurora E.

    2014-12-01

    The parallel components of static electric dipole polarizabilities have been calculated for the lowest lying spin-orbit states of the penta- and hexavalent oxidation states of the actinides (An) U, Np, and Pu, in both their atomic and molecular diyl ion forms (An5+/6+ and AnO2+/2+) using the numerical finite-field technique within a four-component relativistic framework. The four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock method formed the reference for MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations, while multireference Fock space coupled-cluster (FSCC), intermediate Hamiltonian Fock space coupled-cluster (IH-FSCC) and Kramers restricted configuration interaction (KRCI) methods were used to incorporate additional electron correlation. It is observed that electron correlation has significant (5 a.u.3) impact upon the parallel component of the polarizabilities of the diyls. To the best of our knowledge, these quantities have not been previously reported and they can serve as reference values in the determination of various electronic and response properties (for example intermolecular forces, optical properties, etc.) relevant to the nuclear fuel cycle and material science applications. The highest quality numbers for the parallel components (?zz) of the polarizability for the lowest ? levels corresponding to the ground electronic states are (in a.u.3) 44.15 and 41.17 for UO2+ and UO22+, respectively, 45.64 and 41.42 for NpO2+ and NpO22+, respectively, and 47.15 for the PuO2+ ion.

  14. Static electric dipole polarizabilities of An(5+/6+) and AnO2 (+/2+) (An = U, Np, and Pu) ions.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Payal; Peterson, Kirk A; Clark, Aurora E

    2014-12-21

    The parallel components of static electric dipole polarizabilities have been calculated for the lowest lying spin-orbit states of the penta- and hexavalent oxidation states of the actinides (An) U, Np, and Pu, in both their atomic and molecular diyl ion forms (An(5+/6+) and AnO2 (+/2+)) using the numerical finite-field technique within a four-component relativistic framework. The four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock method formed the reference for MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations, while multireference Fock space coupled-cluster (FSCC), intermediate Hamiltonian Fock space coupled-cluster (IH-FSCC) and Kramers restricted configuration interaction (KRCI) methods were used to incorporate additional electron correlation. It is observed that electron correlation has significant (?5 a.u.(3)) impact upon the parallel component of the polarizabilities of the diyls. To the best of our knowledge, these quantities have not been previously reported and they can serve as reference values in the determination of various electronic and response properties (for example intermolecular forces, optical properties, etc.) relevant to the nuclear fuel cycle and material science applications. The highest quality numbers for the parallel components (?zz) of the polarizability for the lowest ? levels corresponding to the ground electronic states are (in a.u.(3)) 44.15 and 41.17 for UO2 (+) and UO2 (2+), respectively, 45.64 and 41.42 for NpO2 (+) and NpO2 (2+), respectively, and 47.15 for the PuO2 (+) ion. PMID:25527932

  15. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Ao Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Cu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experincia de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    Research developed with 95 students of the 6th year of elementary education in a public school of Uberlndia, Minas Gerais. It was a continuous work from February to December 2013, which led the students to participate in activities of observation of the environment, specifically the sky, analyzing the changes occurred. We focused on the study of variations in temperature, rainfall, day length, variations in the size of the shadows and changes in the aspect of the Moon. Our focus of analysis targeted the discussion of the knowledge that these students had about the topics indicated and as they entered the stage during the implementation of the proposal. The results showed a limited perception that students have of their environment, however, lately expanded due to the undertaken activities, especially in relation to the Moon. Working with systematic measure procedures reveals the careful handling of data so that they become understandable to students, and working with the shadows points towards the students first understand how shadows are formed, and then apply this knowledge to Astronomy. Finally, we conclude that the lived process consisted of an initial step of a work that should be encouraged for the subsequent years of training of these students. Proyecto de investigacin desarrollado con 95 alumnos del sexto ao de primaria en una escuela pblica de Uberlndia, Minas Gerais. Fue un trabajo continuo, de febrero a diciembre de 2013, que llev a los estudiantes a participar en actividades de observacin de su entorno, entre ellas, el cielo, analizando los cambios ocurridos. Nos centramos en el estudio de las variaciones en la temperatura, las precipitaciones, la duracin del da, las variaciones en el tamao de las sombras y los cambios en los aspectos de la Luna. Nuestro foco de anlisis se centr en discutir el conocimiento que estos estudiantes tenan sobre los temas indicados al inicio y trmino de la propuesta. Los resultados mostraron una percepcin limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandi debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relacin con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, as como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para despus trabajarlas en Astronoma. Por ltimo, llegamos a la conclusin de que el proceso desarrollado consisti en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los aos posteriores de la formacin de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6 ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pblica estadual de Uberlndia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contnuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observao do entorno, dentre ele, o cu, analisando as mudanas ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variaes de temperaturas, chuvas, durao do dia, variaes do tamanho das sombras e mudanas nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de anlise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no incio e ao trmino da implementao da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepo limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em funo das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras so formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, conclumos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formao desses alunos.

  16. Study of the Local Horizon. (Spanish Title: Estudio del Horizonte Local.) Estudo do Horizonte Local

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-12-01

    The study of the horizon is fundamental to easy the first observations of the students at any education center. A simple model, to be developed in each center, allows to easy the study and comprehension of the rudiments of astronomy. The constructed model is presented in turn as a simple equatorial clock, other models (horizontal and vertical) may be constructed starting from it. El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensin de los primeros rudimentos astronmicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de l se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical). O estudo do horizonte fundamental para facilitar as primeiras observaes dos alunos num centro educativo. Um modelo simples, que deve ser feito para cada centro, permite facilitar o estudo e a compreenso dos primeiros rudimentos astronmicos. O modelo construdo apresenta-se, por sua vez, como um modelo simples de relgio equatorial e a partir dele pode-se construir outros modelos (horizontal e vertical)

  17. A Reappraising of Cosmography: the Interface Between Astronomical and Geographic Studies. (Breton Title: Releitura do Conceito de Cosmografia: a Interface Entre os Estudos Astronmicos e Geogrficos.) Una Relectura del Concepto de Cosmografa: la Interfase Entre los Estudios Astronmicos y Geogrficos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "Cosmography" is in disuse since the 80s of the last century, but the astronomical themes previously discussed in the school subjects of Geography and Cosmography remain in current textbooks. The use of term "Cosmography" was rescued in this research, and the study of its re-signification prompted the appearance of the term Geographic Cosmography. The Geographic Cosmography is a field of studies of the Geography, whose set of knowledge and skills is predominantly scholar. It studies the interface between terrestrial and celestial knowledge, and assigns a geographic significance to them. It examines human and natural relationships with Sidereal Space and its consequences for society and nature. O conceito de "Cosmografia" est em desuso desde os anos 80 do sculo XX, mas os temas astronmicos anteriormente abordados nas disciplinas escolares de Cosmografia e de Geografia permanecem nos atuais livros didticos. O uso do termo "Cosmografia" foi resgatado nesta pesquisa e o estudo de sua ressignificao proporcionou o surgimento do termo Cosmografia Geogrfica. A Cosmografia Geogrfica um campo de estudos da Geografia, cujo conjunto de conhecimentos e habilidades predominantemente escolar. Estuda a interface entre os conhecimentos terrestres e os celestes e lhes atribui significncia geogrfica. Analisa as relaes humanas e naturais com o Espao Sideral e suas consequncias para a sociedade e a natureza.

    Aunque el concepto de "Cosmografa" no se usa desde la dcada de los '80 del siglo pasado, los temas astronmicos que se enseaban anteriormente en las asignaturas escolares de Cosmografa y de Geografa permanecen en los actuales libros didcticos. El uso del trmino "Cosmografa" fue rescatado en esta investigacin y el estudio de su resignificacin proporcion el surgimiento del trmino Cosmografa Geogrfica. La Cosmografa Geogrfica es un campo de estudio de la Geografa, donde el conjunto de conocimientos y habilidades es predominantemente escolar. Estudia la interfase entre los conocimientos terrestres y los celestes, dndoles un significado geogrfico. Analiza las relaciones humanas y naturales con el Espacio Sideral y sus consecuencias para la sociedad y la naturaleza.

  18. Estudo da região HII galática NGC 2579

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffel, R.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    Desde a descoberta dos gradientes de abundância química em galáxias espirais, as regiões HII galáticas têm sido intensamente estudadas com o objetivo de determinar a forma do gradiente de abundância química na Via-Láctea. Entretanto, a forma do gradiente galático continua controversa e existem muitas regiões HII que continuam inexploradas. A região HII galática NGC 2579 é um objeto que aparece em imagens Ha, como uma pequena mancha brilhante de aproximadamente 2 segundos de arco de diâmetro a 20 segundos de arco ao leste de RCW 20, sendo NGC 2579 muitas vezes confundida com esta última. Apesar de seu alto brilho superficial, NGC 2579 é um objeto pouco estudado provavelmente por problemas de identificação deste objeto. Como parte de um projeto de reavaliação dos gradientes de abundância química das regiões HII na Via-Láctea, estamos realizando um estudo extensivo das propriedades físicas básicas como temperatura eletrônica, densidade eletrônica e composição química da região HII galática NGC 2579. Analisamos dados espectrofotométricos de fenda longa na faixa de 3700Å a 7750Å obtidos com o telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO, Chile, em 2002. Determinamos a temperatura eletrônica usando a razão entre as linhas do [OIII] (l4959+l5007/l4363) e a densidade eletrônica pela razão entre as linhas do [SII] (l6716/l6731). As abundâncias químicas do O, N, Cl, S, Ne e He foram determinadas. Realizamos um estudo de imagens fotométricas nas bandas UBVRI obtidas em 2000 no observatório astronômico San Pedro Mártir, México, para identificar e classificar as estrelas ionizantes de NGC 2579 e determinar a distância deste objeto.

  19. Effect of spin-orbit coupling on the actinide dioxides AnO2 (An=Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, and Am): A screened hybrid density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Martin, Richard L.; Roy, Lindsay E.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Rudin, Sven P.; Batista, Enrique R.; McCleskey, Thomas M.; Scott, Brian L.; Bauer, Eve; Joyce, John J.; Durakiewicz, Tomasz

    2012-10-01

    We present a systematic comparison of the lattice structures, electronic density of states, and band gaps of actinide dioxides, AnO2 (An=Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, and Am) predicted by the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof screened hybrid density functional (HSE) with the self-consistent inclusion of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The computed HSE lattice constants and band gaps of AnO2 are in consistently good agreement with the available experimental data across the series, and differ little from earlier HSE results without SOC. ThO2 is a simple band insulator (f 0), while PaO2, UO2, and NpO2 are predicted to be Mott insulators. The remainders (PuO2 and AmO2) show considerable O2p/An5f mixing and are classified as charge-transfer insulators. We also compare our results for UO2, NpO2, and PuO2 with the PBE+U, self interaction correction (SIC), and dynamic mean-field theory (DMFT) many-body approximations.

  20. Near-term thermoelectric nuclear power options for SEI missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Jerry R.

    1992-01-01

    Three different types of thermoelectric nuclear space power systems are discussed. First, the general purpose heat source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG), which was qualified and flown on Galileo/Ulysses and is in development for Cassini, is discussed. Second, the modular RTG, which is undergoing life verification, is discussed. Finally, the SP-100 is discussed. The information is presented in viewgraph form.

  1. Camus: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Seies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bree, Germaine, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Germaine Bree, Nicola Chairmonte, Serge Doubrovsky, Justin O'Brien, Wilfrid Sheed, Roger Quilliot, Thomas L. Hanna, Bernard C. Murchland, Henri Peyre, S. Beynon John, Rachel Bespaloff, Jean-Paul Sartre, Robert Champigny,

  2. Software engineering activities at SEI (Software Engineering Institute)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittister, Clyde

    1990-01-01

    Prototyping was shown to ease system specification and implementation, especially in the area of user interfaces. Other prototyping approaches do not allow for the evolution of the prototype into a production system or support maintenance after the system is fielded. A set of goals is presented for a modern user interface environment and Serpent, a prototype implementation that achieves these goals, is described.

  3. Application of reusable software components at the SEI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holibaugh, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Robert Holibaugh of the Software Engineering Institute described a project which is studying the application of reusable software components. The primary goals are to gain practical experience with state-of-the-art reusable components, methods, and tools and to capture the lessons learned in the application of reuse technology. In addition the project will assess the impact of reuse on the software development process and products and will identify and validate the information that facilities software reuse during system development. The project includes two tasks - a reuse experiment and a redevelopment effort. The reuse experiment will define a life cycle and a methodology for reuse-based development, and define and implement a data collection mechanism for measuring the development. The redevelopment effort will construct a reuse test bed and will redevelop and realistically test subsystems from an embedded mission-critical real-time application. The reuse experiment will produce several products including a tested real-time application, reuse-based components and tools evaluation, a reuse-based development method, a framework for data collection, a framework for measuring productivity, and lessons learned data. Successful development with reusable components will require a rich set of components and an integrating methodology. The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile system is the application for the redevelopment effort.

  4. SEI nuclear technology findings by the Stafford Synthesis Group

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D. )

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion is key to reducing travel time to Mars, greatly reducing the mass in low Earth orbit, and enhancing schedule flexibility by increasing the Earth orbit departure launch window. Nuclear thermal rockets have twice to three times the performance of the best chemical rockets. This directly translates into reduced trip times and lower mass in low Earth orbit. Trip times of < 400 days in space are possible, a limitation if restricted to chemical propulsion. Psychological, physiological and radiological problems are significant issues for long mission times. The psychology of being cooped up so long in a minimum-sized capsule is cause for concern - much longer than considered healthy for nuclear submarine crews. The effects of long-term weightlessness are being debated. Short trip times eliminate the need for artificial gravity. The largest uncertainty is the effect of galactic radiation that will expose the crew to high levels of radiation for as much as 60 rem/yr.

  5. A morphological study of SEI film on graphite electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zane, D.; Antonini, A.; Pasquali, M.

    Morphological features of the protective layer on the graphitic electrodes, formed by reduction of electrolytic solution components during the first cycle, are investigated by SEM and common electrochemical techniques. As expected, the interaction between electrode and solution is very important, leading to quite different results for different solutions. Here, results for solution of various solvents ratio are reported. It appears that the performances of the electrodes are strongly dependent on their surface chemistry in solutions. We can conclude that the nature of the surface film plays a key role for the electrode stability or to capacity decrease always related to an increase of the electrode itself impedance.

  6. Estudo exaustivo e sistemtico de erros nas provas da olimpada brasileira de astronomia - resultados preliminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. S.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.

    2003-08-01

    A Olimpada Brasileira de Astronomia (OBA) contou, em sua quinta edio, com a participao de mais de 60 mil alunos dos ensinos fundamental e mdio de praticamente todo o territrio nacional. Uma das formas de controle que a sua coordenao nacional possui sobre a correo, levada a cabo pelos professores que as aplicaram, a do envio, por parte destes professores, das 10 melhores provas de cada um dos trs nveis nos quais a Olimpada realizada. Assim, e dado ao carter discursivo das provas da Olimpada, a sua coordenao nacional dispe de um vasto acervo sobre as concepes, certas ou erradas, dos alunos que dela participaram. Este conjunto de dados jamais fora explorado at o presente trabalho que pretende ser, neste sentido, inaugural. Nas provas dos nveis I e II da V OBA, que abrangem todo o conjunto do ensino fundamental, uma das questes versava sobre a noo que os alunos tinham sobre como os habitantes da Terra situam-se sobre sua superfcie. Fizemos um estudo sistemtico das respostas a esta questo. Primeiramente, todas as modalidades de erros foram levantadas; em seguida, realizamos uma distribuio por idade tanto do ndice de acerto como da ocorrncia e da distribuio de cada erro. Como resultado, obtivemos que, em ambos os nveis: 1) as concepes errneas no se apresentam distribudas aleatoriamente; 2) h uma concentrao no tipo de erro apresentado; 3) h uma tendncia de progressivo acerto com relao idade quando os dados so considerados em termos nacionais; 4) esta tendncia nacional fraca ou mesmo no verificada em alguns dos estados com maior patamar de acerto.

  7. Assessment of the Olfactory Function in Italian Patients with Type 3 von Willebrand Disease Caused by a Homozygous 253 Kb Deletion Involving VWF and TMEM16B/ANO2

    PubMed Central

    Cenedese, Valentina; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Morgan, Anna; Marino, Renato; Ettorre, Cosimo Pietro; Margaglione, Maurizio; Gasparini, Paolo; Menini, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Type 3 Von Willebrand disease is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the virtual absence of the von Willebrand factor (VWF). A rare 253 kb gene deletion on chromosome 12, identified only in Italian and German families, involves both the VWF gene and the N-terminus of the neighbouring TMEM16B/ANO2 gene, a member of the family named transmembrane 16 (TMEM16) or anoctamin (ANO). TMEM16B is a calcium-activated chloride channel expressed in the olfactory epithelium. As a patient homozygous for the 253 kb deletion has been reported to have an olfactory impairment possibly related to the partial deletion of TMEM16B, we assessed the olfactory function in other patients using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). The average UPSIT score of 4 homozygous patients was significantly lower than that of 5 healthy subjects with similar sex, age and education. However, 4 other members of the same family, 3 heterozygous for the deletion and 1 wild type, had a slightly reduced olfactory function indicating that socio-cultural or other factors were likely to be responsible for the observed difference. These results show that the ability to identify odorants of the homozygous patients for the deletion was not significantly different from that of the other members of the family, showing that the 253 kb deletion does not affect the olfactory performance. As other genes may compensate for the lack of TMEM16B, we identified some predicted functional partners from in silico studies of the protein-protein network of TMEM16B. Calculation of diversity for the corresponding genes for individuals of the 1000 Genomes Project showed that TMEM16B has the highest level of diversity among all genes of the network, indicating that TMEM16B may not be under purifying selection and suggesting that other genes in the network could compensate for its function for olfactory ability. PMID:25635880

  8. Estudios Sociales Para ninos de cinco anos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Sara S.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that kindergarten teachers should once a week bring to class a news photograph which they can discuss with the children. Such an exercise can be used to create among the children a wider awareness of the world and to counter their tendency to focus exclusively on the self. (Author/RH)

  9. The mechanism of the reduction of [AnO2]2+ (An = U, Np, Pu) in aqueous solution, and by Fe(II) containing proteins and mineral surfaces, probed by DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Mahesh; Assary, Rajeev S; Hillier, Ian H; Vaughan, David J

    2011-11-14

    The fate of actinyl species in the environment is closely linked to oxidation state, since the reduction of An(VI) to An(IV) greatly decreases their mobility due to the precipitation of the relatively insoluble An(IV) species. Here we study the mechanism of the reduction of [AnO(2)](2+) (An = U, Np, Pu) both in aqueous solution and by Fe(II) containing proteins and mineral surfaces, using density functional theory calculations. We find a disproportionation mechanism involving a An(V)-An(V) cation-cation complex, and we have investigated how these complexes are formed in the different environments. We find that the behaviour of U and Pu complexes are similar, but the reduction of Np(V) to Np(IV) would seems to be more difficult, in line with the experimental finding that Np(V) is generally more stable than U(V) or Pu(V). Although the models we have used are somewhat idealised, our calculations suggest that there are strong similarities between the biotic and abiotic reduction pathways. PMID:21837318

  10. 76 FR 43985 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... most populations were reduced, some of them considerably, by extensive commercial whaling in the 1950s... whaling; (2) determining population size, trends, and structure using opportunistic data collection...

  11. Robotic Lunar Rover Technologies and SEI Supporting Technologies at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klarer, Paul R.

    1992-01-01

    Existing robotic rover technologies at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) can be applied toward the realization of a robotic lunar rover mission in the near term. Recent activities at the SNL-RVR have demonstrated the utility of existing rover technologies for performing remote field geology tasks similar to those envisioned on a robotic lunar rover mission. Specific technologies demonstrated include low-data-rate teleoperation, multivehicle control, remote site and sample inspection, standard bandwidth stereo vision, and autonomous path following based on both internal dead reckoning and an external position location update system. These activities serve to support the use of robotic rovers for an early return to the lunar surface by demonstrating capabilities that are attainable with off-the-shelf technology and existing control techniques. The breadth of technical activities at SNL provides many supporting technology areas for robotic rover development. These range from core competency areas and microsensor fabrication facilities, to actual space qualification of flight components that are designed and fabricated in-house.

  12. An Alternative Three-Level Model for Estimating SEIs and Their Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.

    After a brief review of recent research concerning school effectiveness, this paper proposes an approach to operationalizing school effectiveness that is based on the achievement of students in a school over a period of time. This three-level model does not follow a single cohort of students as they progress through school. Rather, it uses the

  13. 77 FR 62214 - Travel Management Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), Eldorado National Forest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... open for public motor vehicle use and prohibited cross country travel. In 2009 a complaint was filed with the Eastern District Federal Court (Court Case No. 2:09-CV-02523-LKK-JFM). In its opinion dated... District Court for the Eastern District of California Case No. 2:09-CV-02523- LKK-JFM, Court Order filed...

  14. Geografia de America Latina. Grados Seis-Diez (Geography of Latin America. Grades Six-Ten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This publication, intended for Spanish-speaking students in grades 6-10, has three main objectives. First, it serves as an introduction (or refresher) to basic geographic concepts. Second, it is an examination of the physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, it is designed to help students examine maps in a critical manner. The

  15. 75 FR 65005 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), Mississippi Barrier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact...) for Hancock, Harrison, and Jackson Counties, MS AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DOD. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: The Mobile District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  16. An interagency space nuclear propulsion safety policy for SEI - Issues and discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, A. C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety topics include reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the safety policy and the issues and considerations that are addressed by the NSPWG recommendations.

  17. Relation of the lunar power system to the SEI program and to landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, David R.; Waldron, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    The people of Earth will need more than 20,000 billion watts (GWe) of electric power by 2050 for a high level of prosperity. Power needs in the 22nd Century could exceed 100,000 GWe. By 2100 the total quantity of thermal energy used could fully deplete the known inventory (10(exp 7) GWt-Y) of all non-renewable sources on Earth except for deuterium and hydrogen for use in proposed fusion reactors. The labor, capital, and mass of power plants required to produce 1 GWe-Y of energy from present-day power plants is summarized. Fossil and nuclear plants respectively consume 80 to 190 M$ and 12 to 48 M$ of fuel per GWe-Y. The Lunar Power System (LPS) uses solar power bases on the moon to beam electric power to Earth. The LPS in the figure supplies load-following power to rectennas on Earth. Additional solar power conversion units are located across the lunar limb from their respective Earthward transmitting stations. LPS can be augmented by mirrors in polar orbit about the moon. The construction of rectennas on Earth determines the base cost (0.001s$/kWe-H) of LPS power. A manned International Lunar Base (ILB) can accelerate the development of LPS by providing the initial transportation and habitation facilities and base operations. ILB can greatly reduce up front costs and risks by emplacing a moderate scale LPS (1-100 GWe). LPS can accelerate the development of the ILB by providing greater funding than is reasonable to expect for purely scientific research. An international ILB/LPS program can foster world trust and prosperity.

  18. Relation of the lunar power system to the SEI program and to landers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criswell, David R.; Waldron, Robert D.

    The people of Earth will need more than 20,000 billion watts (GWe) of electric power by 2050 for a high level of prosperity. Power needs in the 22nd Century could exceed 100,000 GWe. By 2100 the total quantity of thermal energy used could fully deplete the known inventory (10(exp 7) GWt-Y) of all non-renewable sources on Earth except for deuterium and hydrogen for use in proposed fusion reactors. The labor, capital, and mass of power plants required to produce 1 GWe-Y of energy from present-day power plants is summarized. Fossil and nuclear plants respectively consume 80 to 190 M$ and 12 to 48 M$ of fuel per GWe-Y. The Lunar Power System (LPS) uses solar power bases on the moon to beam electric power to Earth. The LPS in the figure supplies load-following power to rectennas on Earth. Additional solar power conversion units are located across the lunar limb from their respective Earthward transmitting stations. LPS can be augmented by mirrors in polar orbit about the moon. The construction of rectennas on Earth determines the base cost (0.001s$/kWe-H) of LPS power. A manned International Lunar Base (ILB) can accelerate the development of LPS by providing the initial transportation and habitation facilities and base operations. ILB can greatly reduce up front costs and risks by emplacing a moderate scale LPS (1-100 GWe). LPS can accelerate the development of the ILB by providing greater funding than is reasonable to expect for purely scientific research. An international ILB/LPS program can foster world trust and prosperity.

  19. Ano-Rectal Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted Disease

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Ralph E.

    1987-01-01

    Diseases of the anus and rectum are frequently the outcome of proctogenital and oral-anal sexual activities. These sexually transmitted diseases are more common among homosexual and bisexual men than among heterosexuals. A variety of infectious agents are responsible including viruses, bacteria, spirochetes, helminths, and protozoa. Anal warts, herpetic ulcers, and syphilitic chancres are common anal STDs. Gonorrhea, herpes, and chlamydial organisms are common causes of venereal acute proctitis. Enteric infections such as shigellosis, amebiasis, giardiasis and pinworms can be transmitted by oral-anal contact. Aggressive sexual attempts at auto-eroticism using rectally inserted foreign bodies may cause traumatic proctitis complicated by bacterial peritonitis or perirectal abscesses. PMID:21263807

  20. Apparent Motion of the Sun, Shadows of Objects and Measurement of Time in the View of Seventh Grade Students of Middle School. (Breton Title: Movimento Aparente do Sol, Sombras dos Objetos e Medição do Tempo na Visão de Alunos do Sétimo Ano do Ensino Fundamental.) Movimiento Aparente del Sol, Sombras de los Objetos y Medición del Tiempo en la Visión de Estudiantes del Séptimo Grado del Ciclo Pirmario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The apparent motion of the Sun on the celestial sphere and the behavior of the shadows of objects over time are observable phenomena in everyday life. However, students often do not have a proper understanding of such occurrences, and can even display misconceptions about them. Therefore, we performed a research in order to know students' notions about these subjects and to evaluate the contribution to their understanding brought about by an activity performed with an interactive sundial in an informal learning environment. We investigated the ideas of 43 students from the seventh grade of middle school by applying a test with open questions before and after an activity with an analemmatic sundial, conducted by a monitor. A significant proportion of students were initially unaware of most of the phenomena treated. The intervention performed helped the students to assimilate new concepts, providing the contact with new phenomena and to a lesser degree, the development of explanations about them, indicating an educational potential of this action. However, the contribution to the understanding of some of the ideas explored was small, pointing to the need to make additional observations, studies and discussions. O movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste e o comportamento das sombras dos objetos com o passar do tempo são fenômenos observáveis no dia a dia. No entanto, muitas vezes os estudantes não possuem uma compreensão adequada de tais ocorrências, podendo inclusive exibir concepções alternativas a seu respeito. Por isso, efetuou-se uma pesquisa com o intuito de conhecer as noções dos alunos sobre esses temas e avaliar a contribuição para seu entendimento propiciada por uma atividade feita com um relógio de Sol interativo, em um ambiente de ensino informal. Foram investigadas as ideias de 43 alunos do sétimo ano do Ensino Fundamental mediante a aplicação de um teste com questões abertas antes e depois de uma atividade com um relógio de Sol analemático, conduzida por um monitor. Uma proporção significativa de estudantes desconhecia inicialmente a maioria dos fenômenos tratados. A intervenção realizada colaborou para uma parte dos alunos assimilar novos conceitos, propiciando o contato com novos fenômenos e, em menor grau, a elaboração de explicações a respeito destes, indicando um potencial educativo dessa ação. Porém, a contribuição para o entendimento de algumas das ideias exploradas foi pequena, apontando para a necessidade de se fazer observações, estudos e discussões complementares. El movimiento aparente del Sol en la esfera celeste y el comportamiento de las sombras de los objetos a lo largo del tiempo son fenómenos observables en la vida cotidiana. Sin embargo, los estudiantes a menudo no tienen una adecuada comprensión de dichos problemas, e incluso pueden mostrar conceptos erróneos acerca de ellos. Por lo tanto, se realizó una investigación a fin de conocer las nociones de los estudiantes acerca de estas cuestiones y evaluar la contribución a su comprensión proporcionada por una actividad realizada con un reloj de Sol interactivo, en un entorno informal de aprendizaje. Se investigaron las ideas de 43 estudiantes del séptimo grado del ciclo primario mediante la aplicación de un test con preguntas abiertas antes y después de una actividad con un reloj de Sol analemático, dirigida por un monitor. Una proporción significativa de los estudiantes inicialmente desconocía la mayoría de los fenómenos tratados. La intervención realizada contribuyó para que los estudiantes asimilasen nuevos conceptos, proporcionando el contacto con nuevos fenómenos y, en menor medida, desarrollasen explicaciones acerca de estos, lo que indica un potencial educativo de esta acción. Sin embargo, la contribución a la comprensión de algunas de las ideas exploradas fue pequeña, lo que apunta a la necesidad de hacer observaciones, estudios y debates adicionales.

  1. Estudo em microondas do aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em explosões solares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosal, A. C.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação rápida e intensa do brilho que ocorre nas chamadas regiões ativas da atmosfera, constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética. Os modelos de explosões solares atuais, discutidos na literatura, apresentam características de aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em ambientes magnéticos simplificados. Neste trabalho, nos propusemos a separar a emissão dos elétrons aprisionados da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação apenas a partir da emissão em microondas, melhorando portanto o controle sobre o conjunto de parâmetros inferidos. A emissão em microondas da população em precipitação é bastante fraca e portanto da nossa base de dados de 130 explosões observadas pelo Rádio Polarímetro de Nobeyama, em sete freqüências, apenas para 32 foi possível separar as duas componentes de emissão com uma boa razão sinal/ruído. A partir de estudos das escalas de tempo das emissões devidas à variação gradual da emissão no aprisionamento e da variação rápida da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação foi possível obter a separação utilizando um filtro temporal nas emissões resultantes. Em nossa análise destas explosões estudamos os espectros girossincrotrônicos da emissão gradual, a qual associamos provir do topo dos arcos magnéticos e da emissão de variação rápida associada aos elétrons em precipitação. Estes espectros foram calculados e dos quais inferimos que a indução magnética efetiva do topo e dos pés foi em média, Btopo = 236 G e Bpés = 577 G, inferidas das freqüências de pico dos espectros em ntopo = 11,8 GHz e npés = 14,6 GHz com leve anisotropia (pequeno alargamento espectral). O índice espectral da distribuição não-térmica de elétrons d, inferido do índice espectral de fótons da emissão em regime opticamente fino, foi de dtopo = 3,3 e dpés = 3,9. Estes parâmetros são típicos da maioria das análises realizadas em ambiente único de emissão e a relação dos índices espectrais, dpés > dtopo prioriza as interpretações com difusão em ângulo de passo devida a colisões Coulombianas. Nesta difusão o déficit de elétrons energéticos na precipitação seria uma conseqüência natural da dependência em e-3/2 das colisões elétron-próton (onde e é a energia dos elétrons).

  2. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Ao: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnmon ao Longo de um Ano: Observaes Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estaes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    Many misconceptions are recognized among the various groups of students, especially in the elementary school. Among them, the apparent motion of the Sun, in spite of its daily occurrence, is subject to varied interpretations. Thus, the observation and recording of the motion of the stars in the celestial vault is a necessary task for astronomy education. The work presented here proposes the presentation of the results of observations of the apparent movement of the sun by marking the shadow of a vertical gnomon by the students in a class of sixth graders of elementary rural school of Paran. The project itself was conducted in four stages, on dates near the March equinox, the June solstice, the September equinox and the December solstice. In addition, lectures were developed in the classroom. Such methods sought to build concepts around the apparent movement of the Sun and the alternation of the seasons. Given the results of the activities, an evaluation was applied and the data demonstrated a desired student learning such as: the recognition of the cardinal points, the description of the apparent solar motion and the occurrence of the seasons and their alternation from astronomical observations at naked eye. Muchos conceptos aternativos son conocidos entre los distintos grupos de alumnos, sobre todo en la educacin bsica. Entre ellos, el movimiento aparente del Sol, por ms cotidiano que sea, se presta a interpretaciones variadas. Por lo tanto, observar y registrar el movimiento de las estrellas en la bveda celeste se torna una tarea necesaria para la educacin en astronoma. El trabajo que aqu se presenta propone la presentacin de los resultados de la observacin del movimiento aparente del sol a travs de la marcacin de la sombra del gnomon vertical a cargo de los estudiantes en una divisin de sexto grado de de la escuela primaria rural de Paran. El proyecto en s se llev a cabo en cuatro etapas, en fechas cercanas al equinoccio de marzo, al solsticio de junio, al equinoccio de septiembre y al solsticio de diciembre. Adems, se dictaron clases tericas en la sala de aula. Estos mtodos buscaron construir conceptos en torno al movimiento aparente del Sol y la sucesin de las estaciones. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de las actividades se aplic una evaluacin cuyos datos demuestran la existencia de un aprendizaje deseado por los estudiantes en cuanto a: el reconocimiento de los puntos cardinales, la descripcin del movimiento solar aparente y la aparicin de las estaciones y su alternancia a partir de observaciones astronmicas visuales sin instrumentos. Muitas concepes alternativas so reconhecidas entre os diversos grupos de estudantes, em especial nos da educao bsica. Dentre elas, o movimento aparente do Sol, por mais quotidiano que seja, proporciona variadas interpretaes. Deste modo, observar e registrar o movimento dos astros na abboda celeste uma tarefa necessria ao ensino de Astronomia. O trabalho que ora se apresenta prope a apresentao dos resultados da observao do movimento aparente do Sol por intermdio da marcao da sombra de um gnmon vertical por alunos de uma turma do sexto ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola do campo do Paran. O projeto em si ocorreu em quatro etapas, em datas prximas do equincio de maro, do solstcio de junho, do equincio de setembro e do solstcio de dezembro. Alm disso, foram desenvolvidas aulas tericas em sala de aula. Tais mtodos buscaram construir conceitos em torno da movimentao aparente do Sol e da alternncia das estaes do ano. Diante dos resultados provenientes das atividades desenvolvidas foi aplicada uma avaliao e os dados demonstraram um aprendizado desejado dos alunos quanto: ao reconhecimento dos pontos cardeais; descrio do movimento solar aparente e a ocorrncia das estaes do ano e sua alternncia a partir de observaes astronmicas a olho nu.

  3. Subsurface Deformation in the Gangetic Plain - First results from the BrahmaSeis multichannel seismic survey on Bangladesh Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, V.; Schwenk, T.; Palamenghi, L.; Goodbred, S. L.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Petter, A. L.; Akhter, S. H.; Mondal, D.; Khan, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    In Bangladesh, the northeastern boundary of the Indian-Asian collision zone is buried under thick delta sediments, delivered in huge volumes by the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river system. Monsoon-induced erosion provided several tens of meters of Holocene sediments to a subsiding delta plain, and it therefore remains a challenge to reconstruct the plate boundary, fault planes and main deformational styles and phases. While structural investigations with seismic methods on land are particularly difficult in the country, the distinctly elevated water level after the peak monsoon season provided the opportunity of a water seismic survey, utilizing marine seismic equipment and approaches. As part of the BanglaPIRE project, a first multichannel seismic survey had been carried out in September 2011 particularly on the rivers Meghna and Jamuna to find and map indications for subsurface deformation and the associated response of the sediment dispersal system during the late Quaternary development of the Gangetic delta plain. Using a high-resolution 48-channel streamer and a micro GI-Gun with 0.1 L volume, supported by two small diving compressors, continuous airgun profiles were acquired in several daily stretches along both rivers northward to the Indian border. Major challenges were, among others, a lack of navigational fixpoints in a rapidly changing delta and river landscape, the lack of clearly defined strata in a predominantly sandy environment, and the widespread occurrence of large amounts of shallow gas. In the northernmost stretch of the survey, the Dauki Fault, bounding the Shillong Plateau uplift on the southern side, is supposed to be covered by sediment in the slowly subsiding Sylhet Basin. On the Meghna river in central Bangladesh, the westernmost extent of the Indo-Burman Fold Belt was assumed. And on Jamuna, the western extension of the Dauki Fault and its interaction with the main river system is as unclear. The acquired multichannel seismic data, using shot rates on the order of 5 to 8 seconds, were sufficiently dense to achieve a horizontal resolution between 1 and 5 meters, and vertical resolution is on the order of 1 meter. Preliminary processing has revealed several areas, where pronounced deformation can be derived from underlying pre-Holocene strata geometries, revealing anticlines and reflector truncation at the base of the river plain sediments. In particular the Jamuna N-S transect completely images this Holocene base reflector. In the northernmost survey lines on Jamuna, it seems that the assumed position of the Dauki Fault finds it expression in subsurface deformation, an anticline geometry as well as steps in the Holocene base reflector.

  4. Catholic Educational Publishing between the Two Wars: The Case of the Publishers SEI of Turin and La Scuola of Brescia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Only at the beginning of the Twentieth century, a confessional type of publishing, directed mainly at schools and teachers and devoted, almost exclusively, to publishing textbooks for every level and type of school, came into existence in Italy. In the period between the two World Wars and especially after the Gentile Reform (1923), this type of

  5. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  6. 76 FR 336 - Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for PacRim Coal's Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... (71 FR 33446). On October 31, 2010, the EPA's authority to issue and enforce mining permits in Alaska... fueling of rolling stock, electrical substation, truck dump with stilling shed and coal crusher, 35,000...

  7. Seis-Net a Possible Very Broad Band Seismometer for the Future Mars-Net Russian Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schibler, P.; Lognonne, P.; Nibut, T.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction: Following the invitation from IKI for participating to the future Russian Mars-Net mission, our objective is to realize a preliminary study for the deployment of a seismometers network, on the surface of Mars. This experiment would be realized thanks to the "basic brick" of the planetary seismometer developed by IPGP: a Very Broad Band (VBB) axis/pendulum adapted to the Mars-Net mission but analog to the one already proposed for other missions (Humboldt-ExoMars, Selene 2, Discovery GEMS). In order to respect, as much as possible, the mass and power budgets of the Mars96/OPTIMISM seismometer, we plan to propose only one axis/pendulum modified in order to become vertical. This adaptation could be, for instance, simply realized by adding an additional mass and modifying the axis tilt. Compared to the seismic sensor proposed for GEMS, there would be a deployment on Mars without any uncoupling from the lander. So, we estimate that the performances of the Mars-Net seismometer (< 0.1 ng/Hz1/2) will be halfway between OPTIMISM (1 ng/Hz1/2) and GEMS (< 0.05 ng/Hz1/2) seismometers. Scientific objectives: Since the projects Mesur/InterMarsNet in 1990 years then NetLander in 2000 years, our knowledge of interior of Mars has progressed. A network mission about 2018-2020 has to take into account these evolutions. However a lot of questions are still open without any answer. Which is the seismic activity of the planet? Which is the average thickness of the crust? Which is the detailed mineralogy of the mantle? Is there thermical heterogeneities inside mantle associated to a remaining of contemporary mantlellic convection? Which is the fine structure of the core? Therefore one of the first objectives of a network mission is the seismic discovery of Mars. That means, in particularly, to obtain for the first time the quantification of the contemporary seismic activity of the planet and the determination of the absolute thickness of the crust. That will be possible with the first station. But, of course, with the deployment of other stations it will be possible to inverse more elaborated models of the internal structure of Mars. Instrument description: The heritage, at IPGP, of planetary seismometers was often presented. Our accommodation study will be, obviously, based on this heritage. The idea is to reuse our "basic brick", that means the recurrent pendulum of ExoMars mission by aiming the same performances in terms of resolution. On the other hand, we will aim the OPTIMISM-Mars96 specifications in terms of mass, volume and power budgets. Taking in account the preliminary lander mass budget, we will propose only one axis, by using an oblique VBB axis and by tilting it until its sensibility axis became vertical. We would bring back the gravity center of the whole on the sensibility axis by adding a 50g mass on OG axis (which will become horizontal).

  8. Public Education in the Southeast: A Progress Report. Southeastern Educational Information System Analyses. SEIS Analyses Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sheilah N.; Meehan, Grady B.

    Through a number of measures, both quantitative and qualitative, this progress report explores the achievements of Southeastern public schools in meeting the continually expanding goal of quality education for all citizens. Quantitative figures are shown, regionally and state by state, for ages of compulsory attendance, public and private school

  9. Buen Comienzo, Buen Futuro: El Bebe de Seis Meses (Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Six-Month Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Distributed by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Education, and Health and Human Services, this Spanish-language pamphlet provides parents with information and advice about their infants in the sixth month of life. Following a brief description of developmental characteristics at this age, the pamphlet offers advice on a variety of topics,…

  10. 78 FR 16565 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and To Conduct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... barrels per day (bpd) of crude oil across the border from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin to Enbridge's terminal located in Superior, Wisconsin. From there, the material is shipped to various markets... Canada refineries for supplies of heavy crude oil from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin...

  11. 77 FR 36032 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and To Conduct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Order 13337 of April 30, 2004 (69 FR 25299), as amended. To issue a Permit, the Department of State must... addressed to: Genevieve Walker, OES/ENV Room 2657, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC 20520....

  12. 75 FR 52589 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the Cal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement... (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to address issues arising from the 1993 10th Circuit U.S. Court of...

  13. Early SEI milestones - Underwater habitats and Antarctic research outposts as analogs for long duration spaceflight and lunar and Mars outposts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Wharton, Robert A.; Andersen, Dale T.; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1992-01-01

    The use of analog environments for space research is considered focusing on underwater habitats and Antarctic research sites as analogous settings to long-duration space flight. It is pointed out that the use of these earth analogs can provide engineers, scientists, and future crew members with critical 'mission' experience at a relatively low cost.

  14. Mixed-Methods Study that Examines Nine Science Teachers' Perceptions of Slooh Robotic Telescope for Teaching Astronomy. (Breton Title: Métodos Mistos de Estudo que Examinam a Percepção de Nove Professores de Ciências sobre o Telescópio Robótico Slooh Para Ensino de Astronomia.) Métodos Mixtos de Estudio que Examinan la Percepcion de Nueve Profesores de Ciencias sobre EL Telescopio Robótico Slooh Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, Daniel C.; Slater, Timothy F.; Berryhill, Katie J.

    2014-07-01

    Although previous studies show that robotic telescopes have the potential to enhance student learning, there is comparatively little research that focuses on teacher perceptions of this technology. This study investigates: "what is the academic merit of using SLOOH robotic telescopes to teach astronomy as perceived by science teachers?" Our sample consists of nine science teachers of students aged 13-18 years. Pre- and post-tests, interviews, and surveys were collected during two weeks of a summer online course about robotic telescopes. While pre and post-tests do not reveal a statistically significant gain in astronomy content knowledge, analysis of qualitative data reveals five themes which describe the most important aspects of using SLOOH according to participants: "Images," "Interface," "Classroom Application," "Instructor Impact," and "Logistical Issues." Analysis of these themes suggests that SLOOH can provide an interactive and social learning environment with capabilities to incorporate crossdisciplinary themes. Embora estudos anteriores mostram que os telescópios robóticos têm o potencial de melhorar a aprendizagem dos alunos, há relativamente pouca investigação focada nas percepções de professores a respeito desta tecnologia. Este estudo investiga: "qual é o mérito acadêmico da utilização de telescópios robóticos Slooh para ensinar astronomia, tal como percebido pelos professores de ciências?" Nossa amostra é composta por nove professores de ciências de estudantes com idades entre 13-18 anos pré e pós-testes, entrevistas, e levantamentos foram coletados durante duas semanas de um curso on-line de verão sobre telescópios robóticos. Enquanto os testes pré e pós não revelaram um ganho estatisticamente significativo no conhecimento do conteúdo astronomia, a análise de dados qualitativos revela cinco temas que descrevem os aspectos mais importantes da utilização Slooh de acordo aos participantes: "Imagens", "Interface", "Aplicação em sala de aula", "Impacto no Instrutor" e "Questões logísticas". A análise desses temas sugere que Slooh pode proporcionar um ambiente de aprendizagem interativo e social com capacidade de incorporar temas interdisciplinares. Aunque estudios previos muostraron que los telescopios robóticos tienen el potencial de mejorar el aprendizaje del estudiante, hay relativamente poca investigación centrada en las percepciones de lós profesores respecto de esta tecnología. Este estudio investiga: "¿cuál es el mérito académico de la utilización de telescopios robóticos SLOOH para enseñar astronomía según la percepción de los profesores de ciências?" Nuestra muestra está formada por nueve profesores de ciencias de estudiantes entre 13 a 18 años pre-y post-tests, entrevistas, y. encuestas se recogieron durante dos semanas de un curso on-line de verano sobre los telescopios robóticos. Si bien lós tests antes y después de las pruebas no revelaron un aumento estadísticamente significativo en el conocimiento de contenido astronómico, el análisis de lós datos cualitativos reveló cinco temas que describen los aspectos más importantes de la utilización de SLOOH de acuerdo con los participantes:. "Imágenes", "Interface", "aplicación en el aula", "Impacto en el Instructor" y "problemas logísticos" . El análisis de estos temas sugiere que SLOOH puede proporcionar un ambiente de aprendizaje interactivo y social, con capacidad para incorporar temas transversales.

  15. A Influncia da Escola e da Mdia na Obteno dos Conhecimentos Astronmicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporo que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galxias, quasares, pulsares alm da existncia de todos os elementos que preenchem o espao csmico, o vcuo, no mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mdia explora esse campo de forma mstica e tambm cientfica. A difuso adequada e dentro dos padres educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronmicos, se faz necessria, devido sua presena nos contedos escolares, centros de cincia e na mdia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currculo Bsico da Escola Pblica da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronmicos desde a pr-escola at o Ensino Mdio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Mdio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se atravs da aplicao de um questionrio que abordava conheciment os bsicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor j fez alguma apresentao a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou tambm que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronmicos na escola, 28,1% atravs da televiso e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos atravs de outros tipos de mdia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que h certo equilbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronmicos, a mdia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que no fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espao. Porm, em certos casos, a mdia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam a astronomia, como por exemplo a propagao do som no vcuo observado na maioria dos filmes de f ico cientfica ou da existncia das estaes do ano em funo da distncia da Terra ao Sol, em conformidade com o questionrio aplicado.

  16. Analisis de las Condiciones de Salud del Nino de 0-6 anos en Honduras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matamoros, Douglas Alberto

    1987-01-01

    Examines the National Pediatric Service and the research program of the Maternity-Infant-Hospital-School in Honduras. Reports that health conditions of young children (birth to six years) in Honduras are appalling and that available funds for health services are inadequate, reflecting the country's economic and social crisis. (NH)

  17. Cinco Anos Despues: A Preliminary Critique of the Sixteen Point/Spanish Speaking Program - Five Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    In 1970, the Spanish Speaking Program was launched as the Sixteen-Point Program to increase the number of Hispanic employees in the Federal Service. It functioned as part of the government-wide Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Program. In 1973 the U.S. Civil Service Commission's Federal Personnel Manual required agencies to take specific actions…

  18. Clinical course and management of suprasphincteric and extrasphincteric fistula-in-ano.

    PubMed

    Fasth, S B; Nordgren, S; Hultn, L

    1990-05-01

    Over an 8-year period five patients with suprasphincteric fistula and two with extraspincteric fistula a primary transsphincteric track were treated with fistulotomy, using delayed seton technique. In all but one case the fistulas had caused considerable morbidity, involving multiple episodes of abscess drainage and attempts to lay open the track before the correct diagnosis was established. No patient had recurrence of fistula and, despite complete division of the anorectal ring, and sphincter pressures were well maintained and anal continence was unchanged. The results suggest that the delayed seton technique is useful in the treatment of these very rare and complicated fistulas. PMID:2349857

  19. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano IV, No. 8 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume IV, No. 8).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  20. Cinco Anos Despues: A Preliminary Critique of the Sixteen Point/Spanish Speaking Program - Five Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    In 1970, the Spanish Speaking Program was launched as the Sixteen-Point Program to increase the number of Hispanic employees in the Federal Service. It functioned as part of the government-wide Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Program. In 1973 the U.S. Civil Service Commission's Federal Personnel Manual required agencies to take specific actions

  1. Reading: Birth to Age 5 = La Lectura: Desde El Nacimiento Hasta Los 5 Anos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), 2005

    2005-01-01

    Besides a change in the expectations of parents, other shifts are occurring in society that impact the youngest children (Bowman, Donovan, & Burns, 2000): (1) More women are in the workforce than ever before, which means more children are in child care or preschool; (2) There is increasing evidence of, and conviction from educators, that preschool

  2. Consideraciones medicas y psicologicas en ninos de 5 y 6 anos de 6 guarderias infantiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSilva, Milagros Guerra; DeViloria, Carmen Leon

    1975-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of attendance at state kindergartens of a group of 181 five- and six-year-olds from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The effects of a supplemental nutritional program as well as the children's attitudes toward attendance were considered. (MS)

  3. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano III, No. 7 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume III, No. 7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  4. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano 1, No. 2 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume 1, No. 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  5. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano III, No. 6 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume III, No. 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  6. Anxiety ano Academic Performance: A Review of the Literature on Conceptualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert F.

    The current focus on individualization of instructional procedures in the "new technology of teaching" has provided impetus for reexamination of anxiety as a variable in academic behavior. Existing literature is reviewed, suggesting the need for a taxonomy to provide some order and the basis for improving research and application. A preliminary

  7. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano 3, No. 5 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume 3, No. 5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  8. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano V, No. 9 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume V, No. 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  9. 450 Years of Chicano History in Pictures/450 Anos del Pueblo Chicano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicano Communications Center, Albuquerque, NM.

    For use with junior and senior high school students, this book presents more than 250 drawings and pictures, with an introduction and brief texts in English and Spanish, depicting 450 years of Chicano history. The book covers: Mexico before the Spanish Conquests, Spain's colonization of the Southwest, the United States war on Mexico, events in the

  10. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano 2, No. 3. (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume 2, No. 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  11. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano 2, No. 4 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume 2, No. 4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  12. Hispanics in the Community/Junior Colleges: Donde Estamos en el Ano 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de los Santos, Alfredo G., Jr.

    After presenting an overview of the history of the community college from the late 1800's to the present, and a discussion of the philosophic bases and accepted functions and purposes of the community college, this article presents a picture of Hispanic students in community and junior colleges in 1978. General demographic data on Hispanics in the

  13. 450 Years of Chicano History in Pictures/450 Anos del Pueblo Chicano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicano Communications Center, Albuquerque, NM.

    For use with junior and senior high school students, this book presents more than 250 drawings and pictures, with an introduction and brief texts in English and Spanish, depicting 450 years of Chicano history. The book covers: Mexico before the Spanish Conquests, Spain's colonization of the Southwest, the United States war on Mexico, events in the…

  14. Ano Nuevo to Santa Cruz, California : a photographic tour of the coastline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chezar, Henry; Wong, Florence L.

    2000-01-01

    This interactive CD ROM contains over 500 overlapping photographic images of the California coastline from A?o Nuevo to Santa Cruz. The images were taken from the R/V David Johnston to illustrate the coastal geology adjacent to part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The introductory home page starts a series of links to a regional map, more detailed area maps, and finally the individual photographic images.

  15. The Role of Electrolyte Upon the SEI Formation Characteristics and Low Temperature Performance of Lithium-Ion Cells With Graphite Anodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Greenbaum, S.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Quarternary lithium-ion battery electrolyte solutions containing ester co-solvents in mixtures of carbonates have been demonstrated to have high conductivity at low temperatures (< -20C). However, in some cases the presence of such co-solvents does not directly translate into improved low temperature cell performance, presumably due to the formation of ionically resistive surface films on carbonaceous anodes. In order to understand this behavior, a number of lithium-graphite cells have been studied containing electrolytes with various ester co-solvents, including methyl acetate (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), ethyl propionate (EP), and ethyl butyrate (EB). The charge/discharge characterization of these cells indicates that the higher molecular weight esters result in electrolytes which possess superior low temperature performance in contrast to the lower molecular weight ester-containing solutions, even though these solutions display lower conductivity values.

  16. The Role of Electrolyte Upon the SEI Formation Characteristics and Low Temperature Performance of Lithium-Ion Cells With Graphite Anodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M.; Ratnakumar, B.; Greenbaum, S.; Surampudi, S.

    1998-01-01

    Quarternary lithium-ion battery electrolyte solutions containing ester co-solvents in mixtures of carbonates have been demonstrated to have high conductivity at low temperatures (<-20 degrees Celcius).

  17. A CCD search of short period variable stars in six selected fields. (Italian Title: Ricerca CCD di variabili a breve periodo in sei campi selezionati)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, S.

    2013-12-01

    A search of variable stars was carried out, using a new software specifically created by the author, on a series of images acquired at the Astronomical Observatory of Santa Lucia di Stroncone (Terni, Italy) between October 2010 and March 2012. This research, named Fast Variable Stars Survey (FVSS), arose from the idea to verify if the log files pr oduced by the software Astrometrica (H. Raab), could be used as a basis for rapid detection of short-period variable stars. The r esults obtained showed that the idea is very valid, so that the new software has allowed the identification and the correct determination of the period of thirty-two new variable stars in the six stellar fields subjected to analysis.

  18. Using the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) and Individual Placement and Support (IPS) models to improve employment and clinical outcomes of homeless youth with mental illness1

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youth. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-informed and evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining employment and concurrently addressing mental health challenges. However, there are few examples to date of these models with homeless youth with mental illness. The purpose of this article was thus to describe a methodology for establishing a university-agency research partnership to design, implement, evaluate, and replicate evidence-informed and evidence-based interventions with homeless youth with mental illness to enhance their employment, mental health, and functional outcomes. Data from two studies are used to illustrate the relationship between vocational skill-building/employment and mental health among homeless youth. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of conducting community-based participatory employment and clinical intervention research. The author highlights the opportunities and tensions associated with this approach. PMID:24294127

  19. Como ayudar a su hijo durante los primeros anos de la adolescencia: Para los padres con ninos entre las edades de 10 a 14 anos (Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence: For Parents of Children from 10 through 14).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy

    Recognizing that parents and families can greatly influence the development of their 10- through 14-year-olds, this Spanish-language booklet is part of a national effort to provide parents with the latest research and practical information to help them support their children both at home and in school. The booklet is organized in 13 sections…

  20. Estudo de no gaussianidade nas anisotropias da RCF medidas Wmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, A. P. A.; Wuensche, C. A.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.

    2003-08-01

    A investigao do campo de flutuaes da Radiao Csmica de Fundo (RCF) pode oferecer um importante teste para os modelos cosmolgicos que descrevem a origem e a evoluo das flutuaes primordiais. De um lado, apresenta-se o modelo inflacionrio que prev um espectro de flutuaes adiabticas distribudas segundo uma gaussiana e, de outro, os modelos de defeitos topolgicos (dentre outros) que descrevem um mecanismo para a gerao de flutuaes de isocurvatura que obedecem a uma distribuio no gaussiana. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar traos do modelo no gaussiano de campo misto (entre flutuaes adiabticas e de isocurvatura) nos mapas do Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Simulaes das anisotropias da RCF no contexto de mistura indicam traos marcantes na distribuio das flutuaes de temperatura, mesmo quando consideradas pequenas contribuies do campo de isocurvatura (da ordem de 0.001). O efeito da mistura entre os campos resulta na transferncia de potncia de flutuaes em escalas angulares intermedirias para flutuaes em pequenas escalas angulares. Este efeito pode ser caracterizado pela relao entre as amplitudes dos primeiros picos acsticos no espectro de potncia da RCF. Neste trabalho, investigamos a contribuio do campo de isocurvatura, no contexto de mistura, sobre as observaes recentes da RCF realizadas pelo WMAP. As previses do modelo de campo misto, uma vez confrontadas com as observaes em pequenas escalas angulares, podem ajudar a revelar a natureza das flutuaes primordiais.

  1. Soy Tu Hijo: Los Primeros Anos Marcan Para Siempre (I Am Your Child: The First Years Last Forever). [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner Foundation, Washington, DC.

    New research in brain development reveals the vital importance of the relationship between caregiver and child in the critical first years of life. This Spanish-language video explores the role of parents in stimulating early childhood development. The 28-minute video discusses: (1) attachment and the role of touch in creating a bond between…

  2. Soy Tu Hijo: Los Primeros Anos Marcan Para Siempre (I Am Your Child: The First Years Last Forever). [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner Foundation, Washington, DC.

    New research in brain development reveals the vital importance of the relationship between caregiver and child in the critical first years of life. This Spanish-language video explores the role of parents in stimulating early childhood development. The 28-minute video discusses: (1) attachment and the role of touch in creating a bond between

  3. El curriculo creativo para ninos de cero a tres anos (The Creative Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.; Dodge, Diane Trister

    Stemming from the core idea that infant and toddler care should be based on building relationships, this curriculum in Spanish-language version provides a foundation for staff development. Section 1, "Why a Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers?" examines key quality indicators, discusses curriculum components, describes how to use the curriculum to

  4. Perfil de Estudiantes de Primer Ano 1984-85 = Profile of First-Year Students 1984-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilarino de Medina, Ivonne

    In August 1984, a study was conducted to develop a profile of first-year students at Ponce Technological University College (PTUC), as part of a student follow-up project undertaken at all University of Puerto Rico system units. A questionnaire designed by the University of Puerto Rico Institutional Research Committee was administered to freshmen

  5. Desafios que Enfrentaran las Administraciones Universitarias en los Proximos Anos (Challenges for University Administration in the Years Ahead).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Ten important issues surround the challenges that Latin American university administrations will face in the near future. Those issues are: (1) the importance of administration to higher education and the need for analyzing situations, resolving problems, making decisions, and communicating at all administrative levels; (2) the uniqueness of

  6. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano VI, No. 10/11 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume VI, No. 10/11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.

  7. Boletin Estadistico de la Educacion: Ano VI, No. 1 (Statistical Bulletin on Education: Volume VI, No. 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Oficina de Planeamiento Integral de la Educacion.

    This booklet presents statistics concerning primary education in Guatemala. The first section covers enrollment, considering such factors as type of school and location. Other sections provide statistics on teachers, their locations, the number of schools, enrollment in terms of students repeating grades or leaving school, students advancing out

  8. America o Aztlan? Los Chicanos En El Ano 2001 (America or Aztalan? Chicanos in the year 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ortego y Gasca, Felipe

    The future, more than any time in the past, will require of Chicanos a collective effort if they are to preserve their legacy of language and culture for their children. To prepare for the year 2001, Chicanos should be aware of future concerns and take action to address them. Chicanos could best realize national visibility and importance by

  9. Multi-Informant Assessment of Anxiety regarding Ano-Genital Examinations for Suspected Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribano, Philip V.; Hornor, Gail; Rhoda, Dale; Curran, Sherry; Stevens, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Given the commonly held belief that physical examinations for child sexual abuse (CSA) are very distressing, our primary objective was to evaluate anxiety during these assessments using the Multidimensional Anxiety Score for Children (MASC-10). A second objective was to compare self-reported anxiety to parental report using the MASC-10

  10. Informacion Bibliografica: Ano 3, Num. 9, Enero-Febrero, 1972 (Bibliographic Information: Volume 3, Number 9, January-February 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Martinez, Antonio L., Ed.

    This bulletin contains several articles on various topics concerning information science. The first article is a report on the November 1971 Seminar on Documentation and Pedagogical Information in Latin America held in Panama. The second article, entitled "Informatica," provides a discussion of information science by three Soviet writers;…

  11. El curriculo creativo para ninos de cero a tres anos (The Creative Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.; Dodge, Diane Trister

    Stemming from the core idea that infant and toddler care should be based on building relationships, this curriculum in Spanish-language version provides a foundation for staff development. Section 1, "Why a Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers?" examines key quality indicators, discusses curriculum components, describes how to use the curriculum to…

  12. Lateral subcutaneous sphincterotomy versus anal dilatation in the treatment of fissure in ano in outpatients: a prospective randomised study.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, S L; Lund, F; Nielsen, O V; Tange, G

    1984-01-01

    Fifty eight patients with idiopathic chronic anal fissure were included in a randomised prospective trial of lateral subcutaneous sphincterotomy versus simple anal dilatation carried out as outpatient procedures. Operations were performed under local anaesthesia and the patients reviewed 10-30 months later (median follow up time 18 months). Altogether 30 patients were treated by lateral subcutaneous sphincterotomy and 28 by anal dilatation. No serious complications were observed in either group. One recurrence was observed in the group treated by sphincterotomy, whereas eight occurred in the other group (p less than 0.05). Functional results with respect to impaired control of flatus and soiling of underwear were significantly better after sphincterotomy (p less than 0.002). It is concluded that lateral subcutaneous sphincterotomy is the treatment of choice for idiopathic chronic anal fissure resistant to conservative measures. PMID:6432173

  13. The Universe in a Box: Introduction to the Study of Astronomy in the Initial Formation of Physics Teachers. (Spanish Title: El Universo Representado en Una Caja: Introduccin al Estudio de la Astronoma en la Formacin Inicial de Profesores de Fsica.) O Universo Representado em Uma Caixa: Introduo ao Estudo da Astronomia NA Formao Inicial de Professores de Fsica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2009-07-01

    This is a report of an activity of introduction to the study of Astronomy developed with a group of future Physics teachers at a Brazilian public university. Such activity had the goal of giving privileged emphasis to notions of spatiality, alternative conceptions of the participants and the process of interaction among peers, and consisted of the representation, in a three dimensional space, of the models of the universe that the participants had. The results, which were categorized as miscellaneous, geocentric, heliocentric and acentric models of the universe, were qualitatively analyzed. Analyses of the activity in the perspective of the participants are indicated and additional considerations are made regarding its use as a resource for teaching Astronomy and for teacher training. Este es el informe de una actividad para presentar un estudio introductorio de la Astronoma, desarrollado con una clase de futuros profesores de fsica en una universidad pblica brasilea. Esta actividad tuvo como objetivo centrar las nociones de espacialidad, las concepciones alternativas de los participantes y el proceso de interaccin entre pares, y consisti en la representacin en un espacio tridimensional, de los modelos del universo que los participantes haban. Los resultados, que se clasificaron en universo miscelania, geocntrico, heliocntrico y acentrico, se analizaron cualitativamente. Son identificadas anlisis de la actividad por los participantes, e hizo observaciones sobre su uso como recurso para la enseanza de la astronoma y la formacin de docentes. Trata-se do relato de uma atividade de introduo ao estudo da Astronomia, desenvolvida com uma turma de futuros professores de Fsica, em uma universidade pblica brasileira. Tal atividade teve como meta privilegiar noes de espacialidade, as concepes alternativas dos participantes e o processo de interao entre pares e constou da representao, em um espao tridimensional, dos modelos de universo que os participantes possuam. Os resultados, que foram categorizados em universo miscelnea, geocntrico, heliocntrico e acntrico, foram analisados qualitativamente. So apontadas as anlises da atividade na tica dos participantes, alm de tecidas consideraes sobre seu emprego como recurso ao ensino de Astronomia e na formao docente.

  14. Caregivers' Practical Help. A Six Session Course for Informal Caregivers = Ayuda Practica para las Personas Que Cuidan a Envejecientes. Curso de Seis Sesiones para las Personas Que Informalmente Cuidan a Envejecientes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office for the Aging, Albany.

    This document is a six-session course designed for those individuals who provide care to their homebound elderly relatives and friends and who need practical information and skills to support their caregiving role. The course helps caregivers identify and use community services. It provides an opportunity to acquire personal care skills and

  15. A correlao ndice espectral vs. luminosidade em QSOs e suas implicaes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rissmann, A.

    2003-08-01

    Estudos de variabilidade de ncleos ativos j demonstraram ser comum o fato de seu contnuo ptico/UV tornar-se mais "duro" medida que a luminosidade aumenta. Essa tendncia ocorre tanto de forma individual quanto global, e pode ter implicaes importantes (1) para estudos fotomtricos de variabilidade conduzidos numa banda fixa no referencial do observador, comparando objetos a diferentes redshifts, e (2) no clculo da correo K, com consequente impacto na determinao de massas de buracos negros e bojos de galxias hospedeiras (atravs da relao de Magorrian). Confirmo aqui as correlaes positivas entre o ndice espectral e a luminosidade ptica, utilizando dados espectroscpicos de 11 QSOs monitorados no Brasil e no Chile, durante ~2 anos. O estudo complementado com parmetros extrados de espectros e de dados fotomtricos pblicos de quasares. Destaco ainda as diferenas observadas em tais correlaes para objetos do tipo radio-loud e radio-quiet. Este projeto financiado pelo I. Milnio/CNPq.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of screening for anal cancer using regular digital ano-rectal examinations in men who have sex with men living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Jason J; Fairley, Christopher K; Carroll, Susan; Walker, Sandra; Chen, Marcus; Read, Tim; Grulich, Andrew; Bradshaw, Catriona; Kaldor, John; Clarke, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anal cancer in men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV is an important issue but there are no consistent guidelines for how to screen for this cancer. In settings where screening with anal cytology is unavailable, regular anal examinations have been proposed in some guidelines but their cost-effectiveness is unknown. Methods Our objective was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of regular anal examinations to screen for anal cancer in HIV-positive MSM living in Australia using a probabilistic Markov model. Data sources were based on the medical literature and a clinical trial of HIV-positive MSM receiving an annual anal examination in Australia. The main outcome measures for calculating effectiveness were undiscounted and discounted (at 3%) lifetime costs, life years gained, quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results Base-case analysis estimated the average cost of screening for and management of anal cancer ranged from $195 for no screening to $1,915 for lifetime annual screening of men aged ≥ 50. Screening of men aged ≥ 50 generated ICERs of $29,760 per QALY gained (for screening every four years), $32,222 (every three years) and $45,484 (every two years). Uncertainty for ICERs was mostly influenced by the cost (financially and decrease in quality of life) from a false-positive result, progression rate of anal cancer, specificity of the anal examination, the probability of detection outside a screening program and the discount rate. Conclusions Screening for anal cancer by incorporating regular anal examinations into routine HIV care for MSM aged ≥ 50 is most likely to be cost-effective by conventional standards. Given that anal pap smears are not widely available yet in many clinical settings, regular anal exams for MSM living with HIV to detect anal cancer earlier should be implemented. PMID:26942721

  17. Swath Bathymetry Surveys of the Monterey Bay Area from Point Ano Nuevo to Moss Landing, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes swath bathymetry and backscatter data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey on the continental shelf within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary between Point A?o Nuevo and Moss Landing, in San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, Calif. The survey was done for the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), in field activities S-7-09-MB and S-10-09-MB, by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The data were aquired in two seperate surveys: (1) between August 13, 2009 and September 3, 2009, personnel from WCMG completed field activity S-7-09-MB, from Point A?o Nuevo south to Table Rock, as well as a block west of Soquel Canyon; (2) between October 12 and December 16, 2009, WCMG conducted field activity S-10-09-MB, surveying between Table Rock and Moss Landing.

  18. Co-operativity among defect sites in AnO2+ and An4O9 (An = U, Np or Pu)

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Anders David; Lezama Pacheco, Juan; Uberuaga, Blas P; Conradson, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    Actinide dioxides derived from the AnO{sub 2} fluorite lattice are of high technological relevance due to their application in nuclear reactor fuels. Oxidation of AnO{sub 2} compounds emerges as a central theme in fuel fabrication, reactor operation, long-term storage forms for both spent fuels and surplus weapons materials, and environmental actinide migration. In this paper, we use density functional theory calculations to study the oxidation of uranium, neptunium and plutonium dioxides, AnO{sub 2} (An = U, Np or Pu), in O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O environments. We pay particular attention to the formation of oxygen clusters (co-operativity) in AnO{sub 2+x} and how this phenomenon govern oxidation thermodynamics and the development of ordered An{sub 4}O{sub 9} compounds. The so-called split di-interstitial, which is composed of two nearest neighbor octahedral oxygen interstitials that are distorted in such a way that they dislocate one regular fluorite lattice oxygen ion to form a cluster of triangular geometry, is predicted to be the fundamental building block of the most stable cluster configurations. We also identify how the formation of oxygen defect clusters and the degree of oxidation in AnO{sub 2+x} are both governed by the characer of the An-5f to excess O-2p charger transfer, i.e. the charge transfer to the O-2p orbitals of the interstitial-like (+x) ions, and the ability of the excess O-2p orbitals to hybridize with regular fluorite lattice ions.

  19. La Educacion Especial para Ninos con Impedimentos Desde Recien Nacidos Hasta Cinco Anos de Edad = Special Education for Handicapped Children Birth to Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    The manual, in Spanish, describes programs and resources available for preschool handicapped children and their families in conjunction with the New York State Education Department. Section 1 on assistance in securing services, reviews the service provided by Early Childhood Direction Centers, and outlines the role of local Committees on the…

  20. TMEM16A/ANO1 is differentially expressed in HPV-negative versus HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma through promoter methylation.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Ronak; Kemp, Carolyn; Kulich, Scott; Seethala, Raja; Chiosea, Simion; Ling, Shizhang; Ha, Patrick K; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a variety of causes. Recently, the human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated in the rising incidence of oropharyngeal cancer and has led to variety of studies exploring the differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC. The calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, including HNSCC, but whether or not it plays different roles in HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that TMEM16A is preferentially overexpressed in HPV-negative HNSCC and that this overexpression of TMEM16A is associated with decreased patient survival. We also show that TMEM16A expression is decreased in HPV-positive HNSCC at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels in patient samples as well as cell lines. We demonstrate that the lower levels of TMEM16A expression in HPV-positive tumors can be attributed to both a combination of copy number alteration and promoter methylation at the DNA level. Additionally, our cellular data show that HPV-negative cell lines are more dependent on TMEM16A for survival than HPV-positive cell lines. Therefore, we suspect that the down-regulation of TMEM16A in HPV-positive HNSCC makes TMEM16A a poor therapeutic target in HPV-positive HNSCC, but a potentially useful target in HPV-negative HNSCC. PMID:26563938

  1. Guia para la ensenanza de la Lengua Nacional (segundo ano) (A Guide to the Teaching of the National Language (second year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1500 words) of a guide based on the results of experiments conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia in its pilot school and other schools in Mexico, D. F. The foreword points out that there are two aspects of language teaching in elementary schools--the first year class to read

  2. Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura. Trinta Anos de Organizacao e Situacao Atual (Ministry of Education and Culture [Brazil]. Thirty Years Ago and Now). Volumes I and III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Norma Carneiro Monteiro

    The economic rather than the educational aspect of Brazil's Ministry of Education and Culture is presented in this historical summary. The study was done as part of Brazil's national program of educational reform. Brazil is currently re-evaluating its school system with the view of adopting a nationally-administered system similar to that in…

  3. La Educacion en America Latina y El Caribe Durante Los Proximos 25 Anos. (Education in Latin America and the Caribbean during the Next 25 Years.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roggi, Luis Osvaldo, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The nine papers appearing in this document review both limitations and progress in education in Latin America, study the future of education in Latin America and the Caribbean, and make recommendations to the Regional Program for Educational Development (PREDE). There is, in addition, a lengthy transcription of a discussion, among eight of the

  4. Indice Bibliografico Ciencias de la Educacion. Ano 1988. Volume II No. 1. (Bibliographic Index of the Education Sciences. 1988. Volume II No.1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro de Investigacion, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Documentacion.

    Published quarterly, this annotated bibliography indexes articles from scholarly Spanish journals, as well as significant foreign journals, considered important in the field of education. References are organized alphabetically according to subject and within each subject by number, author, and content. A users' information description is provided…

  5. La Educacion Especial para Ninos con Impedimentos Desde Recien Nacidos Hasta Cinco Anos de Edad = Special Education for Handicapped Children Birth to Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    The manual, in Spanish, describes programs and resources available for preschool handicapped children and their families in conjunction with the New York State Education Department. Section 1 on assistance in securing services, reviews the service provided by Early Childhood Direction Centers, and outlines the role of local Committees on the

  6. 10 Anos de ensenanza bilingue, 1979-80 - 1989-90, 24 Euskara Zerbitzua Zablkunde-Lanak (Ten Years of Bilingual Education, 1979-80 - 1989-90).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basque Autonomous Community, Vitoria (Spain). Dept. of Education, Universities, and Research.

    This report provides an overview of bilingual education in the Basque area of Spain over the last 10 years. Since 1982, a government decree established that public education was to be conducted following 1 of 3 models of bilingual education: 1) instruction is basically in Spanish, with Basque taught as a separate course; 2) content instruction is

  7. Un Paso Adelante a los Tres Anos de Edad: Guia para las Familias (Step Ahead at Age 3: A Guide for Families).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Pamela, Ed.; And Others

    This publication guides Spanish-speaking parents in Kansas communities as they plan for the transition of young children with special needs from the Infant-Toddler Services program to Early Childhood Special Education Services and/or other community services. Information is provided on the seven-step process: (1) planning ahead; (2) the transition

  8. Financial Aid for Students Workbook, 1994-95 School Year = Ayuda Financiera para Estudiantes, Libreta del Ano Escolar 1994-95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Student Aid Commission, Sacramento.

    Presented in both English and Spanish language formats, this workbook explains how California residents can qualify for and obtain student financial aid in the form of federal and state grants and loans, work-study programs, institutional grants, federal campus-based programs, and the Federal Family Education Loan Program loans. A calendar of

  9. Me escuchas? Como conversar con ninos de cuatro a doce anos (Are You Listening to Me? Communicating with Children from Four to Twelve Years Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfos, Martine F.

    Although talking to children is a daily activity for almost everyone at some stage in one's life and an essential activity for professionals who work with children, there is little research on activity. This Spanish-language book describes communication with children between the ages of 4 and 12 years, focusing on open question-and-answer sessions

  10. A Parent's Guide to Infant/Toddler Programs = Guia para los padres sobre los programas de cuidado infantil de 0-3 anos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.

    Information on how warm and responsive care can help shape infants' and toddlers' development and their ability to learn can be reassuring for concerned parents. This guide, in English and Spanish versions, presents quality child care as a partnership between the child caregiver and the parents with the primary goal of benefiting the child. The

  11. Guia para Padres Intervencion Temprana en Pennsylvania para Bebes desde el Nacimiento a los Tres Anos (A Parent Guide to Early Intervention in Pennsylvania for Infants and Toddlers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent Education Network, York, PA.

    This guide, in Spanish, is intended to help Pennsylvania parents of infants and toddlers with disabilities to understand their rights and assist in the design of an appropriate early intervention preschool educational program. An overview of special education laws focus on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Parts B and C. The main

  12. Indice Bibliografico Ciencias de la Educacion. Ano 1988. Volume II No. 1. (Bibliographic Index of the Education Sciences. 1988. Volume II No.1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro de Investigacion, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Documentacion.

    Published quarterly, this annotated bibliography indexes articles from scholarly Spanish journals, as well as significant foreign journals, considered important in the field of education. References are organized alphabetically according to subject and within each subject by number, author, and content. A users' information description is provided

  13. Literacy Learning Parties for 3-5 Year Olds. Activity Book = Fiestas de aprendizaje de alfabetismo para ninos de 3-5 anos. Libro de actividades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Ellen R.

    Noting that family members are a child's first teachers and set the course for future success, this activity book of "literacy learning parties" presents 10 activities that can be used at home to practice the skills and ideas learned at parent literacy workshops. Presented in English and Spanish versions, the activity book discusses the importance

  14. 1990: Ano Internacional de la alfabetizacion: Acciones sugeridas para America Latina y el Caribe = 1990 International Literacy Year: Suggested Actions for Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Michoacan (Mexico). Regional Office for Educ. in Latin America & Caribbean.

    This booklet discusses the needs for literacy education in Latin America and the Caribbean during International Literacy Year. Particular focus is on the objectives of International Literacy Year and suggested actions are provided in the four following areas: (1) operative strategies for the realization of the International Literacy Year,

  15. TMEM16A/ANO1 is differentially expressed in HPV-negative versus HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma through promoter methylation

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Ronak; Kemp, Carolyn; Kulich, Scott; Seethala, Raja; Chiosea, Simion; Ling, Shizhang; Ha, Patrick K.; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a variety of causes. Recently, the human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated in the rising incidence of oropharyngeal cancer and has led to variety of studies exploring the differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC. The calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, including HNSCC, but whether or not it plays different roles in HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that TMEM16A is preferentially overexpressed in HPV-negative HNSCC and that this overexpression of TMEM16A is associated with decreased patient survival. We also show that TMEM16A expression is decreased in HPV-positive HNSCC at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels in patient samples as well as cell lines. We demonstrate that the lower levels of TMEM16A expression in HPV-positive tumors can be attributed to both a combination of copy number alteration and promoter methylation at the DNA level. Additionally, our cellular data show that HPV-negative cell lines are more dependent on TMEM16A for survival than HPV-positive cell lines. Therefore, we suspect that the down-regulation of TMEM16A in HPV-positive HNSCC makes TMEM16A a poor therapeutic target in HPV-positive HNSCC, but a potentially useful target in HPV-negative HNSCC. PMID:26563938

  16. Near-infrared photoluminescence and ligand K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopies of AnO2Cl42-(An:u, NP, Pu)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Marianne P; Berg, John M; Clark, David L; Conradson, Steven D; Hobart, David E; Kozimor, Stosh A; Scott, Brian L

    2008-01-01

    We have used photoluminescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopies to investigate electronic structures and metal-ligand bonding of a series of An02CI/ ' (An = U, Np, Pu) compounds. Specifically, we will discuss time-resolved near-infrared emission spectra of crystalline Cs2U(An)02C14 (An = Np and Pu) both at 23 K and 75 K, as well as chlorine Kedge X-ray absorption spectra ofCs2An02CI4 (An = U, Np).

  17. Guia para la ensenanza de la Lengua Nacional (segundo ano) (A Guide to the Teaching of the National Language (second year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1500 words) of a guide based on the results of experiments conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia in its pilot school and other schools in Mexico, D. F. The foreword points out that there are two aspects of language teaching in elementary schools--the first year class to read…

  18. Sugerencias para la Evolucion del Desarrollo: 0-5 Anos (Stages for the Development of Discovery [Learning in] 0-5 Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization of American States, Washington, DC.

    Some points that may serve as a foundation of experience and reference in the stimulation of mentally retarded children during the years of one through five are presented. Points of development are given for the following breakdowns of time: three months, six months, nine months, 12 months, 18 months, two years, three years, four years, and five…

  19. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

  20. On the Formation of a Study Group to the Realization of Workshops for Teachers: Astronomy in Basic Education in Umuarama-Pr (Spanish Title: De la Formación de un Grupo de Estudios a la Realización de los Talleres Para los Profesores: la Astronomía en la Educación Básica en Umuarama-Pr ) Da Formação de um Grupo de Estudos À Realização de Oficinas Para Professores: a Astronomia na Educação Básica em Umuarama-Pr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusso, Diane; Akira Sakai, Otávio

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we aimed to present the activities developed by the Astronomy Study Group (ASG) to contribute to the dissemination and improvement of the astronomy teaching-learning. The results of a research carried out in schools of Umuarama-PR are shown, with the intention of checking the students' knowledge and interest in relation to Astronomy. It is reported the realization of workshops for Science teachers linked to the Education Regional Nucleus. The research and the workshop execution promoted the direct contact of the study group with the community; the results were used to diagnose the state of astronomy teaching-learning, in the basic education in Umuarama-PR. En este artículo se intenta presentar las actividades desarrolladas por el Grupo de Estudios de Astronomía (GEA) y contribuir para la divulgación y mejoría de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la Astronomía. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación realizada en las escuelas de Umuarama-PR, con la intención de determinar el grado de conocimiento y el interés de los estudiantes en relación a la astronomía. Se relata la realización de talleres de capacitación para los profesores de ciencias vinculados al Núcleo Regional del Educación. La ejecución de la investigación y de los talleres promovió el contacto directo del grupo de estudios con la comunidad; los resultados sirvieron de diagnóstico de la enseñanza aprendizaje de la astronomía en la educación básica en Umuarama-PR. Neste artigo, objetiva-se apresentar as atividades desenvolvidas pelo Grupo de Estudos de Astronomia (GEA) e contribuir para a divulgação e melhoria do ensino-aprendizagem de astronomia. São apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa realizada nas escolas de Umuarama-PR, com o intuito de averiguar o conhecimento e o interesse dos estudantes em relação à astronomia. Relata-se a realização de oficinas de capacitação para professores de ciências vinculados ao Núcleo Regional de Educação. A execução da pesquisa e das oficinas promoveu o contato direto do grupo de estudos com a comunidade; os resultados serviram de diagnóstico do ensino-aprendizagem de astronomia, na educação básica, em Umuarama-PR.

  1. Estudo de solues locais e cosmolgicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar so a mais simples extenso poss vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padro a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espao-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variao na constante de acoplamento da gravitao. Tais teorias apresentam solues locais e cosmolgicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqncias observacionais da evoluo de flutuaes primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graas a esta possibilidade de trazer luz novidades em relao gravitao, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para solues dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta solues gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situaes, verificando-se em que consiste a divergncia dessas solues dos casos tradicionais poss veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das solues aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expresso geral para diferentes solues cosmolgicas englobando diferentes tipos de matria (representados por diferentes equaes de estado), e a expresso para uma soluo local representando um buraco negro com rotao, similar soluo de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das solues apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos espec ficos, tal como solues cosmolgicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as solues dispon veis so, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e tal situao que este trabalho busca, em parte, reverter.

  2. Barotrauma em peixes em usinas hidrelétricas: ferramentas para o estudo

    SciTech Connect

    Do Vale Beirao, Bernardo; Castelo Branco Marciano, Natlia; de Souza Dias, Luma; Carvalho Falco, Ricardo; Wander Dias, Edson; Leite Fabrino, Daniela; Barreira Martinez, Carlos; Martins Da Silva, Luiz Gustavo; Walker, Ricardo W.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-09-30

    The main source of electric power generation in Brazil comes from hydropower plants, nevertheless, the installed power is expected to raise 56.8%, reaching a total of 116,000 MW at the year 2020. The increase at the hydroelectric sector will be responsible for a series of fish community impacts. One of the impacts over the fish community is related to fish kills due to downstream passage through turbines or fish entrance at the draft tube from the tailrace. Usually when there is a maneuver and the turbine stops, fish get attracted and enter the draft tube and, just as the downstream passage through a turbine, when the turbine starts, a rapid decompression occurs and can cause barotrauma. When such events happen, according to Boyle’s law (P1V1=P2V2), swim bladder volume expands at the same rate that the pressure decreases, which can lead to the organ’s rupture.

  3. Variao temporal do gradiente radial de o/h a partir de uma amostra de nebulosas planetrias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, W. J.; Costa, R. D. D.; Uchida, M. M. M.

    2003-08-01

    Gradientes radiais de abundncia so observados no disco de nossa Galxia e tambm em outras galxias espirais. No caso da Galxia, o principal problema relativo aos gradientes sua variao temporal, que constitui um dos principais vnculos aos modelos de evoluo qumica da Galxia. As nebulosas planetrias so particularmente interessantes no estudo dos gradientes e suas variaes, tanto espaciais como temporais. So objetos brilhantes, podendo ser observadas a grandes distncias, e tm abundncias relativamente precisas de diversos elementos qumicos. Alm disso, sendo originadas de estrelas com massas entre 0.8 e 8 massas solares na sequncia principal, incluem objetos com idades e populaes diferentes, o que as torna especialmente interessantes ao estudo da variao temporal dos gradientes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos resultados recentes sobre a variao temporal do gradiente de O/H a partir de uma amostra contendo cerca de 200 nebulosas, para as quais obtivemos distncias por mtodos estatsticos. As abundncias foram parcialmente obtidas a partir de observaes em Itajub e La Silla, sendo as restantes obtidas da literatura. Os resultados mostram, pela primeira vez, evidncias de um achatamento do gradiente de O/H, de -0.11 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos ltimos 9 giga-anos ou de -0.08 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos ltimos 5 giga-anos. Esses valores apresentam um bom acordo com alguns modelos recentes para a evoluo qumica da Galxia. (FAPESP/CNPq)

  4. National Migrant Education Program: Early Childhood Development Skills--Birth Through 5 Years (Desarrollo de Destrezas en la Temprana Infancia--Desde el Nacimiento Hasta los Cinco Anos de Edad).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    Compiled to ensure cooperation between states and to provide continuity of reporting on developmental skills for the migrant child from birth through five years of age, this booklet lists the psychomotor, cognitive, and affective skills which are reported through the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS). Published in both English and

  5. El buen comienzo de la lectura: Lo que pueden hacer los padres durante los primeros cinco anos (Reading Right from the Start: What Parents Can Do in the First Five Years).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickart, Toni S.; Dodge, Diane Trister

    Intended to provide concrete ways for parents to help children become readers and writers, this Spanish-language, easy-to-read, illustrated booklet uses the everyday routines that parents follow with their children--bathing and dressing, eating, shopping, doing household chores--to demonstrate how to build vocabulary, learn about conversations,…

  6. Como ayudar a su hijo a tener exito en la escuela, con actividades para ninos entre las edades de 5 a 11 anos (Helping Your Child Succeed in School, with Activities for Children Ages 5 through 11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy

    At the heart of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is a promise to raise standards for all children and to help all children meet those standards. This Spanish-language booklet provides information that parents can use to help their child succeed in school. Following an introduction, the second section of the booklet, "The Basics," offers

  7. Como ayudar a su hijo durante la edad preescolar, con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 5 anos (Helping Your Preschool Child, with Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    The first 5 yeas of a child's life are a time of tremendous physical, emotional, social, and cognitive growth. Noting that research shows that children are more likely to succeed in learning when their families actively support them, this Spanish-language booklet is intended for families and caregivers who want to help their preschool children

  8. Como ayudar a su hijo a ser un buen lector: Con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 6 anos (Helping Your Child Become a Reader: With Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Fran; Osborn, Jean

    When parents and other family members read with their children, help them with homework, talk with their teachers, and participate in school or other learning activities, they give their children a tremendous advantage. The foundation for learning to read is in place long before children enter school and begin formal reading instruction. Families

  9. El buen comienzo de la lectura: Lo que pueden hacer los padres durante los primeros cinco anos (Reading Right from the Start: What Parents Can Do in the First Five Years).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickart, Toni S.; Dodge, Diane Trister

    Intended to provide concrete ways for parents to help children become readers and writers, this Spanish-language, easy-to-read, illustrated booklet uses the everyday routines that parents follow with their children--bathing and dressing, eating, shopping, doing household chores--to demonstrate how to build vocabulary, learn about conversations,

  10. Little Steps for New Parents: A Week-by-Week Guide and Journal for Baby's First Year = Pasitos para nuevos padres: Una guia y diario semanal para el primer ano del bebe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Sandy

    Providing young infants with a loving and interesting environment through play will have a positive impact on their future. This book, designed for first time parents, provides simple and enjoyable activities intended to promote brain development during the first year. The book's introduction discusses the importance of the environment during the

  11. Effect of Spin-Orbit Coupling on the Actinide Dioxides AnO2 (An=Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, and Am): A Screened Hybrid Density Functional Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Xiaodong; Martin, Richard L.; Roy, Lindsay E.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Rudin, Sven P.; Batista, Enrique R.; McCleskey, Thomas M.; Scott, Brian L.; Bauer, Eve; Joyce, John J.; Durakiewicz, Tomasz

    2012-10-21

    We present a systematic comparison of the lattice structures, electronic density of states, and band gaps of actinide dioxides, AnO₂ (An=Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, and Am) predicted by the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof screened hybrid density functional (HSE) with the self-consistent inclusion of spin-orbit coupling(SOC). The computed HSE lattice constants and band gaps of AnO₂ are in consistently good agreement with the available experimental data across the series, and differ little from earlier HSE results without SOC. ThO₂ is a simple band insulator (f⁰), while PaO₂, UO₂, and NpO₂ are predicted to be Mott insulators. The remainders (PuO₂ and AmO₂) show considerable O2p/An5f mixing and are classified as charge-transfer insulators. We also compare our results for UO₂, NpO₂, and PuO₂with the PBE+U, self interaction correction (SIC), and dynamic mean-field theory (DMFT) many-body approximations.

  12. National Migrant Education Program: Early Childhood Development Skills--Birth Through 5 Years (Desarrollo de Destrezas en la Temprana Infancia--Desde el Nacimiento Hasta los Cinco Anos de Edad).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    Compiled to ensure cooperation between states and to provide continuity of reporting on developmental skills for the migrant child from birth through five years of age, this booklet lists the psychomotor, cognitive, and affective skills which are reported through the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS). Published in both English and…

  13. International Symposium on Visually Handicapped Infants and Young Children: Birth to Seven (2nd, Aruba, 1987). "The First Steps." Proceedings = Simpasio Internacional sobre Ninos Visualmente Deficientes de Nacimiento hasta Siete Anos (2nd, Aruba, 1987). "Los Primeros Pasos."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Lillian, Ed.; And Others

    This symposium focused on the special needs of visually handicapped infants and young children. Texts of 48 papers are presented, including keynote addresses by W. Aubrey Webson ("The First Steps") and Heather Hewitt ("First Steps--Parenting, Prevention and Programming"). Regional reports are provided for Japan, Bangladesh, the Middle East, the

  14. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada (DELTA): Novos Estudos em Gamatica Gerativa (Journal of Documentary Studies in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics [DELTA]: New Studies in Generative Grammar).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains the following articles: "Resumption and Last Resort" (Joseph Aoun); "Existentials, A-Chains, and Reconstruction" (Norbert Hornstein); "How Long Was the Nineteenth Century" (David Lightfoot); "Formal Features and Parameter Setting: A View From Portuguese Past Participles and Romance Future Tenses" (Lucia Lobata); "Revisiting

  15. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada (DELTA): Novos Estudos em Gamatica Gerativa, 2001 (Journal of Documentary Studies in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics [DELTA]: New Studies in Generative Grammar, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Rajagopalan, Kanavillil, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These two issues of volume 17, include the following articles: "The Competing Motivation Model in the Functional Domains of Negation" (M. Angelica Furtado da Cunha); "Discursive Resonance and Politeness in Reading and Writing Practices" (Silvana Serrani Infante); "The Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Brazilian Portuguese" (Maria Cecilia

  16. Estudo de cavidade reentrante supercondutora a ser utilizada nos transdutores paramtricos do detector brasileiro de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, K. L.; Furtado, S. R.; Aguiar, O. D.; Frajuca, C.

    2003-08-01

    Cavidades reentrantes de nibio vm sendo utilizadas pelo grupo Australiano nos transdutores eletromecnicos paramtricos do detector de ondas gravitacionais Niob. Esses transdutores paramtricos so ativados por um sinal AC na faixa de microondas (banda X), que modulado pelo sinal mecnico da vibrao da antena esfrica, com a variao de um parmetro, que, no caso, a capacitncia da cavidade. Ns estudamos esse tipo de cavidade, com o objetivo de transform-la de reentrante aberta para reentrante fechada, de forma a utiliz-la nos transdutores paramtricos do detector brasileiro Mario Schenberg. O desempenho do transdutor depende de alguns parmetros da cavidade, como a sua Figura de Mrito (Q eltrico) e o seu acoplamento eltrico com o circuito externo. Neste trabalho mostramos a medida do Q eltrico como funo do acoplamento, do acabamento superficial interno e do vazamento de microondas da cavidade, e mostramos o desempenho esperado para o detector Mario Schenberg usando uma cavidade supercondutora reentrante fechada de nibio.

  17. 78 FR 328 - Consideration of Approval of Application Regarding Proposed Creation of a Holding Company and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... be filed in accordance with the NRC's E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007). The E-Filing..., for the Arkansas Nuclear One, Units 1 and 2 (ANO-1, ANO-2), and associated Independent Spent Fuel.... (EOI), as licensed operator of ANO-1 and ANO-2. The direct transfer of the ANO-1 and ANO-2...

  18. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  19. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  20. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  1. 76 FR 51459 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ..., combined. The 2000 SEIS analyzed the environmental impacts of up to five solid-propellant strap-on rocket... government. Under the Proposed Action in the 2000 SEIS, up to five solid- propellant strap-on rocket...

  2. Systems engineering and integration and management for manned space flight programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Owen

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the history of SE&I management of the overall program architecture, organizational structure and the relationship of SE&I to other program organizational elements. A brief discussion of the method of executing the SE&I process, a summary of some of the major lessons learned, and identification of things that have proven successful are included.

  3. A Study of Arizona's Teachers of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Gonzalez Canche, Manuel S.; Moll, Luis C.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: In September 2007, the Arizona State Board of Education adopted the Structured English Immersion (SEI) model proposed by the Arizona English Language Learner (ELL) Task Force.During the 2008-2009 academic year, it required all school districts to implement the SEI model.The SEI program, best known as the 4-hour English Language

  4. Science and Engineering Indicators 2010. NSB 10-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehming, Rolf F.; Alt, Martha Naomi; Chen, Xianglei; Hall, Leslie; Burton, Lawrence; Burrelli, Joan S.; Kannankutty, Nirmala; Proudfoot, Steven; Regets, Mark C.; Boroush, Mark; Moris, Francisco A.; Wolfe, Raymond M.; Britt, Ronda; Christovich, Leslie; Hill, Derek; Falkenheim, Jaquelina C.; Dunnigan, Paula C.

    2010-01-01

    "Science and Engineering Indicators" (SEI) is first and foremost a volume of record comprising the major high-quality quantitative data on the U.S. and international science and engineering enterprise. SEI is factual and policy neutral. It does not offer policy options, and it does not make policy recommendations. SEI employs a variety of…

  5. Science and Engineering Indicators 2012. NSB 12-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Science and Engineering Indicators (SEI) is first and foremost a volume of record comprising the major high-quality quantitative data on the U.S. and international science and engineering enterprise. SEI is factual and policy neutral. It does not offer policy options, and it does not make policy recommendations. SEI employs a variety of…

  6. Populao estelar nuclear e extranuclear em galxias Seyfert 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimann, D. I.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Cid Fernandes, R., Jr.; Delgado, R. M. G.; Schmitt, H.; Heckman, T.; Leitherer, C.

    2003-08-01

    A luz das estrelas foi, historicamente, vista por observadores de AGNs como uma poluio inconveniente. Conseqentemente, a informao contida nas caractersticas estelares foi, durante muito tempo, largamente omitida. Nos primeiros estudos, o mtodo empregado para remover esta contaminao estelar foi represent-la por um template de galxia elptica e subtra-la do espectro observado, restando o puro AGN como um resduo. Hoje sabemos que no to simples representar essa populao. Vrios estudos tm mostrado a presena de formao estelar recente prxima a regio nuclear de galxias Seyfert. Neste trabalho foi revisada a abordagem tradicional, tendo-se focalizado a anlise na luz estelar. Espectros ticos de fenda longa, com alta razo sinal/rudo, foram usados para estudar a variao radial das larguras equivalentes de linhas de absoro e cores do contnuo. Utilizando o mtodo de sntese espectral de populaes estelares, foram estimadas as contribuies de populaes estelares de diferentes idades (e de um contnuo tipo lei de potncia) para a luz integrada das galxias, em 4020A. As principais concluses deste trabalho so: na regio nuclear, mais da metade das galxias Seyfert 2 da amostra (57%) apresenta contribuies das populaes com 100 milhes de anos ou mais jovens superior a 20% do fluxo em 4020A, enquanto que em cerca de 40% delas a componente de 3 milhes de anos (e/ou luz que provem de um ncleo ativo) tem contribuio significativa (maior do que 10%). Estas contribuies em geral decrescem quando se vai para regies mais distantes do centro das galxias, respectivamente 53% e 30% a 1kpc, 40% e 15% a 3kpc do centro das galxias. Estes resultados foram comparados com aqueles obtidos para uma amostra de galxias no ativas de mesmo tipo de Hubble das Seyfert. Em uma anlise inicial nota-se que em geral as galxias Seyfert apresentam contribuies das populaes de 100 milhes de anos maiores do que aquelas encontradas nas galxias no ativas, sugerindo uma ligao entre a formao estelar e a atividade em galxias.

  7. Como os Alunos do Ensino Mdio da Rede Estadual de So Paulo obtm Conhecimentos Astronmicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2005-08-01

    Atualmente vivencia-se um mundo globalizado onde os computadores e a internet permitiram um acesso rpido e seguro a todo tipo de informao e conhecimento. O presente trabalho visa analisar a maneira pela qual alunos de segundo grau da rede estadual da cidade de So Paulo obtiveram, caso tenham, conhecimentos bsicos de astronomia quanto aos fenmenos celestes que os rodeiam, tais como a sucesso dos dias e das estaes do ano, alm de question~los sobre fatos genricos tais como: o que vem a ser o Sol, o Big Bang, o que ocasionou a extino dos dinossauros. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulrio constando de questes de mltipla escolha, o qual foi aplicado no primeiro colegial diurno da Escola Estadual Guilherme de Almeida. Num espao amostral de 44 alunos constatou-se que 41% dos alunos adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronmicos na escola e 59% atravs da mdia em geral. Neste mesmo espao amostral apenas 11% dos alunos usaram computadores na escola, 41% na residncia, 5% no trabalho e 43% no utilizaram. O presente estudo revelou tambm que para 50% dos alunos o professor jamais utilizou um programa de computador a respeito de astronomia ou fez alguma apresentao sobre o tema. Embora em sua fase inicial este estudo revela claramente que a maioria dos alunos no obtm na escola seus conhecimentos astronmicos, estes provm de fontes no especificamente didtico-pedaggicas tais como filmes e revistas populares que no raramente geram conhecimentos incompletos e em muitos casos inclusive falhos.

  8. In Situ AFM Imaging of Solid Electrolyte Interfaces on HOPG with Ethylene Carbonate and Fluoroethylene Carbonate-Based Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cai; Wang, Shuwei; Jin, Yan; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-11-18

    Chemical and morphological structure of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) plays a vital role in lithium-ion battery (LIB), especially for its cyclability and safety. To date, research on SEI is quite limited because of the complexity of SEI and lack of effective in situ characterization techniques. Here, we present real-time views of SEI morphological evolution using electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM). Complemented by an ex situ XPS analysis, fundamental differences of SEI formation from ethylene carbonate (EC) and fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC)-based electrolytes during first lithiation/delithiation cycle on HOPG electrode surface were revealed. PMID:26502161

  9. Prolegomenos a um estudo da lingua brasileira nos terreiros de origem africana (Prolegomena to a Study of the Brazilian Language of the Voodoo Rites of African Origin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megenney, William W.

    Determination of the authenticity of lexical items with Sub-Saharan origin in the voodoo rites of candomble and umbanda in Brazil requires establishing a socio-historical basis for the African diaspora and the current configuration of terreiros. The terreiros demonstrate varying linguistic repertoires according to their affiliation with candomble

  10. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 1999 (Journal of Documentary Studies in Linguistic Theory and Application, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Rajagopalan, Kanavillil, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These issues include the following articles: "Portuguese Philology in Brazil" (Heitor Megale, Cesar Nardelli Cambraia); "Implications of Brazilian Portuguese Data for Current Controversies in Phonetics: Towards Sharpening Articulatory Phonology" (Eleonora Cavalconte Albano); "Morphological Studies in Brazil: Data and Issues" (Margarida Maria de…

  11. O Passado como Nacao: Imagens do Imperio nas Falas Reacionarias dos Anos 30 e 40 do Seculo XX: Uma Pequena Arqueologia do Debate Publico e Privado (The Past as Nation: Images of the Empire in the Reactionary Words of the 30s and 40s in the 20th Century: A Small Archaeology of the Public Debate versus the Private One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Marcos Cezar

    1998-01-01

    Suggests an archaeology of the public debate versus the private one in Brazil through analysis of the reactionary speech of a religious leader, Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha, which produced innumerable representations of the Brazilian Empire. (PA)

  12. ...And That's How It All Began: Putting Information about Your Child's Growth, Health and Safety All within Your Reach...Because the First Years Last Forever! = ...Y asi es como empezo todo: Ponemos a su alcance en forma conjunta la informacion sobre el crecimiento, la salud y la seguridad de su hijo...Porque los primeros anos duran para siempre!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Partnership for Children, Raleigh.

    Smart Start is North Carolina's model early childhood initiative to help all North Carolina children enter school healthy and prepared for success. This resource guide, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to provide parents with information on infant and child development, health care, and resources for further assistance. Presented in an…

  13. Reading: Students' Attitudes and Interests in Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Grades in Official Portuguese Schools in the USA (A Leitura: Atitudes e Preferencias dos Educandos do 4th, 5th, e 6th Anos de Escolaridade nas Escolas Oficiais Portuguesas nos Estados Unidos da America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castanho, Maria da Graca Borges

    A study investigated attitudes and preferences concerning reading among fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students in Portuguese-language schools in the United States. Extrinsic factors influencing students (parents, teachers) were also analyzed. The research took place in 10 schools in 5 states. Data were obtained using questionnaires (students)

  14. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  15. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 7th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Septimo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  16. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 9th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Noveno Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  17. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 5th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 5to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  18. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 10th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Decimo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Education Oversight Committee, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  19. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to

  20. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 6th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 6to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  1. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 11th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Grado 11 Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  2. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  3. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 12th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Grado 12 Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Education Oversight Committee, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  4. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 4th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 4to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  5. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  6. ...And That's How It All Began: Putting Information about Your Child's Growth, Health and Safety All within Your Reach...Because the First Years Last Forever! = ...Y asi es como empezo todo: Ponemos a su alcance en forma conjunta la informacion sobre el crecimiento, la salud y la seguridad de su hijo...Porque los primeros anos duran para siempre!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Partnership for Children, Raleigh.

    Smart Start is North Carolina's model early childhood initiative to help all North Carolina children enter school healthy and prepared for success. This resource guide, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to provide parents with information on infant and child development, health care, and resources for further assistance. Presented in an

  7. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  8. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 8th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Octavo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  9. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy activities for

  10. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 3rd Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 3er Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  11. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to…

  12. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 1st Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 1er Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  13. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your Kindergartner Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Jardin Infantil (Kindergarten) Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  14. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 2nd Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 2do Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  15. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para las familias: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Families: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for families, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth wallchart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that families (adults who have nurturing relationships with a child--a mother, father, grandparent, other relative, or close friend) can use to…

  16. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para los cuidadores de ninos pequenos: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Caregivers: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for caregivers, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth chart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that caregivers (family child care providers and the teachers, staff, and volunteers in child development programs) can use to help young children…

  17. El juego entre el nacimiento y los 7 anos: Un manual para ludotecarias. Investigacion-accion sobre la Familia y la Primera Infancia. UNESCO Sector de Educacion Monografia (Play between Birth and 7 Years: A Manual for Preschool Teachers. Action Research in Family and Early Childhood. UNESCO Education Sector Monograph).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grellet, Carolina

    The purpose of this Spanish-language manual is to help preschool teachers better understand theoretical concepts related to children's play. Following a preface that discusses UNESCO's activities related to early childhood education, the two main sections of the manual discuss children's play between 0-2 years and 2-7 years. Each section includes…

  18. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  19. Algunas Premisas Metodologicas y Conceptuales sobre el Desarrollo de los Movimientos en el Primer Ano de Vida (0-12 Meses) (Some Methodological and Conceptual Premises about the Development of Movement in the First Year of Life (0-12 Months)).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bequer Diaz, Gladys

    1997-01-01

    Examined the emergence of principal and secondary movements in Cuban children in their first year of life. Based on 35 examples of observed movements, an integrated program of activity is developed to assist in the development of physical skills which are essential to the development of a well-rounded personality. (AS)

  20. Highly sensitive detection of melamine and its derivatives by capillary electrophoresis coupled with online preconcentration techniques.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yue; Meng, Lingchen; Li, Meixian; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2010-12-01

    Two kinds of online preconcentration techniques including large-volume sample stacking-sweeping and selective-exhaustive injection-sweeping (SEI-S) were employed in CE to develop a rapid, simple and sensitive method for determination of melamine (MM) and its derivatives such as ammeline (AMN), ammelide (AMD) and cyanuric acid (CA) in liquid milk products. Though the sensitivity of large-volume sample stacking-sweeping is not particularly high, it can be used to detect all the four compounds simultaneously. However, it is very difficult to improve the sensitivity of these four compounds by using single SEI-S method directly, owing to their completely different extents of protonation or deprotonation. Grouping can solve this problem perfectly. After the four compounds are divided into two groups (MM/AMN and AMD/CA), cation-SEI-S or anion-SEI-S can be applied for their online stacking. In cation-SEI-S, the detection limits for MM and AMN were both 0.01 ng/mL based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3. In anion-SEI-S, the detection limits were 0.05 and 0.02 ng/mL for CA and AMD, respectively. Results of this study show a great potential for the SEI-S method to be a useful tool for the rapid and sensitive determination of MM and its derivatives in liquid milk products. PMID:21154716

  1. Conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de las facultades de educacion y ciencias naturales de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, recinto de Rio Piedras, acerca de la ciencia y la pseudociencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Medina, Hector A.

    Esta investigacion describe las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de tercer ano o mas a nivel de bachillerato de los programas de Educacion en Ciencia y Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Rio Piedras, acerca de lo establecido en la literatura para distinguir el conocimiento cientifico de las creencias pseudocientificas. Este estudio se guio por un diseno tipo encuesta transversal que permitio conocer de manera consistente las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes encuestados acerca de la Ciencia y la Pseudociencia. Ademas, permitio desarrollar inferencias estadisticas relacionadas a la poblacion de estudio, sus conceptuaciones y su inclinacion teorica en torno al Realismo y al Racionalismo cientifico moderados. El instrumento utilizado fue el Cuestionario acerca de las concepciones de la ciencia y la pseudocienca en estudiantes universitarios, Reyes (2015). Este cuestionario fue validado mediante la recopilacion de diversas fuentes de evidencias, entre estas se encuentran las evidencias basadas en el contenido, el proceso de respuesta, la estructura interna y de constructo. Tambien, se calculo el Alfa de Crombach para la escala total y para cada componente y se realizo un analisis de factores que demostro la presencia de seis componentes claramente definidos de acuerdo a lo esperado sobre las caracteristicas originales del instrumento. Las estadisticas utilizadas fueron descriptivas. Participaron 302 alumnos, de las facultades de educacion y ciencias naturales. Se encontro que las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de ambas facultades se inclinan en un 66.2% a favor con lo establecido en el modelo teorico en torno al Realismo y al Racionalismo cientifico moderados. Sin embargo, aun hay un 33.8% de los estudiantes de ambas facultades que poseen conceptuaciones distintas al modelo teorico propuesto.

  2. Uso de modelos mecânicos em curso informal de astronomia para deficientes visuais. Resgate de uma experiência

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, E. T., Jr.; Klafke, J. C.

    2003-08-01

    O presente trabalho propõe-se a resgatar uma experiência que teve lugar no Planetário de São Paulo nos anos 60. Em 1962, o Sr. Acácio, então com 37 anos, deficiente visual desde os 27, passou a assistir às aulas ministradas pelo Prof. Aristóteles Orsini aos integrantes do corpo de servidores do Planetário. O Sr. Acácio era o único deficiente da turma e, embora possuísse conhecimentos básicos e relativamente avançados de matemática, enfrentava dificuldades na compreensão e acompanhamento da exposição, como também em estudos posteriores. Com o intuito de auxiliá-lo na superação desses problemas, o Prof. Orsini solicitou a construção de modelos mecânicos que, através do sentido do tato, permitissem o acompanhamento das aulas e a transposição do modelo para o "constructo" mental. Essa prática mostrou-se tão eficaz que facilitou sobejamente o aprendizado da matéria pelo sujeito. O Sr. Acácio passou a integrar o corpo de professores do Planetário/Escola Municipal de Astrofísica, tendo ficado responsável pelo curso de "Introdução à Astronomia" por vários anos. Além disso, a experiência foi tão bem sucedida que alguns dos modelos tiveram seus elementos constitutivos pintados diferencialmente para serem utilizados em cursos regulares do Planetário, tornando-se parte integrante do conjunto de recursos didáticos da instituição. É pensando nessa eficácia, tanto em seu objetivo original permitir o aprendizado de um deficiente visual quanto no subsidiário recurso didático sistemático da instituição que decidimos resgatar essa experiência. Estribados nela, acreditamos ser extremamente produtivo, em termos educacionais, o aperfeiçoamento dos modelos originais, agora resgatados e restaurados, e a criação de outros que pudessem ser utilizados no ensino dessa ciência a deficientes visuais.

  3. 76 FR 76950 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16473

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... physalus), 150 sperm (Physeter macrocephalus), 200 North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis), 40 sei (B. borealis), 100 minke (B. acutorostrata), 100 dwarf and pygmy sperm (Kogia spp.),...

  4. Disordered eating links to body-relevant and body-irrelevant influences on self-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Halley E; Rizk, Marianne T; Wang, Shirley S; Treat, Teresa A

    2014-04-01

    We investigated eating- and weight-related correlates of self-evaluation influences (SEIs) and examined the extent to which such SEIs can be both over- and undervalued and the extent to which measurement strategy affects SEIs. A female undergraduate sample (n = 549) completed 3 measures of SEI importance and questionnaires assessing disordered eating (DE), body mass index (BMI), and depression. SEI measures included Likert scale, rank ordering, and pairwise forced choice; a subset (n = 62) also completed the Shape- and Weight-Based Self-Esteem Scale (SAWBS). Only rank ordering, forced choice, and SAWBS constrain choices among SEIs, such that prioritizing one SEI necessarily deprioritizes another, which reflects real-world restrictions on individuals' allotment of time and energy (e.g., spending hours exercising daily necessarily reduces time available for other activities). By any measure, women with DE overvalue body shape and weight. The constraining measures reveal systematic undervaluation of intelligence and achievement among women with DE and an enhanced effect of DE on the overvaluation of weight and on the undervaluation of being a good person among those with higher BMI. Depressed women's self-evaluations overemphasize appearance and underemphasize interpersonal relationships. Self-evaluations of women with DE are marked by both over- and undervaluation of relevant SEIs; the overvaluation of shape and weight in DE may be associated with costs. Future use of constraining measures, such as forced choice or rank ordering, may enhance our understanding of both over- and underemphasized SEIs among women with DE. PMID:24854805

  5. Analysis of lithium ion concentration and stress in the solid electrolyte interphase on the graphite anode.

    PubMed

    He, Yaolong; Hu, Hongjiu

    2015-09-28

    One of the critical challenges in advancing lithium ion battery performance is increasing mechanical stability of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers. Our work aims at developing a mathematical model to study the lithium ion concentration and stress in the SEI on the graphite anode. The main influence factors on the SEI stress have been thoroughly investigated. We find that the ion transportation of the SEI has the underlying effects on the maximum stress in the graphite active layer, especially at a high charging rate. The physical properties of the SEI should be taken into account to obtain an accurate anode stress. The tensile SEI stress along the hoop direction is dominant, and should be regarded as the leading cause of mechanical failure for the SEI. Moreover, the peak stress in the SEI is independent of the charging rate, but can be effectively reduced by rationally designing geometric and material properties of anode components by: (1) decreasing modulus of the SEI itself; (2) enhancing tensile stiffness of the current collector; and (3) making the ratio of anode radius to thickness larger than ten. PMID:26299210

  6. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    SciTech Connect

    Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2012-10-01

    The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

  7. Organizational Considerations for Implementing Systems Engineering and Integration in the Ares Projects Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, LeAnn; Doreswamy, Rajiv N.

    2008-01-01

    Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) is a critical discipline in developing new space systems. In 2005, NASA performed an internal study of 24 agency and Department of Defense (DoD) programs to evaluate methods of integrating SE&I practices and determine their effectiveness. The goal of the study was to determine the best SE&I implementation strategy for the Ares Projects Office. The study identified six SE&I organizational structures: 1. Lead systems integrator (LSI) with SE&I responsibility and government technical insight. 2a. Integration contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government insight). 2b. Integration contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 3a. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government insight). 3b. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 3c. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government/industry partnership). 4a.Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government insight). 4b. Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 4d.Prime contractors with total system performance responsibility (TSPR). 5. Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility and integration products through a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC). 6. Government/FFRDC in-house development with SE&I responsibility and function. The organizational structure used most often was number 4, using a prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility and government technical insight. However, data analyses did not establish a positive relationship between program development costs and specific SE&I organizational types, nor did it positively determine the relationship between successful programs or projects and their SE&I structure. The SE&I study reached the following conclusions: (1) Large, long-duration, technically complex programs or projects reach their technical goals, but rarely meet schedule or cost goals. NASA's recent successes have been smaller, short-duration development projects using heritage hardware/software, focused technology development, technical oversight and stable external factors. (2) Programs and projects have failed or been terminated due to lack of technical insight, relaxing of SE&I processes, and unstable external factors. (3) The study did not find a single, clear optimum SE&I organization type to fit all projects. However, while any organizational structure can be made to work, the fewer complexities in the program, the better the likelihood of success. (4) The most common successful SE&I organization structure type in the study was type 4b, where the government maintained integration responsibility, with the prime contractor providing SE&I products and the government providing technical oversight. This study was instrumental in helping the APO select organization structure 4, following the same SE&I and oversight process used during humanlund7s last voyages to the Moon.

  8. Senkyunolide I protects rat brain against focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by up-regulating p-Erk1/2, Nrf2/HO-1 and inhibiting caspase 3.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yangye; Duan, Muyin; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Yi

    2015-04-24

    Oxidative damage and apoptosis are critical factors contributing to neuronal death during a stroke. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of senkyunolide I (SEI) on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats, and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 2h, followed by 24h reperfusion, and then randomly assigned into four groups: Sham (sham-operated), Vehicle (tMCAO +normal saline), SEI-L (tMCAO +SEI 36 mg/kg) and SEI-H (tMCAO +SEI 72 mg/kg) groups. SEI was administered intravenously, 15 min after occlusion. Neurological deficit, brain edema and infarct volume were detected after 24h of reperfusion. Histological structures of cortices and hippocampus were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Biochemical indexes in the cortex were assayed by colorimetry. The impact of SEI on the Nrf2-ARE-interaction was assayed using a luciferase reporter gene. Western blotting was performed to analysis the expressions of proteins related to anti-oxidation and apoptosis. SEI administration significantly ameliorated the neurological deficit, reduced the infarct volume and brain edema, reversed the cerebral morphologic damage, decreased the levels of MDA and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase. Furthermore, the high dose SEI could significantly activate the Nrf2/ARE pathway by up-regulating the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation with enhanced HO-1 and NQO1 expressions. Additionally, treatment with SEI remarkably promoted the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and inhibited the expressions of cleaved caspase 3 and caspase 9. These results suggest that the neuroprotective mechanisms of SEI are associated with its anti-oxidation and anti-apoptosis properties. PMID:25698615

  9. Estatstica de lentes gravitacionais e o gs de chaplygin generalizado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. L. S.

    2003-08-01

    A estatstica de lentes gravitacionais constitui uma poderosa ferramenta utilizada na obteno de vnculos sobre parmetros cosmolgicos, principalmente sobre modelos com uma constante cosmolgica. Embora de forma s vezes controversa, antes de 1998, a anlise tradicional mostrava que modelos com o parmetro de densidade da matria da ordem da unidade so preferidos. Esse resultado comeou a ser questionado, alguns anos atrs, com as indicaes, advindas da anlise de supernovas com alto valor de desvio para o vermelho, de que nosso Universo est acelerando. Atualmente h enorme interesse em saber qual a natureza da componente responsvel pela acelerao csmica. Energia escura a denominao usual dessa componente e sua caracterstica principal possuir presso negativa. Nos modelos cosmolgicos tradicionais, alm da energia escura, considera-se tambm uma outra componente de origem desconhecida. Ela denominada matria escura e possui presso nula. Mais recentemente modelos unificadores em que energia escura e matria escura so manifestaes distintas de um mesmo fluido (altas densidades matria escura, baixas densidades energia escura) foram sugeridos. Um desses modelos conhecido como Gs de Chaplygin Generalizado que o modelo que investigaremos. Em nosso trabalho apresentamos vnculos sobre parmetros desse modelo usando a estatstica de lentes gravitacionais. Usamos observaes de quasares na faixa do visvel e consideramos extino em nosso estudo. Anlises semelhantes anteriores com esse tipo de objetos e que no consideram extino so inconsistentes. Comparao dos vnculos obtidos atravs de lentes gravitacionais com outros advindos de outros testes ser tambm apresentada.

  10. Teaching of Astronomy at Teresa Martin College. (Breton Title: Ensino de Astronomia Nas Faculdades Teresa Martin.) Enseanza de la Astronomia en la Facultad Teresa Martin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2005-12-01

    Courses with exclusive Astronomy contents did not exist at (FATEMA) Teresa Martin College's program until the end of 2002. In 2001, a series of educational experiments started in courses and classes of Astronomy at Mathematics and Geography departments. This actions culminated with the insertion of Teaching of Astronomy as a study theme in the course of Independent Studies for Mathematics professors in 2005. At o final de 2002 inexistiam na grade curricular das Faculdades Integradas Teresa Martin (FATEMA) cadeiras com contedos exclusivos de Astronomia. A partir do ano de 2001 iniciou-se uma srie de experincias educacionais atravs de modelos de cursos e de aulas de Astronomia nos Departamentos de Matemtica e de Geografia, o que culminou com a insero do Ensino de Astronomia como temtica da disciplina de Estudos Independentes para o curso de Licenciatura em Matemtica, em 2005. Hasta el final de 2002 no haba en el currculo dela Facultad TeresaMartn (FATEMA) en San Pablo - SP, Brasil, disciplinas con contenidos exclusivos de Astronoma. A partir del ao 2001 comenz una secuencia de experimentos educacionales de carrera y de clases de Astronoma en los Departamentos de Matemtica y Geografa, culminando en la implantacin de clases de Enseanza dela Astronomaenla Licenciaturaen Matemtica, en el ao de 2003, y de la ctedra de extensin en Cosmografa parala Licenciaturaen Geografa.

  11. Desenvolvimento das câmeras de raios-X duros do satélite MIRAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Rothschild, R.; Staubert, R.; Heise, J.; Remillard, R.; D'Amico, F.; Jablonski, F.; Mejía, J.; Carvalho, H.; Heindl, B.; Matteson, J.; Kendziorra, E.; Wilms, J.; in't Zand, J.; Kuulkers, E.

    2003-08-01

    O MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de RAios-X) é um projeto de desenvolvimento de um pequeno satélite astronômico de raios-X (~200 kg, ~240 W). A estratégia básica da missão será observar continuamente (~9 meses por ano) a região central (~1000 graus2) do plano Galáctico e realizar estudos espectroscópicos de banda larga (2-200 keV) e alta sensibilidade de um grande conjunto de fontes através de imagens com resolução de ~6'. Isso proporcionará uma cobertura inédita do "espaço de descobertas" através da detecção, localização, identificação e estudo detalhado de fenômenos imprevisíveis, tais como transientes fracos de raios-X, novas rápidas de raios-X e bursts de raios gama, assim como o estudo de fontes com emissão persistente. Neste trabalho apresentamos o projeto das duas câmeras de raios-X duros (CXDs) do MIRAX, que irão operar na faixa de 10 a 200 keV. Cada CXD consistirá de um plano de detectores CZT (Cd0,9Zn0,1Te) de 0,5 mm de resolução espacial e 370 cm2 de área total, e de uma máscara codificada com elementos quadrados de 1,3 mm de lado e 0,5 cm de espessura. A máscara terá dimensões de 315 cm ´ 275 cm e será montada a 700 cm de distância dos detectores. Com essa configuração as CXDs terão 6' de resolução angular e, quando colocadas a um ângulo de 29° entre si, as duas câmeras propiciam um campo totalmente codificado de 39° ´ 6°12' e um campo total de 76° ´ 44°. Serão apresentadas simulações de observações da região do plano Galáctico com o conjunto formado pelas duas CXDs.

  12. A Introdução de Astronomia Básica para Estudantes de 5 e 6 Séries do Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, E. P.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Com intuito de despertar o interesse pelo estudo da astronomia, desenvolveu-se entre 2003 e 2006 no Centro Educacional do Serviço Social da Indústria situado no município de Mauá, São Paulo, um trabalho com duração de 12 meses para turmas de 11 e 12 anos, sendo três turmas por período (2003 / 2004, 2004 / 2005 e 2005 / 2006). O trabalho realizado, objetivando a introdução da astronomia básica com observações de constelações e das fases da Lua, permitindo estender-se a outros corpos celestes, iniciou-se com visita ao planetário Mundo Estelar, localizado no Ipiranga, São Paulo levantou-se a questão da importância do estudo da astronomia e foi lançado aos estudantes um trabalho de observação, com a proposta de localizar as constelações e compreender as fases da Lua, para o registro de tais observações, foram distribuídos mapas celestes, pastas, planilhas de anotações com lacunas para, constelações, fases da Lua e relatos, onde os estudantes acrescentaram pesquisas e relatórios. Os resultados dos 346 estudantes foram que 86,7% (300) concluíram a etapa de observação, destes 300 estudantes 43,3% (130) pesquisaram sobre as constelações e 19,0% (57) localizaram até quatro constelações. Dos 346 estudantes, 44,2% (153) registraram as fases da Lua equivocadamente e 10,4% (36) anexaram reportagens sobre astronomia. Conclui-se que os estudantes se dividiram em pesquisadores, sendo os estudantes que registraram e anexaram informações e, os observadores que preencheram as planilhas de observações, além de desenvolverem habilidades e competências relacionadas ao estudo da astronomia.

  13. 78 FR 8119 - Cancellation of the Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft and Final Supplemental Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Register, August 9, 2006 (71 FR 45539). The USACE issued an NOA for the Draft SEIS on December 22, 2006 (71 FR 77013). A public meeting was held in Clewiston on January 10, 2007 to present the Draft SEIS. The USACE issued a second NOI, published in the Federal Register, August 31, 2009 (74 FR 44828), due to...

  14. 78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Register (69 FR 23492-23493) announcing the agencies' proposal to add the insecticide tebufenozide (trade... States: A Cooperative Approach (see 60 FR 61698). A notice of availability for the draft SEIS was..., 2008 (73 FR 54397, Docket No. ER-FRL-8585-7), and a notice of availability regarding the final SEIS...

  15. 76 FR 42762 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Transit Improvements in the Mid-Coast Corridor of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Project Need The study area is located entirely within the City of San Diego (City), centering on... accommodate the new service. IV. The SEIS Process and the Role of Participating Agencies and the Public The purpose of the SEIS process is to explore in a public setting potentially significant effects...

  16. Role of surface oxides in the formation of solid-electrolyte interphases at silicon electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Kjell W; Dylla, Anthony G; Harris, Stephen J; Webb, Lauren J; Stevenson, Keith J

    2014-12-10

    Nonaqueous solvents in modern battery technologies undergo electroreduction at negative electrodes, leading to the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). The mechanisms and reactions leading to a stable SEI on silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries are still poorly understood. This lack of understanding inhibits the rational design of electrolyte additives, active material coatings, and the prediction of Li-ion battery life in general. We prepared SEI with a common nonaqueous solvent (LiPF6 in PC and in EC/DEC 1:1 by wt %) on silicon oxide and etched silicon (001) surfaces in various states of lithiation to understand the role of surface chemistry on the SEI formation mechanism and SEI structure. Anhydrous and anoxic techniques were used to prevent air and moisture contamination of prepared SEI films, allowing for more accurate characterization of SEI chemical stratification and composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) depth profiling. Additionally, multivariate statistical methods were used to better understand TOF-SIMS depth profiling studies. We conclude that the absence of native-oxide layer on silicon has a significant impact on the formation, composition, structure, and thickness of the SEI. PMID:25402271

  17. In situ Measurements of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase in Li-Ion Batteries Using Neutron Reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dura, Joseph; Owejan, Jeanette; Decaluwe, Steven; Owejan, Jon

    2013-03-01

    The huge advantages of Li-ion batteries, i.e. high energy density and specific power are due not only to the low mass of Li, but also a direct result of the high operating voltage provided by the large electrochemical potential of Li. However, these advantages come at a cost, as all known electrolytes are unstable at these potentials. Li-ion batteries are only made possible by the solid electrolyte interphase, SEI, a passivation layer that forms from the decomposition products of certain electrolytes. Ideally the SEI offers sufficient electronic resistance when it has grown thick enough to stop additional electrolyte decomposition. However, slow continued SEI growth leads to capacity fade and increased cell resistance. Despite the SEI's critical significance, currently structural characterization is incomplete because of the reactive and delicate nature of the SEI and the electrolyte system in which it forms. Here we present the first in situ neutron reflectometry measurements of the SEI layer as function of potential in a working lithium half-cell. The SEI layer after 10 and 20 CV cycles is 4.0 and 4.5 nm, respectively, growing to 8.9 nm after a series of potentiostatic holds that approximates a charge/discharge cycle. Specified data sets show uniform mixing of SEI components.

  18. A parametric study of non-thermal plasma synthesis of silicon nanoparticles from a chlorinated precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yi; Yamada, Riku; Gresback, Ryan; Zhou, Shu; Pi, Xiaodong; Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2014-12-01

    Silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) synthesized in non-thermal plasma with silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) are anticipated as a non-toxic and inexpensive Si source for important applications. This study examines the crystallinity, yield, and size distribution of Si NPs in terms of specific energy input (SEI) for 2.5-65?J?cm?3 and the H2/SiCl4 ratio (1-10). The particle growth mechanism is discussed comprehensively. Atomic hydrogen (H) production using non-thermal plasma is the primary important step for SiCl4 dechlorination at low temperatures. The Si NP yield increases with SEI (plasma power divided by total gas flow) because SiCl4 conversion increases with energy fed into the unit volume of the feed gas. At low SEI, Si NPs were mostly in amorphous material because of insufficient plasma heating. A maximum yield of 50?wt% was obtained when SEI = 10?J?cm?3 (H2/SiCl4 = 10) with a crystal fraction of about 1%. Increased SEI is necessary to improve crystal fraction, but excessive SEI decreases the NP yield remarkably. The NP yield losses correspond to increasing NP-free thin film growth on the reactor wall. Mass spectrometry shows that SiCl4 is highly decomposed with greater SEI. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) increases as a by-product. At higher SEI, particle nucleation and subsequent growth are suppressed.

  19. Factor Validity and Reliability of the Self-Esteem Index: Finding Inconsistencies between Normative and Field Study Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Larry G.; King, Debra A.

    This study offers field estimates of the factor validity and internal consistency reliability of the Self-Esteem Index (SEI) using SEI data from 208 regular and special education students in grades 3, 4, and 5. Exploratory factor analytic results support the existence of four factors as anticipated; however, various inconsistencies are noted…

  20. A theory and a simulation capability for the growth of a solid electrolyte interphase layer at an anode particle in a Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejovitzky, Elisha; Di Leo, Claudio V.; Anand, Lallit

    2015-05-01

    A major mechanism for electrochemical aging of Li-ion batteries is the growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on the surface of anode particles, which leads to capacity fade and also results in a rise in cell resistance. We have formulated a continuum theory for the growth of an SEI layer-a theory which accounts for the generation of the attendant growth stresses. The theory has been numerically implemented in a finite-element program. This simulation capability for SEI growth is coupled with our previously published chemo-mechanical simulation capability for intercalation of Li-ions in electrode particles. Using this new combined capability we have simulated the formation and growth of an SEI layer during cyclic lithiation and delithiation of an anode particle, and predicted the evolution of the growth stresses in the SEI layer. The evolution of the stress state within the SEI layer and at the SEI/anode-particle interface for spherical- and spheroidal-shaped graphite particles is studied. This knowledge of the local interfacial stresses provides a good estimate for the propensity of potential delamination of an SEI layer from an anode particle.

  1. 77 FR 12244 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16325

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... permit to conduct research on humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus... Atlantic (fin, blue, sei, minke, sperm and killer whales). Research would occur in the waters off Maine to..., and health. Up to 2,100 humpback whales, 250 fin whales, 100 sei whales, and 50 whales from each...

  2. Depression in College Students: Student Experience Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, Angela G.; Redfield, Doris L.

    To assess depression in college students, two inventories were compared: the Student Experience Inventory (SEI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). SEI, a self-report questionnaire, contains 56 items that are designed to measure hopelessness and decreased energy levels, as well as five factors covered in BDI: (1) negative affect toward self,

  3. Improving Teaching Effectiveness through the Application of SPC Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadden, David; Driscoll, Vincent; Thompson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    One method used extensively to aid in determining instruction effectiveness is Student Evaluations of Instruction (SEI). This paper examines the use of statistical Process Control charts as a way to correctly measure teaching effectiveness. This field studying SEIs has produced a significant literature. It is not surprising that there is

  4. 75 FR 7438 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... published May 8, 2003 (68 FR 24848-24854). This SEIS tiers from the 2003 PEIS and, with certain exceptions... (74 FR 45606-45607), and solicited public comment on the proposed SEIS for CRP. Nine public scoping... site at http://public.geo-marine.com . Follow the online instructions for submitting comments....

  5. Influence of the solid electrolyte interphase on the performance of redox shuttle additives in Li-ion batteries - A rotating ring-disc electrode study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaymaksiz, Serife; Wachtler, Mario; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret

    2015-01-01

    Redox shuttle electrolyte additives (RSAs) can be applied for reversible overcharge protection of batteries. Their successful operation involves their oxidation at the cathode and reduction at the anode. The most common anodes in lithium-ion batteries are graphite or amorphous carbon, which are normally covered with a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The reduction of RSAs at these anodes is in apparent contradiction with the common understanding of the SEI, which is thought to be electronically insulating. In this communication the reduction behaviour of ferrocene and 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene is studied at un-filmed and SEI-filmed electrodes. It is found that it depends strongly on the type of RSA and/or composition of the SEI. The rotating ring-disc electrode (RRDE) is introduced as a powerful diagnostic tool to study the reaction mechanism of RSAs in general and the influence of the SEI in particular.

  6. From a lunar outpost to Mars: Science, policy and the U.S. Space exploration initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilcher, Carl B.

    The U.S. Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is aimed at the establishment of an outpost for humans on the Moon, followed by the human exploration of Mars. It also encompasses robotic missions to the Moon and Mars that will precede and perhaps accompany human presence. Science plays a dual role in SEI. First, many scientific questions must be answered to insure the health and safety of human explorers. Second, scientific investigations will be among the central objectives of human explorers. A substantial body of U.S. policy on SEI has been announced by President Bush. Its implementation is coordinated by the U.S. National Space Council under the Chairmanship of Vice President Quayle. That policy directs the early focus of SEI to be on technology development, including the identification of ``high leverage technologies,'' and the identification of alternative mission architectures. It also envisions international cooperation as an important beneficial aspect of SEI.

  7. Estudo da utilizacao da biomassa florestal como fonte de produtos quimicos e energia atraves de processos quimicos e biotechnologicos (Utilization of forest biomass for chemicals and energy by chemical and biotechnological processes). Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    de Miranda, I.M.S.S.

    1989-04-01

    The chemical composition and the non-structural carbohydrate composition were determined for 1-year-old Eucalyptus globulus Labill trees, grown in an experimental plantation with different nutrient and water supplies (C-trees, where no treatment was made and IL-trees, which received a nutrient supply and irrigation). Leaf carbohydrates were determined for the same conditions. Pulping experiments were made using kraft cooks of eucalyptus wood. The results of the pretreatments are complemented with scanning electron microscopy observations. Average wood composition was: ash 1.6%, total extractives 5.2%, Klason lignin 21.0%, soluble lignin 3.1% (% of o.d. weight). The results did not show statistical significant differences between the two growth conditions. The average wood carbohydrate composition was: glucose 2.7%, frutose 4.1% sucrose 1.3% and starch 0.5%. The average carbohydrate composition of leaves was: glucose 1.0%, frutose 1.7%, sucrose 0.1% and starch 4.1%. The average yield for the kraft wood delinification was 49%. The saccharification of pretreated eucalyptus chips with a steam-explosion pretreatment was: For H2SO4 impregnation 26.6% and for H2O impregnation 44.2%.

  8. Anoctamin 1 (TMEM16A) is essential for testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Cha, Joo Young; Wee, Jungwon; Jung, Jooyoung; Jang, Yongwoo; Lee, Byeongjun; Hong, Gyu-Sang; Chang, Beom Chul; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee; Min, Hye-Young; Lee, Ho-Young; Na, Tae-Young; Lee, Mi-Ock; Oh, Uhtaek

    2015-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by an enlargement of the prostate, causing lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly men worldwide. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH is unclear. Anoctamin1 (ANO1) encodes a Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel (CaCC) that mediates various physiological functions. Here, we demonstrate that it is essential for testosterone-induced BPH. ANO1 was highly amplified in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated prostate epithelial cells, whereas the selective knockdown of ANO1 inhibited DHT-induced cell proliferation. Three androgen-response elements were found in the ANO1 promoter region, which is relevant for the DHT-dependent induction of ANO1. Administration of the ANO1 blocker or Ano1 small interfering RNA, inhibited prostate enlargement and reduced histological abnormalities in vivo. We therefore concluded that ANO1 is essential for the development of prostate hyperplasia and is a potential target for the treatment of BPH. PMID:26153424

  9. 78 FR 42527 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... baculovirus production (allowing high- throughput production with limited screening) Higher efficiency cloning...--Combinatorial Cloning Platform. Licensing Contact: Susan Ano, Ph.D.; 301-435-5515; anos@mail.nih.gov ....

  10. Anoctamin 1 (TMEM16A) is essential for testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Joo Young; Wee, Jungwon; Jung, Jooyoung; Jang, Yongwoo; Lee, Byeongjun; Hong, Gyu-Sang; Chang, Beom Chul; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee; Min, Hye-Young; Lee, Ho-Young; Na, Tae-Young; Lee, Mi-Ock; Oh, Uhtaek

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by an enlargement of the prostate, causing lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly men worldwide. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH is unclear. Anoctamin1 (ANO1) encodes a Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) that mediates various physiological functions. Here, we demonstrate that it is essential for testosterone-induced BPH. ANO1 was highly amplified in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated prostate epithelial cells, whereas the selective knockdown of ANO1 inhibited DHT-induced cell proliferation. Three androgen-response elements were found in the ANO1 promoter region, which is relevant for the DHT-dependent induction of ANO1. Administration of the ANO1 blocker or Ano1 small interfering RNA, inhibited prostate enlargement and reduced histological abnormalities in vivo. We therefore concluded that ANO1 is essential for the development of prostate hyperplasia and is a potential target for the treatment of BPH. PMID:26153424

  11. The calcium-activated chloride channel Anoctamin 1 contributes to the regulation of renal function.

    PubMed

    Faria, Diana; Rock, Jason R; Romao, Ana M; Schweda, Frank; Bandulik, Sascha; Witzgall, Ralph; Schlatter, Eberhard; Heitzmann, Dirk; Pavenstdt, Hermann; Herrmann, Edwin; Kunzelmann, Karl; Schreiber, Rainer

    2014-06-01

    The role of calcium-activated chloride channels for renal function is unknown. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrate dominant expression of the recently identified calcium-activated chloride channels, Anoctamin 1 (Ano1, TMEM16A) in human and mouse proximal tubular epithelial (PTE) cells, with some expression in podocytes and other tubular segments. Ano1-null mice had proteinuria and numerous large reabsorption vesicles in PTE cells. Selective knockout of Ano1 in podocytes (Ano1-/-/Nphs2-Cre) did not impair renal function, whereas tubular knockout in Ano1-/-/Ksp-Cre mice increased urine protein excretion and decreased urine electrolyte concentrations. Purinergic stimulation activated calcium-dependent chloride currents in isolated proximal tubule epithelial cells from wild-type but not from Ano1-/-/Ksp-Cre mice. Ano1 currents were activated by acidic pH, suggesting parallel stimulation of Ano1 chloride secretion with activation of the proton-ATPase. Lack of calcium-dependent chloride secretion in cells from Ano1-/-/Ksp-Cre mice was paralleled by attenuated proton secretion and reduced endosomal acidification, which compromised proximal tubular albumin uptake. Tubular knockout of Ano1 enhanced serum renin and aldosterone concentrations, probably leading to enhanced compensatory distal tubular reabsorption, thus maintaining normal blood pressure levels. Thus, Ano1 has a role in proximal tubular proton secretion and protein reabsorption. The results correspond to regulation of the proton-ATPase by the Ano1-homolog Ist2 in yeast. PMID:24476694

  12. Qual o Papel da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    É amplamente reconhecido que as pessoas em geral têm grande fascínio e interesse pela Astronomia. Por outro lado, o conteúdo dessa área incluído no ensino formal está longe de ser abrangente e suficiente para suprir a demanda. Esse interesse permite aperfeiçoar a divulgação e o ensino não formal de Astronomia através da mídia aliando a adequação do conteúdo à expectativa das pessoas. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros tem introduzido Astronomia desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1180 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um formulário contendo questões que abordavam conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia, como foram adquiridos tais conhecimentos e à infra-estrutura da escola. Para 66,1% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de Astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 54,4% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 18,4% através da televisão e 27,1% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, livros didáticos, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio no meio em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia busca não somente sua difusão, mas a disponibilização desse conhecimento de maneira correta, que às vezes, não é atingido, apresentando conceitos sem fundamentação e incorretos. Por outro lado, no dia-a-dia escolar, é comum encontrar professores que vêm para as aulas com concepções prévias, que podem diferir substancialmente das idéias a serem ensinadas, dificultando o aprendizado de futuros conceitos científicos. Uma avaliação criteriosa, avaliando as dificuldades dos professores em determinar o sentido correto dos conceitos e observando a metodologia que utilizam no ensino, poderá proporcionar uma melhor compreensão sobre as concepções alternativas, presentes no ensino de Astronomia.

  13. Ligand Efficiency Outperforms pIC50 on Both 2D MLR and 3D CoMFA Models: A Case Study on AR Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiazhong; Bai, Fang; Liu, Huanxiang; Gramatica, Paola

    2015-12-01

    The concept of ligand efficiency is defined as biological activity in each molecular size and is widely accepted throughout the drug design community. Among different LE indices, surface efficiency index (SEI) was reported to be the best one in support vector machine modeling, much better than the generally and traditionally used end-point pIC50 . In this study, 2D multiple linear regression and 3D comparative molecular field analysis methods are employed to investigate the structure-activity relationships of a series of androgen receptor antagonists, using pIC50 and SEI as dependent variables to verify the influence of using different kinds of end-points. The obtained results suggest that SEI outperforms pIC50 on both MLR and CoMFA models with higher stability and predictive ability. After analyzing the characteristics of the two dependent variables SEI and pIC50 , we deduce that the superiority of SEI maybe lie in that SEI could reflect the relationship between molecular structures and corresponding bioactivities, in nature, better than pIC50 . This study indicates that SEI could be a more rational parameter to be optimized in the drug discovery process than pIC50 . PMID:26198098

  14. Structural Properties of Solid Electrolyte Interphase on Lithium Metal.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Soon-Ki; Choi, Hye-Kang; Kim, Yang Soo

    2015-11-01

    To gain an understanding of the structural properties of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) created on the surface of lithium during an electrochemical deposition/dissolution reaction in propylene carbonate (PC) containing different concentrations of LiClO4 (1.09, 3.27 mol kg(-1)), the surface of lithium was examined through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after 30 cycles. The poor cyclability of the electrodes in the 1.09 mol kg(-1) solution was improved considerably when employing 3.27 mol kg(-1) solution. TEM showed that the latter solution produced a thinner SEI with smaller resistance on the electrode posited lithium than the former solution, e.g., -120 nm in 1.28 mol kg(-1) versus -34 nm in 3.27 mol kg(-1) solutions. Results of chemical treatment using chloroform to dissolve part of the components constituting the SEI suggested that the principal component of SEI in direct contact with the lithium was an inorganic material, while the component of SEI directly contacting the electrolyte was an organic material. That is, the SEI consisted of 2 layers, which were almost of equal thickness. These results partly supported the compact-stratified layer (CSL) model previously presented. In this study, a modified CSL model of the SEI structure was presented based on the results obtained through TEM analyses. PMID:26726597

  15. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  16. An advanced tool for the selection of electrolyte components for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Peled, E.; Golodnitsky, D.; Menachem, C.; Bar-Tow, D.

    1998-10-01

    The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) plays a key role in lithium-metal, lithium-alloy, and lithium-ion batteries. The SEI on both lithium and carbonaceous electrodes consists of many different materials including LiF, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, LiCO{sub 2}-R, Li{sub 2}O, lithium alkoxides, nonconductive polymers, and more. Close to the lithium or Li{sub x}C{sub 6} the SEI consists of the thermodynamically stable anions, such as O{sup 2{minus}}, S{sup 2{minus}}, and halides. Close to the solution the SEI also contains partially reduced materials such as polyolefins, semicarbonates, etc. These materials form simultaneously and precipitate on the electrode as a mosaic of microphases. These phases may, under certain conditions, form separate layers, but in general it is more appropriate to treat them as heteropolymicrophases. The SEI composition and properties depend strongly on electrolyte composition and on other factors. Rapid formation of the SEI is important in all lithium batteries, especially in the case of lithium-ion cells with graphite anodes. Hence SEI precursors must be selected from a group of materials that have high exchange current density (i{sub 0}) for reduction. As it is difficult to measure i{sub 0} on solid electrodes and only limited data, if any, are available, it is suggested to use the data bank for the rate constant for the reduction of electrolyte components by hydrated electrons (e{sub aq}{sup {minus}}). The authors have demonstrated that the rate constants of the reactions of solvated electrons and electrolyte components and impurities correlate well with the formation voltage of SEI and with SEI composition. Thus, the rate constants (k{sub e}) for these reactions are proposed as a tool for the first screening of electrolyte components when a new electrolyte is designed.

  17. Function and diagnostic value of Anosmin-1 in gastric cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Mitsuro; Shimizu, Dai; Fujii, Tsutomu; Sueoka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Yuri; Ezaka, Kazuhiro; Takami, Hideki; Tanaka, Haruyoshi; Hashimoto, Ryoji; Iwata, Naoki; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Chie; Yamada, Suguru; Nakayama, Goro; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Koike, Masahiko; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a major global health problem that urgently requires novel molecular biomarkers for patient stratification as well as therapeutic targets. Anosmin-1 (ANOS1) gene encodes a cell adhesion molecule that plays diverse roles in multiple malignancies. We performed global expression profiling of GC cell lines and small interfering RNA (siRNA) experiments to determine the effect of ANOS1 expression on phenotype. We evaluated the association of ANOS1 mRNA and protein levels in patients' tissue and sera with clinicopathological factors of GC subtypes. Differential expression of ANOS1 mRNA by GC cell lines correlated positively to levels of ITGAV, FOXC2 and NODAL mRNAs and inversely with those of TFPI2. Inhibiting ANOS1 expression decreased the proliferation, invasion and migration of GC cells. The mean level of ANOS1 mRNA was significantly higher in 237 GC tissues compared with the corresponding noncancerous adjacent tissues. Elevated ANOS1 levels associated significantly with the phenotypes of GC, shorter disease-free and overall survival. ANOS1 expression was a more significant prognostic marker for diffuse and distal nondiffuse GC. ANOS1 concentrations in sera increased sequentially in sera of healthy subjects, localized GC and disseminated GCs. Prognosis was worse for patients with preoperative serum ANOS1 ?600 pg/ml compared with those with <600 pg/ml. ANOS1 may represent a biomarker for GC phenotypes and as a target for therapy. PMID:26270236

  18. Cellular volume regulation by anoctamin 6: Ca(2+), phospholipase A2 and osmosensing.

    PubMed

    Sirianant, Lalida; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Schreiber, Rainer; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2016-02-01

    During cell swelling, Cl(-) channels are activated to lower intracellular Cl(-) concentrations and to reduce cell volume, a process termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD). We show that anoctamin 6 (ANO6; TMEM16F) produces volume-regulated anion currents and controls cell volume in four unrelated cell types. Volume regulation is compromised in freshly isolated intestinal epithelial cells from Ano6-/- mice and also in lymphocytes from a patient lacking expression of ANO6. Ca(2+) influx is activated and thus ANO6 is stimulated during cell swelling by local Ca(2+) increase probably in functional nanodomains near the plasma membrane. This leads to stimulation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and generation of plasma membrane lysophospholipids, which activates ANO6. Direct application of lysophospholipids also activates an anion current that is inhibited by typical ANO6 blocker. An increase in intracellular Ca(2+) supports activation of ANO6, but is not required when PLA2 is fully activated, while re-addition of arachidonic acid completely blocked ANO6. Moreover, ANO6 is activated by low intracellular Cl(-) concentrations and may therefore operate as a cellular osmosensor. High intracellular Cl(-) concentration inhibits ANO6 and activation by PLA2. Taken together, ANO6 supports volume regulation and volume activation of anion currents by action as a Cl(-) channel or by scrambling membrane phospholipids. Thereby, it may support the function of LRRC8 proteins. PMID:26438191

  19. Direct determination of solid-electrolyte interphase thickness and composition as a function of state of charge on a silicon anode

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, Gabriel M.; Doucet, Mathieu; Baldwin, J. K.; Sacci, Robert L.; Fears, Tyler M.; Wang, Yongqiang; Browning, Jim

    2015-08-17

    Using neutron reflectometry we have determined the thickness and chemistry of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer grown on a silicon anode as a function of state of charge and during cycling. We show the chemistry of this SEI layer becomes more LiF like with increasing lithiation and more Li-C-O-F like with delithiation. More importantly the SEI layer thickness appears to increase (about 250 ) as the electrode becomes less lithiated and thins to 180 with increasing Li content (Li3.7Si). We attribute this breathing to the continual consumption of electrolyte with cycling.

  20. Direct determination of solid-electrolyte interphase thickness and composition as a function of state of charge on a silicon anode

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Veith, Gabriel M.; Doucet, Mathieu; Baldwin, J. K.; Sacci, Robert L.; Fears, Tyler M.; Wang, Yongqiang; Browning, Jim

    2015-08-17

    Using neutron reflectometry we have determined the thickness and chemistry of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer grown on a silicon anode as a function of state of charge and during cycling. We show the chemistry of this SEI layer becomes more LiF like with increasing lithiation and more Li-C-O-F like with delithiation. More importantly the SEI layer thickness appears to increase (about 250 ) as the electrode becomes less lithiated and thins to 180 with increasing Li content (Li3.7Si). We attribute this breathing to the continual consumption of electrolyte with cycling.

  1. Surface Characterization and Osteoconductivity Evaluation of Micro/Nano Surface Formed on Titanium Using Anodic Oxidation Combined with H2O2 Etching and Hydrothermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jin; Song, Yo-Han; Hwang, Moon-Jin; Song, Ho-Jun; Park, Yeong-Joon

    2015-08-01

    In this study, surface characteristics and osteoconductivity were investigated for the micro/nanostructured oxide layers fabricated on titanium using anodic oxidation (ANO), chemical etching (Et), and hydrothermal treatment (HT). Commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) disks were anodic-oxidized using DC-type power supply in 1 M phosphoric acid electrolyte (P-ANO group). These specimens were further chemically etched using 30% H2O2 solution at 60 C for 10 min (P-ANO-Et group). The P-ANO-Et-HT group was fabricated by hydrothermally treating the P-ANO-Et specimens in phosphorus-containing alkaline solution at 190 C for 8 hrs. The P-ANO group showed a porous surface that was evenly covered with micro- and sub-micro pores. The size of these pores was decreased in the P-ANO-Et group. The P-ANO-Et-HT group showed a porous surface that was covered with nano-sized crystallites. Anatase TiO2 structure was observed in P-ANO-Et-HT group. The results of XPS demonstrated that the P-ANO-Et-HT group had a well-crystallized TiC2 structure, while the P-ANO and P-ANO-Et groups had an amorphous and phosphate-containing structure. Hydrophilicity of the P-ANO-Et-HT group was the highest. After MG63 osteoblast-like cells were cultured on the specimens for 3 hrs, SEM images of the cells cultured on P-ANO-Et-HT group specimens showed low initial adhesion. However, the osteoconductivity of these specimens increased more rapidly compared to that of the micro-structured surfaces. These results could be applied to fabricate titanium implants with an optimum micro/nano-surface for enhancing their osteoconductivity. PMID:26369213

  2. BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.

    2003-08-01

    Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

  3. Modelagem do vento e da fotosfera de AG Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.

    2003-08-01

    A trajetria evolutiva das estrelas de alta massa depende fortemente de suas taxas de perda de massa. Apesar do rpido progresso no estudo destas estrelas, a taxa de perda de massa e outros parmetros fsicos bsicos, como a temperatura superficial e a velocidade terminal do vento ainda no esto bem determinados. Isto ocorre devido presena de ventos irregulares, rpidos e fortes ao redor destas estrelas, tornando a interpretao dos seus espectros uma tarefa difcil. Assim, a modelagem do vento e da fotosfera dessas estrelas est sendo cada vez mais usada para obter tais parmetros a partir dos espectros. O aumento da taxa de perda de massa durante a fase LBV (Variveis Luminosas Azuis), comparado com outros tipos de estrelas, tem sido atribudo a instabilidades do tipo S Doradus. Dispomos de uma base de dados espectroscpicos cobrindo 22 anos de observaes de AG Carinae, incluindo um ciclo S Doradus completo, com espectros CCD em alta resoluo na faixa ptica e infravermelha. Utilizamos o programa desenvolvido por Schmutz (1997) para uma anlise preliminar desse ciclo, obtendo a taxa de perda de massa a partir da linha do Ha. No existe uma correlao clara da taxa de perda de massa com mudanas da temperatura efetiva, do raio da estrela e do fluxo na banda V. A estrela atingiu seu mnimo fotomtrico (raio mnimo) em 1990 e o mximo fotomtrico (raio mximo) em 1995, enquanto que o fluxo mximo da linha do Ha ocorreu em 1996. Alm disso a taxa de perda de massa no segue esse ciclo, contrariamente s idias correntes. Para fazer um modelo mais realista estamos usando o programa CMFGEN (Hillier & Miller), que trata a fotosfera e o vento estelar de forma consistente, considerando a radiao fora do equilbrio termodinmico (NLTE) e com blanketting total de linhas. Simulamos o espectro de AG Carinae em duas pocas extremas do ciclo S Dor para testar os resultados obtidos com o modelo mais simplificado.

  4. Projeto observatórios virtuais: educação através de telescópios robóticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, P. H. S.; Shida, R. Y.

    2003-08-01

    O principal objetivo do projeto Observatórios Virtuais é o ensino na área de ciências através de atividades práticas desenvolvidas em colaboração entre instituições de pesquisa em astronomia e escolas de ensino médio e fundamental. Este ano deverá ser concluída a implantação do programa piloto de estudos, pesquisas e observação astronômica direta, com utilização em tempo real de telescópios robóticos, que assim funcionarão como "observatórios virtuais". O objetivo pedagógico das atividades práticas baseadas nas imagens atronômicas é desenvolver as habilidades e competências dos alunos no uso do método científico. Para isso, serão realizados projetos interdisciplinares, a partir de observações astronômicas, já que a astronomia é uma área interdisciplinar por excelência. Essas atividades terão níveis diferenciados de complexidade, que podem ser adequados aos vários graus do ensino e realidades regionais. Será dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento e aplicação em São Paulo, onde atua a equipe do IAG/USP. Como resultados apresentados no presente trabalho, temos a criação de um software em português para o processamento de imagens obtidas através de CCDs e a elaboração de material para as atividades educacionais relacionadas.

  5. Preparation and crystal structure of RESe 1.9 ( RE =Ce, Pr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plambeck-Fischer, P.; Abriel, W.; Urland, W.

    1989-01-01

    Vapor phase transport technique with I 2 yielded single crystals of CeSe 1.9 and PrSe 1.9, respectively. The isostructural title compounds are tetragonal, space group P4 2/ n with Z = 20. Lattice parameters a = 9.3598(9) and c = 16.938(2)for CeSe 1.9; a = 9.296(2) and c = 16.860(4)for PrSe 1.9. The structure determinations result in a formulation of RESe 1.9 as RE20(Se(I) 2) 8Se(I) 2? 2Se(II) 20, in accordance with the magnetic measurements, where the layer built up by the Se(I) 2-2 pairs, Se(I) 2- ions, and the vacancies corresponds to the F layer in the PbFCl substructure.

  6. 77 FR 31836 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15240

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ..., 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 78890) that a request for a permit to conduct... (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (B. physalus), sei (B. borealis), humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae),...

  7. 77 FR 33443 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16473

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... FR 76950) that a request for a permit to conduct research on humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), fin (Balaenoptera physalus), sperm (Physeter macrocephalus), North Atlantic right (Eubalaena glacialis), sei (B. borealis), minke (B. acutorostrata), dwarf and pygmy sperm (Kogia spp.), unidentified beaked,...

  8. Direct Visualization of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Sacci, Robert L.; Adamczyk, Leslie A.; Alsem, Daan Hein; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie

    2014-08-01

    Complex, electrochemically driven transport processes form the basis of electrochemical energy storage devices. The direct imaging of electrochemical processes at high spatial resolution and within their native liquid electrolyte would significantly enhance our understanding of device functionality, but has remained elusive. In this work we use a recently developed liquid cell for in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy to obtain insight into the electrolyte decomposition mechanisms and kinetics in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries by characterizing the dynamics of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and evolution. Here we are able to visualize the detailed structure of the SEI that forms locally at the electrode/electrolyte interface during lithium intercalation into natural graphite from an organic Li-ion battery electrolyte. We quantify the SEI growth kinetics and observe the dynamic self-healing nature of the SEI with changes in cell potential.

  9. 77 FR 19645 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16111

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... pinniped species would also be studied, including the endangered sei whale (B. borealis), endangered Southern Resident stock of killer whales (Orcinus orca), and the threatened eastern stock of Steller...

  10. 78 FR 63069 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System; Yellowstone National Park; Winter Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... March 15, 2013 (78 FR 16500). The Plan/SEIS is available online at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/yell , by...). Implementation of these standards was completed in 2010 (65 FR 6698, February 10, 2000). The final rule...

  11. Characterisation of the solid electrolyte interface during lithiation/delithiation of germanium in an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Abhishek; Borisenko, Natalia; Borodin, Andriy; Olschewski, Mark; Endres, Frank

    2016-02-10

    In this paper, we present investigations of the interface of electrodeposited Ge during lithiation/delithiation in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide containing 0.5 M lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI/[Py1,4]TFSI). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and infrared spectroscopy were used to study the electrochemistry and the changes in the electrolyte during the Li intercalation/deintercalation processes. From infrared spectroscopic analysis, it was found that the TFSI(-) anion decomposes during the lithiation process, resulting in the formation of a solid-liquid interface (SEI) layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyse the composition of the SEI layer and the changes in the electrodeposited germanium. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the changes in the SEI layer which showed that the SEI layer was inhomogenous and changed during the lithiation/delithiation processes. PMID:26863589

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase supplemental environmental impact statement. Implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Implementation Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) has two primary purposes: (1) To report on the results of the scoping process (2) To provide guidance for preparing SEIS-II SEIS-II will be the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review for WIPP`s disposal phase. Chapter 1 of this plan provides background on WIPP and this NEPA review. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and need for action by the Department of Energy (hereafter DOE or the Department), as well as a description of the Proposed Action and alternatives being considered. Chapter 3 describes the work plan, including the schedule, responsibilities, and planned consultations with other agencies and organizations. Chapter 4 describes the scoping process, presents major issues identified during the scoping process, and briefly indicates how issues will be addressed in SEIS-II.

  13. 50 CFR 218.71 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of concern: beaked whale of any species, Kogia spp., Risso's dolphin, melon-headed whale, pilot whale, humpback whale, sperm whale, blue whale, fin whale, sei whale, or monk seal. (iii) A group of two or...

  14. 50 CFR 218.81 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... concern: beaked whale of any species, Kogia spp., Risso's dolphin, melon-headed whale, pilot whale, North Atlantic right whale, humpback whale, sperm whale, blue whale, fin whale, or sei whale. (iii) A group...

  15. Examining the solid electrolyte interphase on binder-free graphite electrodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, A.; Yang, L.; Lucht, B. L.; Kang, S.-H.; Abraham, D. P.

    2009-01-01

    The solid electrode interphase (SEI) on graphite electrodes is important to the performance, calendar life, and safety characteristics of lithium-ion cells. This article examines the SEI formed on binder-free graphite electrodes prepared by electrophoretic deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis data were obtained on electrodes cycled in cells containing four electrolytes comprising ethylene carbonate: ethylmethyl carbonate (3:7 by weight) solvent and 1.2 M LiPF{sub 6}, 1 M LiF{sub 2}BC{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 1 M LiBF{sub 4}, or 0.7 M LiB(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} salt. Our observations suggest that, in addition to solvent reduction, the reduction of electrolyte salts plays an important role in SEI formation. Mechanisms to account for the formation of these SEI constituents are included in the article.

  16. Decomposing self-estimates of intelligence: structure and sex differences across 12 nations.

    PubMed

    von Stumm, Sophie; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-05-01

    This study examines the structure of self-estimates of intelligence (SEI) across 12 nations (Australia, Austria, Brazil, France, Iran, Israel, Malaysia, South Africa, Spain, Turkey, UK and US). Participants rated themselves on general and specific abilities from three popular models of intelligence: Gardner's multiple intelligences, Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, and Goleman's emotional intelligence. The results showed that (a) laypeople across nations have similar and invariant concepts of intelligence, (b) concepts of intelligence are cross-culturally closely related to academic notions of intellectual ability and (c) sex differences in general and specific SEI favouring men are consistent across countries. Male hubris and female humility in SEI seem independent of sex differences in actual cognitive ability and national levels of masculinity-femininity. Furthermore, international mean differences in general SEI could not be attributed to discrepancies in national intelligence quotient (IQ) levels or to cultural variations. PMID:18851768

  17. 50 CFR 216.271 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... following marine mammals of concern: Beaked whale of any species, dwarf or pygmy sperm whales, short-finned pilot whales, humpback whales, sperm whales, blue whales, fin whales, or sei whales. (iii) A group of...

  18. 50 CFR 216.271 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... following marine mammals of concern: Beaked whale of any species, dwarf or pygmy sperm whales, short-finned pilot whales, humpback whales, sperm whales, blue whales, fin whales, or sei whales. (iii) A group of...

  19. 50 CFR 216.271 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... concern: Beaked whale of any species, dwarf or pygmy sperm whales, short-finned pilot whales, humpback whales, sperm whales, blue whales, fin whales, or sei whales. (iii) A group of 2 or more cetaceans of...

  20. 76 FR 68161 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16163, 16160, and 15569

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... japonica), sei whale (B. borealis), killer whale (Orcinus orca) Southern Resident stock, and sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). The false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) Hawaiian insular stock is proposed...), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), eastern gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), humpback whale,...

  1. Mitochondrial Myopathies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... muscle cells and nerve cells have especially high energy needs, muscular and ease), mitochondrial diseases are so- ... and coordination, sei- eases affect the mitochondria tiny energy zures and learning deficits are common factories found ...

  2. 77 FR 31326 - Notice of Availability of a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Replacement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Gries, Project Engineer, NOAA, Project Planning & Management--Western Region, 7600 Sand Point Way NE... comments on the Final SEIS during a minimum 30-day ``cooling off'' period beginning May 25, 2012,...

  3. Socio-economic inequality and HIV in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The linkage between the socio-economic inequality and HIV outcomes was analysed using data from a population-based household survey that employed multistage-stratified sampling. The goal is to help refocus attention on how HIV is linked to inequalities. Methods A socio-economic index (SEI) score, derived using Multiple Correspondence Analysis of measures of ownership of durable assets, was used to generate three SEI groups: Low (poorest), Middle, and Upper (no so poor). Distribution of HIV outcomes (i.e. HIV prevalence, access to HIV/AIDS information, level of stigma towards HIV/AIDS, perceived HIV risk and sexual behaviour) across the SEI groups, and other background characteristics was assessed using weighted data. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the covariates of the HIV outcomes across the socio-economic groups. The study sample include 14,384 adults 15 years and older. Results More women (57.5%) than men (42.3%) were found in the poor SEI [P<0.001]. HIV prevalence was highest among the poor (20.8%) followed by those in the middle (15.9%) and those in the upper SEI (4.6%) [P<0.001]. It was also highest among women compared to men (19.7% versus 11.4% respectively) and among black Africans (20.2%) compared to other races [P<0.001]. Individuals in the upper SEI reported higher frequency of HIV testing (59.3%) compared to the low SEI (47.7%) [P< 0.001]. Only 20.5% of those in poor SEI had “good access to HIV/AIDS information” compared to 79.5% in the upper SEI (P<0.001). A higher percentage of the poor had a stigmatizing attitude towards HIV/AIDS (45.6%) compared to those in the upper SEI (34.8%) [P< 0.001]. There was a high personal HIV risk perception among the poor (40.0%) and it declined significantly to 10.9% in the upper SEI. Conclusions Our findings underline the disproportionate burden of HIV disease and HIV fear among the poor and vulnerable in South Africa. The poor are further disadvantaged by lack of access to HIV information and HIV/AIDS services such as testing for HIV infection. There is a compelling urgency for the national HIV/AIDS response to maximizing program focus for the poor particularly women. PMID:24180366

  4. Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with lithium on the surface of the anode to form a beneficial SEI. Apparently, nitrides and oxides that result from reduction of lithium dinitramide on the anode produce a thin, robust SEI different from the SEIs formed from organic SEI promoters. The SEI formed from lithium dinitramide is more electronically insulating than is the film formed in the presence of an otherwise identical electrolyte that does not include lithium dinitramide. SEI promotion with lithium dinitramide is useful in batteries with metallic lithium and lithium alloy anodes.

  5. Cellular functions of TMEM16/anoctamin.

    PubMed

    Oh, Uhtaek; Jung, Jooyoung

    2016-03-01

    Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are a class of Cl(-) channels activated by intracellular Ca(2+) that are known to mediate numerous physiological functions. In 2008, the molecular identity of CaCCs was found to be anoctamin 1 (ANO1/TMEM16A). Its roles have been studied in electrophysiological, histological, and genetic aspects. ANO1 is known to mediate Cl(-) secretion in secretory epithelia such as airways, salivary glands, intestines, renal tubules, and sweat glands. ANO1 is a heat sensor activated by noxious heat in somatosensory neurons and mediates acute pain sensation as well as chronic pain. ANO1 is also observed in vascular as well as airway smooth muscles, controlling vascular tone as well as airway hypersensitivity. ANO1 is upregulated in numerous types of cancers and thus thought to be involved in tumorigenesis. ANO1 is also found in proliferating cells. In addition to ANO1, involvement of its paralogs in pathophysiological conditions was also reported. ANO2 is involved in olfaction, whereas ANO6 works as a scramblase whose mutation causes a rare bleeding disorder, the Scott syndrome. ANO5 is associated with muscle and bone diseases. Recently, an X-ray crystal structure of a fungal TMEM16 was reported, which explains a precise molecular gating mechanism as well as ion conduction or phospholipid transport across the plasma membrane. PMID:26811235

  6. The Space Exploration Initiative: a challenge to advanced life support technologies: keynote presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, W. W.

    1991-01-01

    President Bush has enunciated an unparalleled, open-ended commitment to human exploration of space called the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). At the heart of the SEI is permanent human presence beyond Earth orbit, which implies a new emphasis on life science research and life support system technology. Proposed bioregenerative systems for planetary surface bases will require carefully designed waste processing elements whose development will lead to streamlined and efficient and efficient systems for applications on Earth.

  7. An Artificial Solid Electrolyte Interphase Layer for Stable Lithium Metal Anodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Nian-Wu; Yin, Ya-Xia; Yang, Chun-Peng; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-03-01

    A Li3 PO4 solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer is demonstrated to be stable in the organic electrolyte, even during the Li deposition/dissolution process. Thus, the Li-conducting Li3 PO4 SEI layer with a high Young's modulus can effectively reduce side reactions between Li metal and the electrolyte and can restrain Li dendrite growth in lithium-metal batteries during cycling. PMID:26698171

  8. Science and application missions of the near future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Sanctis, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of missions under study for NASA at the Marshall Space Flight Center in support of space science, SEI, and the Mission to Planet Earth are discussed. These science and application payloads including the laser atmospheric wind sounder, inner magnetosphere imager, large lunar telescope, and lunar transit telescope will utilize the capabilities of the Space Station, the earth observing system, GEO, and SEI infrastructure. Attention is given to controls, astrophysics, and structures experiment in space.

  9. Safer Environment Interventions: A qualitative synthesis of the experiences and perceptions of people who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Ryan; Small, Will

    2014-01-01

    There is growing acknowledgment that social, structural, and environmental forces produce vulnerability to health harms among people who inject drugs (PWID), and safer environment interventions (SEI) have been identified as critical to mitigating the impacts of these contextual forces on drug-related harm. To date, however, SEIs have been under-theorized in the literature, and how they minimize drug-related risks across intervention types and settings has not been adequately examined. This article presents findings from a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies reporting PWIDs experiences with three types of SEIs (syringe exchange programmes, supervised injection facilities and peer-based harm reduction interventions) published between 1997 and 2012. This meta-synthesis seeks to develop a comprehensive understanding of SEIs informed by the experiences of PWID. Twenty-nine papers representing twenty-one unique studies that included an aggregate of more than 800 PWID were included in this meta-synthesis. This meta- synthesis found that SEIs fostered social and physical environments that mitigated drug-related harms and increased access to social and material resources. Specifically, SEIs: (1) provided refuge from street-based drug scenes; (2) enabled safer injecting by reshaping the social and environmental contexts of injection drug use; (3) mediated access to resources and health care services; and, (4) were constrained by drug prohibition and law enforcement activities. These findings indicate that it is critical to situate SEIs in relation to the lived experiences of PWID, and in particular provide broader environmental support to PWID. Given that existing drug laws limit the effectiveness of interventions, drug policy reforms are needed to enable public health, and specifically SEIs, to occupy a more prominent role in the response to injection drug use. PMID:24561777

  10. 78 FR 8118 - Cancellation of the Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft and Final Supplemental Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ...The Jacksonville District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) hereby cancels its Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for Reach 1A on the Herbert Hoover Dike (HHD) Major Rehabilitation Project, as published in the Federal Register, March 9, 2009 (74 FR 10038). The USACE issued a Notice of Availability (NOA) for the Draft SEIS on June 25, 2010......

  11. The seirena B Class Floral Homeotic Mutant of California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica) Reveals a Function of the Enigmatic PI Motif in the Formation of Specific Multimeric MADS Domain Protein Complexes[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Matthias; Orashakova, Svetlana; Lange, Sabrina; Melzer, Rainer; Theißen, Günter; Smyth, David R.; Becker, Annette

    2013-01-01

    The products of B class floral homeotic genes specify petal and stamen identity, and loss of B function results in homeotic conversions of petals into sepals and stamens into carpels. Here, we describe the molecular characterization of seirena-1 (sei-1), a mutant from the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) that shows homeotic changes characteristic of floral homeotic B class mutants. SEI has been previously described as EScaGLO, one of four B class–related MADS box genes in California poppy. The C terminus of SEI, including the highly conserved PI motif, is truncated in sei-1 proteins. Nevertheless, like the wild-type SEI protein, the sei-1 mutant protein is able to bind CArG-boxes and can form homodimers, heterodimers, and several higher order complexes with other MADS domain proteins. However, unlike the wild type, the mutant protein is not able to mediate higher order complexes consisting of specific B, C, and putative E class related proteins likely involved in specifying stamen identity. Within the PI motif, five highly conserved N-terminal amino acids are specifically required for this interaction. Several families lack this short conserved sequence, including the Brassicaceae, and we propose an evolutionary scenario to explain these functional differences. PMID:23444328

  12. In Situ Potentiodynamic Analysis of the Electrolyte/Silicon Electrodes Interface Reactions - A Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Yonatan; Han, Hui-Ling; Ross, Philip N; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2016-01-27

    The key factor in long-term use of batteries is the formation of an electrically insulating solid layer that allows lithium ion transport but stops further electrolyte redox reactions on the electrode surface, hence solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). We have studied a common electrolyte, 1.0 M LiPF6/ethylene carbonate (EC)/diethyl carbonate (DEC), reduction products on crystalline silicon (Si) electrodes in a lithium (Li) half-cell system under reaction conditions. We employed in situ sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) with interface sensitivity in order to probe the molecular composition of the SEI surface species under various applied potentials where electrolyte reduction is expected. We found that, with a Si(100)-hydrogen terminated wafer, a Si-ethoxy (Si-OC2H5) surface intermediate forms due to DEC decomposition. Our results suggest that the SEI surface composition varies depending on the termination of Si surface, i.e., the acidity of the Si surface. We provide the evidence of specific chemical composition of the SEI on the anode surface under reaction conditions. This supports an electrochemical electrolyte reduction mechanism in which the reduction of the DEC molecule to an ethoxy moiety plays a key role. These findings shed new light on the formation mechanism of SEI on Si anodes in particular and on SEI formation in general. PMID:26651259

  13. Degradation of the solid electrolyte interphase induced by the deposition of manganese ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hosop; Park, Jonghyun; Sastry, Ann Marie; Lu, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The deposition of manganese ions dissolved from the cathode onto the interface between the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and graphite causes severe capacity fading in manganese oxide-based cells. The evolution of the SEI layer containing these Mn compounds and the corresponding instability of the layer are thoroughly investigated by artificially introducing soluble Mn ions into a 1 mol L-1 LiPF6 electrolyte solution. Deposition of dissolved Mn ions induces an oxygen-rich SEI layer that results from increased electrolyte decomposition, accelerating SEI growth. The spatial distribution of Mn shows that dissolved Mn ions diffuse through the porous layer and are deposited mostly at the inorganic layer/graphite interface. The Mn compound deposited on the anode, identified as MnF2, originates from a metathesis reaction between LiF and dissolved Mn ion. It is confirmed that ion-exchange reaction occurs in the inorganic layer, converting SEI species to Mn compounds. Some of the Mn is observed inside the graphite; this may cause surface structural disordering in the graphite, limiting lithium-ion intercalation. The continuous reaction that occurs at the inorganic layer/graphite interfacial regions and the modification of the original SEI layer in the presence of Mn ions are critically related to capacity fade and impedance rise currently plaguing Li-ion cells.

  14. Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.

    2003-08-01

    Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao final, temos uma lista de linhas atômicas com mais de 24.000 linhas e uma lista molecular com as moléculas CN, CH, OH, NH, MgH, C2, TiO Gama, CO, FeH, adequadas ao estudo de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas.

  15. Earth and Heavens: Two Separate Universes? (Spanish Title: Tierra y Cielos: ¿Dos Universos Separados?) Terra e Céus: Dois Universos Separados?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Jaime; Gil-Pérez, Daniel; Solbes, Jordi; Vilches, Amparo

    2005-12-01

    The study of gravitation constitutes an exceptional occasion to show the richness and complexity of science and technology, contemplating, among other things: the problematic situations which are at the heart of the scientific knowledge, the difficulties encountered in the construction of knowledge and, especially, the necessity of overcoming "common-sense evidence" that proclaimed the existence of an insurmountable barrier between Earth and Heavens, hindering scientific development during many centuries. In this paper we present a program of activities to orient the study of Gravitation atUpperHigh School, favoring students' participation in the reconstruction of this first scientific revolution and giving them the opportunity to see the importance of Astronomy both in the history of science and today. El estudio de la gravitación constituye una ocasión excepcional para mostrar la ciencia y la tecnología en toda su riqueza y complejidad, considerando, entre otros aspectos:

  16. Las situaciones problemáticas relevantes que llevaron a la construcción de los conocimientos,
  17. las dificultades de todo tipo con las que hubo que enfrentarse y, muy en particular,
  18. la necesidad de superar las "evidencias de sentido común" que establecían una supuesta barrera infranqueable entre la Tierray los Cielos y que obstaculizaron durante siglos el desarrollo científico.
  19. En este trabajo presentamos un programa de actividades para el estudio de la gravitación en la secundaria superior, orientado a favorecer la participación de los estudiantes, en alguna medida, en la reconstrucción de este proceso que constituyó la denominada primera gran revolución científica y asomándonos al estudio de una de las ciencias más antiguas, la Astronomía, que hoy sigue despertando gran interés. O estudo da gravitação constitui uma ocasião excepcional para mostrar a ciência e a tecnologia em toda sua riqueza e complexidade, considerando, entre outros aspectos: as situações problemáticas relevantes que levaram à construção dos conhecimentos, as dificuldades de todo tipo que se teve que enfrentar nessa construção e, muito em particular,a necessidade de se superar as "evidências do senso comum" que estabeleciam uma suposta barreira intransponível entre a Terra e os Céus e que foram um obstáculo durante séculos para o desenvolvimento científico. Neste trabalho apresentamos um programa de atividades para o estudo da gravitação nos últimos anos do ensino médio, orientado a favorecer a participação dos estudantes, em alguma medida, na reconstrução deste processo que constituiu a denominada primeira grande revolução científica e a nos aproximarmos do estudo de uma das ciências mais antigas, a Astronomia, que hoje continua despertando grande interesse.

  20. Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Materials Prepared with Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavanagh, Andrew S.

    As the world consumes the dwindling supply of fossil fuels, an alternative to gasoline powered vehicles will become necessary. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are emerging as the dominant power source for portable electronics, and are seen as a promising energy source in the development of electric vehicles. Current LIB technology is not well suited for vehicles, increases in the energy density, power density and durability are needed before LIB are ready for widespread use in electric vehicles. LiCoO2 and graphite are the dominant cathode and anode active materials, respectively in LIBs. On the cathode side, instabilities in LiCoO 2 can lead to the deterioration of the LIB. Decomposition of electrolyte on the graphite anode surface to form a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) consumes lithium from the cathode resulting in a lower battery capacity. Instabilities in the in the SEI can result in catastrophic battery failure. Previous studies have employed metal oxides films, typically grown with wet chemical techniques, to stabilize LiCoO2 and mitigate the formation of the SEI on graphite. The thicknesses of films grown with wet chemical techniques was typically 50--1000 A. In order to achieve higher power densities, the particle size of LIB active materials is being scaled down. As active materials get smaller the mass contribution of a protective film can become a significant fraction of the total mass. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been used to grow ultra thin films of Al2O3 on LiCoO2 and graphite. By altering the interaction between the active material and the battery electrolyte it was possible to improve the stability of both LiCoO2 and graphite electrodes in LIBs. In the case of graphite, the Al2O3 film may be thought of as an artificial SEI. During the initial charge-discharge cycle of a LIB, the electrolyte decomposes on the anode to form the SEI. The formation of the SEI is believed to prevent further decomposition of the electrolyte on the anode surface. The SEI contains electrolyte decomposition products including Li2CO3, Li2O, LiOH, LiF and R-OLi. In order to grow a truly artificial SEI on the graphite anode, i.e. grow a film that mimics the SEI that forms during charge-discharge cycling, new ALD chemistries for the growth of Li2CO3 and LiOH have been developed. The ALD of an artificial SEI layer may limit lithium loss and improve the capacity stability during charge-discharge cycles.

  21. Co-expression of anoctamins in cilia of olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Bastian; Drose, Daniela R; Ackels, Tobias; Oberland, Sonja; Spehr, Marc; Neuhaus, Eva M

    2015-02-01

    Vertebrates can sense and identify a vast array of chemical cues. The molecular machinery involved in chemodetection and transduction is expressed within the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons. Currently, there is only limited information available on the distribution and density of individual signaling components within the ciliary compartment. Using super-resolution microscopy, we show here that cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels and calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin family are localized to discrete microdomains in the ciliary membrane. In addition to ANO2, a second anoctamin, ANO6, also localizes to ciliary microdomains. This observation, together with the fact that ANO6 and ANO2 co-localize, indicates a role for ANO6 in olfactory signaling. We show that both ANO2 and ANO6 can form heteromultimers and that this heteromerization alters the recombinant channels' physiological properties. Thus, we provide evidence for interaction of ANO2 and ANO6 in olfactory cilia, with possible physiological relevance for olfactory signaling. PMID:25500808

  22. Modulating Ca(2+) signals: a common theme for TMEM16, Ist2, and TMC.

    PubMed

    Kunzelmann, Karl; Cabrita, Ines; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida; Benedetto, Roberta; Schreiber, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    Since the discovery of TMEM16A (anoctamin 1, ANO1) as Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel, the protein was found to serve different physiological functions, depending on the type of tissue. Subsequent reports on other members of the anoctamin family demonstrated a broad range of yet poorly understood properties. Compromised anoctamin function is causing a wide range of diseases, such as hearing loss (ANO2), bleeding disorder (ANO6), ataxia and dystonia (ANO3, 10), persistent borrelia and mycobacteria infection (ANO10), skeletal syndromes like gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia and limb girdle muscle dystrophy (ANO5), and cancer (ANO1, 6, 7). Animal models demonstrate CF-like airway disease, asthma, and intestinal hyposecretion (ANO1). Although present data indicate that ANO1 is a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel, it remains unclear whether all anoctamins form plasma membrane-localized or intracellular chloride channels. We find Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents appearing by expression of most anoctamin paralogs, including the Nectria haematococca homologue nhTMEM16 and the yeast homologue Ist2. As recent studies show a role of anoctamins, Ist2, and the related transmembrane channel-like (TMC) proteins for intracellular Ca(2+) signaling, we will discuss the role of these proteins in generating compartmentalized Ca(2+) signals, which may give a hint as to the broad range of cellular functions of anoctamins. PMID:26700940

  23. Cell adhesion and in vivo osseointegration of sandblasted/acid etched/anodized dental implants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mu-Hyon; Park, Kyeongsoon; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Se Eun; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a new type of titanium (Ti) implant as a Modi-anodized (ANO) Ti implant, the surface of which was treated by sandblasting, acid etching (SLA), and anodized techniques. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the adhesion of MG-63 cells to Modi-ANO surface treated Ti in vitro and to investigate its osseointegration characteristics in vivo. Four different types of Ti implants were examined, that is, machined Ti (control), SLA, anodized, and Modi-ANO Ti. In the cell adhesion study, Modi-ANO Ti showed higher initial MG-63 cell adhesion and induced greater filopodia growth than other groups. In vivo study in a beagle model revealed the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) of Modi-ANO Ti (74.20%10.89%) was much greater than those of machined (33.58%8.63%), SLA (58.47%12.89), or ANO Ti (59.62%18.30%). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Modi-ANO Ti implants produced by sandblasting, acid etching, and anodizing improve cell adhesion and bone ongrowth as compared with machined, SLA, or ANO Ti implants. These findings suggest that the application of Modi-ANO surface treatment could improve the osseointegration of dental implant. PMID:25955650

  24. Cell Adhesion and in Vivo Osseointegration of Sandblasted/Acid Etched/Anodized Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mu-Hyon; Park, Kyeongsoon; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Se Eun; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a new type of titanium (Ti) implant as a Modi-anodized (ANO) Ti implant, the surface of which was treated by sandblasting, acid etching (SLA), and anodized techniques. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the adhesion of MG-63 cells to Modi-ANO surface treated Ti in vitro and to investigate its osseointegration characteristics in vivo. Four different types of Ti implants were examined, that is, machined Ti (control), SLA, anodized, and Modi-ANO Ti. In the cell adhesion study, Modi-ANO Ti showed higher initial MG-63 cell adhesion and induced greater filopodia growth than other groups. In vivo study in a beagle model revealed the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) of Modi-ANO Ti (74.20% ± 10.89%) was much greater than those of machined (33.58% ± 8.63%), SLA (58.47% ± 12.89), or ANO Ti (59.62% ± 18.30%). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Modi-ANO Ti implants produced by sandblasting, acid etching, and anodizing improve cell adhesion and bone ongrowth as compared with machined, SLA, or ANO Ti implants. These findings suggest that the application of Modi-ANO surface treatment could improve the osseointegration of dental implant. PMID:25955650

  1. Anoctamin Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels May Modulate Inhibitory Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Parthier, Daniel; Frings, Stephan; Mhrlen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin (alias TMEM16) protein family fulfill critical functions in epithelial fluid transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory signal processing. Little is known, however, about their contribution to information processing in the central nervous system. Here we examined the recent finding that a calcium-dependent chloride conductance impacts on GABAergic synaptic inhibition in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We asked whether anoctamin channels may underlie this chloride conductance. We identified two anoctamin channel proteins, ANO1 and ANO2, in the cerebellar cortex. ANO1 was expressed in inhibitory interneurons of the molecular layer and the granule cell layer. Both channels were expressed in Purkinje cells but, while ANO1 appeared to be retained in the cell body, ANO2 was targeted to the dendritic tree. Functional studies confirmed that ANO2 was involved in a calcium-dependent mode of ionic plasticity that reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. ANO2 channels attenuated GABAergic transmission by increasing the postsynaptic chloride concentration, hence reducing the driving force for chloride influx. Our data suggest that ANO2 channels are involved in a Ca2+-dependent regulation of synaptic weight in GABAergic inhibition. Thus, in balance with the chloride extrusion mechanism via the co-transporter KCC2, ANO2 appears to regulate ionic plasticity in the cerebellum. PMID:26558388

  2. Characterization of Cardiac Anoctamin1 Ca2+-Activated Chloride Channels and Functional Role in Ischemia-Induced Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhen; Wu, Ming-Ming; Wang, Chun-Yu; Li, Yan-Chao; Yu, Chang-Jiang; Gong, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Song, Bin-Lin; Yu, Kuai; Hartzell, H. Criss; Duan, Dayue Darrel; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Zhi-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Anoctamin1 (ANO1) encodes a Ca2+-activated chloride (Cl?) channel (CaCC) in variety tissues of many species. Whether ANO1 expresses and functions as a CaCC in cardiomyocytes remain unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize the molecular and functional expression of ANO1 in cardiac myocytes and the role of ANO1-encoded CaCCs in ischemia-induced arrhythmias in the heart. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining assays, and immunohistochemistry identified the molecular expression, location, and distribution of ANO1 in mouse ventricular myocytes (mVMs). Patch-clamp recordings combined with pharmacological analyses found that ANO1 was responsible for a Ca2+-activated Cl? current (ICl.Ca) in cardiomyocytes. Myocardial ischemia led to a significant increase in the current density of ICl.Ca, which was inhibited by a specific ANO1 inhibitor, T16Ainh-A01, and an antibody targeting at the pore area of ANO1. Moreover, cardiomyocytes isolated from mice with ischemia-induced arrhythmias had an accelerated early phase 1 repolarization of action potentials (APs) and a deeper spike and dome compared to control cardiomyocytes from non-ischemia mice. Application of the antibody targeting at ANO1 pore prevented the ischemia-induced early phase 1 repolarization acceleration and caused a much shallower spike and dome. We conclude that ANO1 encodes CaCC and plays a significant role in the phase 1 repolarization of APs in mVMs. The ischemia-induced increase in ANO1 expression may be responsible for the increased density of ICl.Ca in the ischemic heart and may contribute, at least in part, to ischemia-induced arrhythmias. PMID:24962810

  3. Anoctamin 1 (Tmem16A) Ca2+-activated chloride channel stoichiometrically interacts with an ezrinradixinmoesin network

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Cornejo, Patricia; Gokhale, Avanti; Duran, Charity; Cui, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Qinghuan; Hartzell, H. Criss; Faundez, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The newly discovered Ca2+-activated Cl? channel (CaCC), Anoctamin 1 (Ano1 or TMEM16A), has been implicated in vital physiological functions including epithelial fluid secretion, gut motility, and smooth muscle tone. Overexpression of Ano1 in HEK cells or Xenopus oocytes is sufficient to generate Ca2+-activated Cl? currents, but the details of channel composition and the regulatory factors that control channel biology are incompletely understood. We used a highly sensitive quantitative SILAC proteomics approach to obtain insights into stoichiometric protein networks associated with the Ano1 channel. These studies provide a comprehensive footprint of putative Ano1 regulatory networks. We find that Ano1 associates with the signaling/scaffolding proteins ezrin, radixin, moesin, and RhoA, which link the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton with very high stoichiometry. Ano1, ezrin, and moesin/radixin colocalize apically in salivary gland epithelial cells, and overexpression of moesin and Ano1 in HEK cells alters the subcellular localization of both proteins. Moreover, interfering RNA for moesin modifies Ano1 current without affecting its surface expression level. Another network associated with Ano1 includes the SNARE and SM proteins VAMP3, syntaxins 2 and -4, and syntaxin-binding proteins munc18b and munc18c, which are integral to translocation of vesicles to the plasma membrane. A number of other regulatory proteins, including GTPases, Ca2+-binding proteins, kinases, and lipid-interacting proteins are enriched in the Ano1 complex. These data provide stoichiometrically prioritized information about mechanisms regulating Ano1 function and trafficking to polarized domains of the plasma membrane. PMID:22685202

  4. Quantifying capacity loss due to solid-electrolyte-interphase layer formation on silicon negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadimpalli, Siva P. V.; Sethuraman, Vijay A.; Dalavi, Swapnil; Lucht, Brett; Chon, Michael J.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Guduru, Pradeep R.

    2012-10-01

    Charge lost per unit surface area of a silicon electrode due to the formation of solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) layer during initial lithiation was quantified, and the species that constitute this layer were identified. Coin cells made with Si thin-film electrodes were subjected to a combination of galvanostatic and potentiostatic lithiation and delithiation cycles to accurately measure the capacity lost to SEI layer formation. While the planar geometry of amorphous thin films allows accurate calculation of surface area, creation of additional surface by cracking was prevented by minimizing the thickness of the Si film. The cycled electrodes were analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to characterize the composition of the SEI layer. The charge lost due to SEI formation measured from coin cell experiments was found to be in good agreement with the first-cycle capacity loss during the initial lithiation of a Si(100) crystal with planar geometry. The methodology presented in this work is expected to provide a useful practical tool for battery-material developers in estimating the expected capacity loss due to first cycle SEI layer formation and in choosing an appropriate particle size distribution that balances mechanical integrity and the first cycle capacity loss in large volume expansion electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Relationships Between Social-Emotional Intelligence and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Lando-King, Elizabeth; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gower, Amy L; Shlafer, Rebecca J; McMorris, Barbara J; Pettingell, Sandra; Sieving, Renee E

    2015-01-01

    Social-emotional intelligence (SEI) has been linked with a number of health behaviors in adolescent populations. However, little is known about the influence of SEI on sexual behavior. This study examined associations between three indicators of SEI (intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, stress management skills) and adolescent girls' sexual risk behaviors. Data come from a cross-sectional sample of sexually active adolescent girls (ages 13 to 17 years) at high risk for pregnancy (N = 253), recruited from health care clinics in a Midwest metropolitan area during 2007 and 2008. Results of multivariable regression models controlling for participants' age and race/ethnicity indicated that each aspect of SEI was related to distinct sexual risk behaviors. Specifically, girls with greater intrapersonal skills had significantly fewer male sex partners in the past six months (b = -0.16). Participants with greater interpersonal skills reported earlier communication with their sexual partner about sexual risk (b = 0.14), and those with a better ability to manage stress reported more consistent condom use (b = 0.31). Study findings suggest that SEI may provide a protective buffer against sexual risk behaviors. Building adolescent girls' social and emotional skills may be an effective strategy for reducing their risk for early pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:25621508

  6. Phosphorus Enrichment as a New Composition in the Solid Electrolyte Interphase of High-Voltage Cathodes and Its Effects on Battery Cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Kuppan, Saravanan; Li, Qiuyan; Lv, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Chen, Guoying; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-11-10

    Immersion of a solid into liquid often leads to the modification of both the structure and chemistry of surface of the solid, which subsequently affects the chemical and physical properties of the system. For the case of the rechargeable lithium ion battery, such a surface modification is termed as solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer, which has been perceived to play critical role for the stable operation of the batteries. However, the structure and chemical composition of SEI layer and its spatial distribution and dependence on the battery operating condition remain unclear. By using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with ultra-high sensitive energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, we probed the structure and chemistry of SEI layer on several high voltage cathodes. We show that layer-structured cathodes, when cycled at a high cut off voltage, can form a P-rich SEI layer on their surface, which is a direct evidence of Li-salt (LiPF6) decomposition. Our systematical investigations indicate such cathode/Li-salt side reaction shows strong dependence on structure of the cathode materials, operating voltage and temperature, indicating the feasibility of SEI engineering. These findings provide us valuable insights into the complex interface between the high-voltage cathode and the electrolyte.

  7. Artificial Solid Electrolyte Interphase to Address the Electrochemical Degradation of Silicon Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, Nancy J; Nanda, Jagjit; Liang, Chengdu; Li, Juchuan

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation on Si anodes prevents them from being successfully used in lithium-ion full cells. Unlike the case of graphite anodes, natural solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films generated from carbonate electrolyte do not self-passivate on Si and causes continuous electrolyte decomposition. In this work we aim at solving the issue of electrochemical degradation by fabricating artificial SEI films using a solid electrolyte material, lithium phosphor oxynitride (Lipon), that conducts Li ions and blocks electrons. For Si anodes coated with Lipon of 50 nm or thicker, significant effect is observed in suppressing the electrolyte decomposition, while Lipon of thinner than 40 nm has little effect. Ionic and electronic conductivity measurement reveals that the artificial SEI is effective when it is a pure ionic conductor, and the electrolyte decomposition is not suppressed when the artificial SEI is a mixed electronic-ionic conductor. The critical thickness for this transition in conducting behavior is found to be 40~50 nm. This work provides guidance for designing artificial SEI for high capacity lithium-ion battery electrodes using solid electrolyte materials.

  8. Educacao Intercultural e a Dificuldade de sua Pratica: Um Estudo da Imagem do Migrante e sua Familia em Livros Didaticos Alemaes. (Intercultural Education and the Difficulty of Its Practice: A Study of the Image of the Migrant and His Family in German Textbooks.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Wivian

    1995-01-01

    Provides a brief historical report on pedagogical efforts to improve the integration of migrants and their families into German society. Examines the way in which the migrants' social situation has been dealt with in textbooks, particularly in books on politics, history, geography, and occupational education. (PA)

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Kallmann syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... syndrome? Kallmann syndrome 1 (caused by ANOS1 gene mutations) has an X-linked recessive pattern of inheritance. The ANOS1 gene is ... X-linked inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons. Most cases ... gene mutation from their mothers, who carry a single mutated ...

  10. Clinical significance of Anoctamin-1 gene at 11q13 in the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Juan P.; Menndez, Sofa Tirados; Hermida-Prado, Francisco; lvarez-Teijeiro, Sal; Villaronga, M. ngeles; Alonso-Durn, Laura; Vallina, Aitana; Martnez-Camblor, Pablo; Astudillo, Aurora; Surez, Carlos; Mara Garca-Pedrero, Juana

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the clinical significance of Anoctamin-1 gene mapping at 11q13 amplicon in both the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). ANO1 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 372 surgically treated HNSCC patients and also in 35 laryngeal precancerous lesions. ANO1 gene amplification was determined by real-time PCR in all the laryngeal premalignancies and 60 of the HNSCCs, and molecular data correlated with clinical outcome. ANO1 gene amplification was frequently detected in both premalignant lesions (63%) and HNSCC tumours (58%), whereas concomitant ANO1 expression occurred at a much lower frequency (20 and 22%). Interestingly, laryngeal dysplasias harbouring ANO1 gene amplification showed a higher risk of malignant transformation (HR?=?3.62; 95% CI 0.7916.57; P?=?0.097; Cox regression). ANO1 expression and gene amplification showed no significant associations with clinicopathological parameters in HNSCC. However, remarkably ANO1 expression differentially influenced patient survival depending on the tumour site. Collectively, this study provides original evidence demonstrating the distinctive impact of ANO1 expression on HNSCC prognosis depending on the tumour site. PMID:26498851

  11. Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco-Davila, D.; Hernandez, R.; Meza, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-03-15

    The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins. (author) [Spanish] La colonia actualmente usada para controlar la mosca mexicana de la fruta, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), en Mexico tiene mas de 10 anos en cria masiva. Los insectos esteriles son liberados en una gran variedad de condiciones ambientales como parte de un control integrado para suprimir diversas poblaciones de esta plaga dentro de la Republica Mexicana. El objetivo de este documento esta dirigido a revisar el desempeno de las moscas esteriles frente a poblaciones silvestres procedentes de diferentes ambientes y para esto se realizaron comparaciones de compatibilidad y competitividad sexual de las moscas esteriles contra poblaciones silvestres de seis estados representativos de la Republica Mexicana: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan y Chiapas. Los resultados obtenidos manifiestan diferencias en el horario de inicio de llamado y mayor actividad sexual del macho entre las moscas provenientes de cada estado. Sin embargo el indice de aislamiento (ISI) reflejo compatibilidad sexual entre la cepa de laboratorio y todas las poblaciones analizadas, indicando que los individuos esteriles pueden aparearse satisfactoriamente con las poblaciones silvestres de los seis estados. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento del macho (MRPI) reflejo de manera global que los machos esteriles son tan efectivos para copular como los silvestres. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento de la hembra (FRPI) reflejo que en la mayoria de los estados las hembras silvestres copularon en mayor proporcion que las hembras esteriles, excepto para las poblaciones de Tamaulipas y Chiapas. En general, la baja participacion de las hembras esteriles en el campo permitio al macho esteril ampliar su probabilidad de apareamiento con las hembras silvestres. En cuanto al indice de esterilidad relativa (RSI), observamos que la aceptacion de las hembras silvestres al macho esteril (25-55%) fue similar a la de los machos silvestres. Las hembras de la poblacion de Chiapas registro la menor aceptacion. Finalmente, los resultados obtenidos en la prueba de Fried, la cual determina la esterilidad inducida presentaron un coeficiente de competitividad entre 0.2 y 0.5. Esto sugiere que los machos esteriles compliten exitosamente y son compatibles con moscas de diferentes origenes geograficos. (author)

  12. Brief report: Associations between adolescent girls' social-emotional intelligence and violence perpetration.

    PubMed

    Gower, Amy L; Shlafer, Rebecca J; Polan, Julie; McRee, Annie-Laurie; McMorris, Barbara J; Pettingell, Sandra L; Sieving, Renee E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between social-emotional intelligence (SEI) and two measures of violence perpetration (relational aggression and physical violence) in a cross-sectional sample of high-risk adolescent girls (N = 253). We evaluated three aspects of SEI: stress management, intrapersonal, and interpersonal skills. Results of a multiple linear regression model accounting for participants' age, race/ethnicity, and experiences of relational aggression victimization indicated that girls with better stress management skills were less likely to perpetrate relational aggression. A parallel model for perpetration of physical violence showed a similar pattern of results. Study findings suggest that SEI, and stress management skills in particular, may protect adolescent girls - including those who have been victims of violence - from perpetrating relational aggression and physical violence. Interventions that build adolescent girls' social and emotional skills may be an effective strategy for reducing their perpetration of violence. PMID:24331306

  13. Homogeneous lithium electrodeposition with pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Grande, Lorenzo; von Zamory, Jan; Koch, Stephan L; Kalhoff, Julian; Paillard, Elie; Passerini, Stefano

    2015-03-18

    In this study, we report on the electroplating and stripping of lithium in two ionic liquid (IL) based electrolytes, namely N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide (Pyr14FSI) and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI), and mixtures thereof, both on nickel and lithium electrodes. An improved method to evaluate the Li cycling efficiency confirmed that homogeneous electroplating (and stripping) of Li is possible with TFSI-based ILs. Moreover, the presence of native surface features on lithium, directly observable via scanning electron microscope imaging, was used to demonstrate the enhanced electrolyte interphase (SEI)-forming ability, that is, fast cathodic reactivity of this class of electrolytes and the suppressed dendrite growth. Finally, the induced inhomogeneous deposition enabled us to witness the SEI cracking and revealed previously unreported bundled Li fibers below the pre-existing SEI and nonrod-shaped protuberances resulting from Li extrusion. PMID:25714124

  14. Baseline studies of health status in north Atlantic Baleen whale populations

    SciTech Connect

    Lambertsen, R.H. )

    1988-09-01

    This study investigated the health status of fin and sei whale populations of the central North Atlantic to establish a baseline for comparison with stranded whales in more heavily contaminated coastal zones. Systematic necropsy examinations were conducted on 150 fin whales and 42 sei whales caught by commercial whalers off the west coast of Iceland. Gas chromatographic measurements showed detectable tissue levels of organochlorine pesticides, but these levels were low, ranging from 0.2 ppb (gamma-BHC) to 1540 ppb (p,p{prime} DDE). Relevant to the comparative evaluation of contaminant effects was the finding that both the fin and sei whale, despite very similar life histories, suffered from a distinct complement of natural disease problems. From the high incidence and contaminative route of transmission of the major parasitic diseases found, it is predicted that population-level health effects, including increments in mortality rate potentially caused by environmental contamination, will increase with population density.

  15. An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  16. Telecommunications, navigation and information management concept overview for the Space Exploration Initiative program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jerome A.; Stephens, Elaine; Barton, Gregg

    1991-01-01

    An overview is provided of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) concepts for telecommunications, information systems, and navigation (TISN), and engineering and architecture issues are discussed. The SEI program data system is reviewed to identify mission TISN interfaces, and reference TISN concepts are described for nominal, degraded, and mission-critical data services. The infrastructures reviewed include telecommunications for robotics support, autonomous navigation without earth-based support, and information networks for tracking and data acquisition. Four options for TISN support architectures are examined which relate to unique SEI exploration strategies. Detailed support estimates are given for: (1) a manned stay on Mars; (2) permanent lunar and Martian settlements; short-duration missions; and (4) systematic exploration of the moon and Mars.

  17. Atomic force microscopy studies on molybdenum disulfide flakes as sodium-ion anodes.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Steven D; Wan, Jiayu; von Wald Cresce, Arthur; Russell, Selena M; Dai, Jiaqi; Bao, Wenzhong; Xu, Kang; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-02-11

    A microscale battery comprised of mechanically exfoliated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) flakes with copper connections and a sodium metal reference was created and investigated as an intercalation model using in situ atomic force microscopy in a dry room environment. While an ethylene carbonate-based electrolyte with a low vapor pressure allowed topographical observations in an open cell configuration, the planar microbattery was used to conduct in situ measurements to understand the structural changes and the concomitant solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation at the nanoscale. Topographical observations demonstrated permanent wrinkling behavior of MoS2 electrodes upon sodiation at 0.4 V. SEI formation occurred quickly on both flake edges and planes at voltages before sodium intercalation. Force spectroscopy measurements provided quantitative data on the SEI thickness for MoS2 electrodes in sodium-ion batteries for the first time. PMID:25549278

  18. An assessment of prospects for international cooperation on the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, Lynn F. H.; Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the unique characteristics of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which will have to be taken into account if the Initiative is to become an international one; the technical capabilities offered by prospective international partners; the political and economic prospects for proceeding with the Initiative both in the United States and elsewhere; and the advantages and disadvantages of various possible approaches to international cooperation on SEI. SEI preparatory activities are likely to extend over a several-year period. Such an extended preparatory period should provide the time needed for coordinating studies, for identifing interests and potential contributions, and for resolving the numerous planning, budgeting, organizational and political issues which will have to be dealt with if such a complex undertaking is to be successfully internationalized.

  19. An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  20. Gassing behavior of lithium titanate based lithium ion batteries with different types of electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiali; Bian, Peiwen; Li, Jia; Ji, Wenjiao; Hao, Hao; Yu, Aishui

    2015-07-01

    Gassing behavior of LiMn2O4/Li4Ti5O12 full cell with different electrolytes that stored at elevated temperature of 70 °C is investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used to study the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formed in battery formation and storage processes. The results suggest that the SEI film is formed as a consequence of intrinsic reaction between Li4Ti5O12 electrode and electrolyte solvents. A smooth SEI layer is formed on Li4Ti5O12 electrode with full coverage in propylene carbonate (PC) based electrolyte during lithium intercalation process while gradually dissolved with lithium extraction. Moreover, the gas specificities generated in the different electrolyte solvents are also determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis and the reaction mechanisms of LTO electrode with electrolyte solvents are proposed.

  1. Projected NASA power requirements for space science and exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Pilcher, Carl B.; Smith, William L.

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has recently completed its long-range strategic plan which describes a number of exciting space science missions into the early 21st century. In parallel, NASA's new Office of Exploration has begun defining in more detail the architectures of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) for returning to the Moon and going to Mars. Both the space science missions and the SEI missions are dependent upon power sources and energy storage with strong requirements for reliability, long life, ease of assembly, autonomy, and light weight. This paper reviews the currently planned space science and SEI missions and focuses upon the power requirements with a view toward guiding technology developers and power designers.

  2. Systems engineering and integration processes involved with manned mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranz, Eugene F.; Kraft, Christopher C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss three mission operations functions that are illustrative of the key principles of operations SE&I and of the processes and products involved. The flight systems process was selected to illustrate the role of the systems product line in developing the depth and cross disciplinary skills needed for SE&I and providing the foundation for dialogue between participating elements. FDDD was selected to illustrate the need for a structured process to assure that SE&I provides complete and accurate results that consistently support program needs. The flight director's role in mission operations was selected to illustrate the complexity of the risk/gain tradeoffs involved in the development of the flight techniques and flight rules process as well as the absolute importance of the leadership role in developing the technical, operational, and political trades.

  3. SQA on five dollars a day

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Software safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems; software use control assessment; Testing: Beyond theory; Software process improvement: Formalized unit testing; Software defect analysis for a nuclear weapons application; Function point analysis for estimation of software development schedules; SEI maturity in the Work for Other Program; SSEC SEI experiences; Planning for a Software Engineering Institute (SEI) assessment; Software process improvement, metrics; Software engineering technology plank: Building quality in; Software quality assurance at Y-12; Total quality and SQA at the Kansas City plant; The Software Technology Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Software engineering technology transfer in a scientific R&D laboratory; and Institutionalizing the information engineering environment: A practitioner`s perspective.

  4. Solid electrolyte interphases at Li-ion battery graphitic anodes in propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolytes containing FEC, LiBOB, and LiDFOB as additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Mahesh Datt; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory is used to investigate the reactivity, reduction and effect of electrolyte additives such as fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), lithium bis(oxalate) borate (LiBOB) and lithium difluoro(oxalato) borate (LiDFOB) in propylene carbonate (PC)-based Li-ion battery electrolytes. The structural, thermodynamical and calculated infra-red vibrational analyses indicate that FEC additives reduce prior to PC, providing stable SEI film formation near the graphite anode. The reduction and reaction mechanisms of LiBOB and LiDFOB influence the SEI film composition at the graphite surface. These additives contribute to stable SEI film formation without degradation of the anode structure by PC co-intercalation.

  5. In-situ TEM Characterization of Electrochemical Processess in Energy Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Raymond R; Adamczyk, Leslie A; Dudney, Nancy J; Alsem, D. H.; Salmon, Norman; More, Karren Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The accelerated development of materials for utilization in electrical energy storage systems will hinge critically upon our understanding of how interfaces (particularly electrode-electrolyte solid liquid interfaces) control the physical and electrochemical energy conversion processes in energy storage systems. A prime example is found in Lt ion-based battery systems, where a passive multiphase layer grows at the electrode/electrolyte interface due to the decomposition of the liquid electrolyte [ l]. Once formed, this solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) protects the active electrode materials from degradation and also regulates the transport and intercalation of Lt ions during battery charge/discharge cycling [2]. Due to the dynamically evolving nature of this nm-scaled interface, it has proven difficult to design experiments that will not only elucidate the fundamental mechanisms controlling SEI nucleation and growth, but will enable the SEI microstructural and chemical evolution as a function of charge/discharge cycling to be monitored in real time.

  6. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  7. Populao estelar jovem em galxias irregulares prximas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimares, T. A.; Telles, E.

    2003-08-01

    A anlise do contedo estelar de galxias prximas atravs da fotometria das suas estrelas resolvidas nos fornece informaes importantes sobre a histria de formao estelar e os processos de formao estelar em galxias, que esto diretamente ligados ao estudo de evoluo de galxias. Quando nenhuma estrela puder ser resolvida o mtodo mais poderoso consiste na anlise do contedo estelar integrado das galxias atravs das suas cores integradas em conjunto com informao espectroscpica que combinados com modelos de sntese evolutiva podem restringir simultaneamente a funo de massa inicial (IMF) e a taxa de formao estelar (SFR). Nesse contexto, galxias do tipo tardio, em particular, irregulares, so relevantes por vrias razes: elas so objetos relativamente simples, com alta atividade de formao estelar e so objetos relativamente jovens (geralmente apresentam baixas abundncias de elementos pesados e grande quantidade de gs). Apresentamos uma anlise fotomtrica de uma amostra de 7 galxias do tipo tardio do universo local (NGC 2366, NGC 4395, NGC 4656, NGC 4214, NGC 4236, HOII, IC2574) que foram observadas com uma boa resoluo espacial nas bandas B, V e R no telescpio Isaac Newton de 2.5m de Roque de los Muchachos nas Ilhas Canrias, Espanha. A distribuio espacial da populao estelar jovem dessas galxias discutida sobre os pontos de vista dos indices de cor integrados e dos seus diagramas cor magnitude, que comparados com iscronas tericas, nos fornecem informaes sobre os eventos de formao estelar, como por exemplo, indicaes sobre a idade dos mesmos. As principais concluses do trabalho podem ser resumidas em: (i) As galxias irregulares possuem formao estelar recente (FE) espalhada ocorrendo nos ltimos 50 Manos; (ii) A formao estelar em galxias irregulares no auto-propagante em escalas globais ( > 100 pc) ; (iii) A FE pode ser auto-regulvel em escalas espaciais de poucas dezenas de parsec; (iv) As galxias irregulares sofreram um evento principal de FE h 1010 anos atrs, o que implica que houve um momento na evoluo do universo onde a maior parte das estrelas se formaram em galxias.

  8. Application of multiple criteria decision methods in space exploration initiative design and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masud, Abu S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Fellowship activities were directed towards the identification of opportunities for application of the Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques in the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) domain. I identified several application possibilities and proposed demonstration application in these three areas: evaluation and ranking of SEI architectures, space mission planning and selection, and space system design. Here, only the first problem is discussed. The most meaningful result of the analysis is the wide separation between the two top ranked architectures, indicating a significant preference difference between them. It must also be noted that the final ranking reflects, to some extent, the biases of the evaluators and their understanding of the architecture.

  9. Structure of spontaneously formed solid-electrolyte interphase on lithiated graphite determined using small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sacci, Robert L; Banuelos, Jose Leo; Veith, Gabriel M; Littrell, Ken; Cheng, Yongqiang; Wildgruber, Christoph U; Jones, Lacy L; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J; Rother, Gernot; Dudney, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    We report the first small-angle neutron scattering of a chemically formed solid-electrolyte interphase from LixC6 reacting with ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbon solvent. This provides a different and perhaps simpler view of SEI formation than the usual electrochemically-driven reaction. We show that an organic layer coats the graphite particles filling in micro-pores and is polymeric in nature being 1-3 nm thick. We used inelastic neutron scattering to probe the chemistry, and we found that the SEI showed similar inelastic scattering to polyethylene oxide.

  10. The use of Antarctic analogs for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney; Lynch, John T.

    1991-01-01

    Potential approaches to the use of the Antarctic as an analog to the lunar and Mars planetary surface segments of the SEI are reviewed. It is concluded that a well-planned and sustained program of ground-based research and testing in environments analogous to the moon and Mars is a rational method for reducing the risks associated with human space missions. Antarctica may provide an ideal setting for testing critical technologies (habitat design, life support, and advanced scientific instrumentation), studying human factors and physiology, and conducting basic scientific research similar to and directly relevant to that planned for the SEI.

  11. Enhanced electrochemical performance and thermal stability of LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 using an electrolyte with sulfolane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Jia-Jia; Wang, Xue-Yin; Yang, Cheng; Zheng, Ming-Sen; Dong, Quan-Feng

    2015-04-28

    A sulfide-based SEI layer was formed on the surface of a LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode by using a sulfolane-carbonate mixed solvent electrolyte, which led to an improvement in the electrochemical performance. Moreover, the thermal stability of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode was also significantly improved in the presence of the SEI layer. ARC (Accelerating Rate Calorimetry) tests showed that the self-heating rate of the delithiated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 material in the sulfolane-carbonate electrolyte was suppressed. PMID:25824866

  12. Enabling the space exploration initiative: NASA's exploration technology program in space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    Space power requirements for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are reviewed, including the results of a NASA 90-day study and reports by the National Research Council, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), NASA, the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, and the Synthesis Group. The space power requirements for the SEI robotic missions, lunar spacecraft, Mars spacecraft, and human missions are summarized. Planning for exploration technology is addressed, including photovoltaic, chemical and thermal energy conversion; high-capacity power; power and thermal management for the surface, Earth-orbiting platform and spacecraft; laser power beaming; and mobile surface systems.

  13. The U.S. Antarctic Program's operational goals, strategies, and concepts - Correlations and lessons learned for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, Corinne; Guerra, Lisa

    1992-01-01

    Results of an assessment of two programs, NASA SEI and the National Science Foundation's U.S. Antarctic Program (USAP) are presented. The assessment was aimed at determining the elements of USAP's operations which are relevant to living and working on the moon and Mars and at identifying operational concepts, procedures, and techniques which might be considered by NASA as it formulates the SEI concept. The assessment shows strong similarities in goals, related operational functions and accommodations, and fundamental strategies and policies for mission execution. Besides, both programs share logistical and operational constraints. There are differences in concepts for execution because of the unique aspects of accessing, living, and working in these environments.

  14. Enabling the Space Exploration Initiative - NASA's Exploration Technology Program in space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    Space power requirements for SEI are reviewed, including the results of a NASA 90-day study and reports by the National Research Council, AIAA, NASA, the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, and the Synthesis Group. The space power requirements for the SEI robotic missions, lunar spacecraft, Mars spacecraft, and human missions are summarized. Planning for the exploration technology is addressed, including: photovoltaic, chemical, and thermal energy conversion; power management; thermal management; space nuclear power; high-capacity power; power and thermal management for the surface, earth-orbiting platform, and spacecraft; laser power beaming; and mobile surface systems.

  15. How to estimate solid-electrolyte-interphase features when screening electrolyte materials.

    PubMed

    Husch, Tamara; Korth, Martin

    2015-09-21

    Computational screening of battery electrolyte components is an extremely challenging task because very complex features like solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) formation and graphite exfoliation need to be taken into account at least in the final screening stage. We present estimators for both SEI formation and graphite exfoliation based on a combinatorial approach using quantum chemistry calculations on model system reactions, which can be applied automatically for a large number of compounds and thus allows for the systematic first assessment of the relevant properties using screening approaches. The thermodynamic effects are assessed using quantum mechanical calculations, while a more heuristic approach is used to estimate the kinetic effects. PMID:26264287

  16. Data compression for full motion video transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Sayood, Khalid

    1991-01-01

    Clearly transmission of visual information will be a major, if not dominant, factor in determining the requirements for, and assessing the performance of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) communications systems. Projected image/video requirements which are currently anticipated for SEI mission scenarios are presented. Based on this information and projected link performance figures, the image/video data compression requirements which would allow link closure are identified. Finally several approaches which could satisfy some of the compression requirements are presented and possible future approaches which show promise for more substantial compression performance improvement are discussed.

  17. Data compression for full motion video transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Sayood, Khalid

    1991-01-01

    Clearly transmission of visual information will be a major, if not dominant, factor in determining the requirements for, and assessing the performance of, the SEI communications systems. Projected image/video requirements which are currently anticipated for SEI mission scenarios are presented. Based on this information and projected link performance figures, the image/video data compression requirements which would allow link closure are identified. Finally several approaches which could satisfy some of the compression requirements are presented and possible future approaches which show promise for more substantial compression performance improvement are discussed.

  18. Anoctamin 2 identified as an autoimmune target in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ayoglu, Burcu; Mitsios, Nicholas; Kockum, Ingrid; Khademi, Mohsen; Zandian, Arash; Sjberg, Ronald; Forsstrm, Bjrn; Bredenberg, Johan; Lima Bomfim, Izaura; Holmgren, Erik; Grnlund, Hans; Guerreiro-Cacais, Andr Ortlieb; Abdelmagid, Nada; Uhln, Mathias; Waterboer, Tim; Alfredsson, Lars; Mulder, Jan; Schwenk, Jochen M; Olsson, Tomas; Nilsson, Peter

    2016-02-23

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and also is regarded as an autoimmune condition. However, the antigenic targets of the autoimmune response in MS have not yet been deciphered. In an effort to mine the autoantibody repertoire within MS, we profiled 2,169 plasma samples from MS cases and population-based controls using bead arrays built with 384 human protein fragments selected from an initial screening with 11,520 antigens. Our data revealed prominently increased autoantibody reactivity against the chloride-channel protein anoctamin 2 (ANO2) in MS cases compared with controls. This finding was corroborated in independent assays with alternative protein constructs and by epitope mapping with peptides covering the identified region of ANO2. Additionally, we found a strong interaction between the presence of ANO2 autoantibodies and the HLA complex MS-associated DRB1*15 allele, reinforcing a potential role for ANO2 autoreactivity in MS etiopathogenesis. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis in human MS brain tissue showed ANO2 expression as small cellular aggregates near and inside MS lesions. Thus this study represents one of the largest efforts to characterize the autoantibody repertoire within MS. The findings presented here demonstrate that an ANO2 autoimmune subphenotype may exist in MS and lay the groundwork for further studies focusing on the pathogenic role of ANO2 autoantibodies in MS. PMID:26862169

  19. Anoctamin 2 identified as an autoimmune target in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ayoglu, Burcu; Mitsios, Nicholas; Kockum, Ingrid; Khademi, Mohsen; Zandian, Arash; Sjöberg, Ronald; Forsström, Björn; Bredenberg, Johan; Lima Bomfim, Izaura; Holmgren, Erik; Grönlund, Hans; Guerreiro-Cacais, André Ortlieb; Abdelmagid, Nada; Uhlén, Mathias; Waterboer, Tim; Alfredsson, Lars; Mulder, Jan; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Olsson, Tomas; Nilsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and also is regarded as an autoimmune condition. However, the antigenic targets of the autoimmune response in MS have not yet been deciphered. In an effort to mine the autoantibody repertoire within MS, we profiled 2,169 plasma samples from MS cases and population-based controls using bead arrays built with 384 human protein fragments selected from an initial screening with 11,520 antigens. Our data revealed prominently increased autoantibody reactivity against the chloride-channel protein anoctamin 2 (ANO2) in MS cases compared with controls. This finding was corroborated in independent assays with alternative protein constructs and by epitope mapping with peptides covering the identified region of ANO2. Additionally, we found a strong interaction between the presence of ANO2 autoantibodies and the HLA complex MS-associated DRB1*15 allele, reinforcing a potential role for ANO2 autoreactivity in MS etiopathogenesis. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis in human MS brain tissue showed ANO2 expression as small cellular aggregates near and inside MS lesions. Thus this study represents one of the largest efforts to characterize the autoantibody repertoire within MS. The findings presented here demonstrate that an ANO2 autoimmune subphenotype may exist in MS and lay the groundwork for further studies focusing on the pathogenic role of ANO2 autoantibodies in MS. PMID:26862169

  20. Survival protein anoctamin-6 controls multiple platelet responses including phospholipid scrambling, swelling, and protein cleavage.

    PubMed

    Mattheij, Nadine J A; Braun, Attila; van Kruchten, Roger; Castoldi, Elisabetta; Pircher, Joachim; Baaten, Constance C F M J; Wlling, Manuela; Kuijpers, Marijke J E; Khler, Ralf; Poole, Alastair W; Schreiber, Rainer; Vortkamp, Andrea; Collins, Peter W; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Kunzelmann, Karl; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Heemskerk, Johan W M

    2016-02-01

    Scott syndrome is a rare bleeding disorder, characterized by altered Ca(2+)-dependent platelet signaling with defective phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and microparticle formation, and is linked to mutations in the ANO6 gene, encoding anoctamin (Ano)6. We investigated how the complex platelet phenotype of this syndrome is linked to defective expression of Anos or other ion channels. Mice were generated with heterozygous of homozygous deficiency in Ano6, Ano1, or Ca(2+)-dependent KCa3.1 Gardos channel. Platelets from these mice were extensively analyzed on molecular functions and compared with platelets from a patient with Scott syndrome. Deficiency in Ano1 or Gardos channel did not reduce platelet responses compared with control mice (P > 0.1). In 2 mouse strains, deficiency in Ano6 resulted in reduced viability with increased bleeding time to 28.6 min (control 6.4 min, P < 0.05). Platelets from the surviving Ano6-deficient mice resembled platelets from patients with Scott syndrome in: 1) normal collagen-induced aggregate formation (P > 0.05) with reduced PS exposure (-65 to 90%); 2) lowered Ca(2+)-dependent swelling (-80%) and membrane blebbing (-90%); 3) reduced calpain-dependent protein cleavage (-60%); and 4) moderately affected apoptosis-dependent PS exposure. In conclusion, mouse deficiency of Ano6 but not of other channels affects viability and phenocopies the complex changes in platelets from hemostatically impaired patients with Scott syndrome.-Mattheij, N. J. A., Braun, A., van Kruchten, R., Castoldi, E., Pircher, J., Baaten, C. C. F. M. J., Wlling, M., Kuijpers, M. J. E., Khler, R., Poole, A. W., Schreiber, R., Vortkamp, A., Collins, P. W., Nieswandt, B., Kunzelmann, K., Cosemans, J. M. E. M., Heemskerk, J. W. M. Survival protein anoctamin-6 controls multiple platelet responses including phospholipid scrambling, swelling, and protein cleavage. PMID:26481309

  1. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ana Carla Pereira de; Santos, Bruno F de Oliveira; Calasans, Flavia Ricci; Pinto, Ibraim M Francisco; Oliveira, Daniel Pio de; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2014-11-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1) or positive (G2) for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results: G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%). During the mean 85.6 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 - 6.01; p = 0.016). The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 - 6.53; p = 0.022) and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia.Fundamento: Estudos tm demonstrado a acurcia diagnstica e o valor prognstico da ecocardiografia com estresse fsico na doena arterial coronria, mas a predio de mortalidade e de eventos cardacos maiores, em pacientes com teste ergomtrico positivo para isquemia miocrdica, limitada. Objetivo: Avaliar a predio de mortalidade e de eventos cardacos maiores pela ecocardiografia com estresse fsico em pacientes com teste ergomtrico positivo para isquemia miocrdica. Mtodos: Trata-se de uma coorte retrospectiva em que foram estudados 866 pacientes consecutivos, com teste ergomtrico positivo para isquemia miocrdica, submetidos ecocardiografia com estresse fsico. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: ecocardiografia com estresse fsico negativa (G1) ou positiva (G2) para isquemia miocrdica. Os desfechos avaliados foram mortalidade por qualquer causa e eventos cardacos maiores, definidos como bito cardaco e infarto agudo do miocrdio no fatal. Resultados: O G2 constituiu-se de 205 (23,7%) pacientes. Durante o seguimento mdio de 85,6 15,0 meses, ocorreram 26 bitos, sendo seis por causa cardaca, e 25 casos de infarto agudo do miocrdio no fatais. Os preditores independentes de mortalidade foram idade, diabetes melito e a ecocardiografia com estresse fsico + (hazard ratio: 2,69; intervalo de confiana de 95%: 1,20 - 6,01; p = 0,016), com os seguintes eventos cardacos maiores: idade, doena arterial coronria prvia, ecocardiografia com estresse fsico + (hazard ratio: 2,75; intervalo de confiana de 95%: 1,15 - 6,53; p = 0,022) e ausncia do incremento de 10% na frao de ejeo. A mortalidade por qualquer causa e os eventos cardacos maiores foram significativamente superiores no G2 (p < 0, 001 e p = 0,001, respectivamente). Concluso: A ecocardiografia com estresse fsico oferece informaes prognsticas adicionais em pacientes com teste ergomtrico positivo para isquemia miocrdica. PMID:25352460

  2. 78 FR 8119 - Cancellation of the Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft and Final Supplemental Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Register, July 28, 2009 (74 FR 37190). The cancellation of the subject SEIS is necessitated due to a change... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Reach 1B, C, and D on the Herbert Hoover Dike Major... replaced with a system-wide Dam Safety Modification (DSM) Report. Environmental documentation will...

  3. 78 FR 78948 - Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Route 460 Location Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... limited access principle arterial tolled facility on new location for approximately 55 miles which would... for the Route 460 Location Study From Prince George County to the City of Suffolk, VA AGENCY...), will prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact ] Statement (SEIS) for the Route 460 Location...

  4. 78 FR 76189 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Route 460 Location Study, Prince George...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... limited access principle arterial tolled facility on new location for approximately 55 miles which would... Location Study, Prince George County to Suffolk, Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration, DOT...) will prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) to evaluate the Route 460...

  5. 43 CFR 10010.25 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplemental environmental impact... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.25 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) Supplement Environmental Impact Statements (SEIS) are only required if...

  6. Student Evaluation of Instruction in Higher Education: Exploring Issues of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jing; Gallant, Dorinda J.

    2012-01-01

    Many personnel committees at colleges and universities in the USA use student evaluation of faculty instruction to make decisions regarding tenure, promotion, merit pay or faculty professional development. This study examines the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the student evaluation of instruction (SEI) used at a large

  7. [Psychological effects of parental separation on children].

    PubMed

    Martin-Lebrun, E; Poussin, G; Barumandzadeh, T; Bost, M

    1997-09-01

    A study on the psychological consequences of parental separation on children was performed among 3,098 pupils of first year secondary school during the 1995-1996 academic year in the department of Isre. The children family situation was compared with the results of personality test of Coopersmith (SEI). The main characteristics of the children, in particular family condition such as parental death or parental separation are in agreement with the French national data. Among the children with separated parents, 29% were less than 3 years old when their parents broke up. In 85% of the cases the child lived mainly with his/her mother, in 9% of the cases with his/her father, in 4% of cases in a joint-custody arrangement, in 1% of the cases in an other person's home. The overall SEI scores were good. There was a significant overrepresentation of girls with extreme scores. Compared with the scores of the children of unseparated parents, the average SEI scores were low for children with separated parents and for children with one dead parent, but differences were observed between girls end boys. The age of children at the time of the separation did not influence the SEI score and there was little influence of the father-child regular contacts. PMID:9345573

  8. 77 FR 61746 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Guam and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ..., open storage, community support (e.g., retail, education, recreation, medical, and day care), some site... Final EIS was signed on September 20, 2010 (75 FR 60438, September 30, 2010). The ROD deferred a.... The DoN issued its Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare the SEIS in February 2012 (77 FR 6787, February...

  9. 76 FR 27030 - Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Indianapolis, White River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), Louisville District will prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) to disclose potential impacts to the natural, physical, and human environment resulting from implementation of alternatives formulated to address reliability risks associated with Indianapolis, White River......

  10. Analyzing the Learning of the Taking Personal and Social Responsibility Model within a New Physical Education Undergraduate Degree Program in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Mauro H.; Mandigo, James L.

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador has an unfortunate history that includes a military regime and a civil war that together created a legacy of violence in which the country still struggles nowadays. Salud Escolar Integral (SEI) was created in 2005 by universities, federal governments, a corporate sponsor, and sport associations as a program to combat youth violence…

  11. 77 FR 56613 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16325

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... published in the Federal Register (77 FR 12244) that a request for a permit to conduct research on humpback... whales (B. borealis), minke whales (B. acutorostrata), sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), and killer... harassment of humpback, fin, blue, sei, minke, sperm and killer whales by close vessel approaches;...

  12. 78 FR 20888 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 161-Sedgwick County, Kansas; Notification of Proposed Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 161--Sedgwick County, Kansas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Siemens Energy, Inc., (Wind Turbine Nacelles and Hubs), Hutchinson, Kansas Siemens Energy, Inc. (SEI), an operator of FTZ...

  13. 75 FR 6065 - Extension of Public Comment Period on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Moore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... COMMISSION Extension of Public Comment Period on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Moore Ranch... for the NRC's Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (Draft SEIS) for the Moore Ranch In... Environmental Impact Statement for In-Situ Leach Uranium Milling Facilities'' is available electronically...

  14. Separate and Not Equal: The Implementation of Structured English Immersion in Arizona's Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillie, Karen E.; Markos, Amy; Arias, M. Beatriz; Wiley, Terrence G.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Over the last ten years, a convergence of laws and decrees has impacted the development and implementation of Arizona's current program for English language learners (ELLs): the four-hour Structured English Immersion (SEI) model. Arizona's new model, while being touted by some as the most effective program for ELLs (Clark,

  15. 76 FR 26239 - Umatilla National Forest, Walla Walla Ranger District, Oregon, Cobbler II Timber Sale and Fuels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Forest Service Umatilla National Forest, Walla Walla Ranger District, Oregon, Cobbler II Timber Sale and... Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) to the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cobbler II... Supervisor Kevin Martin withdrew his October 8, 2010 Record of Decision (ROD) for the Cobbler II Timber...

  16. Human support issues and systems for the space exploration initiative: Results from Project Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aroesty, J.; Zimmerman, R.; Logan, J.

    1991-01-01

    The analyses and evaluations of the Human Support panel are discussed. The Human Support panel is one of eight panels created by RAND to screen and analyze submissions to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Outreach Program. Submissions to the Human Support panel were in the following areas: radiation protection; microgravity; life support systems; medical care; and human factors (behavior and performance).

  17. Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) is not a model per se>, but is a multipurpose environmental decision support system for use by regional, state, and local agencies in performing watershed- and water-quality-based studies. BASI...

  18. Implementing Structured English Immersion in Arizona: Benefits, Challenges, and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Gonzalez Canche, Manuel S.; Moll, Luis C.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Arizona's most recent English Language Learner (ELL) legislation, starting in the school year 2008-2009, requires all such students be educated through a specific Structured English Immersion (SEI) model: the 4-hour English Language Development (ELD) block. The basic premise behind this particular model is that ELL students

  19. Severely Emotionally Impaired/Program Expansion/Project Find/Pre-Primary Impaired. Product Evaluation Report, 1989-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Richard N.; And Others

    The report describes 1989-90 activities receiving flow-through monies under Public Law 94-142 of four projects of the School District of the City of Saginaw (Michigan): (1) the Program for Severely Emotionally Impaired Students (SEI); (2) Program Expansion; (3) Project Find; and (4) the Pre-Primary Impaired Program. Among seven primary activities

  20. Measuring Differentials of Information Power between Academic Disciplines Using Interdisciplinary Citation Patterns among Eight Social Sciences from 1979-1983 and 2005-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Although social stratification usually calls to mind the hierarchical ranking of individuals, sociology often broadly considers it the ranking of any social objects. The Treiman Socio-Economic Index (SEI), for example, provides a quantitative assessment of the hierarchical ranking of occupations. This dissertation considers the hierarchical

  1. Biotyping of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus by Enterotoxin Gene Cluster (egc) Polymorphism and spa Typing Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Fusco, Vincenzina; von Eiff, Christof; Villani, Francesco; Becker, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-five Staphylococcus aureus strains, including 10 reference strains and 25 strains recovered from clinical specimens and food samples, were analyzed by PCR REA (restriction endonucleases analysis) of the egc operon and spa typing. Nineteen spa types and seven different egc operons, including four putative new egc variants, were revealed. In 13 strains, allelic variants of sei and/or seg were found. By an analysis of their nucleotide sequence identities, a new homogeneous cluster of a sei variant, called the sei variant, was detected in six strains. In addition, the prototype sei was shown to be more polymorphic than assumed so far. Seven strains possessed the recently described seg variant, also exhibiting several nucleotide exchanges. spa typing was more effective than REA egc grouping as a typing technique. Since, in some cases, the REA typing method was able to discriminate strains showing the same spa type, it must be considered for PCR approaches involved in diagnostic procedures and may be useful for epidemiological studies. Hence, the polyphasic approach used in this study can be reliably and advantageously applied for typing egc-positive S. aureus strains. PMID:16957237

  2. 76 FR 64344 - Amended Record of Decision for the Nuclear Facility Portion of the Chemistry and Metallurgy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Mexico (DOE/EIS-0350, CMRR EIS) and the subsequent 2004 ROD (69 FR 6967). Since the issuance of the 2004... participate in a scoping process to help shape NNSA's supplemental analysis (75 FR 60745, October 1, 2010... CMRR-NF SEIS in the Federal Register on April 29, 2011 (76 FR 24021 and 76 FR 24018,...

  3. 78 FR 55093 - Dog Management Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... National Park Service Dog Management Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate... Statement for the Dog Management Plan (Plan/SEIS), Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA), California. Current dog management in the park is based on a number of factors. Areas included in the GGNRA...

  4. 75 FR 53980 - Notice of Field Tours for the Pinedale Anticline Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Pinedale Anticline Project Area (PAPA) 2008 Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), and the... Management (BLM) PAWG will conduct field tours of the Pinedale Anticline Project Area (PAPA). Tours are open... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The PAWG was established by the EIS ROD for the PAPA on July 27, 2000, and...

  5. Investigating Halo and Ceiling Effects in Student Evaluations of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Jared W.; English, Taylor; Irons, Jessica; Henslee, Amber M.

    2013-01-01

    Many measurement biases affect student evaluations of instruction (SEIs). However, two have been relatively understudied: halo effects and ceiling/floor effects. This study examined these effects in two ways. To examine the halo effect, using a videotaped lecture, we manipulated specific teacher behaviors to be "good" or "bad"…

  6. Research Trends in Science Education International: A Content Analysis for the Last Five Years (2011-2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavas, B.

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to analyse 5 volumes and 20 issues of "Science Education International" ("SEI") according to the authors' nationality and research topics of the articles, published in the journal between 2011 and 2015. In total, 126 articles were published, successfully submitted by 281 authors in 43

  7. SEeIng through a Bilingual Lens: Structural and Ideological Contexts of Structured English Immersion in Three Massachusetts Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gort, Mileidis; de Jong, Ester J.; Cobb, Casey D.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, Massachusetts voters passed Question 2, a law similar to its predecessors in California (Proposition 227) and Arizona (Proposition 203) to replace bilingual education with structured English immersion (SEI) programs. Using Ruiz's (1984) framework for language planning as an analytical lens, this study examined how three Massachusetts…

  8. Advocate program for healthy traditional houses, Ume Kbubu, in a Timor community: preserving traditional behavior and promoting improved health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Prasodjo, Rachmalina; Musadad, D Anwar; Muhidin, Salut; Pardosi, Jerico; Silalahi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Families in the Timor society of Indonesia have customarily used traditional houses, called Ume Kbubu, for confinement practices of a newborn baby and the mother during the first 40 days after birth. The practice, known as Sei (smoke) tradition, involves retaining heat, which is believed to foster healing, inside the house by continuously burning a wood burning stove. Exacerbated by inadequate ventilation in the traditional house, this practice results in poor indoor air quality and negatively affects the health of the mother and baby. Preliminary findings from a baseline study conducted in 2009 identified high levels of indoor air pollution in Ume Kbubu where mothers practiced the Sei tradition. Many respondents expressed that they suffered from respiratory health problems during the practice. On the basis of those results, a follow-up study was conducted in 2011 to develop and test a communication-focused behavior change intervention that would foster conversion of traditional houses into healthy Ume Kbubu and promote changes to traditional practices for better health outcomes. The study suggests that redesigning an Ume Kbubu house could promote better air quality inside the house and involving the community in the health intervention program led to positive changes in the Sei practice (i.e., decreasing the Sei period's length from 40 days to 4 days on average and attempting to reduce household air pollution). The study resulted in several recommendations in relation to sustained transformation to improve health behaviors. PMID:25839199

  9. Proceedings of the Annual Penn Linguistics Colloquium (21st, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, February 22-23, 1997). University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 4, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriadis, Alexis, Ed.; Siegel, Laura, Ed.; Surek-Clark, Clarissa, Ed.; Williams, Alexander, Ed.

    This issue contains the following articles: "The Pragmatics of Wh-Question Intonation in English" (Christine Bartels); "The Nature of Object Agreement in Hungarian" (Huba Bartos); "Voah Mei Daett Sei Deitsh: Developments in the Vowel System of Pennsylvania German" (David Bowie); "Event Time Properties" (Gerhard Brugger); "Polarity in Spanish,

  10. Norming of Student Evaluations of Instruction: Impact of Noninstructional Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nargundkar, Satish; Shrikhande, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Student Evaluations of Instruction (SEIs) from about 6,000 sections over 4 years representing over 100,000 students at the college of business at a large public university are analyzed, to study the impact of noninstructional factors on student ratings. Administrative factors like semester, time of day, location, and instructor attributes like

  11. 76 FR 6153 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Regional Landfill Project on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Federal Register on November 8, 2005 (70 FR 67738-67739). The Notice of Availability of the Draft SEIS was published in the Federal Register on February 26, 2010 (75 FR 8986- 8988). Public Comment Availability... (BIA) as lead agency, in cooperation with the Campo Band of Mission Indians (Campo Band),...

  12. Overstated Optimism: Arizona's Structured English Immersion Program under "Horne v. Flores"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Jill Kerper

    2010-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the educational implications of the Supreme Court (USSC) decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009). The USSC remanded the Arizona case to the lower court, requiring a rehearing of petitioners' request for relief from the court's oversight of AZ's "structured English immersion" (SEI) program mandated under HB2064. The

  13. Poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) binders containing lithium for high-performance Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Jun-Hwan; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ham, Dong-Jin; Song, Min-Sang; Shon, Jeong-Kuk; Ji, Sang-Min; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2015-08-01

    Anode materials including graphite are known to be thermodynamically unstable toward organic solvents and salts and become covered by a passivating film (Solid electrolyte interphase, SEI) which retards the kinetics because of the high electronic resistivity. To achieve high performance in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the SEIs are required to be mechanically stable during repeated cycling and possess highly ion-conductive. In this work, we have investigated an artificial pre-SEI on graphite electrode using a polymer binder containing lithium (i.e., a Li-copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride, Li-PIMA) and its effect on the anode performances. During charging, the polymer binder with the functional group (-COOLi) acts as a SEI component, reducing the electrolyte decomposition and providing a stable passivating layer for the favorable penetration of lithium ions. Hence, by using the binder containing lithium, we have been able to obtain the first Coulombic efficiency of 84.2% (compared to 77.2% obtained using polyvinylidene fluoride as the binder) and a capacity retention of 99% after 100 cycles. The results of our study demonstrate that binder containing lithium we have used is a favorable candidate for the development of high-performance LIBs.

  14. Reading and Language Outcomes of a Multiyear Randomized Evaluation of Transitional Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy; Calderon, Margarita; Chamberlain, Anne; Hennessy, Megan

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the outcomes of a multiyear study comparing the English and Spanish language and reading performance of Spanish-dominant children randomly assigned, beginning in kindergarten, to transitional bilingual education (TBE) or structured English immersion (SEI) for periods of up to 5 years. On the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and

  15. Neue Anforderungen an den Datenschutz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, Alexander

    Eine von der Europischen Kommission 2003 in Auftrag gegebene Studie hat die rasante technische Entwicklung hin zu "Ambient Intelligence Technologies als die grte Herausforderung fr den Datenschutz bezeichnet, die sogar grer als die Herausforderung durch den internationalen Terrorismus nach dem 11. September sei.

  16. Educational transformation in upper-division physics: The Science Education Initiative model, outcomes, and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Wilcox, Bethany; Caballero, Marcos D.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Pollock, Steven J.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] In response to the need for a scalable, institutionally supported model of educational change, the Science Education Initiative (SEI) was created as an experiment in transforming course materials and faculty practices at two institutions—University of Colorado Boulder (CU) and University of British Columbia. We find that this departmentally focused model of change, which includes an explicit focus on course transformation as supported by a discipline-based postdoctoral education specialist, was generally effective in impacting courses and faculty across the institution. In CU's Department of Physics, the SEI effort focused primarily on upper-division courses, creating high-quality course materials, approaches, and assessments, and demonstrating an impact on student learning. We argue that the SEI implementation in the CU Physics Department, as compared to that in other departments, achieved more extensive impacts on specific course materials, and high-quality assessments, due to guidance by the physics education research group—but with more limited impact on the departmental faculty as a whole. We review the process and progress of the SEI Physics at CU and reflect on lessons learned in the CU Physics Department in particular. These results are useful in considering both institutional and faculty-led models of change and course transformation.

  17. 75 FR 14207 - Virginia Electric and Power Company d/b/a/Dominion Virginia Power, and Old Dominion Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... Federal Register on December 24, 2008 (73 FR 79196). The purpose of this notice is to inform the public... Cooperative; Notice of Availability of the Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for North Anna...-1917, for the North Anna, Unit 3 Combined License (COL) application. The SEIS is a supplement to...

  18. 77 FR 13656 - Call for Papers: National Symposium on Moving Target Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Call for Papers: National Symposium on Moving Target Research AGENCY: The National Coordination Office... Papers (CFP). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: mtr-symposium@sei.cmu.edu . DATES: To be considered, draft papers must be received by 18:00 EDT, April 2, 2012. SUMMARY: This Call for Papers is being...

  19. 76 FR 30303 - Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Bell Island Geothermal Leases Supplemental Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ...The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Tongass National Forest will prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement (SEIS) to a 2008 programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) titled Geothermal Leasing in the Western United States. This analysis is needed for consent determination to allow the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to issue three pending leases to a private......

  20. One Lesson, Many Facets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Conrado L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the methodology for teaching English language learners (ELLs) is unique. One approach most commonly used to teach this group in the United States is referred to as sheltered instruction. With Sheltered English Immersion (SEI), middle school teachers simultaneously teach content and language skills. The author will