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Sample records for sekwencji wieloimpulsowych cz

  1. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T. L.

    1998-09-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase II of Siemens Solar Industries' DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described in this report. New module designs were deployed in this phase of the contract, improvements in yield of over 10% were realized, and further implementation of Statistical Process Control was achieved during this phase. Module configurations representing a 12% cost reduction per watt were implemented in small scale production under Phase II of this contract. Yield improvements are described in detail, yield sensitivity to wafer thickness is quantified, and the deployment of SPC in critical process steps is reported here.

  2. Geostrophic turbulence in CZ silicon crucible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishida, Yutaka; Okazawa, Kensuke

    1999-03-01

    In the CZ silicon process, silicon melt convection is affected by the Coriolis force as a rotating fluid system. As a result, a special fluid motion called baroclinic instability appears and disturbs the single crystal growth. Since the Coriolis force will increase the curvature of the fluid particle paths, when the curvature exceeds the crucible size, another unstable fluid motion, the so-called geostrophic turbulence, is expected to occur at higher Taylor numbers. This study investigates the geostrophic turbulence by numerical flow simulation and experimental observations in an actual CZ crucible. In the numerical flow simulation, we solved 3D differential equations on a cylindrical lattice of 80×60×65 points, where the Rayleigh number of the system was fixed to be 2.7×10 7. With the Taylor number higher than 1×10 11, the calculated fluid motion and temperature structure produce a polka-dot pattern, which continues from the melt surface to the bottom. When the Taylor number is increased, the vertical vorticity component increases extremely. In the actual CZ crucible, temperature profiles on the melt surface were recorded by video camera thermometer in the same conditions as in the numerical simulation. The thermal images of the melt surface also show a fluctuating polka-dot pattern consisting of high temperature areas as seen in the numerical simulation results. The size and amplitude of the high temperature areas decrease with increase of the Taylor number, thus thermal clusters will relax the radial gradient and fluctuations. The Fourier power spectrum of the time dependent fluctuations has an f-4 behavior, which statistically indicates 2D turbulence. These facts observed both in numerical simulations and the actual experiment are completely consistent with the characteristics of geostrophic turbulence.

  3. PV Cz silicon manufacturing technology improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jester, T.

    1995-09-01

    This describes work done in the final phase of a 3-y, 3-phase contract to demonstrate cost reductions and improvements in manufacturing technology. The work focused on near-term projects in the SSI (Siemens Solar Industries) Czochralski (Cz) manufacturing facility in Camarillo, CA; the final phase was concentrated in areas of crystal growth, wafer technology, and environmental, safety, and health issues. During this period: (1) The crystal-growing operation improved with increased growth capacity; (2) Wafer processing with wire saws continued to progress; the wire saws yielded almost 50 percent more wafers per inch in production. The wire saws needs less etching, too; (3) Cell processing improvements focused on better handling and higher mechanical yield. The cell electrical distribution improved with a smaller standard deviation in the distribution; and (4) Module designs for lower material and labor costs continued, with focus on a new junction box, larger modules with larger cells, and less costly framing techniques. Two modules demonstrating these cost reductions were delivered during this phase.

  4. Degradation of bulk diffusion length in CZ silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, J.H.; King, R.R.; Mitchell, K.W.

    1995-08-01

    Commercially-produced, unencapsulated, CZ silicon solar cells can lose 3 to 4% of their initial efficiency after exposure to light. After this initial, rapid ( < 30 min.) decrease, the cell power output remains stable. The cell performance recovers in a matter of hours in the dark at room temperature, and degrades again under light exposure. The different conditions under which CZ silicon cells degrade, and the reverse process, annealing, are characterized with the methods of spectral response and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Iron impurities are a possible cause of this effect.

  5. Process research on non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    High risk, high payoff research areas associated with he process for producing photovoltaic modules using non-CZ sheet material are investigated. All investigations are being performed using dendritic web silicon, but all processes are directly applicable to other ribbon forms of sheet material. The technical feasibility of forming front and back junctions in non-CZ silicon using liquid dopant techniques was determined. Numerous commercially available liquid phosphorus and boron dopant solutions are investigated. Temperature-time profiles to achieve N(+) and P(+) sheet resistivities of 60 + or - 10 and 40 + or - s10 ohms per square centimeter respectively are established. A study of the optimal method of liquid dopant application is performed. The technical feasibility of forming a liquid applied diffusion mask to replace the more costly chemical vapor deposited SiO2 diffusion mask was also determined.

  6. The Exponential Diophantine Equation 2x + by = cz

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yahui; Li, Xiaoxue

    2014-01-01

    Let b and c be fixed coprime odd positive integers with min{b, c} > 1. In this paper, a classification of all positive integer solutions (x, y, z) of the equation 2x + by = cz is given. Further, by an elementary approach, we prove that if c = b + 2, then the equation has only the positive integer solution (x, y, z) = (1,1, 1), except for (b, x, y, z) = (89,13,1, 2) and (2r − 1, r + 2,2, 2), where r is a positive integer with r ≥ 2. PMID:24959613

  7. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced processing techniques for non-CZ silicon sheet material that might improve the cost effectiveness of photovoltaic module production were investigated. Specifically, the simultaneous diffusion of liquid boron and liquid phosphorus organometallic precursors into n-type dendritic silicon web was examined. The simultaneous junction formation method for solar cells was compared with the sequential junction formation method. The electrical resistivity of the n-n and p-n junctions was discussed. Further research activities for this program along with a program documentation schedule are given.

  8. Multiple batch recharging for industrial CZ silicon growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fickett, B.; Mihalik, G.

    2001-05-01

    The Czochralski (CZ) crystal growth process used in the Siemens Solar Industries’ (SSI) Vancouver, WA facility was non-continuous. Each furnace run's production was limited by the size of the starting charge. Once the charge was depleted, the furnace was shut down, cooled, and set back up for the next run. A recharge system was developed which transforms standard CZ growth into a semi-continuous process. Now when the charge is depleted, the crucible can be refilled in situ as the grown ingot is being removed from the furnace. SSI has demonstrated up to 14 recharge cycles in a single run. The resulting benefits included: significant cost reduction, increased yield, increased throughput, reduced energy consumption, improved process capability, reduced material handling requirements, and reduced labor. The recharge system also enables the use of granular silicon, which requires less than 30% of the energy required when manufacturing silicon-starting materials. This significantly reduces the energy “pay-back” time associated with SSI's finished product, photovoltaic panels.

  9. Transient computer simulation of a CZ crystal growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornberger, E.; von Ammon, W.; Van den Bogaert, N.; Dupret, F.

    1996-09-01

    The use of numerical simulation for improving the bulk growth process is illustrated by means of two sets of investigations. On the one hand, the time dependent heat transfer during CZ silicon growth has been numerically simulated and compared to experiments for an industrial furnace. An excellent agreement between simulation and experiment is observed for both heater power and crucible temperature. On the other hand, 4″, 6″ and 8″ CZ crystals were grown with different heat shields. It has been found that the critical pull rate Vcrit, under which the oxidation induced stacking fault (OSF) ring vanishes in the wafer center, varies with the crystal diameter and the type of heat shield. A calculation of the axial temperature gradient at the solid/liquid interface for each combination reveals that the critical pull rate is proportional to this axial temperature gradient, which, in turn, is a function of the crystal diameter and heat shield. A precise law governing OSF ring formation has been established. In addition, improved processing conditions can be determined by an extensive use of simulation results.

  10. First Measurement of Beam-Recoil Observables Cx and Cz

    SciTech Connect

    R. Bradford; R.A. Schumacher; G. Adams; M.J. Amaryan; P. Ambrozewicz; E. Anciant; M. Anghinolfi; B. Asavapibhop; G. Asryan; G. Audit; H. Avakian; H. Bagdasaryan; N. Baillie; J.P. Ball; N.A. Baltzell; S. Barrow; V. Batourine; M. Battaglieri; K. Beard; I. Bedlinskiy; M. Bektasoglu; M. Bellis; N. Benmouna; B.L. Berman; N. Bianchi; A.S. Biselli; B.E. Bonner; S. Bouchigny; S. Boiarinov; D. Branford; W.J. Briscoe; W.K. Brooks; S. B¨ultmann; V.D. Burkert; C. Butuceanu; J.R. Calarco; S.L. Careccia; D.S. Carman; B. Carnahan; S. Chen; P.L. Cole; A. Coleman; P. Collins; P. Coltharp; D. Cords; † P. Corvisiero; D. Crabb; H. Crannell; V. Crede; J.P. Cummings; R. De Masi; E. De Sanctis; R. De Vita; P.V. Degtyarenko; H. Denizli; L. Dennis; A. Deur; K.V. Dharmawardane; R. Dickson; C. Djalali; G.E. Dodge; J. Donnelly; D. Doughty; P. Dragovitsch; M. Dugger; S. Dytman; O.P. Dzyubak; H. Egiyan; K.S. Egiyan; L. El Fassi; L. Elouadrhiri; A. Empl; P. Eugenio; R. Fatemi; G. Fedotov; G. Feldman; R.J. Feuerbach; T.A. Forest; H. Funsten; M. Garcon; G. Gavalian; G.P. Gilfoyle; K.L. Giovanetti; F.X. Girod; J.T. Goetz; A. Gonenc; R.W. Gothe; K.A. Griffioen; M. Guidal; M. Guillo; N. Guler; L. Guo; V. Gyurjyan; C. Hadjidakis; K. Hafidi; H. Hakobyan; R.S. Hakobyan; J. Hardie; D. Heddle; F.W. Hersman; K. Hicks; I. Hleiqawi; M. Holtrop; J. Hu; M. Huertas; C.E. Hyde-Wright; Y. Ilieva; D.G. Ireland; B.S. Ishkhanov; E.L. Isupov; M.M. Ito; D. Jenkins; H.S. Jo; K. Joo; H.G. Juengst; N. Kalantarians; J.D. Kellie; M. Khandaker; K.Y. Kim; K. Kim; W. Kim; A. Klein; F.J. Klein; M. Klusman; M. Kossov; L.H. Kramer; V. Kubarovsky; J. Kuhn; S.E. Kuhn; S.V. Kuleshov; J. Lachniet; J.M. Laget; J. Langheinrich; D. Lawrence; A.C.S. Lima; K. Livingston; H.Y. Lu; K. Lukashin; M. MacCormick; J.J. Manak; C. Marchand; N. Markov; S. McAleer; B. McKinnon; J.W.C. McNabb; B.A. Mecking; M.D. Mestayer; C.A. Meyer; T. Mibe; K. Mikhailov; M. Mirazita; R. Miskimen; V. Mokeev; K. Moriya; S.A. Morrow; M. Moteabbed; V. Muccifora; J. Mueller; G.S. Mutchler; P. Nadel-Turonski; J. Napolitano; R. Nasseripour; N. Natasha; S. Niccolai; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; B.B. Niczyporuk; M.R. Niroula; R.A. Niyazov; M. Nozar; G.V. O’Rielly; M. Osipenko; A.I. Ostrovidov; K. Park; E. Pasyuk; C. Paterson; S.A. Philips; J. Pierce; N. Pivnyuk; D. Pocanic; O. Pogorelko; E. Polli; I. Popa; S. Pozdniakov; B.M. Preedom; J.W. Price; Y. Prok; D. Protopopescu; L.M. Qin; B.P. Quinn; B.A. Raue; G. Riccardi; G. Ricco; M. Ripani; B.G. Ritchie; F. Ronchetti; G. Rosner; P. Rossi; D. Rowntree; P.D. Rubin; F. Sabatie; J. Salamanca; C. Salgado; J.P. Santoro; V. Sapunenko; V.S. Serov; A. Shafi; Y.G. Sharabian; J. Shaw; N.V. Shvedunov; S. Simionatto; A.V. Skabelin; E.S. Smith; L.C. Smith; D.I. Sober; D. Sokhan; M. Spraker; A. Stavinsky; S.S. Stepanyan; S. Stepanyan; B.E. Stokes; P. Stoler; I.I. Strakovsky; S. Strauch; M. Taiuti; S. Taylor; D.J. Tedeschi; U. Thoma; R. Thompson; A. Tkabladze; S. Tkachenko; L. Todor; C. Tur; M. Ungaro; M.F. Vineyard; A.V. Vlassov; K. Wang; D.P. Watts; L.B. Weinstein; H. Weller; D.P. Weygand; M. Williams; E. Wolin; M.H. Wood; A. Yegneswaran; J. Yun; L. Zana; J. Zhang; B. Zhao; and Z.W. Zhao

    2007-03-01

    Spin transfer from circularly polarized real photons to recoiling hyperons has been measured for the reactions $\\vec\\gamma + p \\to K^+ + \\vec\\Lambda$ and $\\vec\\gamma + p \\to K^+ + \\vec\\Sigma^0$. The data were obtained using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass energies $W$ between 1.6 and 2.53 GeV, and for $-0.85<\\cos\\theta_{K^+}^{c.m.}< +0.95$. For the $\\Lambda$, the polarization transfer coefficient along the photon momentum axis, $C_z$, was found to be near unity for a wide range of energy and kaon production angles. The associated transverse polarization coefficient, $C_x$, is smaller than $C_z$ by a roughly constant difference of unity. Most significantly, the {\\it total} $\\Lambda$ polarization vector, including the induced polarization $P$, has magnitude consistent with unity at all measured energies and production angles when the beam is fully polarized. For the $\\Sigma^0$ this simple phenomenology does not hold. All existing hadrodynamic models are in poor agreement with these results.

  11. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    High risk, high payoff research areas associated with the Westinghouse process for producing photovoltaic modules using non- CZ sheet material were investigated. All work was performed using dendritic web silicon. The following tasks are discussed and associated technical results are given: (1) determining the technical feasibility of forming front and back junctions in non-CT silicon using dopant techniques; (2) determining the feasibility of forming a liquid applied diffusion mask to replace the more costly chemical vapor deposited SiO2 diffusion mask; (3) determining the feasibility of applying liquid anti-reflective solutions using meniscus coating equipment; (4) studying the production of uniform, high efficiency solar cells using ion implanation junction formation techniques; and (5) quantifying cost improvements associated with process improvements.

  12. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    High risk, high payoff research areas associated with the Westinghouse process for producing photovoltaic modules using non- CZ sheet material were investigated. All work was performed using dendritic web silicon. The following tasks are discussed and associated technical results are given: (1) determining the technical feasibility of forming front and back junctions in non-CT silicon using dopant techniques; (2) determining the feasibility of forming a liquid applied diffusion mask to replace the more costly chemical vapor deposited SiO2 diffusion mask; (3) determining the feasibility of applying liquid anti-reflective solutions using meniscus coating equipment; (4) studying the production of uniform, high efficiency solar cells using ion implanation junction formation techniques; and (5) quantifying cost improvements associated with process improvements.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CZ Lac multiperiodic Blazhko modulation (Sodor+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodor, A.; Jurcsik, J.; Szeidl, B.; Varadi, M.; Henden, A.; Vida, K.; Hurta, Zs.; Posztobanyi, K.; Dekany, I.; Szing, A.

    2011-09-01

    CZ Lac was observed with a photometer attached to the 60-cm telescope of the Konkoly Observatory, Svabhegy, Budapest, through B and V filters on seven nights in 1967 (table A1), and 2 seasons between 2004 and 2005. We observed CZ Lac with the same, refurbished and automated 60-cm telescope equipped with a Wright Instruments 750x1100 CCD camera (field of view 17x24arcmin) in 2004 and 2005. About 29 000 frames were obtained in BV(RI)C bands. The data of the two seasons spanned 146 and 84d. (8 data files).

  14. Cz-Silicon Produced from Solar-Grade and Recycled Materials. Part II: Investigating Performances of Solar Cell Produced from Solar-Grade Cz-Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Song; Øvrelid, Eivind Johannes; Di Sabtino, Marisa; Juel, Mari; Tranell, Gabriella

    2015-03-01

    This paper is the second of two, investigating the properties of P-type Cz-silicon materials and solar cells produced with recycled silicon and Elkem Solar Silicon (ESS) materials. While the focus on the first work was on the bulk properties and grown defects of the material, the current study focuses on the solar cell performances. In the processing of the solar cells, the phosphorous diffusion process was optimized to improve the bulk properties and thus to maximize the final solar cell characteristics. Results from the characterization of material defects suggest that the performances of the experimental ingots are limited by the activated grown-in defects, which should be strictly controlled during crystal growth and solar cell processing. The solar cells produced from the investigated ingots showed efficiency values up to 18.5 pct and fill factor values up to 79 pct, comparable to conventional silicon produced from poly silicon. Solar cells produced from mixed recycled and ESS material exhibit a better performance than 100 pct recycled material. Boron and oxygen concentration levels and net doping level showed a concurrent effect on light-induced degradation (LID). Appropriate compensation was finally demonstrated to be an efficient way to improve solar cells efficiency of Cz-silicon produced from recycled silicon, even though higher dopant concentration incurred relatively faster LID.

  15. Immobilization of heavy metals by Pseudomonas putida CZ1/goethite composites from solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, XinCai; Chen, LiTao; Shi, JiYan; Wu, WeiXiang; Chen, YingXu

    2008-02-15

    Bacterial-mineral composites are important in the retention of heavy metals due to their large sorption capacity under a wide range of environmental conditions. This study provides the first quantitative comparison of the metal-binding capacities of P. putida CZ1-goethite composite to its individual components. When the same amount (on a dry weight basis) of living and nonliving cells of P. putida CZ1, goethite or their composites was separately exposed to solutions of 0.5 mM Cu(II) and Zn(II) in 0.01 M KNO(3), the living cells removed the largest quantity of heavy metals. The results of calculated metal retention values indicated that the adsorption of goethite to bacteria has not mask or neutralize chemically reactive adsorption sites normally available to metal ions. Moreover, the nonliving cells-goethite composite retained approximately 82% more Zn than that predicted by their individual behavior. The preferential association of Zn with P. putida CZ1 was observed by TEM and EDS analyses of a mixture consisting of the bacteria and goethite. Desorption of Cu and Zn with 1.0M CH(3)COOK solution from P. putida CZ1 and goethite indicated the differences in the functional groups able to bind heavy metals. PMID:17869490

  16. Implementation of Tunneling Passivated Contacts into Industrially Relevant n-Cz Si Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, William; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Page, Matthew R.; Warren, Emily L.; Dameron, Arrelaine; Norman, Andrew G.; Lee, Benjamin G.; Young, David L.; Stradins, Paul

    2015-06-14

    We identify bottlenecks, and propose solutions, to implement a B-diffused front emitter and a backside pc-Si/SiO2 pasivated tunneling contact into high efficiency n-Cz Si cells in an industrially relevant way. We apply an O-precipitate dissolution treatment to make n-Cz wafers immune to bulk lifetime process degradation, enabling robust, passivated B front emitters with J0 <; 20fA/cm2. Adding ultralow recombination n+ pc-Si/SiO2 back contacts enables pre-metallized cells with iVoc=720 mV and J0=8.6 fA/cm2. However, metallization significantly degrades performance of these contacts due to pinholes and possibly, grain boundary diffusion of primary metal and source contaminates such as Cu. An intermediate, doped a-Si:H capping layer is found to significantly block the harmful metal penetration into pc-Si.

  17. Impurity effects on oxygen precipitation induced by MeV implants in Cz silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimini, E.; Raineri, V.; La Ferla, A.; Galvagno, G.; Franco, G.; Carnera, A.; Gasparotto, A.

    1995-12-01

    The heterogeneous precipitation of oxygen in Cz silicon wafers has been investigated for the following implanted ions: Al, C, Si, P, and As, after anneal in the 800-1200 °C temperature range. The amount of precipitated oxygen, as measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry, ranges from 7 × 10 13 (As implant) to 3 × 10 14 cm -2 (Al implant) after an anneal at 1000°C for 20 min. The residual damage, as detected by transmission electron microscopy, does not show a significant dependence on the amount of precipitated oxygen as demonstrated by the analysis of Cz and epitaxial silicon wafers. The results are explained in terms of the interstitial trapping by species like C and Al, that enhances the heterogeneous formation of Si xO y clusters. The subsequent growth of precipitates has been modelled for Al and C implants and for several annealing temperatures and times.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry and spectroscopy of stars in Cz 30 (Hayes+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, C. R.; Friel, E. D.; Slack, T. J.; Boberg, O. M.

    2016-06-01

    Cz 30 was observed using the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO (WIYN) 0.9m telescope with the S2KB imager, a 2048*2048 pixel CCD, with a pixel scale of 0.6"/pixel providing a total field of view of 20.5'*20.5'. Observations were taken on 2012 February 17 in B, V, and I filters with a typical seeing of about 1.5" and the CCD centered near the cluster center. We present our set of photometry in Table3. Cz 30 was also observed with the Hydra multi-object fiber positioner and Bench Spectrograph on the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO (WIYN) 3.5m telescope. The cluster was observed on 2014 January 18 and 19 and February 14 (UT) in the echelle mode, giving a dispersion of 0.16Å/pixel and covering the range of ~6060-6380Å. Table4 gives the results of velocity determinations for stars in Cz 30. Table5 gives lines used along with the measured equivalent widths. We obtained [Fe/H] estimates for 10 stars, whose final atmospheric parameters and abundances are given in Table6. (4 data files).

  19. PV Cz silicon manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 April 1992--31 March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes work performed under a 3-year contract to demonstrate significant cost reductions and improvements in manufacturing technology. The work focused on near-term projects for implementation in the Siemens Solar Industries Czochralski (Cz) manufacturing facility in Camarillo, California. The work was undertaken to increase the commercial viability and volume of photovoltaic manufacturing by evaluating the most significant cost categories and then lowering the cost of each item through experimentation, materials refinement, and better industrial engineering. The initial phase of the program concentrated on the areas of crystal growth; wafer technology; and environmental, safety, and health issues.

  20. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements; Final Subcontract Report, 9 November 1995 - 8 November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    T. L. Jester.

    1999-06-17

    This report describes work that focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Siemens Solar Industries' (SSI) DOE/NREL Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) 4A subcontract. SSI researchers deployed new module designs, realized improvements in yield of more than 25%, and implemented statistical process control (SPC). They have described yield improvements in detail and reported on the deployment of SPC in critical process steps. The sum of all improvements resulted in a greater than 17% cost per watt reduction in manufacturing.

  1. Photovoltaic Cz silicon module improvements. Annual technical progress report, November 9, 1995--November 8, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.R.; Mitchell, K.W.; Jester, T.L.

    1998-02-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase I of Siemens Solar Industries` DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described. Module cost components are analyzed and solutions to high-cost items are discussed in terms of specific module designs. The approaches of using larger cells and modulus to reduce per-part processing cost, and of minimizing yield loss are particularly leveraging. Yield components for various parts of the fabrication process and various types of defects are shown, and measurements of the force required to break wafers throughout the cell fabrication sequence are given. The most significant type of yield loss is mechanical breakage. The implementation of statistical process control on key manufacturing processes at Siemens Solar Industries is described. Module configurations prototyped during Phase I of this project and scheduled to begin production in Phase II have a projected cost per watt reduction of 19%.

  2. 3D unsteady computer modeling of industrial scale Ky and Cz sapphire crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demina, S. E.; Kalaev, V. V.

    2011-04-01

    In the present work, 3D features of melt convection during sapphire growth of 100 mm diameter Cz and of 200 mm diameter Ky crystals are studied. The approach accounting for radiative heat exchange with absorption and a specular reflection in the crystal, which we applied in 2D modeling [1-3], has been extended to 3D computational domains and coupled to 3D heat transfer in the melt, crystal, and crucible. 3D melt unsteady convection together with crystallization front formation are taken into account within the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) approach. Results of 3D modeling are discussed in detail and quantitatively compared to the previously reported data of 2D modeling and experiments [2,3]. It has been found that the features of unsteady melt convection during the "before seeding", "seeding", and "shouldering" growth stages are quite different from each other, which necessitates a flexible control of the radial and vertical temperature gradients in the crucible to provide optimal conditions for stable growth of high quality sapphire crystals.

  3. PV Cz silicon manufacturing technology improvements. Semiannual subcontract report, 1 April 1993--30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes work performed under a 3-year contract to demonstrate signfficant cost reductions and improvements in manufacturing technology. The work focused an near-term projects for implementation in the Siemens Solar Industries (SSI) Czochralski (CZ) manufacturing facility in Camarillo, California, and was undertaken to increase the commercial viability and volume of photovoltaic manufacturing by evaluating the most significant cost categories and then lowering the cost of each Rem through experimentation, materials refinement, and better industrial engineering. During this reporting period, several significant improvements were achieved. (1) The crystal-growing operation improved with an increase in growth capacity. Higher growing throughput was demonstrated with larger crucibles, higher polysilicon packing density, and higher pull speeds. (2) The operation was completely converted to wire-saw wafer processing. The wire saws yield over 40% more wafers per inch in production. The capacity improvement generated by wire saws increased overall manufacturing volume by more than 40% without additional expenses in cyrstal growth. (3) Cell processing improvements focused on better understanding of the contact paste and firing processes. (4) Module designs for lower material and labor costs began with the focus on a new junction box, larger modules with larger cells, and less costly framing technique. CFC usage was completely eliminated in the SSI manufacturing facility during this phase of the contract.

  4. The expanding photosphere method applied to SN 1992am AT cz = 14 600 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Brian P.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Eastman, Ronald G.; Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, Jose; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ho, Luis C.; Matheson, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of Supernova (SN) 1992am for five months following its discovery by the Calan Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) SN search. These data show SN 1992am to be type II-P, displaying hydrogen in its spectrum and the typical shoulder in its light curve. The photometric data and the distance from our own analysis are used to construct the supernova's bolometric light curve. Using the bolometric light curve, we estimate SN 1992am ejected approximately 0.30 solar mass of Ni-56, an amount four times larger than that of other well studied SNe II. SN 1992am's; host galaxy lies at a redshift of cz = 14 600 km s(exp -1), making it one of the most distant SNe II discovered, and an important application of the Expanding Photsphere Method. Since z = 0.05 is large enough for redshift-dependent effects to matter, we develop the technique to derive luminosity distances with the Expanding Photosphere Method at any redshift, and apply this method to SN 1992am. The derived distance, D = 180(sub -25) (sup +30) Mpc, is independent of all other rungs in the extragalactic distance ladder. The redshift of SN 1992am's host galaxy is sufficiently large that uncertainties due to perturbations in the smooth Hubble flow should be smaller than 10%. The Hubble ratio derived from the distance and redshift of this single object is H(sub 0) = 81(sub -15) (sup +17) km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1). In the future, with more of these distant objects, we hope to establish an independent and statistically robust estimate of H(sub 0) based solely on type II supernovae.

  5. Isolation and identification of methanethiol-utilizing bacterium CZ05 and its application in bio-trickling filter of biogas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao-zheng; Zhang, Wei-jiang; Xu, Jiao

    2013-12-01

    A bacterium capable of methanethiol (MT) degradation was enriched and isolated by employing activated sewage sludge as the inoculum in a mineral medium containing MT. The isolate was identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa CZ05 through a Biolog test and 16S rDNA sequencing. This strain can utilize both organic and inorganic media and thrives at pH 4 to 9. The batch culture showed that the strain can degrade MT better in the No. 4 medium than in the No. 1 medium. A series-operating biotrickling filter with lava stone as the carrier was employed to test the application of P. polymyxa CZ05 in the removal of MT in simulated biogas. Long-term experiments showed that a high concentration of MT (60 ppm) was efficiently removed (99.5%) by the biotrickling filters at EBRT 30 s. The addition of hydrogen sulfide decreased the MT removal rate because the dissolved oxygen competed with MT. PMID:24185035

  6. Assessment of the future climate change in the Czech Republic based on ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ and AR4 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvova, J.; Holtanova, E.; Crhova, L.; Miksovsky, J.; Pisoft, P.; Motl, M.

    2010-09-01

    The regional climate model ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ (25 km resolution) is going to be used for the new climate change scenarios for the Czech Republic. However, for effective use of such scenario for impact studies, it is necessary to provide an estimate of related uncertainty. The driving global model is an important source of uncertainty in RCM simulations. We present a comparison of changes in basic climate characteristics simulated by ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ and a set of eight AR4 models for the periods of 2010-39, 2040-69, 2070-99. The global climate models were chosen based on its ability to simulate observed climate characteristics in the reference period (1961-1990).

  7. High-efficiency one-sun photovoltaic module demonstration using solar-grade CZ silicon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    This work was performed jointly by Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM) and Siemens Solar Industries (Camarillo, CA) under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA 1248). The work covers the period May 1994 to March 1996. The purpose of the work was to explore the performance potential of commercial, photovoltaic-grade Czochralski (Cz) silicon, and to demonstrate this potential through fabrication of high-efficiency cells and a module. Fabrication of the module was omitted in order to pursue further development of advanced device structures. The work included investigation of response of the material to various fabrication processes, development of advanced cell structures using the commercial material, and investigation of the stability of Cz silicon solar cells. Some important achievements of this work include the following: post-diffusion oxidations were found to be a possible source of material contamination; bulk lifetimes around 75 pts were achieved; efficiencies of 17.6% and 15.7% were achieved for large-area cells using advanced cell structures (back-surface fields and emitter wrap-through); and preliminary investigations into photodegradation in Cz silicon solar cells found that oxygen thermal donors might be involved. Efficiencies around 20% should be possible with commercial, photovoltaic-grade silicon using properly optimized processes and device structures.

  8. The community-driven BiG CZ software system for integration and analysis of bio- and geoscience data in the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Mayorga, E.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Lehnert, K. A.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D. W., Jr.; Richard, S. M.; Cheetham, R.; Meyer, F.; Henry, C.; Berg-Cross, G.; Packman, A. I.; Aronson, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present the prototypes of a new scientific software system designed around the new Observations Data Model version 2.0 (ODM2, https://github.com/UCHIC/ODM2) to substantially enhance integration of biological and Geological (BiG) data for Critical Zone (CZ) science. The CZ science community takes as its charge the effort to integrate theory, models and data from the multitude of disciplines collectively studying processes on the Earth's surface. The central scientific challenge of the CZ science community is to develop a "grand unifying theory" of the critical zone through a theory-model-data fusion approach, for which the key missing need is a cyberinfrastructure for seamless 4D visual exploration of the integrated knowledge (data, model outputs and interpolations) from all the bio and geoscience disciplines relevant to critical zone structure and function, similar to today's ability to easily explore historical satellite imagery and photographs of the earth's surface using Google Earth. This project takes the first "BiG" steps toward answering that need. The overall goal of this project is to co-develop with the CZ science and broader community, including natural resource managers and stakeholders, a web-based integration and visualization environment for joint analysis of cross-scale bio and geoscience processes in the critical zone (BiG CZ), spanning experimental and observational designs. We will: (1) Engage the CZ and broader community to co-develop and deploy the BiG CZ software stack; (2) Develop the BiG CZ Portal web application for intuitive, high-performance map-based discovery, visualization, access and publication of data by scientists, resource managers, educators and the general public; (3) Develop the BiG CZ Toolbox to enable cyber-savvy CZ scientists to access BiG CZ Application Programming Interfaces (APIs); and (4) Develop the BiG CZ Central software stack to bridge data systems developed for multiple critical zone domains into a single

  9. Investigations into B-O defect formation-dissociation in CZ-silicon and their effect on solar cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basnyat, Prakash M.

    About 30% of the total market share of industrial manufacture of silicon solar cells is taken by single crystalline Czochralski (CZ) grown wafers. The efficiency of solar cells fabricated on boron-doped Czochralski silicon degrades due to the formation of metastable defects when excess electrons are created by illumination or minority carrier injection during forward bias. The recombination path can be removed by annealing the cell at about 200° C but recombination returns on exposure to light. Several mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline solar cells have been characterized by methods such as laser beam induced current (LBIC), Four-Probe electrical resistivity etc. to better understand the light induced degradation (LID) effect in silicon solar cells. All the measurements are performed as a function of light soaking time. Annealed states are produced by exposing the cells/wafer to temperature above 200° C for 30 minutes and light soaked state was produced by exposure to 1000 W/m2 light using AM1.5 solar simulator for 72 hours. Dark I-V data are analyzed by a software developed at NREL. This study shows that LID, typically, has two components- a bulk component that arises from boron-oxygen defects and a surface component that appears to be due to the SiNx:H-Si interface. With the analysis of dark saturation current (J02), it is seen that the surface LID increases with an increase in the q/2kT component. Results show that cell performance due to bulk effect is fully recovered upon annealing where as surface LID does not recover fully. This statement is also verified by the study of mc- silicon solar cells. Multi-crystalline silicon solar cell has very low oxygen content and, therefore, recombination sites will not be able to form. This shows that there is no bulk degradation in mc- Si solar cells but they exhibit surface degradation. The results suggest that a typical Cz-silicon solar cell with an initial efficiency of ˜18% could suffer a reduction in efficiency

  10. Temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements on Cz-grown silicon pulled from compensated and recycled feedstock materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Song; Modanese, Chiara; Di Sabatino, Marisa; Tranell, Gabriella

    2015-11-01

    In this work, temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements in the temperature range 88-350 K were carried out to investigate the electrical properties of three solar grade p-type Czochralski (Cz) silicon ingots, pulled from recycled p-type multi-crystalline silicon top cuts and compensated solar grade (SoG) feedstock. Material bulk properties including Hall mobility, carrier density and resistivity as functions of temperature were studied to evaluate the influence of compensation and impurities. Recycled top cut replacing poly-silicon as feedstock leads to a more uniform resistivity. In addition, higher concentrations of O and C, give rise to oxygen related defects, which act as neutral scattering centers displaying only a slight influence on the electrical properties at low temperature compared to the dominant compensation effect. The electrical performances of all samples are shown to be strongly dependent on compensation level, especially at the lowest temperature (~88 K). A significant presence of incompletely ionized phosphorus was deduced through the measured carrier density. The temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements fit Klaassen's mobility model very well at low temperatures (<150 K), showing consistency with the explanation of a reduced screening effect on ionized dopants for lightly doped silicon, while the deviation at the high temperature probably may be accounted for by the presence of as-grown defects, such as oxygen related defects and phosphorus clusters, which are usually neglected in most mobility models.

  11. The route to MBxNyCz molecular wheels: II. Results using accurate functionals and basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güthler, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pandey, R.; Boustani, I.

    2014-04-01

    Applying ab initio quantum chemical methods, molecular wheels composed of metal and light atoms were investigated. High quality basis sets 6-31G*, TZPV, and cc-pVTZ as well as exchange and non-local correlation functionals B3LYP, BP86 and B3P86 were used. The ground-state energy and structures of cyclic planar and pyramidal clusters TiBn (for n = 3-10) were computed. In addition, the relative stability and electronic structures of molecular wheels TiBxNyCz (for x, y, z = 0-10) and MBnC10-n (for n = 2 to 5 and M = Sc to Zn) were determined. This paper sustains a follow-up study to the previous one of Boustani and Pandey [Solid State Sci. 14 (2012) 1591], in which the calculations were carried out at the HF-SCF/STO3G/6-31G level of theory to determine the initial stability and properties. The results show that there is a competition between the 2D planar and the 3D pyramidal TiBn clusters (for n = 3-8). Different isomers of TiB10 clusters were also studied and a structural transition of 3D-isomer into 2D-wheel is presented. Substitution boron in TiB10 by carbon or/and nitrogen atoms enhances the stability and leads toward the most stable wheel TiB3C7. Furthermore, the computations show that Sc, Ti and V at the center of the molecular wheels are energetically favored over other transition metal atoms of the first row.

  12. Superdiffusion of Carbon by Vacancies Irradiated with Soft X-Rays in CZ Silicon / Superdifūzija Ar Vakancēm Iestarota Ar Mīkstajiem Rentgenstariem CZ Silīcijā

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janavičius, A. J.; Mekys, A.; Purlys, R.; Norgėla, Ž.; Daugėla, S.; Rinkūnas, R.

    2015-10-01

    The soft X-ray photons absorbed in the inner K, L, M shells of Si atoms produce photoelectrons and Auger electrons, thus generating vacancies, interstitials and metastable oxygen complexes. The samples of Czochralski silicon crystals covered with 0.1 μm thickness layer of carbon have been irradiated by X-rays using different voltages of Cu anode of the Russian diffractometer DRON-3M. The influence of X-rays on the formation of point defects and vacancy complexes, and their dynamics in Cz-Si crystals have been studied by infrared absorption. We have measured and calculated dynamics of concentration of carbon and interstitial oxygen using FTIR spectroscopy at room temperature after irradiation by soft X-rays. Using transmittance measurements and nonlinear diffusion theory we have calculated densities increasing for substitutional carbon and interstitial oxygen by reactions and very fast diffusion. The superdiffusion coefficients of carbon in silicon at room temperature generated by X-rays are about hundred thousand times greater than diffusion coefficients obtained for thermodiffusion. Rezumējums: Rentgena staru fotoni, absorbēti Si atoma iekšējos slāņos, izstaro fotoelektronus un Ožē elektronus, ģenerējot vakances, starpmezglu silīcija atomus, vakanču un skābekļa kompleksus. Čohraļska silīcija kristāli, kas pārklāti ar oglekli 0.1 μm biezuma kārtā, tika apstaroti ar rentgena stariem, izmantojot krievu difraktometru DRON-3M. Oglekļa un skābekļa difūzija un koncentrāciju izmaiņa silīcijā tika izmērīta izmantojot infrasarkano staru FTIR spektroskopiju. Rentgena staru ģenerētās ļoti ātrās oglekļa difūzijas vai superdifūzijas koeficients istabas temperatūrā silīcijā ir simtiem tūkstošu reižu lielāks nekā termodifūzijas gadījumā.

  13. Highly Efficient Sky-Blue Fluorescent Organic Light Emitting Diode Based on Mixed Cohost System for Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitter (2CzPN).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin Won; Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Moon, Chang-Ki; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-04-20

    The mixed cohosts of 1,3-bis(N-carbazolyl)benzene and 2,8-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)dibenzothiophene have been developed for a highly efficient blue fluorescent oragnic light emitting diode (OLED) doped with a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter [4,5-di (9H-carbazol-9-yl) phthalonitrile (2CzPN)]. We have demonstrated one of the highest external quantum efficiency of 21.8% in blue fluorescent OLEDs, which is identical to the theoretically achievable maximum electroluminescence efficiency using the emitter. Interestingly, the efficiency roll-off is large even under the excellent charge balance in the device and almost the same as the single host based devices, indicating that the efficiency roll-off in 2CzPN based TADF host is related to the material characteristics, such as low reverse intesystem crossing rate rather than charge imbalance. PMID:27019330

  14. Integration of bio- and geoscience data with the ODM2 standards and software ecosystem for the CZOData and BiG CZ Data projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Mayorga, E.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Lehnert, K. A.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a family of solutions to the challenges of integrating diverse data from of biological and geological (BiG) disciplines for Critical Zone (CZ) science. These standards and software solutions have been developed around the new Observations Data Model version 2.0 (ODM2, http://ODM2.org), which was designed as a profile of the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Observations and Measurements (O&M) standard. The ODM2 standards and software ecosystem has at it's core an information model that balances specificity with flexibility to powerfully and equally serve the needs of multiple dataset types, from multivariate sensor-generated time series to geochemical measurements of specimen hierarchies to multi-dimensional spectral data to biodiversity observations. ODM2 has been adopted as the information model guiding the next generation of cyberinfrastructure development for the Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (http://www.iedadata.org/) and the CUAHSI Water Data Center (https://www.cuahsi.org/wdc). Here we present several components of the ODM2 standards and software ecosystem that were developed specifically to help CZ scientists and their data managers to share and manage data through the national Critical Zone Observatory data integration project (CZOData, http://criticalzone.org/national/data/) and the bio integration with geo for critical zone science data project (BiG CZ Data, http://bigcz.org/). These include the ODM2 Controlled Vocabulary system (http://vocabulary.odm2.org), the YAML Observation Data Archive & exchange (YODA) File Format (https://github.com/ODM2/YODA-File) and the BiG CZ Toolbox, which will combine easy-to-install ODM2 databases (https://github.com/ODM2/ODM2) with a variety of graphical software packages for data management such as ODMTools (https://github.com/ODM2/ODMToolsPython) and the ODM2 Streaming Data Loader (https://github.com/ODM2/ODM2StreamingDataLoader).

  15. Measurement of the Double Polarization Observables Cx and Cz for Λn Final-state Interactions in γd -->K+ Λn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Tongtong

    2015-04-01

    Building a comprehensive picture of the strong interaction is the goal of modern nuclear physics. While considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction, we are still far from a complete understanding of the hyperon-nucleon (YN) interaction, which plays a key role in hypernuclear matter and neutron stars. For the YN potential, some parameters can be obtained from the NN potential by using SU(3) symmetry. However, other parameters cannot be obtained from the NN potential due to broken SU(3) and must be obtained from fits to experimental data. One can access the dynamics of the YN interaction by studying nuclear reactions in which hyperons are produced. In this talk we present preliminary results for the polarization transfers Cx and Cz from the photon to the hyperon for final-state interactions in γd -->K+ Λn and discuss their dependence on kinematic variables. We use data taken with the CLAS detector at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Our results are the first ever obtained for Cx and Cz and will provide stringent constraints on the theoretical models of the YN potential. This work is funded in part by the U.S. NSF under Grant PHY-125782.

  16. The types and function of closed depressions in modern loess landscape of Nałęczów Plateau (Lublin Upland, E Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ska-Gawrysiak, Renata Kołodyń; Chabudziński, Łukasz

    2014-06-01

    The Nałęczów Plateau is characterised by the presence of a peculiar complex of loess relief forms, among which closed depressions are the most characteristic features (Maruszczak 1958). 1,761 closed depressions were documented within the Nałęczów Plateau (Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak, Chabudziński 2012). They are small landforms with peculiar distribution and morphometric characteristics such as the dimensions of their longer axis and their size. The longer axis of more than half of the depressions (51.39%) is within the narrow range from 25 to 50 m. The size of 70% of all forms does not exceed 1,500 m2. These forms are also typified by a characteristic distribution in relation to the elements of loess relief. Their greatest concentration is on the plateau tops where 72% of all forms were documented. Closed depressions also occur in denudation troughs (16% of the forms), bottoms of erosion-denudation valleys (5%) and slopes (7%). Areas of concentration with 30-40 forms per km2 can be clearly distinguished in the spatial arrangement. Eleven areas of concentration, referred to as closed depression microregions, were identified in the study area (Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak, Chabudziński 2012). So far, the origins of closed depressions in the loess areas in Poland have been linked with the development of piping processes within initial depressions associated with the dynamics of the loess cover sedimentation (Maruszczak 1954). The most recent research indicates that the development of closed depressions may have been determined by cryogenic processes (Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak et al. in print). In Poland, closed depressions were studied in the loess areas of the Lublin Upland (Maruszczak 1954; Konecka-Betley, Maruszczak 1993; Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak, Chabudziński 2012; Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak et al. 2012), Sandomierz Upland (Czarnecki, Lewartowska-Urbańska 1987; Czarnecki, Solnceva 1992) and Carpathian Foothills (Wojtanowicz 1997). Closed depressions were also studied in

  17. Effect of the bias correction on computed extremes based on simulations of ALADIN-Climate/CZ for the area of the Czech and Slovak Republics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, Petr; Farda, Ales; Skalak, Petr; Zahradnicek, Pavel

    2010-05-01

    Outputs of regional climate models are biased to some extend, resulting either from errors in driving data or from given regional climate model (RCM) itself (smoothed orography, physical parametrization etc.). Such biased outputs can lead then to biased results for computed extreme indices. The influence of the bias correction on RCM data in the scenario experiment was studied. The investigation was focused on the selected extreme indices calculated either from corrected or original uncorrected RCM data. The data for analysis of extremes were taken from two IPCC SRES A1B scenario experiments that were carried out by the regional climate model ALADIN-Climate/CZ driven by global circulation model (GCM) ARPEGE- Climat for the near (2021-2050) and far (2071-2100) future These experiments as well as the definition of the extreme indices definition were prepared in frame of the EC FP6 project CECILIA (2006-2009). The model data were corrected according to validation results carried out for the period 1961-1990. For this task a new gridded dataset of station observation was created. All input station observations were quality controlled and homogenized in daily scale and then recalculated to the ALADIN-Climate/CZ grid of 10 km horizontal resolution. Gridded dataset of station observations was then compared with the RCM simulation (driven by GCM) of the past climate (1961-1990) in each model grid point. According to relationship between the gridded station dataset and RCM past climate simulation, outputs of A1B scenario integrations of the future climate were corrected applying an approach of Déqué (2007) that is based on a variable correction using individual percentiles. After the correction, the model outputs are fully compatible with the station (measured) data. The gridding and all data processing including the presented analysis were done by ProClimDB database software (free download from http://www.climahom.eu/) for processing of climatological datasets (

  18. Low Surface Recombination Velocity on P-Type Cz-Si Surface by Sol-Gel Deposition of Al2O3 Films for Solar Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Nagarajan; Park, Cheolmin; Raja, Jayapal; Ju, Minkyu; Venkatesan, Muthukumarasamy Rangaraju; Lee, Haeseok; Yi, Junsin

    2015-07-01

    High quality surface passivation has gained a significant importance in photovoltaic industry for fabricating low cost and high efficiency solar cells using thinner and lower cost wafers. The passivation property of spin coated Al2O3 films with a thickness of about 50 nm on p-type Cz-Si wafers has been investigated as a function of annealing temperatures. An effective surface recombination velocity of 55 cm/s was obtained for the films annealed at 500 °C. The chemical and field effect passivation was analyzed by C-V measurements. A high density of negative fixed charges (Qf) in the order of 9 x 10(11) cm(-2) was detected in Al2O3 films and its impact on the level of surface passivation was demonstrated experimentally. The C-V curves show density of the interface state (Dit) of 1 x 10(12) eV(-1)cm(-2) at annealing temperature of 500 °C. During annealing, a thin interfacial SiOx is formed, and this interfacial layer is supposed to play a vital role in the origin of negative QF and Dit. The homogeneous SiOx interlayer result in higher passivation performance due to both the increase of negative Qf and the decrease of Dit. PMID:26373089

  19. Investigations of interstitial generations near growth interface depending on crystal pulling rates during CZ silicon growth by detaching from the melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Takahashi, T.; Shirai, K.; Zhang, X. W.

    2016-01-01

    In conventional CZ crystal growth, since formation of a cone tail takes a long time, from such a crystal to have been subject the long heat treatment it is not possible to observe actual distribution of vacancies (Vs) and interstitial atoms (Is) in a straight body of a crystal during growth. This experiment attempted to observe point defect distribution frozen by rapidly cooling a crystal that had been detached from a melt during growth to eliminate the effect of the time delay. Comparison between the experimental results of these specimens and the defect distributions of a conventionally pulled crystals revealed that Vs are introduced at a growth interface and the concentration of the Vs does not depend on the pulling rate. In addition, when the pulling rate is low, Is are generated by thermal stress which increases with increasing thermal gradient G because the amount of heat transfer by mass transfer is decreased and the crystal surface near the growth interface is cooled for longer period. As a result, the generation of Is due to the increase of the thermal stress is observed in an area referred to as an interstitial generation area (IGA) located above the vacancy region on the growth interface, where the crystal temperature is 1300 °C or more. This paper describes the recombination (Rc) mechanism by which these Is created in the IGA are recombined with Vs transformed through the growth interface, thereby creating an observable Rc area at a location where no defect can be detected.

  20. The tourism resources and possibilities using of its for development of the town and commune of Nałęczów and the commune of Wojciechów

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świeca, Andrzej; Brzezińska-Wójcik, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Structural part of the resources of the tourism potential of the town and commune of Nałęczów and the commune of Wojciechów was studied in this paper. In the study, the attractiveness of tourism resources of the communes was assessed based on 48 features grouped into four divisions: sightseeing assets, recreational and special assets, tourist infrastructure and environmental protection. A field survey (listing, query) and a quantitative evaluation of tourist resources, carried out by means of a multidimensional comparative analysis, indicated an appreciable difference in features between the commune of Nałęczów and commune of Wojciechów. The tourist attractiveness index determined for the commune of Nałęczów was 0.695, almost twice as high as the index for the commune of Wojciechów (0.349). In the light of carrying out of investigations, the tourist attractiveness of the commune of Nałęczów results primarily from its environmental (mineral springs, unique flora) and cultural assets (historic monuments) as well as recreational assets (bioclimate, forest complexes, ravines; more than half of the commune's territory is within the Kazimierz Landscape Park) and special assets (angling). The tourism potential of the commune of Wojciechów is primarily determined by its recreational assets (diverse land relief) and special assets (hunting). The commune of Nałęczów is superior with regard to tourist infrastructure and environmental protection. Owing to the diversity of tourist assets, different degrees of tourist infrastructure development and varying quality of the natural environment, various forms of tourism exist in the two communes, i.e. educational tourism (environmental, geotourism, ecotourism, cultural and festival tourism), recreational tourism (agritourism), adventure tourism (walking, cycling, skiing and cross-country skiing) as well as health tourism (health, spa and wellness tourism).

  1. Rehabilitation of CHP in northern Moravia (CZ)

    SciTech Connect

    Mazae, V.; Nimec, V.; Karvina, T.; Novaeek, A.

    1997-12-31

    The most effective usage of fuel energy is the combined generation of electricity and heat. Energoprojekt participates in the preparation of many such projects in Czech Republic. The Rehabilitation of Teplarny Karvina, (TEK) is a working title for first stage of fundamental renewal and upgrading of CHP TEK which is under construction now. Its conception is based on maximum utilization of existing equipment focused upon the improvement of combined power and heat generation with the aim to decrease impacts on the environment. The district heating systems of towns Havi ov and Karvina will be interconnected which will improve the operation of systems and increase the reliability of heat supply into both systems. Rehabilitation of TEK consists of the installation of a condensing 37 MWe steam turbine with heat recovery including a 214 MWth heat exchanger station, hot water circulating station and other necessary equipment. The second stage of this project will be the new CHP. The new cogeneration plant called Karvina (EZK) has to assure the basic heating capacity for the integrated complex of two towns and three mines. The peak load of district heating is 426 MWth, the heating capacity of TEK is 266 MWth. This rate enables all-year operation, high effective utilization of the new power plant, and economical and ecological utilization of coal. The existing plants with the sufficient capacity will cooperate with the new plant during approximately half of the heating season. The principal equipment of the cogeneration unit EZK consists of two fluidized bed boilers with heating capacity of 309 MWth and a steam condensation turbine with heat recovery with a maximum output of 260 MWe or alternatively 2x125 MWe. The goals of the project are: increasing the generation of power, reducing the operation costs, keeping the new emission standards, improving the efficiency and reliability of the heat supplies and keeping position on the market.

  2. Process research of non-Cz material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1985-06-01

    Efforts were aimed at achieving a simultaneous front and back junction. Lasers and other heat sources were tried. Successful results were gained by two different methods: laser and flash lamp. Polymer dopants were applied to both sides of dendritic web cells. Rapid heating and cooling avoided any cross contamination between two junctions after removal of the dendrites. Both methods required subsequent thermal annealing in an oven to produce maximum efficiency cells.

  3. Structural and photoluminescence studies on europium-doped lithium tetraborate (Eu:Li2B4O7) single crystal grown by microtube Czochralski (μT-Cz) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Kumaresh; R, Arun Kumar; N, Ravikumar; U, Madhusoodanan; B, S. Panigrahi; K, Marimuthu; M, Anuradha

    2016-05-01

    Rare earth europium (Eu3+)-doped lithium tetraborate (Eu:Li2B4O7) crystal is grown from its stoichiometric melt by microtube Czochralski pulling technique (μT-Cz) for the first time. The grown crystals are subjected to powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis which reveals the tetragonal crystal structure of the crystals. UV–vis–NIR spectral analysis is carried out to study the optical characteristics of the grown crystals. The crystal is transparent in the entire visible region, and the lower cutoff is observed to be at 304 nm. The existence of BO3 and BO4 bonding structure and the molecular associations are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results of excitation and emission-photoluminescence spectra of europium ion incorporated in lithium tetraborate (LTB) single crystal reveal that the observations of peaks at 258, 297, and 318 nm in the excitation spectra and peaks at 579, 591, 597, 613, and 651 nm are observed in the emission spectra. The chromaticity coordinates are calculated from the emission spectra, and the emission intensity of the grown crystal is characterized through a CIE 1931 (Commission International d’Eclairage) color chromaticity diagram. Project supported by the Department of Science and Technology–Science and Engineering Research Board (Grant No. SR/S2/LOP-0012/2011), the Government of India for Awarding Major Research Project, the University Grants Commission–Department of Atomic Research–Consortium for Scientific Research (Grant No. CSR–KN/CSR–63/2014–2015/503), and the Kalpakkam and Indore, India.

  4. Progress research of non-Cz silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    The simultaneous diffusion of liquid boron and liquid phosphorus dopants into N-type dendritic silicon web for solar cells was investigated. It is planned that the diffusion parameters required to achieve the desired P(+)NN(+) cell structure be determined and the resultant cell properties be compared to cells produced in a sequential differential process. A cost analysis of the simultaneous junction formation process is proposed.

  5. "Man in Danger" Media Festival in Łódź - the structure and motivations of the festival visitors / Festiwal Medialny w Łodzi - "Człowiek w niebezpieczeństwie" - struktura i motywacje festiwalowych gości

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudny, Waldemar; Stanik, Ewelina

    2013-06-01

    Artykuł przedstawia problemy dotyczące rozwoju festiwali sztuki miejskiej w miastach postsocjalistycznych na przykładzie Łodzi - jednego z największych miast Polski. Autorzy przeprowadzili ankietę podczas Festiwalu Medialnego "Człowiek w niebezpieczeństwie", zorganizowanego w Łodzi, a poświęconego głównie filmom dokumentalnym. Rozważania dotyczą zjawisk z dziedziny geografii kulturowej i miejskiej, analizowanych w badaniach nad wydarzeniami kulturalnymi, a także oceny tych wydarzeń i motywacji uczestnictwa w nich. Uczestnikami są głównie młodzi mieszkańcy Łodzi, z których wielu jest studentami szkoły filmowej. Głównymi czynnikami motywującymi uczestnictwo w "evencie" są potrzeba doznań kulturalnych i nowych doświadczeń, ciekawość oraz chęć rozwijania kontaktów towarzyskich. Na podstawie analizy autorzy przedstawiają wnioski dotyczące roli wydarzeń kulturalnych w rozwoju kultury w mieście i spełnieniu potrzeb mieszkańców. Badanie ukazuje, że festiwal odgrywa znaczącą rolę w zaspokajaniu potrzeb kulturalnych, pogłębianiu zainteresowań oraz tworzeniu kapitału społecznego.

  6. Analysis of Suitability for Development of New Mining Field in Northern Part of Kosovo Lignite Basin - Sibovc / Analiza Możliwości Udostępnienia Nowego Obszaru Wybierania W Północnej Części Zagłębia Węgla Brunatnego Sibovc W Kosowie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cehlár, Michal; Rybár, Radim; Pinka, Ján; Haxhiu, Lorik; Beer, Martin

    2013-06-01

    This review describes the possibility of development a new lignite deposit in northern Kosovo lignite basin - Sibovc. Analysis of the initial state briefly evaluates Kosovo energy sector, geomorphological conditions and quality of lignite from Sibovc deposit. With using Dataminesoft it was created geological model and approximate calculation of lignite reserves in the deposit. The data obtained from Dataminesoft were used as starting points of the financial analysis of project. The result of the analysis is exactly describe the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of deposit Sibovc compared to other deposits in the area and creating of geological model with productive horizons deposit of lignite. Based on these data lignite deposit Sibovc was classified, according to the classification of deposits the UN, as economical. W pracy tej omówiono możliwości udostępnienia nowego obszaru wybierania złoża węgla brunatnego (lignitu) w północnej części zagłębia węgla brunatnego Sibovc w Kosowie. W analizie stanu początkowego krótko scharakteryzowano sektor energetyczny Kosowa, warunki geo-morfologiczne oraz parametry jakościowe węgla brunatnego z zagłębia Sibovc. Przy pomocy pakietu Dataminesoft stworzono model geologiczny i przeprowadzono przybliżone obliczenia zasobów węgla brunatnego w złożu. Dane uzyskane przy zastosowaniu pakietu Dataminesoft zostały następnie wykorzystane jako dane wejściowe do analizy finansowej przedsięwzięcia. Na podstawie wyników analizy uzyskuje się jakościową i ilościową charakterystykę złoża w odniesieniu do pozostałych złóż w regionie. Opracowano model geologiczny ze szczegółowym wskazaniem poziomów wybierania lignitu. W oparciu o te dane dokonano klasyfikacji złoża węgla brunatnego (lignitu) w Sibovc zgodnie z międzynarodowymi zasadami klasyfikacji wykazując, że złoże będzie ekonomiczne.

  7. (CZ)BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of biomarkers in the Teplice Program, provided a key tool to relate health outcomes to individual personal exposures and to provide measures of confounding exposures. This research program on the health effects of air pollution studied a population living in the heavil...

  8. Laser annealing of ion implanted CZ silicon for solar cell junction formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzeff, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The merits of large spot size pulsed laser annealing of phosphorus implanted, Czochralski grown silicon for function formation of solar cells are evaluated. The feasibility and requirements are also determined to scale-up a laser system to anneal 7.62 cm diameter wafers at a rate of one wafer/second. Results show that laser annealing yields active, defect-free, shallow junction devices. Functional cells with AM 1 conversion efficiencies up to 15.4% for 2 x 2 cm and 2 x 4 cm sizes were attained. For larger cells, 7.62 cm dia., conversion efficiencies ranged up to 14.5%. Experiments showed that texture etched surfaces are not compatible with pulsed laser annealing due to the surface melting caused by the laser energy. When compared with furnace annealed cells, the laser annealed cells generally exhibited conversion efficiencies which were equal to or better than those furnace annealed. In addition, laser annealing has greater throughput potential.

  9. Numerical simulation of oxygen transport during the CZ silicon crystal growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jyh-Chen; Teng, Ying-Yang; Wun, Wan-Ting; Lu, Chung-Wei; Chen, Hsueh-I.; Chen, Chi-Yung; Lan, Wen-Chieh

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the effect of the flow motion and heat transfer generated by the crystal and crucible rotation on the oxygen distribution inside the melt during Czochralski silicon crystal growth is investigated. When the crucible rotates in a direction opposite to the crystal rotation, Taylor-Proundman vortices appear in the region below the crystal. The diffusion of oxygen impurity from the crucible wall to the crystal-melt interface is suppressed by these Taylor-Proundman vortices, while heat transport from the crucible wall to the crystal-melt interface is blocked by the Taylor-Proundman vortices. With a higher crucible rotation rate, the size of the Taylor-Proundman vortices increases and the size of the buoyancy-thermocapillary vortices decreases. This causes the temperature at the crucible wall to rise and the evaporation of oxygen impurity on the free surface to decrease. Hence, the amount of oxygen impurity that diffuses into the melt towards the crystal-melt interface increases. The suppression from the Taylor-Proundman vortices is dominant for the smaller crucible rotation rate, while the enhancement from the oxygen impurity diffusion prevails for the higher crucible rotation rate. Therefore, there is an optimum combination of crucible and crystal rotation for obtaining the lowest oxygen concentration.

  10. Excimer laser annealing: A gold process for CZ silicon junction formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, David C.; Bottenberg, William R.; Byron, Stanley; Alexander, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A cold process using an excimer laser for junction formation in silicon has been evaluated as a way to avoid problems associated with thermal diffusion. Conventional thermal diffusion can cause bulk precipitation of SiOx and SiC or fail to completely activate the dopant, leaving a degenerate layer at the surface. Experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of fabricating high quality p-n junctions using a pulsed excimer laser for junction formation at remelt temperature with ion-implanted surfaces. Solar-cell efficiency exceeding 16 percent was obtained using Czochralski single-crystal silicon without benefit of back surface field or surface passivation. Characterization shows that the formation of uniform, shallow junctions (approximately 0.25 micron) by excimer laser scanning preserves the minority carrier lifetime that leads to high current collection. However, the process is sensitive to initial surface conditions and handling parameters that drive the cost up.

  11. Dependence of Precipitation Behavior of Cu and Ni in CZ Multicrystalline Silicon on Cooling Conditions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Istratov, A. A.; Buonassisi, T.; Marcus, M. A.; Ciszek, T. F.; Weber, E. R.

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the size, chemical state, and spatial distribution of metal clusters formed in substantially different cooling conditions of the samples. All samples were scratched on the back with Fe, Cu, and Ni wires and annealed at 1200 C for 2.5 hours in forming gas (N2+5% H2 ambient).

  12. Assessment of Selected Aspects of Teaching Programming in SK and CZ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Záhorec, Jan; Hašková, Alena; Munk, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Authors of this paper carried out a broader international research aimed at assessing the computer science education at upper secondary level of education--ISCED 3A. The assessed school subjects were informatics and programming as the most common school subjects taught at secondary schools within computer sciences. The assessment was based on the…

  13. Cellulose Acetate Replica Cleaning Study of Genesis Non-Flight Sample 3CZ00327

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Schmeling, M.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allton, J. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind and brought it back to Earth in order to provide precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions. The ions in the solar wind were stopped in the collectors at depths on the order of 10 to a few hundred nanometers. This shallow implantation layer is critical for scientific analysis of the composition of the solar wind and must be preserved throughout sample handling, cleaning, processing, distribution, preparation and analysis. We are working interactively with the community of scientists analyzing Genesis samples, using our unique laboratory facilities -- and, where needed, our unique cleaning techniques -- to significantly enhance the science return from the Genesis mission. This work is motivated by the need to understand the submicron contamination on the collectors in the Genesis payload as recovered from the crash site in the Utah desert, and -- perhaps more importantly -- how to remove it. That is, we are evaluating the effectiveness of the wet-chemical "cleaning" steps used by various investigators, to enable them to design improved methods of stripping terrestrial contamination from surfaces while still leaving the solar-wind signal intact.

  14. Revision and update of the EGIB land-use database using the airborne laser scanning point cloud - the case study of Tuklecz village in 'wietokrzyskie voivodeship. (Polish Title: Weryfikacja i aktualizacja bazy klaso-użytków EGIB w oparciu o analizy chmury punktów z lotniczego skanowania laserowego na przykładzie wsi Tuklęcz w województwie świętokrzyskim)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wężyk, P.; Gęca, T.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic economic and social changes taking place for the past 20 years in Poland, effects often of such loss of extensive agriculture and abandonment of agricultural activities particularly on small and narrow plots , usually on the soils of poor grading. Even before the Polish accession to the EU, set - aside and fallow areas cover approx. 2.3 million ha (in 2002), but in subsequent years the area drastically decreased from 1.3 million ha (in 2004) , by 1.0 million ha ( 2 005 ) to 0.4 million hectares (2011). As a result of cessation of mowing meadows, grazing pastures and agricultural measures , we can observed the phenomenon of secondary forest succession ( plant communities of a forest properties ) leading to changes in land use and land cover classes structure . Recording changes in the agro - forestry space, update reference registers of the land and building (EGiB) and control granted to farmers subsidies ( direct EU payments) requires an efficient and automated technology acquisition, processing and analysis of spatial data. In addition to the used by ARiMR (in the LPIS system) vector data and aerial orthophotomaps , there is still a need to strengthen the decision - making process such as update of current ranges of land - use cla sses. One of the GI technologies that could be a real breakthrough is the Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) . The study area cover 137.17 ha in the village Tuklęcz (commune Rytwiany, Staszów County , ?więtokrzyskie Voivodeship ). The EGiB geo data came from PODGiK in Staszów. They were two ALS point cloud data sets: one provided by the RZGW in Krakow (from airborne campaign Nov. 2009; density ~ 2 pts / m2) and the second from ISOK project (Nov. 2012; density ~ 4 pts / m2 ). The Terrasolid and FUSION (USDA Forest Service) and ArcGIS Esri software were used in the study . Detection of vegetation was carried out in 4 variants differ in the "height above ground" of the class "succession" (thresholds: from 0.4m , 1m, 2m and 3m ). The

  15. Changes in The Content of Biodegradable Organic Matter in Tap Water in The City of Częstochowa / Zmiany Zawartości Biodegradowalnej Materii Organicznej w Wodzie Wodociagowej Dla Miasta Częstochowy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakocz, Klaudia; Rosińska, Agata

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents research aimed at the assessment of biodegradable organic carbon content changes (BDOC) during water disinfection process. The water samples examined in the research came from intakes, pumping stations at treatment plants situated in the Silesia district and water consumers. The examined water was underground water. One water sample was disinfected by sodium sub chloride while the other one by ozone. BDOC was determined using the Joret method, which involves observation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decrease in the examined water. The research has shown that BDOC content fluctuates at every stage of the treatment process and distribution of the examined water. Another analyzed parameter was biological stability of water.

  16. Process research of non-CZ silicon material. Quarterly report No. 2, January 1, 1984-March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.B.

    1984-05-01

    In this program, which started November 4, 1983, the fabrication of solar cells on N-base material using simultaneous diffusion of liquid boron and phosphorus dopants to from the desired P/sup +/NN/sup +/ cell structure is being studied. This simultaneous junction formation method is being compared to the sequential junction formation method where phosphorus is diffused to form an N/sup +/N back surface field followed by a boron diffusion for the P/sup +/N front junction. During the contract, the sensitivity of the process parameters will also be studied; and a cost analysis of the new junction formation process will be performed using SAMICS-IPEG methodology.

  17. Overview of new GNSS tropospheric products for GNSS-meteorology and their assessment at Geodetic Observatory Pecny (CZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dousa, J.; Vaclavovic, P.; Gyori, G.

    2012-12-01

    Geodetic Observatory Pecný (GOP) has a long-term experience in the estimation of precise tropospheric parameters from GNSS permanent stations, in particular under the limited timelines of near real time. More than a decade, the GOP zenith total delays (ZTD) contributed to various projects in Europe (COST-716, TOUGH, E-GVAP, E-GVAP II) and the operational ZTD hourly updated product flows via the meteorological observation exchange network - GTS - to the end users worldwide. Currently, the GOP regional ZTD product is operationally assimilated in Météo France and UK MetOffice at least and further exploited in various ways at many other meteorological institutions. New developments at GOP over last three years consist of a) implementation and assessment of the global hourly ZTD product of about 170 stations, b) implementation of routine multi-GNSS (GPS+GLONASS) ZTD European product, and c) implementation of ultra-fast/real-time ZTD product. The GOP global ZTD product has been implemented on request of the meteorological institutions running global numerical weather forecasting models. The global ZTD product was seriously evaluated over ten months (Oct 2009 - Aug 2011) when compared to reprocessed EUREF and IGS ZTDs, radiosondes and ZTDs derived from UK MetOffice's global numerical weather model. After the evaluation (and on special request of UK MetOffice) the product has been switched from testing to operational status within the framework of the EUMETNET EIG GPS Water Vapour Programme (E-GVAP) and officially disseminated via the GTS network. The GOP multi-GNSS ZTD solution has been tested since 2009 shortly after developing GOP ultra-rapid GPS+GLONASS orbits for the International GNSS Service (IGS). A specific bias of mean value 1.5 mm was identified between GPS- and GLONASS-only ZTD at that time, and relation to the IGS05 antenna phase centre offset and variation models (PCO+PCV) identified. Consequently, the implementation of a routine operation has been done after the GPS week 1632 together with adopting IGS08 PCO+PCVs, which eliminated the bias and demonstrated an overall general better consistence between GPS- and GLONASS-only ZTD estimates. The multi-GNSS ZTD product runs in parallel to the GPS-only and is going to replace the current official GPS-only product after more than a year assessment. This multi-GNSS product has assesses a satisfactory quality and robustness of unofficial IGS ultra-rapid GPS+GLONASS orbits necessary for multi-GNSS solution. The GOP ultra-fast and real-time ZTD estimation is being developed with in-house software application using own G-Nut library and Precise Point Positioning technique (in contrast to all other GOP ZTD products based on Bernese GPS software and based on double-difference observations). The IGS Real-time Pilot Project orbit and clock corrections are seriously exploited in these ultra-fast and real-time tropospheric products aimed for nowcasting and severe weather monitoring. Our implementation assesses an optimal balance between timelines and product quality required by these applications.

  18. Heat of Combustion of the Product Formed by the Reaction of Acetylene and Diborane (LFPL-CZ-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Harrison, Jr.; Tannenbaum, Stanley

    1957-01-01

    The heat of combustion of the product formed by the reaction acetylene and diborane was found to be 20,100 +/- 100 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and chemical analyses both of the sample and of the combustion products indicated combustion in the bomb calorimeter to have been 97 percent complete. The estimated net heat of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 20,700 +/- 100 Btu per pound.

  19. Flat-plate solar array project process development area: Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Several different techniques to simultaneously diffuse the front and back junctions in dendritic web silicon were investigated. A successful simultaneous diffusion reduces the cost of the solar cell by reducing the number of processing steps, the amount of capital equipment, and the labor cost. The three techniques studied were: (1) simultaneous diffusion at standard temperatures and times using a tube type diffusion furnace or a belt furnace; (2) diffusion using excimer laser drive-in; and (3) simultaneous diffusion at high temperature and short times using a pulse of high intensity light as the heat source. The use of an excimer laser and high temperature short time diffusion experiment were both more successful than the diffusion at standard temperature and times. The three techniques are described in detail and a cost analysis of the more successful techniques is provided.

  20. Observations of secondary defects and vacancies in CZ silicon crystals detached from melt using four different types of characterization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Takahashi, T.; Shirai, K.

    2016-02-01

    The crystals were grown by a gradually decreased pulling rate method, a special crystal growing method, and detached from a melt during the growth so as to rapidly cool the grown crystal and then to observe the appearance and disappearance of point defects at the moment of the detachment. This observation - nearly in situ observation, as it were - revealed that vacancies (Vs) were introduced through a growth interface, and interstitials (Is) were generated at an interstitial generation area, an area at which the thermal stress was increased through the increased thermal gradient, above the growth interface. In the beginning of the gradually decreased pulling rate method, since the pulling rate was high, the Vs introduced through the growth interface remained in the crystal; as the pulling rate was decreased, the generation of the Is began from the interstitial generation area, and these interstitials were recombined with the Vs introduced through the growth interface, thereby forming a first recombination area. As the concentration of the Is increased due to a lower pulling rate, a dislocation loop region began to be formed. On the growth interface side of this dislocation loop region, a V region from the growth interface and a second recombination area were similarly formed. The formation of these two recombination areas proves that the growth interface was the V region. In this paper, the point defects and secondary defects thereof were observed by our three new observation methods and the etch-pit method used in product inspection. The results of these methods were consistent with all the above phenomenon.

  1. Oxidation of the arsenic-rich concentrate at the Prebuz abandoned mine (Erzgebirge Mts., CZ): mineralogical evolution.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Michal

    2004-04-25

    Ore concentrate with up to 65 wt.% of arsenic (by-product of cassiterite extraction) exposed to climatic conditions was studied from the mineralogical point of view. Detailed sampling, X-ray diffraction analyses, energy-dispersive microanalysis (EDAX) and especially scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to study the arsenopyrite-löllingite-concentrate weathering. The studied concentrate contains very small proportion (<5 vol.%) of gangue minerals such as quartz and feldspars; the oxidation of arsenopyrite and löllingite (and accessory pyrite) is thus practically not complicated by interference with additional minerals and elements. Arsenolite, scorodite, kaatialaite and native sulphur were found to be the main secondary phases originating by dissolution of arsenopyrite and löllingite. New secondary phases precipitate on the surface of the ore-concentrate body but also form cement among the grains of finely milled material. The following succession of secondary minerals was determined: arsenolite, scorodite+native sulphur and kaatialaite. Significant arsenic migration into the proximal environment was revealed: 2580 and 13,622 mgkg(-1) were the highest arsenic concentrations in two sections excavated at distances of 0.5 and 1.5 m from the concentrate body. PMID:15081754

  2. Flat-plate solar array project process development area, process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The program is designed to investigate the fabrication of solar cells on N-type base material by a simultaneous diffusion of N-type and P-type dopants to form an P(+)NN(+) structure. The results of simultaneous diffusion experiments are being compared to cells fabricated using sequential diffusion of dopants into N-base material in the same resistivity range. The process used for the fabrication of the simultaneously diffused P(+)NN(+) cells follows the standard Westinghouse baseline sequence for P-base material except that the two diffusion processes (boron and phosphorus) are replaced by a single diffusion step. All experiments are carried out on N-type dendritic web grown in the Westinghouse pre-pilot facility. The resistivities vary from 0.5 (UC OMEGA)cm to 5 (UC OMEGA)cm. The dopant sources used for both the simultaneous and sequential diffusion experiments are commercial metallorganic solutions with phosphorus or boron components. After these liquids are applied to the web surface, they are baked to form a hard glass which acts as a diffusion source at elevated temperatures. In experiments performed thus far, cells produced in sequential diffusion tests have properties essentially equal to the baseline N(+)PP(+) cells. However, the simultaneous diffusions have produced cells with much lower IV characteristics mainly due to cross-doping of the sources at the diffusion temperature. This cross-doping is due to the high vapor pressure phosphorus (applied as a metallorganic to the back surface) diffusion through the SiO2 mask and then acting as a diffusant source for the front surface.

  3. Flat-plate solar array project process development area process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Three sets of samples were laser processed and then cell processed. The laser processing was carried out on P-type and N-type web at laser power levels from 0.5 joule/sq cm to 2.5 joule/sq cm. Six different liquid dopants were tested (3 phosphorus dopants, 2 boron dopants, 1 aluminum dopant). The laser processed web strips were fabricated into solar cells immediately after laser processing and after various annealing cycles. Spreading resistance measurements made on a number of these samples indicate that the N(+)P (phosphorus doped) junction is approx. 0.2 micrometers deep and suitable for solar cells. However, the P(+)N (or P(+)P) junction is very shallow ( 0.1 micrometers) with a low surface concentration and resulting high resistance. Due to this effect, the fabricated cells are of low efficiency. The maximum efficiency attained was 9.6% on P-type web after a 700 C anneal. The main reason for the low efficiency was a high series resistance in the cell due to a high resistance back contact.

  4. E-estuary: A Decision Support System for Coastal Water and Ecosystem Management in the US (CZ09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ready access to geographic information is needed to support management decisions for estuaries at local, state, regional, and national scales. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is developing e-Estuary, a decision-support system for coastal management. E-Estuary ...

  5. Conductive Polymer Binder-Enabled SiO-SnxCoyCz Anode for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Fu, Yanbao; Ling, Min; Jia, Zhe; Song, Xiangyun; Chen, Zonghai; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Liu, Gao

    2016-06-01

    A SiOSnCoC composite anode is assembled using a conductive polymer binder for the application in next-generation high energy density lithium-ion batteries. A specific capacity of 700 mAh/g is achieved at a 1C (900 mA/g) rate. A high active material loading anode with an areal capacity of 3.5 mAh/cm(2) is demonstrated by mixing SiOSnCoC with graphite. To compensate for the lithium loss in the first cycle, stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) is used for prelithiation; when paired with a commercial cathode, a stable full cell cycling performance with a 86% first cycle efficiency is realized. By achieving these important metrics toward a practical application, this conductive polymer binder/SiOSnCoC anode system presents great promise to enable the next generation of high-energy lithium-ion batteries. PMID:27160017

  6. Low cost solar array project: Cell and module formation research area. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Meniscus coates tests, back junction formation using a new boron containing liquid, tests of various SiO2 and boron containing liquids, pelletized silicon for replenishment during web growth, and ion implantation compatibility/feasibility study are discussed.

  7. Low cost solar array project. Cell and module formation research area. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Liquid diffusion masks and liquid dopants to replace the more expensive CVD SiO2 mask and gaseous diffusion processes were investigated. Silicon pellets were prepared in the silicon shot tower; and solar cells were fabricated using web grown where the pellets were used as a replenishment material. Verification runs were made using the boron dopant and liquid diffusion mask materials. The average of cells produced in these runs was 13%. The relationship of sheet resistivity, temperature, gas flows, and gas composition for the diffusion of the P-8 liquid phosphorus solution was investigated. Solar cells processed from web grown from Si shot material were evaluated, and results qualified the use of the material produced in the shot tower for web furnace feed stock.

  8. Process research of non-cz silicon material. Low cost solar array project, cell and module formation research area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid diffusion masks and liquid applied dopants to replace the CVD Silox masking and gaseous diffusion operations specified for forming junctions in the Westinghouse baseline process sequence for producing solar cells from dendritic web silicon were investigated.

  9. Low cost solar array project cell and module formation research area: Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Liquid diffusion masks and liquid applied dopants to replace the CVD Silox masking and gaseous diffusion operations specified for forming junctions in the Westinghouse baseline process sequence for producing solar cells from dendritic web silicon were investigated. The baseline diffusion masking and drive processes were compared with those involving direct liquid applications to the dendritic web silicon strips. Attempts were made to control the number of variables by subjecting dendritic web strips cut from a single web crystal to both types of operations. Data generated reinforced earlier conclusions that efficiency levels at least as high as those achieved with the baseline back junction formation process can be achieved using liquid diffusion masks and liquid dopants. The deliveries of dendritic web sheet material and solar cells specified by the current contract were made as scheduled.

  10. Late-Variscan rare metal ore deposition and plume-related magmatism in the eastern European Variscides (D, CZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Located at the northwestern border of the Bohemian Massif in the eastern part of the European Variscides, the Erzgebirge-Krušné hory is one of the most important metallogenic provinces in Europe with a 800-year history of mining. The following rare metal resources are associated with late-Variscan (315 - 280 Ma), postmagmatic mineralization pulses in the Erzgebirge-Krušné hory and surrounded areas: 900 kt Sn, 230 kt W, 10 kt Mo, 1 kt Ta, 300 kt Li, 200 kt Rb, 2 kt Cs, 1.5 kt In, 230 t Ge, 320 t Sc, 14 kt Sb, 10 kt Bi, and 3 kt Ag. At the end of the Variscan Orogeny the regional tectonic regime in Central Europe changed, indicating the beginning of the break-up of the supercontinent. The Late Carboniferous-Early Permian in Europe was a period of widespread basin formation that was associated in many areas with mantle-derived magmatic activity. 300 Ma-old dike swarms in NE England and the Scottish Midland Valley, the Oslo Graben and Scania, radiate from a triple junction in the northernmost part of Jutland. This triple junction marked the axis of a deep-mantle plume centered in this area. In this context it is important to note that the mantle plume center is surrounded by significant lamprophyre intrusions which show in some districts spatial-time relationships to Sn-W-polymetallic, Ag-base metal, and U mineralization. During the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian an extensive magmatic province developed within the present northern and central Europe, intimately with extensional tectonics, in an area stretching from southern Scandinavia, through the North Sea, into Northern Germany. Peak magmatic activity was concentrated in a narrow time-span from 300 to 280 Ma. Simultaneously in Stephanian-Early Permian an intensive bimodal magmatism associated with intra-continental extensional setting occurs in the European Variscides. Permo-Carboniferous volcanism in the Spanish Central System, Iberian Ranges, Cantabrian Chain, Pyrenees and the French Massif Central includes a range of mafic calc-alkaline and shoshonitic rock types, and lamprophyres (spessartites and camptonites) with age data between 300-270 Ma. The Mid-European Variscides show a large number of Permo-Carboniferous magmatic complexes with similar ages (Halle Volcanic Complex, Saar-Nahe Basin, Thuringian Forest, Harz Mts., Northwest-Saxonian Volcanic Complexes, bimodal volcanic rocks of the Sub-Erzgebirge basin and the Rhyolite Complex of Tharandt as well as Li-F-Sn small intrusion granites and lamprophyric intrusions in the Erzgebirge. It is important to note that the late-Variscan W-Mo, Sn-W-Mo, Ag-bearing Sn-In-base metal, Ag-Sb-base metal, and U mineralizations in the Erzgebirge-Krušné hory are spatially and temporal associated with intrusion centers of Permo-Carboniferous post-collisional mafic and rhyolitic (sub)volcanic bimodal magmatism (315-290 Ma) along deep-rooted NW-SE fault zones, especially at the intersections with NE-SW, E-W, and N-S major regional structural zones. The bimodal lamprophyre-rhyolite assemblage in the Erzgebirge / Sub-Erzgebirge basin area was formed during intracontinental rifting in a 'Fast Extension' setting by melting of a metasomatic enriched mantle source. The emplacement of fluid-enriched lamprophyres and F-rich rhyolitic intrusions at the same time is probably associated with decompression melting of updoming asthenosphere which is possibly associated with the above mentioned mantle plume.

  11. A Novel Acid-Stable Endo-Polygalacturonase from Penicillium oxalicum CZ1028: Purification, Characterization, and Application in the Beverage Industry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhong; Chen, Dong; Lu, Bo; Wei, Yutuo; Xian, Liang; Li, Yi; Luo, Zhenzhen; Huang, Ribo

    2016-06-28

    Acidic endo-polygalacturonases are the major part of pectinase preparations and extensively applied in the clarification of fruits juice, vegetables extracts, and wines. However, most of the reported fungal endo-polygalacturonases are active and stable under narrow pH range and low temperatures. In this study, an acidic endo-polygalacturonase (EPG4) was purified and characterized from a mutant strain of Penicillium oxalicum. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of EPG4 (ATTCTFSGSNGAASASKSQT) was different from those of reported endopolygalacturonases. EPG4 displayed optimal pH and temperature at 5.0 and 60-70°C towards polygalacturonic acid (PGA), respectively, and was notably stable at pH 2.2-7.0. When tested against pectins, EPG4 showed enzyme activity over a broad acidic pH range (>15.0% activity at pH 2.2-6.0 towards citrus pectin; and >26.6% activity at pH 2.2-7.0 towards apple pectin). The Km and Vmax values were determined as 1.27 mg/ml and 5,504.6 U/mg, respectively. The enzyme hydrolyzed PGA in endo-manner, releasing oligo-galacturonates from PGA, as determined by TLC. Addition of EPG4 (3.6 U/ml) significantly reduced the viscosity (by 42.4%) and increased the light transmittance (by 29.5%) of the papaya pulp, and increased the recovery (by 24.4%) of the papaya extraction. All of these properties make the enzyme a potential application in the beverage industry. PMID:26907758

  12. Slope deposits of different genesis and ages in the Colorado Front Range (Rocky Mts.) and their significance for chemical weathering fluxes within the critical zone (CZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Huber, Juliane; Leopold, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    The Colorado Front Range is divided in five altitudinal belts reaching from the alpine tundra (> 3.450 m a.s.l.) down to the plains (> 1.710 m a.s.l.). Our investigations are dealing with different kinds of slope deposits, their genesis and age. The critical zone is the heterogeneous carapace of soil and weathered rock, and the ecosystems they support. Understanding the evolution of the critical zone, and its sensitivity to perturbations, requires an understanding of its architecture and the processes that produce this architecture. The Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BC CZO) is designed to understand how weathering (both physical and chemical) and transport processes control the structure of the critical zone, and to explore the impact of critical zone structure on hydrological, geochemical and biological functions of the landscape. Slope deposits are crucial elements of the critical zone. The 1.160 km2 Boulder Creek watershed in Colorado's Front Range encompasses strong contrasts in erosional regimes, and therefore contains critical zone architectures that range from dominantly bare rock to deeply weathered profiles. Through the late Cenozoic, a slowly eroding rocky upland comprising Precambrian crystalline rocks has been etched in its headwaters by glaciers, and bitten into by headward migrating stream knickzones. This has produced a landscape in which the critical zone is captured in three states. Each of these is represented in a focus subcatchment in the BcCZO where the critical zone will be characterized in detail. The slope deposits show characteristic variations within the subcatchments. Fundamental characteristics of the critical zone, together control the passage of water, the chemical processes operating, the material strength, and the function of subsurface ecosystems. Slope deposits of different genesis and ages play a decisive role.

  13. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strain Deutsch, 5 BAC clone sequencing, including two encoding Cytochrome P450s and one encoding CzEst9 carboxylesterase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. BAC clones give insight into the genome struct...

  14. Gene structure and expression of a pyrethroid-metabolizing esterase, CzEst9, from a pyrethroid resistant Mexican population of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A population of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, designated Coatzacoalcos, sampled from a ranch near Vera Cruz, Mexico was found to possess a high level of resistance to pyrethroid based acaricides. Bioassay, biochemical and molecular analysis had previously shown the resistance in this populati...

  15. Low Cost Solar Array Project cell and module formation research area. Process research of non-CZ silicon material. Final report, November 26, 1980-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The primary objective of the work reported was to investigate high-risk, high-payoff research areas associated with the Westinghouse process for producing photovoltaic modules using non-Czochralski sheet material. These tasks were addressed: technical feasibility study of forming front and back junctions using liquid dopant techniques, liquid diffusion mask feasibility study, application studies of antireflective material using a meniscus coater, ion implantation compatibility/feasibility study, and cost analysis. (LEW)

  16. Measurement of differential cross sections and Cx and Cz for gamma photon-proton going to kaon-lambda baryon and gamma photon-proton going to kaon-sigma baryon using CLAS at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bradford

    2005-05-11

    This work presents several observables for the reactions γ pK+Λ and γ pK+Σ°. In addition to measuring differential cross sections, we have made first measurements of the double polarization observables Cx and Cz. Cx and C z characterize the transfer of polarization from the incident photon to the produced hyperons. Data were obtained at Jefferson Lab using a circularly polarized photon beam at endpoint energies of 2.4, 2.9, and 3.1 GeV. Events were detected with the CLAS spectrometer. In the Λ channel, the cross sections support the recent observation of new resonant structure at W = 1900 MeV. Studies of the invariant cross section, dsdd show scaling behavior suggesting that the production mechanism becomes t-channel dominated near threshold at forward kaon angles. The double polarization observables show that the recoiling Λ is almost maximally polarized along the direction of the incident photon from mid to forward kaon angles. While Σo differential cross sections are of the same magnitude as the Λ differential cross sections, there is evidence of different physics dominating the production mechanism. The Σ° invariant cross sections do not show the same t-scaling behavior present in the Λ results. The double polarization observables indicate that the Σ° is not polarized as strongly as the Λ. They also fail to identify one preferred polarization axis. Complete interpretation of these results will rely on model calculations. Currently available isobar models obtain varying degrees of success while attempting to predict the double polarization observables. While the models are in better agreement with the differential cross sections, discrepancies with our cross sections indicate that they must be re-optimized in light of the new data. While the data suggest that a Regge model would provide a good description of K+Λ over most of the range in W, the available Regge calculation overstates the strength of the cross section and does not predict Cx and Cz correctly.

  17. Comment on "Investigations of interstitial generations near growth interface depending on crystal pulling rates during CZ silicon growth by detaching from the melt" by T. Abe et al. [J. Cryst. Growth 434 (2016) 128-137] and on "Observations of secondary defects and vacancies in CZ silicon crystals detached from melt using four different types of characterization technique" by T. Abe et al. [J. Cryst. Growth 436 (2016) 23-33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhellemont, Jan; Kamiyama, Eiji; Nakamura, Kozo; Sueoka, Koji

    2016-09-01

    In the papers mentioned above, Abe et al. published beautiful experimental data on intrinsic point defect related defect distributions in detached growing Czochralski Si crystals with and without additional thermal anneals [1,2]. The new fact compared to the results published before [3] is that the crystals are pulled with decreasing speed before detaching, resulting in crystals that vary along the axis from initially vacancy-rich to interstitial-rich for the slowest pulling speed before detaching.

  18. Rare Earth Elements of Orzeskie Beds of South-West Part Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) / Pierwiastki Ziem Rzadkich Z Pokładów Węgla Warstw Orzeskich Południowo-Zachodniej Części Gzw (Polska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, Zdzisław; Białecka, Barbara; Moszko, Joanna Całusz; Komorek, Joanna; Lewandowska, Małgorzata

    2015-03-01

    The subject of the research concerned the coal samples from 360/1, 361 and 362/1 seams of the Orzesze beds in the "Pniówek" coal mine. The obtained samples were characterized by low ash content - 2.22- 6.27% of the mass. The chemical composition of the ash indicates the presence of aluminosilicate minerals in the analyzed coal samples - most likely clay minerals, the presence of which has been confirmed in microscopic tests of the petrographic composition of channel samples of coal. The content of rare earth elements (REE sum) in the ash of the tested coal seams ranged from 364 to 1429 ppm. Variation of the REE content has been observed within a single seam. The fraction of REE indicates a relation with a mineral substance. No relation of the REE fraction and the presence of red beds has been found based on the tested samples. The content of REE found in ash, normalized to chondrites, is characterized by LREE enrichment in relation to HREE. The Eu anomaly is most likely related to tuff and tonstein levels occurring in Orzesze beds, which accompany the coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (i.a., south of the studied area). The research has indicated that LREE in the tested samples are more related to the mineral substance, while HREE have a stronger affinity with organic substances. Przedmiotem badań były próbki węgla z pokładów 360/1, 361 i 362/1 warstw orzeskich KWK Pniówek. Próbki te charakteryzują się niewielką zawartością popiołu 2,22-6,27% mas. Skład chemiczny popiołów wskazuje na obecność w analizowanych próbkach węgla minerałów z grupy glinokrzemianów najprawdopodobniej minerałów ilastych, których obecność była stwierdzona w badaniach mikroskopowych składu petrograficznego próbek bruzdowych węgla. Zawartości pierwiastków ziem rzadkich (suma REE) w popiołach badanych pokładów węgla wahają się od 364 do 1429 ppm. Obserwuje się zróżnicowanie zawartości REE w obrębie jednego pokładu. Udział REE wykazuje związek z substancją mineralną. Nie stwierdzono związku udziału REE, w badanych próbkach, z obecnością utworów pstrych w stropie karbonu. Zawartości REE oznaczone w popiołach, znormalizowane do chondrytów, charakteryzują się wzbogaceniem LREE wobec HREE. Anomalia Eu związana jest prawdopodobnie z występującymi w warstwach orzeskich (m.in. na północ od obszaru badań) Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego poziomami tufów i tonsteinów, które towarzyszą pokładom węgla. Badania wykazały, że LREE w badanych próbkach związane są raczej z substancją mineralną, natomiast HREE posiadają silniejsze powinowactwo z substancją organiczną.

  19. Sedimentary Rocks Associated with the Coal Seams of the Saddle Beds from the Chwałowice Trough - West Part of Upper Silesian Coal Basin / Skały Osadowe Towarzyszące Pokładom Węgla Warstw Siodłowych Niecki Chwałowickiej - Zachodnia Część Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanienda, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    The results of investigation of the associated rocks with the Saddle Beds Coals Seams from Chwałowice Trough were presented in this article. The results of researches show that sandstones and mudstones dominate in the investigating profile. Claystones are situated mainly in ceilings and floors of coal seams. Grains of sandstones include mainly quartz, feldspars, micas and also quartzite's and gneiss's fragments. It is also possible to observe small grains of heavy minerals. Some of sandstones present bad compactness and are destroyed during transportation. This feature is connected with presence of little quantity of cement, especially in medium grained sandstones, which include more matrix than typical cement. The cement is built mainly of clay minerals, kaolinite and illite, carbonates and chalcedony but X-ray diffraction confirmed also the presence of halite in the cement of investigated sandstones. Mudstones and claystones are composed mainly of clay minerals. It's also possible to find quartz and micas there. Higher amounts of quartz and micas are possible to find rather in mudstones. The associated rocks with the Saddle Beds Coal Seams from Chwałowice Trough include also organic matter. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań skał towarzyszących pokładom węgla warstw siodłowych Niecki Chwałowickiej. Wyniki badań wskazują, że w badanym profilu dominują piaskowce oraz mułowce. Iłowce natomiast występują głównie w stropach i spągach pokładów węgla. Okruchy piaskowców to głównie ziarna kwarcu, skaleni, mik oraz fragmenty kwarcytów i gnejsów. Można tu również zaobserwować drobne okruchy minerałów ciężkich. Niektóre piaskowce charakteryzują się obniżoną zwięzłością i podczas transportu ulegają rozpadowi. Cecha ta związana jest z niewielką ilością spoiwa, szczególnie w piaskowcach średnioziarnistych, w których matrix przeważa nad typowym cementem. Spoiwo zbudowane jest głównie z minerałów ilastych, takich jak kaolinit i illit, węglanów i chalcedonu, chociaż wyniki dyfraktometrii rentgenowskiej potwierdziły występowanie w spoiwie badanych piaskowców również halitu. Na podstawie składu mineralnego piaskowców, dokonano ich klasyfikacji, stosując podziały skał okruchowych Krynina (1948) i Pettijohn'a-Potter'a-Siever'a (1973). Według klasyfikacji Krynina badane piaskowce reprezentują szarogłazy (szarowaki). W klasyfikacji Pettijohn'a, próbki 6, 8 i 13 reprezentują arenity lityczne, natomiast próbki 3 i 10- waki. Mułowce i iłowce zbudowane SA głównie z minerałów ilastych. Można w nich również spotkać ziarna kwarcu oraz miki. Wyższy udział kwarcu i mik jest jednak charakterystyczny dla mułowców. Skały towarzyszące pokładom węgla warstw siodłowych Niecki Chwałowickiej zawierają również domieszki substancji organicznej.

  20. Complete nucleotide sequences of two NDM-1-encoding plasmids from the same sequence type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.

    PubMed

    Studentova, V; Dobiasova, H; Hedlova, D; Dolejska, M; Papagiannitsis, C C; Hrabak, J

    2015-02-01

    The sequence type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain Kpn-3002cz was confirmed to harbor two NDM-1-encoding plasmids, pB-3002cz and pS-3002cz. pB-3002cz (97,649 bp) displayed extensive sequence similarity with the blaNDM-1-carrying plasmid pKPX-1. pS-3002cz (73,581 bp) was found to consist of an IncR-related sequence (13,535 bp) and a mosaic region (60,046 bp). A 40,233-bp sequence of pS-3002cz was identical to the mosaic region of pB-3002cz, indicating the en bloc acquisition of the NDM-1-encoding region from one plasmid by the other. PMID:25421477

  1. Complete Nucleotide Sequences of Two NDM-1-Encoding Plasmids from the Same Sequence Type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain

    PubMed Central

    Studentova, V.; Dobiasova, H.; Hedlova, D.; Dolejska, M.; Hrabak, J.

    2014-01-01

    The sequence type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain Kpn-3002cz was confirmed to harbor two NDM-1-encoding plasmids, pB-3002cz and pS-3002cz. pB-3002cz (97,649 bp) displayed extensive sequence similarity with the blaNDM-1-carrying plasmid pKPX-1. pS-3002cz (73,581 bp) was found to consist of an IncR-related sequence (13,535 bp) and a mosaic region (60,046 bp). A 40,233-bp sequence of pS-3002cz was identical to the mosaic region of pB-3002cz, indicating the en bloc acquisition of the NDM-1-encoding region from one plasmid by the other. PMID:25421477

  2. The Numerical Simulation of a Sudden Inflow of Methane into the end Segment of a Longwall with Y-Type Ventilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Jerzy; Janus, Jakub

    2014-12-01

    -situ. Model składał się ośmiu sekcji obudowy zmechanizowanej, odcinka w obudowie doraźnej, oraz fragmentu chodnika CW-4. Porównano rozkłady prędkości dla modeli turbulencji k-ω SST i SAS z danymi z pomiarów "in-situ". Najlepszą zgodność z wynikami pomiarów prędkości przepływu otrzymano dla modelu SAS. Zweryfikowane modele użyto do symulacji skutków nagłych dopływów metanu od strony zrobów obudowy doraźnej i spod osłony odzawałowej piątej sekcji. Wyniki symulacji przedstawiono w postaci sekwencji rozkładów stężeń metanu na wybranych przekrojach obszaru obliczeniowego

  3. Modeling of the Propagation of Methane from the Longwall Goaf, Performed by Means of a Two-Dimensional Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Jerzy; Janus, Jakub

    2014-12-01

    skomplikować modele 3D. Elementami tymi są żebra obudowy łukowej chodników, stojaki cierne i hydrauliczne oraz żebra sekcji zmechanizowanej obudowy ściany. Uwzględniono również obecność szczelin między sekcjami obudowy, poprzez które może następować wymiana gazów ze zrobami. Przeprowadzono analizę przepływu powietrza w rejonie przy pomocy opisu 2D. Wyniki symulacji pokazano w postaci profili prędkości i linii prądu w otoczeniu skrzyżowań z chodnikami pod i nadścianowym w postaci profili prędkości i linii prądu. Sprawdzono zależności rozwiązania od siatki porównując wyniki dla trzech gęstości siatki. Przeprowadzono symulacje rozpływu metanu dla położeń kombajnu w 2/3 długości ściany. Obliczono pola stężeń metanu przy stałym dopływie ze zrobów a następnie skutki nagłego dopływu na odcinku 10 ostatnio dosuniętych sekcji. Wyniki przedstawiono w formie sekwencji rozkładów stężeń dla wybranych chwil symulacji

  4. CA/CPS: A Communications ZEBRA implementation using CPS

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L.A.

    1991-05-01

    CZ/CPS is an implementation of the Communications ZEBRA distributed computing environment utilizing the CPS communications protocol. CZ/CPS is intended for parallelization of high energy physics application programs using the CERN Program Library memory and data structure management features. CZ/CPS provides transparent communication of ZEBRA data structures among cooperative processes using standard interfaces for ZEBRA I/O. Examples of usage in a CPS HBOOK4 and GEANT3 application are provided.

  5. Very low luminosity stars with very large amplitude flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    CCD frames of CZ Cnc, KY Cep, the gamma-ray burster optical transient, and NSV 12006 are analyzed. Also studied are 549 archival photographic plates of the CZ Cnc field. These observations are compared with the data of Lovas (1976). Flare events on CZ Cnc are examined. Based on the data it is noted that CZ Cnc is a main-sequence star, has a magnitude of 16.1, a distance of 100 pc, occasional large-amplitude flares, and frequent flares with amplitudes greater than 4 mag.

  6. Photodegradation of the azole fungicide climbazole by ultraviolet irradiation under different conditions: Kinetics, mechanism and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wang-Rong; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Hu, Li-Xin; Yao, Li; Liang, Yan-Qiu; Tian, Fei

    2016-11-15

    Climbazole (CZ) has been known to persist in various environmental media, and may cause potential risks to aquatic organisms. This study investigated the photodegradation of CZ by ultraviolet (UV, 254nm) under different conditions. The results revealed that CZ could be effectively degraded in aqueous solutions under UV-254 irradiation with a half-life of 9.78min (pH=7.5), and the photodegradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. pH had almost no effect on its rate constants and quantum yields; but the water quality of natural waters could affect the photolysis of CZ, and the coexisting constituents such as Fe(3+), NO3(-), and HA obviously inhibited its photolysis. The addition of different radical scavengers also inhibited the photodegradation of CZ due to the reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). CZ underwent direct and self-sensitized photolysis involving ROS. Based on the identified photodegradation by-products, the proposed pathways included hydroxylative dechlorination, dechlorination and de-pinacolone. Moreover, toxicity evaluation using duckweed found significant toxicity reduction in the photodegradation system of CZ after the irradiation of UV-254, and the remaining by-products did not pose extra toxicity compared with CZ itself. These findings from present study suggest that CZ in effluent could be further reduced by applying UV photolysis treatment. PMID:27378240

  7. Surface modification of halloysite nanotubes by vulcanization accelerator and properties of styrene-butadiene rubber nanocomposites with modified halloysite nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Bangchao; Jia, Zhixin; Hu, Dechao; Luo, Yuanfang; Guo, Baochun; Jia, Demin

    2016-03-01

    Vulcanization accelerant N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide (CZ) was used as a surface modifier and chemically grafted on the surface of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) to obtain CZ-functionalized HNTs (HNTs-s-CZ). It was found that HNTs-s-CZ could be homogeneously dispersed into styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The grafted CZ molecules, exactly located at the filler-rubber interface, reduced the activation energy of vulcanization of SBR/HNTs-s-CZ compounds. Besides, the density of chain segments introduced by the interfacial phase of SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites was higher than the other nanocomposites with silane-modified HNTs (m-HNTs) or pristine HNTs, manifesting an indication of enhanced filler-rubber interfacial interaction in SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites. Consequently, SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites showed excellent mechanical properties. The tensile strength could be enhanced by as much as 38.6% and 102.5% compared to those of SBR/m-HNTs and SBR/HNTs nanocomposites, respectively, though containing equivalent accelerant component. The value of this work lies in the fact that apparent properties improvement of elastomer composites has been achieved by the incorporation of vulcanization accelerant-functionalized HNTs, which may be fruitful for the rational design of filler surface treatment and offer new scientific and technological opportunities for the preparation of high performance elastomer composites.

  8. Very low luminosity stars with very large amplitude flares

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, B.E. )

    1990-04-01

    CCD frames of CZ Cnc, KY Cep, the gamma-ray burster optical transient, and NSV 12006 are analyzed. Also studied are 549 archival photographic plates of the CZ Cnc field. These observations are compared with the data of Lovas (1976). Flare events on CZ Cnc are examined. Based on the data it is noted that CZ Cnc is a main-sequence star, has a magnitude of 16.1, a distance of 100 pc, occasional large-amplitude flares, and frequent flares with amplitudes greater than 4 mag. 36 refs.

  9. Identification of levothyroxine antichagasic activity through computer-aided drug repurposing.

    PubMed

    Bellera, Carolina L; Balcazar, Darío E; Alberca, Lucas; Labriola, Carlos A; Talevi, Alan; Carrillo, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Cruzipain (Cz) is the major cysteine protease of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas disease. A conformation-independent classifier capable of identifying Cz inhibitors was derived from a 163-compound dataset and later applied in a virtual screening campaign on the DrugBank database, which compiles FDA-approved and investigational drugs. 54 approved drugs were selected as candidates, 3 of which were acquired and tested on Cz and T. cruzi epimastigotes proliferation. Among them, levothyroxine, traditionally used in hormone replacement therapy in patients with hypothyroidism, showed dose-dependent inhibition of Cz and antiproliferative activity on the parasite. PMID:24592161

  10. Identification of Levothyroxine Antichagasic Activity through Computer-Aided Drug Repurposing

    PubMed Central

    Bellera, Carolina L.; Balcazar, Darío E.; Alberca, Lucas; Labriola, Carlos A.; Carrillo, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Cruzipain (Cz) is the major cysteine protease of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas disease. A conformation-independent classifier capable of identifying Cz inhibitors was derived from a 163-compound dataset and later applied in a virtual screening campaign on the DrugBank database, which compiles FDA-approved and investigational drugs. 54 approved drugs were selected as candidates, 3 of which were acquired and tested on Cz and T. cruzi epimastigotes proliferation. Among them, levothyroxine, traditionally used in hormone replacement therapy in patients with hypothyroidism, showed dose-dependent inhibition of Cz and antiproliferative activity on the parasite. PMID:24592161

  11. The inductive-effect of electron withdrawing trifluoromethyl for thermally activated delayed fluorescence: tunable emission from tetra- to penta-carbazole in solution processed blue OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Mei, Ling; Hu, Jia; Cao, Xudong; Wang, Fangfang; Zheng, Chao; Tao, Youtian; Zhang, Xinwen; Huang, Wei

    2015-08-21

    The non-conjugated inductive effect of trifluoromethyl (CF3) was found to be a new acceptor instead of other conjugated moieties. Two blue emissive compounds, 4CzCF3Ph and 5CzCF3Ph, were synthesized using a simple catalyst-free C-N coupling reaction. Solution-processed TADF devices based on the 5CzCF3Ph dopant exhibit significantly higher efficiency (11.8 cd A(-1), 5.2%) than 4CzCF3Ph (1.03 cd A(-1), 0.67%) due to the smaller ΔE(ST) value for efficient RISC. PMID:26179717

  12. Photophysical Properties and Efficient, Stable, Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of Donor-Acceptor Molecules Exhibiting Thermal Spin Upconversion.

    PubMed

    Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Edura, Tomohiko; Adachi, Chihaya; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2016-03-24

    The photophysical properties and electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of three donor-acceptor molecules composed of dicyanobenzene and methyl-, tert-butyl-, and phenyl-substituted carbazolyl groups, 1,2,3,5-tetrakis(3,6-disubstituted-carbazol-9-yl)-4,6-dicyanobenzene (4CzIPN-Me, 4CzIPN-tBu, and 4CzIPN-Ph, respectively) are described. These molecules show delayed fluorescence as a result of thermal spin upconversion from the lowest triplet state to the lowest singlet state at room temperature. The three molecules showed yellow to yellowish-red ECL. Remarkably, the ECL efficiencies of 4CzIPN-tBu in dichloromethane reached almost 40 %. Moreover, stable ECL was emitted from 4CzIPN-tBu and 4CzIPN-Ph. In case of 4CzIPN-Me, the ECL intensity decreased during voltage cycles because of polymerization. Quantum chemical calculations revealed that polymerization was inhibited by the steric hindrance of the bulky tert-butyl and phenyl groups on the carbazolyl moieties and lowered the spin density on the carbazolyl groups through electron conjugation for 4CzIPN-Ph. PMID:26916843

  13. Hydrological signatures of Critical Zone Processes: Developing targets for Critical Zone modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. E.; Karst, N.; Dralle, D.

    2015-12-01

    Water fluxes through the Critical Zone (CZ) are ubiquitous, and their behavior has the potential to reveal information about the structure and dynamics of the CZ. Models describing these fluxes implicitly propose hypotheses about the CZ which are encoded in the structure of the models. However, the certainty with which such hypotheses can be tested with observed hydrologic data is challenged by the well-known problem of equifinality - the tendency of multiple models, with very different model structures, to produce equally good representations of observed hydrologic dynamics. The project of modeling the CZ is thus challenged by the need to identify hydrologic signatures that are closely tied to the CZ structure and which could provide a stronger basis for hypothesis testing in model frameworks. Here I present one potential signature based on streamflow recession dynamics and the structure of their variability. Firstly, I present a technique to remove a mathematical artifact that is inherent in power-law representations of streamflow recessions. Secondly, I show that having removed this artifact, intriguing relationships emerge in the recession variability in the rivers near the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory. This relationship is interpreted in terms of how water is partitioned within the CZ. The close relationship between CZ processes and this part of the hydrologic response suggests that co-variation in recession parameters could provide a process-oriented hydrologic signature that CZ models should attempt to emulate.

  14. Effect of heavy-metal-resistant bacteria on enhanced metal uptake and translocation of the Cu-tolerant plant, Elsholtzia splendens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Chen, Xincai; Duan, Dechao; Peng, Cheng; Le, Thu; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-04-01

    A hydroponics trial was employed to study the effects of Pseudomonas putida CZ1 (CZ1), a heavy-metal-resistant bacterial strain isolated from the rhizosphere of Elsholtzia splendens (E. splendens), on the uptake and translocation of copper (Cu) in E. splendens. Significant promotion of plant growth coupled with the obvious plant-growth-promoting (PGP) characters of the bacteria suggested that CZ1 would be a plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) to E. splendens under Cu stress condition. The results of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) showed that CZ1 increased the concentration of Cu in the shoots (up to 211.6% compared to non-inoculation treatment) and translocation factor (TF) (from 0.56 to 1.83%) of those exposed to Cu. The distribution of Cu in root cross section measured by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SRXRF) indicated that CZ1 promoted the transport of Cu from cortex to xylem in roots, which contributed to the accumulation of Cu in shoots. Furthermore, CZ1 improved the uptake of nutrient elements by plants to oppose to the toxicity of Cu. In summary, P. putida CZ1 acted as a PGPR in resistance to Cu and promoted the accumulation and translocation of Cu from root to shoot by element redistribution in plant root; hence, CZ1 is a promising assistance to phytoremediation. PMID:25510610

  15. Prediction of two planar carbon allotropes with large meshes.

    PubMed

    Ma, ShuangYing; Sun, L Z; Zhang, K W

    2016-01-14

    Two novel two-dimensional (2D) carbon allotropes named C(y) and C(z) with large meshes are predicted based on first-principles calculations. Their formation energies are lower than that of graphdiyne, which was recently synthesized in an experiment. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that C(y) and C(z) are stable even when the temperature is over 1000 K. The calculated Poisson's ratios of C(y) and C(z) show their anisotropic mechanical properties. The electronic structure calculations indicate that C(y) is a metal, while C(z) behaves as a semiconductor. Moreover, C(z) shows conductive anisotropy suggesting its potential in nanoelectronic devices. Meanwhile, their well-defined mesh structures are suitable for molecular sieves. PMID:26660335

  16. Grown-in precipitates in heavily phosphorus-doped Czochralski silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yuheng; Ma, Xiangyang; Chen, Jiahe; Song, Weijie; Wang, Weiyan; Gong, Longfei; Tian, Daxi; Yang, Deren

    2012-02-01

    Through comparing the oxygen precipitation in the heavily and lightly phosphorus (P)-doped Czochralski silicon (CZ Si) specimens subjected to the simulated cooling processes of silicon ingot, we researched the influences of heavily P doping on grown-in precipitates by preferential etching and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that grown-in precipitates were more significant in heavily P-doped CZ Si than in lightly one. Most grown-in precipitates in heavily P-doped CZ Si were generated at (800-600) °C. The significant grown-in oxygen precipitates in the heavily P-doped CZ Si would change the density and morphology of oxygen precipitation. TEM examination revealed that the grown-in precipitates in heavily P-doped CZ Si were amorphous oxygen precipitates composed of tiny precipitates in essential. Although more or less phosphorus may be incorporated in the grown-in precipitates, however, phosphorus cannot be detected so far. We further confirmed that extending annealing at 550 °C produced significant silicon phosphide (SiP) precipitation in heavily P-doped CZ Si. Summarily, enhancement of grown-in oxygen precipitates was attributed to SiP precipitation and high-concentration vacancy, tentatively. Nonetheless, further investigation on the essential of grown-in precipitates in heavily P-doped CZ Si is worthy.

  17. Optical basicity and polarizability for copper-zinc doped sol-gel glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, G.; Amjotkaur, Pandey, O. P.; Kumar, Vishal

    2016-05-01

    CaO-SiO2-B2O3-P2O5 glasses have been studied by varying ratios of Copper oxide and Zinc oxide. Glasses were prepared using Sol-Gel technique. Opitical Basicity and oxide ion Polarizability were calculated and discussed in relation with non bridging Oxygen ions (NBOs). Optical basicity is average electron donating capability of an oxide atom. All glasses had a little difference in optical basicity and polarizability values but CZ8 glass (20CaO-60SiO2-5B2O3-5P2O5-2CuO-8ZnO) came out to show highest optical basicity and polarizability with value 0.5177 and 0.9798 respectively. This showed the highest electron donating tendency of CZ8 glass and highest number of NBOs. These were minimum for CZ2 glass with 8CuO and 2ZnO. In aspect of optical basicity and polarizability glasses follow the series CZ2 < CZ4 < CZ6 < CZ8. Increasing concentration of ZnO and decreasing concentration of CuO lead to higher optical basicity and oxide ion polarizability.

  18. Clonazepam oral droplets for the treatment of acute epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Osamu; Onishi, Hiraku; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2008-12-01

    Oral droplet formulations of clonazepam (CZ) were developed to examine their potentials as an alternative to i.v. administration for the treatment of acute epileptic seizures. Propylene glycol containing 2.5% (wt/wt) CZ with or without 5.0% (wt/wt) oleic acid (OA) was prepared as a solution by heating at 90 degrees C and subsequently lowering the temperature to 30 degrees C. The droplet (20 microL) was administered to the oral cavity between the lower gum and bottom lip before CZ precipitation started. With a droplet of propylene glycol loaded with 2.5% (wt/wt) CZ and 5.0% (wt/wt) OA, the plasma concentration reached 20 ng/mL (minimal effective concentration) within 10 min and was maintained between 20 and 60 ng/mL, less than a toxic level, for a period of 60 min. For a droplet of propylene glycol loaded only with CZ at 2.5% (wt/wt), it took more than 15 min for the plasma concentration to reach 20 ng/mL. It is suggested that a droplet of CZ/OA/propylene glycol (2.5:5.0:92.5, wt/wt) might be useful as an alternative to i.v. injection of CZ for the treatment of acute epileptic seizures. PMID:18720141

  19. Cytokinin Activity of cis-Zeatin and Phenotypic Alterations Induced by Overexpression of Putative cis-Zeatin-O-glucosyltransferase in Rice1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Toru; Makita, Nobue; Kojima, Mikiko; Tokunaga, Hiroki; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    cis-Zeatin (cZ) is generally regarded as a cytokinin with little or no activity, compared with the highly active trans-zeatin (tZ). Although recent studies suggested possible roles for cZ, its physiological significance remains unclear. In our studies with rice (Oryza sativa), cZ inhibited seminal root elongation and up-regulated cytokinin-inducible genes, and its activities were comparable to those of tZ. Tracer experiments showed that exogenously supplied cZ-riboside was mainly converted into cZ derivatives but scarcely into tZ derivatives, indicating that isomerizations of cZ derivatives into tZ derivatives are a minor pathway in rice cytokinin metabolism. We identified three putative cZ-O-glucosyltransferases (cZOGT1, cZOGT2, and cZOGT3) in rice. The cZOGTs preferentially catalyzed O-glucosylation of cZ and cZ-riboside rather than tZ and tZ-riboside in vitro. Transgenic rice lines ectopically overexpressing the cZOGT1 and cZOGT2 genes exhibited short-shoot phenotypes, delay of leaf senescence, and decrease in crown root number, while cZOGT3 overexpressor lines did not show shortened shoots. These results propose that cZ activity has a physiological impact on the growth and development of rice. PMID:22811434

  20. Effects of chlorate on the sulfation process of Trypanosoma cruzi glycoconjugates. Implication of parasite sulfates in cellular invasion.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Maximiliano R; Soprano, Luciana L; Acosta, Diana M; García, Gabriela A; Esteva, Mónica I; Couto, Alicia S; Duschak, Vilma G

    2014-09-01

    Sulfation, a post-translational modification which plays a key role in various biological processes, is inhibited by competition with chlorate. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, sulfated structures have been described as part of glycolipids and we have reported sulfated high-mannose type oligosaccharides in the C-T domain of the cruzipain (Cz) glycoprotein. However, sulfation pathways have not been described yet in this parasite. Herein, we studied the effect of chlorate treatment on T. cruzi with the aim to gain some knowledge about sulfation metabolism and the role of sulfated molecules in this parasite. In chlorate-treated epimastigotes, immunoblotting with anti-sulfates enriched Cz IgGs (AS-enriched IgGs) showed Cz undersulfation. Accordingly, a Cz mobility shift toward higher isoelectric points was observed in 2D-PAGE probed with anti-Cz antibodies. Ultrastructural membrane abnormalities and a significant decrease of dark lipid reservosomes were shown by electron microscopy and a significant decrease in sulfatide levels was confirmed by TLC/UV-MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Altogether, these results suggest T. cruzi sulfation occurs via PAPS. Sulfated epitopes in trypomastigote and amastigote forms were evidenced using AS-enriched IgGs by immunoblotting. Their presence on trypomastigotes surface was demonstrated by flow cytometry and IF with Cz/dCz specific antibodies. Interestingly, the percentage of infected cardiac HL-1 cells decreased 40% when using chlorate-treated trypomastigotes, suggesting sulfates are involved in the invasion process. The same effect was observed when cells were pre-incubated with dCz, dC-T or an anti-high mannose receptor (HMR) antibody, suggesting Cz sulfates and HMR are also involved in the infection process by T. cruzi. PMID:24879929

  1. Simple Bipolar Host Materials for High-Efficiency Blue, Green, and White Phosphorescence OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Jiuyan; Liu, Di; Jin, Qian

    2016-08-31

    3-(1H-Pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine is used as electron-transporting unit to construct bipolar host materials o-CzPyPz, m-CzPyPz, and p-CzPyPz for application in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). By varying the ortho-, meta-, or para-linking mode between the n-type 3-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine and the p-type carbazole on phenylene bridge, the optoelectronic parameters are tuned to large extent. The highly twisted o-CzPyPz has high triplet energy of 2.95 eV, while the isomer p-CzPyPz with more coplanar conformation has smaller triplet energy of 2.67 eV. The m-CzPyPz-hosted blue PhOLED exhibits a peak current efficiency of 49.1 cd A(-1) (corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 24.5%) and low-efficiency roll-off, while the p-CzPyPz-hosted green PhOLEDs turns on at 2.8 V and exhibits high efficiencies of 91.8 cd A(-1) (96.1 lm W(-1) and 27.3%). Furthermore, two-emitting-layer white OLEDs are fabricated with m-CzPyPz or p-CzPyPz as common hosts for both blue and orange phosphors, which realize high efficiencies of 57.8 cd A(-1) (45.4 lm W(-1) and 23.6%) and 60.7 cd A(-1) (38.1 lm W(-1) and 23.1%). The optimization of host structure for good matching of host and dopant and finally for the ideal performance is discussed. PMID:27517473

  2. Crossing disciplines and scales to understand the critical zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brantley, S.L.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Vala, Ragnarsdottir K.

    2007-01-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is the system of coupled chemical, biological, physical, and geological processes operating together to support life at the Earth's surface. While our understanding of this zone has increased over the last hundred years, further advance requires scientists to cross disciplines and scales to integrate understanding of processes in the CZ, ranging in scale from the mineral-water interface to the globe. Despite the extreme heterogeneities manifest in the CZ, patterns are observed at all scales. Explanations require the use of new computational and analytical tools, inventive interdisciplinary approaches, and growing networks of sites and people.

  3. Cherenkov and Scintillation Properties of Cubic Zirconium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M.J.; Adams, J.H.; Parnell, T.A.; Kuznetsov, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    Cubic zirconium (CZ) is a high index of refraction (n =2.17) material that we have investigated for Cherenkov counter applications. Laboratory and proton accelerator tests of an 18cc sample of CZ show that the expected fast Cherenkov response is accompanied by a longer scintillation component that can be separated by pulse shaping. This presents the possibility of novel particle spectrometers which exploits both properties of CZ. Other high index materials being examined for Cherenkov applications will be discussed. Results from laboratory tests and an accelerator exposure will be presented and a potential application in solar energetic particle instruments will be discussed

  4. The Influence of Peripheral Substituent Modification on P(V), Mn(III), and Mn(V)(O) Corrolazines: X-ray Crystallography, Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Properties, and HAT and OAT Reactivities.

    PubMed

    Joslin, Evan E; Zaragoza, Jan Paulo T; Baglia, Regina A; Siegler, Maxime A; Goldberg, David P

    2016-09-01

    The influence of remote peripheral substitution on the physicochemical properties and reactivity of phosphorus and manganese corrolazine (Cz) complexes was examined. The substitution of p-MeO for p-t-Bu groups on the eight phenyl substituents of the β-carbon atoms of the Cz ring led to changes in UV-vis transitions and redox potentials for each of the complexes. The oxygen atom transfer (OAT) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactivity of the Mn(V)(O) complexes was also influenced by p-MeO substitution. The OAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) (MeOP8Cz = octakis(p-methoxyphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)) with triarylphosphine (PAr3) substrates led to second-order rate constants from 10.2(5) to 3.1(2) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). These rates of OAT are slower than those seen for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) (TBP8Cz = octakis(p-tert-butylphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)). A Hammett study involving para-substituted PAr3 substrates reveals a Hammett ρ-value for Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) that is more negative than that observed for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), consistent with a less electrophilic Mn center. The HAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) with C-H substrates was examined and revealed second-order rate constants from 6.8(5) × 10(-5) to 1.70(2) × 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1). The rate constants varied with the C-H bond strength of the substrate. Slightly faster HAT rates with C-H substrates were observed with Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) compared to Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), indicating that the basicity of the putative [Mn(IV)(O)](-) intermediate likely compensates for the more negative redox potential in the driving force for HAT. In addition, the complete, large-scale synthesis of the para-phenyl-substituted porphyrazines RP8PzH2 (R = p-tert-butylphenyl (TB), p-methoxyphenyl (MeO), and p-isopropylphenyl) and corrolazines RP8CzH3 (TBP8CzH3 and MeOP8CzH3) is presented. The crystal structures of the monoprotonated, metal-free corrolazine [(TBP8CzH3)(H)](+)[BArF](-), P(V)(OMe)2(MeOP8Cz), and Mn(III)(MeOP8Cz)(MeOH) are presented. This work

  5. Detail of northeast stair entry with vaulted stair landing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of northeast stair entry with vaulted stair landing and ghost of former stair arch below stepped rail, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Detail of front west entry showing telescoping pilasters and decorative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of front west entry showing telescoping pilasters and decorative crawl space vents, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Interior view of bedroom 3 showing double doors to dining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bedroom 3 showing double doors to dining area and china dresser in background, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Interior view of dining area showing china dresser, and bifold ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of dining area showing china dresser, and bi-fold door to hall, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Interior view of living and dining areas showing china dresser ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of living and dining areas showing china dresser and structural system, facing northeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Detail of triple casement windows with operable transoms in north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of triple casement windows with operable transoms in north wall of garage, facing north. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Officers' Quarters, 800' West of Bruja Road, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Detail of stern from starboard side showing through hull fittings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of stern from starboard side showing through hull fittings for steering rods. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Interior view of bath room 05 with original toilet stall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath room 0-5 with original toilet stall, marble surround, and urinal, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Interior view of shower room 216 with original marble surround ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of shower room 2-16 with original marble surround and double sash windows, facing east. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Second floor plan. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 40215A. (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-5A. (original drawing located at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama). - Gorgas Hospital, Southwest of Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), 1916. Side elevation - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Longitudinal section. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), Right side elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Front elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Rear elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). First floor plan. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Left side elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Interior view of dutch door, double doorway with operable transom, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of dutch door, double doorway with operable transom, and typical single doorway with transom, facing south. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Interior view of central hall from bedroom 2 showing linen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of central hall from bedroom 2 showing linen dresser, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. First floor plan. - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Ground floor plan. - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Rodman, Republic or Panama), 1940. Elevations. - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1941. First floor plan - Fort Amador, Four Apartments, Van Hook Place, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Exterior details - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Sections - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1941. Basement floor plan. - Fort Amador, Four Apartments, Van Hook Place, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Second floor plan. - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Details of toilets - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Exterior Details - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940) Toilet plans - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1941. Elevation and section - Fort Amador, Four Apartments, Van Hook Place, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Float-Zone and Czochralski Crystal Growth and Diagnostic Solar Cell Evaluation of a New Solar-Grade Feedstock Source: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ciszek, T. F.; Page, M. R.; Wang, T. H.; Casey, J. A.

    2002-05-01

    This conference paper describes the Czochralski (CZ) and float-zone (FZ) crystals were grown from experimental solar-grade silicon (SOG-Si) feedstock materials developed by Crystal Systems. The materials were metallurgical-grade Si and highly boron-doped p-type electronic-grade Si (EG-Si) reject material, both of which were gaseous melt-treated to remove boron. Crystal growth observations, lifetime and impurity characterization of the grown crystals, and device performance of wafers from them are presented. Devices made directly on treated high-B EG-Si feedstock have a little over half the efficiency of devices made from control CZ samples. However, devices on CZ and FZ crystals grown from the treated high-B EG-Si feedstock have comparable PV performance (14.0% and 13.8% efficiency, respectively) to that of CZ control samples (14.1%).

  18. General view of building in context showing row of residences ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of building in context showing row of residences adjacent to golf course, facing northeast. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Officers' Quarters, 800' West of Bruja Road, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Detail of parachute tower showing integration with main roof form, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of parachute tower showing integration with main roof form, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Interior view at top of parachute drying tower showing original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view at top of parachute drying tower showing original steel wall-mounted ladder, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Detail of southwest corner showing rear double door entry, bracketed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of southwest corner showing rear double door entry, bracketed window awnings, and decorative parapet coping, facing northeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Interior view of main entry hall showing stairs and original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of main entry hall showing stairs and original pipe handrails, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Oblique view of south and east sides showing parachute tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of south and east sides showing parachute tower, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Oblique view of north side showing bracketed window awnings, main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of north side showing bracketed window awnings, main entry, and mission coping, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. General view of building 405 in context showing hangars in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of building 405 in context showing hangars in distance, facing west. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Al-O complex formation in ion implanted Czochralski and floating-zone Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Ferla, A.; Torrisi, L.; Galvagno, G.; Rimini, E.; Ciavola, G.; Carnera, A.; Gasparotto, A.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum ions at 100 MeV were implanted into floating-zone (FZ) and Czochralski (CZ) grown Si substrates. At this energy the influence of the surface on the subsequent thermal treatment is negligible. In FZ samples the electrical active dose, as measured by spreading resistance profilometry, is independent of the annealing time at 1200 °C. In the CZ samples instead it considerably decreases with time. Secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis in CZ samples have revealed the presence of a multipeak structure around the projected range region for both Al and O signals. In FZ the structure is just detectable. The results imply that the Al-O complex formation is enhanced by the presence of oxygen but that it is catalyzed by the damage created during the implant. The carrier profiles coincide in both CZ and FZ diffused substrates by predeposition of Al from a solid source, i.e., in damage-free samples.

  7. Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ceiling grate, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Interior view of servant's room showing ornamental iron security grille, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of servant's room showing ornamental iron security grille, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Critical Zone Science: a new scientific paradigm?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Longuevergne, L.; Nord, G.; André, F.

    2014-12-01

    The main merit of the Critical Zone (CZ) Science is to foster multidisciplinary approaches on one of the most important envelopes of our Planet, the zone on which humanity lives and on which humans develop their societies. Policy makers and stakeholders also require a more unified scientific vision on the behavior of the CZ. The CZ science is not new and many communities have been doing CZ science for many decades. CZ-type observatories have been developed in most of the countries for different aims but generally lack of an integrated approach. When hydrologic measurements are made, they are generally not associated to geochemical measurements and the situation is worst for biological parameters. Instrumental geophysics of the CZ has done impressive progresses over the last decades but the misfit between the scientific questions and instrumental development is still a challenging issue. We will take the example of the French initiatives to build up a wide community of CZ scientists ("critical zonists") at the national scale taking into account decades of instrumentation and observation. More than creating new CZOs the French national research agencies helped foster collaboration between existing infrastructures by funding networking activities and developing significant investment programs for new equipment. We will review the main challenges of creating CZ networks based on existing funded research infrastructures and highlight the main instrumental challenges that need to be addressed to explore and understand the CZ in a modern way. The French initiatives mirror the European initiatives and the need for developing the links between the geo-centered initiative CZ concept and the ecology-centered concepts of LTER (and more recently LTSER) at the European scale. This willingness of linking historically separated communities is a stimulating opportunity for the advance of integrated Earth and Life sciences. As quoted by Bruno Latour (2014) the new environmental

  10. Anti-inflammatory/Anti-oxidative stress activities and differential regulation of Nrf2-mediated genes by non-polar fractions of tea Chrysanthemum zawadskii and licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tien-Yuan; Khor, Tin Oo; Saw, Constance Lay Lay; Loh, Stephanie C; Chen, Alvin I; Lim, Soon Sung; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Cai, Li; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2011-03-01

    Accumulating evidence from epidemiological studies indicates that chronic inflammation and oxidative stress play critical roles in neoplastic development. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative stress activities, and differential regulation of Nrf2-mediated genes by tea Chrysanthemum zawadskii (CZ) and licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis (LE) extracts. The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress activities of hexane/ethanol extracts of CZ and LE were investigated using in vitro and in vivo approaches, including quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and microarray. Additionally, the role of the transcriptional factor Nrf2 (nuclear erythroid-related factor 2) signaling pathways was examined. Our results show that CZ and LE extracts exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the mRNA and protein expression levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. CZ and LE also significantly suppressed the NO production of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, CZ and LE suppressed the NF-κB luciferase activity in human HT-29 colon cancer cells. Both extracts also showed strong Nrf2-mediated antioxidant/Phase II detoxifying enzymes induction. CZ and LE induced NQO1, Nrf2, and UGT and antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase activity in human hepatoma HepG2 C8 cells. Using Nrf2 knockout [Nrf2 (-/-)] and Nrf2 wild-type (+/+) mice, LE and CZ showed Nrf2-dependent transactivation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant and phase II detoxifying genes. In summary, CZ and LE possess strong inhibitory effects against NF-κB-mediated inflammatory as well as strong activation of the Nrf2-ARE-anti-oxidative stress signaling pathways, which would contribute to their overall health promoting pharmacological effects against diseases including cancer. PMID:20967519

  11. 77 FR 47275 - Airworthiness Directives; HPH s. r.o. Sailplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all HPH s. r.o. Models 304C, 304CZ, and 304CZ-17 sailplanes. This AD results from mandatory continuing airworthiness information (MCAI) issued by an aviation authority of another country to identify and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as the lack of a drain hole in the elevator......

  12. Electrical property studies of oxygen in Czochralski-grown neutron-transmutation-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, J.W.; Fukuoka, N.

    1980-10-01

    Electically active oxygen-related donors can be formed in Czochralski (Cz) Si either during crystal growth or during subsequent heat treatment; conventional n- or p-type dopant carrier concentrations are altered if these oxygen donors are present. Neutron transmutation doping (NTD) has been used to introduce a uniform concentration of /sup 31/P in Si. However, oxygen donors can also be formed in NTD Cz Si during the process of annealing to remove NTD radiation damage. In the present experiments, the carrier concentration of Cz and NTD Cz Si samples was determined as a function of the initial dopant, oxygen, and /sup 31/P concentration before and after isothermal or isochronal annealing. It is shown that low temperature (350 to 500/sup 0/C) heat treatment can introduce a significant oxygen donor concentration in Cz Si and in NTD Cz Si that contains radiation-induced lattice defects. Intermediate temperature (550 to 750/sup 0/C) heat treatment, which is intended to remove oxygen donors or lattice defects, can introduce other oxygen donors; annealing above 750/sup 0/C is required to remove any of these oxygen donors. Extended (20 h) high-temperature (1000 to 1200/sup 0/C) annealing can remove oxygen donors and lattice defects, but a significant concentration of oxygen donors can still be introduced by subsequent low temperature heat treatment. These results suggest that oxygen-related donor formation in NTD Cz Si at temperatures below 750/sup 0/C may serve to mask any annealing study of lattice defects. It is concluded that annealing for 30 min at 750/sup 0/C is sufficient to remove radiation damage in NTD Cz Si when the separate effects of oxygen donor formation are included.

  13. Micro-probe Raman spectroscopy for detection of inhomogeneities in YVO4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, S.; Jin, B.; Ainger, F. W.; Bhalla, A. S.; Keszei, B.; Vandlik, J.; Süveges, A.

    1996-03-01

    Several near quasicongruent undoped YVO4 single crystals grown by the Czochralski (CZ) technique as well as near stoichiometric YVO4 single crystals grown by the top-seeded solution growth technique, were investigated by micro-probe Raman spectroscopy using unpolarized argon-ion laser light. The line broadening effects of the Raman active mode at 379 cm-1 indicate that all CZ grown crystals possess wider peak widths than near stoichiometric YVO4. In the latter case a value of 9.23 cm-1 was measured for full width at half-maximum. Although the annealing process in O2 can improve the oxygen stoichiometry in the originally slightly oxygen deficient CZ grown YVO4 crystals, certain remaining peak broadening effects demonstrate a Y-V related stoichiometry problem by both lower (external) and higher frequency (internal) modes. Radial inhomogeneous distributions were observed in CZ specimens by the shift of external Raman modes at 157 and 162 cm-1 frequencies. In addition, nonassigned low intensity extra Raman peaks appeared over 1000 cm-1 frequencies in all CZ grown samples. The above detected changes in Y-V-O stoichiometry demonstrate a complex phase system around the homogeneity region of quasicongruent YVO4 specimens and enable a more realistic and unified interpretation of the segregated defects and stoichiometry changes in CZ grown YVO4 single crystals than previously available.

  14. Fabrication of mucoadhesive chitosan coated polyvinylpyrrolidone/cyclodextrin/clotrimazole sandwich patches for oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Panomsuk, Suwanee; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to fabricate clotrimazole (CZ)-composite sandwich nanofibers using electrospinning. The CZ-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) fiber was coated with chitosan-cysteine (CS-SH)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to increase the mucoadhesive properties and to achieve a sustained release of the drug from the nanofibers. The nanofibers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The nanofibers mechanical and mucoadhesive properties, drug release, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity were also assessed. The fibers were in the nanoscale with good mucoadhesive properties. The XRPD revealed a molecular dispersion of amorphous CZ in the nanofibers. The initial fast release of CZ from the nanofibers was achieved. Moreover, the sandwich nanofibers coated for longer times resulted in slower release rates compared with the shorter coating times. The CZ-loaded nanofibers killed the Candida significantly faster than the commercial CZ lozenges at 5, 15 and 30 min and were safe for a 2-h incubation. Therefore, these nanofibers may be promising candidates for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:26256338

  15. Critical zone study in Korea: integration of hydrogeology, mineralogy, sedimentology and molecular biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kwon, K.; Jo, K. N.; Lee, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Critical Zone (CZ) is the topmost layer of the Earth ranging from the vegetation canopy down to the soil, groundwater, and bedrock that sustains our ecosystem including human life. This CZ is being greatly influenced by the climate change and anthropogenic forces. We introduce the Critical Zone Frontier Research Laboratory (CFRL), a critical zone research lab recently funded by the Korean government for 2015-2020. The objective of CFRL is to unravel the relationships between climate and CZ changes to propose a prediction model for future responses of CZ to climate change. For this ultimate goal, we establish multiple CZ observatories in Kangwon areas and investigate soil, groundwater, and cave environments by integration of hydrogeology, mineralogy, sedimentology and molecular biogeochemistry. This study will enhance our understanding about CZ and local resolution of a climate change model. This research is financially supported by the Basic Research Laboratory Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning.

  16. On the use of 31P NMR for the quantification of hydrosoluble phosphorus-containing compounds in coral host tissues and cultured zooxanthellae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinot, Claire; Gaysinski, Marc; Thomas, Olivier P.; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Grover, Renaud

    2016-02-01

    31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was assessed to investigate the phosphorus-containing compounds present in the tissues of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata as well as of cultured zooxanthellae (CZ). Results showed that phosphorus-containing compounds observed in CZ were mainly phosphate and phosphate esters. Phosphate accounted for 19 ± 2% of the total phosphorus compounds observed in CZ maintained under low P-levels (0.02 μM). Adding 5 mM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (KH2PO4) to the CZ culture medium led to a 3.1-fold increase in intracellular phosphate, while adding 5 mM of dissolved organic phosphorus led to a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus compounds, including a 2.5-fold intracellular phosphate decrease. In sharp contrast to zooxanthellae, the host mainly contained phosphonates, and to a lesser extent, phosphate esters and phosphate. Two-months of host starvation decreased the phosphate content by 2.4 fold, while bleaching of fed corals did not modify this content. Based on 31P NMR analyses, this study highlights the importance of phosphonates in the composition of coral host tissues, and illustrates the impact of phosphorus availability on the phosphorus composition of host tissues and CZ, both through feeding of the host and inorganic phosphorus enrichment of the CZ.

  17. On the use of 31P NMR for the quantification of hydrosoluble phosphorus-containing compounds in coral host tissues and cultured zooxanthellae.

    PubMed

    Godinot, Claire; Gaysinski, Marc; Thomas, Olivier P; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Grover, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    (31)P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was assessed to investigate the phosphorus-containing compounds present in the tissues of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata as well as of cultured zooxanthellae (CZ). Results showed that phosphorus-containing compounds observed in CZ were mainly phosphate and phosphate esters. Phosphate accounted for 19 ± 2% of the total phosphorus compounds observed in CZ maintained under low P-levels (0.02 μM). Adding 5 mM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (KH2PO4) to the CZ culture medium led to a 3.1-fold increase in intracellular phosphate, while adding 5 mM of dissolved organic phosphorus led to a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus compounds, including a 2.5-fold intracellular phosphate decrease. In sharp contrast to zooxanthellae, the host mainly contained phosphonates, and to a lesser extent, phosphate esters and phosphate. Two-months of host starvation decreased the phosphate content by 2.4 fold, while bleaching of fed corals did not modify this content. Based on (31)P NMR analyses, this study highlights the importance of phosphonates in the composition of coral host tissues, and illustrates the impact of phosphorus availability on the phosphorus composition of host tissues and CZ, both through feeding of the host and inorganic phosphorus enrichment of the CZ. PMID:26902733

  18. Above 30% external quantum efficiency in green delayed fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Ryun; Kim, Bo Seong; Lee, Chil Won; Im, Yirang; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Hwang, Seok-Ho; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2015-05-13

    Highly efficient green thermally activated delayed fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes with an external quantum efficiency of 31.2% were investigated by using 3-(3-(carbazole-9-yl)phenyl) pyrido[3',2':4,5]furo[2,3-b]pyridine (3CzPFP) derived from carbazole and pyrido[3',2':4,5]furo[2,3-b]pyridine. The host material showed well-matched photoluminescence emission with absorption of the green dopant material, (4s,6s)-2,4,5,6-tetra(9H-carbazol-9-yl)isophthalonitrile (4CzIPN) and harvested all excitons of 4CzIPN. The 3CzPFP:4CzIPN film exhibited high photoluminescence quantum yield of 100%, and the green delayed fluorescence device employing the 3CzPFP host showed high maximum quantum efficiency of 31.2 ± 0.5% at 1% doping after optimization of the device structure. PMID:25924007

  19. On the use of 31P NMR for the quantification of hydrosoluble phosphorus-containing compounds in coral host tissues and cultured zooxanthellae

    PubMed Central

    Godinot, Claire; Gaysinski, Marc; Thomas, Olivier P.; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Grover, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was assessed to investigate the phosphorus-containing compounds present in the tissues of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata as well as of cultured zooxanthellae (CZ). Results showed that phosphorus-containing compounds observed in CZ were mainly phosphate and phosphate esters. Phosphate accounted for 19 ± 2% of the total phosphorus compounds observed in CZ maintained under low P-levels (0.02 μM). Adding 5 mM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (KH2PO4) to the CZ culture medium led to a 3.1-fold increase in intracellular phosphate, while adding 5 mM of dissolved organic phosphorus led to a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus compounds, including a 2.5-fold intracellular phosphate decrease. In sharp contrast to zooxanthellae, the host mainly contained phosphonates, and to a lesser extent, phosphate esters and phosphate. Two-months of host starvation decreased the phosphate content by 2.4 fold, while bleaching of fed corals did not modify this content. Based on 31P NMR analyses, this study highlights the importance of phosphonates in the composition of coral host tissues, and illustrates the impact of phosphorus availability on the phosphorus composition of host tissues and CZ, both through feeding of the host and inorganic phosphorus enrichment of the CZ. PMID:26902733

  20. Summary of longitudinal stability and control parameters as determined from Space Shuttle Challenger flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, William T.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of longitudinal stability and control parameters for the space shuttle were determined by applying a maximum likelihood parameter estimation technique to Challenger flight test data. The parameters for pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub alpha), (at different angles of attack), pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub delta e), (at different elevator deflections) and the normal force coefficient, C(z sub alpha), (at different angles of attack) describe 90 percent of the response to longitudinal inputs during Space Shuttle Challenger flights with C(m sub delta e) being the dominant parameter. The values of C(z sub alpha) were found to be input dependent for these tests. However, when C(z sub alpha) was set at preflight predictions, the values determined for C(m sub delta e) changed less than 10 percent from the values obtained when C(z sub alpha) was estimated as well. The preflight predictions for C(z sub alpha) and C(m sub alpha) are acceptable values, while the values of C(z sub delta e) should be about 30 percent less negative than the preflight predictions near Mach 1, and 10 percent less negative, otherwise.

  1. Localization Effect on Pt-Loaded Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 Nanoparticles Inserted Into Mesoporous SBA-16 by Hydrothermal Processing.

    PubMed

    Yotou, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Takumi; Ito, Miho; Sekino, Tohru; Tanaka, Shun-Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    We succeeded to use hydrothermal treatment to insert prefabricated Pt-loaded Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 (PtCZ) nanoparticles into the mesopores of the SBA-16 mesoporous silica without disordering of the mesoporous structure. Samples prepared by the hydrothermal treatment exhibited superior oxygen storage capacity compared to that of simple dry mixed sample. The oxygen storage capacity of the hydrothermally treated PtCZ is attributed to the localized PtCZ nanoparticles inside the mesopores of the SBA-16. FTIR analysis suggested that the PtCZ nanoparticles inside the mesopores possess the Si-O-Zr linkages that are bonded to the inner walls of the SBA-16 host. This linkage is the key reason for the superior oxygen storage capacity of PtCZ localized in the mesopores by hydrothermal treatment. It is considered that the formation of the Si-O-Zr linkage in the hydrothermally treated samples resulted in crystalline distortions of Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 nanoparticles inside the mesopores, and which contribute to enhance the oxygen storage capacity of PtCZ. PMID:26716294

  2. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values of the Benign Central Zone of the Prostate: Comparison With Low- and High-Grade Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajan T.; Kauffman, Christopher R.; Garcia-Reyes, Kirema; Palmeri, Mark L.; Madden, John F.; Polascik, Thomas J.; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The apparent diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values for benign central zone (CZ) of the prostate were compared with ADC values of benign periphral zone (PZ), benign transition zone (TZ), and prostate cancer, using histopathologic findings from radical prostatectomy as the reference standard. Materials and Methods The study included 27 patients with prostate cancer (mean [± SD] age, 60.0 ± 7.6 years) who had 3-T endorectal coil MRI of the prostate performed before undergoing prostatectomy with whole-mount histopathologic assessment. Mean ADC values were recorded from the ROI within the index tumor and within benign CZ, PZ, and TZ, with the use of histopathologic findings as the reference standard. ADC values of the groups were compared using paired t tests and ROC curve analysis. Results The ADC of benign CZ in the right (1138 ± 123 × 10−6 mm2/s) and left (1166 ± 141 × 10−6 mm2/s) lobes was not significantly different (p = 0.217). However, the ADC of benign CZ (1154 ± 129 × 10−6 mm2/s) was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than the ADCs of benign PZ (1579 ± 197 × 10−6 mm2/s) and benign TZ (1429 ± 180 × 10−6 mm2/s). Although the ADC of index tumors (1042 ± 134 × 10−6 mm2/s) was significantly lower (p = 0.002) than the ADC of benign CZ there was no significant difference (p = 0.225) between benign CZ and tumors with a Gleason score of 6 (1119 ± 87 × 10−6 mm2/s). In 22.2% of patients (6/27), including five patients who had tumors with a Gleason score greater than 6, the ADC was lower in benign CZ than in the index tumor. The AUC of ADC for the differentiation of benign CZ from index tumors was 72.4% (sensitivity, 70.4%; specificity, 51.9%), and the AUC of ADC for differentiation from tumors with a Gleason score greater than 6 was 76.7% (sensitivity, 75.0%; specificity, 65.0%). Conclusion The ADC of benign CZ is lower than the ADC of other zones of the prostate and overlaps with the ADC of prostate cancer tissue, including high

  3. Cefepime compared with ceftazidime as initial therapy for serious bacterial infections and sepsis syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Kieft, H; Hoepelman, A I; Rozenberg-Arska, M; Branger, J M; Voskuil, J H; Geers, A B; Kluyver, M; Hart, H C; Poest-Clement, E; van Beugen, L

    1994-01-01

    In an open randomized multicenter comparative study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of cefepime (CP; 2.0 g given intravenously every 12 h) and ceftazidime (CZ; 2.0 g given intravenously every 8 h) as initial treatment for adult patients with suspected serious bacterial infections. A total of 133 patients entered the study, of whom 114 were evaluable for clinical and microbiological response assessment: 56 received CP and 58 received CZ. About 50% (30 who received CP and 25 who received CZ) fulfilled the criteria of the sepsis syndrome. The treatment groups were comparable with respect to sex distribution, mean age, underlying diseases, treatment duration, APACHE II score, and type of infection. The most commonly cultured microorganisms were members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The causative microorganisms were eradicated from 92% (37 of 40) of patients with a microbiologically documented infection who underwent treatment with CP; they were eradicated from 86% (42 to 49) of patients who received CZ. The responses of only clinically documented infections in the CP group were 90% (27 of 30 patients); in the CZ group they were 87% (26 of 30 patients). When patients fulfilled the criteria of the sepsis syndrome (septic shock excluded), the causative microorganisms were eradicated from 89% (16 of 18) of CP-treated patients and 86% (12 of 14) of CZ-treated patients. None of these differences was statistically significant. Mortality was the same in both groups (four patients in each group) and was not attributable to the study medication. In conclusion, CP is at least as effective and as safe as CZ, as initial antimicrobial therapy for suspected serious bacterial infections in nonneutropenic patients with or without the sepsis syndrome. CP has the additional advantage in that it can be given twice daily, which may lead to a decrease in hospital costs. PMID:8203833

  4. Calmidazolium evokes high calcium fluctuations in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Budu, Alexandre; Gomes, Mayrim M; Melo, Pollyana M; El Chamy Maluf, Sarah; Bagnaresi, Piero; Azevedo, Mauro F; Carmona, Adriana K; Gazarini, Marcos L

    2016-03-01

    Calcium and calmodulin (CaM) are important players in eukaryote cell signaling. In the present study, by using a knockin approach, we demonstrated the expression and localization of CaM in all erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Under extracellular Ca(2+)-free conditions, calmidazolium (CZ), a potent CaM inhibitor, promoted a transient cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)]cyt) increase in isolated trophozoites, indicating that CZ mobilizes intracellular sources of calcium. In the same extracellular Ca(2+)-free conditions, the [Ca(2+)]cyt rise elicited by CZ treatment was ~3.5 fold higher when the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium store was previously depleted ruling out the mobilization of calcium from the ER by CZ. The effects of the Ca(2+)/H(+) ionophore ionomycin (ION) and the Na(+)/H(+) ionophore monensin (MON) suggest that the [Ca(2+)]cyt-increasing effect of CZ is driven by the removal of Ca(2+) from at least one Ca(2+)-CaM-related (CaMR) protein as well as by the mobilization of Ca(2+) from intracellular acidic calcium stores. Moreover, we showed that the mitochondrion participates in the sequestration of the cytosolic Ca(2+) elicited by CZ. Finally, the modulation of membrane Ca(2+) channels by CZ and thapsigargin (THG) was demonstrated. The opened channels were blocked by the unspecific calcium channel blocker Co(2+) but not by 2-APB (capacitative calcium entry inhibitor) or nifedipine (L-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor). Taken together, the results suggested that one CaMR protein is an important modulator of calcium signaling and homeostasis during the Plasmodium intraerythrocytic cell cycle, working as a relevant intracellular Ca(2+) reservoir in the parasite. PMID:26689736

  5. Dual inhibition of MEK1/2 and EGFR synergistically induces caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in EGFR inhibitor-resistant lung cancer cells via BIM upregulation.

    PubMed

    Song, Ji-Young; Kim, Choung-Soo; Lee, Je-Hwan; Jang, Se Jin; Lee, Sang-wook; Hwang, Jung Jin; Lim, Chulsoo; Lee, Gilnam; Seo, Jeongbeob; Cho, Suk Young; Choi, Jene

    2013-12-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations activate the KRAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway in lung cancer cells. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib induce apoptosis of cancer cells, but prolonged treatment is often associated with acquired resistance. Here, we identified a novel MEK1/2 inhibitor, CZ0775, and compared its cytotoxic effects to those of AZD6244 (selumetinib) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines harboring EGFR mutations. The lapatinib-sensitive HCC827 and PC9 and lapatinib-resistant H1650 and H1975 cell lines showed poor responses to CZ0775 and AZD6244 monotherapy with an IC50 > 10 μM. By contrast, combination treatment with lapatinib and CZ0775 inhibited cell proliferation and produced a 2-fold higher number of annexin V-labeled cells than lapatinib alone in H1975 cells. Furthermore, combination treatment decreased phosphorylated extracellular signal related kinase (p-ERK) and survivin levels and upregulated the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein BIM. siRNA-mediated BIM depletion reduced caspase-3 activity (~40%) in lapatinib and CZ0775 treated H1975 cells. An in vitro ERK activity assay showed that p-ERK levels were approximately a 3-fold lower in H1975 cells treated with CZ0775 and lapatinib combination than in cells treated with lapatinib alone. CZ0775 was more cytotoxic than AZD6244 when used in combination with lapatinib. Our results suggest that combination treatment with CZ0774 and EGFR inhibitors is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of EGFR-TKI-resistant lung cancers and its effect is mediated by the inhibition of ERK and the induction of BIM. PMID:24068620

  6. Barriers and potential solutions for Critical Zone data integration between environmental genomics and the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, E. L.; Meyer, F.; Packman, A. I.; Mayorga, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's permeable near-surface layer from bedrock to canopy is referred to as the Critical Zone (CZ). Integration of bio- and geoscience data is critical for understanding physical, biological and chemical interactions in the CZ. Genomic and meta-genomic scientists study organisms both in laboratory settings and in the environment, in order to understand the interactions of organisms with the environment. Geoscientists are using environmental data to describe and model dynamics of physical and chemical properties. Yet, there is no agreed upon method for integrating genomic and environmental data to address interactions of living and non-living components of the CZ. There are standards for data interchange being developed in the geosciences and genomics sciences, via standards organization such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), as well as by research communities in biogeochemistry, hydrology, climatology, and other fields. These are in parallel to, but typically not in coordination with the standards the Genomics Standards Consortium (GSC) is developing for genomics. In addition, efforts are being made to allow for intercompatability of these CZ data with data generated by NEON, Inc. The interoperability of these types of data is limited with current software and cyberinfrastructure. A group of CZ geoscientists, environmental genomic scientists and cyberinfrastructure scientists are coming together to develop a set of common data collection and integration methods and sets of common standards. The data generated by this effort across multiple CZ sites (including the US CZ Observatories, or CZOs) around the world, along with NEON facility data, will be used to test EarthCube (an NSF initiative to develop cyberinfrastructure for the geosciences) cyberinfrastructure, with the goal of bridging this gap in standards and interoperability. Potential solutions to these issues of interoperability will be presented, and a way forward will be described.

  7. Earth's Critical Zone and hydropedology: concepts, characteristics, and advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H. S.

    2009-04-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is a holistic framework for integrated studies of water with soil, rock, air, and biotic resources in terrestrial environments. This is consistent with the recognition of water as a unifying theme for research on complex environmental systems. The CZ ranges from the top of the vegetation down to the bottom of the aquifer, with a highly variable thickness (from <0.001 to >10 km). The pedosphere is the foundation of the CZ, which represents a geomembrance across which water and solutes, as well as energy, gases, solids, and organisms are actively exchanged with the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere to create a life-sustaining environment. Hydropedology - the science of the behaviour and distribution of soil-water interactions in contact with mineral and biological materials in the CZ - is an important contributor to CZ research. This article reviews and discusses the basic ideas and fundamental features of the CZ and hydropedology, and suggests ways for their advances. An "outward" growth model, instead of an "inward" contraction, is suggested for propelling soil science forward. The CZ is the right platform for synergistic collaborations across disciplines. The reconciliation of the geological (or "big") cycle and the biological (or "small") cycle that are orders of magnitude different in space and time is a key to understanding and predicting complex CZ processes. Because of the layered nature of the CZ and the general trend of increasing density with depth, response and feedback to climate change take longer from the above-ground zone down to the soil zone and further to the groundwater zone. Interfaces between layers and cycles are critical controls of the landscape-soil-water-ecosystem dynamics, which present fertile grounds for interdisciplinary research. Ubiquitous heterogeneity in the CZ can be addressed by environmental gradients and landscape patterns, where hierarchical structures control the landscape complex of

  8. Laser vision: lidar as a transformative tool to advance critical zone science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpold, A. A.; Marshall, J. A.; Lyon, S. W.; Barnhart, T. B.; Fisher, B. A.; Donovan, M.; Brubaker, K. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Glenn, N. F.; Glennie, C. L.; Kirchner, P. B.; Lam, N.; Mankoff, K. D.; McCreight, J. L.; Molotch, N. P.; Musselman, K. N.; Pelletier, J.; Russo, T.; Sangireddy, H.; Sjöberg, Y.; Swetnam, T.; West, N.

    2015-06-01

    Observation and quantification of the Earth's surface is undergoing a revolutionary change due to the increased spatial resolution and extent afforded by light detection and ranging (lidar) technology. As a consequence, lidar-derived information has led to fundamental discoveries within the individual disciplines of geomorphology, hydrology, and ecology. These disciplines form the cornerstones of critical zone (CZ) science, where researchers study how interactions among the geosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere shape and maintain the "zone of life", which extends from the top of unweathered bedrock to the top of the vegetation canopy. Fundamental to CZ science is the development of transdisciplinary theories and tools that transcend disciplines and inform other's work, capture new levels of complexity, and create new intellectual outcomes and spaces. Researchers are just beginning to use lidar data sets to answer synergistic, transdisciplinary questions in CZ science, such as how CZ processes co-evolve over long timescales and interact over shorter timescales to create thresholds, shifts in states and fluxes of water, energy, and carbon. The objective of this review is to elucidate the transformative potential of lidar for CZ science to simultaneously allow for quantification of topographic, vegetative, and hydrological processes. A review of 147 peer-reviewed lidar studies highlights a lack of lidar applications for CZ studies as 38 % of the studies were focused in geomorphology, 18 % in hydrology, 32 % in ecology, and the remaining 12 % had an interdisciplinary focus. A handful of exemplar transdisciplinary studies demonstrate lidar data sets that are well-integrated with other observations can lead to fundamental advances in CZ science, such as identification of feedbacks between hydrological and ecological processes over hillslope scales and the synergistic co-evolution of landscape-scale CZ structure due to interactions amongst carbon, energy, and water cycles

  9. Hydrological partitioning in the critical zone: Recent advances and opportunities for developing transferable understanding of water cycle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Paul D.; Chorover, Jon; Fan, Ying; Godsey, Sarah E.; Maxwell, Reed M.; McNamara, James P.; Tague, Christina

    2015-09-01

    Hydrology is an integrative discipline linking the broad array of water-related research with physical, ecological, and social sciences. The increasing breadth of hydrological research, often where subdisciplines of hydrology partner with related sciences, reflects the central importance of water to environmental science, while highlighting the fractured nature of the discipline itself. This lack of coordination among hydrologic subdisciplines has hindered the development of hydrologic theory and integrated models capable of predicting hydrologic partitioning across time and space. The recent development of the concept of the critical zone (CZ), an open system extending from the top of the canopy to the base of groundwater, brings together multiple hydrological subdisciplines with related physical and ecological sciences. Observations obtained by CZ researchers provide a diverse range of complementary process and structural data to evaluate both conceptual and numerical models. Consequently, a cross-site focus on "critical zone hydrology" has potential to advance the discipline of hydrology and to facilitate the transition of CZ observatories into a research network with immediate societal relevance. Here we review recent work in catchment hydrology and hydrochemistry, hydrogeology, and ecohydrology that highlights a common knowledge gap in how precipitation is partitioned in the critical zone: "how is the amount, routing, and residence time of water in the subsurface related to the biogeophysical structure of the CZ?" Addressing this question will require coordination among hydrologic subdisciplines and interfacing sciences, and catalyze rapid progress in understanding current CZ structure and predicting how climate and land cover changes will affect hydrologic partitioning.

  10. Results from Coalbed Methane Drilling in Winn Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Breland, F. Clayton, Jr.; Richard, Troy E.; Ross, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    A coalbed methane (CBM) well in Winn Parish, Louisiana, named CZ Fee A No. 114, was drilled by Vintage Petroleum, Inc., in January 2004. The CZ Fee A No. 114 CBM well was drilled to a total depth of 3,114 ft and perforated at 2,730-2,734 ft in a Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) coal bed. Analytical data from the drilling project have been released by Vintage Petroleum, Inc., and by the current well operator, Hilcorp Energy Corporation (see Appendix) to the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for publication. General information about the CZ Fee A No. 114 CBM well is compiled in Table 1, and analytical data from the well are included in following sections. The CZ Fee A No. 114 well is located in eastern Winn Parish, approximately 30 mi east of where Wilcox Group strata crop out on the Sabine Uplift (fig. 1). In the CZ Fee A No. 114 well, lower Wilcox Paleocene coal beds targeted for CBM production occur at depths of 2,600-3,000 ft (fig. 2). Average monthly gas production for the reporting period August 1, 2004, through May 1, 2005, was 450 thousand cubic feet (Mcf) (Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, 2005).

  11. Photophysical processes involved within the bichromophoric system 9-benzotriazole-1-ylmethyl-9H-carbazole and its role as an artificial photosynthetic device.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Paulami; Misra, Tapas; De, Asish; Ghosh, Sanjib; Chaudhury, Shyamal Roy; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Ganguly, Tapan

    2007-03-01

    From both steady state and fluorescence lifetime measurements it reveals that due to photoexcitation of benzotriazole (BZ) part of the bichromophore, 9(1-H-benzotriazole-lylmethyl)-9H-carbazole (BHC), singlet-singlet energy transfer takes place to populate the lowest excited singlet of carbazole (CZ). CZ, thus being excited indirectly via energy transfer process, undergoes strong charge transfer (CT) reaction with the surrounding polar medium acetonitrile (ACN). On the other hand, very weak CT band was apparent when CZ part, within BHC, was directly excited. In less polar tetrahydrofuran (THF) and polar benzonitrile (BN) environment, lack of formation of CT band strongly suggests in favor of the electron-accepting behavior of ACN. Moreover, by measuring the emission spectra of BHC in microcrystals and of 30 bilayers mixed LB film at high mole fraction of BHC molecules, the possibility of excimer formation or aggregation has been ruled out. Thus, BHC, when dissolved in ACN, acts as a triad system of BZ-CZ-ACN where BZ acts as an antenna molecule and CZ as a reaction center. The possible role of the bichromophoric system BHC as an artificial photosynthetic or solar energy conversion device has been hinted. PMID:16859957

  12. Attractant and repellent cues cooperate in guiding a subset of olfactory sensory axons to a well-defined protoglomerular target.

    PubMed

    Taku, Alemji A; Marcaccio, Christina L; Ye, Wenda; Krause, Gregory J; Raper, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory sensory axons target well-defined intermediate targets in the zebrafish olfactory bulb called protoglomeruli well before they form odorant receptor-specific glomeruli. A subset of olfactory sensory neurons are labeled by expression of the or111-7:IRES:GAL4 transgene whose axons terminate in the central zone (CZ) protoglomerulus. Previous work has shown that some of these axons misproject to the more dorsal and anterior dorsal zone (DZ) protoglomerulus in the absence of Netrin 1/Dcc signaling. In search of additional cues that guide these axons to the CZ, we found that Semaphorin 3D (Sema3D) is expressed in the anterior bulb and acts as a repellent that pushes them towards the CZ. Further analysis indicates that Sema3D signaling is mediated through Nrp1a, while Nrp2b also promotes CZ targeting but in a Sema3D-independent manner. nrp1a, nrp2b and dcc transcripts are detected in or111-7 transgene-expressing neurons early in development and both Nrp1a and Dcc act cell-autonomously in sensory neurons to promote accurate targeting to the CZ. dcc and nrp1a double mutants have significantly more DZ misprojections than either single mutant, suggesting that the two signaling systems act independently and in parallel to direct a specific subset of sensory axons to their initial protoglomerular target. PMID:26732841

  13. Influence of climate variability on water partitioning and effective energy and mass transfer in a semi-arid critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Rios, Xavier; Brooks, Paul D.; Troch, Peter A.; McIntosh, Jennifer; Rasmussen, Craig

    2016-03-01

    The critical zone (CZ) is the heterogeneous, near-surface layer of the planet that regulates life-sustaining resources. Previous research has demonstrated that a quantification of the influxes of effective energy and mass transfer (EEMT) to the CZ can predict its structure and function. In this study, we quantify how climate variability in the last 3 decades (1984-2012) has affected water availability and the temporal trends in EEMT. This study takes place in the 1200 km2 upper Jemez River basin in northern New Mexico. The analysis of climate, water availability, and EEMT was based on records from two high-elevation SNOTEL stations, PRISM data, catchment-scale discharge, and satellite-derived net primary productivity (MODIS). Results from this study indicated a decreasing trend in water availability, a reduction in forest productivity (4 g C m-2 per 10 mm of reduction in precipitation), and decreasing EEMT (1.2-1.3 MJ m2 decade-1). Although we do not know the timescales of CZ change, these results suggest an upward migration of CZ/ecosystem structure on the order of 100 m decade-1, and that decadal-scale differences in EEMT are similar to the differences between convergent/hydrologically subsidized and planar/divergent landscapes, which have been shown to be very different in vegetation and CZ structure.

  14. Coadministration of cruzipain and GM-CSF DNAs, a new immunotherapeutic vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Natacha; Sánchez Alberti, Andrés; Bivona, Augusto E; De Marzi, Mauricio C; Frank, Fernanda M; Cazorla, Silvia I; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic vaccine research and development are especially important in Chagas disease considering the characteristics of the chronic infection and the number of people in the Americas living with a parasite infection for decades. We have previously reported the efficacy of attenuated Salmonella enterica (S) carrying plasmid encoding cruzipain (SCz) to protect against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In the present work we investigated whether Cz DNA vaccine immunotherapy could be effective in controlling an ongoing T. cruzi infection in mice. We here report the intramuscular administration of naked Cz DNA or the oral administration of Salmonella as Cz DNA delivery system as therapeutic vaccines in mice during acute or chronic infection. The coadministration of a plasmid encoding GM-CSF improved vaccine performance, indicating that the stimulation of innate immune cells is needed in the event of an ongoing infection. These therapeutic vaccines were able to address the response to a protective and sustained Th1 biased profile not only against Cz but also against a variety of parasite antigens. The combined therapeutic vaccine during the chronic phase of infection prevents tissue pathology as shown by a reduced level of enzyme activity characteristic of tissue damage and a tissue status compatible with normal tissue. The obtained results suggest that immunotherapy with Cz and GM-CSF DNAs, either alone or in combination with other drug treatments, may represent a promising alternative for Chagas disease therapy. PMID:26312947

  15. Effect of Absorption Behavior of Solubilizers on Drug Dissolution in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Evaluation Based on In Vivo Luminal Concentration-Time Profile of Cilostazol, a Poorly Soluble Drug, and Solubilizers.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Kubota, Atsuo; Matsuo, Akira; Kawakami, Ayaka; Kamizi, Hiroki; Mochigoe, Akane; Hiramachi, Takahiro; Kasaoka, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Nagata, Shunji

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of absorption behavior of solubilizers on drug dissolution in the gastrointestinal tract. After oral administration of FITC-dextran (FD-10), a nonabsorbable marker, and cilostazol (CZ), a low-solubility drug, with or without solubilizers (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO], and d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate [TPGS]), the in vivo rat luminal concentrations of these compounds were determined by direct sampling of residual water in each segment of the gastrointestinal tract. DMSO was rapidly absorbed and not detected in the middle small intestine. Conversely, the TPGS concentration increased by 1.5- and 2-fold relative to the initial dose concentration in the middle and lower small intestine, respectively, owing to condensation. Then, normalized area under the luminal concentration-time curve of solid CZ was calculated from the luminal concentration-time profiles of FD-10 and solid CZ to evaluate in vivo dissolution behavior of CZ. The dissolution of CZ was marked when administered with TPGS compared with that when administered with DMSO, especially in the lower small intestine. This clearly indicates that absorbability of solubilizers is one of the important factors in determining the solubilizing effect. These findings may be beneficial to development of oral lipophilic drugs. PMID:27025982

  16. Chinese space and aviation industries score major breakthroughs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, R.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the current status of China's aviation and aerospace industries is presented, as well as planned future development and areas of importance for China's future space programs. The development of China's CZ-1, CZ-2 and CZ-3 rocket program is discussed, as well as China's satellite launch capabilities. China's first geostationary communications satellite STW-1 is also mentioned, and further development of the second and third communications satellites to be launched in 1987 are shown. Other developments include a seventh low Earth orbiting photographic reconnaissance satellite, plans for an image transmitting remote sensing satellite to be launched in 1988 to 1990, and other satellite developments. The Chinese-designed Y-10 transport aircraft is discussed, as well as the TU-16 bomber aircraft and the co-production agreement with McDonnell Douglas for the MD-82 passenger aircraft.

  17. Impact of BaB2O4 growth method on frequency conversion to the deep ultra-violet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyra, L.; Maillard, A.; Maillard, R.; Sangla, D.; Salin, F.; Balembois, F.; Kokh, A. E.; Georges, P.

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we report how the growth method used for barium beta-borate β-BaB2O4 (BBO) impacts its high power second harmonic generation properties in the deep-UV. We compared a BBO crystal grown by flux (Top Seeded Solution Growth or TSSG) and a BBO crystal grown by the Czochralski (CZ) method. We first characterized their transparency properties, then we measured their single-pass second harmonic conversion efficiencies with both a low average power and a high average power nanosecond pulsed lasers. We show that both crystals have comparable linear absorption and conversion efficiencies at low power, whereas in a high power experiment, the CZ-grown BBO yields higher conversion efficiency than the TSSG grown BBO. With a 30 W, 150 kHz, 8 ns green laser, the use of a CZ BBO led at best to a 40% increase in available average output power at 257 nm.

  18. High-efficiency cell structures and processes applied to photovoltaic-grade Czochralski silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, J.M.; King, R.R.; Mitchell, K.W.

    1996-12-01

    The authors performed a detailed study to examine the limiting performance available using photovoltaic-grade Cz silicon. Photovoltaic-grade silicon refers to silicon produced by the photovoltaic industry, which may differ from the silicon used in the semiconductor device industry in impurity and defect concentrations.The study included optimization of fabrication processes, development of advanced device structures, and detailed model calculations to project future performance improvements. Process and device optimization resulted in demonstration of 75-{micro}s bulk lifetimes and 17.6%-efficient large-area cells using photovoltaic-grade Cz silicon. Detailed calculations based on the material and device evaluation of the present work project efficiencies of 20% for photovoltaic-grade Cz silicon with properly optimized processing and device structures.

  19. Investigation of intrinsic gettering for germanium doped Czochralski silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiahe; Yang, Deren; Ma, Xiangyang; Wang, Weiyan; Zeng, Yuheng; Que, Duanlin

    2007-06-01

    The intrinsic gettering (IG) effects in a germanium-doped Czochralski (GCz) silicon wafer have been investigated through a processing simulation of dynamic random access memory making and an evaluation on IG capability for copper contamination. It has been suggested that both the good quality defect-free denuded zones (DZs) and the high-density bulk microdefect (BMD) regions could be generated in GCz silicon wafer during device fabrication. Meanwhile, it was also indicated that the tiny oxygen precipitates were hardly presented in DZs of silicon wafer with the germanium doping. Furthermore, it was found in GCz silicon wafer that the BMDs were higher in density but smaller in size in contrast to that in conventional Cz silicon wafer. Promoted IG capability for metallic contamination was therefore induced in the germanium-doped Cz silicon wafer. A mechanism of the germanium doping on oxygen precipitation in Cz silicon was discussed, which was based on the hypothesis of germanium-related complexes.

  20. High performance organic ultraviolet photodetector with efficient electroluminescence realized by a thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Zhou, Dianli; Huang, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng

    2015-07-01

    A high performance organic ultraviolet (UV) photodetector with efficient electroluminescence (EL) was obtained by using a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter of (4s,6s)-2,4,5,6-tetra(9H-carbazol-9-yl)isophthalonitrile (4CzIPN). An exciton adjusting layer (EAL) was delicately designed to construct an energy-level-aligned heterojunction with 4CzIPN. As a result, the bi-functional device exhibited a high detectivity of 1.4 × 1012 Jones under 350 nm UV light. Moreover, our device exhibited efficient EL emission utilizing the merit of reverse intersystem crossing process from triplet to singlet excitons of 4CzIPN, showing a maximum luminance, current efficiency, and power efficiency of 26370 cd/m2, 8.2 cd/A, and 4.9 lm/W, respectively. This work arouses widespread interest in constructing efficient bi-functional device based on TADF emitter and EAL structure.

  1. Effect of reverse intersystem crossing rate to suppress efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes with thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Munetomo; Serevičius, Tomas; Nakanotani, Hajime; Yoshida, Kou; Matsushima, Toshinori; Juršėnas, Saulius; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-01-01

    Electroluminescence efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes with thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters 1,2-bis(carbazol-9-yl)-4,5-dicyanobenzene (2CzPN) and 3-(9,9-dimethylacridin-10(9H)-yl)-9H-xanthen-9-one (ACRXTN) is investigated by considering intramolecular exciton relaxation processes. Electroluminescence efficiency roll-off at high current density is dramatically suppressed using ACRXTN as an emitter instead of 2CzPN because of suppressed bimolecular exciton annihilation processes such as singlet-triplet and triplet-triplet annihilation. The rate constant of reverse intersystem crossing from triplet to singlet excited states of ACRXTN is about 300 times higher than that of 2CzPN, decreasing triplet exciton density and suppressing exciton annihilation processes under optical and electrical excitation.

  2. Silicon-solar-cell process development, fabrication, and analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Minahan, J.A.

    1981-03-09

    Solar cells have been fabricated from unconventional silicon materials in the second and final phase of the contract. In the most recent period of work, EFG, Web, Hem, and Continuous CZ silicon materials were fabricated into solar cells, measured and analyzed. Current-voltage measurements under AM1 conditions, in addition to those under AMO conditions, were introduced in Phase II. Several low-cost fabrication steps were included in that phase. Both Hem and Continuous CZ silicon were found to be superior to what had been provided in Phase I. Correlation between quality of starting materials and cell conversion efficiency was observed for Hem-grown silicon. Correlation between position in the crystal growth sequence and cell quality was observed for Continuous CZ.

  3. Evaluation of Three Models for Simulating Pesticide Runoff from Irrigated Agricultural Fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuyang; Goh, Kean S

    2015-11-01

    Three models were evaluated for their accuracy in simulating pesticide runoff at the edge of agricultural fields: Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), and OpusCZ. Modeling results on runoff volume, sediment erosion, and pesticide loss were compared with measurements taken from field studies. Models were also compared on their theoretical foundations and ease of use. For runoff events generated by sprinkler irrigation and rainfall, all models performed equally well with small errors in simulating water, sediment, and pesticide runoff. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were between 3 and 161%. For flood irrigation, OpusCZ simulated runoff and pesticide mass with the highest accuracy, followed by RZWQM and PRZM, likely owning to its unique hydrological algorithm for runoff simulations during flood irrigation. Simulation results from cold model runs by OpusCZ and RZWQM using measured values for model inputs matched closely to the observed values. The MAPE ranged from 28 to 384 and 42 to 168% for OpusCZ and RZWQM, respectively. These satisfactory model outputs showed the models' abilities in mimicking reality. Theoretical evaluations indicated that OpusCZ and RZWQM use mechanistic approaches for hydrology simulation, output data on a subdaily time-step, and were able to simulate management practices and subsurface flow via tile drainage. In contrast, PRZM operates at daily time-step and simulates surface runoff using the USDA Soil Conservation Service's curve number method. Among the three models, OpusCZ and RZWQM were suitable for simulating pesticide runoff in semiarid areas where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation. PMID:26641333

  4. Oxygen-Atom Transfer Reactivity of Axially Ligated Mn(V)–Oxo Complexes: Evidence for Enhanced Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Addition of anionic donors to the manganese(V)–oxo corrolazine complex MnV(O)(TBP8Cz) has a dramatic influence on oxygen-atom transfer (OAT) reactivity with thioether substrates. The six-coordinate anionic [MnV(O)(TBP8Cz)(X)]− complexes (X = F–, N3–, OCN–) exhibit a ∼5 cm–1 downshift of the Mn–O vibrational mode relative to the parent MnV(O)(TBP8Cz) complex as seen by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Product analysis shows that the oxidation of thioether substrates gives sulfoxide product, consistent with single OAT. A wide range of OAT reactivity is seen for the different axial ligands, with the following trend determined from a comparison of their second-order rate constants for sulfoxidation: five-coordinate ≈ thiocyanate ≈ nitrate < cyanate < azide < fluoride ≪ cyanide. This trend correlates with DFT calculations on the binding of the axial donors to the parent MnV(O)(TBP8Cz) complex. A Hammett study was performed with p-X-C6H4SCH3 derivatives and [MnV(O)(TBP8Cz)(X)]− (X = CN– or F–) as the oxidant, and unusual “V-shaped” Hammett plots were obtained. These results are rationalized based upon a change in mechanism that hinges on the ability of the [MnV(O)(TBP8Cz)(X)]− complexes to function as either an electrophilic or weak nucleophilic oxidant depending upon the nature of the para-X substituents. For comparison, the one-electron-oxidized cationic MnV(O)(TBP8Cz•+) complex yielded a linear Hammett relationship for all substrates (ρ = −1.40), consistent with a straightforward electrophilic mechanism. This study provides new, fundamental insights regarding the influence of axial donors on high-valent MnV(O) porphyrinoid complexes. PMID:25238495

  5. Preparation of ceria-zirconia by modified coprecipitation method and its supported Pd-only three-way catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lan, Li; Chen, Shanhu; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Maochu; Chen, Yaoqiang

    2015-07-15

    A CeO2-ZrO2 compound with mixed phase composition (CZ4) was prepared by modified co-precipitation method, and for comparison, single-phase Ce(0.2)Zr(0.8)O2, Ce(0.5)Zr(0.5)O2 and Ce(0.8)Zr(0.2)O2 were synthesized via simultaneous co-precipitation method. The textural, structural and redox properties, together with the catalytic performance of the supported Pd-only three-way catalysts were investigated systematically. The results revealed that the generation of numerous interface sites in Pd/CZ4 due to its mixed phase composition (as confirmed by TEM observation) had a positive influence on modifying its structural, redox properties and thermal stability. The XRD and Raman results revealed that the highest structural stability was obtained by Pd/CZ4 with negligible lattice variation and slightest grain growth after aging treatment. The XPS analysis demonstrated that the compositional heterogeneity of Pd/CZ4 could facilitate the formation of Ce(3+), and was beneficial to preserve high dispersion of Pd as well as maintain Pd at a more oxidized state. The H2-TPR and oxygen storage capacity measurements indicated that Pd/CZ4 possessed highest reduction ability as well as largest oxygen storage capacity regardless of thermal aging treatment. And consequently Pd/CZ4 exhibited improved three-way catalytic activity compared with the catalysts supported on single-phase Ce(x)Zr(1-x)O2 both before and after thermal aging treatment. PMID:25863223

  6. Universal Host Materials for High-Efficiency Phosphorescent and Delayed-Fluorescence OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Jiuyan; Wang, Fang; Gao, Zhuo; Zhang, Shufen

    2015-12-01

    A series of bipolar hosts, namely, 5-(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-phenyl)-1,3-dipyrazolbenzene (o-CzDPz), 5-(3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-phenyl)-1,3-dipyrazolbenzene (m-CzDPz), 5-(9-phenyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-1,3-dipyrazolbenzene (3-CzDPz), and 5-(3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-phenyl)-1,3-dipyrazolbenzene (mCPDPz), are developed for phosphorescent and thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). They are designed by selecting pyrazole as n-type unit and carbazole as p-type one. The triplet energy (E(T)), the frontier molecular orbital level, and charge transporting abilities, are adjusted by varying the molar ratio of pyrazole to carbazole and the linking mode between them. They have high E(T) values of 2.76-3.02 eV. Their electroluminescence performance is evaluated by fabricating both phosphorescent and TADF devices with blue or green emitters. The m-CzDPz hosted blue phosphorescent OLEDs achieves high efficiency of 48.3 cd A(-1) (26.8%), the 3-CzDPz hosted green phosphorescent device exhibits 91.2 cd A(-1) (29.0%). The blue and green TADF devices with 3-CzDPz host also reach high efficiencies of 26.2 cd A(-1) (15.8%) and 41.1 cd A(-1) (13.3%), respectively. The excellent performance of all these OLEDs verifies that these pyrazole-based bipolar compounds are capable of being universal host materials for OLED application. The influence of molar ratio of n-type unit to p-type one and the molecular conformation of these hosts on their device performance is discussed and interpreted. PMID:26544965

  7. Critical Zone Science and Global Societal Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhaber, M. B.; Banwart, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the thin outer veneer of our planet from the top of the tree canopy to the bottom of our drinking water aquifers that supports almost all human activity. Despite its fundamental importance to terrestrial life, understanding of the operation of the coupled geologic, hydrologic, topographic, and biotic CZ processes across time and space is far from complete. These interactions are complex and they establish a mechanistic 'chain of impact' that transmits the effects of environmental change throughout the CZ. Characterization of these processes is made more urgent by the fact that globally, the CZ is experiencing ever-increasing pressure from growth in human population and wealth. Within the next four decades, demand for food and fuel is expected to double along with a more than 50% increase in demand for clean water. Understanding, predicting and managing intensification of land use and associated economic services, while mitigating and adapting to rapid climate change, is now one of the most pressing societal challenges of the 21st century. In this talk we summarize the profound global societal impacts to the Earth's near surface arising from exponential human population growth, increasing affluence, and technological advance, to provide context for discussions on constructing an array of CZ observatories to both characterize fundamental critical zone processes and forecast the effects of planetary change. We will suggest goals and options relevant to planning for a future international array of CZ observatories and a research agenda that matches the urgency of the projected resource demands and environmental pressures of the coming four decades.

  8. Reversible Cysteine Protease Inhibitors Show Promise for a Chagas Disease Cure

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Christian; Black, W. Cameron; Isabel, Elise; Vasquez-Camargo, Fabio; Nath-Chowdhury, Milli; Massé, Frédéric; Mellon, Christophe; Methot, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    The cysteine protease cruzipain is essential for the viability, infectivity, and virulence of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Thus, inhibitors of cruzipain are considered promising anti-T. cruzi chemotherapeutic agents. Reversible cruzipain inhibitors containing a nitrile “warhead” were prepared and demonstrated 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) as potent as 1 nM in baculovirus-generated cruzipain enzyme assays. In epimastigote and intracellular amastigote in vitro assays, the most potent compounds demonstrated antiparasitic behavior in the 5 to 10 μM IC50 range; however, trypomastigote production from the amastigote form was ∼90 to 95% inhibited at 2 μM. Two key compounds, Cz007 and Cz008, with IC50s of 1.1 and 1.8 nM, respectively, against the recombinant enzyme were tested in a murine model of acute T. cruzi infection, with oral dosing in chow for 28 days at doses from 3 to 50 mg/kg of body weight. At 3 mg/kg of Cz007 and 3 mg/kg of Cz008, the blood parasitemia areas under the concentration-time curves were 16% and 25% of the untreated group, respectively. At sacrifice, 24 days after immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide, parasite presence in blood, heart, and esophagus was evaluated. Based on negative quantitative PCR results in all three tissues, cure rates in surviving animals were 90% for Cz007 at 3 mg/kg, 78% for Cz008 at 3 mg/kg, and 71% for benznidazole, the control compound, at 50 mg/kg. PMID:24323474

  9. Investigating the influence of subsurface heterogeneity on chemical weathering in the critical zone using high resolution reactive transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, S.; Rajaram, H.

    2014-12-01

    The critical zone (CZ) represents a major life-sustaining realm of the terrestrial surface. The processes controlling the development and transformation of the CZ are important to continued health of the planet as human influence continues to grow. The CZ encompasses the shallow subsurface, a region of reaction, unsaturated flow, and transport. Chemical weathering in the subsurface is one of the important processes involved in the formation and functioning of the CZ. We present two case studies of reactive transport modeling to investigate the influence of subsurface heterogeneity and unsaturated flow on chemical weathering processes in the CZ. The model is implemented using the reactive transport code PFLOTRAN. Heterogeneity in subsurface flow is represented using multiple realizations of conductive fracture networks in a hillslope cross-section. The first case study is motivated by observations at the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BCCZO) including extensive hydrologic and geochemical datasets. The simulations show that fractures greatly enhance weathering as compared to a homogeneous porous medium. Simulations of north-facing slope hydrology with prolonged snowmelt pulses also increases weathering rates, showing the importance of slope aspect on weathering intensity. Recent work elucidates deteriorating water quality caused by climate change in the CZ of watersheds where acid rock drainage (ARD) occurs. The more complex reactions of ARD require a customized kinetic reaction module with PFLOTRAN. The second case study explores the mechanisms by which changes in hydrologic forcing, air and ground temperatures, and water table elevations influence ARD. For instance, unreacted pyrite exposed by a water table drop was shown to produce a 125% increase in annual pyrite oxidization rate, which provides one explanation for increased ARD.

  10. Axial vibration control of melt structure of sodium nitrate in crystal growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovskiy, Andrey; Sukhanova, Ekaterina; Belov, Stanislav; Kostikov, Vladimir; Zykova, Marina; Artyushenko, Maxim; Zharikov, Evgeny; Avetissov, Igor

    2015-05-01

    The melt structure evolution under the action of the low-frequency axial vibration control (AVC) technique was studied in situ by Raman spectroscopy for several complex chemical compound melts: sodium nitrate, margarine acid, paraffin mixture (C17-C20). The measurements were conducted in the temperature range from the melting point up to 60 °C above. Comparison of crystallization heats for AVC activated and steady melts with melting heats of AVC-CZ and conventional CZ produced powders allowed to propose the energy diagram of NaNO3 states for activated and non-activated melts and crystals based on DTA, XRD, DSC and Raman experimental data.

  11. Analysis and evaluation of processes and equipment in tasks 2 and 4 of the low-cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several experimental and projected Czochralski crystal growing process methods were studied and compared to available operations and cost-data of recent production Cz-pulling, in order to elucidate the role of the dominant cost contributing factors. From this analysis, it becomes apparent that the specific add-on costs of the Cz-process can be expected to be reduced by about a factor of three by 1982, and about a factor of five by 1986. A format to guide in the accumulation of the data needed for thorough techno-economic analysis of solar cell production processes was developed.

  12. Precipitation output of INCA system: evaluation and use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyznarova, Hana; Novak, Petr; Brezkova, Lucie; Janal, Petr; Salek, Milan

    2013-04-01

    INCA is a system that provides detailed analysis of current weather and improves NWP forecasts by using latest information from meteorological stations, radars, sounding and satellite data. It was developed by the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik in Austria and provided for use by other countries. The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) uses adapted version of the INCA system (INCA-CZ) in the frame of INCA-CE project. This contribution presents the first results of use of INCA-CZ precipitation module for quantitative precipitation analysis (QPE) and forecast (QPF) and their comparison with the algorithms currently used by the CHMI. Testing of the INCA-CZ precipitation output is focused on QPE and QPF up to 3 hours, since INCA is tested and used as an input into hydrological model for flash flood forecasting. INCA-CZ QPE was compared with algorithms used by the CHMI for QPE (based on conditional merging (CM) and on kriging with external drift (KED)). The comparison was carried out on 10 minute and 1 hour precipitation data. Generally 10 minute precipitation sums are burdened by higher uncertainties than 1 hour precipitation data, still they are very useful when used in convective situations and when we try to forecast highly localized flash floods. Preliminary results suggest that INCA-CZ QPE is comparable with QPEs used by the CHMI. As expected, the performance of the algorithms when using 10 minute data is generally worse than for 1 hour precipitation sums. INCA-CZ QPF was compared with the QPF made by the CHMI implementation of the COTREC algorithm. COTREC algorithm is operatively applied on the CHMI radar data. 1 hour QPEs computed by KED algorithm and INCA-CZ were used as the true values. QPFs of average 1hour precipitation sums computed over 119 operative catchments were compared. The forecasted sums were computed over 0-1, 1-2, 2-3 hour. Quality indices CSI, FAR and POD for 0.1mm and 1.0mm thresholds were used. CSI values of both INCA

  13. Multi scale imaging of the Cloudy Zone in the Tazewell IIICD Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsle, J. F.; Harrison, R. J.; Nichols, C. I. O.; Blukis, R.; Midgley, P. A.; Eggeman, A.; Saghi, Z.; Bagot, P.

    2015-12-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of iron and stony iron meteorites suggest that many small planetary bodies possessed molten cores resulting in the generation of a magnetic field. As these bodies cooled, Fe-Ni metal trapped within their mantle underwent a series of low-temperature transitions, leading to the familiar Widmanstatten intergrowth of kamacite and taenite. Adjacent to the kamacite/taenite interface is the so-called "cloudy zone" (CZ): a nanoscale intergrowth of tetrataenite islands in an Fe-rich matrix phase formed via spinodal decomposition. It has recently been shown (Bryson et al. 2015, Nature) that the CZ encodes a time-series record of the evolution of the magnetic field generated by the molten core of the planetary body. Extracting meaningful paleomagnetic data from the CZ relies, on a thorough understanding of the 3D chemical and magnetic properties of the intergrowth focsusing on the interactions between the magnetically hard tetrataenite islands and the magnetically soft matrix. Here we present a multi scale study of the chemical and crystallographic make up of the CZ in the Tazewell IIICD meteorite, using a range of advanced microscopy techniques. The results provide unprecedented insight into the architecture of the CZ, with implications for how the CZ acquires chemical transformation remanance during cooling on the parent body. Previous 2D transmission electron microscope studies of the CZ suggested that the matrix is an ordered Fe3Ni phase with the L12 structure. Interpretation of the electron diffraction patterns and chemical maps in these studies was hindered by a failure to resolve signals from overlapping island and matrix phases. Here we obtain high resolution electron diffraction and 3D chemical maps with near atomic resolution using a combination of scanning precession electron diffraction, 3D STEM EDS and atom probe tomography. Using this combined methodology we reslove for the first time the phenomena of secondary precipitation in the

  14. Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minahan, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The fabrication of solar cells from several unconventional silicon materials is described, and cell performance measured and analyzed. Unconventional materials evaluated are edge defined film fed grown (EFG), heat exchanger method (HEM), dendritic web grown, and continuous CZ silicons. Resistivity, current voltage, and spectral sensitivity of the cells were measured. Current voltage was measured under AM0 and AM1 conditions. Maximum conversion efficiencies of cells fabricated from these and other unconventional silicons were compared and test results analyzed. The HEM and continuous CZ silicon were found to be superior to silicon materials considered previously.

  15. Where microorganisms meet rocks in the Earth's Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akob, D. M.; Küsel, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is the Earth's outer shell where all the fundamental physical, chemical, and biological processes critical for sustaining life occur and interact. As microbes in the CZ drive many of these biogeochemical cycles, understanding their impact on life-sustaining processes starts with an understanding of their biodiversity. In this review, we summarize the factors controlling where terrestrial CZ microbes (prokaryotes and micro-eukaryotes) live and what is known about their diversity and function. Microbes are found throughout the CZ, down to 5 km below the surface, but their functional roles change with depth due to habitat complexity, e.g. variability in pore spaces, water, oxygen, and nutrients. Abundances of prokaryotes and micro-eukaryotes decrease from 1010 or 107 cells g soil-1 or rock-1, or ml water-1 by up to eight orders of magnitude with depth. Although symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and free-living decomposers have been studied extensively in soil habitats, where they occur up to 103 cells g soil-1, little is known regarding their identity or impact on weathering in the deep subsurface. The relatively low abundance of micro-eukaryotes in the deep subsurface suggests that they are limited in space, nutrients, are unable to cope with oxygen limitations, or some combination thereof. Since deep regions of the CZ have limited access to recent photosynthesis-derived carbon, microbes there depend on deposited organic material or a chemolithoautotrophic metabolism that allows for a complete food chain, independent from the surface, although limited energy flux means cell growth may take tens to thousands of years. Microbes are found in all regions of the CZ and can mediate important biogeochemical processes, but more work is needed to understand how microbial populations influence the links between different regions of the CZ and weathering processes. With the recent development of "omics" technologies, microbial ecologists have new methods that

  16. Development of metallization process: FSA project, cell and module formation research area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-01-01

    This experiment is involved in determining bulk resistivity values for different past concentrations. Experiments were performed on silicon Cz and non-Cz wafers. To determine bulk resistivity more accurately, pastes were printed on ceramic substrates. Contact resistance was determined by measuring the voltage drop at constant current. Because of irregularity of grid profiles, accurate determination of cross sections of grid lines is difficult. The bulk resistivity is accurate when the resistivity of the metallization is much less than that of the layer beneath it. When the resistivity of the metal approaches that of the substrate, the actual resistivity will be larger than the measured value.

  17. Silicon crystal growth in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattak, C. P.; Schmid, F.

    1982-01-01

    The most developed process for silicon crystal growth is the Czochralski (CZ) method which was in production for over two decades. In an effort to reduce cost of single crystal silicon for photovoltaic applications, a directional solidification technique, Heat Exchanger Method (HEM), was adapted. Materials used in HEM and CZ furnaces are quite similar (heaters, crucibles, insulation, etc.). To eliminate the cost of high purity argon, it was intended to use vacuum operation in HEM. Two of the major problems encountered in vacuum processing of silicon are crucible decomposition and silicon carbide formation in the melt.

  18. Molecular topology tuning of bipolar host materials composed of fluorene-bridged benzimidazole and carbazole for highly efficient electrophosphorescence.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Ejabul; Hung, Wen-Yi; Chen, Yang-Huei; Cheng, Ming-Hung; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2013-08-01

    Two new molecules, CzFCBI and CzFNBI, have been tailor-made to serve as bipolar host materials to realize high-efficiency electrophosphorescent devices. The molecular design is configured with carbazole as the hole-transporting block and N-phenylbenzimidazole as the electron-transporting block hybridized through the saturated bridge center (C9) and meta-conjugation site (C3) of fluorene, respectively. With structural topology tuning of the connecting manner between N-phenylbenzimidazole and the fluorene core, the resulting physical properties can be subtly modulated. Bipolar host CzFCBI with a C connectivity between phenylbenzimidazole and the fluorene bridge exhibited extended π conjugation; therefore, a low triplet energy of 2.52 eV was observed, which is insufficient to confine blue phosphorescence. However, the monochromatic devices indicate that the matched energy-level alignment allows CzFCBI to outperform its N-connected counterpart CzFNBI while employing other long-wavelength-emitting phosphorescent guests. In contrast, the high triplet energy (2.72 eV) of CzFNBI imparted by the N connectivity ensures its utilization as a universal bipolar host for blue-to-red phosphors. With a common device configuration, CzFNBI has been utilized to achieve highly efficient and low-roll-off devices with external quantum efficiency as high as 14 % blue, 17.8 % green, 16.6 % yellowish-green, 19.5 % yellow, and 18.6 % red. In addition, by combining yellowish-green with a sky-blue emitter and a red emitter, a CzFNBI-hosted single-emitting-layer all-phosphor three-color-based white electrophosphorescent device was successfully achieved with high efficiencies (18.4 %, 36.3 cd A(-1) , 28.3 lm W(-1) ) and highly stable chromaticity (CIE x=0.43-0.46 and CIE y=0.43) at an applied voltage of 8 to 12 V, and a high color-rendering index of 91.6. PMID:23788214

  19. Developing a Paradigm to Measure and Model the Form and Function of the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) includes all chemical, physical, and biological processes in our environment. As humans change the CZ, it becomes more important for us to understand how the CZ will respond. The problem with understanding the CZ is that so many different processes are tightly coupled and exhibit threshold behaviors. We therefore have difficulty creating models that accurately describe CZ evolution. CZ science targets the development of models to understand these processes. To parameterize the models requires CZ characterization and observatories to measure fluxes of water, energy, solutes, and sediments (WESS). WESS fluxes can then, in turn, be compared to the time-integrated histories of those fluxes that are recorded in soil profiles, sediment deposits, and rocks. By using scenarios of human behavior along with models to cross timescales from minutes to millenia, we will learn to forecast the impacts of anthropogenic activity. In the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, a large team of researchers are developing a suite of models to simulate CZ processes over a range of timescales. At the same time, this team is moving from a paradigm of "measure everything everywhere" to "measure only what we need" as we scale up from the 0.1 km2 watershed at Shale Hills to the 165 km2 Shavers creek watershed. At Shale Hills, we made densely spaced measurements. In the Shavers creek watershed, we are targetting catenas in sub-catchments of the watershed as well as measurements of the main-branch streams. Sub-catchments were chosen to explore the different lithologies and land use characteristics. Instrumentation is already deployed in one first-order sub-catchment located on Tuscarora sandstone. The next sub-catchment to be instrumented, like Shale Hills, will be located on shale bedrock. Unlike Shale Hills, however, the sub-catchment will host agricultural activity. We are targetting our intensive chemical, physical, and biological measurements on catenas

  20. Clozapine-carboxylic acid plasticized co-amorphous dispersions: Preparation, characterization and solution stability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmed Mahmoud Abdelhaleem; Ali, Adel Ahmed; Maghrabi, Ibrahim Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    This study addressed the possibility of forming of co-amorphous systems between clozapine (CZ) and various carboxylic acid plasticizers (CAPs). The aim was to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of clozapine. Co-amorphous dispersions were prepared using modified solvent evaporation methodology at drug/plasticizer stoichiometric ratios of 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2. Solid state characterization was performed using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and infra red spectroscopy. Highly soluble homogeneous co-amorphous dispersions were formed between clozapine and CAPs via hydrogen bonding. The co-amorphous dispersions formed with tartaric acid (1:2) showed the highest dissolution percentage (>95% in 20 minutes) compared to pure crystalline CZ (56%). Highly stable solutions were obtained from co-amorphous CZ-citric and CZ-tartaric acid at 1:1.5 molar ratio. The prepared dispersions suggest the possibility of peroral or sublingual administration of highly soluble clozapine at a reduced dose with the great chance to bypass the first pass metabolism. PMID:26011930

  1. Mecamylamine reduces some EEG effects of nicotine chewing gum in humans.

    PubMed

    Pickworth, W B; Herning, R I; Henningfield, J E

    1988-05-01

    Spontaneous EEG was recorded in nine cigarette smokers who had been abstinent from tobacco for 12 hr. Subjects were treated with a capsule containing either centrally acting nicotine blocker, mecamylamine (10 mg), or placebo. At each of three 60-min intervals after the capsule was ingested, the subjects chewed two pieces of gum containing a total of 0, 4 or 8 mg of nicotine. Nicotine and mecamylamine dose combinations were randomized across subjects. Two three-minute periods of spontaneous EEG were recorded before the capsule and before and after gum chewing from bipolar electrode montages at the following positions: Cz-T5, Cz-T6, Cz-F7 and Cz-F8. During one period the subjects relaxed with eyes closed, in the other period they performed a math task with eyes open. When the drugs were given individually, mecamylamine decreased beta power and nicotine gum (4 and 8 mg) increased alpha frequency. Mecamylamine pretreatment prevented the increase in alpha frequency caused by the 4 mg gum dose but not the 8 mg dose. Alpha power was increased by the 8 mg gum dose and that increase was prevented by mecamylamine. Self-reported ratings of the "strength" of the gum were significantly diminished by mecamylamine pretreatment. The data are consistent with the results of earlier studies which indicate that the effects of tobacco administration and withdrawal are mediated by central actions of nicotine. PMID:3174738

  2. Cohesive zone finite element analysis of crack initiation from a butt joint’s interface corner

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, E. D.

    2014-09-06

    The Cohesive zone (CZ) fracture analysis techniques are used to predict the initiation of crack growth from the interface corner of an adhesively bonded butt joint. In this plane strain analysis, a thin linear elastic adhesive layer is sandwiched between rigid adherends. There is no preexisting crack in the problem analyzed, and the focus is on how the shape of the traction–separation (T–U) relationship affects the predicted joint strength. Unlike the case of a preexisting interfacial crack, the calculated results clearly indicate that the predicted joint strength depends on the shape of the T–U relationship. Most of the calculations used a rectangular T–U relationship whose shape (aspect ratio) is defined by two parameters: the interfacial strength σ* and the work of separation/unit area Γ. The principal finding of this study is that for a specified adhesive layer thickness, there is any number of σ*, Γ combinations that generate the same predicted joint strength. For each combination there is a corresponding CZ length. We developed an approximate CZ-like elasticity solution to show how such combinations arise and their connection with the CZ length.

  3. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1921 (original print located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1921 (original print located in the National Archives & Records Administration, Still Picture Branch, Panama Canal Collection Series 185-G, #453, Washington, D.C.). Aerial view of Quarry Heights and Balboa from Sosa Hill - Quarry Heights Military Reservation, Ancon Hill, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Motivational Factors in Discussing Sexual Health with Young People with Chronic Conditions or Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Stege, Heleen A.; Hilberink, Sander R.; Visser, Adriaan P.; Van Staa, AnneLoes

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify determinants of professionals' intention to use the new board game SeCZ TaLK to facilitate sexual health discussions with young people with chronic health conditions and disabilities, and to gauge whether intention led to actual use. A cross-sectional web-based survey of 336 professionals before…

  5. Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the submarine offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Redox properties and metal-support interaction of Pd/Ce0.67Zr0.33O2-Al2O3 catalyst for CO, HC and NOx elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Siyu; Yang, Linyan; Yang, Xue; Zhou, Renxian

    2014-06-01

    Ce0.67Zr0.33O2, Ce0.67Zr0.33O2-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3 supported Pd catalysts (designated as Pd/CZ, Pd/CZA and Pd/Al2O3) have been characterized by XRD, CO chemisorption, in situ DRIFTS, XPS, HRTEM, H2-TPR, O2-TPSR and catalytic performance test. The results show that the small PdOx particles dispersed in CZ would promote the conversion of HC, CO and NO2, while the PdOx particles dispersed in Al2O3 promote the conversion of NO in the light-off process. PdOx species mainly disperse on Al2O3-rich grains surface for fresh Pd/CZA catalyst, but easily migrate onto CZ-rich grains surface due to the strong interaction between Pd and ceria-based oxide under high temperature reaction conditions. And it promotes the thermal stability of PdO species and resilience of Pd0 to PdO, therefore enhances the catalytic performance for HC, CO and NOx elimination. Meanwhile, the interaction between CZ and Al2O3 can be enhanced after aging treatment, resulting in increasing the thermal stability of Pd/CZA catalyst.

  7. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1924 (original print located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1924 (original print located in the Construction Inventory Book at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). East front. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. 77 FR 33127 - Airworthiness Directives; HPH s. r.o. Sailplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Hora, Czech Republic, telephone: +420 327 512 633; fax: +420 327 513 441; email: hph@hph.cz ; Internet... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska, and (4) Will..., 284 01 Kutn Hora, Czech Republic, telephone: +420 327 512 633; fax: +420 327 513 441; email:...

  9. Towards an Integrated Approach to Cabin Service English Curriculum Design: A Case Study of China Southern Airlines' Cabin Service English Training Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiaoqin, Liu; Wenzhong, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the history of EOP (training) development and then illustrated the curriculum design of cabin service English training from the three perspectives of ESP, CLIL and Business Discourse. It takes the cabin crew English training of China Southern Airlines (CZ) as the case and puts forward an operational framework composed of…

  10. Modeling of Blast Furnace with Layered Cohesive Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X. F.; Yu, A. B.; Chew, S. J.; Zulli, P.

    2010-04-01

    An ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is a moving bed reactor involving counter-, co-, and cross-current flows of gas, powder, liquids, and solids, coupled with heat exchange and chemical reactions. The behavior of multiple phases directly affects the stability and productivity of the furnace. In the present study, a mathematical model is proposed to describe the behavior of fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, as well as chemical reactions in a BF, in which gas, solid, and liquid phases affect each other through interaction forces, and their flows are competing for the space available. Process variables that characterize the internal furnace state, such as reduction degree, reducing gas and burden concentrations, as well as gas and condensed phase temperatures, have been described quantitatively. In particular, different treatments of the cohesive zone (CZ), i.e., layered, isotropic, and anisotropic nonlayered, are discussed, and their influence on simulation results is compared. The results show that predicted fluid flow and thermochemical phenomena within and around the CZ and in the lower part of the BF are different for different treatments. The layered CZ treatment corresponds to the layered charging of burden and naturally can predict the CZ as a gas distributor and liquid generator.

  11. DNA ADDUCTS AND PERSONAL AIR MONITORING OF CARCINOGENIC POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN AN ENVIRONMENTALLY EXPOSED POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of personal exposure to air pollution on DNA adducts in humans was analyzed in a group (N=30) of women working outdoors (up to 8 h/day) as postal workers or gardeners in the city of Teplice, CZ (Northern Bohemia) where winter. inversions may result in high levels of ai...

  12. Cohesive zone finite element analysis of crack initiation from a butt joint’s interface corner

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Reedy, E. D.

    2014-09-06

    The Cohesive zone (CZ) fracture analysis techniques are used to predict the initiation of crack growth from the interface corner of an adhesively bonded butt joint. In this plane strain analysis, a thin linear elastic adhesive layer is sandwiched between rigid adherends. There is no preexisting crack in the problem analyzed, and the focus is on how the shape of the traction–separation (T–U) relationship affects the predicted joint strength. Unlike the case of a preexisting interfacial crack, the calculated results clearly indicate that the predicted joint strength depends on the shape of the T–U relationship. Most of the calculations usedmore » a rectangular T–U relationship whose shape (aspect ratio) is defined by two parameters: the interfacial strength σ* and the work of separation/unit area Γ. The principal finding of this study is that for a specified adhesive layer thickness, there is any number of σ*, Γ combinations that generate the same predicted joint strength. For each combination there is a corresponding CZ length. We developed an approximate CZ-like elasticity solution to show how such combinations arise and their connection with the CZ length.« less

  13. Continuous Czochralski growth: Silicon sheet growth development of the large area silicon sheet task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The primary objective of this contract is to develop equipment and methods for the economic production of single crystal ingot material by the continuous Czochralski (CZ) process. Continuous CZ is defined for the purpose of this work as the growth of at least 100 kilograms of ingot from only one melt container. During the reporting period (October, 1977 - September, 1978), a modified grower was made fully functional and several recharge runs were performed. The largest run lasted 44 hours and over 42 kg of ingot was produced. Little, if any, degradation in efficiency was observed as a result of pulling multiple crystals from one crucible. Solar efficiencies observed were between 9.3 and 10.4% AMO (13.0 and 14.6% AMI) compared to 10.5% (14.7% AMI) for optimum CZ material control samples. Using the SAMICS/IPEG format, economic analysis of continuous CZ suggests that 1986 DoE cost goals can only be met by the growth of large diameter, large mass crystals.

  14. Genesis Solar Wind Collector Cleaning Assessment: 60366 Sample Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Allton, J. H.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to recognize, localize, characterize and remove particle and thin film surface contamination, a small subset of Genesis mission collector fragments are being subjected to extensive study via various techniques [1-5]. Here we present preliminary results for sample 60336, a Czochralski silicon (Si-CZ) based wafer from the bulk array (B/C).

  15. The Application of PECS in a Deaf Child with Autism: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; Okalidou, Areti

    2007-01-01

    A 10-year-old nonverbal Greek boy, C.Z., who had been diagnosed with both bilateral sensorineural profound hearing loss and autism, was taught to use the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS), with some modifications and extensions, over a 4-month intensive intervention period. C.Z.'s original communication and behavioral status as well as…

  16. Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ceramic soap dishes, ceramic towel rod, and triangular motif on ceramic features, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41981 dated 1918 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4198-1 dated 1918 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Foundation plan, floor plan and roof plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Shops & Boiler House, Behind Kitchen & Mess Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Oxalate co-precipitation synthesis of calcium zirconate and calcium titanate powders.

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Fine powders of calcium zirconate (CaZrO{sub 3}, CZ) and calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}, CT) were synthesized using a nonaqueous oxalate co-precipitation route from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}4 H{sub 2}O and group(IV) n-butoxides (Ti(OBu{sup n}){sub 4} or Zr(OBu{sup n}){sub 4}). Several reaction conditions and batch sizes (2-35 g) were explored to determine their influence on final particle size, morphology, and phase. Characterization of the as-prepared oxalate precursors, oven dried oxalate precursors (60-90 C), and calcined powders (635-900 C) were analyzed with TGA/DTA, XRD, TEM, and SEM. Densification and sintering studies on pressed CZ pellets at 1375 and 1400 C were also performed. Through the developed oxalate co-precipitation route, densification temperatures for CZ were lowered by 125 C from the 1500 C firing temperature required for conventional mixed oxide powders. Low field electrical tests of the CZ pellets indicated excellent dielectric properties with dielectric constants of {approx}30 and a dissipation factor of 0.0004 were measured at 1 kHz.

  19. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey - VII. A dense filament with extremely long H I streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R.; Minchin, R. F.; Herbst, H.; Davies, J. I.; Rodriguez, R.; Vazquez, C.

    2014-09-01

    We present completed observations of the NGC 7448 galaxy group and background volume as part of the blind neutral hydrogen Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey. Our observations cover a region spanning 5°× 4°, over a redshift range of approximately -2000 <cz < 20 000 km s-1. A total of 334 objects are detected, mostly in three overdensities at cz ˜ 7500, cz ˜ 9600 and cz ˜ 11 400 km s-1. The galaxy density is extremely high (15 deg-2) and many (˜24 per cent) show signs of extended H I emission, including some features as much as 800 kpc in projected length. We describe the overall characteristics of this environment: kinematics, typical galaxy colours and mass-to-light ratios, and substructure. To aid in the cataloguing of this data set, we present a new FITS viewer (FRELLED: FITS Realtime Explorer of Low Latency in Every Dimension). This incorporates interactive source cataloguing tools which increase our source extraction speed by approximately a factor of 50.

  20. Geometry of guanidinium groups in arginines.

    PubMed

    Malinska, Maura; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    The restraints in common usage today have been obtained based on small molecule X-ray crystal structures available 25 years ago and recent reports have shown that the values of bond lengths and valence angles can be, in fact, significantly different from those stored in libraries, for example for the peptide bond or the histidine ring geometry. We showed that almost 50% of outliers found in protein validation reports released in the Protein Data Bank on 23 March 2016 come from geometry of guanidine groups in arginines. Therefore, structures of small molecules and atomic resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive new target values for the geometry of this group. The most significant difference was found for NE-CZ-NH1 and NE-CZ-NH2 angles, showing that the guanidinium group is not symmetric. The NE-CZ-NH1 angle is larger, 121.5(10)˚, than NE-CZ-NH2, 119.2(10)˚, due to the repulsive interaction between NH1 and CD1 atom. PMID:27326702

  1. Defects and device performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storti, G.; Armstrong, R.; Johnson, S.; Lin, H. C.; Regnault, W.; Yoo, K. C.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity for a low-cost crystalline silicon sheet material for photovoltaics has generated a number of alternative crystal growth techniques that would replace Czochralski (Cz) and float-zone (FZ) technologies. Efficiencies of devices fabricated from low resistivity FZ silicon are approaching 20%, and it is highly likely that this value will be superseded in the near future. However, FZ silicon is expensive, and is unlikely ever to be used for photovoltaics. Cz silicon has many of the desirable qualities of FZ except that minority-carrier lifetimes at lower resistivities are significantly less than those of FZ silicon. Even with Cz silicon, it is unlikely that cost goals can be met because of the poor-material yield that results from sawing and other aspects of the crystal rowth. Although other silicon sheet technologies have been investigated, almost all have characteristics that limit efficiency to approx. 16%. In summary, 20% efficient solar cells can likely be fabricated from both FZ and Cz silicon, but costs are likely to be ultimately unacceptable. Alternate silicon technologies are not likely to achieve this goal, but cost per watt figures may be eventually better than either of the single crystal technologies and may rival any thin-film technology.

  2. German, Polish, and Czech School Cooperation in the Neisse-Nisa-Nysa EuroRegion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubeck, Kirsti; Schulz, Dieter

    2004-01-01

    The Euroregions are a form of border and cross-border cooperation. The Euroregion Neisse (D)-Nisa (CZ)-Nysa (PL) is one of four Euroregions along the German-Polish border. It was established in 1991 by the Union of Polish Communities (ERN), The Union of German communities (ERN), and the Regional Community Union of the Cities and Communities of the…

  3. HERVd: the Human Endogenous RetroViruses Database: update.

    PubMed

    Paces, Jan; Pavlícek, Adam; Zika, Radek; Kapitonov, Vladimir V; Jurka, Jerzy; Paces, Václav

    2004-01-01

    An elaboration of HERVd (http://herv.img.cas.cz) is being carried out in two directions. One of them is the integration and better classification of families that diverge considerably from typical retroviral genomes. This leads to a more precise identification of members with individual families. The second improvement is better accessibility of the database and connection with human genome annotation. PMID:14681356

  4. REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION OF HEXACHLOROETHANE, CARBON TETRACHLORIDE, AND BROMOFORM BY ANTHRAHYDROQUINONE DISULFONATE AND HUMIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reductive dehalogenation of hexachloroethane (CzCLj), carbon tetrachloride (CC14), and bromoform (CHBr3) was examined at 50 “C in aqueous solutions containing ei- ther (1) 500 pM of 2,6-anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AHQDS), (2) 250 pM Fe2+, or (3) 250 pM HS-. The pH ranged ...

  5. Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The Panama Canal by Major General Sturgis, October 1, 1938 (original print located in the Panama Canal Commission Technical Resources Center Collection Balboa, Republic of Panama). Aerial view of Balboa Heights with Balboa Elementary School in background center. - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413116 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-16 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Longitudinal section looking west. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41316 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-6 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Basement floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413115 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-15 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Cross-section looking north. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413112 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-12 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. South elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41318 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-8 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Second floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), 1916. Elevation on prado - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413110 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-10 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Front elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413114 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-14 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Cross-section looking south. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 40215. (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-5. (original drawing located at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama). New Ancon Hospital general layout - Gorgas Hospital, Southwest of Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41319 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-9 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Third floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1920's (original print located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1920's (original print located at the Office of the 24th Wing Historian, Howard Air Force Base, Republic of Panama). Photographer unknown. View of U.S. Army Air Corps over Fort Amador. - Fort Amador, Pacific entrance to Panama Canal, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The Panama Canal by Major General Sturgis, October 1, 1938 (original print located in the Panama Canal Commission Technical Resources Center Collection Balboa, Republic of Panama). Aerial view of Fort Amador - Fort Amador, Pacific entrance to Panama Canal, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41376 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4137-6 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Second floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Kitchen & Mess Hall Building, West of Administration & Clinics Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413113 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-13 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Rear elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Details of bookshelves and pilasters. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41317 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-7 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. First floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413118 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-18 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Detail of doors and sash. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original located at the Panama ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), 1916. Second floor wiring plan - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The Panama Canal by Major General Sturgis, October 1, 1938 (original print located in the Panama Canal Commission Technical Resources Center Collection Balboa, Republic of Panama). Aerial view of Ancon Hill and Quarry Heights - Quarry Heights Military Reservation, Ancon Hill, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413111 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-11 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. North elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Photographic copy of postcard, ca. post1943 (original postcard located USACERL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of postcard, ca. post-1943 (original postcard located USACERL, Champaign, IL). Kodachrome by Leon Greene, published exclusively for L.G.G. View of Balboa Elementary School, looking southwest. - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1945. Plans and details for post office alterations - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1943. Proposed design for post office alterations - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Czochralski crystal growth: Modeling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudukovic, M. P.; Ramachandran, P. A.; Srivastava, R. K.; Dorsey, D.

    1986-01-01

    The modeling study of Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth is reported. The approach was to relate in a quantitative manner, using models based on first priniciples, crystal quality to operating conditions and geometric variables. The finite element method is used for all calculations.

  10. Photographic copy of map, dated May 23, 1930 (original map ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of map, dated May 23, 1930 (original map located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). Map of Quarry Heights military reservation - Quarry Heights Military Reservation, Ancon Hill, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ