Sample records for selective lysosomal targeting

  1. Lysosomal Targeting of Cystinosin Requires AP-3.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewska, Zuzanna; Névo, Nathalie; Thomas, Lucie; Bailleux, Anne; Chauvet, Véronique; Benmerah, Alexandre; Antignac, Corinne

    2015-07-01

    Cystinosin is a lysosomal cystine transporter defective in cystinosis, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. It is composed of seven transmembrane (TM) domains and contains two lysosomal targeting motifs: a tyrosine-based signal (GYDQL) in its C-terminal tail and a non-classical motif in its fifth inter-TM loop. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we showed that the GYDQL motif specifically interacted with the ? subunit of the adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3). Moreover, cell surface biotinylation and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed that cystinosin was partially mislocalized to the plasma membrane (PM) in AP-3-depleted cells. We generated a chimeric CD63 protein to specifically analyze the function of the GYDQL motif. This chimeric protein was targeted to lysosomes in a manner similar to cystinosin and was partially mislocalized to the PM in AP-3 knockdown cells where it also accumulated in the trans-Golgi network and early endosomes. Together with the fact that the surface levels of cystinosin and of the CD63-GYDQL chimeric protein were not increased when clathrin-mediated endocytosis was impaired, our data show that the tyrosine-based motif of cystinosin is a 'strong' AP-3 interacting motif responsible for lysosomal targeting of cystinosin by a direct intracellular pathway. PMID:25753619

  2. Lrp1/LDL Receptor Play Critical Roles in Mannose 6-Phosphate-Independent Lysosomal Enzyme Targeting.

    PubMed

    Markmann, Sandra; Thelen, Melanie; Cornils, Kerstin; Schweizer, Michaela; Brocke-Ahmadinejad, Nahal; Willnow, Thomas; Heeren, Joerg; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Braulke, Thomas; Kollmann, Katrin

    2015-07-01

    Most lysosomal enzymes require mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) residues for efficient receptor-mediated lysosomal targeting. Although the lack of M6P residues results in missorting and hypersecretion, selected lysosomal enzymes reach normal levels in lysosomes of various cell types, suggesting the existence of M6P-independent transport routes. Here, we quantify the lysosomal proteome in M6P-deficient mouse fibroblasts (PT(ki) ) using Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC)-based comparative mass spectrometry, and find unchanged amounts of 20% of lysosomal enzymes, including cathepsins D and B (Ctsd and Ctsb). Examination of fibroblasts from a new mouse line lacking both M6P and sortilin, a candidate for M6P-independent transport of lysosomal enzymes, revealed that sortilin does not act as cargo receptor for Ctsb and Ctsd. Using fibroblast lines deficient for endocytic lipoprotein receptors, we could demonstrate that both LDL receptor and Lrp1 mediate the internalization of non-phosphorylated Ctsb and Ctsd. Furthermore, the presence of Lrp1 inhibitor increased the secretion of Ctsd from PT(ki) cells. These findings establish Lrp1 and LDL receptors in M6P-independent secretion-recapture targeting mechanism for lysosomal enzymes. PMID:25786328

  3. Protein Networks Supporting AP3 Function in Targeting Lysosomal Membrane Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten Baust; Mihaela Anitei; Cornelia Czupalla; Iryna Parshyna; Line Bourel; Christoph Thiele; Eberhard Krause; Bernard Hoflack

    2008-01-01

    The AP-3 adaptor complex targets selected transmembrane proteins to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles. We reconstituted its preferred interaction with liposomes containing the ADP ribosylation factor (ARF)-1 guanosine triphos- phatase (GTPase), specific cargo tails, and phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate, and then we performed a proteomic screen to identify new proteins supporting its sorting function. We identified 30 proteins belonging to three networks regulating

  4. Peptide-mediated cell penetration and targeted delivery of gold nanoparticles into lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Dekiwadia, Chaitali D; Lawrie, Ann C; Fecondo, John V

    2012-08-01

    There is considerable interest in the sub-cellular targeting and delivery of biomolecules, therapeutic and imaging agents, and nanoparticles and nanoparticle conjugates into organelles for therapeutic and imaging purposes. To date, a number of studies have used sorting peptides for targeted delivery of cargo into different cell organelles but not into lysosomes. In this study, the delivery of 13-nm gold nanoparticles across the cell membrane followed by targeted localisation into the lysosomes of a mammalian cell line was examined using novel combinations of cell-penetrating peptides and lysosomal sorting peptides conjugated to the nanoparticles. Using a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques, we show that these nanoconjugates were efficiently and selectively delivered into the lysosomes with minimal cytotoxic effects. This novel targeted delivery system may underpin the development of a new strategy for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases by exploiting the large surface area of nanoparticles to deliver drugs or replacement enzymes directly to the lysosomes. PMID:22764089

  5. High Resolution Crystal Structure of Human ?-Glucuronidase Reveals Structural Basis of Lysosome Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Md. Imtaiyaz; Waheed, Abdul; Grubb, Jeffery H.; Klei, Herbert E.; Korolev, Sergey; Sly, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Human ?-glucuronidase (GUS) cleaves ?-D-glucuronic acid residues from the non-reducing termini of glycosaminoglycan and its deficiency leads to mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPSVII). Here we report a high resolution crystal structure of human GUS at 1.7 Å resolution and present an extensive analysis of the structural features, unifying recent findings in the field of lysosome targeting and glycosyl hydrolases. The structure revealed several new details including a new glycan chain at Asn272, in addition to that previously observed at Asn173, and coordination of the glycan chain at Asn173 with Lys197 of the lysosomal targeting motif which is essential for phosphotransferase recognition. Analysis of the high resolution structure not only provided new insights into the structural basis for lysosomal targeting but showed significant differences between human GUS, which is medically important in its own right, and E. coli GUS, which can be selectively inhibited in the human gut to prevent prodrug activation and is also widely used as a reporter gene by plant biologists. Despite these differences, both human and E. coli GUS share a high structure homology in all three domains with most of the glycosyl hydrolases, suggesting that they all evolved from a common ancestral gene. PMID:24260279

  6. An aberrant sugar modification of BACE1 blocks its lysosomal targeting in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kizuka, Yasuhiko; Kitazume, Shinobu; Fujinawa, Reiko; Saito, Takashi; Iwata, Nobuhisa; Saido, Takaomi C; Nakano, Miyako; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Shigeo; Manya, Hiroshi; Endo, Tamao; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The ?-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1), an essential protease for the generation of amyloid-? (A?) peptide, is a major drug target for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is a concern that inhibiting BACE1 could also affect several physiological functions. Here, we show that BACE1 is modified with bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), a sugar modification highly expressed in brain, and demonstrate that AD patients have higher levels of bisecting GlcNAc on BACE1. Analysis of knockout mice lacking the biosynthetic enzyme for bisecting GlcNAc, GnT-III (Mgat3), revealed that cleavage of A?-precursor protein (APP) by BACE1 is reduced in these mice, resulting in a decrease in A? plaques and improved cognitive function. The lack of this modification directs BACE1 to late endosomes/lysosomes where it is less colocalized with APP, leading to accelerated lysosomal degradation. Notably, other BACE1 substrates, CHL1 and contactin-2, are normally cleaved in GnT-III-deficient mice, suggesting that the effect of bisecting GlcNAc on BACE1 is selective to APP. Considering that GnT-III-deficient mice remain healthy, GnT-III may be a novel and promising drug target for AD therapeutics. PMID:25592972

  7. In situ assay of acid sphingomyelinase and ceramidase based on LDL-mediated lysosomal targeting of ceramide-labeled sphingomyelin.

    PubMed

    Levade, T; Leruth, M; Graber, D; Moisand, A; Vermeersch, S; Salvayre, R; Courtoy, P J

    1996-12-01

    The activity of lysosomal sphingolipid hydrolases is usually estimated in vitro from complex assays on cell lysates under artificial conditions including the presence of detergents and substrate analogs. However, the measure of their effective activity in situ (i.e., in living cells) is necessary to understand the normal intracellular sphingolipid turnover. Moreover, their determination in cells from patients with genetic enzyme deficiencies represents a key parameter of the pathophysiology of sphingolipid storage disorders. In this report, we have developed a procedure for estimating the effective activity of lysosomal sphingomyelinase and ceramidase in situ. This procedure is based on the selective targeting to lysosomes of a natural substrate under physiological conditions of substrate influx. Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human lymphoid cells and human skin fibroblasts were incubated with purified human low density lipoproteins (LDL) containing [3H]ceramide-labeled sphingomyelin. Data demonstrate that this substrate is internalized through the apolipoprotein B/E receptor pathway and targeted to lysosomes. Lysosomal localization of the incorporated substrate was evidenced by ultrastructural autoradiography and subcellular fractionation as well as by metabolic studies in mutant cells. Short-term pulse-chase experiments with LDL-associated [3H]ceramide-labeled sphingomyelin allowed us to determine the effective activity of lysosomal sphingomyelinase and ceramidase in normal cells. Initial velocities of sphingomyelin and ceramide degradation were, respectively, estimated at 0.66 and 1.14 nmol.h-1.mg cell protein-1 in lymphoid cells, and 5.4 and 3 nmol.h-1.mg cell protein-1 in skin fibroblasts. The advantages and applications of these in situ studies are discussed. PMID:9017505

  8. TNF? Post-Translationally Targets ZnT2 to Accumulate Zinc in Lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Hennigar, Stephen R; Kelleher, Shannon L

    2015-10-01

    Mammary epithelial cells undergo widespread lysosomal-mediated cell death (LCD) during early mammary gland involution. Recently, we demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), a cytokine released during early involution, redistributes the zinc (Zn) transporter ZnT2 to accumulate Zn in lysosomes and activate LCD and involution. The objective of this study is to determine how TNF? retargets ZnT2 to lysosomes. We tested the hypothesis that TNF? signaling dephosphorylates ZnT2 to uncover a highly conserved dileucine motif (L294L) in the C-terminus of ZnT2, allowing adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) to bind and traffic ZnT2 to lysosomes. Confocal micrographs showed that TNF? redistributed wild-type (WT) ZnT2 from late endosomes (Pearson's coefficient?=?0.202?±?0.05 and 0.097?±?0.03; P?lysosomes (0.292?±?0.03 and 0.649?±?0.03; P?lysosomal Zn (P?lysosomes, increase lysosomal Zn, or activate LCD. Moreover, TNF? increased (P?target ZnT2 to accumulate Zn in lysosomes and activate LCD. Our findings suggest that women with variation in the C-terminus of ZnT2 may be at risk for inadequate involution and breast disease due the inability to traffic ZnT2 to lysosomes. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 2345-2350, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25808614

  9. Limited and selective transfer of plasma membrane glycoproteins to membrane of secondary lysosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Haylett, T.; Thilo, L.

    1986-10-01

    Radioactive galactose, covalently bound to cell surface glycoconjugates on mouse macrophage cells, P388D/sub 1/, was used as a membrane marker to study the composition, and the kinetics of exchange, of plasma membrane-derived constituents in the membrane of secondary lysosomes. Secondary lysosomes were separated from endosomes and plasma membrane by self-forming Percoll density gradients. Horseradish peroxidase, taken up by fluid-phase pinocytosis, served as a vesicle contents marker to monitor transfer of endosomal contents into secondary lysosomes. Concurrently, the fraction of plasma membrane-derived label of secondary lysosomes increased by first order kinetics from <0.1% to a steady-state level of approx.2.5% of the total label. As analyzed by NaDodSO/sub 4/ PAGE, labeled molecules of M/sub r/ 160-190 kD were depleted and of the M/sub r/ 100-120 kD were enriched in lysosome membrane compared with the relative composition of label on the cell surface. No corresponding selectivity was observed for the degradation of label, with all M/sub r/ classes being affected to the same relative extent. The results indicate that endocytosis-derived transfer of plasma membrane constitutents to secondary lysosomes is a limited and selective process, and that only approx.1% of internalized membrane is recycled via a membrane pool of secondary lysosomes.

  10. Impairment of Lysosomal Activity as a Therapeutic Modality Targeting Cancer Stem Cells of Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma Cell Line RD

    PubMed Central

    Salerno, Manuela; Avnet, Sofia; Bonuccelli, Gloria; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Granchi, Donatella; Baldini, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma in children and adolescents, with a high rate of relapse that dramatically affects the clinical outcome. Multiagent chemotherapy, in combination with surgery and/or radiation therapy, is the treatment of choice. However, the relapse rate is disappointingly high and identification of new therapeutic tools is urgently needed. Under this respect, the selective block of key features of cancer stem cells (CSC) appears particularly promising. In this study, we isolated rhabdomyosarcoma CSC with stem-like features (high expression of NANOG and OCT3/4, self-renewal ability, multipotency). Rhabdomyosarcoma CSC showed higher invasive ability and a reduced cytotoxicity to doxorubicin in comparison to native cells, through a mechanism unrelated to the classical multidrug resistance process. This was dependent on a high level of lysosome acidity mediated by a high expression of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase). Since it was not associated with other paediatric cancers, like Ewing’s sarcoma and neuroblastoma, V-ATPase higher expression in CSC was rhabdomyosarcoma specific. Inhibition of lysosomal acidification by the V-ATPase inhibitor omeprazole, or by specific siRNA silencing, significantly enhanced doxorubicin cytoxicity. Unexpectedly, lysosomal targeting also blocked cell growth and reduced the invasive potential of rhabdomyosarcoma CSC, even at very low doses of omeprazole (10 and 50 µM, respectively). Based on these observations, we propose lysosome acidity as a valuable target to enhance chemosensitivity of rhabdomyosarcoma CSC, and suggest the use of anti-V-ATPase agents in combination with standard regimens as a promising tool for the eradication of minimal residual disease or the prevention of metastatic disease. PMID:25329465

  11. Novel lysosome targeted molecular transporter built on a guanidinium-poly-(propylene imine) hybrid dendron for efficient delivery of doxorubicin into cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jyothi B; Mohapatra, Saswat; Ghosh, Surajit; Maiti, Kaustabh K

    2015-02-11

    An efficient synthetic approach has been adopted to construct a new dendron-based octa-guanidine appended molecular transporter with a lysosomal targeted peptide-doxorubicin conjugate. The transporter alone (G8-PPI-FL) is found to be non-toxic, showed higher cellular uptake compared to Arg-8-mer and exhibited excellent selectivity towards lysosomes in cathepsin B expressing HeLa cells, while the Dox-conjugate showed significant cytotoxicity to cancer cells without affecting the non-cancerous cells. PMID:25564099

  12. Two crystal structures for cathepsin D: the lysosomal targeting signal and active site.

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, P; Fusek, M

    1993-01-01

    Two crystal structures are described for the lysosomal aspartic protease cathepsin D (EC 3.4.23.5). The molecular replacement method was used with X-ray diffraction data to 3 A resolution to produce structures for human spleen cathepsin D and for bovine liver cathepsin D complexed with the 6-peptide inhibitor pepstatin A. The lysosomal targeting region of cathepsin D defined by previous expression studies [Barnaski et al. (1990) Cell, 63, 281-219] is located in well defined electron density on the surface of the molecules. This region includes the putative binding site of the cis-Golgi phosphotransferase which is responsible for the initial sorting step for soluble proteins destined for lysosomes by phosphorylating the carbohydrates on these molecules. Carbohydrate density is visible at both expected positions on the cathepsin D molecules and, at the best defined position, four sugar residues extend towards the lysosomal targeting region. The active site of the protease and the active site cleft substrate binding subsites are described using the pepstatin inhibited structure. The model geometry for human cathepsin D has rms deviations from ideal of bonds and angles of 0.013 A and 3.2 degrees respectively. For bovine cathepsin D the corresponding figures are 0.014 A and 3.3 degrees. The crystallographic residuals (R factors) are 16.1% and 15.8% for the human and inhibited bovine cathepsin D models respectively. The free R factors, calculated with 10% of the data reserved for testing the models and not used for refinement, are 25.1% and 24.1% respectively. Images PMID:8467789

  13. Impairment of chaperone-mediated autophagy leads to selective lysosomal degradation defects in the lysosomal storage disease cystinosis

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Gennaro; Johnson, Jennifer L; He, Jing; Rocca, Celine J; Monfregola, Jlenia; Pestonjamasp, Kersi; Cherqui, Stephanie; Catz, Sergio D

    2015-01-01

    Metabolite accumulation in lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) results in impaired cell function and multi-systemic disease. Although substrate reduction and lysosomal overload-decreasing therapies can ameliorate disease progression, the significance of lysosomal overload-independent mechanisms in the development of cellular dysfunction is unknown for most LSDs. Here, we identify a mechanism of impaired chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in cystinosis, a LSD caused by defects in the cystine transporter cystinosin (CTNS) and characterized by cystine lysosomal accumulation. We show that, different from other LSDs, autophagosome number is increased, but macroautophagic flux is not impaired in cystinosis while mTOR activity is not affected. Conversely, the expression and localization of the CMA receptor LAMP2A are abnormal in CTNS-deficient cells and degradation of the CMA substrate GAPDH is defective in Ctns?/? mice. Importantly, cysteamine treatment, despite decreasing lysosomal overload, did not correct defective CMA in Ctns?/? mice or LAMP2A mislocalization in cystinotic cells, which was rescued by CTNS expression instead, suggesting that cystinosin is important for CMA activity. In conclusion, CMA impairment contributes to cell malfunction in cystinosis, highlighting the need for treatments complementary to current therapies that are based on decreasing lysosomal overload. PMID:25586965

  14. Impairment of chaperone-mediated autophagy leads to selective lysosomal degradation defects in the lysosomal storage disease cystinosis.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Gennaro; Johnson, Jennifer L; He, Jing; Rocca, Celine J; Monfregola, Jlenia; Pestonjamasp, Kersi; Cherqui, Stephanie; Catz, Sergio D

    2015-02-01

    Metabolite accumulation in lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) results in impaired cell function and multi-systemic disease. Although substrate reduction and lysosomal overload-decreasing therapies can ameliorate disease progression, the significance of lysosomal overload-independent mechanisms in the development of cellular dysfunction is unknown for most LSDs. Here, we identify a mechanism of impaired chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in cystinosis, a LSD caused by defects in the cystine transporter cystinosin (CTNS) and characterized by cystine lysosomal accumulation. We show that, different from other LSDs, autophagosome number is increased, but macroautophagic flux is not impaired in cystinosis while mTOR activity is not affected. Conversely, the expression and localization of the CMA receptor LAMP2A are abnormal in CTNS-deficient cells and degradation of the CMA substrate GAPDH is defective in Ctns(-/-) mice. Importantly, cysteamine treatment, despite decreasing lysosomal overload, did not correct defective CMA in Ctns(-/-) mice or LAMP2A mislocalization in cystinotic cells, which was rescued by CTNS expression instead, suggesting that cystinosin is important for CMA activity. In conclusion, CMA impairment contributes to cell malfunction in cystinosis, highlighting the need for treatments complementary to current therapies that are based on decreasing lysosomal overload. PMID:25586965

  15. Visualization of Endogenous and Exogenous Hydrogen Peroxide Using A Lysosome-Targetable Fluorescent Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dabin; Kim, Gyoungmi; Nam, Sang-Jip; Yin, Jun; Yoon, Juyoung

    2015-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play crucial roles in diverse physiological processes; therefore, the efficient detection of ROS is very crucial. In this study, we report a boronate-based hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) probe having naphthalimide fluorophore. This probe also contained a morpholine moiety as a directing group for lysosome. The recognition property indicated that the probe exhibited high selectivity towards H2O2 not only in the solution but also in the living cells. Furthermore, it was used to monitor the level of endogenous and exogenous H2O2. These results support that the probe can function as an efficient indicator to detect H2O2.

  16. Targeting HER2+ breast cancer cells: lysosomal accumulation of anti-HER2 antibodies is influenced by antibody binding site and conjugation to polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Owen, Shawn C; Patel, Nish; Logie, Jennifer; Pan, Guohua; Persson, Helena; Moffat, Jason; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Shoichet, Molly S

    2013-12-10

    Humanized monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against HER2 are being engineered to treat cancer. We utilized phage-display technology to generate a novel anti-HER2 mAb (named 73JIgG) that binds an epitope of HER2 distinct from that of trastuzumab. Although these mAbs bind to the same cell surface receptor, they have different cell distribution profiles. After 3h of incubation, almost 10% of the total 73JIgG reaches the lysosome compared to less than 3% of trastuzumab. Interestingly, 73JIgG disassociates from HER2 whereas trastuzumab remains bound to the receptor. Importantly, HER2 distribution is not affected by the antibody binding epitope, thus negating this mechanism as the reason for the difference in intracellular trafficking of 73JIgG versus trastuzumab. Each of trastuzumab and 73JIgG was chemically-modified with either a small molecule or polymeric nanoparticle to better understand the influence of conjugation on cellular localization. Relative to antibody alone, antibody-nanoparticle conjugates resulted in a higher concentration of antibodies in the lysosome whereas antibody-small molecule conjugates did not affect cell trafficking to the lysosome. Given the importance of lysosomal targeting, these results demonstrate the importance of understanding the influence of the antibody-conjugate on cell trafficking for ultimate optimization of treatment selection. PMID:23880472

  17. Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Targets IFNAR1 for Lysosomal Degradation in Free Fatty Acid Treated HCV Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Ramazan; Chandra, Partha K.; Aboulnasr, Fatma; Panigrahi, Rajesh; Ferraris, Pauline; Aydin, Yucel; Reiss, Krzysztof; Wu, Tong; Balart, Luis A.; Dash, Srikanta

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for both liver disease progression and an impaired response to interferon alpha (IFN-?)-based combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Previously, we reported that free fatty acid (FFA)-treated HCV cell culture induces hepatocellular steatosis and impairs the expression of interferon alpha receptor-1 (IFNAR1), which is why the antiviral activity of IFN-? against HCV is impaired. Aim To investigate the molecular mechanism by which IFNAR1 expression is impaired in HCV cell culture with or without free fatty acid-treatment. Method HCV-infected Huh 7.5 cells were cultured with or without a mixture of saturated (palmitate) and unsaturated (oleate) long-chain free fatty acids (FFA). Intracytoplasmic fat accumulation in HCV-infected culture was visualized by oil red staining. Clearance of HCV in FFA cell culture treated with type I IFN (IFN-?) and Type III IFN (IFN-?) was determined by Renilla luciferase activity, and the expression of HCV core was determined by immunostaining. Activation of Jak-Stat signaling in the FFA-treated HCV culture by IFN-? alone and IFN-? alone was examined by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. Lysosomal degradation of IFNAR1 by chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in the FFA-treated HCV cell culture model was investigated. Results FFA treatment induced dose-dependent hepatocellular steatosis and lipid droplet accumulation in HCV-infected Huh-7.5 cells. FFA treatment of infected culture increased HCV replication in a concentration-dependent manner. Intracellular lipid accumulation led to reduced Stat phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, causing an impaired IFN-? antiviral response and HCV clearance. Type III IFN (IFN-?), which binds to a separate receptor, induces Stat phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation as well as antiviral clearance in FFA-treated HCV cell culture. We show here that the HCV-induced autophagy response is increased in FFA-treated cell culture. Pharmacological inhibitors of lysosomal degradation, such as ammonium chloride and bafilomycin, prevented IFNAR1 degradation in FFA-treated HCV cell culture. Activators of chaperone-mediated autophagy, including 6-aminonicotinamide and nutrient starvation, decreased IFNAR1 levels in Huh-7.5 cells. Co-immunoprecipitation, colocalization and siRNA knockdown experiments revealed that IFNAR1 but not IFNLR1 interacts with HSC70 and LAMP2A, which are core components of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Conclusion Our study presents evidence indicating that chaperone-mediated autophagy targets IFNAR1 degradation in the lysosome in FFA-treated HCV cell culture. These results provide a mechanism for why HCV induced autophagy response selectively degrades type I but not the type III IFNAR1. PMID:25961570

  18. Development of targetable two-photon fluorescent probes to image hypochlorous Acid in mitochondria and lysosome in live cell and inflamed mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lin; Wang, Lu; Agrawalla, Bikram Keshari; Park, Sung-Jin; Zhu, Hai; Sivaraman, Balasubramaniam; Peng, Juanjuan; Xu, Qing-Hua; Chang, Young-Tae

    2015-05-13

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), as a highly potent oxidant, is well-known as a key "killer" for pathogens in the innate immune system. Recently, mounting evidence indicates that intracellular HOCl plays additional important roles in regulating inflammation and cellular apoptosis. However, the organelle(s) involved in the distribution of HOCl remain unknown, causing difficulty to fully exploit its biological functions in cellular signaling pathways and various diseases. One of the main reasons lies in the lack of effective chemical tools to directly detect HOCl at subcellular levels due to low concentration, strong oxidization, and short lifetime of HOCl. Herein, the first two-photon fluorescent HOCl probe (TP-HOCl 1) and its mitochondria- (MITO-TP) and lysosome- (LYSO-TP) targetable derivatives for imaging mitochondrial and lysosomal HOCl were reported. These probes exhibit fast response (within seconds), good selectivity, and high sensitivity (<20 nM) toward HOCl. In live cell experiments, both probes MITO-TP and LYSO-TP were successfully applied to detect intracellular HOCl in corresponding organelles. In particular, the two-photon imaging of MITO-TP and LYSO-TP in murine model shows that higher amount of HOCl can be detected in both lysosome and mitochondria of macrophage cells during inflammation condition. Thus, these probes could not only help clarify the distribution of subcellular HOCl, but also serve as excellent tools to exploit and elucidate functions of HOCl at subcellular levels. PMID:25905448

  19. Chemical principles for a novel fluorescent probe with high cancer-targeting selectivity and sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chi-Chih; Huang, Wei-Chun; Kouh, Chiung-Wen; Wang, Zi-Fu; Cho, Chih-Chien; Chang, Cheng-Chung; Wang, Chiung-Lin; Chang, Ta-Chau; Seemann, Joachim; Jun-shen Huang, Lily

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of principles governing selective and sensitive cancer targeting is critical for development of chemicals in cancer diagnostics and treatments. We determined the underlying mechanisms of how a novel fluorescent small organic molecule, 3,6-bis(1-methyl-4-vinylpyridinium) carbazole diiodide (BMVC), selectively labels cancer cells but not normal cells. We show that BMVC is retained in the lysosomes of normal cells. In cancer cells, BMVC escapes lysosomal retention and localizes to the mitochondrial or to the nucleus, where DNA-binding dramatically increases BMVC fluorescence intensity, allowing it to light up only cancer cells. Structure-function analyses of BMVC derivatives show that hydrogen-bonding capacity is a key determinant of lysosomal retention in normal cells, whereas lipophilicity directs these derivatives to the mitochondria or the nucleus in cancer cells. In addition, drug-resistant cancer cells preferentially retain BMVC in their lysosomes than drug-sensitive cancer cells, and BMVC can be released from drug-resistant lysosomes with lysosomotropic agents. Our results further our understanding of how properties of cellular organelles differ between normal and cancer cells, which can be exploited for diagnostic and/or therapeutic use. We also provide physiochemical design principles for selective targeting of small molecules to different organelles. Moreover, our results suggest that agents which can increase lysosomal membrane permeability may re-sensitize drug-resistant cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:23970166

  20. TLR2-dependent selective autophagy regulates NF-?B lysosomal degradation in hepatoma-derived M2 macrophage differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, C-P; Su, Y-C; Hu, C-W; Lei, H-Y

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal pathway for cellular homeostasis control. Both non-selective bulk autophagy and selective autophagy of specific proteins or organelles have been found. Selective autophagy prevents cells from pathogen invasion and stress damage, but its role in regulating transcriptional factors is not clear. Using a macrophage cell differentiation model, the role of autophagy in nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) regulation is investigated. The bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) will differentiate into a M2-like phenotype in the presence of hepatoma tumor cell condition medium (CM). The TLR2 signaling drives this M2 polarization and causes NF-?B p65 degradation via lysosome-dependent pathway. The CM-induced ubiquitinated- NF-?B p65 forms aggresome-like structures (ALS) in the cytoplasm of cultured and hepatoma-associated M2 macrophages. This NF-?B p65-contained ALS is recognized by p62/SQSTM1 and degraded by selective autophagy. Treatment with the lysosomal inhibitor bafilomycin A1 or the knockdown of Atg5 can prevent CM-induced NK-?B p65 degradation and induce M2 macrophages to produce a high level of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, TLR2 signal induces sustained phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 to facilitate this autophagy-dependent NF-?B regulation. Our finding provides a novel pathway of NF-?B regulation by p62/SQSTM1-mediated selective autophagy. PMID:23175187

  1. TLR2-dependent selective autophagy regulates NF-?B lysosomal degradation in hepatoma-derived M2 macrophage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chang, C-P; Su, Y-C; Hu, C-W; Lei, H-Y

    2013-03-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal pathway for cellular homeostasis control. Both non-selective bulk autophagy and selective autophagy of specific proteins or organelles have been found. Selective autophagy prevents cells from pathogen invasion and stress damage, but its role in regulating transcriptional factors is not clear. Using a macrophage cell differentiation model, the role of autophagy in nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) regulation is investigated. The bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) will differentiate into a M2-like phenotype in the presence of hepatoma tumor cell condition medium (CM). The TLR2 signaling drives this M2 polarization and causes NF-?B p65 degradation via lysosome-dependent pathway. The CM-induced ubiquitinated- NF-?B p65 forms aggresome-like structures (ALS) in the cytoplasm of cultured and hepatoma-associated M2 macrophages. This NF-?B p65-contained ALS is recognized by p62/SQSTM1 and degraded by selective autophagy. Treatment with the lysosomal inhibitor bafilomycin A1 or the knockdown of Atg5 can prevent CM-induced NK-?B p65 degradation and induce M2 macrophages to produce a high level of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, TLR2 signal induces sustained phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 to facilitate this autophagy-dependent NF-?B regulation. Our finding provides a novel pathway of NF-?B regulation by p62/SQSTM1-mediated selective autophagy. PMID:23175187

  2. The pathway and targeting signal for delivery of the integral membrane glycoprotein LEP100 to lysosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Mathews; John B. Martinie; Douglas M. Fambrough

    1992-01-01

    A complete set of chimeras was made be~ tween the lysosomal membrane glycoprotein LEP100 and the plasma membrane-directed vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, combining a glycosylated lumenal or ectodomain, a single transmembrane domain, and a cytosolic carboxyl-terrninal domain. These chimeras, the parent molecules, and a truncated form of LEPI00 lacking the transmembrane and cytosolic domains were expressed in mouse L

  3. Crystal structures of native and inhibited forms of human cathepsin D: implications for lysosomal targeting and drug design.

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, E T; Bhat, T N; Gulnik, S; Hosur, M V; Sowder, R C; Cachau, R E; Collins, J; Silva, A M; Erickson, J W

    1993-01-01

    Cathepsin D (EC 3.4.23.5) is a lysosomal protease suspected to play important roles in protein catabolism, antigen processing, degenerative diseases, and breast cancer progression. Determination of the crystal structures of cathepsin D and a complex with pepstatin at 2.5 A resolution provides insights into inhibitor binding and lysosomal targeting for this two-chain, N-glycosylated aspartic protease. Comparison with the structures of a complex of pepstatin bound to rhizopuspepsin and with a human renin-inhibitor complex revealed differences in subsite structures and inhibitor-enzyme interactions that are consistent with affinity differences and structure-activity relationships and suggest strategies for fine-tuning the specificity of cathepsin D inhibitors. Mutagenesis studies have identified a phosphotransferase recognition region that is required for oligosaccharide phosphorylation but is 32 A distant from the N-domain glycosylation site at Asn-70. Electron density for the crystal structure of cathepsin D indicated the presence of an N-linked oligosaccharide that extends from Asn-70 toward Lys-203, which is a key component of the phosphotransferase recognition region, and thus provides a structural explanation for how the phosphotransferase can recognize apparently distant sites on the protein surface. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8393577

  4. Role of the N-terminal transmembrane domain in the endo-lysosomal targeting and function of the human ABCB6 protein.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Katalin; Kucsma, Nora; Brozik, Anna; Tusnady, Gabor E; Bergam, Ptissam; van Niel, Guillaume; Szakacs, Gergely

    2015-04-01

    ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B (ABCB) 6 is a homodimeric ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter present in the plasma membrane and in the intracellular organelles. The intracellular localization of ABCB6 has been a matter of debate, as it has been suggested to reside in the mitochondria and the endo-lysosomal system. Using a variety of imaging modalities, including confocal microscopy and EM, we confirm the endo-lysosomal localization of ABCB6 and show that the protein is internalized from the plasma membrane through endocytosis, to be distributed to multivesicular bodies and lysosomes. In addition to the canonical nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and transmembrane domain (TMD), ABCB6 contains a unique N-terminal TMD (TMD0), which does not show sequence homology to known proteins. We investigated the functional role of these domains through the molecular dissection of ABCB6. We find that the folding, dimerization, membrane insertion and ATP binding/hydrolysis of the core-ABCB6 complex devoid of TMD0 are preserved. However, in contrast with the full-length transporter, the core-ABCB6 construct is retained at the plasma membrane and does not appear in Rab5-positive endosomes. TMD0 is directly targeted to the lysosomes, without passage to the plasma membrane. Collectively, our results reveal that TMD0 represents an independently folding unit, which is dispensable for catalysis, but has a crucial role in the lysosomal targeting of ABCB6. PMID:25627919

  5. Secretory lysosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma J. Blott; Gillian M. Griffiths

    2002-01-01

    Regulated secretion of stored secretory products is important in many cell types. In contrast to professional secretory cells, which store their secretory products in specialized secretory granules, some secretory cells store their secretory proteins in a dual-function organelle, called a secretory lysosome. Functionally, secretory lysosomes are unusual in that they serve both as a degradative and as a secretory compartment.

  6. The biogenesis of lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles.

    PubMed

    Luzio, J Paul; Hackmann, Yvonne; Dieckmann, Nele M G; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2014-09-01

    Lysosomes were once considered the end point of endocytosis, simply used for macromolecule degradation. They are now recognized to be dynamic organelles, able to fuse with a variety of targets and to be re-formed after fusion events. They are also now known to be the site of nutrient sensing and signaling to the cell nucleus. In addition, lysosomes are secretory organelles, with specialized machinery for regulated secretion of proteins in some cell types. The biogenesis of lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles is discussed, taking into account their dynamic nature and multiple roles. PMID:25183830

  7. Characterization of Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) Trafficking Reveals a Novel Lysosomal Targeting Mechanism via Amyloid Precursor-like Protein 2 (APLP2)

    PubMed Central

    DeVay, Rachel M.; Shelton, David L.; Liang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates low density lipoprotein receptor protein levels by diverting it to lysosomes. Monoclonal antibody therapeutics aimed to neutralize PCSK9 have been shown to successfully lower serum LDL levels; however, we previously found that such therapeutic antibodies are subject to PCSK9-mediated clearance. In this study, we discovered that PCSK9 interacts via its C-terminal domain directly and in a pH-dependent manner with amyloid precursor protein as well as its closely related family member, amyloid precursor protein-like protein 2. Furthermore, we determined that amyloid precursor protein-like protein-2, but not amyloid precursor protein, is involved in mediating postendocytic delivery of PCSK9 to lysosomes and is therefore important for PCSK9 function. Based on our data, we propose a model for a lysosomal transport complex by which a soluble protein can target another protein for degradation from the luminal side of the membrane by bridging it to a lysosomally targeted transmembrane protein. PMID:23430252

  8. Fusion to the Lysosome Targeting Signal of the Invariant Chain Alters the Processing and Enhances the Immunogenicity of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Starodubova, E. S.; Isaguliants, M. G.; Kuzmenko, Y. V.; Latanova, A. A.; Krotova, O. A.; Karpov, V. L.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular processing of the antigen encoded by a DNA vaccine is one of the key steps in generating an immune response. Immunization with DNA constructs targeted to the endosomal-lysosomal compartments and to the MHC class II pathway can elicit a strong immune response. Herein, the weakly immunogenic reverse transcriptase of HIV-1 was fused to the minimal lysosomal targeting motif of the human MHC class II invariant chain. The motif fused to the N-terminus shifted the enzyme intracellular localization and accelerated its degradation. Degradation of the chimeric protein occurred predominantly in the lysosomal compartment. BALB/c mice immunized with the plasmid encoding the chimeric protein demonstrated an enhanced immune response, in the form of an increased antigen-specific production of Th1 cytokines, INF-? and IL-2, by mouse splenocytes. Moreover, the majority of the splenocytes secreted both cytokines; i.e., were polyfunctional. These findings suggest that retargeting of the antigen to the lysosomes enhances the immune response to DNA vaccine candidates with low intrinsic immunogenicity. PMID:24772328

  9. RNAi screens of lysosomal trafficking.

    PubMed

    Garg, Salil; Brenner, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Here, we describe the general principles of RNA interference screens to study lysosomal functions in mammalian cells. Lysosomes occupy a central position in the biology of numerous processes such as degradation, microbial killing, and immunological antigen presentation to T cells. Selection of a screening system, conducting pooled versus arrayed screens, and appropriate steps in assay development, validation, and verification of novel gene candidates are all discussed. We focus on our experience in developing an arrayed short hairpin RNA screen to identify novel lysosomal trafficking proteins involved in vesicle and cargo trafficking and illustrate how such a trafficking library can be applied to screens involving lysosomes. PMID:25665444

  10. TFEB regulates lysosomal proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Song, Wensi; Wang, Fan; Savini, Marzia; Ake, Ashley; di Ronza, Alberto; Sardiello, Marco; Segatori, Laura

    2013-05-15

    Loss-of-function diseases are often caused by destabilizing mutations that lead to protein misfolding and degradation. Modulating the innate protein homeostasis (proteostasis) capacity may lead to rescue of native folding of the mutated variants, thereby ameliorating the disease phenotype. In lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), a number of highly prevalent alleles have missense mutations that do not impair the enzyme's catalytic activity but destabilize its native structure, resulting in the degradation of the misfolded protein. Enhancing the cellular folding capacity enables rescuing the native, biologically functional structure of these unstable mutated enzymes. However, proteostasis modulators specific for the lysosomal system are currently unknown. Here, we investigate the role of the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and function, in modulating lysosomal proteostasis in LSDs. We show that TFEB activation results in enhanced folding, trafficking and lysosomal activity of a severely destabilized glucocerebrosidase (GC) variant associated with the development of Gaucher disease (GD), the most common LSD. TFEB specifically induces the expression of GC and of key genes involved in folding and lysosomal trafficking, thereby enhancing both the pool of mutated enzyme and its processing through the secretory pathway. TFEB activation also rescues the activity of a ?-hexosaminidase mutant associated with the development of another LSD, Tay-Sachs disease, thus suggesting general applicability of TFEB-mediated proteostasis modulation to rescue destabilizing mutations in LSDs. In summary, our findings identify TFEB as a specific regulator of lysosomal proteostasis and suggest that TFEB may be used as a therapeutic target to rescue enzyme homeostasis in LSDs. PMID:23393155

  11. Phosphatidic acid mediates the targeting of tBid to induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization and apoptosis[S

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Zhou, Hejiang; Zhao, Xingyu; Wolff, Dennis W.; Tu, Yaping; Liu, Huili; Wei, Taotao; Yang, Fuyu

    2012-01-01

    Upon apoptotic stimuli, lysosomal proteases, including cathepsins and chymotrypsin, are released into cytosol due to lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), where they trigger apoptosis via the lysosomal-mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Herein, the mechanism of LMP was investigated. We found that caspase 8-cleaved Bid (tBid) could result in LMP directly. Although Bax or Bak might modestly enhance tBid-triggered LMP, they are not necessary for LMP. To study this further, large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), model membranes mimicking the lipid constitution of lysosomes, were used to reconstitute the membrane permeabilization process in vitro. We found that phosphatidic acid (PA), one of the major acidic phospholipids found in lysosome membrane, is essential for tBid-induced LMP. PA facilitates the insertion of tBid deeply into lipid bilayers, where it undergoes homo-oligomerization and triggers the formation of highly curved nonbilayer lipid phases. These events induce LMP via pore formation mechanisms because encapsulated fluorescein-conjugated dextran (FD)-20 was released more significantly than FD-70 or FD-250 from LUVs due to its smaller molecular size. On the basis of these data, we proposed tBid-PA interactions in the lysosomal membranes form lipidic pores and result in LMP. We further noted that chymotrypsin-cleaved Bid is more potent than tBid at binding to PA, inserting into the lipid bilayer, and promoting LMP. This amplification mechanism likely contributes to the culmination of apoptotic signaling. PMID:22761256

  12. Lysosomal sequestration of hydrophobic weak base chemotherapeutics triggers lysosomal biogenesis and lysosome-dependent cancer multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhitomirsky, Benny; Assaraf, Yehuda G.

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a primary hindrance to curative cancer chemotherapy. In this respect, lysosomes were suggested to play a role in intrinsic MDR by sequestering protonated hydrophobic weak base chemotherapeutics away from their intracellular target sites. Here we show that intrinsic resistance to sunitinib, a hydrophobic weak base tyrosine kinase inhibitor known to accumulate in lysosomes, tightly correlates with the number of lysosomes accumulating high levels of sunitinib in multiple human carcinoma cells. Furthermore, exposure of cancer cells to hydrophobic weak base drugs leads to a marked increase in the number of lysosomes per cell. Non-cytotoxic, nanomolar concentrations, of the hydrophobic weak base chemotherapeutics doxorubicin and mitoxantrone triggered rapid lysosomal biogenesis that was associated with nuclear translocation of TFEB, the dominant transcription factor regulating lysosomal biogenesis. This resulted in increased lysosomal gene expression and lysosomal enzyme activity. Thus, treatment of cancer cells with hydrophobic weak base chemotherapeutics and their consequent sequestration in lysosomes triggers lysosomal biogenesis, thereby further enhancing lysosomal drug entrapment and MDR. The current study provides the first evidence that drug-induced TFEB-associated lysosomal biogenesis is an emerging determinant of MDR and suggests that circumvention of lysosomal drug sequestration is a novel strategy to overcome this chemoresistance. PMID:25544758

  13. Lysosomal adaptation: how the lysosome responds to external cues.

    PubMed

    Settembre, Carmine; Ballabio, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the importance of the lysosome in cell metabolism and organism physiology goes far beyond the simple disposal of cellular garbage. This dynamic organelle is situated at the crossroad of the most important cellular pathways and is involved in sensing, signaling, and transcriptional mechanisms that respond to environmental cues, such as nutrients. Two main mediators of these lysosomal adaptation mechanisms are the mTORC1 kinase complex and the transcription factor EB (TFEB). These two factors are linked in a lysosome-to-nucleus signaling pathway that provides the lysosome with the ability to adapt to extracellular cues and control its own biogenesis. Modulation of lysosomal function by acting on TFEB has a profound impact on cellular clearance and energy metabolism and is a promising therapeutic target for a large variety of disease conditions. PMID:24799353

  14. Quasar target selection fiber efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Newberg, H.; Yanny, B.

    1996-05-01

    We present estimates of the efficiency for finding QSOs as a function of limiting magnitude and galactic latitude. From these estimates, we have formulated a target selection strategy that should net 80,000 QSOs in the north galactic cap with an average of 70 fibers per plate, not including fibers reserved for high-redshift quasars. With this plan, we expect 54% of the targets to be QSOs. The North Galactic Cap is divided into two zones of high and low stellar density. We use about five times as many fibers for QSO candidates in the half of the survey with the lower stellar density as we use in the half with higher stellar density. The current plan assigns 15% of the fibers to FIRST radio sources; if these are not available, those fibers would be allocated to lower probability QSO sources, dropping the total number of QSOs by a small factor (5%). We will find about 17,000 additional quasars in the southern strips, and maybe a few more at very high redshift. Use was made of two data sets: the star and quasar simulated test data generated by Don Schneider, and the data from UJFN plate surveys by Koo (1986) and Kron (1980). This data was compared to results from the Palomar-Green Survey and a recent survey by Pat Osmer and collaborators.

  15. Optimal Adaptive Waveform Selection for Target Tracking

    E-print Network

    Rezaeian, Mohammad-Jafar

    Optimal Adaptive Waveform Selection for Target Tracking Barbara La Scala Mohammad Rezaeian Bill algorithms. This paper describes an optimal adaptive waveform selection algorithm for target tracking scheduling for target tracking as a stochastic dy- namic programming problem. The result is a scheduling

  16. In situ assay of acid sphingomyelinase and ceramidase based on LDL-mediated lysosomal targeting of ceramide-labeled sphingomyelin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thieny Levade; Michele Len; Denis Graber; Andre Moisand; Stephane Vermeersch; Robert Salvayre; Pierre J. Courtoyt

    The activity of lysosomal sphingolipid hydrolases is usually estimated in vitro from complex assays on cell lysates under artificial conditions including the presence of deter- gents and substrate analogs. However, the measure of their effective activity in situ (i.e., in living cells) is necessary to un- derstand the normal intracellular sphingolipid turnover. Moreover, their determination in cells from patients with

  17. Pylyshyn & Annan Target selection in MOT Dynamics of target selection in Multiple Object Tracking (MOT)1

    E-print Network

    Pylyshyn, Zenon

    Pylyshyn & Annan Target selection in MOT 1 Dynamics of target selection in Multiple Object Tracking be selected voluntarily (exogenously) and then tracked in a Multiple Object Tracking paradigm and, if so time and that given 1080 ms they were able to select and track them as well as those selected

  18. Selective targeting of histone methylation.

    PubMed

    Islam, Abul B M M K; Richter, William F; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Benevolenskaya, Elizaveta V

    2011-02-01

    Histones are post-translationally modified by multiple histone-modifying enzymes, which in turn influences gene expression. Much of the work in the field to date has focused on genetic, biochemical and structural characterization of these enzymes. The most recent genome-wide methods provide insights into specific recruitment of histone-modifying enzymes in vivo and, therefore, onto mechanisms of establishing a differential expression pattern. Here we focus on the recruitment mechanisms of the enzymes involved in the placement of two contrasting histone marks, histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation and histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) methylation. We describe distribution of their binding sites and show that recruitment of different histone-modifying proteins can be coordinated, opposed, or alternating. Specifically, genomic sites of the H3K4 histone demethylase KDM5A become accessible to its homolog KDM5B in cells with a lowered KDM5A level. The currently available data on recruitment of H3K4/H3K27 modifying enzymes suggests that the formed protein complexes are targeted in a sequential and temporal manner, but that additional, still unknown, interactions contribute to targeting specificity. PMID:21270517

  19. Target Selection for the TESS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan; De Lee, Nathan M.; Paegert, Martin; Latham, David W.; Winn, Joshua N.; TESS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the TESS mission is to discover small, rocky planets transiting bright stars. To reach that goal, we have constructed a compiled catalog of stars from which to select TESS targets. The catalog contains all dwarf stars in the sky with spectral types F5 and later, and I < 12, along with selected sets of fainter M stars. Provisions are being made to augment the target list with stars that fall outside the nominal spectral type and magnitude limits, and to permit dynamic updating of the catalog to accommodate new survey data being released (e.g. GAIA). We will describe the overall target selection strategy, and the current catalogs that have been constructed, and how we intend to further expand and refine our target lists.

  20. Agonist- and Ca2+-dependent Desensitization of TRPV1 Channel Targets the Receptor to Lysosomes for Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Salvador, Lucía; Andrés-Borderia, Amparo; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio; Planells-Cases, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    TRPV1 receptor agonists such as the vanilloid capsaicin and the potent analog resiniferatoxin are well known potent analgesics. Depending on the vanilloid, dose, and administration site, nociceptor refractoriness may last from minutes up to months, suggesting the contribution of different cellular mechanisms ranging from channel receptor desensitization to Ca2+ cytotoxicity of TRPV1-expressing neurons. The molecular mechanisms underlying agonist-induced TRPV1 desensitization and/or tachyphylaxis are still incompletely understood. Here, we report that prolonged exposure of TRPV1 to agonists induces rapid receptor endocytosis and lysosomal degradation in both sensory neurons and recombinant systems. Agonist-induced receptor internalization followed a clathrin- and dynamin-independent endocytic route, triggered by TRPV1 channel activation and Ca2+ influx through the receptor. This process appears strongly modulated by PKA-dependent phosphorylation. Taken together, these findings indicate that TRPV1 agonists induce long-term receptor down-regulation by modulating the expression level of the channel through a mechanism that promotes receptor endocytosis and degradation and lend support to the notion that cAMP signaling sensitizes nociceptors through several mechanisms. PMID:22493457

  1. Selective targeting of lysosomal cysteine proteases with radiolabeled electrophilic substrate analogs

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    stirring. The reaction was cooled to ­10°C in an ice/sodium chloride slurry and isobutylchlo- roformate. Then it was poured into ice-water, and extracted with ether (3×). The com- bined ether layers were washed with water resulting in a crude oil. Flash chromatography yielded the desired product as a pale yellow oil (430 mg, 2

  2. Communication Target Selection for Replicated MPI Processes

    E-print Network

    Cheung, Margaret Shun

    Communication Target Selection for Replicated MPI Processes Rakhi Anand, Edgar Gabriel and Jaspal. VolpexMPI is an MPI library designed for volunteer comput- ing environments. In order to cope with the fundamental unreliability of these environments, VolpexMPI deploys two or more replicas of each MPI process

  3. Drug induced phospholipidosis: an acquired lysosomal storage disorder.

    PubMed

    Shayman, James A; Abe, Akira

    2013-03-01

    There is a strong association between lysosome enzyme deficiencies and monogenic disorders resulting in lysosomal storage disease. Of the more than 75 characterized lysosomal proteins, two thirds are directly linked to inherited diseases of metabolism. Only one lysosomal storage disease, Niemann-Pick disease, is associated with impaired phospholipid metabolism. However, other phospholipases are found in the lysosome but remain poorly characterized. A recent exception is lysosomal phospholipase A2 (group XV phospholipase A2). Although no inherited disorder of lysosomal phospholipid metabolism has yet been associated with a loss of function of this lipase, this enzyme may be a target for an acquired form of lysosomal storage, drug induced phospholipidosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. PMID:22960355

  4. Lysosomal calcium regulates autophagy.

    PubMed

    Medina, Diego L; Ballabio, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that the lysosome is able to act as a signaling organelle that senses nutrient availability and generates an adaptive response that is important for cellular homeostasis. We recently discovered another example of lysosomal signaling where lysosomal calcium release activates the master autophagy regulator TFEB via the phosphatase calcineurin. PMID:26000950

  5. Lysosomal diseases: diagnostic update.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Bryan

    2014-07-01

    Technological developments in newborn and population screening, biomarker discovery for monitoring treatment and rapid high throughput DNA sequencing are having a great impact on the diagnostic procedure for symptomatic patients with lysosomal storage diseases. The use of dried blood spots, initially for newborn screening, has stimulated the introduction of automated, rapid and more sensitive methods for the assay of lysosomal enzymes, including the synthesis of novel substrates. Storage products and secondary metabolites in urine and cells can be identified and measured very accurately and sensitively by high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. This has enhanced the preliminary metabolite screen for LSDs and facilitated the diagnosis of transport defects. Fast, reliable and affordable high throughput DNA sequencing, such as whole or selected exome sequencing, is helping to make diagnoses in difficult cases, to reveal novel gene defects, to widen the clinical spectrum of diseases and possibly to identify modifying genetic factors. Bioinformatics will be necessary to handle the data generated by these new technologies. Notwithstanding, these technical innovations, accurate and reliable diagnosis will still depend on the knowledge and experience of skilled laboratory staff. PMID:24711203

  6. Two distinct modes of ESCRT-III recognition are required for VPS4 functions in lysosomal protein targeting and HIV-1 budding

    PubMed Central

    Kieffer, Collin; Skalicky, Jack J.; Morita, Eiji; De Dominico, Ivana; Ward, Diane M.; Kaplan, Jerry; Sundquist, Wesley I.

    2008-01-01

    The ESCRT pathway mediates membrane remodeling during enveloped virus budding, cytokinesis, and intralumenal endosomal vesicle formation. Late in the pathway, a subset of membrane-associated ESCRT-III proteins display terminal amphipathic “MIM1” helices that bind and recruit VPS4 ATPases via their MIT domains. We now report that VPS4 MIT domains also bind a second, “MIM2” motif found in a different subset of ESCRT-III subunits. The solution structure of the VPS4 MIT-CHMP6 MIM2 complex revealed that MIM2 elements bind in extended conformations along the groove between the first and third helices of the MIT domain. Mutations that block VPS4 MIT-MIM2 interactions inhibit VPS4 recruitment, lysosomal protein targeting and HIV-1 budding. MIT-MIM2 interactions appear to be common throughout the ESCRT pathway and possibly elsewhere, and we suggest how these interactions could contribute to a mechanism in which VPS4 and ESCRT-III proteins function together to constrict the necks of budding vesicles. PMID:18606141

  7. Target selection for the HRIBF Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dellwo, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Alton, G.D.; Batchelder, J.C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Experiments are in progress at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) which are designed to select the most appropriate target materials for generating particular radioactive ion beams for the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF). The 25-MV tandem accelerator is used to implant stable complements of interesting radioactive elements into refractory targets mounted in a high-temperature FEBIAD ion source which is on-line at the UNISOR facility. These experiments permit selection of the target material most appropriate for the rapid release of the element of interest, as well as realistic estimates of the efficiency of the FEBIAD source. From diffusion release data information on the release times and diffusion coefficients can be derived. Diffusion coefficients for CI implanted into and diffused from CeS and Zr{sub 5}Si{sub 3} and As, Br, and Se implanted into and diffused from Zr{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} have been derived from the resulting intensity versus time profiles.

  8. MaNGA: Target selection and Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wake, David

    2015-01-01

    The 6-year SDSS-IV MaNGA survey will measure spatially resolved spectroscopy for 10,000 nearby galaxies using the Sloan 2.5m telescope and the BOSS spectrographs with a new fiber arrangement consisting of 17 individually deployable IFUs. We present the simultaneous design of the target selection and IFU size distribution to optimally meet our targeting requirements. The requirements for the main samples were to use simple cuts in redshift and magnitude to produce an approximately flat number density of targets as a function of stellar mass, ranging from 1x109 to 1x1011 M?, and radial coverage to either 1.5 (Primary sample) or 2.5 (Secondary sample) effective radii, while maximizing S/N and spatial resolution. In addition we constructed a 'Color-Enhanced' sample where we required 25% of the targets to have an approximately flat number density in the color and mass plane. We show how these requirements are met using simple absolute magnitude (and color) dependent redshift cuts applied to an extended version of the NASA Sloan Atlas (NSA), how this determines the distribution of IFU sizes and the resulting properties of the MaNGA sample.

  9. Nonresonant and Resonant Frequency-Selectable Induction-Heating Targets

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, John I.

    This paper examines a scheme for developing frequency-selectable induction-heating targets for stimulating temperature-sensitive polymer gels. The phrase “frequency selectable” implies that each target has a frequency at ...

  10. The lysosomal membrane complex. Focal point of primary steroid hormone action

    PubMed Central

    Szego, Clara M.; Seeler, Barbara J.; Steadman, Rosemarie A.; Hill, Diane F.; Kimura, Arthur K.; Roberts, James A.

    1971-01-01

    At short intervals after the intravenous administration of oestradiol-17?, diethylstilboestrol, testosterone or saline control solution to ovariectomized rats, highly purified lysosome samples were prepared in substantial yield from preputial glands, sex accessory organs rich in these organelles. The preparations were essentially devoid of mitochondrial contamination. Exposure in vivo to doses of these hormones varying from 0.1 to 5?g/100g body wt. provoked dose-dependent labilization of the lysosomal membrane surface, as evidenced by significantly diminished structural latency of several characteristic acid hydrolases, including acid phosphatase, ?-glucuronidase and acid ribonuclease II, when such preparations were subsequently challenged in vitro with autolytic conditions, detergent or mechanical stress. Enhanced lytic susceptibility induced by hormone pretreatment was occasionally detectable in the initial preparation without further provocative stimuli in vitro. Comparable results were obtained with the corresponding fractions of uterus, despite the more limited concentration of lysosomes in this steroidal target organ. By the present criteria oestradiol-17? was essentially inert, even in a dose 25 times that effective for its active ?-epimer (<0.1?g/100g body wt.). Pretreatment with diethylstilboestrol exerted substantial membrane-destabilizing influence in preputial-gland lysosome samples from orchidectomized rats. Moreover, administration of testosterone to gonadectomized animals resulted in essentially equivalent dose-dependent augmentation of lysosomal enzyme release in preputial-gland preparations of either sex. The membrane stability of lysosome-enriched preparations from uterus, on the other hand, was unaffected by testosterone pretreatment. The sensitivity, specificity and selectivity of the lysosomal response to sex steroids provide evidence for the physiological significance of this phenomenon as a general mechanism for mediation of secondary biochemical transformations in the hormone-stimulated target cell. PMID:5126905

  11. Lysosomal storage diseases: from pathophysiology to therapy.

    PubMed

    Parenti, Giancarlo; Andria, Generoso; Ballabio, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases are a group of rare, inborn, metabolic errors characterized by deficiencies in normal lysosomal function and by intralysosomal accumulation of undegraded substrates. The past 25 years have been characterized by remarkable progress in the treatment of these diseases and by the development of multiple therapeutic approaches. These approaches include strategies aimed at increasing the residual activity of a missing enzyme (enzyme replacement therapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, pharmacological chaperone therapy and gene therapy) and approaches based on reducing the flux of substrates to lysosomes. As knowledge has improved about the pathophysiology of lysosomal storage diseases, novel targets for therapy have been identified, and innovative treatment approaches are being developed. PMID:25587658

  12. Lysosomal Signaling Molecules Regulate Longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Folick, Andrew; Oakley, Holly Doebbler; Yu, Yong; Armstrong, Eric H.; Kumari, Manju; Sanor, Lucas; Moore, David D.; Ortlund, Eric A.; Zechner, Rudolf; Wang, Meng C.

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomes are crucial cellular organelles for human health that function in digestion and recycling of extracellular and intracellular macromolecules. We describe a signaling role for lysosomes that affects aging. In the worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, the lysosomal acid lipase LIPL-4 triggered nuclear translocalization of a lysosomal lipid chaperone LBP-8, consequently promoting longevity by activating the nuclear hormone receptors NHR-49 and NHR-80. We used high-throughput metabolomic analysis to identify several lipids whose abundance was increased in worms constitutively over-expressing LIPL-4. Among them, oleoylethanolamide directly bound to LBP-8 and NHR-80 proteins, activated transcription of target genes of NHR-49 and NHR-80, and promoted longevity in C. elegans. These findings reveal a lysosome-to-nucleus signaling pathway that promotes longevity and suggest a function of lysosomes as signaling organelles in metazoans. PMID:25554789

  13. Aging. Lysosomal signaling molecules regulate longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Folick, Andrew; Oakley, Holly D; Yu, Yong; Armstrong, Eric H; Kumari, Manju; Sanor, Lucas; Moore, David D; Ortlund, Eric A; Zechner, Rudolf; Wang, Meng C

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomes are crucial cellular organelles for human health that function in digestion and recycling of extracellular and intracellular macromolecules. We describe a signaling role for lysosomes that affects aging. In the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the lysosomal acid lipase LIPL-4 triggered nuclear translocalization of a lysosomal lipid chaperone LBP-8, which promoted longevity by activating the nuclear hormone receptors NHR-49 and NHR-80. We used high-throughput metabolomic analysis to identify several lipids in which abundance was increased in worms constitutively overexpressing LIPL-4. Among them, oleoylethanolamide directly bound to LBP-8 and NHR-80 proteins, activated transcription of target genes of NHR-49 and NHR-80, and promoted longevity in C. elegans. These findings reveal a lysosome-to-nucleus signaling pathway that promotes longevity and suggest a function of lysosomes as signaling organelles in metazoans. PMID:25554789

  14. BAX channel activity mediates lysosomal disruption linked to Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Bové, Jordi; Martínez-Vicente, Marta; Dehay, Benjamin; Perier, Celine; Recasens, Ariadna; Bombrun, Agnes; Antonsson, Bruno; Vila, Miquel

    2014-05-01

    Lysosomal disruption is increasingly regarded as a major pathogenic event in Parkinson disease (PD). A reduced number of intraneuronal lysosomes, decreased levels of lysosomal-associated proteins and accumulation of undegraded autophagosomes (AP) are observed in PD-derived samples, including fibroblasts, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons, and post-mortem brain tissue. Mechanistic studies in toxic and genetic rodent PD models attribute PD-related lysosomal breakdown to abnormal lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying PD-linked LMP and subsequent lysosomal defects remain virtually unknown, thereby precluding their potential therapeutic targeting. Here we show that the pro-apoptotic protein BAX (BCL2-associated X protein), which permeabilizes mitochondrial membranes in PD models and is activated in PD patients, translocates and internalizes into lysosomal membranes early following treatment with the parkinsonian neurotoxin MPTP, both in vitro and in vivo, within a time-frame correlating with LMP, lysosomal disruption, and autophagosome accumulation and preceding mitochondrial permeabilization and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Supporting a direct permeabilizing effect of BAX on lysosomal membranes, recombinant BAX is able to induce LMP in purified mouse brain lysosomes and the latter can be prevented by pharmacological blockade of BAX channel activity. Furthermore, pharmacological BAX channel inhibition is able to prevent LMP, restore lysosomal levels, reverse AP accumulation, and attenuate mitochondrial permeabilization and overall nigrostriatal degeneration caused by MPTP, both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our results reveal that PD-linked lysosomal impairment relies on BAX-induced LMP, and point to small molecules able to block BAX channel activity as potentially beneficial to attenuate both lysosomal defects and neurodegeneration occurring in PD. PMID:24686337

  15. The late endosome/lysosome-anchored p18-mTORC1 pathway controls terminal maturation of lysosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Nada, Shigeyuki; Mori, Shunsuke; Soma-Nagae, Taeko; Oneyama, Chitose [Department of Oncogene Research, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Department of Oncogene Research, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Okada, Masato, E-mail: okadam@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Oncogene Research, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Department of Oncogene Research, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p18 is a membrane adaptor that anchors mTORC1 to late endosomes/lysosomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the role of the p18-mTORC1 pathway in lysosome biogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The loss of p18 causes accumulation of intact late endosomes by arresting lysosome maturation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of mTORC1 activity with rapamycin phenocopies the defects of p18 loss. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The p18-mTORC1 pathway plays crucial roles in the terminal maturation of lysosomes. -- Abstract: The late endosome/lysosome membrane adaptor p18 (or LAMTOR1) serves as an anchor for the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and is required for its activation on lysosomes. The loss of p18 causes severe defects in cell growth as well as endosome dynamics, including membrane protein transport and lysosome biogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects on lysosome biogenesis remain unknown. Here, we show that the p18-mTORC1 pathway is crucial for terminal maturation of lysosomes. The loss of p18 causes aberrant intracellular distribution and abnormal sizes of late endosomes/lysosomes and an accumulation of late endosome specific components, including Rab7, RagC, and LAMP1; this suggests that intact late endosomes accumulate in the absence of p18. These defects are phenocopied by inhibiting mTORC1 activity with rapamycin. Loss of p18 also suppresses the integration of late endosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the defective degradation of tracer proteins. These results suggest that the p18-mTORC1 pathway plays crucial roles in the late stages of lysosomal maturation, potentially in late endosome-lysosome fusion, which is required for processing of various macromolecules.

  16. Intracellular Protein Degradation: From a Vague Idea through the Lysosome and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and onto Human Diseases and Drug Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Ciechanover, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Between the 1950s and 1980s, scientists were focusing mostly on how the genetic code was transcribed to RNA and translated to proteins, but how proteins were degraded had remained a neglected research area. With the discovery of the lysosome by Christian de Duve it was assumed that cellular proteins are degraded within this organelle. Yet, several independent lines of experimental evidence strongly suggested that intracellular proteolysis was largely non-lysosomal, but the mechanisms involved have remained obscure. The discovery of the ubiquitin-proteasome system resolved the enigma. We now recognize that degradation of intracellular proteins is involved in regulation of a broad array of cellular processes, such as cell cycle and division, regulation of transcription factors, and assurance of the cellular quality control. Not surprisingly, aberrations in the system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human disease, such as malignancies and neurodegenerative disorders, which led subsequently to an increasing effort to develop mechanism-based drugs. PMID:23908826

  17. UVA Causes Dual Inactivation of Cathepsin B and L Underlying Lysosomal Dysfunction in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Lamore, Sarah D.; Wondrak, Georg T.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous exposure to chronic solar UVA-radiation is a causative factor in photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Recently, we have identified the thiol-dependent cysteine-protease cathepsin B as a novel UVA-target undergoing photo-oxidative inactivation upstream of autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in fibroblasts. In this study, we examined UVA effects on a wider range of cathepsins and explored the occurrence of UVA-induced cathepsin inactivation in other cultured skin cell types. In dermal fibroblasts, chronic exposure to non-cytotoxic doses of UVA caused pronounced inactivation of the lysosomal cysteine-proteases cathepsin B and L, effects not observed in primary keratinocytes and occurring only to a minor extent in primary melanocytes. In order to determine if UVA-induced lysosomal impairment requires single or dual inactivation of cathepsin B and/or L, we used a genetic approach (siRNA) to selectively downregulate enzymatic activity of these target cathepsins. Monitoring an established set of protein markers (including LAMP1, LC3-II, and p62) and cell ultrastructural changes detected by electron microscopy, we observed that only dual genetic antagonism (targeting both CTSB and CTSL expression) could mimic UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations, whereas single knockdown (targeting CTSB or CTSL only) did not display ‘UVA-mimetic’ effects failing to reproduce the UVA-induced phenotype. Taken together, our data demonstrate that chronic UVA inhibits both cathepsin B and L enzymatic activity and that dual inactivation of both enzymes is a causative factor underlying UVA-induced impairment of lysosomal function in dermal fibroblasts. PMID:23603447

  18. Role of the Endocytic Machinery in the Sorting of Lysosome-associated Membrane Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katy Janvier; Juan S. Bonifacino

    2005-01-01

    The limiting membrane of the lysosome contains a group of transmembrane glycoproteins named lysosome-associated membrane proteins (Lamps). These proteins are targeted to lysosomes by virtue of tyrosine-based sorting signals in their cytosolic tails. Four adaptor protein (AP) complexes, AP-1, AP-2, AP-3, and AP-4, interact with such signals and are therefore candidates for mediating sorting of the Lamps to lysosomes. However,

  19. A computational model of lysosome-ER Ca2+ microdomains.

    PubMed

    Penny, Christopher J; Kilpatrick, Bethan S; Han, Jung Min; Sneyd, James; Patel, Sandip

    2014-07-01

    Acidic organelles form an important intracellular Ca(2+) pool that can drive global Ca(2+) signals through coupling with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores. Recently identified lysosome-ER membrane contact sites might allow formation of Ca(2+) microdomains, although their size renders observation of Ca(2+) dynamics impractical. Here, we generated a computational model of lysosome-ER coupling that incorporated a previous model of the inositol trisphosphate (IP3) receptor as the ER Ca(2+) 'amplifier' and lysosomal leaks as the Ca(2+) 'trigger'. The model qualitatively described global Ca(2+) responses to the lysosomotropic agent GPN, which caused a controlled but substantial depletion of small solutes from the lysosome. Adapting this model to physiological lysosomal leaks induced by the Ca(2+) mobilising messenger NAADP demonstrated that lysosome-ER microdomains are capable of driving global Ca(2+) oscillations. Interestingly, our simulations suggest that the microdomain [Ca(2+)] need not be higher than that in the cytosol for responses to occur, thus matching the relatively high affinity of IP3 receptors for Ca(2+). The relative distribution and overall density of the lysosomal leaks dictated whether microdomains triggered or modulated global signals. Our data provide a computational framework for probing lysosome-ER Ca(2+) dynamics. PMID:24706947

  20. Lysosomal storage diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward M. Kaye

    2001-01-01

    Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a •Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), over 40 different diseases, are now considered treatable disorders. Only a few short\\u000a years ago, Lysosomal storage disorders were seen as interesting neurodegenerative disorders without any potential for treatment.\\u000a Effective treatment strategies such as bone marrow transplantation (BMT), enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), and glycolipid\\u000a synthesis inhibition have been developed in the last 20

  1. Computational approaches to selecting and optimising targets for structural biology

    PubMed Central

    Overton, Ian M.; Barton, Geoffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Selection of protein targets for study is central to structural biology and may be influenced by numerous factors. A key aim is to maximise returns for effort invested by identifying proteins with the balance of biophysical properties that are conducive to success at all stages (e.g. solubility, crystallisation) in the route towards a high resolution structural model. Selected targets can be optimised through construct design (e.g. to minimise protein disorder), switching to a homologous protein, and selection of experimental methodology (e.g. choice of expression system) to prime for efficient progress through the structural proteomics pipeline. Here we discuss computational techniques in target selection and optimisation, with more detailed focus on tools developed within the Scottish Structural Proteomics Facility (SSPF); namely XANNpred, ParCrys, OB-Score (target selection) and TarO (target optimisation). TarO runs a large number of algorithms, searching for homologues and annotating the pool of possible alternative targets. This pool of putative homologues is presented in a ranked, tabulated format and results are also visualised as an automatically generated and annotated multiple sequence alignment. The target selection algorithms each predict the propensity of a selected protein target to progress through the experimental stages leading to diffracting crystals. This single predictor approach has advantages for target selection, when compared with an approach using two or more predictors that each predict for success at a single experimental stage. The tools described here helped SSPF achieve a high (21%) success rate in progressing cloned targets to diffraction-quality crystals. PMID:21906678

  2. Frequency-dependent chemolocation and chemotactic target selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Sarah A.; Chakrabarti, B.; Chou, Tom; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2010-06-01

    Chemotaxis is typically modeled in the context of cellular motion toward a static, exogenous source of chemoattractant. Here we propose a time-dependent mechanism of chemotaxis in which a self-propelled particle (e.g. a cell) releases a chemical that diffuses to fixed particles (targets) and signals the production of a second chemical by these targets. The particle then moves up concentration gradients of this second chemical, analogous to diffusive echolocation. When one target is present, we describe probe release strategies that optimize travel of the cell to the target. In the presence of multiple targets, the one selected by the cell depends on the strength and, interestingly, on the frequency of probe chemical release. Although involving an additional chemical signaling step, our chemical 'pinging' hypothesis allows for greater flexibility in regulating target selection, as seen in a number of physical or biological realizations.

  3. Spastic paraplegia proteins spastizin and spatacsin mediate autophagic lysosome reformation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jaerak; Lee, Seongju; Blackstone, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy allows cells to adapt to changes in their environment by coordinating the degradation and recycling of cellular components and organelles to maintain homeostasis. Lysosomes are organelles critical for terminating autophagy via their fusion with mature autophagosomes to generate autolysosomes that degrade autophagic materials; therefore, maintenance of the lysosomal population is essential for autophagy-dependent cellular clearance. Here, we have demonstrated that the two most common autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia gene products, the SPG15 protein spastizin and the SPG11 protein spatacsin, are pivotal for autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR), a pathway that generates new lysosomes. Lysosomal targeting of spastizin required an intact FYVE domain, which binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Loss of spastizin or spatacsin resulted in depletion of free lysosomes, which are competent to fuse with autophagosomes, and an accumulation of autolysosomes, reflecting a failure in ALR. Moreover, spastizin and spatacsin were essential components for the initiation of lysosomal tubulation. Together, these results link dysfunction of the autophagy/lysosomal biogenesis machinery to neurodegeneration. PMID:25365221

  4. Target selection and current status of structural genomics for the

    E-print Network

    Babu, M. Madan

    33 Target selection and current status of structural genomics for the completed microbial genomes 3.2 Structural status of completed microbial genomes in the PDB................ 3.3 Metabolic pathways as targets for structural genomics.......................... 3.3.1 Glycolytic pathway

  5. High Affinity Ligands from in vitro Selection: Complex Targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin N. Morris; Kirk B. Jensen; Carol M. Julin; Michael Weil; Larry Gold

    1998-01-01

    Human red blood cell membranes were used as a model system to determine if the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) methodology, an in vitro protocol for isolating high-affinity oligonucleotides that bind specifically to virtually any single protein, could be used with a complex mixture of potential targets. Ligands to multiple targets were generated simultaneously during the selection

  6. Ion channel targets - select biosciences' fourth annual conference.

    PubMed

    Holmqvist, Mats; Maduke, Merritt

    2008-11-01

    Select Biosciences' Fourth Annual Ion Channel Targets conference brought together scientists from industry and academia who are interested in the discovery of therapeutics targeted to various ion channels implicated in human disease. Topics addressed included methodological aspects of screening for ion channel drugs, the discovery of novel inhibitors and activators of ion channels that are drug candidates, and suggestions of potential new ion channel targets. PMID:18988121

  7. Sexual selection targets cetacean pelvic bones.

    PubMed

    Dines, James P; Otárola-Castillo, Erik; Ralph, Peter; Alas, Jesse; Daley, Timothy; Smith, Andrew D; Dean, Matthew D

    2014-11-01

    Male genitalia evolve rapidly, probably as a result of sexual selection. Whether this pattern extends to the internal infrastructure that influences genital movements remains unknown. Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) offer a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis: since evolving from land-dwelling ancestors, they lost external hind limbs and evolved a highly reduced pelvis that seems to serve no other function except to anchor muscles that maneuver the penis. Here, we create a novel morphometric pipeline to analyze the size and shape evolution of pelvic bones from 130 individuals (29 species) in the context of inferred mating system. We present two main findings: (1) males from species with relatively intense sexual selection (inferred by relative testes size) tend to evolve larger penises and pelvic bones compared to their body length, and (2) pelvic bone shape has diverged more in species pairs that have diverged in inferred mating system. Neither pattern was observed in the anterior-most pair of vertebral ribs, which served as a negative control. This study provides evidence that sexual selection can affect internal anatomy that controls male genitalia. These important functions may explain why cetacean pelvic bones have not been lost through evolutionary time. PMID:25186496

  8. Lysosomal calcium homeostasis defects, not proton pump defects, cause endo-lysosomal dysfunction in PSEN-deficient cells

    PubMed Central

    Coen, Katrijn; Flannagan, Ronald S.; Baron, Szilvia; Carraro-Lacroix, Luciene R.; Wang, Dong; Vermeire, Wendy; Michiels, Christine; Munck, Sebastian; Baert, Veerle; Sugita, Shuzo; Wuytack, Frank; Hiesinger, Peter Robin; Grinstein, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Presenilin (PSEN) deficiency is accompanied by accumulation of endosomes and autophagosomes, likely caused by impaired endo-lysosomal fusion. Recently, Lee et al. (2010. Cell. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2010.05.008) attributed this phenomenon to PSEN1 enabling the transport of mature V0a1 subunits of the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) to lysosomes. In their view, PSEN1 mediates the N-glycosylation of V0a1 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); consequently, PSEN deficiency prevents V0a1 glycosylation, compromising the delivery of unglycosylated V0a1 to lysosomes, ultimately impairing V-ATPase function and lysosomal acidification. We show here that N-glycosylation is not a prerequisite for proper targeting and function of this V-ATPase subunit both in vitro and in vivo in Drosophila melanogaster. We conclude that endo-lysosomal dysfunction in PSEN?/? cells is not a consequence of failed N-glycosylation of V0a1, or compromised lysosomal acidification. Instead, lysosomal calcium storage/release is significantly altered in PSEN?/? cells and neurons, thus providing an alternative hypothesis that accounts for the impaired lysosomal fusion capacity and accumulation of endomembranes that accompanies PSEN deficiency. PMID:22753898

  9. Regulation of HIV-Gag Expression and Targeting to the Endolysosomal/Secretory Pathway by the Luminal Domain of Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein (LAMP-1) Enhance Gag-Specific Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Carolina Gonçalves de Oliveira; Rigato, Paula Ordonhez; Gonçalves, Jorge Luiz Santos; Sato, Maria Notomi; Maciel, Milton; Peçanha, Ligia Maria Torres; August, J. Thomas; de Azevedo Marques, Ernesto Torres; de Arruda, Luciana Barros

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a DNA vaccine encoding HIV-p55gag in association with the lysosomal associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) elicited a greater Gag-specific immune response, in comparison to a DNA encoding the native gag. In vitro studies have also demonstrated that LAMP/Gag was highly expressed and was present in MHCII containing compartments in transfected cells. In this study, the mechanisms involved in these processes and the relative contributions of the increased expression and altered traffic for the enhanced immune response were addressed. Cells transfected with plasmid DNA constructs containing p55gag attached to truncated sequences of LAMP-1 showed that the increased expression of gag mRNA required p55gag in frame with at least 741 bp of the LAMP-1 luminal domain. LAMP luminal domain also showed to be essential for Gag traffic through lysosomes and, in this case, the whole sequence was required. Further analysis of the trafficking pathway of the intact LAMP/Gag chimera demonstrated that it was secreted, at least in part, associated with exosome-like vesicles. Immunization of mice with LAMP/gag chimeric plasmids demonstrated that high expression level alone can induce a substantial transient antibody response, but targeting of the antigen to the endolysosomal/secretory pathways was required for establishment of cellular and memory response. The intact LAMP/gag construct induced polyfunctional CD4+ T cell response, which presence at the time of immunization was required for CD8+ T cell priming. LAMP-mediated targeting to endolysosomal/secretory pathway is an important new mechanistic element in LAMP-mediated enhanced immunity with applications to the development of novel anti-HIV vaccines and to general vaccinology field. PMID:24932692

  10. Liprin-? is required for photoreceptor target selection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Kwang-Min; Prakash, Saurabh; Bright, Ali; Clandinin, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    Classical cadherin-mediated interactions between axons and dendrites are critical to target selection and synapse assembly. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these interactions are controlled are incompletely understood. In the Drosophila visual system, N-cadherin is required in both photoreceptor (R cell) axons and their targets to mediate stabilizing interactions required for R cell target selection. Here we identify the scaffolding protein Liprin-? as a critical component in this process. We isolated mutations in Liprin-? in a genetic screen for mutations affecting the pattern of synaptic connections made by R1–R6 photoreceptors. Using eye-specific mosaics, we demonstrate a previously undescribed, axonal function for Liprin-? in target selection: Liprin-? is required to be cell-autonomous in all subtypes of R1–R6 cells for their axons to reach their targets. Because Liprin-?, the receptor tyrosine phosphatase LAR, and N-cadherin share qualitatively similar mutant phenotypes in R1–R6 cells and are coexpressed in R cells and their synaptic targets, we infer that these three genes act at the same step in the targeting process. However, unlike N-cadherin, neither Liprin-? nor LAR is required postsynaptically for R cells to project to their correct targets. Thus, these two proteins, unlike N-cadherin, are functionally asymmetric between axons and dendrites. We propose that the adhesive mechanisms that link pre- and postsynaptic cells before synapse formation may be differentially regulated in these two compartments. PMID:16864799

  11. Autophagic-lysosomal dysregulation downstream of cathepsin B inactivation in human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA

    PubMed Central

    Lamore, Sarah D.; Wondrak, Georg T.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, using 2D-DIGE proteomics we have identified cathepsin B as a novel target of UVA in human Hs27 skin fibroblasts. In response to chronic exposure to noncytotoxic doses of UVA (9.9 J/cm2, twice a week, 3 weeks), photooxidative impairment of cathepsin B enzymatic activity occurred with accumulation of autofluorescent aggregates colocalizing with lysosomes, an effect mimicked by pharmacological antagonism of cathepsin B using the selective inhibitor CA074Me. Here, we have further explored the mechanistic involvement of cathepsin B inactivation in UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations using autophagy-directed PCR expression array analysis as a discovery tool. Consistent with lysosomal expansion, UVA upregulated cellular protein levels of the lysosomal marker glycoprotein Lamp-1, and increased levels of the lipidated autophagosomal membrane constituent LC3-II were detected. UVA did not alter expression of beclin 1 (BECN1), an essential factor for initiation of autophagy, but upregulation of p62 (sequestosome 1, SQSTM1), a selective autophagy substrate, and ?-synuclein (SNCA), an autophagic protein substrate and aggresome component, was observed at the mRNA and protein level. Moreover, UVA downregulated transglutaminase-2 (TGM2), an essential enzyme involved in autophagolysosome maturation. Strikingly, UVA effects on Lamp-1, LC3-II, beclin 1, p62, ?-synuclein, and transglutaminase-2 were mimicked by CA074Me treatment. Taken together, our data suggest that UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations occur as a consequence of impaired autophagic flux downstream of cathepsin B inactivation, a novel molecular mechanism potentially involved in UVA-induced skin photodamage. PMID:21773629

  12. Lysosomal Storage Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Pastores

    \\u000a The lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) are a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by the progressive accumulation\\u000a of various substrates in multiple cell types, as a consequence of defects in the degradation of by-products of cellular turnover.\\u000a Several subtypes are associated with neurodegenerative features, which present as a major therapeutic challenge. Although\\u000a the causal gene defects and corresponding enzyme, cofactor, or

  13. Target Selection for the LBTI Exozodi Key Science Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, Alycia J.; Bryden, Geoff; Kennedy, Grant M.; Roberge, Aki; Defrère, Denis; Hinz, Philip M.; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Rieke, George; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Danchi, William C.; Haniff, Chris; Mennesson, Bertrand; Serabyn, Eugene; Skemer, Andrew J.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Wyatt, Mark C.

    2015-02-01

    The Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial planetary Systems (HOSTS) on the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer will survey nearby stars for faint emission arising from ~300 K dust (exozodiacal dust), and aims to determine the exozodiacal dust luminosity function. HOSTS results will enable planning for future space telescopes aimed at direct spectroscopy of habitable zone terrestrial planets, as well as greater understanding of the evolution of exozodiacal disks and planetary systems. We lay out here the considerations that lead to the final HOSTS target list. Our target selection strategy maximizes the ability of the survey to constrain the exozodi luminosity function by selecting a combination of stars selected for suitability as targets of future missions and as sensitive exozodi probes. With a survey of approximately 50 stars, we show that HOSTS can enable an understanding of the statistical distribution of warm dust around various types of stars and is robust to the effects of varying levels of survey sensitivity induced by weather conditions.

  14. Target Selection for the LBTI Exozodi Key Science Program

    E-print Network

    Weinberger, Alycia J; Kennedy, Grant M; Roberge, Aki; Defrère, Denis; Hinz, Philip M; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Rieke, George; Bailey, Vanessa P; Danchi, William C; Haniff, Chris; Mennesson, Bertrand; Serabyn, Eugene; Skemer, Andrew J; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Wyatt, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    The Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial planetary Systems (HOSTS) on the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer will survey nearby stars for faint emission arising from ~300 K dust (exozodiacal dust), and aims to determine the exozodiacal dust luminosity function. HOSTS results will enable planning for future space telescopes aimed at direct spectroscopy of habitable zone terrestrial planets, as well as greater understanding of the evolution of exozodiacal disks and planetary systems. We lay out here the considerations that lead to the final HOSTS target list. Our target selection strategy maximizes the ability of the survey to constrain the exozodi luminosity function by selecting a combination of stars selected for suitability as targets of future missions and as sensitive exozodi probes. With a survey of approximately 50 stars, we show that HOSTS can enable an understanding of the statistical distribution of warm dust around various types of stars and is robust to the effects of varying levels ...

  15. Identification and Characterization of Pharmacological Chaperones to Correct Enzyme Deficiencies in Lysosomal Storage Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Richie; Powe, Allan C.; Boyd, Robert; Lee, Gary; Flanagan, John J.; Benjamin, Elfrida R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Many human diseases result from mutations in specific genes. Once translated, the resulting aberrant proteins may be functionally competent and produced at near-normal levels. However, because of the mutations, the proteins are recognized by the quality control system of the endoplasmic reticulum and are not processed or trafficked correctly, ultimately leading to cellular dysfunction and disease. Pharmacological chaperones (PCs) are small molecules designed to mitigate this problem by selectively binding and stabilizing their target protein, thus reducing premature degradation, facilitating intracellular trafficking, and increasing cellular activity. Partial or complete restoration of normal function by PCs has been shown for numerous types of mutant proteins, including secreted proteins, transcription factors, ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, and, importantly, lysosomal enzymes. Collectively, lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) result from genetic mutations in the genes that encode specific lysosomal enzymes, leading to a deficiency in essential enzymatic activity and cellular accumulation of the respective substrate. To date, over 50 different LSDs have been identified, several of which are treated clinically with enzyme replacement therapy or substrate reduction therapy, although insufficiently in some cases. Importantly, a wide range of in vitro assays are now available to measure mutant lysosomal enzyme interaction with and stabilization by PCs, as well as subsequent increases in cellular enzyme levels and function. The application of these assays to the identification and characterization of candidate PCs for mutant lysosomal enzymes will be discussed in this review. In addition, considerations for the successful in vivo use and development of PCs to treat LSDs will be discussed. PMID:21612550

  16. PDT: loss of autophagic cytoprotection after lysosomal photodamage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, David; Price, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy is known to evoke both autophagy and apoptosis. Apoptosis is an irreversible death pathway while autophagy can serve a cytoprotective function. In this study, we examined two photosensitizing agents that target lysosomes, although they differ in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during irradiation. With both agents, the 'shoulder' on the PDT dose-response curve was substantially attenuated, consistent with loss of a cytoprotective pathway. In contrast, this 'shoulder' is commonly observed when PDT targets mitochondria or the ER. We propose that lysosomal targets may offer the possibility of promoting PDT efficacy by eliminating a potentially protective pathway.

  17. A targeted multi-enzyme mechanism for selective microtubule

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A targeted multi-enzyme mechanism for selective microtubule polyglutamylation Juliette van Dijk: posttranslational modification, tubulin, motility, polyglutamylase, TTLL Running Title: The multi-enzyme mechanism of polyglutamylation Summary Polyglutamylases are enzymes that form polyglutamate side chains of variable lengths

  18. Dynamic interactions between visual working memory and saccade target selection

    E-print Network

    Hollingworth, Andrew

    psychophysical experiments have shown that working memory for visual surface features interacts with saccadic relevant to the psychophysical experiment. It consists of a low-level visual sensory representation visual working memory and saccade target selection. Journal of Vision, 14(11):9, 1­23, http

  19. Analysis of mucolipidosis II/III GNPTAB missense mutations identifies domains of UDP-GlcNAc:lysosomal enzyme GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase involved in catalytic function and lysosomal enzyme recognition.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yi; van Meel, Eline; Flanagan-Steet, Heather; Yox, Alex; Steet, Richard; Kornfeld, Stuart

    2015-01-30

    UDP-GlcNAc:lysosomal enzyme GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase tags newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes with mannose 6-phosphate recognition markers, which are required for their targeting to the endolysosomal system. GNPTAB encodes the ? and ? subunits of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase, and mutations in this gene cause the lysosomal storage disorders mucolipidosis II and III ??. Prior investigation of missense mutations in GNPTAB uncovered amino acids in the N-terminal region and within the DMAP domain involved in Golgi retention of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase and its ability to specifically recognize lysosomal hydrolases, respectively. Here, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the remaining missense mutations in GNPTAB reported in mucolipidosis II and III ?? patients using cell- and zebrafish-based approaches. We show that the Stealth domain harbors the catalytic site, as some mutations in these regions greatly impaired the activity of the enzyme without affecting its Golgi localization and proteolytic processing. We also demonstrate a role for the Notch repeat 1 in lysosomal hydrolase recognition, as missense mutations in conserved cysteine residues in this domain do not affect the catalytic activity but impair mannose phosphorylation of certain lysosomal hydrolases. Rescue experiments using mRNA bearing Notch repeat 1 mutations in GNPTAB-deficient zebrafish revealed selective effects on hydrolase recognition that differ from the DMAP mutation. Finally, the mutant R587P, located in the spacer between Notch 2 and DMAP, was partially rescued by overexpression of the ? subunit, suggesting a role for this region in ? subunit binding. These studies provide new insight into the functions of the different domains of the ? and ? subunits. PMID:25505245

  20. Lysosomal dysfunction in neurodegeneration: the role of ATP13A2/PARK9.

    PubMed

    Usenovic, Marija; Krainc, Dimitri

    2012-06-01

    Neuronal homeostasis and survival critically depend on an efficient autophagy-lysosomal degradation pathway, especially since neurons cannot reduce the concentration of misfolded proteins and damaged organelles by cell division. While increasing evidence implicates lysosomal dysfunction in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, the molecular underpinnings of the role of lysosomes in neurodegeneration remain largely unknown. To this end, studies of neurodegenerative disorders caused by mutations in lysosomal proteins offer an opportunity to elucidate such mechanisms and potentially identify specific therapeutic targets. One of these disorders is Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, caused by mutations in the lysosomal protein ATP13A2/PARK9 and characterized by early-onset Parkinsonism, pyramidal degeneration and dementia. We found that loss of ATP13A2 function results in impaired lysosomal function and, consequently, accumulation of SNCA/?-synuclein and neurotoxicity. Our results suggest that targeting of ATP13A2 to lysosomes to enhance lysosomal function may result in neuroprotection in Kufor-Rakeb syndrome. From a broader perspective, these findings, together with other recent studies of lysosomal dysfunction in neurodegeneration, suggest that strategies to upregulate lysosomal function in neurons represent a promising therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22561922

  1. The cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor is involved in lysosomal delivery of serglycin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Lemansky; Ines Fester; Eva Smolenova; Christoph Uhlander; Andrej Hasilik

    2007-01-01

    To clarify the sorting mechanism of the lysosomal\\/granular proteoglycan serglycin, we treated human promonocytic U937 cells with p-ni- trophenyl--D-xyloside (PNP-xyl) and cyclohexi- mide. In the absence of protein synthesis, the car- bohydrate moiety of serglycin was synthesized as PNP-xyl-chondroitin sulfate (CS), and most of it was delivered to lysosomes and degraded. Further, an augmented lysosomal targeting of serglycin in the

  2. Target Selection for the SDSS-III MARVELS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paegert, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G.; De Lee, Nathan; Pepper, Joshua; Fleming, Scott W.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Mack, Claude E., III; Dhital, Saurav; Hebb, Leslie; Ge, Jian

    2015-06-01

    We present the target selection process for the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey (MARVELS), which is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) III. MARVELS is a medium-resolution (R ? 11,000) multi-fiber spectrograph capable of obtaining radial velocities for 60 objects at a time in order to find brown dwarfs and giant planets. The survey was configured to target dwarf stars with effective temperatures approximately between 4500 and 6250 K. For the first 2 years MARVELS relied on low-resolution spectroscopic pre-observations to estimate the effective temperature and log (g) for candidate stars and then selected suitable dwarf stars from this pool. Ultimately, the pre-observation spectra proved ineffective at filtering out giant stars; many giants were incorrectly classified as dwarfs, resulting in a giant contamination rate of ?30% for the first phase of the MARVELS survey. Thereafter, the survey instead applied a reduced proper motion cut to eliminate giants and used the Infrared Flux Method to estimate effective temperatures, using only extant photmetric and proper-motion catalog information. The target selection method introduced here may be useful for other surveys that need to rely on extant catalog data for selection of specific stellar populations.

  3. Nanostructured materials for selective recognition and targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrotsiou, O.; Kotti, K.; Dini, E.; Kammona, O.; Kiparissides, C.

    2005-01-01

    Selective recognition requires the introduction of a molecular memory into a polymer matrix in order to make it capable of rebinding an analyte with a very high specificity. In addition, targeted drug delivery requires drug-loaded vesicles which preferentially localize to the sites of injury and avoid uptake into uninvolved tissues. The rapid evolution of nanotechnology is aiming to fulfill the goal of selective recognition and optimal drug delivery through the development of molecularly imprinted polymeric (MIP) nanoparticles, tailor-made for a diverse range of analytes (e.g., pharmaceuticals, pesticides, amino acids, etc.) and of nanostructured targeted drug carriers (e.g., liposomes and micelles) with increased circulation lifetimes. In the present study, PLGA microparticles containing multilamellar vesicles (MLVs), and MIP nanoparticles were synthesized to be employed as drug carriers and synthetic receptors respectively.

  4. Histone target selection within chromatin: an exemplary case of teamwork

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Marie-Eve; Cheng, Xue; Côté, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Histone modifiers like acetyltransferases, methyltransferases, and demethylases are critical regulators of most DNA-based nuclear processes, de facto controlling cell cycle progression and cell fate. These enzymes perform very precise post-translational modifications on specific histone residues, which in turn are recognized by different effector modules/proteins. We now have a better understanding of how these enzymes exhibit such specificity. As they often reside in multisubunit complexes, they use associated factors to target their substrates within chromatin structure and select specific histone mark-bearing nucleosomes. In this review, we cover the current understanding of how histone modifiers select their histone targets. We also explain how different experimental approaches can lead to conflicting results about the histone specificity and function of these enzymes. PMID:24831698

  5. Target Selection and Imaging Requirements for JWST Fine Phasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Joseph J.; Dean, Bruce H.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Zhang, Yan

    2004-01-01

    To achieve and maintain the fine alignment of its segmented primary mirror the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) plans to use focus-diverse wavefront sensing (WFS) techniques with science camera imagery. The optical requirements for JWST are such that the error contribution from the WFS itself must be limited 10nm rms over all the controllable degrees of freedom of the telescope. In this paper, we will explore the requirements on the target selection and imaging requirements necessary to achieve the desired level of WFS accuracy. Using Monte Carlo simulations we explore the WFS error as a function of wavefront aberrations level, defocus-diversity level, optical bandwidth and imaging signal-to-noise ratio to establish the key imaging requirements. By taking into account practical integration time limits along with the distribution of the defocused point-spread functions, we establish the bright and faint star magnitude limits suitable for WFS target selection.

  6. The Amyloid Precursor Protein is rapidly transported from the Golgi apparatus to the lysosome and where it is processed into beta-amyloid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by cerebral deposition of ?-amyloid peptide (A?). A? is produced by sequential cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) by ?- and ?-secretases. Many studies have demonstrated that the internalization of APP from the cell surface can regulate A? production, although the exact organelle in which A? is produced remains contentious. A number of recent studies suggest that intracellular trafficking also plays a role in regulating A? production, but these pathways are relatively under-studied. The goal of this study was to elucidate the intracellular trafficking of APP, and to examine the site of intracellular APP processing. Results We have tagged APP on its C-terminal cytoplasmic tail with photoactivatable Green Fluorescent Protein (paGFP). By photoactivating APP-paGFP in the Golgi, using the Golgi marker Galactosyltranferase fused to Cyan Fluorescent Protein (GalT-CFP) as a target, we are able to follow a population of nascent APP molecules from the Golgi to downstream compartments identified with compartment markers tagged with red fluorescent protein (mRFP or mCherry); including rab5 (early endosomes) rab9 (late endosomes) and LAMP1 (lysosomes). Because ?-cleavage of APP releases the cytoplasmic tail of APP including the photoactivated GFP, resulting in loss of fluorescence, we are able to visualize the cleavage of APP in these compartments. Using APP-paGFP, we show that APP is rapidly trafficked from the Golgi apparatus to the lysosome; where it is rapidly cleared. Chloroquine and the highly selective ?-secretase inhibitor, L685, 458, cause the accumulation of APP in lysosomes implying that APP is being cleaved by secretases in the lysosome. The Swedish mutation dramatically increases the rate of lysosomal APP processing, which is also inhibited by chloroquine and L685, 458. By knocking down adaptor protein 3 (AP-3; a heterotetrameric protein complex required for trafficking many proteins to the lysosome) using siRNA, we are able to reduce this lysosomal transport. Blocking lysosomal transport of APP reduces A? production by more than a third. Conclusion These data suggests that AP-3 mediates rapid delivery of APP to lysosomes, and that the lysosome is a likely site of A? production. PMID:25085554

  7. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: instrument specification and target selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, J. J.; Owers, M. S.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Croom, S. M.; Driver, S. P.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Lorente, N. P. F.; Cortese, L.; Scott, N.; Colless, M.; Schaefer, A.; Taylor, E. N.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Allen, J. T.; Baldry, I.; Barnes, L.; Bauer, A. E.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bloom, J. V.; Brooks, A. M.; Brough, S.; Cecil, G.; Couch, W.; Croton, D.; Davies, R.; Ellis, S.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Foster, C.; Glazebrook, K.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A.; Gunawardhana, M. L.; Hampton, E.; Ho, I.-T.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kewley, L.; Lawrence, J. S.; Leon-Saval, S. G.; Leslie, S.; McElroy, R.; Lewis, G.; Liske, J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Mahajan, S.; Medling, A. M.; Metcalfe, N.; Meyer, M.; Mould, J.; Obreschkow, D.; O'Toole, S.; Pracy, M.; Richards, S. N.; Shanks, T.; Sharp, R.; Sweet, S. M.; Thomas, A. D.; Tonini, C.; Walcher, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    The SAMI Galaxy Survey will observe 3400 galaxies with the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral-field spectrograph (SAMI) on the Anglo-Australian Telescope in a 3-yr survey which began in 2013. We present the throughput of the SAMI system, the science basis and specifications for the target selection, the survey observation plan and the combined properties of the selected galaxies. The survey includes four volume-limited galaxy samples based on cuts in a proxy for stellar mass, along with low-stellar-mass dwarf galaxies all selected from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. The GAMA regions were selected because of the vast array of ancillary data available, including ultraviolet through to radio bands. These fields are on the celestial equator at 9, 12 and 14.5 h, and cover a total of 144 deg2 (in GAMA-I). Higher density environments are also included with the addition of eight clusters. The clusters have spectroscopy from 2-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and photometry in regions covered by the SDSS and/or VLT Survey Telescope/ATLAS. The aim is to cover a broad range in stellar mass and environment, and therefore the primary survey targets cover redshifts 0.004 < z < 0.095, magnitudes rpet < 19.4, stellar masses 107-1012 M?, and environments from isolated field galaxies through groups to clusters of ˜1015 M?.

  8. [Current therapeutic strategies in lysosomal disorders].

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Pierre; Lidove, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    The lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) comprise a heterogeneous group of inborn errors of metabolism. The resulting enzymatic defect leads to accumulation of its substrate in the lysosome. Their clinical patterns reflect the site of substrate storage. Central nervous system involvement is often present in the younger patients affected by the most severe phenotypes. Substantial progress has been made in the pathophysiological knowledge, leading to new therapeutic options in LSD. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is the dominant approach and is actually proposed in six LSD: Gaucher disease, Fabry disease, Pompe disease and mucopolysaccharidoisis (MPS) I (Hurler disease), II (Hunter disease) and VI (Maroteaux-Lamy disease). This treatment reduces lysosomal storage, and sometimes reduces, but most often limits the progression of visceral involvement and of its clinical consequences. However, ERT does not cross the blood-brain barrier and is ineffective on neurological symptoms. In the younger patients with MPS I (Hurler disease) and with selected cases of other LSD, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the optimal option. Other strategies using small molecules are being explored in order to cross the blood-brain barrier. This includes substrate reduction or depletion therapies, which decrease the amount of substrate, and the use of pharmacological chaperones, which enhance the residual activity of the mutant enzyme. Miglustat is the proposed substrate reduction therapy in Niemann-Pick C disease and clinical trials are actually performed in several LSD using other substrate reduction or chaperone drugs. PMID:24863660

  9. The endosomal sorting complex required for transport pathway mediates chemokine receptor CXCR4-promoted lysosomal degradation of the mammalian target of rapamycin antagonist DEPTOR.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rita; Marchese, Adriano

    2015-03-13

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling mediates many cellular functions, including cell survival, proliferation, and cell motility. Many of these processes are mediated by GPCR-promoted activation of Akt signaling by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms by which GPCRs govern Akt activation by these kinases remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway mediates Akt signaling promoted by the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Pharmacological inhibition of heterotrimeric G protein G?i or PI3K signaling and siRNA targeting ESCRTs blocks CXCR4-promoted degradation of DEPTOR, an endogenous antagonist of mTORC2 activity. Depletion of ESCRTs by siRNA leads to increased levels of DEPTOR and attenuated CXCR4-promoted Akt activation and signaling, consistent with decreased mTORC2 activity. In addition, ESCRTs likely have a broad role in Akt signaling because ESCRT depletion also attenuates receptor tyrosine kinase-promoted Akt activation and signaling. Our data reveal a novel role for the ESCRT pathway in promoting intracellular signaling, which may begin to identify the signal transduction pathways that are important in the physiological roles of ESCRTs and Akt. PMID:25605718

  10. Dynamic interactions between visual working memory and saccade target selection

    PubMed Central

    Schneegans, Sebastian; Spencer, John P.; Schöner, Gregor; Hwang, Seongmin; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recent psychophysical experiments have shown that working memory for visual surface features interacts with saccadic motor planning, even in tasks where the saccade target is unambiguously specified by spatial cues. Specifically, a match between a memorized color and the color of either the designated target or a distractor stimulus influences saccade target selection, saccade amplitudes, and latencies in a systematic fashion. To elucidate these effects, we present a dynamic neural field model in combination with new experimental data. The model captures the neural processes underlying visual perception, working memory, and saccade planning relevant to the psychophysical experiment. It consists of a low-level visual sensory representation that interacts with two separate pathways: a spatial pathway implementing spatial attention and saccade generation, and a surface feature pathway implementing color working memory and feature attention. Due to bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and feature attention in the model, the working memory content can indirectly exert an effect on perceptual processing in the low-level sensory representation. This in turn biases saccadic movement planning in the spatial pathway, allowing the model to quantitatively reproduce the observed interaction effects. The continuous coupling between representations in the model also implies that modulation should be bidirectional, and model simulations provide specific predictions for complementary effects of saccade target selection on visual working memory. These predictions were empirically confirmed in a new experiment: Memory for a sample color was biased toward the color of a task-irrelevant saccade target object, demonstrating the bidirectional coupling between visual working memory and perceptual processing. PMID:25228628

  11. Lysosomal accumulation of mTOR is enhanced by rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Ohsaki, Yuki; Suzuki, Michitaka; Shinohara, Yuki; Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2010-12-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of cell growth that integrates signals from growth factors and nutrients. Recent studies have shown that an mTOR-containing complex, mTORC1, is targeted to lysosomes in the presence of amino acids and activated by Rheb GTPase resident in that compartment. In this study, we found that treatment with the mTOR inhibitors rapamycin and Torin1 significantly enhanced lysosomal accumulation of mTOR and Raptor. This phenomenon was not observed in the absence of amino acids but was restored upon addition of L-leucine or protein synthesis inhibitors. mTOR was not concentrated in autophagosomes that were induced by rapamycin. These results suggest that the lysosome harbors both active and inactive forms of mTOR in the presence of amino acids. PMID:21063721

  12. Neuropathic Lysosomal Storage Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pastores, Gregory M.; Maegawa, Gustavo H.B.

    2014-01-01

    The lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are a clinically heterogeneous group of inborn errors of metabolism, associated with the accumulation of incompletely degraded macromolecules within several cellular sites. Affected individuals present with a broad range of clinical problems, including hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal dysplasia. Onset of symptoms may range from birth to adulthood. The majority are associated with neurological features, including developmental delay, behavioral/psychiatric disturbances, seizures, acroparesthesia, motor weakness, cerebrovascular ischemic events and extra-pyramidal signs. It should be noted that later-onset forms are often misdiagnosed as symptoms, which might include psychiatric manifestations, are slowly progressive and may precede other neurologic or systemic features. Inheritance is primarily autosomal recessive. For all subtypes, diagnosis can be confirmed using a combination of biochemical and/or molecular assays. In a few LSDs, treatment with either hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, enzyme replacement or substrate reduction therapy is available. Genetic counseling is important, so patients and their families can be informed of reproductive risks, disease prognosis and therapeutic options. Investigations of disease mechanisms are providing insights into potential therapeutic approaches. Symptomatic care, which remains the mainstay for most subtypes, can lead to significant improvement in quality of life. PMID:24176423

  13. Selective follicular targeting by modification of the particle sizes.

    PubMed

    Patzelt, Alexa; Richter, Heike; Knorr, Fanny; Schäfer, Ulrich; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Dähne, Lars; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2011-02-28

    Hair follicles represent interesting target sites for topically applied substances such as topical vaccinations or agents used in the field of regenerative medicine. In recent years, it could be shown that particles penetrate very effectively into the hair follicles. In the present study, the influence of particle size on the follicular penetration depths was examined. The penetration depths of two different types of particles sized 122 to 1000 nm were determined in vitro on porcine skin. The results revealed that the particles of medium size (643 and 646 nm, respectively) penetrated deeper into the porcine hair follicles than smaller or larger particles. It was concluded that by varying the particle size, different sites within the porcine hair follicle can be targeted selectively. For the human terminal hair follicle, the situation can be expected to be similar due to a similar size ratio of the hair follicles. PMID:21087645

  14. Target Search and Selection for the DI/EPOXI Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebow, Daniel J.; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Chesley, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Upon completion of the Hartley 2 flyby in November 2010, the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft resided in a solar orbit without possibility for gravity assist with any large body. Conservative estimates of remaining fuel were enough to provide only an 18 m/s impulse on the spacecraft. We present our method and results of our systematic scan of potential small body encounters for DI, and our criteria to narrow the selection to the asteroid 2002 GT as the target flyby body. The mission profile has two deterministic maneuvers to achieve the encounter, the first of which executed on November 25, 2011.

  15. Target Search & Selection for the DI/EPOXI Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebow, Daniel J.; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Chesley, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Upon completion of the Hartley 2 flyby in November 2010, the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft resided in a solar orbit without possibility for gravity assist with any large body. Conservative estimates of remaining fuel were enough to provide only an 18 m/s impulse on the spacecraft. We present our method and results of our systematic scan of potential small body encounters for DI, and our criteria to narrow the selection to the asteroid 2002 GT as the target flyby body. The mission profile has two deterministic maneuvers to achieve the encounter, the first of which executed on November 25, 2011.

  16. Selectively Targeting Prostate Cancer with Antiandrogen Equipped Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gryder, Berkley E.; Akbashev, Michelle J.; Rood, Michael K.; Raftery, Eric D.; Meyers, Warren M.; Dillard, Paulette; Khan, Shafiq; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

    2013-01-01

    Diverse cellular processes relevant to cancer progression are regulated by the acetylation status of proteins. Among such processes is chromatin remodeling via histone proteins, controlled by opposing histone deacetylase (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzymes. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) show great promise in preclinical cancer models, but clinical trials treating solid tumors have failed to improve patient survival. This is due in part to an inability of HDACi to effectively accumulate in cancerous cells. To address this problem we designed HDACi with secondary pharmacophores to facilitate selective accumulation in malignant cells. We present the first example of HDACi compounds targeted to prostate tumors by equipping them with the additional ability to bind the androgen receptor (AR) with non-steroidal antiandrogen moieties. Leads among these new dual-acting molecules bind to the AR and halt AR transcriptional activity at lower concentrations than clinical antiandrogens. They inhibit key isoforms of HDAC with low nanomolar potency. Fluorescent microscopy reveals varying degrees of AR nuclear localization in response to these compounds that correlates with their HDAC activity. These biological properties translate into potent anticancer activity against hormone dependent (AR+) LNCaP and to a lesser extent against hormone independent (AR?) DU145 prostate cancer, while having greatly reduced toxicity in non-cancerous cells. This illustrates that engaging multiple biological targets with a single chemical probe can achieve both potent and cell-type selective responses. PMID:24004176

  17. Target Selection for the SDSS-III MARVELS Survey

    E-print Network

    Paegert, Martin; De Lee, Nathan; Pepper, Joshua; Fleming, Scott W; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Mack, Claude E; Dhital, Saurav; Hebb, Leslie; Ge, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We present the target selection process for the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey (MARVELS), which is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) III. MARVELS is a medium-resolution ($R \\sim 11000$) multi-fiber spectrograph capable of obtaining radial velocities for 60 objects at a time in order to find brown dwarfs and giant planets. The survey was configured to target dwarf stars with effective temperatures approximately between $4500$ and $6250 \\, \\mbox{K}$. For the first 2 years MARVELS relied on low-resolution spectroscopic pre-observations to estimate the effective temperature and $\\log(g)$ for candidate stars and then selected suitable dwarf stars from this pool. Ultimately, the pre-observation spectra proved ineffective at filtering out giant stars; many giants were incorrectly classified as dwarfs, resulting in a giant contamination rate of $\\sim$30\\% for the first phase of the MARVELS survey. Thereafter, the survey instead applied a reduced proper motion cut to eliminate ...

  18. Landslide susceptibility mapping in three selected target zones in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Seegers, Joe; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-04-01

    In May 2014, a large and mobile landslide destroyed the village Ab Barek, a village in Badakshan Province, Afghanistan. The landslide caused several hundred fatalities and once again demonstrated the vulnerability of Afghanistan's population to extreme natural events following more than 30 years of civil war and violent conflict. Increasing the capacity of Afghanistan's population by strengthening the disaster preparedness and management of responsible government authorities and institutions is thus a major component of international cooperation and development strategies. Afghanistan is characterized by high relief and widely varying rock types that largely determine the spatial distribution as well as emplacement modes of mass movements. The major aim of our study is to characterize this variability by conducting a landslide susceptibility analysis in three selected target zones: Greater Kabul Area, Badakhshan Province and Takhar Province. We expand on an existing landslide database by mapping landforms diagnostic for landslides (e.g. head scarps, normal faults and tension cracks), and historical landslide scars and landslide deposits by visual interpretation of high-resolution satellite imagery. We conduct magnitude frequency analysis within subregional physiogeographic classes based on geological maps, climatological and topographic data to identify regional parameters influencing landslide magnitude and frequency. In addition, we prepare a landslide susceptibility map for each area using the Weight-of-Evidence model. Preliminary results show that the three selected target zones vastly differ in modes of landsliding. Low magnitude but frequent rockfall events are a major hazard in the Greater Kabul Area threatening buildings and infrastructure encroaching steep terrain in the city's outskirts. Mass movements in loess covered areas of Badakshan are characterized by medium to large magnitudes. This spatial variability of characteristic landslide magnitudes and modes of emplacement necessitates different strategies to assess, mitigate, and prepare for landslides in the three different target zones.

  19. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization in cell death: concepts and challenges.

    PubMed

    Repnik, Urška; Hafner ?esen, Maruša; Turk, Boris

    2014-11-01

    Late endocytic compartments include late endosomes, lysosomes and hybrid organelles. In the acidic lumen, cargo material derived from endocytosed and phagocytosed extracellular material and autophagy-derived intracellular material is degraded. In the event of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), the function of endo/lysosomal compartment is affected and the luminal contents are released into the cytosol to various extents. LMP can be a result of osmotic lysis or direct membranolytic activity of the compounds that accumulate in the lumen of endo/lysosomes. In addition to several synthetic compounds, such as dipeptide methyl esters and lysosomotropic detergents, endogenous agents that can cause LMP include ROS and lipid metabolites such as sphingosine and phosphatidic acid. Depending on the cell type and the dose, LMP can initiate the lysosomal apoptotic pathway, pyroptosis or necrosis. LMP can also amplify cell death signaling that was initiated outside the endocytic compartment, and hamper cell recovery via autophagy. However, mechanisms that connect LMP with cell death signaling are poorly understood, with the exception of the proteolytic activation of Bid by aspartic cathepsin D and cysteine cathepsins. Determination of LMP in a cell model system is methodologically challenging. Even more difficult is to prove that LMP is the primary event leading to cell death. Nevertheless, LMP may prove to be a valuable approach in therapy, either as a trigger of cell death or as a mechanism of therapeutic drug release in the case of delivery systems that target the endocytic pathway. PMID:24984038

  20. Selective Targeting of TGF-? Activation to Treat Fibroinflammatory Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Minagawa, Shunsuke; Lou, Jianlong; Seed, Robert I.; Cormier, Anthony; Wu, Shenping; Cheng, Yifan; Murray, Lynne; Tsui, Ping; Connor, Jane; Herbst, Ronald; Govaerts, Cedric; Barker, Tyren; Cambier, Stephanie; Yanagisawa, Haruhiko; Goodsell, Amanda; Hashimoto, Mitsuo; Brand, Oliver J.; Cheng, Ran; Ma, Royce; McKnelly, Kate J.; Wen, Weihua; Hill, Arthur; Jablons, David; Wolters, Paul; Kitamura, Hideya; Araya, Jun; Barczak, Andrea J.; Erle, David J.; Reichardt, Louis F.; Marks, James D.; Baron, Jody L.; Nishimura, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Airway remodeling, caused by inflammation and fibrosis, is a major component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and currently has no effective treatment. Transforming growth factor–? (TGF-?) has been widely implicated in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling in COPD. TGF-? is expressed in a latent form that requires activation. The integrin ?v?8 (encoded by the itgb8 gene) is a receptor for latent TGF-? and is essential for its activation. Expression of integrin ?v?8 is increased in airway fibroblasts in COPD and thus is an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of airway remodeling in COPD. We demonstrate that an engineered optimized antibody to human ?v?8 (B5) inhibited TGF-? activation in transgenic mice expressing only human and not mouse ITGB8. The B5 engineered antibody blocked fibroinflammatory responses induced by tobacco smoke, cytokines, and allergens by inhibiting TGF-? activation. To clarify the mechanism of action of B5, we used hydrodynamic, mutational, and electron microscopic methods to demonstrate that ?v?8 predominantly adopts a constitutively active, extended-closed headpiece conformation. Epitope mapping and functional characterization of B5 revealed an allosteric mechanism of action due to locking-in of a low-affinity ?v?8 conformation. Collectively, these data demonstrate a new model for integrin function and present a strategy to selectively target the TGF-? pathway to treat fibroinflammatory airway diseases. PMID:24944194

  1. Targeting the actin cytoskeleton: selective antitumor action via trapping PKC?

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, F; Braig, S; Moser, C; Kubisch, R; Busse, J; Wagner, E; Schmoeckel, E; Mayr, D; Schmitt, S; Huettel, S; Zischka, H; Mueller, R; Vollmar, A M

    2014-01-01

    Targeting the actin cytoskeleton (CSK) of cancer cells offers a valuable strategy in cancer therapy. There are a number of natural compounds that interfere with the actin CSK, but the mode of their cytotoxic action and, moreover, their tumor-specific mechanisms are quite elusive. We used the myxobacterial compound Chondramide as a tool to first elucidate the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of actin targeting in breast cancer cells (MCF7, MDA-MB-231). Chondramide inhibits cellular actin filament dynamics shown by a fluorescence-based analysis (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP)) and leads to apoptosis characterized by phosphatidylserine exposure, release of cytochrome C from mitochondria and finally activation of caspases. Chondramide enhances the occurrence of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) by affecting known MPT modulators: Hexokinase II bound to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) translocated from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the cytosol and the proapoptotic protein Bad were recruited to the mitochondria. Importantly, protein kinase C-? (PKC?), a prosurvival kinase possessing an actin-binding site and known to regulate the hexokinase/VDAC interaction as well as Bad phosphorylation was identified as the link between actin CSK and apoptosis induction. PKC?, which was found overexpressed in breast cancer cells, accumulated in actin bundles induced by Chondramide and lost its activity. Our second goal was to characterize the potential tumor-specific action of actin-binding agents. As the nontumor breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A in fact shows resistance to Chondramide-induced apoptosis and notably express low level of PKC?, we suggest that trapping PKC? via Chondramide-induced actin hyperpolymerization displays tumor cell specificity. Our work provides a link between targeting the ubiquitously occurring actin CSK and selective inhibition of pro-tumorigenic PKC?, thus setting the stage for actin-stabilizing agents as innovative cancer drugs. This is moreover supported by the in vivo efficacy of Chondramide triggered by abrogation of PKC? signaling shown in a xenograft breast cancer model. PMID:25165884

  2. Target Discovery--Select Biosciences' World Congress. 4-5 August 2009, San Francisco, CA, USA.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ariel

    2009-10-01

    Select Biosciences' Target Discovery World Congress, held in San Francisco, included topics covering novel drug targets and screening platforms in the field of drug discovery. This conference report highlights selected presentations on inhibiting cancer targets, including Braf and HDAC; targeting protein kinases for the treatment of cancer and neurological disorders; an assay for the design of kinase inhibitors; and deorphanized nuclear receptors as drug targets. PMID:19790009

  3. Lysosomal exocytosis and lipid storage disorders

    PubMed Central

    Samie, Mohammad Ali; Xu, Haoxing

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomes are acidic compartments in mammalian cells that are primarily responsible for the breakdown of endocytic and autophagic substrates such as membranes, proteins, and lipids into their basic building blocks. Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of metabolic disorders caused by genetic mutations in lysosomal hydrolases required for catabolic degradation, mutations in lysosomal membrane proteins important for catabolite export or membrane trafficking, or mutations in nonlysosomal proteins indirectly affecting these lysosomal functions. A hallmark feature of LSDs is the primary and secondary excessive accumulation of undigested lipids in the lysosome, which causes lysosomal dysfunction and cell death, and subsequently pathological symptoms in various tissues and organs. There are more than 60 types of LSDs, but an effective therapeutic strategy is still lacking for most of them. Several recent in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that induction of lysosomal exocytosis could effectively reduce the accumulation of the storage materials. Meanwhile, the molecular machinery and regulatory mechanisms for lysosomal exocytosis are beginning to be revealed. In this paper, we first discuss these recent developments with the focus on the functional interactions between lipid storage and lysosomal exocytosis. We then discuss whether lysosomal exocytosis can be manipulated to correct lysosomal and cellular dysfunction caused by excessive lipid storage, providing a potentially general therapeutic approach for LSDs. PMID:24668941

  4. Identification and Validation of Mannose 6Phosphate Glycoproteins in Human Plasma Reveal a Wide Range of Lysosomal and Non-lysosomal Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Sleat; Yanhong Wang; Istvan Sohar; Henry Lackland; Yan Li; Hong Li; Haiyan Zheng; Peter Lobel

    2006-01-01

    Acid hydrolase activities are normally confined within the cell to the lysosome, a membrane-delimited cytoplasmic organelle primarily responsible for the degradation of macromolecules. However, lysosomal proteins are also present in human plasma, and a proportion of these retain mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P), a modification on N- linked glycans that is recognized by Man-6-P receptors (MPRs) that normally direct the targeting of

  5. Lysosomal Phospholipase A2 and Phospholipidosis†

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Miki; Abe, Akira; Lu, Ye; Yang, Kui; Han, Xianlin; Gross, Richard W.; Shayman, James A.

    2006-01-01

    A lysosomal phospholipase A2, LPLA2, was recently characterized and shown to have substrate specificity for phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. LPLA2 is ubiquitously expressed but is most highly expressed in alveolar macrophages. Double conditional gene targeting was employed to elucidate the function of LPLA2. LPLA2-deficient mice (Lpla2?/?) were generated by the systemic deletion of exon 5 of the Lpla2 gene, which encodes the lipase motif essential for the phospholipase A2 activity. The survival of the Lpla2?/? mice was normal. Lpla2?/? mouse mating pairs yielded normal litter sizes, indicating that the gene deficiency did not impair fertility or fecundity. Alveolar macrophages from wild-type but not Lpla2?/? mice readily degraded radiolabeled phosphatidylcholine. A marked accumulation of phospholipids, in particular phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, was found in the alveolar macrophages, the peritoneal macrophages, and the spleens of Lpla2?/? mice. By 1 year of age, Lpla2?/? mice demonstrated marked splenomegaly and increased lung surfactant phospholipid levels. Ultrastructural examination of Lpla2?/? mouse alveolar and peritoneal macrophages revealed the appearance of foam cells with lamellar inclusion bodies, a hallmark of cellular phospholipidosis. Thus, a deficiency of lysosomal phospholipase A2 results in foam cell formation, surfactant lipid accumulation, splenomegaly, and phospholipidosis in mice. PMID:16880524

  6. Di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) overcomes multidrug resistance by a novel mechanism involving the hijacking of lysosomal P-glycoprotein (Pgp).

    PubMed

    Jansson, Patric J; Yamagishi, Tetsuo; Arvind, Akanksha; Seebacher, Nicole; Gutierrez, Elaine; Stacy, Alexandra; Maleki, Sanaz; Sharp, Danae; Sahni, Sumit; Richardson, Des R

    2015-04-10

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in cancer treatment. More than half of human cancers express multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein (Pgp), which correlates with a poor prognosis. Intriguingly, through an unknown mechanism, some drugs have greater activity in drug-resistant tumor cells than their drug-sensitive counterparts. Herein, we investigate how the novel anti-tumor agent di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) overcomes MDR. Four different cell types were utilized to evaluate the effect of Pgp-potentiated lysosomal targeting of drugs to overcome MDR. To assess the mechanism of how Dp44mT overcomes drug resistance, cellular studies utilized Pgp inhibitors, Pgp silencing, lysosomotropic agents, proliferation assays, immunoblotting, a Pgp-ATPase activity assay, radiolabeled drug uptake/efflux, a rhodamine 123 retention assay, lysosomal membrane permeability assessment, and DCF (2',7'-dichlorofluorescin) redox studies. Anti-tumor activity and selectivity of Dp44mT in Pgp-expressing, MDR cells versus drug-sensitive cells were studied using a BALB/c nu/nu xenograft mouse model. We demonstrate that Dp44mT is transported by the lysosomal Pgp drug pump, causing lysosomal targeting of Dp44mT and resulting in enhanced cytotoxicity in MDR cells. Lysosomal Pgp and pH were shown to be crucial for increasing Dp44mT-mediated lysosomal damage and subsequent cytotoxicity in drug-resistant cells, with Dp44mT being demonstrated to be a Pgp substrate. Indeed, Pgp-dependent lysosomal damage and cytotoxicity of Dp44mT were abrogated by Pgp inhibitors, Pgp silencing, or increasing lysosomal pH using lysosomotropic bases. In vivo, Dp44mT potently targeted chemotherapy-resistant human Pgp-expressing xenografted tumors relative to non-Pgp-expressing tumors in mice. This study highlights a novel Pgp hijacking strategy of the unique dipyridylthiosemicarbazone series of thiosemicarbazones that overcome MDR via utilization of lysosomal Pgp transport activity. PMID:25720491

  7. RAB26 coordinates lysosome traffic and mitochondrial localization.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ramon U; Mills, Jason C

    2014-03-01

    As they mature, professional secretory cells like pancreatic acinar and gastric chief cells induce the transcription factor MIST1 (also known as BHLHA15) to substantially scale up production of large secretory granules in a process that involves expansion of apical cytoplasm and redistribution of lysosomes and mitochondria. How a scaling factor like MIST1 rearranges cellular architecture simply by regulating expression levels of its transcriptional targets is unknown. RAB26 is a MIST1 target whose role in MIST1-mediated secretory cell maturation is also unknown. Here, we confirm that RAB26 expression, unlike most Rabs which are ubiquitously expressed, is tissue specific and largely confined to MIST1-expressing secretory tissues. Surprisingly, functional studies showed that RAB26 predominantly associated with LAMP1/cathepsin D lysosomes and not directly with secretory granules. Moreover, increasing RAB26 expression - by inducing differentiation of zymogen-secreting cells or by direct transfection - caused lysosomes to coalesce in a central, perinuclear region. Lysosome clustering in turn caused redistribution of mitochondria into distinct subcellular neighborhoods. The data elucidate a novel function for RAB26 and suggest a mechanism for how cells could increase transcription of key effectors to reorganize subcellular compartments during differentiation. PMID:24413166

  8. A shortcut to the lysosome: the mannose-6-phosphate-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Maria Francisca; Prata, Maria João; Alves, Sandra

    2012-11-01

    Lysosomal hydrolases have long been known to be responsible for the degradation of different substrates in the cell. These acid hydrolases are synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and transported through the Golgi apparatus to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). From there, they are delivered to endosomal/lysosomal compartments, where they finally become active due to the acidic pH characteristic of the lysosomal compartment. The majority of the enzymes leave the TGN after modification with mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) residues, which are specifically recognized by M6P receptors (MPRs), ensuring their transport to the endosomal/lysosomal system. Although M6P receptors play a major role in the intracellular transport of newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes in mammalian cells, several lines of evidence suggest the existence of alternative processes of lysosomal targeting. Among them, the two that are mediated by the M6P alternative receptors, lysosomal integral membrane protein (LIMP-2) and sortilin, have gained unequivocal support. LIMP-2 was shown to be implicated in the delivery of beta-glucocerebrosidase (GCase) to the lysosomes, whereas sortilin has been suggested to be a multifunctional receptor capable of binding several different ligands, including neurotensin and receptor-associated protein (RAP), and of targeting several proteins to the lysosome, including sphingolipid activator proteins (prosaposin and GM2 activator protein), acid sphingomyelinase and cathepsins D and H. Here, we review the current knowledge on these two proteins: their discovery, study, structural features and cellular function, with special attention to their role as alternative receptors to lysosomal trafficking. Recent studies associating both LIMP2 and sortilin to disease are also extensively reviewed. PMID:22884962

  9. Identification of Cytoskeleton-Associated Proteins Essential for Lysosomal Stability and Survival of Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Corcelle-Termeau, Elisabeth; Petersen, Nikolaj H. T.; Nylandsted, Jesper; Jäättelä, Marja

    2012-01-01

    Microtubule-disturbing drugs inhibit lysosomal trafficking and induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization followed by cathepsin-dependent cell death. To identify specific trafficking-related proteins that control cell survival and lysosomal stability, we screened a molecular motor siRNA library in human MCF7 breast cancer cells. SiRNAs targeting four kinesins (KIF11/Eg5, KIF20A, KIF21A, KIF25), myosin 1G (MYO1G), myosin heavy chain 1 (MYH1) and tropomyosin 2 (TPM2) were identified as effective inducers of non-apoptotic cell death. The cell death induced by KIF11, KIF21A, KIF25, MYH1 or TPM2 siRNAs was preceded by lysosomal membrane permeabilization, and all identified siRNAs induced several changes in the endo-lysosomal compartment, i.e. increased lysosomal volume (KIF11, KIF20A, KIF25, MYO1G, MYH1), increased cysteine cathepsin activity (KIF20A, KIF25), altered lysosomal localization (KIF25, MYH1, TPM2), increased dextran accumulation (KIF20A), or reduced autophagic flux (MYO1G, MYH1). Importantly, all seven siRNAs also killed human cervix cancer (HeLa) and osteosarcoma (U-2-OS) cells and sensitized cancer cells to other lysosome-destabilizing treatments, i.e. photo-oxidation, siramesine, etoposide or cisplatin. Similarly to KIF11 siRNA, the KIF11 inhibitor monastrol induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization and sensitized several cancer cell lines to siramesine. While KIF11 inhibitors are under clinical development as mitotic blockers, our data reveal a new function for KIF11 in controlling lysosomal stability and introduce six other molecular motors as putative cancer drug targets. PMID:23071517

  10. Reprogramming of lysosomal gene expression by interleukin-4 and Stat6

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lysosomes play important roles in multiple aspects of physiology, but the problem of how the transcription of lysosomal genes is coordinated remains incompletely understood. The goal of this study was to illuminate the physiological contexts in which lysosomal genes are coordinately regulated and to identify transcription factors involved in this control. Results As transcription factors and their target genes are often co-regulated, we performed meta-analyses of array-based expression data to identify regulators whose mRNA profiles are highly correlated with those of a core set of lysosomal genes. Among the ~50 transcription factors that rank highest by this measure, 65% are involved in differentiation or development, and 22% have been implicated in interferon signaling. The most strongly correlated candidate was Stat6, a factor commonly activated by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-13. Publicly available chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data from alternatively activated mouse macrophages show that lysosomal genes are overrepresented among Stat6-bound targets. Quantification of RNA from wild-type and Stat6-deficient cells indicates that Stat6 promotes the expression of over 100 lysosomal genes, including hydrolases, subunits of the vacuolar H+ ATPase and trafficking factors. While IL-4 inhibits and activates different sets of lysosomal genes, Stat6 mediates only the activating effects of IL-4, by promoting increased expression and by neutralizing undefined inhibitory signals induced by IL-4. Conclusions The current data establish Stat6 as a broadly acting regulator of lysosomal gene expression in mouse macrophages. Other regulators whose expression correlates with lysosomal genes suggest that lysosome function is frequently re-programmed during differentiation, development and interferon signaling. PMID:24314139

  11. Dynamics of target selection in multiple object tracking (MOT) Zenon W. Pylyshyn & Vidal Annan, Jr.

    E-print Network

    Pylyshyn, Zenon

    Dynamics of target selection in multiple object tracking (MOT) Zenon W. Pylyshyn & Vidal Annan, Jr. Rutgers Center for Cognitive Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ Suggested running head: Target selection in multiple object tracking Key Words: Tracking, attention, selection, attention capture, multiple

  12. Brief exposure to copper activates lysosomal exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Peña, Karina; Coblenz, Jessica; Kiselyov, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    Copper (Cu) is essential mineral, but its toxicity necessitates existence of powerful machinery responsible for the extraction of excess Cu from the cell. Cu exposure was recently shown to induce the translocation of Cu pump ATP7B to the lysosomes followed by lysosomal exocytosis. Here we sought to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effect of Cu on lysosomal exocytosis. We found that brief exposure to Cu activates lysosomal exocytosis, which was measured as a release of the lysosomal digestive enzyme ?-hexosaminidase (?-hex) into the extracellular medium and by the presence lysosomal protein LAMP1 at the plasma membrane. Such release depends on calcium (Ca) and on the lysosomal SNARE VAMP7. ATP7B knockdown using RNAi suppressed the basal lysosomal exocytosis, but did not affect the ability of Cu to activate it. ATP7B knockdown was associated with sustained oxidative stress. The removal of Ca from the extracellular medium suppressed the Cu-dependent component of the lysosomal exocytosis. We propose that Cu promotes lysosomal exocytosis by facilitating a Ca-dependent step of the lysosomal exocytosis. PMID:25620123

  13. PLEKHM1 regulates autophagosome-lysosome fusion through HOPS complex and LC3/GABARAP proteins.

    PubMed

    McEwan, David G; Popovic, Doris; Gubas, Andrea; Terawaki, Seigo; Suzuki, Hironori; Stadel, Daniela; Coxon, Fraser P; Miranda de Stegmann, Diana; Bhogaraju, Sagar; Maddi, Karthik; Kirchof, Anja; Gatti, Evelina; Helfrich, Miep H; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Behrends, Christian; Pierre, Philippe; Dikic, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The lysosome is the final destination for degradation of endocytic cargo, plasma membrane constituents, and intracellular components sequestered by macroautophagy. Fusion of endosomes and autophagosomes with the lysosome depends on the GTPase Rab7 and the homotypic fusion and protein sorting (HOPS) complex, but adaptor proteins that link endocytic and autophagy pathways with lysosomes are poorly characterized. Herein, we show that Pleckstrin homology domain containing protein family member 1 (PLEKHM1) directly interacts with HOPS complex and contains a LC3-interacting region (LIR) that mediates its binding to autophagosomal membranes. Depletion of PLEKHM1 blocks lysosomal degradation of endocytic (EGFR) cargo and enhances presentation of MHC class I molecules. Moreover, genetic loss of PLEKHM1 impedes autophagy flux upon mTOR inhibition and PLEKHM1 regulates clearance of protein aggregates in an autophagy- and LIR-dependent manner. PLEKHM1 is thus a multivalent endocytic adaptor involved in the lysosome fusion events controlling selective and nonselective autophagy pathways. PMID:25498145

  14. A Note on Selecting Target and Process Capability Index Based on Fuzzy Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-Ho Chen; Chao-Yu Chou

    2002-01-01

    To run a production processes an appropriate target for the process mean has to be fixed, for presenting process capability a suitable target for a process capability index has to be selected. Generally, the two targets are fixed independently. This paper presents a method which combines both targets with respect to process mean and process capability under a fuzzy environment.

  15. Rhodamine-based fluorescent probe for direct bio-imaging of lysosomal pH changes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xue-Lin; Mao, Guo-Jiang; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Liu, Hong-Wen; Gong, Yi-Jun; Wu, Yong-Xiang; Zhou, Li-Yi; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Weihong

    2014-12-01

    Intracellular pH plays a pivotal role in various biological processes. In eukaryotic cells, lysosomes contain numerous enzymes and proteins exhibiting a variety of activities and functions at acidic pH (4.5-5.5), and abnormal variation in the lysosomal pH causes defects in lysosomal function. Thus, it is important to investigate lysosomal pH in living cells to understand its physiological and pathological processes. In this work, we designed a one-step synthesized rhodamine derivative (RM) with morpholine as a lysosomes tracker, to detect lysosomal pH changes with high sensitivity, high selectivity, high photostability and low cytotoxicity. The probe RM shows a 140-fold fluorescence enhancement over a pH range from 7.4 to 4.5 with a pKa value of 5.23. Importantly, RM can detect the chloroquine-induced lysosomal pH increase and monitor the dexamethasone-induced lysosomal pH changes during apoptosis in live cells. All these features demonstrate its value of practical application in biological systems. PMID:25159421

  16. Human hair follicle: reservoir function and selective targeting.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, U; Vogt, A

    2011-10-01

    Penetration of topically applied compounds may occur via the stratum corneum, skin appendages and hair follicles. The follicular infundibulum increases the surface area, disrupts the epidermal barrier towards the lower parts of the follicle, and serves as a reservoir. Topical delivery of active compounds to specific targets within the skin, especially to distinct hair follicle compartments or cell populations, may help to treat local inflammatory reactions selectively, with reduced systemic side-effects. Various in vitro and in vivo methods exist for studying the hair follicle structure and follicular penetration pathways. These include cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping, confocal microscopy and cyanoacrylate scalp follicle biopsy. The complex anatomical structure as well as the cyclical activity of the hair follicle must be taken into consideration when designing delivery systems. In addition, delivery into and retention inside the infundibular reservoir are controlled by, for example, molecule or particle size, their polarity and the type of preparation. Preferred penetration depth and storage time must also be considered. Particles with release mechanisms should be preferred; however, the release of drugs from nanoparticles still requires further investigations. PMID:21919898

  17. Pharmacological chaperone therapy for lysosomal storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Parenti, Giancarlo; Moracci, Marco; Fecarotta, Simona; Andria, Generoso

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacological chaperone therapy is an emerging approach to treat lysosomal storage diseases. Small-molecule chaperones interact with mutant enzymes, favor their correct conformation and enhance their stability. This approach shows significant advantages when compared with existing therapies, particularly in terms of the bioavailability of drugs, oral administration and positive impact on the quality of patients' lives. On the other hand, future research in this field must confront important challenges. The identification of novel chaperones is indispensable to expanding the number of patients amenable to this treatment and to optimize therapeutic efficacy. It is important to develop new allosteric drugs, to address the risk of inhibiting target enzymes. Future research must also be directed towards the exploitation of synergies between chaperone treatment and other therapeutic approaches. PMID:25068986

  18. Target product selection - where can Molecular Pharming make the difference?

    PubMed

    Paul, Mathew J; Teh, Audrey Y H; Twyman, Richard M; Ma, Julian K-C

    2013-01-01

    Four major developments have taken place in the world of Molecular Pharming recently. In the USA, the DARPA initiative challenged plant biotechnology companies to develop strategies for the large-scale manufacture of influenza vaccines, resulting in a successful Phase I clinical trial; in Europe the Pharma-Planta academic consortium gained regulatory approval for a plant-derived monoclonal antibody and completed a first-in-human phase I clinical trial; the Dutch pharmaceutical company Synthon acquired the assets of Biolex Therapeutics, an established Molecular Pharming company with several clinical candidates produced in their proprietary LEX system based on aquatic plants; and finally, the Israeli biotechnology company Protalix Biotherapeutics won FDA approval for the commercial release of a recombinant form of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase produced in carrot cells, the first plant biotechnology-derived biopharmaceutical in the world approved for the market. Commercial momentum is gathering pace with additional candidates now undergoing or awaiting approval for phase III clinical trials. Filling the product pipeline is vital to establish commercial sustainability, and the selection of appropriate target products for Molecular Pharming will be a critical factor. An interesting feature of the four stories outlined above is that they span the use of very different platform technologies addressing different types of molecules which aim to satisfy distinct market demands. In each case, Molecular Pharming was an economically and technically suitable approach, but this decisionmaking process is not necessarily straightforward. Although the various technologies available to Molecular Pharming are broad ranging and flexible, competing technologies are better established, so there needs to be a compelling reason to move into plants. It is most unlikely that plant biotechnology will be the answer for the whole biologics field. In this article, we discuss the current plant biotechnology approaches that appear to hold the greatest promise and in doing so attempt to define the product areas that are most likely to benefit from different Molecular Pharming technologies. PMID:23394563

  19. Inhibitor screening of pharmacological chaperones for lysosomal ?-glucocerebrosidase by capillary electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meera Shanmuganathan; Philip Britz-McKibbin

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacological chaperones (PCs) represent a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of lysosomal storage disorders based\\u000a on enhanced stabilization and trafficking of mutant protein upon orthosteric and\\/or allosteric binding. Herein, we introduce\\u000a a simple yet reliable enzyme assay using capillary electrophoresis (CE) for inhibitor screening of PCs that target the lysosomal\\u000a enzyme, ?-glucocerebrosidase (GCase). The rate of GCase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the

  20. Cross-target view to feature selection: identification of molecular interaction features in ligand-target space.

    PubMed

    Niijima, Satoshi; Yabuuchi, Hiroaki; Okuno, Yasushi

    2011-01-24

    There is growing interest in computational chemogenomics, which aims to identify all possible ligands of all target families using in silico prediction models. In particular, kernel methods provide a means of integrating compounds and proteins in a principled manner and enable the exploration of ligand-target binding on a genomic scale. To better understand the link between ligands and targets, it is of fundamental interest to identify molecular interaction features that contribute to prediction of ligand-target binding. To this end, we describe a feature selection approach based on kernel dimensionality reduction (KDR) that works in a ligand-target space defined by kernels. We further propose an efficient algorithm to overcome a computational bottleneck and thereby provide a useful general approach to feature selection for chemogenomics. Our experiment on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes has shown that the algorithm is capable of identifying predictive features, as well as prioritizing features that are indicative of ligand preference for a given target family. We further illustrate its applicability on the mutation data of HIV protease by identifying influential mutated positions within protease variants. These results suggest that our approach has the potential to uncover the molecular basis for ligand selectivity and off-target effects. PMID:21142044

  1. Predicting selective drug targets in cancer through metabolic networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ori Folger; Livnat Jerby; Christian Frezza; Eyal Gottlieb; Eytan Ruppin; Tomer Shlomi

    2011-01-01

    The interest in studying metabolic alterations in cancer and their potential role as novel targets for therapy has been rejuvenated in recent years. Here, we report the development of the first genome-scale network model of cancer metabolism, validated by correctly identifying genes essential for cellular proliferation in cancer cell lines. The model predicts 52 cytostatic drug targets, of which 40%

  2. Target Tracking with Online Feature Selection in FLIR Imagery Vijay Venkataraman, Guoliang Fan and Xin Fan

    E-print Network

    Fan, Guoliang

    Target Tracking with Online Feature Selection in FLIR Imagery Vijay Venkataraman, Guoliang Fan tracking algo- rithm for FLIR imagery. A dual foreground and background model is proposed for target representation which supports robust and accurate target tracking and size estimation. A novel online feature

  3. Adverse Selection in Acquisitions of Small Manufacturing Firms: A Comparison of Private and Public Targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Chin Shen; Jeffrey J. Reuer

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates acquisitions of small manufacturing firms and compares private and public targets. We develop the argument that private targets tend to involve higher transaction costs in the presence of adverse selection problems than their public counterparts. Consistent with predictions, the empirical evidence indicates that bidders choose to acquire public rather than private targets when acquiring young firms and

  4. Subversion of a Lysosomal Pathway Regulating Neutrophil Apoptosis by a Major Bacterial Toxin, Pyocyanin1

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Lynne R.; Bianchi, Stephen M.; Vaughan, Kathryn M.; Bewley, Martin A.; Marriott, Helen M.; Walmsley, Sarah R.; Taylor, Graham W.; Buttle, David J.; Sabroe, Ian; Dockrell, David H.; Whyte, Moira K. B.

    2008-01-01

    Neutrophils undergo rapid constitutive apoptosis that is accelerated following bacterial ingestion as part of effective immunity, but is also accelerated by bacterial exotoxins as a mechanism of immune evasion. The paradigm of pathogen-driven neutrophil apoptosis is exemplified by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxic metabolite, pyocyanin. We previously showed pyocyanin dramatically accelerates neutrophil apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, impairs host defenses, and favors bacterial persistence. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of pyocyanin-induced neutrophil apoptosis. Pyocyanin induced early lysosomal dysfunction, shown by altered lysosomal pH, within 15 mins of exposure. Lysosomal disruption was followed by mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, caspase activation and destabilization of Mcl-1. Pharmacological inhibitors of a lysosomal protease, cathepsin D (CTSD), abrogated pyocyanin-induced apoptosis and translocation of CTSD to the cytosol followed pyocyanin treatment and lysosomal disruption. A stable analogue of cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) impeded the translocation of CTSD and prevented the destabilization of Mcl-1 by pyocyanin. Thus pyocyanin activated a co-ordinated series of events dependent upon lysosomal dysfunction and protease release, the first description of a bacterial toxin utilising a lysosomal cell death pathway. This may be a pathological pathway of cell death to which neutrophils are particularly susceptible, and could be therapeutically targeted to limit neutrophil death and preserve host responses. PMID:18292577

  5. Autophagosome–lysosome fusion is independent of V-ATPase-mediated acidification

    PubMed Central

    Mauvezin, Caroline; Nagy, Péter; Juhász, Gábor; Neufeld, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-dependent proton pump V-ATPase ensures low intralysosomal pH, which is essential for lysosomal hydrolase activity. Based on studies with the V-ATPase inhibitor BafilomycinA1, lysosomal acidification is also thought to be required for fusion with incoming vesicles from the autophagic and endocytic pathways. Here we show that loss of V-ATPase subunits in the Drosophila fat body causes an accumulation of non-functional lysosomes, leading to a block in autophagic flux. However, V-ATPase-deficient lysosomes remain competent to fuse with autophagosomes and endosomes, resulting in a time-dependent formation of giant autolysosomes. In contrast, BafilomycinA1 prevents autophagosome–lysosome fusion in these cells, and this defect is phenocopied by depletion of the Ca2+ pump SERCA, a secondary target of this drug. Moreover, activation of SERCA promotes fusion in a BafilomycinA1-sensitive manner. Collectively, our results indicate that lysosomal acidification is not a prerequisite for fusion, and that BafilomycinA1 inhibits fusion independent of its effect on lysosomal pH. PMID:25959678

  6. Controlling nematodes in dairy calves using targeted selective treatments.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, J; Earley, B; Mee, J F; Doherty, M L; Crosson, P; Barrett, D; de Waal, T

    2015-04-30

    With increasing concerns of anthelmintic resistance in cattle nematode populations worldwide, there is a need to explore alternative approaches to nematode control. One alternative approach is the use of targeted selective treatments (TST) where only individual animals are treated instead of the entire group. This study reports the findings of a TST approach in dairy calves conducted over their first grazing season (FGS) to control both gastrointestinal nematode and lungworm challenge. Ninety-six calves with an initial mean (s.d.) age and live weight of 130 (28.3) days and 120 (23.6)kg, respectively, were randomised by breed, age and live weight to one of two treatments; Control (n=24; ×2) and TST (n=24; ×2). Control calves were treated three times at pasture with ivermectin by subcutaneous injection. Individual calves in the TST group were treated at pasture with ivermectin when one of the following thresholds was met: (1) positive for lungworm larvae using the modified Baermann technique or (2) positive or negative for lungworm larvae using the modified Baermann technique with plasma pepsinogen concentration (PP) ? two international units of tyrosine/litre and faecal egg count (FEC) ? 200 strongyle eggs per gram of faeces. Calves were rotationally grazed from July 3rd 2012 (day 0) to November 2nd 2012 (day 122) when calves were housed. Calves were weighed and sampled (blood and faecal) every three weeks. There was an effect of treatment and time on both FEC [treatment (P=0.023), time (P<0.001)] and PP [treatment (P=0.002), time (P<0.001)]. Both FEC and PP were higher in TST calves. There was a 50% reduction in anthelmintic use in TST calves compared to control calves. Clinical signs of lungworm infection, confirmed by the modified Baermann technique, were evident in TST calves on days 62 and 63 of the study. The average daily live weight gain for control and TST calves was 0.50 (0.02)kg day(-1) and 0.47 (0.03)kg day(-1), respectively (P=0.41). Thus, performance in dairy calves can potentially be maintained with fewer anthelmintic treatments but farmers need to be vigilant of the challenge posed by lungworm. Any future approach into the use of TST in FGS calves must take into consideration the relative importance of lungworm as a pathogen. PMID:25770853

  7. Disulfiram-induced cytotoxicity and endo-lysosomal sequestration of zinc in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Helen L.; Wymant, Jennifer M.; Solfa, Francesca; Hiscox, Stephen E.; Taylor, Kathryn M.; Westwell, Andrew D.; Jones, Arwyn T.

    2015-01-01

    Disulfiram, a clinically used alcohol-deterrent has gained prominence as a potential anti-cancer agent due to its impact on copper-dependent processes. Few studies have investigated zinc effects on disulfiram action, despite it having high affinity for this metal. Here we studied the cytotoxic effects of disulfiram in breast cancer cells, and its relationship with both intra and extracellular zinc. MCF-7 and BT474 cancer cell lines gave a striking time-dependent biphasic cytotoxic response between 0.01 and 10 ?M disulfiram. Co-incubation of disulfiram with low-level zinc removed this effect, suggesting that availability of extracellular zinc significantly influences disulfiram efficacy. Live-cell confocal microscopy using fluorescent endocytic probes and the zinc dye Fluozin-3 revealed that disulfiram selectively and rapidly increased zinc levels in endo-lysosomes. Disulfiram also caused spatial disorganization of late endosomes and lysosomes, suggesting they are novel targets for this drug. This relationship between disulfiram toxicity and ionophore activity was consolidated via synthesis of a new disulfiram analog and overall we demonstrate a novel mechanism of disulfiram-cytotoxicity with significant clinical implications for future use as a cancer therapeutic. PMID:25557293

  8. Sunitinib and SU11652 inhibit acid sphingomyelinase, destabilize lysosomes, and inhibit multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Ellegaard, Anne-Marie; Groth-Pedersen, Line; Oorschot, Viola; Klumperman, Judith; Kirkegaard, Thomas; Nylandsted, Jesper; Jäättelä, Marja

    2013-10-01

    Defective apoptosis signaling and multidrug resistance are major barriers for successful cancer treatment. To identify drugs capable of targeting treatment-resistant cancer cells, we screened small-molecule kinase inhibitor libraries for compounds that decrease the viability of apoptosis-resistant human MCF7-Bcl-2 breast cancer cells. SU11652, a multitargeting receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, emerged as the most potent compound in the screen. In addition to MCF7-Bcl-2 cells, it effectively killed HeLa cervix carcinoma, U-2-OS osteosarcoma, Du145 prostate carcinoma, and WEHI-S fibrosarcoma cells at low micromolar concentration. SU11652 accumulated rapidly in lysosomes and disturbed their pH regulation and ultrastructure, eventually leading to the leakage of lysosomal proteases into the cytosol. Lysosomal destabilization was preceded by an early inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase, a lysosomal lipase that promotes lysosomal membrane stability. Accordingly, Hsp70, which supports cancer cell survival by increasing lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase activity, conferred partial protection against SU11652-induced cytotoxicity. Remarkably, SU11652 killed multidrug-resistant Du145 prostate cancer cells as effectively as the drug-sensitive parental cells, and subtoxic concentrations of SU11652 effectively inhibited multidrug-resistant phenotype in Du145 prostate cancer cells. Notably, sunitinib, a structurally almost identical and widely used antiangiogenic cancer drug, exhibited similar lysosome-dependent cytotoxic activity, albeit with significantly lower efficacy. The significantly stronger lysosome-targeting activity of SU11652 suggests that it may display better efficacy in cancer treatment than sunitinib, encouraging further evaluation of its anticancer activity in vivo. Furthermore, our data provide a rationale for novel approaches to target drug-resistant cancers by combining classic chemotherapy with sunitinib or SU11652. PMID:23920274

  9. Plasma chitotriosidase activity in children with lysosomal storage disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayesh J. Sheth; Frenny J. Sheth; Nrupesh J. Oza; Prakash S. Gambhir; Usha P. Dave; Raju C. Shah

    2010-01-01

    Chitotriosidase (ChT) is an enzyme that is selectively activated in tissue macrophage. This property of ChT makes it a potential\\u000a marker for many disease process and prognostication. Present study has been carried out to know the significance of ChT as\\u000a a screening marker in lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) where tissue macrophage activation is commonly observed due to accumulation\\u000a of substrate

  10. Recent advances in gene therapy for lysosomal storage disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rastall, David PW; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are a group of genetic diseases that result in metabolic derangements of the lysosome. Most LSDs are due to the genetic absence of a single catabolic enzyme, causing accumulation of the enzyme’s substrate within the lysosome. Over time, tissue-specific substrate accumulations result in a spectrum of symptoms and disabilities that vary by LSD. LSDs are promising targets for gene therapy because delivery of a single gene into a small percentage of the appropriate target cells may be sufficient to impact the clinical course of the disease. Recently, there have been several significant advancements in the potential for gene therapy of these disorders, including the first human trials. Future clinical trials will build upon these initial attempts, with an improved understanding of immune system responses to gene therapy, the obstacle that the blood–brain barrier poses for neuropathic LSDs, as well other biological barriers that, when overcome, may facilitate gene therapy for LSDs. In this manuscript, we will highlight the recent innovations in gene therapy for LSDs and discuss the clinical limitations that remain to be overcome, with the goal of fostering an understanding and further development of this important field.

  11. A TRP Channel Senses Lysosome Neutralization by Pathogens to Trigger Their Expulsion.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yuxuan; Li, Guojie; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xu, Haoxing; Abraham, Soman N

    2015-06-01

    Vertebrate cells have evolved elaborate cell-autonomous defense programs to monitor subcellular compartments for infection and to evoke counter-responses. These programs are activated by pathogen-associated pattern molecules and by various strategies intracellular pathogens employ to alter cellular microenvironments. Here, we show that, when uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) infect bladder epithelial cells (BECs), they are targeted by autophagy but avoid degradation because of their capacity to neutralize lysosomal pH. This change is detected by mucolipin TRP channel 3 (TRPML3), a transient receptor potential cation channel localized to lysosomes. TRPML3 activation then spontaneously initiates lysosome exocytosis, resulting in expulsion of exosome-encased bacteria. These studies reveal a cellular default system for lysosome homeostasis that has been co-opted by the autonomous defense program to clear recalcitrant pathogens. PMID:26027738

  12. An Intracellular Serpin Regulates Necrosis by Inhibiting the Induction and Sequelae of Lysosomal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Cliff J.; Pak, Stephen C.; Askew, Yuko S.; Naviglia, Terra L.; Askew, David J.; Nobar, Shila M.; Vetica, Anne C.; Long, Olivia S.; Watkins, Simon C.; Stolz, Donna B.; Barstead, Robert J.; Moulder, Gary L.; Brömme, Dieter; Silverman, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Extracellular serpins such as antithrombin and ?1-antitrypsin are the quintessential regulators of proteolytic pathways. In contrast, the biological functions of the intracellular serpins remain obscure. Using live-animal imaging and reverse genetics in C. elegans, the intracellular serpin, SRP-6, exhibited a pro-survival function by blocking necrosis. Minutes after hypotonic shock, srp-6 nulls underwent a catastrophic series of events culminating in lysosomal disruption, cytoplasmic proteolysis and death. This newly defined hypo-osmotic stress lethal (Osl) phenotype was dependent upon calpains and lysosomal cysteine peptidases, two in vitro targets of SRP-6. By protecting against both the induction of, and the lethal effects from, lysosomal injury, SRP-6 also blocked death induced by heat shock, oxidative stress, hypoxia and MEC-4(d). These findings suggested that multiple noxious stimuli converged upon a peptidase-driven, core stress response pathway that, in the absence of serpin regulation, triggered a lysosomal-dependent necrotic cell death routine. PMID:17889653

  13. Targeting Nucleic Acid Secondary Structures by Antisense Oligonucleotides Designed through in vitro Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rakesh K.; Le Tinevez, Rejane; Toulme, Jean-Jacques

    1996-10-01

    Using an in vitro selection approach, we have isolated oligonucleotides that can bind to a DNA hairpin structure. Complex formation of these oligonucleotides with the target hairpin involves some type of triple-stranded structure with noncanonical interaction, as indicated by band-shift assays and footprinting studies. The selected oligomers can block restriction endonuclease cleavage of the target hairpin in a sequence-specific manner. We demonstrate that in vitro selection can extend the antisense approach to functional targeting of secondary structure motifs. This could provide a basis for interfering with regulatory processes mediated by a variety of nucleic acid structures.

  14. Parasite neuropeptide biology: Seeding rational drug target selection?

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Paul; Atkinson, Louise; Marks, Nikki J.; Mousley, Angela; Dalzell, Johnathan J.; Sluder, Ann; Hammerland, Lance; Maule, Aaron G.

    2011-01-01

    The rationale for identifying drug targets within helminth neuromuscular signalling systems is based on the premise that adequate nerve and muscle function is essential for many of the key behavioural determinants of helminth parasitism, including sensory perception/host location, invasion, locomotion/orientation, attachment, feeding and reproduction. This premise is validated by the tendency of current anthelmintics to act on classical neurotransmitter-gated ion channels present on helminth nerve and/or muscle, yielding therapeutic endpoints associated with paralysis and/or death. Supplementary to classical neurotransmitters, helminth nervous systems are peptide-rich and encompass associated biosynthetic and signal transduction components – putative drug targets that remain to be exploited by anthelmintic chemotherapy. At this time, no neuropeptide system-targeting lead compounds have been reported, and given that our basic knowledge of neuropeptide biology in parasitic helminths remains inadequate, the short-term prospects for such drugs remain poor. Here, we review current knowledge of neuropeptide signalling in Nematoda and Platyhelminthes, and highlight a suite of 19 protein families that yield deleterious phenotypes in helminth reverse genetics screens. We suggest that orthologues of some of these peptidergic signalling components represent appealing therapeutic targets in parasitic helminths. PMID:24533265

  15. Podocytes Degrade Endocytosed Albumin Primarily in Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Carson, John M.; Okamura, Kayo; Wakashin, Hidefumi; McFann, Kim; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Blaine, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong, independent predictor of chronic kidney disease progression. We hypothesize that podocyte processing of albumin via the lysosome may be an important determinant of podocyte injury and loss. A human urine derived podocyte-like epithelial cell (HUPEC) line was used for in vitro experiments. Albumin uptake was quantified by Western blot after loading HUPECs with fluorescein-labeled (FITC) albumin. Co-localization of albumin with lysosomes was determined by confocal microscopy. Albumin degradation was measured by quantifying FITC-albumin abundance in HUPEC lysates by Western blot. Degradation experiments were repeated using HUPECs treated with chloroquine, a lysosome inhibitor, or MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor. Lysosome activity was measured by fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching (FRAP). Cytokine production was measured by ELISA. Cell death was determined by trypan blue staining. In vivo, staining with lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) was performed on tissue from a Denys-Drash trangenic mouse model of nephrotic syndrome. HUPECs endocytosed albumin, which co-localized with lysosomes. Choloroquine, but not MG-132, inhibited albumin degradation, indicating that degradation occurs in lysosomes. Cathepsin B activity, measured by FRAP, significantly decreased in HUPECs exposed to albumin (12.5% of activity in controls) and chloroquine (12.8%), and declined further with exposure to albumin plus chloroquine (8.2%, p<0.05). Cytokine production and cell death were significantly increased in HUPECs exposed to albumin and chloroquine alone, and these effects were potentiated by exposure to albumin plus chloroquine. Compared to wild-type mice, glomerular staining of LAMP-1 was significantly increased in Denys-Drash mice and appeared to be most prominent in podocytes. These data suggest lysosomes are involved in the processing of endocytosed albumin in podocytes, and lysosomal dysfunction may contribute to podocyte injury and glomerulosclerosis in albuminuric diseases. Modifiers of lysosomal activity may have therapeutic potential in slowing the progression of glomerulosclerosis by enhancing the ability of podocytes to process and degrade albumin. PMID:24924335

  16. Insights into the molecular basis of a bispecific antibody's target selectivity.

    PubMed

    Mazor, Yariv; Hansen, Anna; Yang, Chunning; Chowdhury, Partha S; Wang, Jihong; Stephens, Geoffrey; Wu, Herren; Dall'Acqua, William F

    2015-05-01

    Bispecific antibodies constitute a valuable class of therapeutics owing to their ability to bind 2 distinct targets. Dual targeting is thought to enhance biological efficacy, limit escape mechanisms, and increase target selectivity via a strong avidity effect mediated by concurrent binding to both antigens on the surface of the same cell. However, factors that regulate the extent of target selectivity are not well understood. We show that dual targeting alone is not sufficient to promote efficient target selectivity, and report the substantial roles played by the affinity of the individual arms, overall avidity and valence. More particularly, various monovalent bispecific IgGs composed of an anti-CD70 moiety paired with variants of the anti-CD4 mAb ibalizumab were tested for preferential binding and selective depletion of CD4(+)/CD70(+) T cells over cells expressing only one of the target antigens that resulted from antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Variants exhibiting reduced CD4 affinity showed a greater degree of target selectivity, while the overall efficacy of the bispecific molecule was not affected. PMID:25730144

  17. Genome-wide polymorphisms show unexpected targets of natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Pespeni, Melissa H.; Garfield, David A.; Manier, Mollie K.; Palumbi, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Natural selection can act on all the expressed genes of an individual, leaving signatures of genetic differentiation or diversity at many loci across the genome. New power to assay these genome-wide effects of selection comes from associating multi-locus patterns of polymorphism with gene expression and function. Here, we performed one of the first genome-wide surveys in a marine species, comparing purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, from two distant locations along the species' wide latitudinal range. We examined 9112 polymorphic loci from upstream non-coding and coding regions of genes for signatures of selection with respect to gene function and tissue- and ontogenetic gene expression. We found that genetic differentiation (FST) varied significantly across functional gene classes. The strongest enrichment occurred in the upstream regions of E3 ligase genes, enzymes known to regulate protein abundance during development and environmental stress. We found enrichment for high heterozygosity in genes directly involved in immune response, particularly NALP genes, which mediate pro-inflammatory signals during bacterial infection. We also found higher heterozygosity in immune genes in the southern population, where disease incidence and pathogen diversity are greater. Similar to the major histocompatibility complex in mammals, balancing selection may enhance genetic diversity in the innate immune system genes of this invertebrate. Overall, our results show that how genome-wide polymorphism data coupled with growing databases on gene function and expression can combine to detect otherwise hidden signals of selection in natural populations. PMID:21993504

  18. Physiologically motivated computational visual target recognition beta selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik P. Blasch; Randy P. Broussard

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of a beta value derived from a receiver operator characteristic curve for target recognition. Using a physiologically-motivated sensor-fusion algorithm, lower-level data is filtered and fused using a pulse-coupled neural network (PCNN) to represent the feature processing of the parvocellular and magnetocellular pathways. High level decision making includes feature association from the PCNN filter, information fusion,

  19. Progress in Biophysics & Molecular Biology 73 (2000) 297320 Methodologies for target selection in structural genomics

    E-print Network

    Linial, Michal

    2000-01-01

    genomes have been fully sequenced and this number is expected to increase rapidly within the coming years; Fold recognition; Protein sequences Contents 1. Structural genomics } the challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 3.1. Target selection based on sequence family organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

  20. Methods for the quantification of lysosomal membrane permeabilization: a hallmark of lysosomal cell death.

    PubMed

    Aits, Sonja; Jäättelä, Marja; Nylandsted, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal cell death is triggered by lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and subsequent release of lysosomal hydrolases from the lysosomal lumen into the cytosol. Once released into the cytosol, the lysosomal cathepsin proteases act as executioner proteases for the subsequent cell death-either autonomously without caspase activation or in concert with the classical apoptotic machinery. Lysosomal cell death usually remains functional in apoptosis-resistant cancer cells and thus holds great potential as a therapeutic strategy for circumventing apoptosis deficiency in cancers. Notably, lysosomal cell death also plays an important role in normal physiology, e.g., during the regression of the mammary gland. Here we present four complementary methods for the quantification and visualization of LMP during the onset of death: (1) enzymatic activity measurements of released lysosomal hydrolases in the cytosol after digitonin extraction, (2) direct visualization of LMP by monitoring the release of fluorescent dextran from lysosomes into the cytosol, (3) immunocytochemistry to detect cathepsins released into the cytosol, and (4) detection of the translocation of galectins to damaged lysosomes. The methods presented here can ideally be combined as needed to provide solid evidence for LMP after a given cytotoxic stimuli. PMID:25665450

  1. Improved band similarity-based hyperspectral imagery band selection for target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Cao, Yan; Zhuo, Li; Wang, Chao; Zhou, Qianlan

    2015-01-01

    The high dimensionality of hyperspectral imagery is a huge challenge for remote sensing data processing. Band selection utilizes the most distinctive and informative band subset to reduce data dimensions. Although band selection can significantly alleviate the computational burden, the process itself may be time consuming because it needs to take all pixels into consideration, especially when the image spatial size is larger. An improved band similarity-based band selection method is proposed for hyperspectral imagery target detection, which includes four steps: (1) bad bands are removed by data preprocessing; (2) several selected pixels are used for band selection instead of using all the pixels to reduce the computational complexity; (3) hyperspectral imagery is analyzed for target detection; and (4) the number of selected bands is determined by adjusting the threshold of similarity metric, to ensure target detection operators have the best performance with selected bands. In the example, the well-known adaptive coherence estimator detector was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed band selection method. The receiver operating characteristics curves were plotted to prove the proposed algorithm quantitatively. The experimental results show that our method can yield a better result in target detection than other band selection methods.

  2. Joint Skewness and Its Application in Unsupervised Band Selection for Small Target Detection

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xiurui; Sun, Kang; Ji, Luyan; Tang, Hairong; Zhao, Yongchao

    2015-01-01

    Few band selection methods are specially designed for small target detection. It is well known that the information of small targets is most likely contained in non-Gaussian bands, where small targets are more easily separated from the background. On the other hand, correlation of band set also plays an important role in the small target detection. When the selected bands are highly correlated, it will be unbeneficial for the subsequent detection. However, the existing non-Gaussianity-based band selection methods have not taken the correlation of bands into account, which generally result in high correlation of obtained bands. In this paper, combining the third-order (third-order tensor) and second-order (correlation) statistics of bands, we define a new concept, named joint skewness, for multivariate data. Moreover, we also propose an easy-to-implement approach to estimate this index based on high-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD). Based on the definition of joint skewness, we present an unsupervised band selection for small target detection for hyperspectral data, named joint skewness band selection (JSBS). The evaluation results demonstrate that the bands selected by JSBS are very effective in terms of small target detection. PMID:25873018

  3. Wilson Disease Protein ATP7B Utilizes Lysosomal Exocytosis to Maintain Copper Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Polishchuk, Elena V.; Concilli, Mafalda; Iacobacci, Simona; Chesi, Giancarlo; Pastore, Nunzia; Piccolo, Pasquale; Paladino, Simona; Baldantoni, Daniela; van IJzendoorn, Sven C.D.; Chan, Jefferson; Chang, Christopher J.; Amoresano, Angela; Pane, Francesca; Pucci, Piero; Tarallo, Antonietta; Parenti, Giancarlo; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Settembre, Carmine; Ballabio, Andrea; Polishchuk, Roman S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Copper is an essential yet toxic metal and its overload causes Wilson disease, a disorder due to mutations in copper transporter ATP7B. To remove excess copper into the bile, ATP7B traffics toward canalicular area of hepatocytes. However, the trafficking mechanisms of ATP7B remain elusive. Here, we show that, in response to elevated copper, ATP7B moves from the Golgi to lysosomes and imports metal into their lumen. ATP7B enables lysosomes to undergo exocytosis through the interaction with p62 subunit of dynactin that allows lysosome translocation toward the canalicular pole of hepatocytes. Activation of lysosomal exocytosis stimulates copper clearance from the hepatocytes and rescues the most frequent Wilson-disease-causing ATP7B mutant to the appropriate functional site. Our findings indicate that lysosomes serve as an important intermediate in ATP7B trafficking, whereas lysosomal exocytosis operates as an integral process in copper excretion and hence can be targeted for therapeutic approaches to combat Wilson disease. PMID:24909901

  4. Wilson disease protein ATP7B utilizes lysosomal exocytosis to maintain copper homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, Elena V; Concilli, Mafalda; Iacobacci, Simona; Chesi, Giancarlo; Pastore, Nunzia; Piccolo, Pasquale; Paladino, Simona; Baldantoni, Daniela; van IJzendoorn, Sven C D; Chan, Jefferson; Chang, Christopher J; Amoresano, Angela; Pane, Francesca; Pucci, Piero; Tarallo, Antonietta; Parenti, Giancarlo; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Settembre, Carmine; Ballabio, Andrea; Polishchuk, Roman S

    2014-06-23

    Copper is an essential yet toxic metal and its overload causes Wilson disease, a disorder due to mutations in copper transporter ATP7B. To remove excess copper into the bile, ATP7B traffics toward canalicular area of hepatocytes. However, the trafficking mechanisms of ATP7B remain elusive. Here, we show that, in response to elevated copper, ATP7B moves from the Golgi to lysosomes and imports metal into their lumen. ATP7B enables lysosomes to undergo exocytosis through the interaction with p62 subunit of dynactin that allows lysosome translocation toward the canalicular pole of hepatocytes. Activation of lysosomal exocytosis stimulates copper clearance from the hepatocytes and rescues the most frequent Wilson-disease-causing ATP7B mutant to the appropriate functional site. Our findings indicate that lysosomes serve as an important intermediate in ATP7B trafficking, whereas lysosomal exocytosis operates as an integral process in copper excretion and hence can be targeted for therapeutic approaches to combat Wilson disease. PMID:24909901

  5. Antibody Drug Conjugates: Application of Quantitative Pharmacology in Modality Design and Target Selection.

    PubMed

    Sadekar, S; Figueroa, I; Tabrizi, M

    2015-07-01

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are a multi-component modality comprising of an antibody targeting a cell-specific antigen, a potent drug/payload, and a linker that can be processed within cellular compartments to release payload upon internalization. Numerous ADCs are being evaluated in both research and clinical settings within the academic and pharmaceutical industry due to their ability to selectively deliver potent payloads. Hence, there is a clear need to incorporate quantitative approaches during early stages of drug development for effective modality design and target selection. In this review, we describe a quantitative approach and framework for evaluation of the interplay between drug- and systems-dependent properties (i.e., target expression, density, localization, turnover, and affinity) in order to deliver a sufficient amount of a potent payload into the relevant target cells. As discussed, theoretical approaches with particular considerations given to various key properties for the target and modality suggest that delivery of the payload into particular effect cells to be more sensitive to antigen concentrations for targets with slow turnover rates as compared to those with faster internalization rates. Further assessments also suggest that increasing doses beyond the threshold of the target capacity (a function of target internalization and expression) may not impact the maximum amount of payload delivered to the intended effect cells. This article will explore the important application of quantitative sciences in selection of the target and design of ADC modalities. PMID:25933599

  6. Follicular targeting--a promising tool in selective dermatotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Annika; Mandt, Nathalie; Lademann, Juergen; Schaefer, Hans; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2005-12-01

    The penetration of topically applied compounds varies considerably in the different regions of the human body. The presence of hair follicles significantly contributes to this effect by an increase in surface area and a disruption of the epidermal barrier towards the lower parts of the hair follicle. The human hair follicle, hereby, serves not only as a reservoir, but also as a major entry point for topically applied compounds. Topical delivery of active compounds to specific targets within the skin may help reduce side-effects caused by unspecific reactions, and may help develop new strategies in the prevention and treatment of skin diseases. Various drug carrier and drug delivery systems are currently being investigated. The aim of these investigational efforts is to direct topically applied compounds to the different types of hair follicles and, ideally, to specific compartments and cell populations within the hair follicles. Follicular targeting offers opportunities for new developments, not only in hair therapy and in the treatment of hair follicle associated diseases but also in gene therapy and immunotherapy. PMID:16382676

  7. Lysosomal Sequestration of Sunitinib: A Novel Mechanism of Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gotink, Kristy J.; Broxterman, Henk J.; Labots, Mariette; de Haas, Richard R.; Dekker, Henk; Honeywell, Richard J.; Rudek, Michelle A.; Beerepoot, Laurens V.; Musters, René J.; Jansen, Gerrit; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Assaraf, Yehuda G.; Pili, Roberto; Peters, Godefridus J.; Verheul, Henk M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Resistance to antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as sunitinib is an important clinical problem, but its underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We analyzed tumor sunitinib levels in mice and patients and studied sensitivity and resistance mechanisms to sunitinib. Experimental Design Intratumoral and plasma sunitinib concentrations in mice and patients were determined. Sunitinib exposure on tumor cell proliferation was examined. Resistant tumor cells were derived by continuous exposure and studied for alterations in intracellular sunitinib accumulation and activity. Results Intratumoral concentrations of sunitinib in mice and patients were 10.9 ± 0.5 and 9.5 ± 2.4 ?mol/L, respectively, whereas plasma concentrations were 10-fold lower, 1.0 ± 0.1 and 0.3 ± 0.1 ?mol/L, respectively. Sunitinib inhibited tumor cell growth at clinically relevant concentrations in vitro, with IC50 values of 1.4 to 2.3 ?mol/L. Continuous exposure to sunitinib resulted in resistance of 786-O renal and HT-29 colon cancer cells. Fluorescent microscopy revealed intracellular sunitinib distribution to acidic lysosomes, which were significantly higher expressed in resistant cells. A 1.7- to 2.5-fold higher sunitinib concentration in resistant cells was measured because of increased lysosomal sequestration. Despite the higher intracellular sunitinib accumulation, levels of the key signaling p-Akt and p-ERK 1/2 were unaffected and comparable with untreated parental cells, indicating reduced effectiveness of sunitinib. Conclusion We report that sunitinib inhibits tumor cell proliferation at clinically relevant concentrations and found lysosomal sequestration to be a novel mechanism of sunitinib resistance. This finding warrants clinical evaluation whether targeting lysosomal function will overcome sunitinib resistance. PMID:21980135

  8. A block of autophagy in lysosomal storage disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmine Settembre; Alessandro Fraldi; Luca Jahreiss; Carmine Spampanato; Consuelo Venturi; Diego Medina; Raquel de Pablo; Carlo Tacchetti; David C. Rubinsztein; Andrea Ballabio

    2008-01-01

    Most lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are caused by deficiencies of lysosomal hydrolases. While LSDs were among the first inherited diseases for which the underlying biochemical defects were identified, the mechanisms from enzyme deficiency to cell death are poorly understood. Here we show that lysosomal sto- rage impairs autophagic delivery of bulk cytosolic contents to lysosomes. By studying the mouse models

  9. Epigenetic Editing: targeted rewriting of epigenetic marks to modulate expression of selected target genes

    PubMed Central

    de Groote, Marloes L.; Verschure, Pernette J.; Rots, Marianne G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant advances made in epigenetic research in recent decades, many questions remain unresolved, especially concerning cause and consequence of epigenetic marks with respect to gene expression modulation (GEM). Technologies allowing the targeting of epigenetic enzymes to predetermined DNA sequences are uniquely suited to answer such questions and could provide potent (bio)medical tools. Toward the goal of gene-specific GEM by overwriting epigenetic marks (Epigenetic Editing, EGE), instructive epigenetic marks need to be identified and their writers/erasers should then be fused to gene-specific DNA binding domains. The appropriate epigenetic mark(s) to change in order to efficiently modulate gene expression might have to be validated for any given chromatin context and should be (mitotically) stable. Various insights in such issues have been obtained by sequence-specific targeting of epigenetic enzymes, as is presented in this review. Features of such studies provide critical aspects for further improving EGE. An example of this is the direct effect of the edited mark versus the indirect effect of recruited secondary proteins by targeting epigenetic enzymes (or their domains). Proof-of-concept of expression modulation of an endogenous target gene is emerging from the few EGE studies reported. Apart from its promise in correcting disease-associated epi-mutations, EGE represents a powerful tool to address fundamental epigenetic questions. PMID:23002135

  10. Common Risk Alleles for Inflammatory Diseases Are Targets of Recent Positive Selection

    E-print Network

    Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    .16,17 Similarly, it was shown that the positively selected celiac disease (MIM 212750) risk variantARTICLE Common Risk Alleles for Inflammatory Diseases Are Targets of Recent Positive Selection identified hundreds of loci harboring genetic variation influencing inflammatory- disease susceptibility

  11. Predictive distractor context facilitates attentional selection of high, but not intermediate and low, salience targets.

    PubMed

    Töllner, Thomas; Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J

    2015-03-01

    It is well established that we can focally attend to a specific region in visual space without shifting our eyes, so as to extract action-relevant sensory information from covertly attended locations. The underlying mechanisms that determine how fast we engage our attentional spotlight in visual-search scenarios, however, remain controversial. One dominant view advocated by perceptual decision-making models holds that the times taken for focal-attentional selection are mediated by an internal template that biases perceptual coding and selection decisions exclusively through target-defining feature coding. This notion directly predicts that search times remain unaffected whether or not participants can anticipate the upcoming distractor context. Here we tested this hypothesis by employing an illusory-figure localization task that required participants to search for an invariant target amongst a variable distractor context, which gradually changed--either randomly or predictably--as a function of distractor-target similarity. We observed a graded decrease in internal focal-attentional selection times--correlated with external behavioral latencies--for distractor contexts of higher relative to lower similarity to the target. Critically, for low but not intermediate and high distractor-target similarity, these context-driven effects were cortically and behaviorally amplified when participants could reliably predict the type of distractors. This interactive pattern demonstrates that search guidance signals can integrate information about distractor, in addition to target, identities to optimize distractor-target competition for focal-attentional selection. PMID:25351495

  12. Lysosomes and ?-synuclein form a dangerous duet leading to neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Bourdenx, Mathieu; Bezard, Erwan; Dehay, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are (i) characterized by a selective neuronal vulnerability to degeneration in specific brain regions; and (ii) likely to be caused by disease-specific protein misfolding. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by the presence of intraneuronal proteinacious cytoplasmic inclusions, called Lewy Bodies (LB). ?-Synuclein, an aggregation prone protein, has been identified as a major protein component of LB and the causative for autosomal dominant PD. Lysosomes are responsible for the clearance of long-lived proteins, such as ?-synuclein, and for the removal of old or damaged organelles, such as mitochondria. Interestingly, PD-linked ?-synuclein mutants and dopamine-modified wild-type ?-synuclein block its own degradation, which result in insufficient clearance, leading to its aggregation and cell toxicity. Moreover, both lysosomes and lysosomal proteases have been found to be involved in the activation of certain cell death pathways. Interestingly, lysosomal alterations are observed in the brains of patients suffering from sporadic PD and also in toxic and genetic rodent models of PD-related neurodegeneration. All these events have unraveled a causal link between lysosomal impairment, ?-synuclein accumulation, and neurotoxicity. In this review, we emphasize the pathophysiological mechanisms connecting ?-synuclein and lysosomal dysfunction in neuronal cell death. PMID:25177278

  13. PLEKHM1: Adapting to life at the lysosome.

    PubMed

    McEwan, David G; Dikic, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The endosomal system and autophagy are 2 intertwined pathways that share a number of common protein factors as well as a final destination, the lysosome. Identification of adaptor platforms that can link both pathways are of particular importance, as they serve as common nodes that can coordinate the different trafficking arms of the endolysosomal system. Using a mass spectrometry approach to identify interaction partners of active (GTP-bound) RAB7, the late endosome/lysosome GTPase, and yeast 2-hybrid screening to identify LC3/GABARAP interaction partners we discovered the multivalent adaptor protein PLEKHM1. We discovered a highly conserved LC3-interaction region (LIR) between 2 PH domains of PLEKHM1 that mediated direct binding to all LC3/GABARAP family members. Subsequent mass spectrometry analysis of PLEKHM1 precipitated from cells revealed the HOPS (homotypic fusion and protein sorting) complex as a prominent interaction partner. Functionally, depletion of PLEKHM1, HOPS, or RAB7 results in decreased autophagosome-lysosome fusion. In Plekhm1 knockout (KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) we observed increased lipidated LC3B, decreased colocalization between LC3B and LAMP1 under amino acid starvation conditions and decreased autolysosome formation. Finally, PLEKHM1 binding to LC3-positive autophagosomes was also essential for selective autophagy pathways, as shown by clearance of puromycin-aggregates, in a PLEKHM1-LIR-dependent manner. Overall, we have identified PLEKHM1 as an endolysosomal adaptor platform that acts as a central hub to integrate endocytic and autophagic pathways at the lysosome. PMID:25905573

  14. Lysosomal cysteine proteases regulate antigen presentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Y. Rudensky; Karen Honey

    2003-01-01

    Antigen presentation by both classical MHC class II molecules and the non-classical MHC class I-like molecule CD1D requires their entry into the endosomal\\/lysosomal compartment. Lysosomal cysteine proteases constitute an important subset of the enzymes that are present in this compartment and, here, we discuss the role of these proteases in regulating antigen presentation by both MHC class II and CD1D

  15. MEDIATORS OF INFLAMMATION IN LEUKOCYTE LYSOSOMES

    PubMed Central

    Janoff, Aaron; Schaefer, Sonja; Scherer, Joan; Bean, Michael A.

    1965-01-01

    The vascular permeability-increasing action of rabbit PMNL lysosomes has been studied in skin and cremaster muscle of the rat. Both an extract of frozen-thawed granules and a cathepsin-free cationic protein fraction of the granules (which had previously been demonstrated to cause leukocyte adhesion and emigration in vivo) induce increased vascular permeability in skin and muscle which resembles that produced by histamine or histamine-liberators with respect to the timing of the response and the predominant type of microvessel affected. Extracts of frozen-thawed lysosomes and the inflammatory lysosomal cationic protein both cause disruption of rat mesenteric mast cells in vitro, whereas a granule-free cytoplasmic fraction of PMN leukocytes and a non-inflammatory cationic protein fraction of the granules do not do so under identical test conditions. The mastocytolytic action of lysosomal materials in vitro is not inhibited in the presence of 10 kallikrein-inhibiting units of trasylol per ml. The mast cell rupturing fraction of PMNL granules (cationic protein) possesses no detectable peroxidase activity or acid-mucopolysaccharase activity. When compared with compound 48/80 on the basis of estimated molecular weight, the lysosomal cationic protein appears to be at least as active as the latter compound with respect to in vitro mastocytolytic potency. Chronic pretreatment of rats with an agent known to reduce tissue mast cell numbers causes marked suppression of the vascular permeability change normally induced in skin and muscle by lysosomal extracts and cationic protein. Similar results are obtained if lysosomal materials are tested in rats pretreated with an antihistaminic. These observations are discussed with respect to the mode of action of PMNL lysosomes in the early and late phases of local tissue-injury reactions. PMID:4379082

  16. Possible pathways for lysosomal enzyme delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HANS J. GEUZE; JAN W. SLOT; GER J. A. M. STROUS; ANDREJ HASILIK; KURT VON FIGURA

    1985-01-01

    Immunogold double-labeling and ultrathin cryosections were used to compare the subcellular distribution of albumin, mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR), galactosyltransfer- ase, and the lysosomal enzymes cathepsin D, beta-hexosaminidase, and alpha-glucosidase in Hep Gz cells. MPR and lysosomal enzymes were found throughout the stack of Golgi cisternae and in a trans-Golgi reticulum (TGR) of smooth-surfaced tubules with coated buds and vesicles. The

  17. Lysosomal Storage Disorders in the Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Staretz-Chacham, Orna; Lang, Tess C.; LaMarca, Mary E.; Krasnewich, Donna; Sidransky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders are rare inborn errors of metabolism, with a combined incidence of 1 in 1500 to 7000 live births. These relatively rare disorders are seldom considered when evaluating a sick newborn. A significant number of the >50 different lysosomal storage disorders, however, do manifest in the neonatal period and should be part of the differential diagnosis of several perinatal phenotypes. We review the earliest clinical features, diagnostic tests, and treatment options for lysosomal storage disorders that can present in the newborn. Although many of the lysosomal storage disorders are characterized by a range in phenotypes, the focus of this review is on the specific symptoms and clinical findings that present in the perinatal period, including neurologic, respiratory, endocrine, and cardiovascular manifestations, dysmorphic features, hepatosplenomegaly, skin or ocular involvement, and hydrops fetalis/congenital ascites. A greater awareness of these features may help to reduce misdiagnosis and promote the early detection of lysosomal storage disorders. Implementing therapy at the earliest stage possible is crucial for several of the lysosomal storage disorders; hence, an early appreciation of these disorders by physicians who treat newborns is essential. PMID:19336380

  18. Effect of benz(a)pyrene and constant light exposure on rat liver lysosomes and biliary excretion of lysosomal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Pupyshev, A B; Gutina, E M; Fedina, R G; Michurina, S V; Shurlygina, A V; Verbitskaya, L V

    2005-01-01

    Threefold administration of benz(a)pyrene in a dose of 20 mg/kg markedly stimulated biliary excretion of lysosomal enzymes from rat liver without signs of lysosomal damage. Constant light exposure induced changes attesting to functional activation of the lysosomal apparatus in liver cells and inhibited constitutive biliary excretion of lysosomal enzymes. Combined treatment decreased, but not abolished the stimulatory effect of benz(a)pyrene on vesicular transport of lysosomal enzymes to the bile. PMID:16142270

  19. Exosome target cell selection and the importance of exosomal tetraspanins: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Rana, Sanyukta; Zöller, Margot

    2011-04-01

    Exosomes are derived from limiting membranes of MVBs (multivesicular bodies). They carry and transfer selected membrane and cytoplasmic proteins, mRNA and microRNA into target cells. It is due to this shipping of information that exosomes are considered to be the most promising therapeutic tool for multiple diseases. However, whereas knowledge on the composition of exosomes is rapidly increasing, the mode of selective recruitment into exosomes as well as target cell selection is poorly understood. We suggest that at least part of this task is taken over by tetraspanins. Tetraspanins, which are involved in morphogenesis, fission and fusion processes, are enriched in exosomes, and our previous work revealed that the recruitment of distinct tetraspanins into exosomes follows very selective routes, including a rearrangement of the tetraspanin web. Furthermore, only exosomes expressing a defined set of tetraspanins and associated molecules target endothelial cells, thereby contributing to angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. On the basis of these findings we hypothesize (i) that the protein assembly of exosomes and possibly the recruitment of microRNA will be regulated to a large extent by tetraspanins and (ii) that tetraspanins account for target cell selection and the tight interaction/uptake of exosomes by the target cell. Exosomes herald an unanticipated powerful path of cell-cell communication. An answer to how exosomes collect and transfer information will allow the use of Nature's concept to cope with malfunctions. PMID:21428939

  20. FOXP2 targets show evidence of positive selection in European populations.

    PubMed

    Ayub, Qasim; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Chen, Yuan; Xue, Yali; Hu, Min; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2013-05-01

    Forkhead box P2 (FOXP2) is a highly conserved transcription factor that has been implicated in human speech and language disorders and plays important roles in the plasticity of the developing brain. The pattern of nucleotide polymorphisms in FOXP2 in modern populations suggests that it has been the target of positive (Darwinian) selection during recent human evolution. In our study, we searched for evidence of selection that might have followed FOXP2 adaptations in modern humans. We examined whether or not putative FOXP2 targets identified by chromatin-immunoprecipitation genomic screening show evidence of positive selection. We developed an algorithm that, for any given gene list, systematically generates matched lists of control genes from the Ensembl database, collates summary statistics for three frequency-spectrum-based neutrality tests from the low-coverage resequencing data of the 1000 Genomes Project, and determines whether these statistics are significantly different between the given gene targets and the set of controls. Overall, there was strong evidence of selection of FOXP2 targets in Europeans, but not in the Han Chinese, Japanese, or Yoruba populations. Significant outliers included several genes linked to cellular movement, reproduction, development, and immune cell trafficking, and 13 of these constituted a significant network associated with cardiac arteriopathy. Strong signals of selection were observed for CNTNAP2 and RBFOX1, key neurally expressed genes that have been consistently identified as direct FOXP2 targets in multiple studies and that have themselves been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders involving language dysfunction. PMID:23602712

  1. Molecular Basis of Lysosomal Enzyme Recognition: Three-Dimensional Structure of the Cation-Dependent Mannose 6Phosphate Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L Roberts; Daniel J Weix; Nancy M Dahms; Jung-Ja P Kim

    1998-01-01

    Targeting of newly synthesized lysosomal hydrolases to the lysosome is mediated by the cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR) and the insulin-like growth factor II\\/cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (IGF-II\\/CI-MPR). The two receptors, which share sequence similarities, constitute the P-type family of animal lectins. We now report the three-dimensional structure of a glycosylation-deficient, yet fully functional form of the extracytoplasmic domain of

  2. Selection of IFE target materials from a safety and environmental perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S; Sanz, J; Gomez del Rio, J

    2000-03-01

    Target materials for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant designs might be selected for a wide variety of reasons including wall absorption of driver energy, material opacity, cost, and ease of fabrication. While each of these issues are of great importance, target materials should also be selected based upon their safety and environmental (S and E) characteristics. The present work focuses on the recycling, waste management, and accident dose characteristics of potential target materials. If target materials are recycled so that the quantity is small, isotopic separation may be economically viable. Therefore, calculations have been completed for all stable isotopes for all elements from lithium to polonium. The results of these calculations are used to identify specific isotopes and elements that are most likely to be offensive as well as those most likely to be acceptable in terms of their S and E characteristics.

  3. DRAM1 Regulates Autophagy Flux through Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun-Chao; Qin, Zheng-Hong

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that the mitochondria inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), induces the expression of DNA damage-regulated autophagy modulator1 (DRAM1) and activation of autophagy in rat striatum. Although the role of DRAM1 in autophagy has been previously characterized, the detailed mechanism by which DRAM1 regulates autophagy activity has not been fully understood. The present study investigated the role of DRAM1 in regulating autophagy flux. In A549 cells expressing wilt-type TP53, 3-NP increased the protein levels of DRAM1 and LC3-II, whereas decreased the levels of SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1). The increase in LC3-II and decrease in SQSTM1 were blocked by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyl-adenine. Lack of TP53 or knock-down of TP53 in cells impaired the induction of DRAM1. Knock-down of DRAM1 with siRNA significantly reduced 3-NP-induced upregulation of LC3-II and downregulation of SQSTM1, indicating DRAM1 contributes to autophagy activation. Knock-down of DRAM1 robustly decreased rate of disappearance of induced autophagosomes, increased RFP-LC3 fluorescence dots and decreased the decline of LC3-II after withdraw of rapamycin, indicating DRAM1 promotes autophagy flux. DRAM1 siRNA inhibited lysosomal V-ATPase and acidification of lysosomes. As a result, DRAM1 siRNA reduced activation of lysosomal cathepsin D. Similar to DRAM1 siRNA, lysosomal inhibitors E64d and chloroquine also inhibited clearance of autophagosomes and activation of lysosomal cathapsin D after 3-NP treatment. These data suggest that DRAM1 plays important roles in autophagy activation induced by mitochondria dysfunction. DRAM1 affects autophagy through argument of lysosomal acidification, fusion of lysosomes with autophagosomes and clearance of autophagosomes. PMID:23696801

  4. The effect of mean luminance on the size selectivity of identified target interneurons in the dragonfly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Olberg; Robert B. Pinter

    1990-01-01

    1.By penetrating axons in the ventral nerve cord of the dragonfly, Aeshna umbrosa, we measured the intracellular responses of target-selective visual interneurons to movement of black square ‘targets’ ranging from 1° to 32° visual angle at several levels of mean background luminance.2.Neuronal responses, measured both in number of spikes and in the magnitude of integrated postsynaptic potentials, showed a preference

  5. Asteroid target selection for the new Rosetta mission baseline. 21 Lutetia and 2867 Steins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Barucci; M. Fulchignoni; S. Fornasier; E. Dotto; P. Vernazza; M. Birlan; R. P. Binzel; J. Carvano; F. Merlin; C. Barbieri; I. Belskaya

    2005-01-01

    The new Rosetta mission baseline to the comet 67P\\/Churyumov-Gerasimenko includes two asteroid fly-bys. To help in target selection we studied all the candidates of all the possible scenarios. Observations have been carried out at ESO-NTT (La Silla, Chile), TNG (Canaries), and NASA-IRTF (Hawaii) telescopes, in order to determine the taxonomy of all the candidates. The asteroid targets were chosen after

  6. Cancer siRNA therapy by tumor selective delivery with ligand-targeted sterically stabilized nanoparticle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond M. Schiffelers; Aslam Ansari; Jun Xu; Qin Zhou; Qingquan Tang; Gert Storm; Grietje Molema; Patrick Y. Lu; Puthupparampil V. Scaria; Martin C. Woodle

    2004-01-01

    Potent sequence selective gene inhibition by siRNA 'targeted' therapeutics promises the ultimate level of specificity, but siRNA therapeutics is hindered by poor intracellular uptake, limited blood stability and non-specific immune stimulation. To address these problems, ligand-targeted, sterically stabil- ized nanoparticles have been adapted for siRNA. Self-assembling nanoparticles with siRNA were constructed with polyethyleneimine (PEI) that is PEGylated with an Arg-Gly-Asp

  7. Comparison of the Cancer Gene Targeting and Biochemical Selectivities of All Targeted Kinase Inhibitors Approved for Clinical Use

    PubMed Central

    Uitdehaag, Joost C. M.; de Roos, Jeroen A. D. M.; van Doornmalen, Antoon M.; Prinsen, Martine B. W.; de Man, Jos; Tanizawa, Yoshinori; Kawase, Yusuke; Yoshino, Kohichiro; Buijsman, Rogier C.; Zaman, Guido J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The anti-proliferative activities of all twenty-five targeted kinase inhibitor drugs that are in clinical use were measured in two large assay panels: (1) a panel of proliferation assays of forty-four human cancer cell lines from diverse tumour tissue origins; and (2) a panel of more than 300 kinase enzyme activity assays. This study provides a head-on comparison of all kinase inhibitor drugs in use (status Nov. 2013), and for six of these drugs, the first kinome profiling data in the public domain. Correlation of drug activities with cancer gene mutations revealed novel drug sensitivity markers, suggesting that cancers dependent on mutant CTNNB1 will respond to trametinib and other MEK inhibitors, and cancers dependent on SMAD4 to small molecule EGFR inhibitor drugs. Comparison of cellular targeting efficacies reveals the most targeted inhibitors for EGFR, ABL1 and BRAF(V600E)-driven cell growth, and demonstrates that the best targeted agents combine high biochemical potency with good selectivity. For ABL1 inhibitors, we computationally deduce optimized kinase profiles for use in a next generation of drugs. Our study shows the power of combining biochemical and cellular profiling data in the evaluation of kinase inhibitor drug action. PMID:24651269

  8. mTOR Regulates Lysosomal ATP-Sensitive Two-Pore Na+

    E-print Network

    Clapham, David E.

    mTOR Regulates Lysosomal ATP-Sensitive Two-Pore Na+ Channels to Adapt to Metabolic State Chunlei Exposition aux Risques Environnementaux, Faculte´ de Me´ decine, BP 184, Universite´ de Lorraine, 54505 target of rapa- mycin (mTOR). The channel complex detects nutrient status, becomes constitutively open

  9. Transgenic knockouts as part of high-throughput, evidence-based target selection and validation strategies.

    PubMed

    Harris, S

    2001-06-01

    The worldwide genome sequencing projects are helping to define the size and complexity of the expressed genome and are thereby identifying an unprecedented number of genes of uncertain disease alignment and unknown function. It is widely recognized that, within the pharmaceutical industry, a significant commercial advantage will accrue to those companies that most effectively gather and integrate additional biological information into their therapeutic target selection and drug progression strategies. This article presents the rationale for including comparative phenotypic information obtained from transgenic gene knockouts as an integral part of any future therapeutic target selection strategy. PMID:11408199

  10. Average Minimum Transmit Power to achieve SINR Targets: Performance Comparison of Various User Selection Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Salim, Umer

    2010-01-01

    In multi-user communication from one base station (BS) to multiple users, the problem of minimizing the transmit power to achieve some target guaranteed performance (rates) at users has been well investigated in the literature. Similarly various user selection algorithms have been proposed and analyzed when the BS has to transmit to a subset of the users in the system, mostly for the objective of the sum rate maximization. We study the joint problem of minimizing the transmit power at the BS to achieve specific signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) targets at users in conjunction with user scheduling. The general analytical results for the average transmit power required to meet guaranteed performance at the users' side are difficult to obtain even without user selection due to joint optimization required over beamforming vectors and power allocation scalars. We study the transmit power minimization problem with various user selection algorithms, namely semi-orthogonal user selection (SUS), norm-based...

  11. BLOC-1 Is Required for Cargo-specific Sorting from Vacuolar Early Endosomes toward Lysosome-related Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Tenza, Danièle; Truschel, Steven T.; Chou, Evelyn; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Theos, Alexander C.; Lamoreux, M. Lynn; Di Pietro, Santiago M.; Starcevic, Marta; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Dell'Angelica, Esteban C.; Raposo, Graça

    2007-01-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a genetic disorder characterized by defects in the formation and function of lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes. HPS in humans or mice is caused by mutations in any of 15 genes, five of which encode subunits of biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex (BLOC)-1, a protein complex with no known function. Here, we show that BLOC-1 functions in selective cargo exit from early endosomes toward melanosomes. BLOC-1–deficient melanocytes accumulate the melanosomal protein tyrosinase-related protein-1 (Tyrp1), but not other melanosomal proteins, in endosomal vacuoles and the cell surface due to failed biosynthetic transit from early endosomes to melanosomes and consequent increased endocytic flux. The defects are corrected by restoration of the missing BLOC-1 subunit. Melanocytes from HPS model mice lacking a different protein complex, BLOC-2, accumulate Tyrp1 in distinct downstream endosomal intermediates, suggesting that BLOC-1 and BLOC-2 act sequentially in the same pathway. By contrast, intracellular Tyrp1 is correctly targeted to melanosomes in melanocytes lacking another HPS-associated protein complex, adaptor protein (AP)-3. The results indicate that melanosome maturation requires at least two cargo transport pathways directly from early endosomes to melanosomes, one pathway mediated by AP-3 and one pathway mediated by BLOC-1 and BLOC-2, that are deficient in several forms of HPS. PMID:17182842

  12. Frontoparietal theta activity supports behavioral decisions in movement-target selection

    PubMed Central

    Rawle, Christian J.; Miall, R. Chris; Praamstra, Peter

    2012-01-01

    There is recent EEG evidence describing task-related changes of theta power in spatial attention and reaching/pointing tasks. Here, we aim to better characterize this theta activity and determine whether it is associated with visuospatial memory or with visuospatial selection functions of the frontoparietal cortex. We recorded EEG from 20 participants during a movement precuing task with center-out joystick movements. Precues displayed 1, 2, or 4 potential targets and were followed (stimulus onset asynchrony 1.2 s) by a central response cue indicating the movement-target. Remembering the precued target location(s) was mandatory in one and optional in a second version of the task. Analyses evaluated two slow brain potentials (CNV, contingent negative variation and CDA, contralateral delay activity) and task-related power changes. Results showed a differential modulation of frontal CNV and parietal CDA, consistent with earlier described set-size effects on motor preparation and visual short-term memory. Short-lived phases of theta event-related synchronization (ERS) were found 150–500 ms after precue and response cue presentation, exhibiting parietal and frontal maxima. The increase of frontoparietal theta power following response cue presentation was strongly modulated by target load, i.e., absent for 1-target (when the movement-target could be selected in advance), contrasting with a robust 20–50% ERS response in 2- and 4-target conditions. The scalp distribution, the timing, and the modulation by set-size suggest a role of theta activity in movement-target selection. The results support a recently proposed view of theta as emerging around behavioral decision points, linked to the evaluation of choice-relevant information. PMID:22629241

  13. Alterations in lysosomal and proteasomal markers in Parkinson's disease: relationship to alpha-synuclein inclusions.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yaping; Dodiya, Hemraj; Aebischer, Patrick; Olanow, C Warren; Kordower, Jeffrey H

    2009-09-01

    We explored the relationship between ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and lysosomal markers and the formation of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) inclusions in nigral neurons in Parkinson disease (PD). Lysosome Associated Membrane Protein 1(LAMP1), Cathepsin D (CatD), and Heat Shock Protein73 (HSP73) immunoreactivity were significantly decreased within PD nigral neurons when compared to age-matched controls. This decrease was significantly greater in nigral neurons that contained alpha-syn inclusions. Immunoreactivity for 20S proteasome was similarly reduced in PD nigral neurons, but only in cells that contained inclusions. In aged control brains, there is staining for alpha-syn protein, but it is non-aggregated and there is no difference in LAMP1, CatD, HSP73 or 20S proteasome immunoreactivity between alpha-syn positive or negative neuromelanin-laden nigral neurons. Targeting over-expression of mutant human alpha-syn in the rat substantia nigra using viral vectors revealed that lysosomal and proteasomal markers were significantly decreased in the neurons that displayed alpha-syn-ir inclusions. These findings suggest that alpha-syn aggregation is a key feature associated with decline of proteasome and lysosome and support the hypothesis that cell degeneration in PD involves proteosomal and lysosomal dysfunction, impaired protein clearance, and protein accumulation and aggregation leading to cell death. PMID:19505575

  14. Urinary proteins induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization and lysosomal dysfunction in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei Jing; Xu, Bi-Hua; Ye, Lin; Liang, Dong; Wu, Hong-Luan; Zheng, Yuan-Yuan; Deng, Jian Kun; Li, Benyi; Liu, Hua-feng

    2015-03-15

    Lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) has been shown to cause the release of cathepsins and other hydrolases from the lysosomal lumen to the cytosol and initiate a cell death pathway. Whether proteinuria triggers LMP in renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) to accelerate the progression of renal tubulointerstitial injury remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated TEC injury as well as changes in lysosomal number, volume, activity, and membrane integrity after urinary protein overload in vivo and in vitro. Our results revealed that neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and kidney injury molecule-1 levels were significantly increased in the urine of patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) and the culture supernatant of HK-2 cells treated by urinary proteins extracted from MCNS patients. Urinary protein overload also induced apoptotic cell death in HK-2 cells. Importantly, we found that lysosomal volume and number were markedly increased in TECs of patients with MCNS and HK-2 cells overloaded with urinary proteins. However, lysosome function, as assessed by proteolytic degradation of DQ-ovalbumin and cathepsin-B and cathepsin-L activities, was decreased in HK-2 cells overloaded with urinary proteins. Furthermore, urinary protein overload led to a diffuse cytoplasmic immunostaining pattern of cathepsin-B and irregular immunostaining of lysosome-associated membrane protein-1, accompanying a reduction in intracellular acidic components, which could be improved by pretreatment with antioxidant. Taken together, our results indicate that overloading of urinary proteins caused LMP and lysosomal dysfunction at least partly via oxidative stress in TECs. PMID:25587119

  15. Selection and Delineation of Lymph Node Target Volume for Lung Cancer Conformal Radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ion Christian Kiricuta

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To select and delineate the target volumes for definitive or postoperative radiotherapy for lung cancer. Methods and Materials: The lymphatics of the lung and the dissemination of tumor cells to the intra- and extrathoracic lymph nodes are described. The incidence of involvement of the different lymph node sites in the chest is analyzed. The involvement of the contralateral hilar

  16. Effective heritability of targets of sex-ratio selection under environmental sex determination

    E-print Network

    Janzen, Fredric

    Effective heritability of targets of sex-ratio selection under environmental sex determination S. E, 2008; Robinson et al., 2009). In many organisms, sex of the offspring is determined by environmental-by-environment interaction; nest-site choice; phenotypic plasticity; sex ratio; temperature-dependent sex determination

  17. Metformin Selectively Targets Cancer Stem Cells, and Acts Together with Chemotherapy to Block Tumor Growth

    E-print Network

    Metformin Selectively Targets Cancer Stem Cells, and Acts Together with Chemotherapy to Block Tumor Molecular Oncology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts Abstract The cancer stem cell hypothesis suggests that, unlike most cancer cells within a tumor, cancer stem cells resist

  18. TARGET SELECTION FOR THE APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT (APOGEE)

    SciTech Connect

    Zasowski, G.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Andrews, B.; Epstein, C. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Frinchaboy, P. M.; Jackson, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Majewski, S. R.; Chojnowski, S. D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Beaton, R. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Nidever, D. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Pinto, H. J. Rocha; Girardi, L. [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Cudworth, K. M. [Yerkes Observatory, University of Chicago, Williams Bay, WI 53191 (United States); Munn, J. [US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Blake, C. H. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Covey, K. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Deshpande, R.; Fleming, S. W. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fabbian, D., E-mail: gail.zasowski@gmail.com [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Calle Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); and others

    2013-10-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a high-resolution infrared spectroscopic survey spanning all Galactic environments (i.e., bulge, disk, and halo), with the principal goal of constraining dynamical and chemical evolution models of the Milky Way. APOGEE takes advantage of the reduced effects of extinction at infrared wavelengths to observe the inner Galaxy and bulge at an unprecedented level of detail. The survey's broad spatial and wavelength coverage enables users of APOGEE data to address numerous Galactic structure and stellar populations issues. In this paper we describe the APOGEE targeting scheme and document its various target classes to provide the necessary background and reference information to analyze samples of APOGEE data with awareness of the imposed selection criteria and resulting sample properties. APOGEE's primary sample consists of {approx}10{sup 5} red giant stars, selected to minimize observational biases in age and metallicity. We present the methodology and considerations that drive the selection of this sample and evaluate the accuracy, efficiency, and caveats of the selection and sampling algorithms. We also describe additional target classes that contribute to the APOGEE sample, including numerous ancillary science programs, and we outline the targeting data that will be included in the public data releases.

  19. Crohn's disease loci are common targets of protozoa-driven selection Cagliani R.1

    E-print Network

    Dean, Matthew D.

    's disaese; UC, ulcerative colitis; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; GWAS, genome-wide association study; MAF;Introduction Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disease of the digestive tractCrohn's disease loci are common targets of protozoa-driven selection Cagliani R.1 , Pozzoli U.1

  20. Arylsulfatase K, a Novel Lysosomal Sulfatase*

    PubMed Central

    Wiegmann, Elena Marie; Westendorf, Eva; Kalus, Ina; Pringle, Thomas H.; Lübke, Torben; Dierks, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The human sulfatase family has 17 members, 13 of which have been characterized biochemically. These enzymes specifically hydrolyze sulfate esters in glycosaminoglycans, sulfolipids, or steroid sulfates, thereby playing key roles in cellular degradation, cell signaling, and hormone regulation. The loss of sulfatase activity has been linked to severe pathophysiological conditions such as lysosomal storage disorders, developmental abnormalities, or cancer. A novel member of this family, arylsulfatase K (ARSK), was identified bioinformatically through its conserved sulfatase signature sequence directing posttranslational generation of the catalytic formylglycine residue in sulfatases. However, overall sequence identity of ARSK with other human sulfatases is low (18–22%). Here we demonstrate that ARSK indeed shows desulfation activity toward arylsulfate pseudosubstrates. When expressed in human cells, ARSK was detected as a 68-kDa glycoprotein carrying at least four N-glycans of both the complex and high-mannose type. Purified ARSK turned over p-nitrocatechol and p-nitrophenyl sulfate. This activity was dependent on cysteine 80, which was verified to undergo conversion to formylglycine. Kinetic parameters were similar to those of several lysosomal sulfatases involved in degradation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. An acidic pH optimum (?4.6) and colocalization with LAMP1 verified lysosomal functioning of ARSK. Further, it carries mannose 6-phosphate, indicating lysosomal sorting via mannose 6-phosphate receptors. ARSK mRNA expression was found in all tissues tested, suggesting a ubiquitous physiological substrate and a so far non-classified lysosomal storage disorder in the case of ARSK deficiency, as shown before for all other lysosomal sulfatases. PMID:23986440

  1. In vivo photoacoustic imaging with multiple selective targeting using bioconjugated gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chen-Wei; Liao, Chao-Kang; Chen, Ying-Yi; Wang, Churng-Ren Chris; Ding, Ann-Ann; Shiehd, Dar-Bin; Li, Pai-Chi

    2008-02-01

    In this study, photoacoustic imaging is utilized to probe information from oncogene surface molecules of cancer cell with the aid of specific targeting. The ultimate goal is to provide prediction of clinical outcome and treatment response of anti-cancer drugs. Different from single targeting in most research, we accomplished multiple targeting to obtain a molecular profile potentially representing tumor characteristics or to locate the heterogeneous population in one lesion. By conjugating different antibodies to gold nanorods corresponding to different peak absorption bands, multiple targeting and simultaneous detection with photoacoustic imaging can be achieved with laser irradiation at the respective peak optical absorption wavelength. Her2 and EGFR were chosen as our primary target molecules. The targeting complex was evaluated in two types of oral cancer cells, OECM1 and Cal27. The OECM1 cell line overexpresses Her2 but has low expression of EGFR, while Cal27 cell line expresses both antibodies. Also, the targeting efficacy to OECM1 can be further improved by using mixed nanoprobes. The cancer cells were induced on the back of the mice by subcutaneous injection. The captured images show that both cancer cells exhibit a higher photoacoustic response (maximum 3 dB) than control groups with specific targeting, thus demonstrating the feasibility of multiple selective targeting with bioconjugated gold nanorods. Images of multiple targeting with mixed nanoprobes of OECM1 cells also reveal further enhancement of targeting (4 dB). The results showed potential of in vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging, providing a better guidance for diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

  2. Regulation by a chaperone improves substrate selectivity during cotranslational protein targeting.

    PubMed

    Ariosa, Aileen; Lee, Jae Ho; Wang, Shuai; Saraogi, Ishu; Shan, Shu-Ou

    2015-06-23

    The ribosome exit site is a crowded environment where numerous factors contact nascent polypeptides to influence their folding, localization, and quality control. Timely and accurate selection of nascent polypeptides into the correct pathway is essential for proper protein biogenesis. To understand how this is accomplished, we probe the mechanism by which nascent polypeptides are accurately sorted between the major cotranslational chaperone trigger factor (TF) and the essential cotranslational targeting machinery, signal recognition particle (SRP). We show that TF regulates SRP function at three distinct stages, including binding of the translating ribosome, membrane targeting via recruitment of the SRP receptor, and rejection of ribosome-bound nascent polypeptides beyond a critical length. Together, these mechanisms enhance the specificity of substrate selection into both pathways. Our results reveal a multilayered mechanism of molecular interplay at the ribosome exit site, and provide a conceptual framework to understand how proteins are selected among distinct biogenesis machineries in this crowded environment. PMID:26056263

  3. Recruitment of folliculin to lysosomes supports the amino acid–dependent activation of Rag GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Constance S.; Roczniak-Ferguson, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, a human disease characterized by fibrofolliculomas (hair follicle tumors) as well as a strong predisposition toward the development of pneumothorax, pulmonary cysts, and renal carcinoma, arises from loss-of-function mutations in the folliculin (FLCN) gene. In this study, we show that FLCN regulates lysosome function by promoting the mTORC1-dependent phosphorylation and cytoplasmic sequestration of transcription factor EB (TFEB). Our results indicate that FLCN is specifically required for the amino acid–stimulated recruitment of mTORC1 to lysosomes by Rag GTPases. We further demonstrated that FLCN itself was selectively recruited to the surface of lysosomes after amino acid depletion and directly bound to RagA via its GTPase domain. FLCN-interacting protein 1 (FNIP1) promotes both the lysosome recruitment and Rag interactions of FLCN. These new findings define the lysosome as a site of action for FLCN and indicate a critical role for FLCN in the amino acid–dependent activation of mTOR via its direct interaction with the RagA/B GTPases. PMID:24081491

  4. Mucolipidosis type IV protein TRPML1-dependent lysosome formation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Austin; Schafer, Jessica; Upchurch, Cameron; Spooner, Ellen; Huynh, Julie; Hernandez, Sebastian; McLaughlin, Brooke; Oden, Liam; Fares, Hanna

    2015-03-01

    Lysosomes are dynamic organelles that undergo cycles of fusion and fission with themselves and with other organelles. Following fusion with late endosomes to form hybrid organelles, lysosomes are reformed as discrete organelles. This lysosome reformation or formation is a poorly understood process that has not been systematically analyzed and that lacks known regulators. In this study, we quantitatively define the multiple steps of lysosome formation and identify the first regulator of this process. PMID:25491304

  5. Gene Transfer Strategies for Correction of Lysosomal Storage Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra d’Azzo

    2003-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) represent a large group of monogenic disorders of metabolism, which affect approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. LSDs result from a single or multiple deficiency of specific lysosomal hydrolases, the enzymes responsible for the luminal catabolization of macromolecular substrates. The consequent accumulation of undigested metabolites in lysosomes leads to polysystemic dysfunction, including progressive neurologic deterioration, mental

  6. Lysosomal multienzyme complex: Biochemistry, genetics, and molecular pathophysiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexey V Pshezhetsky; Mila Ashmarina

    2001-01-01

    Lysosomal enzymes sialidase (?-neuraminidase), ?-galactosidase, and N-acetylaminogalacto-6-sulfate sulfatase are involved in the catabolism of glycolipids, glycoproteins, and oligosaccharides. Their functional activity in the cell depends on their association in a multienzyme complex with lysosomal carboxypeptidase, cathepsin A. We review the data suggesting that the integrity of the complex plays a crucial role at different stages of biogenesis of lysosomal enzymes,

  7. A lysosome-to-nucleus signalling mechanism senses and regulates the lysosome via mTOR and TFEB

    E-print Network

    Settembre, Carmine

    The lysosome plays a key role in cellular homeostasis by controlling both cellular clearance and energy production to respond to environmental cues. However, the mechanisms mediating lysosomal adaptation are largely unknown. ...

  8. Extreme selective sweeps independently targeted the X chromosomes of the great apes.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kiwoong; Munch, Kasper; Hobolth, Asger; Dutheil, Julien Yann; Veeramah, Krishna R; Woerner, August E; Hammer, Michael F; Mailund, Thomas; Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    2015-05-19

    The unique inheritance pattern of the X chromosome exposes it to natural selection in a way that is different from that of the autosomes, potentially resulting in accelerated evolution. We perform a comparative analysis of X chromosome polymorphism in 10 great ape species, including humans. In most species, we identify striking megabase-wide regions, where nucleotide diversity is less than 20% of the chromosomal average. Such regions are found exclusively on the X chromosome. The regions overlap partially among species, suggesting that the underlying targets are partly shared among species. The regions have higher proportions of singleton SNPs, higher levels of population differentiation, and a higher nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution ratio than the rest of the X chromosome. We show that the extent to which diversity is reduced is incompatible with direct selection or the action of background selection and soft selective sweeps alone, and therefore, we suggest that very strong selective sweeps have independently targeted these specific regions in several species. The only genomic feature that we can identify as strongly associated with loss of diversity is the location of testis-expressed ampliconic genes, which also have reduced diversity around them. We hypothesize that these genes may be responsible for selective sweeps in the form of meiotic drive caused by an intragenomic conflict in male meiosis. PMID:25941379

  9. Diverse selective regimes shape genetic diversity at ADAR genes and at their coding targets.

    PubMed

    Forni, Diego; Mozzi, Alessandra; Pontremoli, Chiara; Vertemara, Jacopo; Pozzoli, Uberto; Biasin, Mara; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Cagliani, Rachele; Sironi, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    A-to-I RNA editing operated by ADAR enzymes is extremely common in mammals. Several editing events in coding regions have pivotal physiological roles and affect protein sequence (recoding events) or function. We analyzed the evolutionary history of the 3 ADAR family genes and of their coding targets. Evolutionary analysis indicated that ADAR evolved adaptively in primates, with the strongest selection in the unique N-terminal domain of the interferon-inducible isoform. Positively selected residues in the human lineage were also detected in the ADAR deaminase domain and in the RNA binding domains of ADARB1 and ADARB2. During the recent history of human populations distinct variants in the 3 genes increased in frequency as a result of local selective pressures. Most selected variants are located within regulatory regions and some are in linkage disequilibrium with eQTLs in monocytes. Finally, analysis of conservation scores of coding editing sites indicated that editing events are counter-selected within regions that are poorly tolerant to change. Nevertheless, a minority of recoding events occurs at highly conserved positions and possibly represents the functional fraction. These events are enriched in pathways related to HIV-1 infection and to epidermis/hair development. Thus, both ADAR genes and their targets evolved under variable selective regimes, including purifying and positive selection. Pressures related to immune response likely represented major drivers of evolution for ADAR genes. As for their coding targets, we suggest that most editing events are slightly deleterious, although a minority may be beneficial and contribute to antiviral response and skin homeostasis. PMID:25826567

  10. Virus Replication, Cytopathology, and Lysosomal Enzyme Response of Mitotic and Interphase Hep-2 Cells Infected with Poliovirus

    PubMed Central

    Bienz, Kurt; Egger, Denise; Wolff, David A.

    1973-01-01

    Mitotic Hep-2 cells, selected by the PEL (colloidal silica) density gradient method and held in mitosis with Colcemid, are readily infected by poliovirus type I (Mahoney). They produce and release the same amount of virus as interphase, random-growing cells. In contrast to interphase cells, mitotic cells show no detectable virus-induced cytopathic effect at the light microscopy level and only slight alterations, consisting of small clusters of vacuoles, at the electron microscopy level. Mitotic cells contain the same total amount of lysosomal enzymes per cell as interphase cells, but they display no redistribution of lysosomal enzymes during the virus infection as interphase cells do. This supports the view that lysosomal enzyme redistribution is associated with the cytopathic effect in poliovirus infection but shows that virus synthesis and release is not dependent on either the cytopathic effect or lysosomal enzyme release. The possible reasons for the lack of cytopathic effect in mitotic cells are discussed. Images PMID:4121707

  11. Structure of a human lysosomal sulfatase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles S Bond; Peter R Clements; Samantha J Ashby; Charles A Collyer; Stephen J Harrop; John J Hopwood; J Mitchell Guss

    1997-01-01

    Background: Sulfatases catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfuric acid esters from a wide variety of substrates including glycosaminoglycans, glycolipids and steroids. There is sufficient common sequence similarity within the class of sulfatase enzymes to indicate that they have a common structure. Deficiencies of specific lysosomal sulfatases that are involved in the degradation of glycosamino-glycans lead to rare inherited clinical disorders termed

  12. Rescue of compromised lysosomes enhances degradation of photoreceptor outer segments and reduces lipofuscin-like autofluorescence in retinal pigmented epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Guha, Sonia; Liu, Ji; Baltazar, Gabe; Laties, Alan M; Mitchell, Claire H

    2014-01-01

    Healthful cell maintenance requires the efficient degradative processing and removal of waste material. Retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells have the onerous task of degrading both internal cellular debris generated through autophagy as well as phagocytosed photoreceptor outer segments. We propose that the inadequate processing material with the resulting accumulation of cellular waste contributes to the downstream pathologies characterized as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The lysosomal enzymes responsible for clearance function optimally over a narrow range of acidic pH values; elevation of lysosomal pH by compounds like chloroquine or A2E can impair degradative enzyme activity and lead to a lipofuscin-like autofluorescence. Restoring acidity to the lysosomes of RPE cells can enhance activity of multiple degradative enzymes and is therefore a logical target in early AMD. We have identified several approaches to reacidify lysosomes of compromised RPE cells; stimulation of beta-adrenergic, A2A adenosine and D5 dopamine receptors each lowers lysosomal pH and improves degradation of outer segments. Activation of the CFTR chloride channel also reacidifies lysosomes and increases degradation. These approaches also restore the lysosomal pH of RPE cells from aged ABCA4(-/-) mice with chronically high levels of A2E, suggesting that functional signaling pathways to reacidify lysosomes are retained in aged cells like those in patients with AMD. Acidic nanoparticles transported to RPE lysosomes also lower pH and improve degradation of outer segments. In summary, the ability of diverse approaches to lower lysosomal pH and enhance outer segment degradation support the proposal that lysosomal acidification can prevent the accumulation of lipofuscin-like material in RPE cells. PMID:24664687

  13. Using Multiplexed Assays of Oncogenic Drivers in Lung Cancers to Select Targeted Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kris, Mark G.; Johnson, Bruce E.; Berry, Lynne D.; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Iafrate, A. John; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Aronson, Samuel L.; Su, Pei-Fang; Shyr, Yu; Camidge, D. Ross; Sequist, Lecia V.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Garon, Edward B.; Pao, William; Rudin, Charles; Schiller, Joan; Haura, Eric B.; Socinski, Mark; Shirai, Keisuke; Chen, Heidi; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Ladanyi, Marc; Kugler, Kelly; Minna, John D.; Bunn, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Targeting oncogenic drivers (genomic alterations critical to cancer development and maintenance) has transformed the care of patients with lung adenocarcinomas. The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium was formed to perform multiplexed assays testing adenocarcinomas of the lung for drivers in 10 genes to enable clinicians to select targeted treatments and enroll patients into clinical trials. OBJECTIVES To determine the frequency of oncogenic drivers in patients with lung adenocarcinomas and to use the data to select treatments targeting the identified driver(s) and measure survival. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS From 2009 through 2012, 14 sites in the United States enrolled patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinomas and a performance status of 0 through 2 and tested their tumors for 10 drivers. Information was collected on patients, therapies, and survival. INTERVENTIONS Tumors were tested for 10 oncogenic drivers, and results were used to select matched targeted therapies. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Determination of the frequency of oncogenic drivers, the proportion of patients treated with genotype-directed therapy, and survival. RESULTS From 2009 through 2012, tumors from 1007 patients were tested for at least 1 gene and 733 for 10 genes (patients with full genotyping). An oncogenic driver was found in 466 of 733 patients (64%). Among these 733 tumors, 182 tumors (25%) had the KRAS driver; sensitizing EGFR, 122 (17%); ALK rearrangements, 57 (8%); other EGFR, 29 (4%); 2 or more genes, 24 (3%); ERBB2 (formerly HER2), 19 (3%); BRAF, 16 (2%); PIK3CA, 6 (<1%); MET amplification, 5 (<1%); NRAS, 5 (<1%); MEK1, 1 (<1%); AKT1, 0. Results were used to select a targeted therapy or trial in 275 of 1007 patients (28%). The median survival was 3.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 1.96-7.70) for the 260 patients with an oncogenic driver and genotype-directed therapy compared with 2.4 years (IQR, 0.88-6.20) for the 318 patients with any oncogenic driver(s) who did not receive genotype-directed therapy (propensity score–adjusted hazard ratio, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.53-0.9], P = .006). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Actionable drivers were detected in 64% of lung adenocarcinomas. Multiplexed testing aided physicians in selecting therapies. Although individuals with drivers receiving a matched targeted agent lived longer, randomized trials are required to determine if targeting therapy based on oncogenic drivers improves survival. PMID:24846037

  14. Selective targeting of melanoma by PEG-masked protein-based multifunctional nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vannucci, Luca; Falvo, Elisabetta; Fornara, Manuela; Di Micco, Patrizio; Benada, Oldrich; Krizan, Jiri; Svoboda, Jan; Hulikova-Capkova, Katarina; Morea, Veronica; Boffi, Alberto; Ceci, Pierpaolo

    2012-01-01

    Background Nanoparticle-based systems are promising for the development of imaging and therapeutic agents. The main advantage of nanoparticles over traditional systems lies in the possibility of loading multiple functionalities onto a single molecule, which are useful for therapeutic and/or diagnostic purposes. These functionalities include targeting moieties which are able to recognize receptors overexpressed by specific cells and tissues. However, targeted delivery of nanoparticles requires an accurate system design. We present here a rationally designed, genetically engineered, and chemically modified protein-based nanoplatform for cell/tissue-specific targeting. Methods Our nanoparticle constructs were based on the heavy chain of the human protein ferritin (HFt), a highly symmetrical assembly of 24 subunits enclosing a hollow cavity. HFt-based nanoparticles were produced using both genetic engineering and chemical functionalization methods to impart several functionalities, ie, the ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide as a melanoma-targeting moiety, stabilizing and HFt-masking polyethylene glycol molecules, rhodamine fluorophores, and magnetic resonance imaging agents. The constructs produced were extensively characterized by a number of physicochemical techniques, and assayed for selective melanoma-targeting in vitro and in vivo. Results Our HFt-based nanoparticle constructs functionalized with the ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide moiety and polyethylene glycol molecules were specifically taken up by melanoma cells but not by other cancer cell types in vitro. Moreover, experiments in melanoma-bearing mice indicate that these constructs have an excellent tumor-targeting profile and a long circulation time in vivo. Conclusion By masking human HFt with polyethylene glycol and targeting it with an ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide, we developed an HFt-based melanoma-targeting nanoplatform for application in melanoma diagnosis and treatment. These results could be of general interest, because the same strategy can be exploited to develop ad hoc nanoplatforms for specific delivery towards any cell/tissue type for which a suitable targeting moiety is available. PMID:22619508

  15. Selective whole genome amplification for resequencing target microbial species from complex natural samples.

    PubMed

    Leichty, Aaron R; Brisson, Dustin

    2014-10-01

    Population genomic analyses have demonstrated power to address major questions in evolutionary and molecular microbiology. Collecting populations of genomes is hindered in many microbial species by the absence of a cost effective and practical method to collect ample quantities of sufficiently pure genomic DNA for next-generation sequencing. Here we present a simple method to amplify genomes of a target microbial species present in a complex, natural sample. The selective whole genome amplification (SWGA) technique amplifies target genomes using nucleotide sequence motifs that are common in the target microbe genome, but rare in the background genomes, to prime the highly processive phi29 polymerase. SWGA thus selectively amplifies the target genome from samples in which it originally represented a minor fraction of the total DNA. The post-SWGA samples are enriched in target genomic DNA, which are ideal for population resequencing. We demonstrate the efficacy of SWGA using both laboratory-prepared mixtures of cultured microbes as well as a natural host-microbe association. Targeted amplification of Borrelia burgdorferi mixed with Escherichia coli at genome ratios of 1:2000 resulted in >10(5)-fold amplification of the target genomes with <6.7-fold amplification of the background. SWGA-treated genomic extracts from Wolbachia pipientis-infected Drosophila melanogaster resulted in up to 70% of high-throughput resequencing reads mapping to the W. pipientis genome. By contrast, 2-9% of sequencing reads were derived from W. pipientis without prior amplification. The SWGA technique results in high sequencing coverage at a fraction of the sequencing effort, thus allowing population genomic studies at affordable costs. PMID:25096321

  16. Vacuolar ATPase in phagosome-lysosome fusion.

    PubMed

    Kissing, Sandra; Hermsen, Christina; Repnik, Urska; Nesset, Cecilie Kåsi; von Bargen, Kristine; Griffiths, Gareth; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Lee, Beth S; Schwake, Michael; De Brabander, Jef; Haas, Albert; Saftig, Paul

    2015-05-29

    The vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (v-ATPase) complex is instrumental in establishing and maintaining acidification of some cellular compartments, thereby ensuring their functionality. Recently it has been proposed that the transmembrane V0 sector of v-ATPase and its a-subunits promote membrane fusion in the endocytic and exocytic pathways independent of their acidification functions. Here, we tested if such a proton-pumping independent role of v-ATPase also applies to phagosome-lysosome fusion. Surprisingly, endo(lyso)somes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking the V0 a3 subunit of the v-ATPase acidified normally, and endosome and lysosome marker proteins were recruited to phagosomes with similar kinetics in the presence or absence of the a3 subunit. Further experiments used macrophages with a knockdown of v-ATPase accessory protein 2 (ATP6AP2) expression, resulting in a strongly reduced level of the V0 sector of the v-ATPase. However, acidification appeared undisturbed, and fusion between latex bead-containing phagosomes and lysosomes, as analyzed by electron microscopy, was even slightly enhanced, as was killing of non-pathogenic bacteria by V0 mutant macrophages. Pharmacologically neutralized lysosome pH did not affect maturation of phagosomes in mouse embryonic cells or macrophages. Finally, locking the two large parts of the v-ATPase complex together by the drug saliphenylhalamide A did not inhibit in vitro and in cellulo fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes. Hence, our data do not suggest a fusion-promoting role of the v-ATPase in the formation of phagolysosomes. PMID:25903133

  17. Enzymatic reduction of disulfide bonds in lysosomes: Characterization of a Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Balasubramanian Arunachalam; Uyen T. Phan; Hans J. Geuze; Peter Cresswell

    2000-01-01

    Proteins internalized into the endocytic pathway are usually degraded. Efficient proteolysis requires denaturation, induced by acidic conditions within lysosomes, and reduction of inter- and intrachain disulfide bonds. Cytosolic reduction is mediated enzymatically by thioredoxin, but the mechanism of lysosomal reduction is unknown. We describe here a lysosomal thiol reductase optimally active at low pH and capable of catalyzing disulfide bond

  18. Speed-Selectivity Paradox in the Protein Search for Targets on DNA: Is It Real or Not?

    E-print Network

    Speed-Selectivity Paradox in the Protein Search for Targets on DNA: Is It Real or Not? Alex Veksler in the search times. Thus, our theory resolves the speed-selectivity paradox by arguing that it does not exist method, for the first time, provides an explanation for fast target search at the level of single protein

  19. Target-related distractors disrupt object selection in everyday action: evidence from participants with dementia.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, Tania; Bettcher, Brianne Magouirk; Brennan, Laura; Libon, David J; Wambach, Denene; Seter, Colette

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluated the impact of distractor objects and their similarity to target objects on everyday task performance in dementia. Twenty participants with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (n = 12) or subcortical vascular disease (n = 8) were videotaped while they performed 3 discrete tasks: (1) make a cup of coffee, (2) wrap a gift, and (3) pack a lunch under two conditions that were counterbalanced across participants. The conditions differed in terms of the type of distractor objects included in the workspace: (1) Target-Related Distractor Condition - distractor objects were functionally and visually similar to target objects (e.g., salt for sugar) (2) Unrelated Distractor Condition - distractors were neither visually nor functionally similar to targets (e.g., glue for sugar). Participants touched (t = 4.19; p < .01) and used (z = 3.00; p < .01) significantly more distractors, made more distractor errors (i.e., substitutions; t = 2.93; p < .01), and took longer to complete tasks (t = 2.27; p < .05) in the Target-Related Distractor condition. The percent of steps accomplished and non-distractor errors did not differ across conditions (t < 1.26; p > .05 for both). In summary, distractors that were similar to targets elicited significant interference effects circumscribed to object selection. PMID:20298638

  20. LAPTM4b recruits the LAT1-4F2hc Leu transporter to lysosomes and promotes mTORC1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Milkereit, Ruth; Persaud, Avinash; Vanoaica, Liviu; Guetg, Adriano; Verrey, Francois; Rotin, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin 1 (mTORC1), a master regulator of cellular growth, is activated downstream of growth factors, energy signalling and intracellular essential amino acids (EAAs) such as Leu. mTORC1 activation occurs at the lysosomal membrane, and involves V-ATPase stimulation by intra-lysosomal EAA (inside-out activation), leading to activation of the Ragulator, RagA/B-GTP and mTORC1 via Rheb-GTP. How Leu enters the lysosomes is unknown. Here we identified the lysosomal protein LAPTM4b as a binding partner for the Leu transporter, LAT1-4F2hc (SLC7A5-SLAC3A2). We show that LAPTM4b recruits LAT1-4F2hc to lysosomes, leading to uptake of Leu into lysosomes, and is required for mTORC1 activation via V-ATPase following EAA or Leu stimulation. These results demonstrate a functional Leu transporter at the lysosome, and help explain the inside-out lysosomal activation of mTORC1 by Leu/EAA. PMID:25998567

  1. Neurologic Abnormalities in Mouse Models of the Lysosomal Storage Disorders Mucolipidosis II and Mucolipidosis III ?

    PubMed Central

    Idol, Rachel A.; Wozniak, David F.; Fujiwara, Hideji; Yuede, Carla M.; Ory, Daniel S.; Kornfeld, Stuart; Vogel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    UDP-GlcNAc:lysosomal enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase is an ?2?2?2 hexameric enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of the mannose 6-phosphate targeting signal on lysosomal hydrolases. Mutations in the ?/? subunit precursor gene cause the severe lysosomal storage disorder mucolipidosis II (ML II) or the more moderate mucolipidosis III alpha/beta (ML III ?/?), while mutations in the ? subunit gene cause the mildest disorder, mucolipidosis III gamma (ML III ?). Here we report neurologic consequences of mouse models of ML II and ML III ?. The ML II mice have a total loss of acid hydrolase phosphorylation, which results in depletion of acid hydrolases in mesenchymal-derived cells. The ML III ? mice retain partial phosphorylation. However, in both cases, total brain extracts have normal or near normal activity of many acid hydrolases reflecting mannose 6-phosphate-independent lysosomal targeting pathways. While behavioral deficits occur in both models, the onset of these changes occurs sooner and the severity is greater in the ML II mice. The ML II mice undergo progressive neurodegeneration with neuronal loss, astrocytosis, microgliosis and Purkinje cell depletion which was evident at 4 months whereas ML III ? mice have only mild to moderate astrocytosis and microgliosis at 12 months. Both models accumulate the ganglioside GM2, but only ML II mice accumulate fucosylated glycans. We conclude that in spite of active mannose 6-phosphate-independent targeting pathways in the brain, there are cell types that require at least partial phosphorylation function to avoid lysosomal dysfunction and the associated neurodegeneration and behavioral impairments. PMID:25314316

  2. Monitoring lysosomal activity in nanoparticle-treated cells.

    PubMed

    Neun, Barry W; Stern, Stephan T

    2011-01-01

    Certain nanoparticles have been shown to accumulate within lysosome and hence may cause lysosomal pathologies such as phospholipidosis, lysosomal overload, and autophagy. This chapter describes a method for evaluation of lysosomal activity in porcine kidney cells (LLC-PK1) after exposure to nanoparticles. This method uses the accumulation of a cationic fluorescent dye (LysoTracker Red) in acidic cellular compartments as an indicator of total lysosome content. The lysotracker signal is normalized to the signal from a thiol-reactive dye which is proportional to the total number of viable cells. PMID:21116970

  3. Designing the nanobiointerface of fluorescent nanodiamonds: highly selective targeting of glioma cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slegerova, Jitka; Hajek, Miroslav; Rehor, Ivan; Sedlak, Frantisek; Stursa, Jan; Hruby, Martin; Cigler, Petr

    2014-12-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles based on fluorescent nanodiamonds coated with a biocompatible N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer shell were developed for background-free near-infrared imaging of cancer cells. The particles showed excellent colloidal stability in buffers and culture media. After conjugation with a cyclic RGD peptide they selectively targeted integrin ?v?3 receptors on glioblastoma cells with high internalization efficacy.Core-shell nanoparticles based on fluorescent nanodiamonds coated with a biocompatible N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer shell were developed for background-free near-infrared imaging of cancer cells. The particles showed excellent colloidal stability in buffers and culture media. After conjugation with a cyclic RGD peptide they selectively targeted integrin ?v?3 receptors on glioblastoma cells with high internalization efficacy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and methods, colloidal stability studies and cell viability studies. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02776k

  4. Targeted activation of silent natural product biosynthesis pathways by reporter-guided mutant selection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Xiang, Sihai; Li, Liyuan; Wang, Bin; Rajasärkkä, Johanna; Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela, Kirsi; Ai, Guomin; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko; Yang, Keqian

    2015-03-01

    The continuously increasing genome sequencing data has revealed numerous cryptic pathways, which might encode novel secondary metabolites with interesting biological activities. However, utilization of this hidden potential has been hindered by the observation that many of these gene clusters remain silent (or poorly expressed) under laboratory conditions. Here we present reporter-guided mutant selection (RGMS) as an effective and widely applicable method for targeted activation of silent gene clusters in the native producers. The strategy takes advantage of genome-scale random mutagenesis for generation of genetic diversity and a reporter-guided selection system for the identification of the desired target-activated mutants. It was first validated in the re-activation of jadomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230, where high efficiency of activation was achieved. The same strategy was then applied to a hitherto unactivable pga gene cluster in Streptomyces sp. PGA64 leading to the identification of two new anthraquinone aminoglycosides, gaudimycin D and E. PMID:25554073

  5. The Ca2+ channel ?2 subunit is selectively targeted to the axon terminals of supraoptic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David Daoyi; Bansal, Vimal; Fisher, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    The assembly of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channels with different ? subunits influences channel properties and possibly subcellular targeting. We studied ? subunit expression in the somata and axon terminals of the magnocellular neurosecretory cells, which are located in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and neurohypophysis, respectively. Antibodies directed against the 4 CaV? subunits (CaV?1-CaV?4) were used for immunoblots and for immunostaining of slices of these two tissues. We found that all 4 ? subunits are expressed in both locations, but that CaV?2 had the highest relative expression in the neurohypophysis. These data suggest that the CaV?2 subunit is selectively targeted to axon terminals and may play a role in targeting and/or regulating the properties of Ca2+ channels. PMID:24755552

  6. Armed E-Bunny: a selective dynamic compiler for embedded Java virtual machine targeting ARM processors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mourad Debbabi; Azzam Mourad; Nadia Tawbi

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new selective dynamic compilation technique targeting ARM 16\\/32-bit embedded system processors. This compiler is built inside the J2ME\\/CLDC (Java 2 Micro Edition for Connected Limited Device Configuration) platform [8]. The primary objective of our work is to come up with an efficient, lightweight and low-footprint accelerated Java virtual machine ready to be executed on embedded machines.

  7. Microfluidics for drug discovery and development: from target selection to product lifecycle management.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lifeng; Chung, Bong Geun; Langer, Robert; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Microfluidic technologies' ability to miniaturize assays and increase experimental throughput have generated significant interest in the drug discovery and development domain. These characteristics make microfluidic systems a potentially valuable tool for many drug discovery and development applications. Here, we review the recent advances of microfluidic devices for drug discovery and development and highlight their applications in different stages of the process, including target selection, lead identification, preclinical tests, clinical trials, chemical synthesis, formulations studies and product management. PMID:18190858

  8. hVps41 and VAMP7 function in direct TGN to late endosome transport of lysosomal membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Pols, Maaike S; van Meel, Eline; Oorschot, Viola; ten Brink, Corlinda; Fukuda, Minoru; Swetha, M G; Mayor, Satyajit; Klumperman, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Targeted delivery of lysosome-associated membrane proteins is important for lysosome stability and function. Here we identify a pathway for transport of lysosome-associated membrane proteins directly from the trans-Golgi network to late endosomes, which exists in parallel to mannose 6-phosphate receptor and clathrin-dependent transport of lysosomal enzymes to early endosomes. By immunoelectron microscopy we localized endogenous LAMP-1 and -2 as well as LAMP-1-mGFP to non-coated, biosynthetic carriers at the trans-Golgi network and near late endosomes. These LAMP carriers were negative for mannose 6-phosphate receptor, adaptor-protein complex-1, secretory albumin and endocytic markers, but contained the homotypic fusion and protein sorting complex component hVps41 and the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors protein VAMP7. Knockdown of hVps41 or VAMP7 resulted in the accumulation of lysosome-associated membrane protein carriers, whereas knockdown of hVps39 or hVps18 did not, indicating that the effect of hVps41 is independent of CORVET/HOPS. Mannose 6-phosphate receptor carriers remained unaffected upon hVps41 or VAMP7 knockdown, implicating that hVps41 and VAMP7 are specifically involved in the fusion of trans-Golgi network-derived lysosome-associated membrane protein carriers with late endosomes. PMID:23322049

  9. BioGPS: navigating biological space to predict polypharmacology, off-targeting, and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Siragusa, Lydia; Cross, Simon; Baroni, Massimo; Goracci, Laura; Cruciani, Gabriele

    2015-03-01

    The structural comparison of protein binding sites is increasingly important in drug design; identifying structurally similar sites can be useful for techniques such as drug repurposing, and also in a polypharmacological approach to deliberately affect multiple targets in a disease pathway, or to explain unwanted off-target effects. Once similar sites are identified, identifying local differences can aid in the design of selectivity. Such an approach moves away from the classical "one target one drug" approach and toward a wider systems biology paradigm. Here, we report a semiautomated approach, called BioGPS, that is based on the software FLAP which combines GRID Molecular Interactions Fields (MIFs) and pharmacophoric fingerprints. BioGPS comprises the automatic preparation of protein structure data, identification of binding sites, and subsequent comparison by aligning the sites and directly comparing the MIFs. Chemometric approaches are included to reduce the complexity of the resulting data on large datasets, enabling focus on the most relevant information. Individual site similarities can be analyzed in terms of their Pharmacophoric Interaction Field (PIF) similarity, and importantly the differences in their PIFs can be extracted. Here we describe the BioGPS approach, and demonstrate its applicability to rationalize off-target effects (ER? and SERCA), to classify protein families and explain polypharmacology (ABL1 kinase and NQO2), and to rationalize selectivity between subfamilies (MAP kinases p38?/ERK2 and PPAR?/PPAR?). The examples shown demonstrate a significant validation of the method and illustrate the effectiveness of the approach. PMID:25556939

  10. Chlorin e6 Conjugated Interleukin-6 Receptor Aptamers Selectively Kill Target Cells Upon Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kruspe, Sven; Meyer, Cindy; Hahn, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses the therapeutic properties of light in combination with certain chemicals, called photosensitizers, to successfully treat brain, breast, prostate, and skin cancers. To improve PDT, current research focuses on the development of photosensitizers to specifically target cancer cells. In the past few years, aptamers have been developed to directly deliver cargo molecules into target cells. We conjugated the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (ce6) with a human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) binding RNA aptamer, AIR-3A yielding AIR-3A-ce6 for application in high efficient PDT. AIR-3A-ce6 was rapidly and specifically internalized by IL-6R presenting (IL-6R+) cells. Upon light irradiation, targeted cells were selectively killed, while free ce6 did not show any toxic effect. Cells lacking the IL-6R were also not affected by AIR-3A-ce6. With this approach, we improved the target specificity of ce6-mediated PDT. In the future, other tumor-specific aptamers might be used to selectively localize photosensitizers into cells of interest and improve the efficacy and specificity of PDT in cancer and other diseases. PMID:24481022

  11. Synthetic, non-saccharide, glycosaminoglycan mimetics selectively target colon cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nirmita J; Karuturi, Rajesh; Al-Horani, Rami A; Baranwal, Somesh; Patel, Jagrut; Desai, Umesh R; Patel, Bhaumik B

    2014-08-15

    Selective targeting of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) is a paradigm-shifting approach. We hypothesized that CSCs can be targeted by interfering with functions of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, which play key roles in cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis. We developed a tandem, dual screen strategy involving (1) assessing inhibition of monolayer versus spheroid growth and (2) assessing inhibition of primary versus secondary spheroid growth to identify G2.2, a unique sulfated nonsaccharide GAG mimetic (NSGM) from a focused library of 53 molecules, as a selective inhibitor of colon CSCs. The NSGM down-regulated several CSC markers through regulation of gene transcription, while closely related, inactive NSGMs G1.4 and G4.1 demonstrated no such changes. G2.2's effects on CSCs were mediated, in part, through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of self-renewal factors. Overall, this work presents the proof-of-principle that CSCs can be selectively targeted through novel NSGMs, which are likely to advance fundamental understanding on CSCs while also aiding development of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:24968014

  12. THE SDSS-III BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: QUASAR TARGET SELECTION FOR DATA RELEASE NINE

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Nicholas P.; Kirkpatrick, Jessica A.; Carithers, William C.; Ho, Shirley [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Astronomy, MC-221, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Sheldon, Erin S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Blgd 510, Upton, NY 11375 (United States); Yeche, Christophe; Aubourg, Eric [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Strauss, Michael A.; Lee, Khee-Gan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bovy, Jo; Blanton, Michael R.; Hogg, David W. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Croft, Rupert A. C. [Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Da Silva, Robert [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dawson, Kyle [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, UT (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hennawi, Joseph F., E-mail: npross@lbl.gov [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2012-03-01

    The SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), a five-year spectroscopic survey of 10,000 deg{sup 2}, achieved first light in late 2009. One of the key goals of BOSS is to measure the signature of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in the distribution of Ly{alpha} absorption from the spectra of a sample of {approx}150,000 z > 2.2 quasars. Along with measuring the angular diameter distance at z Almost-Equal-To 2.5, BOSS will provide the first direct measurement of the expansion rate of the universe at z > 2. One of the biggest challenges in achieving this goal is an efficient target selection algorithm for quasars in the redshift range 2.2 < z < 3.5, where their colors tend to overlap those of the far more numerous stars. During the first year of the BOSS survey, quasar target selection (QTS) methods were developed and tested to meet the requirement of delivering at least 15 quasars deg{sup -2} in this redshift range, with a goal of 20 out of 40 targets deg{sup -2} allocated to the quasar survey. To achieve these surface densities, the magnitude limit of the quasar targets was set at g {<=} 22.0 or r {<=} 21.85. While detection of the BAO signature in the distribution of Ly{alpha} absorption in quasar spectra does not require a uniform target selection algorithm, many other astrophysical studies do. We have therefore defined a uniformly selected subsample of 20 targets deg{sup -2}, for which the selection efficiency is just over 50% ({approx}10 z > 2.20 quasars deg{sup -2}). This 'CORE' subsample will be fixed for Years Two through Five of the survey. For the remaining 20 targets deg{sup -2}, we will continue to develop improved selection techniques, including the use of additional data sets beyond the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data. In this paper, we describe the evolution and implementation of the BOSS QTS algorithms during the first two years of BOSS operations (through 2011 July), in support of the science investigations based on these data, and we analyze the spectra obtained during the first year. During this year, 11,263 new z > 2.20 quasars were spectroscopically confirmed by BOSS, roughly double the number of previously known quasars with z > 2.20. Our current algorithms select an average of 15 z > 2.20 quasars deg{sup -2} from 40 targets deg{sup -2} using single-epoch SDSS imaging. Multi-epoch optical data and data at other wavelengths can further improve the efficiency and completeness of BOSS QTS.

  13. Target Selection and Deselection at the Berkeley StructuralGenomics Center

    SciTech Connect

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Kim, Sung-Hou; Brenner, Steven E.

    2005-03-22

    At the Berkeley Structural Genomics Center (BSGC), our goalis to obtain a near-complete structural complement of proteins in theminimal organisms Mycoplasma genitalium and M. pneumoniae, two closelyrelated pathogens. Current targets for structure determination have beenselected in six major stages, starting with those predicted to be mosttractable to high throughput study and likely to yield new structuralinformation. We report on the process used to select these proteins, aswell as our target deselection procedure. Target deselection reducesexperimental effort by eliminating targets similar to those recentlysolved by the structural biology community or other centers. We measurethe impact of the 69 structures solved at the BSGC as of July 2004 onstructure prediction coverage of the M. pneumoniae and M. genitaliumproteomes. The number of Mycoplasma proteins for which thefold couldfirst be reliably assigned based on structures solved at the BSGC (24 M.pneumoniae and 21 M. genitalium) is approximately 25 percent of the totalresulting from work at all structural genomics centers and the worldwidestructural biology community (94 M. pneumoniae and 86M. genitalium)during the same period. As the number of structures contributed by theBSGC during that period is less than 1 percent of the total worldwideoutput, the benefits of a focused target selection strategy are apparent.If the structures of all current targets were solved, the percentage ofM. pneumoniae proteins for which folds could be reliably assigned wouldincrease from approximately 57 percent (391 of 687) at present to around80 percent (550 of 687), and the percentage of the proteome that could beaccurately modeled would increase from around 37 percent (254 of 687) toabout 64 percent (438 of 687). In M. genitalium, the percentage of theproteome that could be structurally annotated based on structures of ourremaining targets would rise from 72 percent (348 of 486) to around 76percent (371 of 486), with the percentage of accurately modeled proteinswould rise from 50 percent (243 of 486) to 58 percent (283 of 486).Sequences and data on experimental progress on our targets are availablein the public databases Target DB and PEPCdb.

  14. Targeted delivery of photosensitizers: efficacy and selectivity issues revealed by multifunctional ORMOSIL nanovectors in cellular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvestrel, Francesco; Moret, Francesca; Segat, Daniela; Woodhams, Josephine H.; Fracasso, Giulio; Echevarria, Iria M. Rio; Baù, Luca; Rastrelli, Federico; Compagnin, Chiara; Reddi, Elena; Fedeli, Chiara; Papini, Emanuele; Tavano, Regina; MacKenzie, Alexandra; Bovis, Melissa; Yaghini, Elnaz; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Zanini, Silvia; Boscaini, Anita; Colombatti, Marco; Mancin, Fabrizio

    2013-06-01

    PEGylated and non-PEGylated ORMOSIL nanoparticles prepared by microemulsion condensation of vinyltriethoxy-silane (VTES) were investigated in detail for their micro-structure and ability to deliver photoactive agents. With respect to pure silica nanoparticles, organic modification substantially changes the microstructure and the surface properties. This in turn leads to a modulation of both the photophysical properties of embedded photosensitizers and the interaction of the nanoparticles with biological entities such as serum proteins. The flexibility of the synthetic procedure allows the rapid preparation and screening of multifunctional nanosystems for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Selective targeting of model cancer cells was tested by using folate, an integrin specific RGD peptide and anti-EGFR antibodies. Data suggest the interference of the stealth-conferring layer (PEG) with small targeting agents, but not with bulky antibodies. Moreover, we showed that selective photokilling of tumour cells may be limited even in the case of efficient targeting because of intrinsic transport limitations of active cellular uptake mechanisms or suboptimum localization.PEGylated and non-PEGylated ORMOSIL nanoparticles prepared by microemulsion condensation of vinyltriethoxy-silane (VTES) were investigated in detail for their micro-structure and ability to deliver photoactive agents. With respect to pure silica nanoparticles, organic modification substantially changes the microstructure and the surface properties. This in turn leads to a modulation of both the photophysical properties of embedded photosensitizers and the interaction of the nanoparticles with biological entities such as serum proteins. The flexibility of the synthetic procedure allows the rapid preparation and screening of multifunctional nanosystems for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Selective targeting of model cancer cells was tested by using folate, an integrin specific RGD peptide and anti-EGFR antibodies. Data suggest the interference of the stealth-conferring layer (PEG) with small targeting agents, but not with bulky antibodies. Moreover, we showed that selective photokilling of tumour cells may be limited even in the case of efficient targeting because of intrinsic transport limitations of active cellular uptake mechanisms or suboptimum localization. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures and additional characterization of nanoparticles. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00402c

  15. Target-selective Phototherapy using a Ligand-based Photosensitizer for Type 2 Cannabinoid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaojuan; Jia, Ningyang; Shao, Pin; Tong, Qin; Xie, Xiangqun; Bai, Mingfeng

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Phototherapy is a powerful noninvasive treatment approach for cancer treatment, with several agents currently being in clinical use. Despite the progress and promise, most current phototherapy agents have serious side effects as they can lead to damage to healthy tissue, even when the photosensitizers is fused to targeting molecules, due to non-specific light activation of the unbound photosensitizer. To overcome these limitations, we develop a phototherapy agent that combines a functional ligand and a near infrared phthalocyanine dye. The target we focus on here is type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) which has been considered an attractive therapeutic target for phototherapy given it is over-expressed by many types of cancers which are located at a surface or can be reached by an endoscope. We show that our CB2R-targeted phototherapy agent, IR700DX-mbc94, is specific for CB2R and effective only when bound to the target receptor, suggesting a receptor-selective phototherapy mechanism and eliminating key side effects. Overall, this opens up opportunity for development of an alternative treatment option for CB2R positive cancers. PMID:24583052

  16. Selective Small Molecule Targeting ?-Catenin Function Discovered by In Vivo Chemical Genetic Screen

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jijun; Ao, Ada; Zhou, Li; Murphy, Clare K.; Frist, Audrey Y.; Keel, Jessica J.; Thorne, Curtis A.; Kim, Kwangho; Lee, Ethan; Hong, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Canonical Wnt signaling pathway, mediated by the transcription factor ?-catenin, plays critical roles in embryonic development, and represents an important therapeutic target. In a zebrafish-based in vivo screen for small molecules that specifically perturb embryonic dorsoventral patterning, we discovered a novel compound, named windorphen, which selectively blocks the Wnt signal required for ventral development. Windorphen exhibits remarkable specificity toward ?-catenin-1 function, indicating that the two ?-catenin isoforms found in zebrafish are not functionally redundant. We show that windorphen is a selective inhibitor of p300 histone acetyl transferase, a co-activator that associates with ?-catenin. Lastly, windorphen robustly and selectively kills cancer cells that harbor Wnt-activating mutations, supporting the therapeutic potential of this novel Wnt inhibitor class. PMID:24012757

  17. Lysosomal Degradation of Ubiquitin-Tagged Receptors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stella M. Hurtley (AAAS; Science Magazine, Europe Office)

    1996-02-02

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Cytosolic proteins are tagged with the polypeptide ubiquitin for eventual destruction by the proteasome. A recent paper in Cell (L. Hicke and H. Riezman, vol. 84, p. 277) shows that in yeast ubiquitin also serves to tag membrane proteins for degradation by proteases in the vacuole, the yeast equivalent of the lysosome.

  18. Lysosomal Sequestration Determines Intracellular Imatinib Levels.

    PubMed

    Burger, Herman; den Dekker, Alexander T; Segeletz, Sandra; Boersma, Antonius W M; de Bruijn, Peter; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Taguchi, Takahiro; Sleijfer, Stefan; Sparreboom, Alex; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Wiemer, Erik A C

    2015-09-01

    The intracellular uptake and retention (IUR) of imatinib is reported to be controlled by the influx transporter SLC22A1 (organic cation transporter 1). We recently hypothesized that alternative uptake and/or retention mechanisms exist that determine intracellular imatinib levels. Here, we systematically investigate the nature of these mechanisms. Imatinib uptake in cells was quantitatively determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Fluorescent microscopy was used to establish subcellular localization of imatinib. Immunoblotting, cell cycle analyses, and apoptosis assays were performed to evaluate functional consequences of imatinib sequestration. Uptake experiments revealed high intracellular imatinib concentrations in HEK293, the leukemic cell lines K562 and SD-1, and a gastrointestinal stromal tumor cell line GIST-T1. We demonstrated that imatinib IUR is time-, dose-, temperature-, and energy-dependent and provide evidence that SLC22A1 and other potential imatinib transporters do not substantially contribute to the IUR of imatinib. Prazosin, amantadine, NH4Cl, and the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 significantly decreased the IUR of imatinib and likely interfere with lysosomal retention and accumulation of imatinib. Costaining experiments with LysoTracker Red confirmed lysosomal sequestration of imatinib. Inhibition of the lysosomal sequestration had no effect on the inhibition of c-Kit signaling and imatinib-mediated cell cycle arrest but significantly increased apoptosis in imatinib-sensitive GIST-T1 cells. We conclude that intracellular imatinib levels are primarily determined by lysosomal sequestration and do not depend on SLC22A1 expression. PMID:26108972

  19. Therapeutic approaches for neuronopathic lysosomal storage disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphael Schiffmann

    2010-01-01

    Therapy of the central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) has remained a major challenge\\u000a because of its inability to deliver therapeutic agents efficiently across the intact blood–brain barrier. Non-specific therapies\\u000a such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been useful in globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe disease) and in some\\u000a mucopolysaccharidoses. Anti-inflammatory agents also show promise as adjuvant

  20. Newborn Screening for Lysosomal Storage Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gelb, Michael H.; Scott, C. Ronald; Turecek, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is worldwide interest in newborn screening for lysosomal storage diseases because of the development of treatment options that give better results when carried out early in life. Screens with high differentiation between affected and nonaffected individuals are critical because of the large number of potential false positives. CONTENT This review summarizes 3 screening methods: (a) direct assay of enzymatic activities using tandem mass spectrometry or fluorometry, (b) immunocapture-based measurement of lysosomal enzyme abundance, and (c) measurement of biomarkers. Assay performance is compared on the basis of small-scale studies as well as on large-scale pilot studies of mass spectrometric and fluorometric screens. SUMMARY Tandem mass spectrometry and fluorometry techniques for direct assay of lysosomal enzymatic activity in dried blood spots have emerged as the most studied approaches. Comparative mass spectrometry vs fluorometry studies show that the former better differentiates between nonaffected vs affected individuals. This in turn leads to a manageable number of screen positives that can be further evaluated with second-tier methods. PMID:25477536

  1. The Role of Microscopy in Understanding Atherosclerotic Lysosomal Lipid Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray Jerome, W.; Yancey, Patricia G.

    2003-02-01

    Microscopy has played a critical role in first identifying and then defining the role of lysosomes in formation of atherosclerotic foam cells. We review the evidence implicating lysosomal lipid accumulation as a factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis with reference to the role of microscopy. In addition, we explore mechanisms by which lysosomal lipid engorgement occurs. Low density lipoproteins which have become modified are the major source of lipid for foam cell formation. These altered lipoproteins are taken into the cell via receptor-mediated endocytosis and delivered to lysosomes. Under normal conditions, lipids from these lipoproteins are metabolized and do not accumulate in lysosomes. In the atherosclerotic foam cell, this normal metabolism is inhibited so that cholesterol and cholesteryl esters accumulate in lysosomes. Studies of cultured cells incubated with modified lipoproteins suggests this abnormal metabolism occurs in two steps. Initially, hydrolysis of lipoprotein cholesteryl esters occurs normally, but the resultant free cholesterol cannot exit the lysosome. Further lysosomal cholesterol accumulation inhibits hydrolysis, producing a mixture of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters within swollen lysosomes. Various lipoprotein modifications can produce this lysosomal engorgement in vitro and it remains to be seen which modifications are most important in vivo.

  2. Target Selection for the LBTI Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberge, A.; Weinberger, A.; Kennedy, G.; Defrère, D.; LBTI Instrument; Science Teams

    2014-03-01

    The Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial planetary Systems (HOSTS) on the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) will survey nearby stars for faint exozodiacal dust (exozodi). This warm circumstellar dust, analogous to the interplanetary dust found in the vicinity of the Earth in our own system, is produced in comet breakups and asteroid collisions. Exozodi will be the major source of astrophysical noise for a future space telescope aimed at direct imaging and spectroscopy of habitable zone terrestrial planets (exo-Earths). About 20% of nearby field stars have cold dust coming from planetesimals at large distances from the stars (Eiroa et al. 2013). Much less is known about exozodi; current detection limits for individual stars are at best ~ 500 times our solar system's level (aka. 500 zodi). LBTI-HOSTS will be the first survey capable of measuring exozodi at the 10 zodi level (3s). Detections of warm dust will also reveal new information about planetary system architectures and evolution. We describe the target star selection by the LBTI Science Team to satisfy the goals of the HOSTS survey - to inform mission design and target selection for a future exo-Earth mission. We are interested in both 1) actual stars likely to be observed by such a mission and 2) stars whose observation will enable sensible extrapolations for stars that cannot be observed with LBTI. We integrated two approaches to generate the HOSTS target list. The mission-driven approach concentrates on F, G, and K-type stars that are the best targets for future direct observations of exo-Earths, thereby providing model-independent "ground truth" dust observations. However, not every potential target of a future exo-Earth mission can be observed with LBTI. The sensitivity-driven approach selects targets based on maximizing the exozodi sensitivity that can be achieved, without consideration of exo-Earth mission constraints. This naturally chooses more luminous stars (A and early F-type stars). In both cases, all stars are close enough to Earth such that their habitable zones are resolvable by LBTI and bright enough at N-band (10 µm) to provide excellent sensitivity. We also discuss observational and astrophysical motivations for excluding binaries of certain separations.

  3. The contribution of the major planet search surveys to EChO target selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micela, Giuseppina; Bakos, Gáspár Á.; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Pagano, Isabella; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Wheatley, Peter J.

    2014-07-01

    The EChO core science will be based on a three tier survey, each with increasing sensitivity, in order to study the population of exo-planets from super-Earths to Jupiter-like planets, in the very hot to temperate zones (temperatures of 300 K - 3000 K) of F to M-type host stars. To achieve a meaningful outcome, an accurate selection of the target sample is needed. In this paper we analyse the targets, suitable for EChO observations, expected to result from a sample of present and forthcoming detection surveys. Present day discovered exoplanets are sufficient to provide a large and diverse sample. However we expect that results from ongoing and planned surveys, aimed at identifying new planets, will increase the sample of smaller planets allowing us to optimize the EChO sample selection. The analysis of the expected yields of a representative set of those surveys both from ground and space shows that they will be able to provide a large number of targets, covering an ample range of planetary and stellar parameters, fitting the EChO capabilities.

  4. A dual selection based, targeted gene replacement tool for Magnaporthe grisea and Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Khang, Chang Hyun; Park, Sook-Young; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kang, Seogchan

    2005-06-01

    Rapid progress in fungal genome sequencing presents many new opportunities for functional genomic analysis of fungal biology through the systematic mutagenesis of the genes identified through sequencing. However, the lack of efficient tools for targeted gene replacement is a limiting factor for fungal functional genomics, as it often necessitates the screening of a large number of transformants to identify the desired mutant. We developed an efficient method of gene replacement and evaluated factors affecting the efficiency of this method using two plant pathogenic fungi, Magnaporthe grisea and Fusarium oxysporum. This method is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with a mutant allele of the target gene flanked by the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene as a conditional negative selection marker against ectopic transformants. The HSVtk gene product converts 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine to a compound toxic to diverse fungi. Because ectopic transformants express HSVtk, while gene replacement mutants lack HSVtk, growing transformants on a medium amended with 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine facilitates the identification of targeted mutants by counter-selecting against ectopic transformants. In addition to M. grisea and F. oxysporum, the method and associated vectors are likely to be applicable to manipulating genes in a broad spectrum of fungi, thus potentially serving as an efficient, universal functional genomic tool for harnessing the growing body of fungal genome sequence data to study fungal biology. PMID:15893252

  5. New approaches to selectively target cancer-associated matrix metalloproteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Marilena; McGuire, Jeremy; Lynch, Conor C

    2014-12-01

    Heightened matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity has been noted in the context of the tumor microenvironment for many years, and causal roles for MMPs have been defined across the spectrum of cancer progression. This is primarily due to the ability of the MMPs to process extracellular matrix (ECM) components and to regulate the bioavailability/activity of a large repertoire of cytokines and growth factors. These characteristics made MMPs an attractive target for therapeutic intervention but notably clinical trials performed in the 1990s did not fulfill the promise of preclinical studies. The reason for the failure of early MMP inhibitor (MMPI) clinical trials that are multifold but arguably principal among them was the inability of early MMP-based inhibitors to selectively target individual MMPs and to distinguish between MMPs and other members of the metzincin family. In the decades that have followed the MMP inhibitor trials, innovations in chemical design, antibody-based strategies, and nanotechnologies have greatly enhanced our ability to specifically target and measure the activity of MMPs. These advances provide us with the opportunity to generate new lines of highly selective MMPIs that will not only extend the overall survival of cancer patients, but will also afford us the ability to utilize heightened MMP activity in the tumor microenvironment as a means by which to deliver MMPIs or MMP activatable prodrugs. PMID:25325988

  6. Gold nanorods for target selective SPECT/CT imaging and photothermal therapy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Boseung; Park, Seonhwa; Kang, Se Hun; Kim, Joa Kyum; Kim, Seok-Ki; Kim, In-Hoo; Choi, Yongdoo

    2012-01-01

    The development of theranostic agents with high detection sensitivity and antitumor efficacy at low concentration is a challenging task for target selective imaging and therapy of cancers. In this study, folate-conjugated and radioactive-iodine-labeled gold nanorods (GNRs) were designed and synthesized for target selective SPECT/CT imaging and subsequent thermal ablation of folate-receptor-overexpressing cancers. Both (ortho-pyridyl) disulfide-poly(ethylene glycol)-folate and a short peptide, H2N-Tyr-Asn-Asn-Leu-Ala-Cys-OH, were conjugated on the surface of the GNRs through thiol chemistry. The tyrosine in the peptide sequence was introduced for radioactive-iodine labeling through an iodine-tyrosine interaction. The labeling efficiency of radioactive iodine was more than 99%. Radiochemical stability tests on iodine-125-labeled GNRs in human serum showed that 91% of the iodine-125 remained intact on the GNRs after incubation for 24 h. In vitro and in vivo results in this study confirmed the potential utility of folate-conjugated and iodine-125-labeled GNRs as smart theranostic agents. This type of platform may also be useful for the targeted SPECT/CT imaging and photothermal therapy of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis and arthritis, in which folate-receptor-overexpressing macrophages play pivotal roles. PMID:23256055

  7. Involvement of Vps33a in the Fusion of Uroplakin-Degrading Multivesicular Bodies with Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xuemei; Tu, Liyu; Gumper, Iwona; Plesken, Heide; Novak, Edward K.; Chintala, Sreenivasulu; Swank, Richard T.; Pastores, Gregory; Torres, Paola; Izumi, Tetsuro; Sun, Tung-Tien; Sabatini, David D.; Kreibich, Gert

    2014-01-01

    The apical surface of the terminally differentiated mouse bladder urothelium is largely covered by urothelial plaques, consisting of hexagonally packed 16-nm uroplakin particles. These plaques are delivered to the cell surface by fusiform vesicles (FVs) that are the most abundant cytoplasmic organelles. We have analyzed the functional involvement of several proteins in the apical delivery and endocytic degradation of uroplakin proteins. Although FVs have an acidified lumen and Rab27b, which localizes to these organelles, is known to be involved in the targeting of lysosome-related organelles (LROs), FVs are CD63 negative and are therefore not typical LROs. Vps33a is a Sec1-related protein that plays a role in vesicular transport to the lysosomal compartment. A point mutation in mouse Vps33a (Buff mouse) causes albinism and bleeding (Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome) because of abnormalities in the trafficking of melanosomes and platelets. These Buff mice showed a novel phenotype observed in urothelial umbrella cells, where the uroplakin-delivering FVs were almost completely replaced by Rab27b-negative multivesicular bodies (MVBs) involved in uroplakin degradation. MVB accumulation leads to an increase in the amounts of uroplakins, Lysosomal-associated membrane protein (LAMP)-1/2, and the activities of ?-hexosaminidase and ?-glucocerebrosidase. These results suggest that FVs can be regarded as specialized secretory granules that deliver crystalline arrays of uroplakins to the cell surface, and that the Vps33a mutation interferes with the fusion of MVBs with mature lysosomes thus blocking uroplakin degradation. PMID:19566896

  8. The transcription factor NRSF contributes to epileptogenesis by selective repression of a subset of target genes

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Shawn; Brennan, Gary P; Dubé, Celine; Rajpara, Seeta; Iyer, Shruti; Richichi, Cristina; Bernard, Christophe; Baram, Tallie Z

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms generating epileptic neuronal networks following insults such as severe seizures are unknown. We have previously shown that interfering with the function of the neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF/REST), an important transcription factor that influences neuronal phenotype, attenuated development of this disorder. In this study, we found that epilepsy-provoking seizures increased the low NRSF levels in mature hippocampus several fold yet surprisingly, provoked repression of only a subset (?10%) of potential NRSF target genes. Accordingly, the repressed gene-set was rescued when NRSF binding to chromatin was blocked. Unexpectedly, genes selectively repressed by NRSF had mid-range binding frequencies to the repressor, a property that rendered them sensitive to moderate fluctuations of NRSF levels. Genes selectively regulated by NRSF during epileptogenesis coded for ion channels, receptors, and other crucial contributors to neuronal function. Thus, dynamic, selective regulation of NRSF target genes may play a role in influencing neuronal properties in pathological and physiological contexts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01267.001 PMID:25117540

  9. Combinatorial selection of DNA thioaptamers targeted towards the HA binding domain of human CD44†

    PubMed Central

    Somasunderam, Anoma; Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Tanaka, Takemi; Li, Xin; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Lokesh, Ganesh Lakshmana Rao; Mann, Aman; Peng, Yang; Ferrari, Mauro; Klostergaard, Jim; Gorenstein, David G.

    2010-01-01

    CD44, the primary receptor for hyaluronic acid, plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis. CD44-hyaluronic acid interactions can be exploited for targeted delivery of anti-cancer agents specifically to cancer cells. Although various splicing variants of CD44 are expressed on the plasma membrane of cancer cells, the hyaluronic acid binding domain (HABD) is highly conserved among the CD44 splicing variants. Using a novel two-step process, we have identified monothiophosphate-modified aptamers (thioaptamers) that specifically bind to the CD44’s HABD with high affinities. Binding affinities of the selected thioaptamers for the HABD were in the range of 180–295 nM, significantly higher affinity than that of hyaluronic acid (Kd > ?M range). The selected thioaptamers bound to CD44 positive human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3, IGROV, and A2780), but failed to bind CD44 negative NIH3T3 cell line. Our results indicated that thio substitution at specific positions of the DNA phosphate backbone result in specific and high affinity binding of thioaptamers to CD44. The selected thioaptamers will be of great interest for further development as a targeting or imaging agent to deliver therapeutic payloads for cancer tissues. PMID:20843027

  10. Lysosomal NEU1 deficiency affects Amyloid Precursor Protein levels and amyloid-? secretion via deregulated lysosomal exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Annunziata, Ida; Patterson, Annette; Helton, Danielle; Hu, Huimin; Moshiach, Simon; Gomero, Elida; Nixon, Ralph; d’Azzo, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) belongs to a category of adult neurodegenerative conditions which are associated with intracellular and extracellular accumulation of neurotoxic protein aggregates. Understanding how these aggregates are formed, secreted and propagated by neurons has been the subject of intensive research, but so far no preventive or curative therapy for AD is available and clinical trials have been largely unsuccessful. Here we show that deficiency of the lysosomal sialidase NEU1 leads to the spontaneous occurrence of an AD-like amyloidogenic process in mice. This involves two consecutive events linked to NEU1 loss-of-function – accumulation and amyloidogenic processing of an oversialylated amyloid precursor protein in lysosomes, and extracellular release of A?-peptides by excessive lysosomal exocytosis. Furthermore, cerebral injection of NEU1 in an established AD mouse model substantially reduces ?-amyloid plaques. Our findings identify an additional pathway for the secretion of A? and define NEU1 as a potential therapeutic molecule for AD. PMID:24225533

  11. Targeting Class IA PI3K Isoforms Selectively Impairs Cell Growth, Survival, and Migration in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Höland, Katrin; Boller, Danielle; Hagel, Christian; Dolski, Silvia; Treszl, András; Pardo, Olivier E.; ?wiek, Paulina; Salm, Fabiana; Leni, Zaira; Shepherd, Peter R.; Styp-Rekowska, Beata; Djonov, Valentin; von Bueren, André O.; Frei, Karl; Arcaro, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is frequently activated in human cancer and plays a crucial role in glioblastoma biology. We were interested in gaining further insight into the potential of targeting PI3K isoforms as a novel anti-tumor approach in glioblastoma. Consistent expression of the PI3K catalytic isoform PI3K p110? was detected in a panel of glioblastoma patient samples. In contrast, PI3K p110? expression was only rarely detected in glioblastoma patient samples. The expression of a module comprising the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/PI3K p110?/phosphorylated ribosomal S6 protein (p-S6) was correlated with shorter patient survival. Inhibition of PI3K p110? activity impaired the anchorage-dependent growth of glioblastoma cells and induced tumor regression in vivo. Inhibition of PI3K p110? or PI3K p110? also led to impaired anchorage-independent growth, a decreased migratory capacity of glioblastoma cells, and reduced the activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway. These effects were selective, because targeting of PI3K p110? did not result in a comparable impairment of glioblastoma tumorigenic properties. Together, our data reveal that drugs targeting PI3K p110? can reduce growth in a subset of glioblastoma tumors characterized by the expression of EGFR/PI3K p110?/p-S6. PMID:24718026

  12. Selection of Potential Pharmacological Targets in ALS Based on Whole- Genome Expression Profiling.

    PubMed

    Morello, Giovanna; Conforti, Francesca Luisa; Parenti, Rosalba; D'Agata, Velia; Cavallaro, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease caused by the gradual degeneration and death of upper and lower motor neurons. Despite continue efforts, the etiology and pathogenesis of ALS are not well understood yet. The lack of knowledge about molecular and cellular players involved in the neurodegenerative progression of ALS hinders effective therapy development. Several genomicbased studies have been conducted to identify genetic contributors to sporadic ALS (SALS) and new potential pharmacological targets, but these have resulted in short and non-overlapping lists of candidates. In the last few years, our research group has developed the largest whole-genome expression profile database of SALS human samples. We have identified several genes deregulated in the motor cortex of SALS patients and analyzed the role of these genes within deregulated pathways, providing a full molecular portrait of ALS pathogenesis. Some of deregulated genes encode for proteins that are direct or indirect targets of experimental or therapeutic drugs already applied to unrelated diseases. In this review, we focus on the potential role of candidate targets in ALS pathophysiology, highlighting their possible contribution to ALS therapy. The rational selection of the most promising drug targets and related modulatory drugs may provide a starting point for their preclinical or clinical validation and, hopefully, the development of more effective treatments for ALS patients. PMID:25850769

  13. Targeting a cryptic allosteric site for selective inhibition of the oncogenic protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2.

    PubMed

    Chio, Cynthia M; Lim, Christopher S; Bishop, Anthony C

    2015-01-20

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) have been the subject of considerable pharmaceutical-design efforts because of the ubiquitous connections between misregulation of PTP activity and human disease. PTP-inhibitor discovery has been hampered, however, by the difficulty in identifying cell-permeable compounds that can selectively target PTP active sites, and no PTP inhibitors have progressed to the clinic. The identification of allosteric sites on target PTPs therefore represents a potentially attractive solution to the druggability problem of PTPs. Here we report that the oncogenic PTP Shp2 contains an allosteric-inhibition site that renders the enzyme sensitive to potent and selective inhibition by cell-permeable biarsenical compounds. Because Shp2 contains no canonical tetracysteine biarsenical-binding motif, the enzyme's inhibitor-binding site is not readily predictable from its primary or three-dimensional structure. Intriguingly, however, Shp2's PTP domain does contain a cysteine residue (C333) at a position that is removed from the active site and is occupied by proline in other classical PTPs. We show that Shp2's unusual cysteine residue constitutes part of a Shp2-specific allosteric-inhibition site, and that Shp2's sensitivity to biarsenicals is dependent on the presence of the naturally occurring C333. The determinative role of this residue in conferring inhibitor sensitivity is surprising because C333's side chain is inaccessible to solvent in Shp2 crystal structures. The discovery of this cryptic Shp2 allosteric site may provide a means for targeting Shp2 activity with high specificity and suggests that buried-yet-targetable allosteric sites could be similarly uncovered in other protein families. PMID:25519989

  14. Selection of phage-display library peptides recognizing ethanol targets on proteins.

    PubMed

    Anni, H; Nikolaeva, O; Israel, Y

    2001-11-01

    There is a forthcoming link between chronic alcohol consumption and proteins covalently modified by ethanol metabolites and their antibodies. To identify sensitive probes of protein-ethanol conjugates, we screened for the ethanol-altered protein domains with a phage-display combinatorial peptide library. In principle, recognition of the epitopes by the library peptides occurs through protein-protein interactions. A general screening, M13-based library with 10(9) random sequences of linear heptameric peptides was used. The peptides were displayed in five copies each, as fusion proteins with phage's minor coat protein III. They were located on one end of the surface of the phage particles. The targets were a model protein, streptavidin, and protein-ethanol conjugates (hydroxyethyl radical- or acetaldehyde-modified bovine serum albumin). They were either immobilized on a surface by direct coating or affinity captured on floating beads. An enriched library of phages with the tightest peptide binders for each target was selected and amplified in a multiple-cycle biopanning in vitro procedure. Binders were characterized by DNA sequencing of the corresponding phages and by counter-screening with positive and negative targets in either an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or plaque assay. We obtained the HPQ motif for streptavidin and two unique subsets of peptides that recognized each ethanol target with a selectivity of two orders of magnitude above the carrier protein and controls. The application of biopanning processes, coupled with phage-display peptide libraries on biological fluids and tissues, could provide a systematic mapping of protein--ethanol conjugates and supply a means for early diagnosis and prognosis of chronic alcohol consumption in human beings. PMID:11839467

  15. Rag GTPases are cardioprotective by regulating lysosomal function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Chul; Mo, Jung-Soon; Jewell, Jenna L.; Russell, Ryan C.; Wu, Xiaohui; Sadoshima, Junichi; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2014-01-01

    The Rag family proteins are Ras-like small GTPases that play a critical role in amino acid-stimulated mTORC1 activation by recruiting mTORC1 to lysosome. Despite progress in the mechanistic understanding of Rag GTPases in mTORC1 activation, little is known about the physiological function of Rag GTPases in vivo. Here, we show that loss of RagA and RagB (RagA/B) in cardiomyocytes results in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and phenocopies lysosomal storage diseases although mTORC1 activity is not substantially impaired in vivo. We demonstrate that despite upregulation of lysosomal protein expression by constitutive activation of the transcription factor EB (TFEB) in RagA/B knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, lysosomal acidification is compromised due to decreased v-ATPase level in the lysosome fraction. Our study uncovers RagA/B GTPases as key regulators of lysosomal function and cardiac protection. PMID:24980141

  16. Rag GTPases are cardioprotective by regulating lysosomal function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Chul; Park, Hyun Woo; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Mo, Jung-Soon; Jewell, Jenna L; Russell, Ryan C; Wu, Xiaohui; Sadoshima, Junichi; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2014-01-01

    The Rag family proteins are Ras-like small GTPases that have a critical role in amino-acid-stimulated mTORC1 activation by recruiting mTORC1 to lysosome. Despite progress in the mechanistic understanding of Rag GTPases in mTORC1 activation, little is known about the physiological function of Rag GTPases in vivo. Here we show that loss of RagA and RagB (RagA/B) in cardiomyocytes results in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and phenocopies lysosomal storage diseases, although mTORC1 activity is not substantially impaired in vivo. We demonstrate that despite upregulation of lysosomal protein expression by constitutive activation of the transcription factor EB (TFEB) in RagA/B knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, lysosomal acidification is compromised owing to decreased v-ATPase level in the lysosome fraction. Our study uncovers RagA/B GTPases as key regulators of lysosomal function and cardiac protection. PMID:24980141

  17. Target selection and mass estimation for manned NEO exploration using a baseline mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, Ralf C.; Hein, Andreas M.; Kawaguchi, Junichiro

    2015-06-01

    In recent years Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have received an increased amount of interest as a target for human exploration. NEOs offer scientifically interesting targets, and at the same time function as a stepping stone for achieving future Mars missions. The aim of this research is to identify promising targets from the large number of known NEOs that qualify for a manned sample-return mission with a maximum duration of one year. By developing a baseline mission design and a mass estimation model, mission opportunities are evaluated based on on-orbit mass requirements, safety considerations, and the properties of the potential targets. A selection of promising NEOs is presented and the effects of mission requirements and restrictions are discussed. Regarding safety aspects, the use of free-return trajectories provides the lowest on-orbit mass, when compared to an alternative design that uses system redundancies to ensure return of the spacecraft to Earth. It is discovered that, although a number of targets are accessible within the analysed time frame, no NEO offers both easy access and high incentive for its exploration. Under the discussed aspects a first human exploration mission going beyond the vicinity of Earth will require a trade off between targets that provide easy access and those that are of scientific interest. This lack of optimal mission opportunities can be seen in the small number of only 4 NEOs that meet all requirements for a sample-return mission and remain below an on-orbit mass of 500 metric Tons (mT). All of them require a mass between 315 and 492 mT. Even less ideal, smaller asteroids that are better accessible require an on-orbit mass that exceeds the launch capability of future heavy lift vehicles (HLV) such as SLS by at least 30 mT. These mass requirements show that additional efforts are necessary to increase the number of available targets and reduce on-orbit mass requirements through advanced mission architectures. The need for on-orbit assembly also becomes apparent, as availability of a HLV alone does not provide sufficient payload capabilities for any manned mission targeting NEOs.

  18. Selectivity and binding kinetics of mTOR inhibitors Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of ATP-competitive mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)

    E-print Network

    Sabatini, David M.

    -582-8590, Fax: 617-582- 8615, Email: Nathanael_Gray@dfci.harvard.edu. Key Words: mTOR, PI3K, RET, JAKs, Torin1Selectivity and binding kinetics of mTOR inhibitors 1 Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of ATP-competitive mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitors and characterization of their binding kinetics

  19. Selective and effective killing of angiogenic vascular endothelial cells and cancer cells by targeting tissue factor using a factor VII-targeted photodynamic therapy for breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiwei Hu; Benqiang Rao; Shimin Chen; Jinzhong Duanmu

    2011-01-01

    The cell surface receptor tissue factor (TF) is regarded as a common but specific target on angiogenic tumor vascular endothelial\\u000a cells (VECs) and tumor cells in many types of cancer including breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to develop a selective\\u000a and effective TF-targeting photodynamic therapy (PDT) by using its natural ligand factor VII (fVII)-conjugated Sn(IV) chlorin\\u000a e6

  20. Lysosomal chymotrypsin B potentiates apoptosis via cleavage of Bid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai ZhaoXingyu ZhaoYaping; Xingyu Zhao; Yaping Tu; Qi Miao; Dongxu Cao; Wenjuan Duan; Yang Sun; Jincheng Wang; Taotao Wei; Fuyu Yang

    2010-01-01

    We have reported that chymotrypsin B (CtrB) is not just a digestive enzyme but is also stored in lysosomes. Herein, we demonstrated\\u000a a broad distribution of CtrB and explored the involvement of CtrB in apoptosis. Exposure of RH-35 cells to H2O2 or palmitate induced the redistribution of lysosomal CtrB into the cytoplasm as a result of lysosomal membrane permeabilization\\u000a (LMP).

  1. Translocation and clustering of endosomes and lysosomes depends on microtubules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaele Matteoni; Thomas E. Kreis

    1987-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence labeling of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells with antibodies recog- nizing a lysosomal glycoprotein (LGP 120; Lewis, V., S. A. Green, M. Marsh, P. Vihko, A. Helenius, and I. Mellman, 1985, J. Cell Biol., 100:1839-1847) re- veals that lysosomes accumulate in the region around the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). This clustering of lysosomes depends on microtubules. When the interphase

  2. Lysosomal cholesterol accumulation inhibits subsequent hydrolysis of lipoprotein cholesteryl ester.

    PubMed

    Jerome, W Gray; Cox, Brian E; Griffin, Evelyn E; Ullery, Jody C

    2008-04-01

    Human macrophages incubated for prolonged periods with mildly oxidized LDL (oxLDL) or cholesteryl ester-rich lipid dispersions (DISP) accumulate free and esterified cholesterol within large, swollen lysosomes similar to those in foam cells of atherosclerosis. The cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation is, in part, the result of inhibition of lysosomal hydrolysis due to increased lysosomal pH mediated by excessive lysosomal free cholesterol (FC). To determine if the inhibition of hydrolysis was long lived and further define the extent of the lysosomal defect, we incubated THP-1 macrophages with oxLDL or DISP to produce lysosome sterol engorgement and then chased with acetylated LDL (acLDL). Unlike oxLDL or DISP, CE from acLDL normally is hydrolyzed rapidly. Three days of incubation with oxLDL or DISP produced an excess of CE in lipid-engorged lysosomes, indicative of inhibition. After prolonged oxLDL or DISP pretreatment, subsequent hydrolysis of acLDL CE was inhibited. Coincident with the inhibition, the lipid-engorged lysosomes failed to maintain an acidic pH during both the initial pretreatment and subsequent acLDL incubation. This indicates that the alterations in lysosomes were general, long lived, and affected subsequent lipoprotein metabolism. This same phenomenon, occurring within atherosclerotic foam cells, could significantly affect lesion progression. PMID:18312718

  3. Linking Albinism and Immunity: The Secrets of Secretory Lysosomes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jane Stinchcombe (Sir William Dunn School of Pathology; )

    2004-07-02

    Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles that are found in all mammalian cells and contain hydrolases and lipases required for protein and membrane degradation. In many cells of the immune system, lysosomes also contain secretory proteins that can be released by regulated exocytosis in response to an external stimulus, providing different cell types with a wide range of effector functions. Melanosomes also use a lysosome-related organelle to secrete melanin for pigmentation. Links between albinism and immunity in patients have uncovered a number of key proteins required for lysosomal secretion and have revealed a versatile secretory mechanism that can be fine-tuned by distinct interactions in different cell types.

  4. Lysosomal Cholesterol Accumulation Inhibits Subsequent Hydrolysis Of Lipoprotein Cholesteryl Ester

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, W. Gray; Cox, Brian E.; Griffin, Evelyn E.; Ullery, Jody C.

    2010-01-01

    Human macrophages incubated for prolonged periods with mildly oxidized LDL (oxLDL) or cholesteryl ester-rich lipid dispersions (DISP) accumulate free and esterified cholesterol within large, swollen lysosomes similar to those in foam cells of atherosclerosis. The cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation is, in part, the result of inhibition of lysosomal hydrolysis due to increased lysosomal pH mediated by excessive lysosomal free cholesterol (FC). To determine if the inhibition of hydrolysis was long lived and further define the extent of the lysosomal defect, we incubated THP-1 macrophages with oxLDL or DISP to produce lysosome sterol engorgement and then chased with acetylated LDL (acLDL). Unlike oxLDL or DISP, CE from acLDL normally is hydrolyzed rapidly. Three days of incubation with oxLDL or DISP produced an excess of CE in lipid-engorged lysosomes, indicative of inhibition. After prolonged oxLDL or DISP pretreatment, subsequent hydrolysis of acLDL CE was inhibited. Coincident with the inhibition, the lipid-engorged lysosomes failed to maintain an acidic pH during both the initial pretreatment and subsequent acLDL incubation. This indicates that the alterations in lysosomes were general, long-lived and affected subsequent lipoprotein metabolism. This same phenomenon, occurring within atherosclerotic foam cells, could significantly affect lesion progression. PMID:18312718

  5. Imaging and imagination: understanding the endo-lysosomal system

    PubMed Central

    van Meel, Eline

    2008-01-01

    Lysosomes are specialized compartments for the degradation of endocytosed and intracellular material and essential regulators of cellular homeostasis. The importance of lysosomes is illustrated by the rapidly growing number of human disorders related to a defect in lysosomal functioning. Here, we review current insights in the mechanisms of lysosome biogenesis and protein sorting within the endo-lysosomal system. We present increasing evidence for the existence of parallel pathways for the delivery of newly synthesized lysosomal proteins directly from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endo-lysosomal system. These pathways are either dependent or independent of mannose 6-phosphate receptors and likely involve multiple exits for lysosomal proteins from the TGN. In addition, we discuss the different endosomal intermediates and subdomains that are involved in sorting of endocytosed cargo. Throughout our review, we highlight some examples in the literature showing how imaging, especially electron microscopy, has made major contributions to our understanding of the endo-lysosomal system today. PMID:18274773

  6. Parallel in Vivo and in Vitro Selection Using Phage Display Identifies Protease-dependent Tumor-targeting Peptides*S

    E-print Network

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    -targeting Peptides*S Received for publication,April 26, 2010 Published, JBC Papers in Press,May 11, 2010, DOI 10 activatable cell-penetrating peptides (ACPPs) that target contrast agents to in vivo sites of matrix of tumor versus normal tissue. Selected sequences were synthesized as fluorescently labeled peptides

  7. ITCS 4121/5121 Contest Assignment 1 Datasets: Select one dataset I provided for HW 1 as your target dataset.

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jing

    ITCS 4121/5121 Contest Assignment 1 Datasets: Select one dataset I provided for HW 1 as your target dataset. Visualization: The four datasets are closely related to our daily life. What to you want to do with your target dataset? Try to find one or more tasks. For example, you may want to find the best cereal

  8. The Role of Client Choice and Target Selection in Self-Management Therapy for Depression in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Rokke; Judith A. Tomhave; Zeljko Jocic

    1999-01-01

    In a study designed to maximize the effectiveness of treatment by allowing participants to select the target of treatment, 40 depressed older adults were randomly assigned to a waiting-list control condition or to conditions in which the target of treatment was either chosen or assigned. All participants received self-management therapy and the choice was between changing behavior or changing cognition.

  9. Structural basis for recognition of phosphodiester-containing lysosomal enzymes by the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Linda J.; Peterson, Francis C.; Castonguay, Alicia; Bohnsack, Richard N.; Kudo, Mariko; Gotschall, Russell R.; Canfield, William M.; Volkman, Brian F.; Dahms, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P)-dependent trafficking is vital for normal development. The biogenesis of lysosomes, a major cellular site of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid catabolism, depends on the 300-kDa cation-independent Man-6-P receptor (CI-MPR) that transports newly synthesized acid hydrolases from the Golgi. The CI-MPR recognizes lysosomal enzymes bearing the Man-6-P modification, which arises by the addition of GlcNAc-1-phosphate to mannose residues and subsequent removal of GlcNAc by the uncovering enzyme (UCE). The CI-MPR also recognizes lysosomal enzymes that elude UCE maturation and instead display the Man-P-GlcNAc phosphodiester. This ability of the CI-MPR to target phosphodiester-containing enzymes ensures lysosomal delivery when UCE activity is deficient. The extracellular region of the CI-MPR is comprised of 15 repetitive domains and contains three distinct Man-6-P binding sites located in domains 3, 5, and 9, with only domain 5 exhibiting a marked preference for phosphodiester-containing lysosomal enzymes. To determine how the CI-MPR recognizes phosphodiesters, the structure of domain 5 was determined by NMR spectroscopy. Although domain 5 contains only three of the four disulfide bonds found in the other seven domains whose structures have been determined to date, it adopts the same fold consisting of a flattened ?-barrel. Structure determination of domain 5 bound to N-acetylglucosaminyl 6-phosphomethylmannoside, along with mutagenesis studies, revealed the residues involved in diester recognition, including Y679. These results show the mechanism by which the CI-MPR recognizes Man-P-GlcNAc-containing ligands and provides new avenues to investigate the role of phosphodiester-containing lysosomal enzymes in the biogenesis of lysosomes. PMID:20615935

  10. Getting to the source: selective drug targeting of cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Fatima; Winkler, David A

    2014-05-01

    Cancers are among the most important and most difficult to treat diseases of the 21st century. Conventional therapies include surgery, immunotherapy, and radiotherapy, as well many forms of drug treatments such as tamoxifen and Gleevec. However, these forms of treatment often do not eradicate the cancer stem cells, only managing to decrease the size of the tumor, allowing the cancer to return. The cancer stem cell hypothesis stipulates that malignancy is maintained through self-renewal of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which generate rapidly dividing progeny that comprise the tumors, and that are largely untouched by conventional therapies. Evidence for the central role of CSCs in many tumors has provided a paradigm shift in the way cancer chemotherapy may be addressed. Recent discoveries regarding the nature of the stem cell niche, and the key signaling pathways involved in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation from regenerative medicine, have provided key information that facilitates selective targeting of CSCs by small-molecule drugs. The growing body of biochemical knowledge on the nature of CSCs, and differences between them and normal adult stem cells essential for maintaining organisms, has augmented the increasing number of small molecules shown to control normal and aberrant stem cells. Here, we review small-molecule approaches to the selective targeting of CSCs. PMID:24760779

  11. Update on the Pfam5000 Strategy for Selection of StructuralGenomics Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Brenner, Steven E.

    2005-06-27

    Structural Genomics is an international effort to determine the three-dimensional shapes of all important biological macromolecules, with a primary focus on proteins. Target proteins should be selected according to a strategy that is medically and biologically relevant, of good financial value, and tractable. In 2003, we presented the ''Pfam5000'' strategy, which involves selecting the 5,000 most important families from the Pfam database as sources for targets. In this update, we show that although both the Pfam database and the number of sequenced genomes have increased in size, the expected benefits of the Pfam5000 strategy have not changed substantially. Solving the structures of proteins from the 5,000 largest Pfam families would allow accurate fold assignment for approximately 65 percent of all prokaryotic proteins (covering 54 percent of residues) and 63 percent of eukaryotic proteins (42 percent of residues). Fewer than 2,300 of the largest families on this list remain to be solved, making the project feasible in the next five years given the expected throughput to be achieved in the production phase of the Protein Structure Initiative.

  12. Advancing the sensitivity of selected reaction monitoring-based targeted quantitative proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Tujin; Su, Dian; Liu, Tao; Tang, Keqi; Camp, David G.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-04-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM)—also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)—has emerged as a promising high-throughput targeted protein quantification technology for candidate biomarker verification and systems biology applications. A major bottleneck for current SRM technology, however, is insufficient sensitivity for e.g., detecting low-abundance biomarkers likely present at the pg/mL to low ng/mL range in human blood plasma or serum, or extremely low-abundance signaling proteins in the cells or tissues. Herein we review recent advances in methods and technologies, including front-end immunoaffinity depletion, fractionation, selective enrichment of target proteins/peptides or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs), as well as advances in MS instrumentation, which have significantly enhanced the overall sensitivity of SRM assays and enabled the detection of low-abundance proteins at low to sub- ng/mL level in human blood plasma or serum. General perspectives on the potential of achieving sufficient sensitivity for detection of pg/mL level proteins in plasma are also discussed.

  13. Selective targeting of bioengineered platelets to prostate cancer vasculature: new paradigm for therapeutic modalities.

    PubMed

    Montecinos, Viviana P; Morales, Claudio H; Fischer, Thomas H; Burns, Sarah; San Francisco, Ignacio F; Godoy, Alejandro S; Smith, Gary J

    2015-07-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) provides palliation for most patients with advanced prostate cancer (CaP); however, greater than 80% subsequently fail ADT. ADT has been indicated to induce an acute but transient destabilization of the prostate vasculature in animal models and humans. Human re-hydrated lyophilized platelets (hRL-P) were investigated as a prototype for therapeutic agents designed to target selectively the tumour-associated vasculature in CaP. The ability of hRL-P to bind the perturbed endothelial cells was tested using thrombin- and ADP-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), as well as primary xenografts of human prostate tissue undergoing acute vascular involution in response to ADT. hRL-P adhered to activated HUVEC in a dose-responsive manner. Systemically administered hRL-P, and hRL-P loaded with super-paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, selectively targeted the ADT-damaged human microvasculature in primary xenografts of human prostate tissue. This study demonstrated that hRL-P pre-loaded with chemo-therapeutics or nanoparticles could provide a new paradigm for therapeutic modalities to prevent the rebound/increase in prostate vasculature after ADT, inhibiting the transition to castration-recurrent growth. PMID:25736582

  14. Stability of antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles in the endo-lysosomal nanoenvironment: Implications for non-invasive radiofrequency-based cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Mustafa; Corr, Stuart J.; Kaluarachchi, Warna D.; Massey, Katheryn L.; Briggs, Katrina; Zhu, Cihui; Cheney, Matthew A.; Wilson, Lon J.; Curley, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) electric fields as an energy source for thermal activation of nanoparticles within cancer cells could be a valuable addition to the emerging field of nano-mediated cancer therapies. Based on investigations of cell death through hyperthermia, and offering the ability for total body penetration by RF fields, this technique is thought to compliment and possibly out-perform existing nano-heat-treatments that utilize alternative heat production via optical or magnetic stimuli. However, it remains a challenge to understand fully the complex RF-nanoparticle-intracellular interactions before full system optimization can be engineered. Herein we have shown that liver cancer cells can selectively internalize antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) through receptor-mediated endocytosis, with the nanoparticles predominantly accumulating and aggregating within cytoplasmic endo-lysosomes. After exposure to an external RF field, non-aggregated AuNPs absorbed and dissipated energy as heat causing thermal damage to the targeted cancer cells. We also observed that RF absorption and heat dissipation is dependent on solubility of AuNPs in the colloid, which is pH dependent. Furthermore, by modulating endo-lysosomal pH it is possible to prevent intracellular AuNP aggregation and enhance thermal cytotoxicity in hepatocellular cancer cells. PMID:22349096

  15. Activation of mTOR controls the loss of TCR? in lupus T cells through HRES-1/Rab4-regulated lysosomal degradation

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, David R.; Telarico, Tiffany; Bonilla, Eduardo; Li, Qing; Banerjee, Sanjay; Middleton, Frank A.; Phillips, Paul E.; Crow, Mary K.; Oess, Stefanie; Muller-Esterl, Werner; Perl, Andras

    2008-01-01

    Persistent mitochondrial hyperpolarization (MHP) and enhanced calcium fluxing underlie aberrant T-cell activation and death pathway selection in systemic lupus erythematosus. Treatment with rapamycin, which effectively controls disease activity, normalizes CD3/CD28-induced calcium fluxing but fails to influence MHP, suggesting that altered calcium fluxing is downstream or independent of mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we show that activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is a sensor of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, is increased in lupus T cells. Activation of mTOR causes the over-expression of the Rab5A and HRES-1/Rab4 small GTPases that regulate endocytic recycling of surface receptors. Pull-down studies revealed a direct interaction of HRES-1/Rab4 with the T-cell receptor/CD3? chain (TCR?). Importantly, the deficiency of the TCR? chain and Lck and compensatory upregulation of the Fc? receptor type I ? chain (Fc?RI?) and Syk, which mediate enhanced calcium fluxing in lupus T cells, was reversed in patients treated with rapamcyin in vivo. Knockdown of HRES-1/Rab4 by siRNA and inhibitors of lysosomal function augmented TCR? protein levels. The results suggest that activation of mTOR causes the loss of TCR? in lupus T cells through HRES-1/Rab4-dependent lysosomal degradation. PMID:19201859

  16. Selection of flowing liquid lead target structural materials for accelerator driven transmutation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.J.; Buksa, J.J.

    1994-08-01

    The beam entry window and container for a liquid lead spallation target will be exposed to high fluxes of protons and neutrons that are both higher in magnitude and energy than have been experienced in proton accelerators and fission reactors, as well as in a corrosive environment. The structural material of the target should have a good compatibility with liquid lead, a sufficient mechanical strength at elevated temperatures, a good performance under an intense irradiation environment, and a low neutron absorption cross section; these factors have been used to rank the applicability of a wide range of materials for structural containment Nb-1Zr has been selected for use as the structural container for the LANL ABC/ATW molten lead target. Corrosion and mass transfer behavior for various candidate structural materials in liquid lead are reviewed, together with the beneficial effects of inhibitors and various coatings to protect substrate against liquid lead corrosion. Mechanical properties of some candidate materials at elevated temperatures and the property changes resulting from 800 MeV proton irradiation are also reviewed.

  17. Selective target inactivation rather than global metabolic dormancy causes antibiotic tolerance in uropathogens.

    PubMed

    Goneau, Lee W; Yeoh, Nigel S; MacDonald, Kyle W; Cadieux, Peter A; Burton, Jeremy P; Razvi, Hassan; Reid, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells represent a multidrug-tolerant (MDT), physiologically distinct subpopulation of bacteria. The ability of these organisms to survive lethal antibiotic doses raises concern over their potential role in chronic disease, such as recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI). Persistence is believed to be conveyed through global metabolic dormancy, which yields organisms unresponsive to external stimuli. However, recent studies have contested this stance. Here, various antibiotics that target different cellular processes were used to dissect the activity of transcription, translation, and peptidoglycan turnover in persister cells. Differential susceptibility patterns were found in type I and type II persisters, and responses differed between Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Escherichia coli uropathogens. Further, SOS-deficient strains were sensitized to ciprofloxacin, suggesting DNA gyrase activity in persisters and indicating the importance of active DNA repair systems for ciprofloxacin tolerance. These results indicate that global dormancy per se cannot sufficiently account for antibiotic tolerance. Rather, the activity of individual cellular processes dictates multidrug tolerance in an antibiotic-specific fashion. Furthermore, the susceptibility patterns of persisters depended on their mechanisms of onset, with subinhibitory antibiotic pretreatments selectively shutting down cognate targets and increasing the persister fraction against the same agent. Interestingly, antibiotics targeting transcription and translation enhanced persistence against multiple agents indirectly related to these processes. Conducting these assays with uropathogenic E. coli isolated from RUTI patients revealed an enriched persister fraction compared to organisms cleared with standard antibiotic therapy. This finding suggests that persister traits are either selected for during prolonged antibiotic treatment or initially contribute to therapy failure. PMID:24449771

  18. Recombinogenic Properties of Pyrococcus furiosus Strain COM1 Enable Rapid Selection of Targeted Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Joel; Stirrett, Karen; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Nixon, William; Scott, Robert A.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported the isolation of a mutant of Pyrococcus furiosus, COM1, that is naturally and efficiently competent for DNA uptake. While we do not know the exact nature of this mutation, the combined transformation and recombination frequencies of this strain allow marker replacement by direct selection using linear DNA. In testing the limits of its recombination efficiency, we discovered that marker replacement was possible with as few as 40 nucleotides of flanking homology to the target region. We utilized this ability to design a strategy for selection of constructed deletions using PCR products with subsequent excision, or “pop-out,” of the selected marker. We used this method to construct a “markerless” deletion of the trpAB locus in the GLW101 (COM1 ?pyrF) background to generate a strain (JFW02) that is a tight tryptophan auxotroph, providing a genetic background with two auxotrophic markers for further strain construction. The utility of trpAB as a selectable marker was demonstrated using prototrophic selection of plasmids and genomic DNA containing the wild-type trpAB alleles. A deletion of radB was also constructed that, surprisingly, had no obvious effect on either recombination or transformation, suggesting that its gene product is not involved in the COM1 phenotype. Attempts to construct a radA deletion mutation were unsuccessful, suggesting that this may be an essential gene. The ease and speed of this procedure will facilitate the construction of strains with multiple genetic changes and allow the construction of mutants with deletions of virtually any nonessential gene. PMID:22544252

  19. Selective killing of cancer cells by a small molecule targeting the stress response to ROS.

    PubMed

    Raj, Lakshmi; Ide, Takao; Gurkar, Aditi U; Foley, Michael; Schenone, Monica; Li, Xiaoyu; Tolliday, Nicola J; Golub, Todd R; Carr, Steven A; Shamji, Alykhan F; Stern, Andrew M; Mandinova, Anna; Schreiber, Stuart L; Lee, Sam W

    2011-07-14

    Malignant transformation, driven by gain-of-function mutations in oncogenes and loss-of-function mutations in tumour suppressor genes, results in cell deregulation that is frequently associated with enhanced cellular stress (for example, oxidative, replicative, metabolic and proteotoxic stress, and DNA damage). Adaptation to this stress phenotype is required for cancer cells to survive, and consequently cancer cells may become dependent upon non-oncogenes that do not ordinarily perform such a vital function in normal cells. Thus, targeting these non-oncogene dependencies in the context of a transformed genotype may result in a synthetic lethal interaction and the selective death of cancer cells. Here we used a cell-based small-molecule screening and quantitative proteomics approach that resulted in the unbiased identification of a small molecule that selectively kills cancer cells but not normal cells. Piperlongumine increases the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic cell death in both cancer cells and normal cells engineered to have a cancer genotype, irrespective of p53 status, but it has little effect on either rapidly or slowly dividing primary normal cells. Significant antitumour effects are observed in piperlongumine-treated mouse xenograft tumour models, with no apparent toxicity in normal mice. Moreover, piperlongumine potently inhibits the growth of spontaneously formed malignant breast tumours and their associated metastases in mice. Our results demonstrate the ability of a small molecule to induce apoptosis selectively in cells that have a cancer genotype, by targeting a non-oncogene co-dependency acquired through the expression of the cancer genotype in response to transformation-induced oxidative stress. PMID:21753854

  20. Inhibitors of membrane transport reduce lysosomal enzyme secretion from dogfish phagocytes and their killing of sea urchin eggs.

    PubMed

    Dunham, P; Arvan, P; Falkow, S; Hoffstein, S; Weissmann, G

    1979-04-01

    Blood phagocytes of the dogfish Mustelus canis attack oocytes of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata, first provoking a surrogate fertilization response and then killing the eggs. To test the hypothesis that secretion of lysosomal contents is critical in this model of phagocyte-mediated cell injury, we studied effects of agents that modify lysosomal enzyme secretion. Inhibitors of membrane transport (>0.1 mM) inhibited postphagocytic secretion of lysosomal beta-glucuronidase from dogfish phagocytes: phloretin > ethacrynate > furosemide > 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid > pyridoxal phosphate > ouabain. The same order of activity was found for inhibition by these agents of killing of Arbacia eggs by phagocytes. Cell activation (fertilization response) and cytotoxicity were quantitated both morphologically and by measurements of enzyme (beta-glucuronidase, catalase) release. The agents neither inhibited fertilization responses of eggs to calcium ionophore A23187 nor impaired their viability. Vital staining demonstrated that ethacrynate prevented phagocytes from degranulating upon contact with zymosan particles. The data not only suggest that agents primarily known for their capacity to inhibit membrane transport systems can inhibit lysosomal enzyme secretion from phagocytes but also support the hypothesis that secretion of lysosomal contents mediates activation and killing of target cells in phagocyte-mediated tissue injury. PMID:377288

  1. Hyperspectral band selection based on the aggregation of proximity measures for automated target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, John E.; Anderson, Derek T.; Samiappan, Sathish

    2014-06-01

    Band selection is an important unsolved challenge in hyperspectral image processing that has been used for dimensionality reduction and classification improvement. To date, numerous researchers have investigated the unsupervised selection of band groups using measures such as correlation and Kullback-Leibler divergence. However, no clear winner has emerged across data sets and detection tasks. Herein, we investigate the utility of aggregating different proximity measures for band group selection. Specifically, we employ the Choquet integral with respect to different measures (capacities) as it is able to yield a variety of aggregation functions like t-norms, t-conorms and averaging operators. We explore the utility of aggregation in the context of single band, single band group, band group dimensionality reduction and multiple band group combinations in conjunction with support vector machine (SVM) based classification. Our preliminary experiments indicate there is value in aggregating different proximity measures. In some instances an intersection operator works well while in other cases a union operator is best. As may be expected, this can, and does vary per detection task. We also see that depending on the difficulty of the target detection problem, different aggregation, band grouping and combination strategies prevail. Advantages of our approach include; flexibility, the aggregation operator can be learned, and the method can default to a single proximity measure if needed and result, in the worst case, in no performance loss. Experiments are performed on three hyperspectral benchmark data sets to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed concepts.

  2. Production impact of a targeted selective treatment system based on liveweight gain in a commercial flock.

    PubMed

    Busin, V; Kenyon, F; Parkin, T; McBean, D; Laing, N; Sargison, N D; Ellis, K

    2014-05-01

    The sustainability of sheep production is hindered by anthelmintic resistance. Options to slow down or prevent resistance have been widely studied but their application in the field is still limited. In this study, the practical application and effect of a targeted selective treatment (TST) approach for the treatment of parasitic gastroenteritis was investigated in lambs (n?=?385) over a 2 year period. At 14-day intervals during the grazing season, liveweight, breech soiling and anthelmintic treatments were individually recorded. Selection of lambs for anthelmintic treatment in the TST group was based on pre-calculated individual growth rates, with a matched cohort routinely treated (RT) with anthelmintic drug every 6 weeks. The adoption of a TST approach had no negative effect on the liveweight gains of the lambs, time to finishing or breech soiling measures compared to RT lambs; however a 50% decrease in anthelmintic treatment was observed in the TST group. The time to implement this system averaged 2?min per lamb. It is concluded that the TST could be suitable for commercial sheep farms, in association with automated weighing systems, potentially reducing selection for anthelmintic resistance, while having no negative effect on production. PMID:24685103

  3. Selective targeting of the conserved active site cysteine of Mycobacterium tuberculosis methionine aminopeptidase with electrophilic reagents.

    PubMed

    Reddi, Ravikumar; Arya, Tarun; Kishor, Chandan; Gumpena, Rajesh; Ganji, Roopa J; Bhukya, Supriya; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs) cleave initiator methionine from ~ 70% of the newly synthesized proteins in every living cell, and specific inhibition or knockdown of this function is detrimental. MetAPs are metalloenzymes, and are broadly classified into two subtypes, type I and type II. Bacteria contain only type I MetAPs, and the active site of these enzymes contains a conserved cysteine. By contrast, in type II enzymes the analogous position is occupied by a conserved glycine. Here, we report the reactivity of the active site cysteine in a type I MetAP, MetAP1c, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtMetAP1c) towards highly selective cysteine-specific reagents. The authenticity of selective modification of Cys105 of MtMetAP1c was established by using site-directed mutagenesis and crystal structure determination of covalent and noncovalent complexes. On the basis of these observations, we propose that metal ions in the active site assist in the covalent modification of Cys105 by orienting the reagents appropriately for a successful reaction. These studies establish, for the first time, that the conserved cysteine of type I MetAPs can be targeted for selective inhibition, and we believe that this chemistry can be exploited for further drug discovery efforts regarding microbial MetAPs. PMID:24841365

  4. Biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 subunit 1 (BLOS1) interacts with sorting nexin 2 and the endosomal sorting complex required for transport-I (ESCRT-I) component TSG101 to mediate the sorting of epidermal growth factor receptor into endosomal compartments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aili; He, Xin; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Lin; Woodman, Philip; Li, Wei

    2014-10-17

    Biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1) is a component of the molecular machinery required for the biogenesis of specialized organelles and lysosomal targeting of cargoes via the endosomal to lysosomal trafficking pathway. BLOS1, one subunit of BLOC-1, is implicated in lysosomal trafficking of membrane proteins. We found that the degradation and trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were delayed in BLOS1 knockdown cells, which were rescued through BLOS1 overexpression. A key feature to the delayed EGFR degradation is the accumulation of endolysosomes in BLOS1 knockdown cells or BLOS1 knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts. BLOS1 interacted with SNX2 (a retromer subunit) and TSG101 (an endosomal sorting complex required for transport subunit-I) to mediate EGFR lysosomal trafficking. These results suggest that coordination of the endolysosomal trafficking proteins is important for proper targeting of EGFR to lysosomes. PMID:25183008

  5. Lysosome dysfunction in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Surendran, Kameswaran; Vitiello, Seasson P; Pearce, David A

    2014-12-01

    The lysosome, an organelle central to macromolecule degradation and recycling, plays a pivotal role in normal cell processes, ranging from autophagy to redox regulation. Not surprisingly, lysosomes are an integral part of the renal epithelial molecular machinery that facilitates normal renal physiology. Two inherited diseases that manifest as kidney dysfunction are Fabry's disease and cystinosis, each of which is caused by a primary biochemical defect at the lysosome resulting from loss-of-function mutations in genes that encode lysosomal proteins. The functions of the lysosomes in the kidney and how lysosomal dysfunction might contribute to Fabry's disease and cystinosis are discussed. Unlike most other pediatric renal diseases, therapies are available for Fabry's disease and cystinosis, but require early diagnosis. Recent analysis of ceroid neuronal lipofuscinosis type 3 (Cln3) null mice, a mouse model of lysosomal disease that is primarily associated with neurological deficits, revealed renal functional abnormalities. As current and future therapeutics increase the life-span of those suffering from diseases like neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, it remains a distinct possibility that many more lysosomal disorders that primarily manifest as infant and juvenile neurodegenerative diseases may also include renal disease phenotypes. PMID:24217784

  6. Expanding Newborn Screening for Lysosomal Disorders: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Darrel J.; Tan, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS), since its implementation in the 1960s, has traditionally been successful in reducing mortality and disability in children with a range of different conditions. Lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) are a heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic diseases that result from lysosomal dysfunction. Based on available treatment and…

  7. LYSOSOMES IN THE RAT SCIATIC NERVE FOLLOWING CRUSH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERIC HOLTZMAN; ALEX B. NOVIKOFF

    1965-01-01

    Peripheral nerves undergoing degeneration are favorable material for studying the types, origins, and functions of lysosomes. The following lysosomes are described: (a) Autophagic vacuoles in altered Schwann cells. Within these vacuoles the myelin and much of the axo- plasm which it encloses in the normal nerve are degraded (Wallerian degeneration). The delimiting membranes of the vacuoles apparently form from myelin

  8. Enzyme replacement and enhancement therapies: lessons from lysosomal disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward H. Schuchman; Robert J. Desnick

    2002-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed remarkable advances in our ability to treat inherited metabolic disorders, especially the lysosomal storage diseases, a group of more than 40 disorders, each of which is caused by the deficiency of a lysosomal enzyme or protein. During the past few years, both enzyme replacement and enhancement therapies have been developed to treat these disorders. This

  9. Cold atmospheric plasma treatment selectively targets head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Ogawa, Takenori; Uemura, Mamoru; Shumulinsky, Gary; Valle, Blanca L; Pirini, Francesca; Ravi, Rajani; Sidransky, David; Keidar, Michael; Trink, Barry

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of locoregional recurrence (LRR) of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) often requires a combination of surgery, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Survival outcomes are poor and the treatment outcomes are morbid. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is an ionized gas produced at room temperature under laboratory conditions. We have previously demonstrated that treatment with a CAP jet device selectively targets cancer cells using in vitro melanoma and in vivo bladder cancer models. In the present study, we wished to examine CAP selectivity in HNSCC in vitro models, and to explore its potential for use as a minimally invasive surgical approach that allows for specific cancer cell or tumor tissue ablation without affecting the surrounding healthy cells and tissues. Four HNSCC cell lines (JHU-022, JHU-028, JHU-029, SCC25) and 2 normal oral cavity epithelial cell lines (OKF6 and NOKsi) were subjected to cold plasma treatment for durations of 10, 30 and 45 sec, and a helium flow of 20 l/min-1 for 10 sec was used as a positive treatment control. We showed that cold plasma selectively diminished HNSCC cell viability in a dose-response manner, as evidenced by MTT assays; the viability of the OKF6 cells was not affected by the cold plasma. The results of colony formation assays also revealed a cell-specific response to cold plasma application. Western blot analysis did not provide evidence that the cleavage of PARP occurred following cold plasma treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that cold plasma application selectively impairs HNSCC cell lines through non-apoptotic mechanisms, while having a minimal effect on normal oral cavity epithelial cell lines. PMID:25050490

  10. Targeting human T cells by retroviral vectors displaying antibody domains selected from a phage display library.

    PubMed

    Engelstädter, M; Bobkova, M; Baier, M; Stitz, J; Holtkamp, N; Chu, T H; Kurth, R; Dornburg, R; Buchholz, C J; Cichutek, K

    2000-01-20

    To generate T cell-specific retroviral vectors an scFv phage display library derived from immunized mice was selected for binding to the human T cell line Molt-4/8. The scFv cDNAs recovered from the selected phages were transiently expressed as an N-terminal fusion of the spleen necrosis virus (SNV) transmembrane protein (TM) subunit of the viral envelope protein (Env) in the cell line DSH-cxl, which packages the beta-galactosidase gene into SNV particles. Screening of supernatants from about 150 transfections resulted in the identification of 5 scFvs that mediated efficient transduction of Molt-4/8 cells. Using stable packaging cell lines vector preparations with titers greater than 10(4) EFU/ml on human T cells were obtained. The scFv 7A5 in particular was able to mediate selective transduction of human T cells with high efficiency. Titers of up to 106 EFU/ml were reached on Molt-4/8, Jurkat, and A301 cells, while titers on HeLa cells, TE671 cells, 293T cells, and HT1080 cells were below 102 EFU/ml. Transduction of stimulated primary human peripheral blood cells, which consisted mainly of T cells, was about fivefold more efficient than transduction of B cells. Western blot analysis of supernatant from the 7A5 packaging cells demonstrated incorporation of 7A5-TM into vector particles and indicated proteolytic processing of the coexpressed unmodified TM during particle formation. Binding of bacterially expressed 7A5-scFv to a panel of cell lines correlated well with the transduction results. These data provide the first proof of concept that a general approach can be taken to obtain scFvs able to mediate selective gene transfer into target cells. PMID:10680843

  11. Effective heritability of targets of sex-ratio selection under environmental sex determination.

    PubMed

    McGaugh, S E; Janzen, F J

    2011-04-01

    Selection is expected to maintain primary sex ratios at an evolutionary equilibrium. In organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), targets of sex-ratio selection include the thermal sensitivity of the sex-determining pathway (hereafter, sex determination threshold) and nest-site choice. However, offspring sex may be canalized for nests located in thermally extreme environments; thus, genetic variance for the sex determination threshold is not expressed and is invisible to direct selection. The concept of 'effective heritability' accounts for this dependence and provides a more realistic prediction of the expected evolutionary response to selection in the wild. Past estimates of effective heritability of the sex determination threshold, which were derived from laboratory data, suggested that the potential for the sex determination threshold to evolve in the wild was extremely low. We re-evaluated original estimates of this parameter by analysing field-collected measures of nest temperatures, vegetation cover and clutch sex ratios from nests in a population of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta). We coupled these data with measurements of broad-sense heritability of the sex determination threshold in C. picta, using an experiment that splits clutches of eggs between a constant temperature (i.e. typical laboratory incubation) and a daily fluctuating temperature (i.e. similar to natural nests) with the same mean. We found that (i) the effective heritability of the sex determination threshold appears to have been historically underestimated and the effective heritability of nest-site choice has been overestimated and (ii) significant family-by-incubation treatment interaction exists for sex for C. picta between constant- and fluctuating-temperature regimes. Our results suggest that the thermal sensitivity of the sex-determining pathway may play a larger, more complex role in the microevolution of TSD than traditionally thought. PMID:21261771

  12. Genetic Analysis of Lysosomal Trafficking in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Greg J.; Schroeder, Lena K.; Hieb, Caroline A.; Kershner, Aaron M.; Rabbitts, Beverley M.; Fonarev, Paul; Grant, Barth D.; Priess, James R.

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal cells of Caenorhabditis elegans embryos contain prominent, birefringent gut granules that we show are lysosome-related organelles. Gut granules are labeled by lysosomal markers, and their formation is disrupted in embryos depleted of AP-3 subunits, VPS-16, and VPS-41. We define a class of gut granule loss (glo) mutants that are defective in gut granule biogenesis. We show that the glo-1 gene encodes a predicted Rab GTPase that localizes to lysosome-related gut granules in the intestine and that glo-4 encodes a possible GLO-1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor. These and other glo genes are homologous to genes implicated in the biogenesis of specialized, lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes in mammals and pigment granules in Drosophila. The glo mutants thus provide a simple model system for the analysis of lysosome-related organelle biogenesis in animal cells. PMID:15843430

  13. Target selection for a hypervelocity asteroid intercept vehicle flight validation mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Sam; Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent W.

    2015-02-01

    Asteroids and comets have collided with the Earth in the past and will do so again in the future. Throughout Earth's history these collisions have played a significant role in shaping Earth's biological and geological histories. The planetary defense community has been examining a variety of options for mitigating the impact threat of asteroids and comets that approach or cross Earth's orbit, known as near-Earth objects (NEOs). This paper discusses the preliminary study results of selecting small (100-m class) NEO targets and mission analysis and design trade-offs for validating the effectiveness of a Hypervelocity Asteroid Intercept Vehicle (HAIV) concept, currently being investigated for a NIAC (NASA Advanced Innovative Concepts) Phase 2 study. In particular this paper will focus on the mission analysis and design for single spacecraft direct impact trajectories, as well as several mission types that enable a secondary rendezvous spacecraft to observe the HAIV impact and evaluate it's effectiveness.

  14. A structural genomics pilot project based on gene targets selected from Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaraman, J.; Li, Yunge; Plamondon, Josée; Larocque, Robert; Raymond, Stéphane; Sauvé, Véronique; Smith, Christopher; Boju, Lorena; Schrag, Joseph; Matte, Allan; Gaasterland, Terry; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2001-11-01

    A pilot project based on gene targets selected from the genome of E. coli has been initiated with 38 genes for initial cloning. Of these, 18 proteins have been purified to date and some crystals were obtained for twelve of them. Of these, four proteins yielded crystals diffracting to a sufficiently high resolution to warrant structural investigation. We have determined 3-D structures of three of these proteins using Se-Met labeling and MAD methods, while the structure of the fourth one was simultaneously determined by another group. To manage the parallel work on many proteins by several researchers it became necessary to create a searchable database containing the pertinent information about every stage of the work.

  15. Gene Therapy for Advanced Melanoma: Selective Targeting and Therapeutic Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Joana R.; Rafael, Diana F.; Wagner, Ernst; Besch, Robert; Ogris, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advances, the treatment of malignant melanoma still results in the relapse of the disease, and second line treatment mostly fails due to the occurrence of resistance. A wide range of mutations are known to prevent effective treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs. Hence, approaches with biopharmaceuticals including proteins, like antibodies or cytokines, are applied. As an alternative, regimens with therapeutically active nucleic acids offer the possibility for highly selective cancer treatment whilst avoiding unwanted and toxic side effects. This paper gives a brief introduction into the mechanism of this devastating disease, discusses the shortcoming of current therapy approaches, and pinpoints anchor points which could be harnessed for therapeutic intervention with nucleic acids. We bring the delivery of nucleic acid nanopharmaceutics into perspective as a novel antimelanoma therapeutic approach and discuss the possibilities for melanoma specific targeting. The latest reports on preclinical and already clinical application of nucleic acids in melanoma are discussed. PMID:23634303

  16. The granzyme B-Serpinb9 axis controls the fate of lymphocytes after lysosomal stress

    PubMed Central

    Bird, C H; Christensen, M E; Mangan, M S J; Prakash, M D; Sedelies, K A; Smyth, M J; Harper, I; Waterhouse, N J; Bird, P I

    2014-01-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes (CLs) contain lysosome-related organelles (LROs) that perform the normal degradative functions of the lysosome, in addition to storage and release of powerful cytotoxins employed to kill virally infected or abnormal cells. Among these cytotoxins is granzyme B (GrB), a protease that has also been implicated in activation (restimulation)-induced cell death of natural killer (NK) and T cells, but the underlying mechanism and its regulation are unclear. Here we show that restimulation of previously activated human or mouse lymphocytes induces lysosomal membrane permeabilisation (LMP), followed by GrB release from LROs into the CL cytosol. The model lysosomal stressors sphingosine and Leu-Leu-methyl-ester, and CLs from gene-targeted mice were used to show that LMP releases GrB in both a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and that the liberated GrB is responsible for cell death. The endogenous GrB inhibitor Serpinb9 (Sb9) protects CLs against LMP-induced death but is decreasingly effective as the extent of LMP increases. We also used these model stressors to show that GrB is the major effector of LMP-mediated death in T cells, but that in NK cells additional effectors are released, making GrB redundant. We found that limited LMP and GrB release occurs constitutively in proliferating lymphocytes and in NK cells engaged with targets in vitro. In Ectromelia virus-infected lymph nodes, working NK cells lacking Sb9 are more susceptible to GrB-mediated death. Taken together, these data show that a basal level of LMP occurs in proliferating and activated lymphocytes, and is increased on restimulation. LMP releases GrB from LROs into the lymphocyte cytoplasm and its ensuing interaction with Sb9 dictates whether or not the cell survives. The GrB-Sb9 nexus may therefore represent an additional mechanism of limiting lymphocyte lifespan and populations. PMID:24488096

  17. The granzyme B-Serpinb9 axis controls the fate of lymphocytes after lysosomal stress.

    PubMed

    Bird, C H; Christensen, M E; Mangan, M S J; Prakash, M D; Sedelies, K A; Smyth, M J; Harper, I; Waterhouse, N J; Bird, P I

    2014-06-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes (CLs) contain lysosome-related organelles (LROs) that perform the normal degradative functions of the lysosome, in addition to storage and release of powerful cytotoxins employed to kill virally infected or abnormal cells. Among these cytotoxins is granzyme B (GrB), a protease that has also been implicated in activation (restimulation)-induced cell death of natural killer (NK) and T cells, but the underlying mechanism and its regulation are unclear. Here we show that restimulation of previously activated human or mouse lymphocytes induces lysosomal membrane permeabilisation (LMP), followed by GrB release from LROs into the CL cytosol. The model lysosomal stressors sphingosine and Leu-Leu-methyl-ester, and CLs from gene-targeted mice were used to show that LMP releases GrB in both a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and that the liberated GrB is responsible for cell death. The endogenous GrB inhibitor Serpinb9 (Sb9) protects CLs against LMP-induced death but is decreasingly effective as the extent of LMP increases. We also used these model stressors to show that GrB is the major effector of LMP-mediated death in T cells, but that in NK cells additional effectors are released, making GrB redundant. We found that limited LMP and GrB release occurs constitutively in proliferating lymphocytes and in NK cells engaged with targets in vitro. In Ectromelia virus-infected lymph nodes, working NK cells lacking Sb9 are more susceptible to GrB-mediated death. Taken together, these data show that a basal level of LMP occurs in proliferating and activated lymphocytes, and is increased on restimulation. LMP releases GrB from LROs into the lymphocyte cytoplasm and its ensuing interaction with Sb9 dictates whether or not the cell survives. The GrB-Sb9 nexus may therefore represent an additional mechanism of limiting lymphocyte lifespan and populations. PMID:24488096

  18. Haptoglobin Genotype-dependent Differences in Macrophage Lysosomal Oxidative Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Asleh, Rabea; Ward, John; Levy, Nina S.; Safuri, Shady; Aronson, Doron; Levy, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    The major function of the Haptoglobin (Hp) protein is to control trafficking of extracorpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) thru the macrophage CD163 receptor with degradation of the Hb in the lysosome. There is a common copy number polymorphism in the Hp gene (Hp 2 allele) that has been associated with a severalfold increased incidence of atherothrombosis in multiple longitudinal studies. Increased plaque oxidation and apoptotic markers have been observed in Hp 2-2 atherosclerotic plaques, but the mechanism responsible for this finding has not been determined. We proposed that the increased oxidative injury in Hp 2-2 plaques is due to an impaired processing of Hp 2-2-Hb complexes within macrophage lysosomes, thereby resulting in redox active iron accumulation, lysosomal membrane oxidative injury, and macrophage apoptosis. We sought to test this hypothesis in vitro using purified Hp-Hb complex and cells genetically manipulated to express CD163. CD163-mediated endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of Hp-Hb were decreased for Hp 2-2-Hb complexes. Confocal microscopy using lysotropic pH indicator dyes demonstrated that uptake of Hp 2-2-Hb complexes disrupted the lysosomal pH gradient. Cellular fractionation studies of lysosomes isolated from macrophages incubated with Hp 2-2-Hb complexes demonstrated increased lysosomal membrane oxidation and a loss of lysosomal membrane integrity leading to lysosomal enzyme leakage into the cytoplasm. Additionally, markers of apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, and active caspase 3 were increased in macrophages that had endocytosed Hp 2-2-Hb complexes. These data provide novel mechanistic insights into how the Hp genotype regulates lysosomal oxidative stress within macrophages after receptor-mediated endocytosis of Hb. PMID:24778180

  19. Selective Targeting of the TPX2 Site of Importin-? Using Fragment-Based Ligand Design.

    PubMed

    Holvey, Rhian S; Valkov, Eugene; Neal, David; Stewart, Murray; Abell, Chris

    2015-07-01

    Protein-protein interactions are difficult therapeutic targets, and inhibiting pathologically relevant interactions without disrupting other essential ones presents an additional challenge. Herein we report how this might be achieved for the potential anticancer target, the TPX2-importin-? interaction. Importin-? is a nuclear transport protein that regulates the spindle assembly protein TPX2. It has two binding sites-major and minor-to which partners bind. Most nuclear transport cargoes use the major site, whereas TPX2 binds principally to the minor site. Fragment-based approaches were used to identify small molecules that bind importin-?, and crystallographic studies identified a lead series that was observed to bind specifically to the minor site, representing the first ligands specific for this site. Structure-guided synthesis informed the elaboration of these fragments to explore the source of ligand selectivity between the minor and major sites. These ligands are starting points for the development of inhibitors of this protein-protein interaction. PMID:25899172

  20. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? induces lysosomal biogenesis in brain cells: implications for lysosomal storage disorders.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arunava; Jana, Malabendu; Modi, Khushbu; Gonzalez, Frank J; Sims, Katherine B; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-04-17

    Lysosomes are ubiquitous membrane-enclosed organelles filled with an acidic interior and are central to the autophagic, endocytic, or phagocytic pathway. In contrast to its classical function as the waste management machinery, lysosomes are now considered to be an integral part of various cellular signaling processes. The diverse functionality of this single organelle requires a very complex and coordinated regulation of its activity with transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, at its core. However, mechanisms by which TFEB is regulated are poorly understood. This study demonstrates that gemfibrozil, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?, alone and in conjunction with all-trans-retinoic acid is capable of enhancing TFEB in brain cells. We also observed that PPAR?, but not PPAR? and PPAR?, is involved in gemfibrozil-mediated up-regulation of TFEB. Reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies confirmed the recruitment of retinoid X receptor ?, PPAR?, and PGC1? on the PPAR-binding site on the Tfeb promoter as well. Subsequently, the drug-mediated induction of TFEB caused an increase in lysosomal protein and the lysosomal abundance in cell. Collectively, this study reinforces the link between lysosomal biogenesis and lipid metabolism with TFEB at the crossroads. Furthermore, gemfibrozil may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders in which autophagy-lysosome pathway plays an important role. PMID:25750174

  1. PRESENILIN-NULL CELLS HAVE ALTERED TWO-PORE CALCIUM CHANNEL EXPRESSION AND LYSOSOMAL CALCIUM; IMPLICATIONS FOR LYSOSOMAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Kayala, Kara M Neely; Dickinson, George D; Minassian, Anet; Walls, Ken C; Green, Kim N; LaFerla, Frank M

    2012-01-01

    Presenilins are necessary for calcium homeostasis and also for efficient proteolysis through the autophagy/lysosome system. Presenilin regulates both endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores and autophagic proteolysis in a ?-secretase independent fashion. The endo-lysosome system can also act as a calcium store, with calcium efflux channels being recently identified as two-pore channels 1 and 2. Here we investigated lysosomal calcium content and the channels that mediate calcium release from these acidic stores in presenilin knockout cells. We report that presenilin loss leads to a lower total lysosomal calcium store despite the buildup of lysosomes found in these cells. Additionally, we find alterations in two-pore calcium channel protein expression, with loss of presenilin preventing the formation of a high molecular weight species of TPC1 and TPC2. Finally, we find that treatments that disturb lysosomal calcium release lead to a reduction in autophagy function yet lysosomal inhibitors do not alter two-pore calcium channel expression. These data indicate that alterations in lysosomal calcium in the absence of presenilins might be leading to disruptions in autophagy. PMID:23103503

  2. Presenilin-null cells have altered two-pore calcium channel expression and lysosomal calcium: implications for lysosomal function.

    PubMed

    Neely Kayala, Kara M; Dickinson, George D; Minassian, Anet; Walls, Ken C; Green, Kim N; Laferla, Frank M

    2012-12-13

    Presenilins are necessary for calcium homeostasis and also for efficient proteolysis through the autophagy/lysosome system. Presenilin regulates both endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores and autophagic proteolysis in a ?-secretase independent fashion. The endo-lysosome system can also act as a calcium store, with calcium efflux channels being recently identified as two-pore channels 1 and 2. Here we investigated lysosomal calcium content and the channels that mediate calcium release from these acidic stores in presenilin knockout cells. We report that presenilin loss leads to a lower total lysosomal calcium store despite the buildup of lysosomes found in these cells. Additionally, we find alterations in two-pore calcium channel protein expression, with loss of presenilin preventing the formation of a high molecular weight species of TPC1 and TPC2. Finally, we find that treatments that disturb lysosomal calcium release lead to a reduction in autophagy function yet lysosomal inhibitors do not alter two-pore calcium channel expression. These data indicate that alterations in lysosomal calcium in the absence of presenilins might be leading to disruptions in autophagy. PMID:23103503

  3. Optimal Decision Rules for Biomarker-Based Subgroup Selection for a Targeted Therapy in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Krisam, Johannes; Kieser, Meinhard

    2015-01-01

    Throughout recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing interest regarding the evaluation of so-called targeted therapies. These therapies are assumed to show a greater benefit in a pre-specified subgroup of patients—commonly identified by a predictive biomarker—as compared to the total patient population of interest. This situation has led to the necessity to develop biostatistical methods allowing an efficient evaluation of such treatments. Among others, adaptive enrichment designs have been proposed as a solution. These designs allow the selection of the most promising patient population based on an efficacy analysis at interim and restricting recruitment to these patients afterwards. As has recently been shown, the performance of the applied interim decision rule in such a design plays a crucial role in ensuring a successful trial. In this work, we investigate the situation when the primary outcome of the trial is a binary variable. Optimal decision rules are derived which incorporate the uncertainty about the treatment effects. These optimal decision rules are evaluated with respect to their performance in an adaptive enrichment design in terms of correct selection probability and power, and are compared to proposed ad hoc decision rules. Our methods are illustrated by means of a clinical trial example. PMID:25961947

  4. Selective ultrasound guided pectoral nerve targeting in breast augmentation: How to spare the brachial plexus cords?

    PubMed

    Desroches, Jean; Grabs, Ursula; Grabs, Detlev

    2013-01-01

    Subpectoral breast augmentation surgery under regional anesthesia requires the selective neural blockade of the medial and lateral pectoral nerves to diminish postoperative pain syndromes. The purpose of this cadaver study is to demonstrate a reliable ultrasound guided approach to selectively target the pectoral nerves and their branches while sparing the brachial plexus cords. After evaluating the position and appearance of the pectoral nerves in 25 cadavers (50 sides), a portable ultrasound machine was used to guide the injection of 10 ml of 0.2% aqueous methylene blue solution in the pectoral region on both sides of three Thiel's embalmed cadavers using a single entry point-triple injection technique. This technique uses a medial to lateral approach with the entry point just medial to the pectoral minor muscle and three subsequent infiltrations: (1) deep lateral part of the pectoralis minor muscle, (2) between the pectoralis minor and major muscles, and (3) between the pectoralis major muscle and its posterior fascia under ultrasound visualization. Dissection demonstrates that the medial and lateral pectoral nerves were well stained while leaving the brachial plexus cords unstained. We show that 10 ml of an injected solution is sufficient to stain all the medial and lateral pectoral nerve branches without a proximal extension to the cords of the brachial plexus. PMID:22730005

  5. Tumorigenic Polyploid Cells Contain Elevated ROS and are Selectively Targeted by Antioxidant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Meejeon; van der Meer, Riet; Abdulkadir, Sarki A.

    2011-01-01

    Polyploidy has been linked to tumorigenicity mainly due to the chromosomal aberrations. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, on the other hand, has also been associated with oncogenic transformation in most cancer cells. However, a possible link between ploidy and ROS is largely unexplored. Here we have exemined the role of ROS in the tumorigenicity of polyploid cells. We show that polyploid prostate and mammary epithelial cells contain higher levels of ROS due to their higher mitochondrial contents. ROS levels and mitochondrial mass are also higher in dihydrocytochalasin B (DCB)-induced polyploid cells, suggesting that higher levels of ROS observed in polyploid cell can occur due to cytokinesis failure. Interestingly, polyploid cells were more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of the antioxidant, N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), than control diploid cells. Treatment of polyploid/diploid cells with NAC led to the selective elimination of polyploid cells over time and abrogated the tumorigenicity of polyploid cells. This effect was partially mediated via the Akt signaling pathway. We next explored a possible role for ROS in promoting chromosomal instability by analyzing the effects of ROS on the mitotic stage of the cell cycle. Enhancing ROS levels by treating cells with hydrogen peroxide delayed not only entry into and but also exit from mitosis. Furthermore, increasing ROS levels significantly increased taxol resistance. Our results indicated that increased ROS in polyploid cells can contribute to tumorigenicity and highlight the therapeutic potential of antioxidants by selectively targeting the tumorigenic polyploid cells and by reversing taxol resistance. PMID:21503880

  6. Functionalizing Liposomes with anti-CD44 Aptamer for Selective Targeting of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Alshaer, Walhan; Hillaireau, Hervé; Vergnaud, Juliette; Ismail, Said; Fattal, Elias

    2015-07-15

    CD44 receptor protein is found to be overexpressed by many tumors and is identified as one of the most common cancer stem cell surface markers including tumors affecting colon, breast, pancreas, and head and neck, making this an attractive receptor for therapeutic targeting. In this study, 2'-F-pyrimidine-containing RNA aptamer (Apt1), previously selected against CD44, was successfully conjugated to the surface of PEGylated liposomes using the thiol-maleimide click reaction. The conjugation of Apt1 to the surface of liposomes was confirmed by the change in size and zeta potential and by migration on agarose gel electrophoresis. The binding affinity of Apt1 was improved after conjugation compared to free-Apt1. The cellular uptake for Apt1-Lip was tested by flow cytometry and confocal imaging using the two CD44(+) cell lines, human lung cancer cells (A549) and human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), and the CD44(-) cell line, mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (NIH/3T3). The results showed higher sensitivity and selectivity for Apt1-Lip compared to the blank liposomes (Mal-Lip). In conclusion, we demonstrate a successful conjugation of anti-CD44 aptamer to the surface of liposome and binding preference of Apt1-Lip to CD44-expressing cancer cells and conclude to a promising potency of Apt1-Lip as a specific drug delivery system. PMID:25343502

  7. Recruitment of OKM1 staining lymphocytes with selective binding to K-562 tumour targets by interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Salata, R A; Schacter, B Z; Ellner, J J

    1983-01-01

    Spontaneous cytotoxicity of human lymphocytes for tumours is increased by interferon (IFN) without change in the overall fraction of cells binding to targets. We developed an indirect immunofluorescent technique to stain lymphocytes conjugated to K-562 tumour cells in agarose with monoclonal antibodies. This allowed assessment of lymphocyte subpopulations binding to tumour cells without disruption of conjugates. Overall binding of non-adherent (NA) lymphocytes to tumour targets following incubation at 37 degrees C for 6 h was 13.3 +/- 0.3% compared to 12.5 +/- 0.7% with inclusion of IFN at 100 u/ml. When NA lymphocytes were incubated with K-562 tumour cells without IFN, OKM1 and OKT3 staining lymphocytes comprised 16.8 +/- 3.5% and 83.0 +/- 1.3% of the total lymphocyte population and 32.5 +/- 1.3% and 70.2 +/- 2.6% of lymphocytes conjugated to tumours. Incubation with IFN significantly increased OKM1 staining cells in the total NA population to 57.2 +/- 5.6% (P less than 0.01) and within tumour conjugates to 59.2 +/- 2.7% (P less than 0.01) while OKT3 staining cells decreased to 58.3 +/- 5.2% (P less than 0.02) and 45.3 +/- 1.2% (P less than 0.01), respectively. IFN increased cytotoxicity of NA cells for 51Cr-labelled K-562 by 66% at an effector to target ratio of 30:1 (P less than 0.001). These results demonstrate that OKM1 staining cells bind more avidly to tumour targets in the absence of IFN. IFN selectively increases the proportion of OKM1 staining lymphocytes with a concomitant increase in their binding to tumour cells. Therefore, enhancement of cytotoxicity by IFN in the NK system may result, in part, from conversion of OKT3 to OKM1 staining cells which are more efficient killers. PMID:6190593

  8. Proteasome Failure Promotes Positioning of Lysosomes around the Aggresome via Local Block of Microtubule-Dependent Transport

    PubMed Central

    Zaarur, Nava; Meriin, Anatoli B.; Bejarano, Eloy; Xu, Xiaobin; Gabai, Vladimir L.; Cuervo, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitinated proteins aggregate upon proteasome failure, and the aggregates are transported to the aggresome. In aggresomes, protein aggregates are actively degraded by the autophagy-lysosome pathway, but why targeting the aggresome promotes degradation of aggregated species is currently unknown. Here we report that the important factor in this process is clustering of lysosomes around the aggresome via a novel mechanism. Proteasome inhibition causes formation of a zone around the centrosome where microtubular transport of lysosomes is suppressed, resulting in their entrapment and accumulation. Microtubule-dependent transport of other organelles, including autophagosomes, mitochondria, and endosomes, is also blocked in this entrapment zone (E-zone), while movement of organelles at the cell periphery remains unaffected. Following the whole-genome small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen for proteins involved in aggresome formation, we defined the pathway that regulates formation of the E-zone, including the Stk11 protein kinase, the Usp9x deubiquitinating enzyme, and their substrate kinase MARK4. Therefore, upon proteasome failure, targeting of aggregated proteins of the aggresome is coordinated with lysosome positioning around this body to facilitate degradation of the abnormal species. PMID:24469403

  9. ATP-Competitive Inhibitors of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin: Design and Synthesis of Highly Potent and Selective Pyrazolopyrimidines

    SciTech Connect

    Zask, Arie; Verheijen, Jeroen C.; Curran, Kevin; Kaplan, Joshua; Richard, David J.; Nowak, Pawel; Malwitz, David J.; Brooijmans, Natasja; Bard, Joel; Svenson, Kristine; Lucas, Judy; Toral-Barza, Lourdes; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Hollander, Irwin; Gibbons, James J.; Abraham, Robert T.; Ayral-Kaloustian, Semiramis; Mansour, Tarek S.; Yu, Ker; (Wyeth)

    2009-09-18

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a central regulator of growth, survival, and metabolism, is a validated target for cancer therapy. Rapamycin and its analogues, allosteric inhibitors of mTOR, only partially inhibit one mTOR protein complex. ATP-competitive, global inhibitors of mTOR that have the potential for enhanced anticancer efficacy are described. Structural features leading to potency and selectivity were identified and refined leading to compounds with in vivo efficacy in tumor xenograft models.

  10. Investigating the target recognition of DNA cytosine-5 methyltransferase HhaI by library selection using in vitro compartmentalisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yin-Fai Lee; Dan S. Tawfik; Andrew D. Griffiths

    2002-01-01

    In vitro compartmentalisation (IVC), a technique for selecting genes encoding enzymes based on com- partmentalising gene translation and enzymatic reactions in emulsions, was used to investigate the interaction of the DNA cytosine-5 methyltransferase M.HhaI with its target DNA (5¢-GCGC-3¢). Crystallog- raphy shows that the active site loop from the large domain of M.HhaI interacts with a flipped-out cytosine (the target

  11. The unconventional myosin-VIIa associates with lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Lily E.; Warren, Carmen M.; Bucci, Cecilia; Orten, Dana J.; Hasson, Tama

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in the myosin-VIIa (MYO7a) gene cause human Usher disease, characterized by hearing impairment and progressive retinal degeneration. In the retina, myosin-VIIa is highly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium, where it plays a role in the positioning of melanosomes and other digestion organelles. Using a human cultured retinal pigmented epithelia cell line, ARPE-19, as a model system, we have found that a population of myosin-VIIa is associated with cathepsin D- and Rab7-positive lysosomes. Association of myosin-VIIa with lysosomes was Rab7 independent, as dominant negative and dominant active versions of Rab7 did not disrupt myosin-VIIa recruitment to lysosomes. Association of myosin-VIIa with lysosomes was also independent of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Myosin-VIIa copurified with lysosomes on density gradients, and fractionation and extraction experiments suggested that it was tightly associated with the lysosome surface. These studies suggest that myosin-VIIa is a lysosome motor. PMID:16001398

  12. Trafficking of sulfated glycoprotein-1 (prosaposin) to lysosomes or to the extracellular space in rat Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Igdoura, S A; Rasky, A; Morales, C R

    1996-03-01

    Sulfated glycoprotein-1 (prosaposin) exists in 2 forms: a 65kDa form targeted to lysosomes and a 70kDa form secreted extracellularly. In order to understand the sorting and targeting mechanisms of the two forms of SGP-1, we have compared their maturation, processing, and secretion in rat Sertoli cells in vivo. Metabolic labeling experiments in vivo demonstrated that the 65kDa form is synthesized first, then post-translationally modified to the 70kDa form of SGP-1. Subcellular fractionation of testicular homogenate was used to obtain Golgi fractions containing up to 50-fold enrichment in galactosyltransferase. Permeabilization of enriched Golgi fractions with saponin released the 70kDa form, but did not affect the 65kDa protein. While excess free mannose 6-phosphate did not release lysosomal SGP-1, it released the 35kDa cathepsin L from Golgi membranes. Using quantitative electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry, the lysosomal contents of SGP-1 were shown to increase significantly after the administration of tunicamycin in vivo. Therefore, the trafficking of the 65kDa form of SGP-1 to the lysosomes appears to be independent of the M6P-receptor pathway. The 70kDa form of SGP-1 was found to aggregate within perforated Golgi fractions in a process which depends on low pH and calcium ions. We conclude that the targeting of the 65kDa form of SGP-1 to the lysosomes involves an early association with Golgi membrane that is independent of mannose 6-phosphate receptors. PMID:8593668

  13. Saccadic Target Selection Deficits after Lateral Intraparietal Area Inactivation in Monkeys

    E-print Network

    Dominey, Peter F.

    or memorized targets, saccades to syn- chronous and asynchronous bilateral targets, and visual search in the presence of bilateral targets, and it increased search time for a contralateral target during serial visual search. In the latter task, the observed deficits might reflect either an ispilateral bias in saccadic

  14. Lysosomal and non-lysosomal peptidyl hydrolases of the bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale-Eccles, J D; Grab, D J

    1987-12-15

    African trypanosomes have thiol-dependent proteolytic activity that resembles some of the cathepsin-like activity found in mammalian lysosomes [Lonsdale-Eccles, J. D. & Mpimbaza, G. W. N. (1986) Eur. J. Biochem. 155, 469-473]. Here we show that this activity is found in lysosome-like organelles which we have isolated (density = 1.082 g/cm3 in Percoll) from bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei. They are approximately 250 nm in diameter, are bounded by a single limiting membrane, and contain acid phosphatase. The predominant proteolytic and peptidolytic activity of these organelles has a pH optimum about 6.0, exhibits latency, and has the characteristics of mammalian cathepsin L (and possibly cathepsin H) with respect to its hydrolysis of small fluorogenic peptidyl substrates such as benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanyl-arginyl-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin. This substrate appears to be a good marker for trypanosomal lysosomes. The cathepsin-L-like activity is inhibited by the thiol-protease inhibitors, E-64, cystatin, leupeptin and mercurial compounds. The proteolytic activity of the lysosome-like fraction is observed as a single band of activity with an approximate molecular mass of 27 kDa when measured after electrophoresis in the fibrinogen-containing sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels. The addition of mammalian serum to this purified fraction, or to whole trypanosome homogenates, results in the appearance of additional bands of activity, with a concomitant increase in the total observed proteolytic activity. The serum of some species of animal (e.g. goat and guinea pig) appear to lack the ability to generate this new and increased activity, while rat, rabbit, human and bovine sera exhibit varying capacities to generate the new activity, the cow being the most effective. The apparent molecular masses of the new bands of activity are different for each mammalian species, suggesting that the activator is a species-specific molecule or class of molecules. We also show that Trypanosoma brucei contains soluble peptidolytic activity with an alkaline pH optimum. It is inhibited by the serine-protease inhibitor diisopropylfluorophosphate, but not by inhibitors such as phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride, alpha 1-antitrypsin, or aprotinin. Nor is it inhibited by the thiol-protease-specific inhibitors E-64 or cystatin, although it is susceptible to inhibition by tosyllysylchloromethane, leupeptin, HgCl2 and p-chloromercuribenzoate. This enzymic activity has a preference for arginyl residues in the primary binding site (the P1 position), as also does the activity from the lysosomes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3319612

  15. Monitoring intracellular cavitation during selective targeting of the retinal pigment epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, Clemens; Pitsillides, Costas M.; Roegener, Jan; Lin, Charles P.

    2003-07-01

    PURPOSE Selective targeting of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE), by either applying trains of microsecond laser pulses or, in our approach, by repetitively scanning a tightly focused spot across the retina, achieves destruction of RPE cells while avoiding damage to the overlying photoreceptors. Both techniques have been demonstrated as attractive methods for the treatment of retinal diseases that are caused by a dysfunction of the RPE. Because the lesions are ophthalmoscopically invisible, an online control system that monitors cell death during irradiation is essential to ensure efficient and selective treatment in a clinical application. MATERIALS AND METHODS Bubble formation inside the RPE cells has been shown to be the cell damage mechanism for nano- and picosecond pulses. We built an optical system to investigate whether the same mechanism extends into the microsecond regime. The system detects changes in backscattered light of the irradiating beam during exposure. Samples of young bovine eyes were exposed in vitro using single pulses ranging from 3 ?s to 50 ?s. Using the viability assay calcein-AM the ED50 threshold for cell death was determined and compared to the threshold for bubble formation. We also set up a detection system on our slit lamp adapted scanning system in order to determine the feasibility of monitoring threshold RPE damage during selective laser treatment in vivo. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Intracellular cavitation was detected as a transient increase in backscattering signal, either of an external probe beam or of the irradiation beam itself. Monitoring with the irradiation beam is both simpler and more sensitive. We found the threshold for bubble formation to coincide with the threshold for cell damage for pulse durations up to 20 ?s, suggesting that cavitation is the main mechanism of cell damage. For pulse widths longer than 20 ?s, the cell damage mechanism appears to be increasingly thermal as the two thresholds diverge. We conclude that bubble detection can be used to monitor therapeutic endpoint for pulse durations up to 20 ?s (or equivalent dwell time in a scanning approach). We have integrated a detection module into our slit lamp adapted laser scanner in order to determine threshold RPE damage during selective laser treatment in vivo.

  16. Status of autophagy, lysosome activity and apoptosis during corpus luteum regression in cattle

    PubMed Central

    ABOELENAIN, Mansour; KAWAHARA, Manabu; BALBOULA, Ahmed Zaky; MONTASSER, Abd El-monem; ZAABEL, Samy Mowaed; OKUDA, Kiyoshi; TAKAHASHI, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Corpus luteum (CL) regression is required during the estrous cycle. During CL regression, luteal cells stop producing progesterone and are degraded by apoptosis. However, the detailed mechanism of CL regression in cattle has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate autophagy, lysosome activity, and apoptosis during CL regression in cattle. The expression of autophagy-related genes (LC3?, LC3?, Atg3, and Atg7) and the protein LC3-II was significantly higher in the late CL than in the mid CL. In addition, autophagy activity was significantly increased in the late CL. Moreover, gene expression of the autophagy inhibitor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was significantly lower in the late CL than in the mid CL. Lysosome activation and expression of cathepsin-related genes (CTSB, CTSD, and CTSZ) showed significant increases in the late CL and were associated with an increase in cathepsin B protein. In addition, mRNA expression and activity of caspase 3 (CASP3), an apoptotic enzyme, were significantly higher in the late CL than in the mid CL. These results suggest simultaneous upregulation of autophagy-related factors, lysosomal enzymes and apoptotic mediators, which are involved in regression of the bovine CL. PMID:25819401

  17. Actin-Dependent Propulsion of Endosomes and Lysosomes by Recruitment of N-Wasp?

    PubMed Central

    Taunton, Jack; Rowning, Brian A.; Coughlin, Margaret L.; Wu, Michael; Moon, Randall T.; Mitchison, Timothy J.; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the spatial and temporal control of actin assembly in living Xenopus eggs. Within minutes of egg activation, dynamic actin-rich comet tails appeared on a subset of cytoplasmic vesicles that were enriched in protein kinase C (PKC), causing the vesicles to move through the cytoplasm. Actin comet tail formation in vivo was stimulated by the PKC activator phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and this process could be reconstituted in a cell-free system. We used this system to define the characteristics that distinguish vesicles associated with actin comet tails from other vesicles in the extract. We found that the protein, N-WASP, was recruited to the surface of every vesicle associated with an actin comet tail, suggesting that vesicle movement results from actin assembly nucleated by the Arp2/3 complex, the immediate downstream target of N-WASP. The motile vesicles accumulated the dye acridine orange, a marker for endosomes and lysosomes. Furthermore, vesicles associated with actin comet tails had the morphological features of multivesicular endosomes as revealed by electron microscopy. Endosomes and lysosomes from mammalian cells preferentially nucleated actin assembly and moved in the Xenopus egg extract system. These results define endosomes and lysosomes as recruitment sites for the actin nucleation machinery and demonstrate that actin assembly contributes to organelle movement. Conversely, by nucleating actin assembly, intracellular membranes may contribute to the dynamic organization of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:10662777

  18. Automated selected reaction monitoring data analysis workflow for large-scale targeted proteomic studies.

    PubMed

    Surinova, Silvia; Hüttenhain, Ruth; Chang, Ching-Yun; Espona, Lucia; Vitek, Olga; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2013-08-01

    Targeted proteomics based on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry is commonly used for accurate and reproducible quantification of protein analytes in complex biological mixtures. Strictly hypothesis-driven, SRM assays quantify each targeted protein by collecting measurements on its peptide fragment ions, called transitions. To achieve sensitive and accurate quantitative results, experimental design and data analysis must consistently account for the variability of the quantified transitions. This consistency is especially important in large experiments, which increasingly require profiling up to hundreds of proteins over hundreds of samples. Here we describe a robust and automated workflow for the analysis of large quantitative SRM data sets that integrates data processing, statistical protein identification and quantification, and dissemination of the results. The integrated workflow combines three software tools: mProphet for peptide identification via probabilistic scoring; SRMstats for protein significance analysis with linear mixed-effect models; and PASSEL, a public repository for storage, retrieval and query of SRM data. The input requirements for the protocol are files with SRM traces in mzXML format, and a file with a list of transitions in a text tab-separated format. The protocol is especially suited for data with heavy isotope-labeled peptide internal standards. We demonstrate the protocol on a clinical data set in which the abundances of 35 biomarker candidates were profiled in 83 blood plasma samples of subjects with ovarian cancer or benign ovarian tumors. The time frame to realize the protocol is 1-2 weeks, depending on the number of replicates used in the experiment. PMID:23887179

  19. Lysosomal Trafficking of TGFBIp via Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-il; Maeng, Yong-Sun; Kim, Tae-im; Lee, Yangsin; Kim, Yong-Sun; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues and cell lines. Progressive accumulation of mutant TGFBIp is directly involved in the pathogenesis of TGFBI-linked corneal dystrophy. Recent studies reported that mutant TGFBIp accumulates in cells; however, the trafficking of TGFBIp is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated TGFBIp trafficking to determine the route of its internalization and secretion and to elucidate its roles in the pathogenesis of granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2). Our data indicate that newly synthesized TGFBIp was secreted via the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi-dependent secretory pathway, and this secretion was delayed in the corneal fibroblasts of patients with GCD2. We also found that TGFBIp was internalized by caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and the internalized TGFBIp accumulated after treatment with bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of lysosomal degradation. In addition, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibits the endocytosis of TGFBIp. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that TGFBIp interacted with integrin ?V?3. Moreover, treatment with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide suppressed the internalization of TGFBIp. These insights on TGFBIp trafficking could lead to the identification of novel targets and the development of new therapies for TGFBI-linked corneal dystrophy. PMID:25853243

  20. Selected protein monitoring in histological sections by targeted MALDI-FTICR in-source decay imaging.

    PubMed

    Calligaris, David; Longuespée, Rémi; Debois, Delphine; Asakawa, Daiki; Turtoi, Andrei; Castronovo, Vincent; Noël, Agnès; Bertrand, Virginie; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire; De Pauw, Edwin

    2013-02-19

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) is a rapidly growing method in biomedical research allowing molecular mapping of proteins on histological sections. The images can be analyzed in terms of spectral pattern to define regions of interest. However, the identification and the differential quantitative analysis of proteins require off line or in situ proteomic methods using enzymatic digestion. The rapid identification of biomarkers holds great promise for diagnostic research, but the major obstacle is the absence of a rapid and direct method to detect and identify with a sufficient dynamic range a set of specific biomarkers. In the current work, we present a proof of concept for a method allowing one to identify simultaneously a set of selected biomarkers on histological slices with minimal sample treatment using in-source decay (ISD) MSI and MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR). In the proposed method, known biomarkers are spotted next to the tissue of interest, the whole MALDI plate being coated with 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (1,5-DAN) matrix. The latter enhances MALDI radical-induced ISD, providing large tags of the amino acid sequences. Comparative analysis of ISD fragments between the reference spots and the specimen in imaging mode allows for unambiguous identification of the selected biomarker while preserving full spatial resolution. Moreover, the high resolution/high mass accuracy provided by FTICR mass spectrometry allows the identification of proteins. Well-resolved peaks and precise measurements of masses and mass differences allow the construction of reliable sequence tags for protein identification. The method will allow the use of MALDI-FTICR MSI as a method for rapid targeted biomarker detection in complement to classical histology. PMID:23323725

  1. Trans genomic capture and sequencing of primate exomes reveals new targets of positive selection.

    PubMed

    George, Renee D; McVicker, Graham; Diederich, Rachel; Ng, Sarah B; MacKenzie, Alexandra P; Swanson, Willie J; Shendure, Jay; Thomas, James H

    2011-10-01

    Comparison of protein-coding DNA sequences from diverse primates can provide insight into these species' evolutionary history and uncover the molecular basis for their phenotypic differences. Currently, the number of available primate reference genomes limits these genome-wide comparisons. Here we use targeted capture methods designed for human to sequence the protein-coding regions, or exomes, of four non-human primate species (three Old World monkeys and one New World monkey). Despite average sequence divergence of up to 4% from the human sequence probes, we are able to capture ~96% of coding sequences. Using a combination of mapping and assembly techniques, we generated high-quality full-length coding sequences for each species. Both the number of nucleotide differences and the distribution of insertion and deletion (indel) lengths indicate that the quality of the assembled sequences is very high and exceeds that of most reference genomes. Using this expanded set of primate coding sequences, we performed a genome-wide scan for genes experiencing positive selection and identified a novel class of adaptively evolving genes involved in the conversion of epithelial cells in skin, hair, and nails to keratin. Interestingly, the genes we identify under positive selection also exhibit significantly increased allele frequency differences among human populations, suggesting that they play a role in both recent and long-term adaptation. We also identify several genes that have been lost on specific primate lineages, which illustrate the broad utility of this data set for other evolutionary analyses. These results demonstrate the power of second-generation sequencing in comparative genomics and greatly expand the repertoire of available primate coding sequences. PMID:21795384

  2. Selective Targeting of the Cysteine Proteome by Thioredoxin and Glutathione Redox Systems

    PubMed Central

    Go, Young-Mi; Roede, James R.; Walker, Douglas I.; Duong, Duc M.; Seyfried, Nicholas T.; Orr, Michael; Liang, Yongliang; Pennell, Kurt D.; Jones, Dean P.

    2013-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) and GSH are the major thiol antioxidants protecting cells from oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. Redox states of Trx and GSH have been used as indicators of oxidative stress. Accumulating studies suggest that Trx and GSH redox systems regulate cell signaling and metabolic pathways differently and independently during diverse stressful conditions. In the current study, we used a mass spectrometry-based redox proteomics approach to test responses of the cysteine (Cys) proteome to selective disruption of the Trx- and GSH-dependent systems. Auranofin (ARF) was used to inhibit Trx reductase without detectable oxidation of the GSH/GSSG couple, and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) was used to deplete GSH without detectable oxidation of Trx1. Results for 606 Cys-containing peptides (peptidyl Cys) showed that 36% were oxidized more than 1.3-fold by ARF, whereas BSO-induced oxidation of peptidyl Cys was only 10%. Mean fold oxidation of these peptides was also higher by ARF than BSO treatment. Analysis of potential functional pathways showed that ARF oxidized peptides associated with glycolysis, cytoskeleton remodeling, translation and cell adhesion. Of 60 peptidyl Cys oxidized due to depletion of GSH, 41 were also oxidized by ARF and included proteins of translation and cell adhesion but not glycolysis or cytoskeletal remodeling. Studies to test functional correlates showed that pyruvate kinase activity and lactate levels were decreased with ARF but not BSO, confirming the effects on glycolysis-associated proteins are sensitive to oxidation by ARF. These data show that the Trx system regulates a broader range of proteins than the GSH system, support distinct function of Trx and GSH in cellular redox control, and show for the first time in mammalian cells selective targeting peptidyl Cys and biological pathways due to deficient function of the Trx system. PMID:23946468

  3. Screening method using selected reaction monitoring for targeted proteomics studies of nasal lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Mörtstedt, Harriet; Kåredal, Monica H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lindh, Christian H

    2013-01-01

    Proteomic-based studies of nasal lavage fluid (NLF) may identify molecular pathways associated with disease pathology and new biomarker candidates of upper airway diseases. However, most studies have used rather tedious untargeted MS techniques. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is a sensitive and specific technique that can be used with high throughput. In this study, we developed a semiquantitative SRM-based method targeting 244 NLF proteins. The protein set was identified through a literature study in combination with untargeted LC-MS/MS analyses of trypsin-digested NLF samples. The SRM assays were designed using MS/MS data either downloaded from a proteomic data repository or experimentally obtained. Each protein is represented by one to five peptides, resulting in 708 SRM assays. Three to four transitions per assay were used to ensure analyte specificity. The majority (69%) of the assays showed good within-day precision (coefficient of variation ? 20%). The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analyzing four samples prepared with varying amounts of four proteins. Peptide and protein ratios were in good agreement with expected ratios. In conclusion, a high throughput screening method for relative quantification of 244 NLF proteins was developed. The method should be of general use in any proteomic study of the upper airways. PMID:23214469

  4. Selective induction of oxidative stress in cancer cells via synergistic combinations of agents targeting redox homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Akladios, Fady N; Andrew, Scott D; Parkinson, Christopher J

    2015-07-01

    Cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy is still a heavy burden that impairs the response of many cancer patients to conventional chemotherapy. Using drug combinations is one therapeutic approach to overcome the developing resistance to any one drug. Oxidative stress is now a generally regarded hallmark of cancer that can be one approach to selectively target cancer cells while sparing normal cells. With the aim of increasing oxidative stress in cancer cells to a lethal set point, we have generated and combined several series of redox active compounds that act at different points of the cellular oxidative cascade. The premise of such combinations is to deplete of endogenous antioxidant defence proteins (e.g., Glutathione) while concomitantly increasing the generation of ROS via metal redox recycling and Fenton chemistry which eventually leads to the disruption of cellular redox homeostasis and induction of cell death. Through this approach, we have identified highly synergistic combinations of two distinctive classes of compounds (Azines and Copper(II) complexes of 2-pyridyl ketone thiosemicarbazones) which are capable of eliminating cancer cells without concomitant increase in toxicity toward normal cells. In one of our most potent combinations, a combination index (CI) value of 0.056 was observed, representing a 17 fold enhancement in activity beyond additive effects. Such new combination regimen of redox active compounds can be one step closer to potentially safer low dose chemotherapy. PMID:26022081

  5. SEGUE Target Selection, Kinematics and Distribution of Blue Horizontal Branch Stars in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevils, G. K.; Newberg, H. N.; Allende Prieto, C.; Beers, T. B.; Lee, Y. L.; Sivarani, T.; Wilhelm, R. W.; Yanny, B. Y.

    2005-12-01

    Using a sample of 654 objects selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SEGUE) plates, we evaluated and adjusted the SDSS target algorithm for Blue Horizontal Branch (BHB) stars. We then tested the spectroscopically determined surface gravity for these stars against the Lenz et al. 1998 photometric ``v-parameter" = 0.283(u-g) - 0.354(g-r) + 0.455(r-i) + 0.766(i-z). Spectroscopic and photometric determinations of the surface gravity agreed within 0.35 dex. Using surface gravity and g-r color, we estimated the distance from the center of the Galaxy and the height off of the Galactic plane for each star. We compare the galactocentric radial velocities of our star sample with known radial velocity models of the Galactic Halo. The 76 objects located at galactic latitudes (b) of -20° and galactic longitude (l) of 110° match in coordinates, distance from the Sun and radial velocity the model of the Monoceros tidal stream. G.K.N. was supported by an REU program at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, NSF grant PHYS 04-53231. H.J.N and G.K.N. acknowledge support from NSF grant AST 03-07571. T.C.B., S.T., and Y.L. acknowledge support from NSF grant AST 04-06784, as well as from NSF grant PHY 02-16783, Physics Frontier Center/Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA).

  6. Golgi Phosphoprotein 4 (GPP130) is a Sensitive and Selective Cellular Target of Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Melisa; Braun-sommargren, Michelle; Crooks, Dan; Smith, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic elevated exposure to manganese (Mn) is associated with neurocognitive and fine motor deficits in children. However, relatively little is understood about cellular responses to Mn spanning the transition between physiologic to toxic levels of exposure. Here, we investigated the specificity, sensitivity, and time course of the Golgi Phosphoprotein 4 (GPP130) response to Mn exposure in AF5 GABAergic neuronal cells, and we determined the extent to which GPP130 degradation occurs in brain cells in vivo in rats subchronically exposed to Mn. Our results show that GPP130 degradation in AF5 cells was specific to Mn, and did not occur following exposure to cobalt, copper, iron, nickel, or zinc. GPP130 degradation occurred without measurable increases in intracellular Mn levels and at Mn exposures as low as 0.54 µM. GPP130 protein was detectable by immunofluorescence in only ~15–30% of cells in striatal and cortical rat brain slices, and Mn-exposed animals exhibited a significant reduction in both the number of GPP130-positive cells, and the overall levels of GPP130 protein, demonstrating the in vivo relevance of this Mn-specific response within the primary target organ of Mn toxicity. These results provide insight into specific mechanism(s) of cellular Mn regulation and toxicity within the brain, including the selective susceptibility of cells to Mn cytotoxicity. PMID:23280773

  7. TFEB activation promotes the recruitment of lysosomal glycohydrolases ?-hexosaminidase and ?-galactosidase to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Magini, Alessandro; Polchi, Alice; Urbanelli, Lorena; Cesselli, Daniela; Beltrami, Antonio; Tancini, Brunella; Emiliani, Carla

    2013-10-18

    Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed organelles containing acid hydrolases. They mediate a variety of physiological processes, such as cellular clearance, lipid homeostasis, energy metabolism and pathogen defence. Lysosomes can secrete their content through a process called lysosome exocytosis in which lysosomes fuse with the plasma membrane realising their content into the extracellular milieu. Lysosomal exocytosis is not only responsible for the secretion of lysosomal enzymes, but it also has a crucial role in the plasma membrane repair. Recently, it has been demonstrated that lysosome response to the physiologic signals is regulated by the transcription factor EB (TFEB). In particular, lysosomal secretion is transcriptionally regulated by TFEB which induces both the docking and fusion of lysosomes with the plasma membrane. In this work we demonstrated that TFEB nuclear translocation is accompanied by an increase of mature glycohydrolases ?-hexosaminidase and ?-galactosidase on cell surface. This evidence contributes to elucidate an unknown TFEB biological function leading the lysosomal glycohydrolases on plasma membrane. PMID:24055709

  8. Genomic targeting with a positive-selection lox integration vector allows highly reproducible gene expression in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushige, S; Sauer, B

    1992-01-01

    Stable transformants of mammalian cells from gene transfer often show extreme variability in expression of the introduced transgene. This occurs from the highly variable number of copies integrated into the genome and from position effects on gene expression due to random integration. We have eliminated both of these constraints on predictable gene expression by use of a lox recombination vector. The positive selection vector system is designed to directly select Cre-mediated DNA integration at a lox target previously placed into the genome of cultured mammalian cells. Proper targeting activates expression of a defective lox-neomycin phosphotransferase (neo) fusion gene target. With CHO cell lines containing this target, almost all of the selected transformants (54 of 56 independent G418-resistant colonies) were simple single-copy integrants of the targeting DNA. To monitor gene expression at a single chromosomal site, we used a beta-actin promoter-lacZ reporter construct. Independent G418-resistant colonies from site-specific integration of the reporter gene all showed nearly identical levels of beta-galactosidase activity when the reporter construct integrated at a particular chromosomal position. The same construct integrated at a second chromosomal position exhibited a slightly different level of activity, characteristic of that second position. These results show that Cre-mediated site-specific integration can facilitate the construction of isogenic cell lines and thereby permit reproducible gene expression in stably transformed cell lines. Images PMID:1518811

  9. Flow cytometry-based functional selection of RNA interference triggers for efficient epi-allelic analysis of therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The dose-response relationship is a fundamental pharmacological parameter necessary to determine therapeutic thresholds. Epi-allelic hypomorphic analysis using RNA interference (RNAi) can similarly correlate target gene dosage with cellular phenotypes. This however requires a set of RNAi triggers empirically determined to attenuate target gene expression to different levels. Results In order to improve our ability to incorporate epi-allelic analysis into target validation studies, we developed a novel flow cytometry-based functional screening approach (CellSelectRNAi) to achieve unbiased selection of shRNAs from high-coverage libraries that knockdown target gene expression to predetermined levels. Employing a Gaussian probability model we calculated that knockdown efficiency is inferred from shRNA sequence frequency profiles derived from sorted hypomorphic cell populations. We used this approach to generate a hypomorphic epi-allelic cell series of shRNAs to reveal a functional threshold for the tumor suppressor p53 in normal and transformed cells. Conclusion The unbiased CellSelectRNAi flow cytometry-based functional screening approach readily provides an epi-allelic series of shRNAs for graded reduction of target gene expression and improved phenotypic validation. PMID:24952598

  10. Abstract--Our sensor selection algorithm targets the problem of global self-localization of multi-sensor mobile

    E-print Network

    Koschan, Andreas

    Abstract--Our sensor selection algorithm targets the problem of global self-localization of multi-sensor mobile robots. The algorithm builds on the probabilistic reasoning using Bayes filters to estimate sensor measurement uncertainty and sensor validity in robot localization. For quantifying measurement uncertainty we

  11. Reward has a residual impact on target selection in visual search, but not on the suppression of distractors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clayton Hickey; Leonardo Chelazzi; Jan Theeuwes

    2011-01-01

    In the reinforcement learning literature, good outcome following selection of a visual object is thought to bias perception and attention in favour of similar objects in later experience. This impact of reward might be instantiated in two ways: Reward could prime target features or it could act to facilitate suppression of distractors present when reward was received. Here we report

  12. Staurosporine tethered peptide ligands that target cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA): Optimization and selectivity profiling

    E-print Network

    Ghosh, Indraneel

    recently developed a fragment based selection strategy for targeting kinases, where a small mol- ecule warhead can be non-covalently tethered to a phage-displayed library of peptides. This approach was applied small molecule warheads in lieu of staurosporine could achieve similar gains in affin- ity; and (d

  13. Selective Modification of HK Peptides Enhances siRNA Silencing of Tumor Targets In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Szu-Ting; Leng, Qixin; Scaria, Puthupparampil; Woodle, Martin; Mixson, A. James

    2011-01-01

    Our research has focused on systemic delivery of small interference RNA (siRNA) by branched peptides composed of histidine and lysine, called HK peptides. After studying several HK peptides, one four-branched peptide, H3K(+H)4b, with a predominant repeating pattern of -HHHK-, was found to be an effective carrier of siRNA. Although the unmodified H3K(+H)4b carrier of siRNA targeting an oncogene was previously shown to have promise in a tumor-bearing mouse model, we sought to develop a more effective HK carrier of siRNA in the current study. Our primary goal was to determine whether different ligand (cyclic RGD)-pegylation patterns on the H3K(+H)4b peptide affect siRNA delivery in vitro and in vivo. We compared the unmodified H3K(+H)4b with two modified H3K(+H)4b peptides for their ability to deliver siRNA in a tumor-bearing mouse model; one modified HK peptide, (RGD-PEG)4-H3K(+H)4b, had four cRGD-PEG conjugated to each molecule, while the other peptide, (RGD-PEG)-H3K(+H)4b, had one cRGD-PEG per molecule. Although the modified HK peptides by themselves did not form stable nanoplexes with siRNA, combination of a highly charged unmodified HK peptide, H2K4b, with either of the modified HK peptides did form stable siRNA nanoparticles. For in vitro experiments with MDA-MB-435 cells that expressed luciferase, the H3K(+H)4b siRNA nanoplexes targeting luciferase decreased its activity by 90% compared with negligible down-regulation by the modified H3K(+H)4b nanoplexes (P<0.01). In contrast, the two modified H3K(+H)4b siRNA nanoplexes administered intravenously were more effective than the H3K(+H)4b nanoplexes in silencing luciferase in a tumor xenograft model. The luciferase activity in tumor lysates of mice administered H3K(+H)4b, (RGD-PEG)-H3K(+H)4b, and (RGD-PEG)4-H3K(+H)4b nanoplexes decreased by 18%, 35%, and 75%, respectively. Thus, the siRNA nanoplex incorporating the highly modified peptide, (RGD-PEG)4-H3K(+H)4b, was the most effective at silencing its target in vivo (P<0.01). These studies demonstrate that selectively modified HK polymers are promising candidates for targeting oncogenes with siRNA. PMID:21818135

  14. Lysosome and Phagosome Stability in Lethal Cell Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Hal K.; Ericsson, Jan L. E.; Biberfeld, Peter; Trump, Benjamin F.

    1972-01-01

    In two types of cell injury in a tissue culture system, the possibility was tested that lysosome rupture may be a lethal cellular reaction to injury, and thus an important general cause of irreversibility of damage in injured tissue. Prior labeling of secondary lysosomes with the fluorochrome acridine orange, or with ferritin, was used to trace changes in lysosomes after applying an injury. The metabolic inhibitors iodoacetate and cyanide were used together to block the cell's energy supply, or attachment of antiserum and subsequent complement attack were used to damage the surface membrane, producing rapid loss of cell volume control. Living cells were studied by time-lapse phase-contrast cinemicrography and fluorescence microscopy, and samples were fixed at intervals for electron microscopy. The cytolytic action of complement was lethal to sensitized cells within 2 hours, but results showed that lysosomes did not rupture for approximately 4 hours and in fact did not release the fluorescent dye until after reaching the postmortem necrotic phase of injury. Cells treated with metabolic inhibitors also showed irreversible alterations, while lysosomes remained intact and retained the ferritin marker. The fluorochrome marker, acridine orange, escaped from lysosomes early after metabolic injury, but the significance of this observation is not clear. The results are interpreted as evidence against the concept that lysosome rupture threatens the survival of injured cells. The original suicide bag mechanism of cell damage thus is apparently not operative in the systems studied. Lysosomes appear to be relatively stable organelles which, following injury of the types studied, burst only after cell death, acting then as scavengers which help to clear cellular debris. ImagesFigs 5-7Fig 18Fig 19Fig 20Figs 21-23Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Figs 24-27Fig 12Figs 13 and 14Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 15Fig 16Fig 17 PMID:4340333

  15. Aging: central role for autophagy and the lysosomal degradative system.

    PubMed

    Rajawat, Yogendra S; Hilioti, Zoe; Bossis, Ioannis

    2009-07-01

    The lysosomal network is the major intracellular proteolytic system accounting for more than 98% of long-lived bulk protein degradation and recycling particularly in tissues such as liver and muscles. Lysosomes are the final destination of intracellular damaged structures, identified and sequestered by the processes of macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). In the process of macroautophagy, long-lived proteins and other macromolecular aggregates and damaged intracellular organelles are first engulfed by autophagosomes. Autophagosomes themselves have limited degrading capacity and rely on fusion with lysosomes. Unlike macroautophagy, CMA does not require intermediate vesicle formation and the cytosolic proteins recognized by this pathway are directly translocated to the lysosomal membrane. Aging is a universal phenomenon characterized by progressive deterioration of cells and organs due to accumulation of macromolecular and organelle damage. The continuous removal of worn-out components and replacement with newly synthesized ones ensures cellular homeostasis and delays the aging process. Growing evidence indicate that the rate of autophagosome formation and maturation and the efficiency of autophagosome/lysosome fusion decline with age. In addition, a progressive increase in intralysosomal concentration of free radicals and the age pigment lipofuscin further diminish the efficiency of lysosomal protein degradation. Therefore, integrity of the autophagosomal-lysosomal network appears to be critical in the progression of aging. Discovery of the genes involved in the process of autophagy has provided insight into the various molecular pathways that may be involved in aging and senescence. In this review, we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy and the role of autophagosome/lysosome network in the aging process. PMID:19427410

  16. Biomimetic race model of the loop between the superior colliculus and the basal ganglia: Subcortical selection of saccade targets.

    PubMed

    Thurat, Charles; N'Guyen, Steve; Girard, Benoît

    2015-07-01

    The superior colliculus, a laminar structure involved in the retinotopic mapping of the visual field, plays a cardinal role in several cortical and subcortical pathways of the saccadic system. Although the selection of saccade targets has long been thought to be mainly the product of cortical processes, a growing body of evidence hints at the implication of the superior colliculus in selection processes independent from cortical inputs, capable of producing saccades at latencies incompatible with the cortical pathways. This selection ability could be produced firstly by the lateral connections between the neurons of its maps, and secondly by its interactions with the midbrain basal ganglia, already renowned for their role in decision making. We propose a biomimetic population-coded race model of selection based on a dynamic tecto-basal loop that reproduces the observed ability of the superior colliculus to stochastically select between similar stimuli. Our model's selection accuracy depends on the discriminability of the target and the distractors. Our model also offers an explanation for the phenomenon of Remote Distractor Effect based on the lateral connectivity within the basal ganglia circuitry rather than on lateral inhibitions within the collicular maps. Finally, we propose a role for the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus, as stochastic integrators dynamically gated by the selective disinhibition of the basal ganglia channels that is consistent with the recorded activity profiles of these neurons. PMID:25884111

  17. Modulation of the in vitro activity of lysosomal phospholipase A1 by membrane lipids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jocelyne Piret; Andr ´ e Schanck; Sylvie Delfosse; Françoise Van Bambeke; Bellamkonda K. Kishore; Paul M. Tulkens; Marie-Paule Mingeot-Leclercq

    2005-01-01

    Lysosomal phospholipases play a critical role for degradation of cellular membranes after their lysosomal segregation. We investigated the regulation of lysosomal phospholipase A1 by cholesterol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and negatively-charged lipids in correlation with changes of biophysical properties of the membranes induced by these lipids.Lysosomal phospholipase A1 activity was determined towards phosphatidylcholine included in liposomes of variable composition using a whole-soluble lysosomal

  18. Direct selection of targeted adenovirus vectors by random peptide display on the fiber knob

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Miura; K Yoshida; T Nishimoto; K Hatanaka; S Ohnami; M Asaka; J T Douglas; D T Curiel; T Yoshida; K Aoki

    2007-01-01

    Targeting of gene transfer at the level of cell entry is one of the most attractive challenges in vector development. However, attempts to redirect adenovirus vectors to alternative receptors by engineering the capsid-coding region have shown limited success because proper targeting ligand–receptor systems on the cells of interest are generally unknown. Systematic approaches to generate adenovirus vectors targeting any given

  19. Enzymatic reduction of disulfide bonds in lysosomes: Characterization of a Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, Balasubramanian; Phan, Uyen T.; Geuze, Hans J.; Cresswell, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Proteins internalized into the endocytic pathway are usually degraded. Efficient proteolysis requires denaturation, induced by acidic conditions within lysosomes, and reduction of inter- and intrachain disulfide bonds. Cytosolic reduction is mediated enzymatically by thioredoxin, but the mechanism of lysosomal reduction is unknown. We describe here a lysosomal thiol reductase optimally active at low pH and capable of catalyzing disulfide bond reduction both in vivo and in vitro. The active site, determined by mutagenesis, consists of a pair of cysteine residues separated by two amino acids, similar to other enzymes of the thioredoxin family. The enzyme is a soluble glycoprotein that is synthesized as a precursor. After delivery into the endosomal/lysosomal system by the mannose 6-phosphate receptor, N- and C-terminal prosequences are removed. The enzyme is expressed constitutively in antigen-presenting cells and induced by IFN-? in other cell types, suggesting a potentially important role in antigen processing.

  20. Overcoming concealment effects of targeting moieties in the PEG corona: controlled permeable polymersomes decorated with folate-antennae for selective targeting of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Mohamed A; Appelhans, Dietmar; Wiedemuth, Ralf; Formanek, Petr; Boye, Susanne; Lederer, Albena; Temme, Achim; Voit, Brigitte

    2015-04-01

    In the context of diligent efforts to improve the tumor targeting efficiency of drug carriers, a shape-persistent polymersome which possess a pH-tunable membrane as well as folate targeting antennae is reported. The membrane of such polymersomes behaves as gate which undergoes "on" and "off" switches in response to pH stimuli. Thus, polymersomes can effectively prohibit the premature release of chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin in physiological conditions, but promote drug release once they are triggered in the acidified endosomal compartment. Importantly, the folate moieties are installed on the surface of polymersomes as protruding antennae by doping the polymersomes with folate-terminated block copolymers designed to have longer PEG segments. Thereby, the folate moieties are freed from concealment and steric effects exerted by the dense PEG corona. The cellular uptake of the FA-antennae polymersomes by tumor cells is significantly enhanced facilitated by the freely accessible folate antennae; however, the normal cells record a low level of cellular uptake due to the stealth property of the PEG corona. Overall, the excellent biocompatibility, controlled permeability, targeted internalization, as well as selective cytotoxicity of such polymersomes set up the basis for properly smart carrier for targeted drug delivery. PMID:25363281

  1. From Target Selection to Post-Stimulation Analysis: Example of an Unconventional Faulted Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeCalvez, J. H.; Williams, M.; Xu, W.; Stokes, J.; Moros, H.; Maxwell, S. C.; Conners, S.

    2011-12-01

    As the global balance of supply and demand forces the hydrocarbon industry toward unconventional resources, technology- and economics-driven shale oil and gas production is gaining momentum throughout many basins worldwide. Production from such unconventional plays is facilitated by massive hydraulic fracturing treatments aimed at increasing permeability and reactivating natural fractures. Large-scale faulting and fracturing partly control stress distribution, hence stimulation-derived hydraulically-induced fracture systems development. Therefore, careful integrated approaches to target selection, treatment staging, and stimulation methods need to be used to economically maximize ultimate hydrocarbon recovery. We present a case study of a multistage, multilateral stimulation project in the Fort Worth Basin, Texas. Wells had to be drilled within city limits in a commercially developing building area. Well locations and trajectories were determined in and around large-scale faults using 3D surface seismic with throws varying from seven to thirty meters. As a result, three horizontal wells were drilled in the Lower Barnett Shale section, 150 m apart with the central well landed about 25 m shallower than the outside laterals. Surface seismic indicates that the surface locations are on top of a major fault complex with the lateral sections drilling away from the major fault system and through a smaller fault. Modeling of the borehole-based microseismic monitoring options led to the selection of an optimum set of configurations given the operational restrictions faced: monitoring would mainly take place using a horizontal array to be tractored downhole and moved according to the well and stage to be monitored. Wells were completed using a perf-and-plug approach allowing for each stimulation stage to obtain a precise orientation of the various three-component accelerometers of the monitoring array as well as the calibration of the velocity model used to process the microseismic data acquired. Real-time microseismic monitoring allowed (i) to avoid the water-bearing formation below the zone of interest, (ii) to bypass the faulted zone, and (iii) to modify as needed the perforation and stimulation plans. Completion led to an initial gas production of over 3 MMCF/day each. Early decline rates confirm successful completion in avoiding the faulted areas. Initial observations of the slickwater fracturing stimulation treatments for these three wells using an integrated approach involving mechanical modelling calibrated using microseismic data indicate that (i) a long bi-wing-like fracture system initiated prior to being followed by a complex fracture network; thus, explaining the fact that some events are mapped relatively far away from the injection site, (ii) proppant generally settled down in the near wellbore area during the fracture network development due to rapid decrease of fluid flow velocity away from the injection side. Initial b-value results seem to indicate that the target reservoir is naturally fractured and that the influence of a large fault system in the vicinity of the treated zone could be asserted.

  2. Metformin Selectively Targets Tumor-Initiating Cells in ErbB2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Pei; Davis, Meghan; Blackwelder, Amanda J.; Bachman, Nora; Liu, Bolin; Edgerton, Susan; Williams, Leonard L.; Thor, Ann D.; Yang, Xiaohe

    2014-01-01

    Metformin is an oral biguanide used for type II diabetes. Epidemiologic studies suggest a link between metformin use and reduced risk of breast and other types of cancers. ErbB2-expressing breast cancer is a subgroup of tumors with poor prognosis. Previous studies demonstrated that metformin is a potent inhibitor of ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells; metformin treatment extends the life span and impedes mammary tumor development in ErbB2 transgenic mice in vivo. However, the mechanisms of metformin associated antitumor activity, especially in prevention models, remain unclear. We report here for the first time that systemic administration of metformin selectively inhibits CD61high /CD49fhigh subpopulation, a group of tumor-initiating cells (TIC) of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-ErbB2 mammary tumors, in preneoplastic mammary glands. Metformin also inhibited CD61high /CD49fhigh subpopulation in MMTV-ErbB2 tumor-derived cells, which was correlated with their compromised tumor initiation/development in a syngeneic tumor graft model. Molecular analysis indicated that metformin induced downregulation of ErbB2 and EGFR expression and inhibited the phosphorylation of ErbB family members, insulin-like growth factor-1R, AKT, mTOR, and STAT3 in vivo. In vitro data indicate that low doses of metformin inhibited the self-renewal/proliferation of cancer stem cells (CSC)/TICs in ErbB2-over-expressing breast cancer cells. We further demonstrated that the expression and activation of ErbB2 were preferentially increased in CSC/TIC-enriched tumorsphere cells, which promoted their self-renewal/ proliferation and rendered them more sensitive to metformin. Our results, especially the in vivo data, provide fundamental support for developing metformin-mediated preventive strategies targeting ErbB2-associated carcinogenesis. PMID:24322659

  3. Deep sequencing of large library selections allows computational discovery of diverse sets of zinc fingers that bind common targets

    PubMed Central

    Persikov, Anton V.; Rowland, Elizabeth F.; Oakes, Benjamin L.; Singh, Mona; Noyes, Marcus B.

    2014-01-01

    The Cys2His2 zinc finger (ZF) is the most frequently found sequence-specific DNA-binding domain in eukaryotic proteins. The ZF’s modular protein–DNA interface has also served as a platform for genome engineering applications. Despite decades of intense study, a predictive understanding of the DNA-binding specificities of either natural or engineered ZF domains remains elusive. To help fill this gap, we developed an integrated experimental-computational approach to enrich and recover distinct groups of ZFs that bind common targets. To showcase the power of our approach, we built several large ZF libraries and demonstrated their excellent diversity. As proof of principle, we used one of these ZF libraries to select and recover thousands of ZFs that bind several 3-nt targets of interest. We were then able to computationally cluster these recovered ZFs to reveal several distinct classes of proteins, all recovered from a single selection, to bind the same target. Finally, for each target studied, we confirmed that one or more representative ZFs yield the desired specificity. In sum, the described approach enables comprehensive large-scale selection and characterization of ZF specificities and should be a great aid in furthering our understanding of the ZF domain. PMID:24214968

  4. Comparing the selection and placement of best management practices in improving water quality using a multiobjective optimization and targeting method.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Maringanti, Chetan; Huang, Tao

    2014-03-01

    Suites of Best Management Practices (BMPs) are usually selected to be economically and environmentally efficient in reducing nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants from agricultural areas in a watershed. The objective of this research was to compare the selection and placement of BMPs in a pasture-dominated watershed using multiobjective optimization and targeting methods. Two objective functions were used in the optimization process, which minimize pollutant losses and the BMP placement areas. The optimization tool was an integration of a multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) and a watershed model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool-SWAT). For the targeting method, an optimum BMP option was implemented in critical areas in the watershed that contribute the greatest pollutant losses. A total of 171 BMP combinations, which consist of grazing management, vegetated filter strips (VFS), and poultry litter applications were considered. The results showed that the optimization is less effective when vegetated filter strips (VFS) are not considered, and it requires much longer computation times than the targeting method to search for optimum BMPs. Although the targeting method is effective in selecting and placing an optimum BMP, larger areas are needed for BMP implementation to achieve the same pollutant reductions as the optimization method. PMID:24619160

  5. Comparing the Selection and Placement of Best Management Practices in Improving Water Quality Using a Multiobjective Optimization and Targeting Method

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Maringanti, Chetan; Huang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Suites of Best Management Practices (BMPs) are usually selected to be economically and environmentally efficient in reducing nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants from agricultural areas in a watershed. The objective of this research was to compare the selection and placement of BMPs in a pasture-dominated watershed using multiobjective optimization and targeting methods. Two objective functions were used in the optimization process, which minimize pollutant losses and the BMP placement areas. The optimization tool was an integration of a multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) and a watershed model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool—SWAT). For the targeting method, an optimum BMP option was implemented in critical areas in the watershed that contribute the greatest pollutant losses. A total of 171 BMP combinations, which consist of grazing management, vegetated filter strips (VFS), and poultry litter applications were considered. The results showed that the optimization is less effective when vegetated filter strips (VFS) are not considered, and it requires much longer computation times than the targeting method to search for optimum BMPs. Although the targeting method is effective in selecting and placing an optimum BMP, larger areas are needed for BMP implementation to achieve the same pollutant reductions as the optimization method. PMID:24619160

  6. Cardenolide-Induced Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization Demonstrates Therapeutic Benefits in Experimental Human Non–Small Cell Lung Cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatjana Mijatovic; Véronique Mathieu; Jean-François Gaussin; Nancy De Nève; Fabrice Ribaucour; Eric Van Quaquebeke; Patrick Dumont; Francis Darro; Robert Kiss

    2006-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) are the leading cause of cancer deaths in most developed countries. Targeting heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression and function, together with the induction of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), could overcome the multiple anti-cell death mechanisms evidenced in NSCLCs that are responsible for the failure of currently used chemotherapeutic drugs. Because cardenolides bind to the

  7. Size-dependent accumulation of particles in lysosomes modulates dendritic cell function through impaired antigen degradation

    PubMed Central

    Seydoux, Emilie; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Nita, Izabela M; Balog, Sandor; Gazdhar, Amiq; Stumbles, Philip A; Petri-Fink, Alke; Blank, Fabian; von Garnier, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nanosized particles may enable therapeutic modulation of immune responses by targeting dendritic cell (DC) networks in accessible organs such as the lung. To date, however, the effects of nanoparticles on DC function and downstream immune responses remain poorly understood. Methods Bone marrow–derived DCs (BMDCs) were exposed in vitro to 20 or 1,000 nm polystyrene (PS) particles. Particle uptake kinetics, cell surface marker expression, soluble protein antigen uptake and degradation, as well as in vitro CD4+ T-cell proliferation and cytokine production were analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, co-localization of particles within the lysosomal compartment, lysosomal permeability, and endoplasmic reticulum stress were analyzed. Results The frequency of PS particle–positive CD11c+/CD11b+ BMDCs reached an early plateau after 20 minutes and was significantly higher for 20 nm than for 1,000 nm PS particles at all time-points analyzed. PS particles did not alter cell viability or modify expression of the surface markers CD11b, CD11c, MHC class II, CD40, and CD86. Although particle exposure did not modulate antigen uptake, 20 nm PS particles decreased the capacity of BMDCs to degrade soluble antigen, without affecting their ability to induce antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferation. Co-localization studies between PS particles and lysosomes using laser scanning confocal microscopy detected a significantly higher frequency of co-localized 20 nm particles as compared with their 1,000 nm counterparts. Neither size of PS particle caused lysosomal leakage, expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress gene markers, or changes in cytokines profiles. Conclusion These data indicate that although supposedly inert PS nanoparticles did not induce DC activation or alteration in CD4+ T-cell stimulating capacity, 20 nm (but not 1,000 nm) PS particles may reduce antigen degradation through interference in the lysosomal compartment. These findings emphasize the importance of performing in-depth analysis of DC function when developing novel approaches for immune modulation with nanoparticles. PMID:25152619

  8. Identification of target-binding peptide motifs by high-throughput sequencing of phage-selected peptides.

    PubMed

    Rentero Rebollo, Inmaculada; Sabisz, Michal; Baeriswyl, Vanessa; Heinis, Christian

    2014-12-16

    High-throughput sequencing was previously applied to phage-selected peptides in order to gain insight into the abundance and diversity of isolated peptides. Herein we developed a procedure to efficiently compare the sequences of large numbers of phage-selected peptides for the purpose of identifying target-binding peptide motifs. We applied the procedure to analyze bicyclic peptides isolated against five different protein targets: sortase A, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, coagulation factor XII, plasma kallikrein and streptavidin. We optimized sequence data filters to reduce biases originating from the sequencing method and developed sequence correction algorithms to prevent identification of false consensus motifs. With our strategy, we were able to identify rare target-binding peptide motifs, as well as to define more precisely consensus sequences and sub-groups of consensus sequences. This information is valuable to choose peptide leads for drug development and it facilitates identification of epitopes. We furthermore show that binding motifs can be identified after a single round of phage selection. Such a selection regimen reduces propagation-related bias and may facilitate application of phage display in non-specialized laboratories, as procedures such as bacterial infection, phage propagation and purification are not required. PMID:25348396

  9. Selection and mutation on microRNA target sequences during rice evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingyi Guo; Yijie Gui; Yu Wang; Qian-Hao Zhu; Chris Helliwell; Longjiang Fan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) posttranscriptionally down-regulate gene expression by binding target mRNAs. Analysis of the evolution of miRNA binding sites is helpful in understanding the co-evolution between miRNAs and their targets. To understand this process in plants a comparative analysis of miRNA-targeted duplicated gene pairs derived from a well-documented whole genome duplication (WGD) event in combination with a population genetics study

  10. Overlay target selection for 20-nm process on A500 LCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Vidya; Subramany, Lokesh; Itzkovich, Tal; Gutjhar, Karsten; Snow, Patrick; Cho, Chanseob; Yap, Lipkong

    2015-03-01

    Persistently shrinking design rules and increasing process complexity require tight overlay control thereby making it imperative to choose the most suitable overlay measurement technique and complementary target design. In this paper we describe an assessment of various target designs from FEOL to BEOL on 20-nm process. Both scatterometry and imaging based methodology were reviewed for several key layers on A500LCM tool, which enables the use of both technologies. Different sets of targets were carefully designed and printed, taking into consideration the process and optical properties of each layer. The optimal overlay target for a given layer was chosen based on its measurement performance.

  11. Lysosomal storage disorders: molecular basis and laboratory testing.

    PubMed

    Filocamo, Mirella; Morrone, Amelia

    2011-03-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are a large group of more than 50 different inherited metabolic diseases which, in the great majority of cases, result from the defective function of specific lysosomal enzymes and, in few cases, of non-enzymatic lysosomal proteins or non-lysosomal proteins involved in lysosomal biogenesis. The progressive lysosomal accumulation of undegraded metabolites results in generalised cell and tissue dysfunction, and, therefore, multi-systemic pathology. Storage may begin during early embryonic development, and the clinical presentation for LSDs can vary from an early and severe phenotype to late-onset mild disease. The diagnosis of most LSDs--after accurate clinical/paraclinical evaluation, including the analysis of some urinary metabolites--is based mainly on the detection of a specific enzymatic deficiency. In these cases, molecular genetic testing (MGT) can refine the enzymatic diagnosis. Once the genotype of an individual LSD patient has been ascertained, genetic counselling should include prediction of the possible phenotype and the identification of carriers in the family at risk. MGT is essential for the identification of genetic disorders resulting from non-enzymatic lysosomal protein defects and is complementary to biochemical genetic testing (BGT) in complex situations, such as in cases of enzymatic pseudodeficiencies. Prenatal diagnosis is performed on the most appropriate samples, which include fresh or cultured chorionic villus sampling or cultured amniotic fluid. The choice of the test--enzymatic and/or molecular--is based on the characteristics of the defect to be investigated. For prenatal MGT, the genotype of the family index case must be known. The availability of both tests, enzymatic and molecular, enormously increases the reliability of the entire prenatal diagnostic procedure. To conclude, BGT and MGT are mostly complementary for post- and prenatal diagnosis of LSDs. Whenever genotype/phenotype correlations are available, they can be helpful in prognosis and in making decisions about therapy. PMID:21504867

  12. Lysosomal Dysfunctions Associated with Mutations at Mouse Pigment Genes

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Edward K.; Swank, Richard T.

    1979-01-01

    Melanosomes and lysosomes share several structural and biosynthetic properties. Therefore, a large number of mouse pigment mutants were tested to determine whether genes affecting melanosome structure or function might also affect the lysosome. Among 31 mouse pigment mutants, six had 1.5- to 2.5- fold increased concentrations of kidney ?-glucuronidase. Three mutants, pale ear, pearl and pallid, had a generalized effect on lysosomal enzymes since there were coordinate increases in kidney ?-galactosidase and ?-mannosidase. The effects of these three mutations are lysosome specific since rates of kidney protein synthesis and activities of three nonlysosomal kidney enzymes were normal. Also, the mutants are relatively tissue specific in that all had normal liver lysomal enzyme concentrations.—A common dysfunction in all three mutants was a lowered rate of lysosomal enzyme secretion from kidney into urine. While normal C57BL/6J mice daily secreted 27 to 30% of total kidney ?-glucuronidase and ?-galactosidase, secretion of these two enzymes was coordinately depressed to 1 to 2%, 8 to 9% and 4 to 5% of total kidney enzyme in the pale-ear, pearl and pallid mutants, respectively. Although depressed lysosomal enzyme secretion is the major pigment mutant alteration, the higher lysomal enzyme concentrations in pearl and pallid may be partly due to an increase in lysosomal enzyme synthesis. In these mutants kidney glucuronidase synthetic rate was increased 1.4- to 1.5-fold.—These results suggest that there are several critical genes in mammals that control the biogenesis, processing and/or function of related classes of subcellular organelles. The mechanism of action of these genes is amenable to further analysis since they have been incorporated into congenic inbred strains of mice. PMID:115747

  13. AUTOMATED TARGET SELECTION FOR OPPORTUNISTIC ROVER SCIENCE R. Castano, T. Estlin, D. Gaines, A. Castano, B. Bornstein, C. Chouinard, R. C. Anderson, and M. Judd,

    E-print Network

    AUTOMATED TARGET SELECTION FOR OPPORTUNISTIC ROVER SCIENCE R. Castano, T. Estlin, D. Gaines, A 91109, rebecca.castano@jpl.nasa.gov. Introduction: A number of remote sensing instruments on rovers have that targets can only be selected based on the rover site at the beginning of an upload command sequence (for

  14. The antimalarial amodiaquine causes autophagic-lysosomal and proliferative blockade sensitizing human melanoma cells to starvation- and chemotherapy-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Shuxi; Tao, Shasha; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Park, Sophia L; Vonderfecht, Amanda A; Jacobs, Suesan L; Zhang, Donna D; Wondrak, Georg T

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of autophagic-lysosomal function has recently emerged as a promising strategy for chemotherapeutic intervention targeting cancer cells. Repurposing approved and abandoned non-oncological drugs is an alternative approach to the identification and development of anticancer therapeutics, and antimalarials that target autophagic-lysosomal functions have recently attracted considerable attention as candidates for oncological repurposing. Since cumulative research suggests that dependence on autophagy represents a specific vulnerability of malignant melanoma cells, we screened a focused compound library of antimalarials for antimelanoma activity. Here we report for the first time that amodiaquine (AQ), a clinical 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial with unexplored cancer-directed chemotherapeutic potential, causes autophagic-lysosomal and proliferative blockade in melanoma cells that surpasses that of its parent compound chloroquine. Monitoring an established set of protein markers (LAMP1, LC3-II, SQSTM1) and cell ultrastructural changes detected by electron microscopy, we observed that AQ treatment caused autophagic-lysosomal blockade in malignant A375 melanoma cells, a finding substantiated by detection of rapid inactivation of lysosomal cathepsins (CTSB, CTSL, CTSD). AQ-treatment was associated with early induction of energy crisis (ATP depletion) and sensitized melanoma cells to either starvation- or chemotherapeutic agent-induced cell death. AQ displayed potent antiproliferative effects, and gene expression array analysis revealed changes at the mRNA (CDKN1A, E2F1) and protein level (TP53, CDKN1A, CCND1, phospho-RB1 [Ser 780]/[Ser 807/811], E2F1) consistent with the observed proliferative blockade in S-phase. Taken together, our data suggest that the clinical antimalarial AQ is a promising candidate for repurposing efforts that aim at targeting autophagic-lysosomal function and proliferative control in malignant melanoma cells. PMID:24113242

  15. Negligible Genetic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Host Immune System Protein Targets: Evidence of Limited Selective Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Musser; Amol Amin; Srinivas Ramaswamy

    A common theme in medical microbiology is that the amount of amino acid sequence variation in proteins that are targets of the host immune system greatly exceeds that found in metabolic enzymes or other housekeeping proteins. Twenty-four Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes coding for targets of the host immune system were sequenced in 16 strains representing the breadth of genomic diversity in

  16. Saccade target selection in macaque during feature and conjunction visual search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NARCISSE P. BICHOT; JEFFREY D. SCHALL

    1999-01-01

    To gain insight into how vision guides eye movements, monkeys were trained to make a single saccade to a specified target stimulus during feature and conjunction search with stimuli discriminated by color and shape. Monkeys performed both tasks at levels well above chance. The latencies of saccades to the target in conjunction search exhibited shallow positive slopes as a function

  17. Friends or foes? Target selection decisions of sovereign wealth funds and their consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Kotter; Ugur Lel

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines investment strategies of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs), their effect on target firm valuation, and how both of these are related to SWF transparency. We find that SWFs prefer large and poorly performing firms facing financial difficulties. Their investments have a positive effect on target firms' stock prices around the announcement date but no substantial effect on firm

  18. The Dendritic Cell Receptor for Endocytosis, DEC205, Can Recycle and Enhance Antigen Presentation via Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II-positive Lysosomal Compartments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten Mahnke; Ming Guo; Sena Lee; Homero Sepulveda; Suzy L. Swain; Michel Nussenzweig; Ralph M. Steinman

    2000-01-01

    Many receptors for endocytosis recycle into and out of cells through early endosomes. We now find in dendritic cells that the DEC-205 multilectin receptor targets late endosomes or lysosomes rich in major his- tocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) products, whereas the homologous macrophage mannose recep- tor (MMR), as expected, is found in more peripheral endosomes. To analyze this finding,

  19. Going beyond: Target selection and mission analysis of human exploration missions to Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, A. K.; Messerschmid, E.

    2011-12-01

    Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) offer a wide range of possibilities for space exploration, scientific research, and technology demonstration. In particular, manned missions to NEAs provide a unique opportunity to be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and represent the perfect environment to gain experience in deep-space operations, which is an indispensable prerequisite for human missions to Mars. As a starting point for the analysis of such missions, the objectives of this study are to identify target asteroids and evaluate possible transfer trajectories as well as the associated launch windows. The list of accessible asteroids is narrowed down by taking dynamical and structural properties such as size and rotation rate into account. An accessibility model for NEAs is developed allowing pre-selection of asteroid targets for human missions. For this model, a novel approach is taken which assesses the accessibility of a NEA not by considering its orbital parameters separately. Instead, accessibility is determined by evaluating the combination of all orbital parameters only limited by mission duration (less than 365 days) and round-trip ?v (less than 10 km/s). In order to verify the reliability of the model, mission architectures for missions departing from low-Earth orbit are investigated and transfers to 2567 NEAs in the time frame from 2020 to 2040 are simulated. Two hundred and forty asteroids are found to be accessible for human missions under the given boundary conditions and are observed to nicely fit the model developed. Seventy three of these remaining asteroids can be reached with a ?v?7.5km/s, 15 of which allow mission durations of less than 200 days. One hundred and seventy launch windows strongly varying in duration are found for these 73 asteroids between 2020 and 2040. Launch opportunity analysis shows that several launch windows open every year in the given time frame for missions with durations of less than 365 days and ?v?7.5km/s. Although these launch windows are not evenly spaced and tend to cluster, the frequency and width of most launch windows is sufficient for a sustainable campaign. An example campaign with seven missions between 2025 and 2038 and two additional optional missions is provided. The strategy for this campaign is to gradually increase mission duration along with the time spent in the vicinity of the asteroid in order to induce a constant development of more advanced technologies at a manageable risk following a stepping stone approach and paving the way for human exploration missions to Mars. Lastly, the possibilities of mission abort are examined considering a free return scenario and an anytime abort. The free return option, characterized by a long return duration and a low ?v, is found to be feasible for all missions. The anytime abort, allowing a comparatively fast return to Earth at a ?v penalty, is observed to be an option only on short missions. Which abort scenarios are possible on a certain mission should be studied on a case-by-case basis. With these results, the mission analysis of the interplanetary part of human missions to asteroids is concluded, setting mission-specific requirements and boundary conditions required for subsequent spacecraft design.

  20. Structure-Based Design of a Potent, Selective, and Brain Penetrating PDE2 Inhibitor with Demonstrated Target Engagement.

    PubMed

    Buijnsters, Peter; De Angelis, Meri; Langlois, Xavier; Rombouts, Frederik J R; Sanderson, Wendy; Tresadern, Gary; Ritchie, Alison; Trabanco, Andrés A; VanHoof, Greet; Roosbroeck, Yves Van; Andrés, José-Ignacio

    2014-09-11

    Structure-guided design led to the identification of the novel, potent, and selective phosphodiesterase 2 (PDE2) inhibitor 12. Compound 12 demonstrated a >210-fold selectivity versus PDE10 and PDE11 and was inactive against all other PDE family members up to 10 ?M. In vivo evaluation of 12 provided evidence that it is able to engage the target and to increase cGMP levels in relevant brain regions. Hence, 12 is a valuable tool compound for the better understanding of the role of PDE2 in cognitive impairment and other central nervous system related disorders. PMID:25221665

  1. TRANSLOCATION OF IRON FROM LYSOSOMES INTO MITOCHONDRIA IS A KEY EVENT DURING OXIDATIVE STRESS-INDUCED HEPATOCELLULAR INJURY*

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Akira; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kon, Kazuyoshi; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Ikejima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Sumio; Lemasters, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Iron overload exacerbates various liver diseases. In hepatocytes, a portion of non-heme iron is sequestered in lysosomes and endosomes. The precise mechanisms by which lysosomal iron participates in hepatocellular injury remain uncertain. Here, our aim was to determine the role of intracellular movement of chelatable iron in oxidative stress-induced killing to cultured hepatocytes from C3Heb mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. Mitochondrial polarization and chelatable iron were visualized by confocal microscopy of tetramethylrhodamine methylester (TMRM) and quenching of calcein, respectively. Cell viability and hydroperoxide formation (a measure of lipid peroxidation) were measured fluorometrically using propidium iodide and chloromethyl dihydrodichlorofluorescein, respectively. After collapse of lysosomal/endosomal acidic pH gradients with bafilomycin (50 nM), an inhibitor of the vacuolar proton-pumping ATPase, cytosolic calcein fluorescence became quenched. Desferal and starch-desferal (1 mM) prevented bafilomycin-induced calcein quenching, indicating that bafilomycin induced release of chelatable iron from lysosomes/endosomes. Bafilomycin also quenched calcein fluorescence in mitochondria, which was blocked by 20 ?M Ru360, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter, consistent with mitochondrial iron uptake by the uniporter. Bafilomycin alone was not sufficient to induce mitochondrial depolarization and cell killing, but in the presence of low dose tert-butylhydroperoxide (25 ?M), bafilomycin enhanced hydroperoxide generation leading to mitochondrial depolarization and subsequent cell death. Taken together, the results are consistent with the conclusion that bafilomycin induces release of chelatable iron from lysosomes/endosomes, which is taken up by mitochondria. Oxidative stress and chelatable iron thus act as two “hits” synergistically promoting toxic radical formation, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. This pathway of intracellular iron translocation is a potential therapeutic target against oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxicity. PMID:18846543

  2. Inhibition of lysosome degradation on autophagosome formation and responses to GMI, an immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma microsporum

    PubMed Central

    Hsin, I-Lun; Sheu, Gwo-Tarng; Jan, Ming-Shiou; Sun, Hai-Lun; Wu, Tzu-Chin; Chiu, Ling-Yen; Lue, Ko-Huang; Ko, Jiunn-Liang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Autophagic cell death is considered a self-destructive process that results from large amounts of autophagic flux. In our previous study, GMI, a recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein cloned from Ganoderma microsporum, induced autophagic cell death in lung cancer cells. The aim of this study was to examine the role of autophagosome accumulation in GMI-mediated cell death. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Western blot analysis, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the effects of different treatments, including silencing of ATP6V0A1 by use of short hairpin RNAi, on GMI-mediated cell death, lung cancer cell viability and autophagosome accumulation in vitro. KEY RESULTS Lysosome inhibitors bafilomycin-A1 and chloroquine increased GMI-mediated autophagic cell death. GMI and bafilomycin-A1 co-treatment induced the accumulation of large amounts of autophagosomes, but did not significantly induce apoptosis. GMI elicited autophagy through the PKB (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin signalling pathway. Silencing of ATP6V0A1, one subunit of vesicular H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) that mediates lysosome acidification, spontaneously induced autophagosome accumulation, but did not affect lysosome acidity. GMI-mediated autophagosome accumulation and cytotoxicity was increased in shATP6V0A1 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, ATP6V0A1 silencing decreased autophagosome and lysosome fusion in GMI-treated CaLu-1/GFP-LC3 lung cancer cells. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS We demonstrated that autophagosome accumulation induces autophagic cell death in a GMI treatment model, and ATP6V0A1 plays an important role in mediating autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in the induction of autophagic cell death. PMID:22708544

  3. Cancer-Selective Targeting of the NF-?B Survival Pathway with GADD45?/MKK7 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tornatore, Laura; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Raimondo, Domenico; Low, Caroline; Rocci, Alberto; Tralau-Stewart, Cathy; Capece, Daria; D’Andrea, Daniel; Bua, Marco; Boyle, Eileen; van Duin, Mark; Zoppoli, Pietro; Jaxa-Chamiec, Albert; Thotakura, Anil K.; Dyson, Julian; Walker, Brian A.; Leonardi, Antonio; Chambery, Angela; Driessen, Christoph; Sonneveld, Pieter; Morgan, Gareth; Palumbo, Antonio; Tramontano, Anna; Rahemtulla, Amin; Ruvo, Menotti; Franzoso, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Summary Constitutive NF-?B signaling promotes survival in multiple myeloma (MM) and other cancers; however, current NF-?B-targeting strategies lack cancer cell specificity. Here, we identify the interaction between the NF-?B-regulated antiapoptotic factor GADD45? and the JNK kinase MKK7 as a therapeutic target in MM. Using a drug-discovery strategy, we developed DTP3, a D-tripeptide, which disrupts the GADD45?/MKK7 complex, kills MM cells effectively, and, importantly, lacks toxicity to normal cells. DTP3 has similar anticancer potency to the clinical standard, bortezomib, but more than 100-fold higher cancer cell specificity in vitro. Notably, DTP3 ablates myeloma xenografts in mice with no apparent side effects at the effective doses. Hence, cancer-selective targeting of the NF-?B pathway is possible and, at least for myeloma patients, promises a profound benefit. PMID:25314077

  4. Staurosporine tethered peptide ligands that target cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA): Optimization and selectivity profiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn D. Shomin; Scott C. Meyer; Indraneel Ghosh

    2009-01-01

    We have recently developed a fragment based selection strategy for targeting kinases, where a small molecule warhead can be non-covalently tethered to a phage-displayed library of peptides. This approach was applied to the conversion of the promiscuous kinase inhibitor, staurosporine, into a potent bivalent ligand for cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Herein we report a systematic evaluation of this new bivalent

  5. Gene therapy for pancreatic cancer targeting the genomic alterations of tumor suppressor genes using replication-selective oncolytic adenovirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Sunamura; Masaru Oonuma; Fuyuhiko Motoi; Hisashi Abe; Yukoh Saitoh; Toru Hoshida; Shigeru Ottomo; Akira Horii; Seiki Matsuno

    2002-01-01

    In order to develop an effective therapeutic intervention for patients with pancreatic cancer, we examined the genetic alternations\\u000a of pancreatic cancer. Based on these results, we are developing a new gene therapy targeting the genetic character of pancreatic\\u000a cancer using mutant adenoviruses selectively replication-competent in tumor cells. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 30% or\\u000a more were observed on chromosome arms

  6. Lysosomal Multienzyme Complex: Pros and Cons of Working Together

    PubMed Central

    Bonten, Erik J.; Annunziata, Ida; d’Azzo, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitous distribution of lysosomes and their heterogeneous protein composition reflects the versatility of these organelles in maintaining cell homeostasis and their importance in tissue differentiation and remodeling. In lysosomes, the degradation of complex, macromolecular substrates requires the synergistic action of multiple hydrolases that usually work in a stepwise fashion. This catalytic machinery explains the existence of lysosomal enzyme complexes that can be dynamically assembled and disassembled to efficiently and quickly adapt to the pool of substrates to be processed or degraded, adding extra tiers to the regulation of the individual protein components. An example of such a complex is the one composed of three hydrolases that are ubiquitously but differentially expressed: the serine carboxypeptidase, Protective Protein/Cathepsin A (PPCA), the sialidase, Neuraminidase-1 (NEU1), and the glycosidase ?-Galactosidase (?-GAL). Next to this ‘core’ complex, the existence of sub-complexes, that may contain additional components, and function at the cell surface or extracellularly, suggests as yet unexplored functions of these enzymes. Here we review how studies of basic biological processes in the mouse models of three lysosomal storage disorders, galactosialidosis, sialidosis, and GM1-gangliosidosis, revealed new and unexpected roles for the three respective affected enzymes, Ppca, Neu1 and ?-Gal, that go beyond their canonical degradative activities. These findings have broadened our perspective on their functions and may pave the way for the development of new therapies for these lysosomal storage disorders. PMID:24337808

  7. Lysosomal multienzyme complex: pros and cons of working together.

    PubMed

    Bonten, Erik J; Annunziata, Ida; d'Azzo, Alessandra

    2014-06-01

    The ubiquitous distribution of lysosomes and their heterogeneous protein composition reflects the versatility of these organelles in maintaining cell homeostasis and their importance in tissue differentiation and remodeling. In lysosomes, the degradation of complex, macromolecular substrates requires the synergistic action of multiple hydrolases that usually work in a stepwise fashion. This catalytic machinery explains the existence of lysosomal enzyme complexes that can be dynamically assembled and disassembled to efficiently and quickly adapt to the pool of substrates to be processed or degraded, adding extra tiers to the regulation of the individual protein components. An example of such a complex is the one composed of three hydrolases that are ubiquitously but differentially expressed: the serine carboxypeptidase, protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA), the sialidase, neuraminidase-1 (NEU1), and the glycosidase ?-galactosidase (?-GAL). Next to this 'core' complex, the existence of sub-complexes, which may contain additional components, and function at the cell surface or extracellularly, suggests as yet unexplored functions of these enzymes. Here we review how studies of basic biological processes in the mouse models of three lysosomal storage disorders, galactosialidosis, sialidosis, and GM1-gangliosidosis, revealed new and unexpected roles for the three respective affected enzymes, Ppca, Neu1, and ?-Gal, that go beyond their canonical degradative activities. These findings have broadened our perspective on their functions and may pave the way for the development of new therapies for these lysosomal storage disorders. PMID:24337808

  8. Selective targeting of PPAR? by the natural product chelerythrine with a unique binding mode and improved antidiabetic potency

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weili; Qiu, Lin; Wang, Rui; Feng, Xuhui; Han, Yaping; Zhu, Yanlin; Chen, Dezhou; Liu, Yijie; Jin, Lihua; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a pervasive metabolic syndrome that is characterized by insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. As full agonists of PPAR?, thiazolidinedione (TZD) drugs elicit antidiabetic effects by targeting PPAR? but is accompanied by weight gain, fluid retention and cardiovascular risk associated with their transcriptional agonism potency. We here identify a natural product chelerythrine as a unique selective PPAR modulator (SPPARM) with a potent PPAR? binding activity but much less classical receptor transcriptional agonism. Structural analysis reveals that chelerythrine exhibits unique binding in parallel with H3 of PPAR?. Unlike TZDs, chelerythrine destabilizes helix 12, especially residue tyrosine 473, resulting in a loose configuration of AF-2 and a selective cofactor profile distinct from TZDs, leading to a differential target gene profile in adipogenesis in db/db diabetic mice. Moreover, chelerythrine improved insulin sensitivity by more potently blocking the phosphorylation of PPAR? by CDK5 compared to TZDs. These data fundamentally elucidate the mechanism by which chelerythrine retains the benefits of improving insulin sensitivity while reducing the adverse effects of TZDs, suggesting that the natural product chelerythrine is a very promising pharmacological agent by selectively targeting PPAR? for further development in the clinical treatment of insulin resistance. PMID:26183621

  9. Selection and optimization of gene targets for the metabolic engineering of E. coli

    E-print Network

    Fischer, Curt R., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is about identifying genetic interventions that improve the performance of targeted pathways in the metabolism of the bacterium Escherichia coli. Three case studies illustrate three disparate approaches to ...

  10. Efficacy and Selectivity of Phosphodiesterase-Targeted Drugs in Inhibiting Photoreceptor Phosphodiesterase

    E-print Network

    Cote, Rick H.

    and potently target PDE5, such as sildenafil (Viagra; Pfizer, New York, NY), vardenafil (Levitra; BayerGMP metab- olism in photoreceptors. Preclinical and clinical data on the effects of sildenafil have revealed

  11. Peptidic Tumor Targeting Agents: The Road from Phage Display Peptide Selections to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kathlynn C.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer has become the number one cause of death amongst Americans, killing approximately 1,600 people per day. Novel methods for early detection and the development of effective treatments are an eminent priority in medicine. For this reason, isolation of tumor-specific ligands is a growing area of research. Tumor-specific binding agents can be used to probe the tumor cell surface phenotype and customize treatment accordingly by conjugating the appropriate cell-targeting ligand to an anticancer drug. This refines the molecular diagnosis of the tumor and creates guided drugs that can target the tumor while sparing healthy tissues. Additionally, these targeting agents can be used as in vivo imaging agents that allow for earlier detection of tumors and micrometastasis. Phage display is a powerful technique for the isolation of peptides that bind to a particular target with high affinity and specificity. The biopanning of intact cancer cells or tumors in animals can be used to isolate peptides that bind to cancer-specific cell surface biomarkers. Over the past 10 years, unbiased biopanning of phage-displayed peptide libraries has generated a suite of cancer targeting peptidic ligands. This review discusses the recent advances in the isolation of cancer-targeting peptides by unbiased biopanning methods and highlights the use of the isolated peptides in clinical applications. PMID:20030617

  12. An Extended Proteome Map of the Lysosomal Membrane Reveals Novel Potential Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Chapel, Agnès; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Sagné, Corinne; Verdon, Quentin; Ivaldi, Corinne; Mellal, Mourad; Thirion, Jaqueline; Jadot, Michel; Bruley, Christophe; Garin, Jérôme; Gasnier, Bruno; Journet, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    Lysosomes are membrane-bound endocytic organelles that play a major role in degrading cell macromolecules and recycling their building blocks. A comprehensive knowledge of the lysosome function requires an extensive description of its content, an issue partially addressed by previous proteomic analyses. However, the proteins underlying many lysosomal membrane functions, including numerous membrane transporters, remain unidentified. We performed a comparative, semi-quantitative proteomic analysis of rat liver lysosome-enriched and lysosome-nonenriched membranes and used spectral counts to evaluate the relative abundance of proteins. Among a total of 2,385 identified proteins, 734 proteins were significantly enriched in the lysosomal fraction, including 207 proteins already known or predicted as endo-lysosomal and 94 proteins without any known or predicted subcellular localization. The remaining 433 proteins had been previously assigned to other subcellular compartments but may in fact reside on lysosomes either predominantly or as a secondary location. Many membrane-associated complexes implicated in diverse processes such as degradation, membrane trafficking, lysosome biogenesis, lysosome acidification, signaling, and nutrient sensing were enriched in the lysosomal fraction. They were identified to an unprecedented extent as most, if not all, of their subunits were found and retained by our screen. Numerous transporters were also identified, including 46 novel potentially lysosomal proteins. We expressed 12 candidates in HeLa cells and observed that most of them colocalized with the lysosomal marker LAMP1, thus confirming their lysosomal residency. This list of candidate lysosomal proteins substantially increases our knowledge of the lysosomal membrane and provides a basis for further characterization of lysosomal functions. PMID:23436907

  13. Parkinson's Disease Shares the Lysosome with Gaucher's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The second most common neurodegenerative disorder, Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age dependent progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement. While many of the causes of PD remain unclear, a consistent finding in PD is the abnormal accumulation of ?-synuclein that has lead to the widely held notion that PD is a synucleinopathy. In a recent Cell manuscript Mazzuli et al., provide a potential mechanistic link between Gaucher's disease, a glycolipid lysosomal storage disorder due to Glucocerebrocidase (GBA) deficiency and PD. The authors reveal a reciprocal connection between the loss of GBA activity and accumulation of ?-synuclein in the lysosome establishing a bidirectional positive feed back loop with pathologic consequences. These findings should stimulate further work on role of the lysosome in PD pathogenesis and the identification of new treatment strategies for PD. PMID:21753118

  14. Seriniquinone, a selective anticancer agent, induces cell death by autophagocytosis, targeting the cancer-protective protein dermcidin

    PubMed Central

    Trzoss, Lynnie; Fukuda, Takashi; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V.; Jimenez, Paula; La Clair, James J.; Fenical, William

    2014-01-01

    Natural products continue to provide vital treatment options for cancer. Although their translation into chemotherapeutics is complex, collaborative programs continue to deliver productive pipelines for cancer chemotherapy. A new natural product, seriniquinone, isolated from a marine bacterium of the genus Serinicoccus, demonstrated potent activity over a select set of tumor cell lines with particular selectivity toward melanoma cell lines. Upon entering the cell, its journey began by localization into the endoplasmic reticulum. Within 3 h, cells treated with seriniquinone underwent cell death marked by activation of autophagocytosis and gradually terminated through a caspase-9 apoptotic pathway. Using an immunoaffinity approach followed by multipoint validation, we identified the target of seriniquinone as the small protein, dermcidin. Combined, these findings revealed a small molecule motif in parallel with its therapeutic target, whose potential in cancer therapy may be significant. This discovery defines a new pharmacophore that displayed selective activity toward a distinct set of cell lines, predominantly melanoma, within the NCI 60 panel. This selectivity, along with the ease in medicinal chemical modification, provides a key opportunity to design and evaluate new treatments for those cancers that rely on dermcidin activity. Further, the use of dermcidin as a patient preselection biomarker may accelerate the development of more effective personalized treatments. PMID:25271322

  15. Lysosome Dysfunction Triggers Atg7-dependent Neural Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Ken C.; Ghosh, Arindam P.; Franklin, Aimee V.; Klocke, Barbara J.; Ballestas, Mary; Shacka, John J.; Zhang, Jianhua; Roth, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a process wherein bulk cytosolic proteins and damaged organelles are sequestered and degraded via the lysosome. Alterations in autophagy-associated proteins have been shown to cause neural tube closure defects, neurodegeneration, and tumor formation. Normal lysosome function is critical for autophagy completion and when altered may lead to an accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AVs) and caspase activation. The tumor suppressor p53 is highly expressed in neural precursor cells (NPCs) and has an important role in the regulation of both autophagy and apoptosis. We hypothesized that altered lysosome function would lead to NPC death via an interaction between autophagy- and apoptosis-associated proteins. To test our hypothesis, we utilized FGF2-expanded NPCs and the neural stem cell line, C17.2, in combination with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine (CQ) and the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1). Both CQ and Baf A1 caused concentration- and time-dependent AV accumulation, p53 phosphorylation, increased damage regulator autophagy modulator levels, caspase-3 activation, and cell death. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of Atg7, but not Beclin1, expression significantly inhibited CQ- and Baf A1-induced cell death, indicating that Atg7 is an upstream mediator of lysosome dysfunction-induced cell death. Cell death and/or caspase-3 activation was also attenuated by protein synthesis inhibition, p53 deficiency, or Bax deficiency, indicating involvement of the intrinsic apoptotic death pathway. In contrast to lysosome dysfunction, starvation-induced AV accumulation was inhibited by either Atg7 or Beclin1 knockdown, and Atg7 knockdown had no effect on starvation-induced death. These findings indicate that Atg7- and Beclin1-induced autophagy plays a cytoprotective role during starvation but that Atg7 has a unique pro-apoptotic function in response to lysosome dysfunction. PMID:20123985

  16. Secretion of lysosomal hydrolases by stimulated and nonstimulated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Peritoneal macrophages were obtained from untreated mice and from mice treated with thioglycollate medium (TA), proteose peptone medium (PP), or a suspension of streptococcus A cell wall material (SA). The biochemical and secretory properties of these cells in long term cultures (up to 2 wk) were compared. TA-elicited macrophages contained more protein, lactate dehydrogenase, lysosomal hydrolases, and in particular, more plasminogen activator than the other cells studied. All types of macrophages studied were found to release considerable amounts of lysosomal hydrolases (beta-glucuronidase, N-acetyl-beta- glucosaminidase, alpha-mannosidase, and acid phosphatase) into the medium. Release was independent of phagocytosis and must, therefore, be regarded as true secretion. In both elicited and nonelicited macrophages, the rates of lysosomal enzyme secretion were virtually identical in the presence and in the absence of serum, and they were not enhanced by increasing serum concentrations. Lysosomal enzyme secretion in macrophages appears to depend on protein synthesis, since it was blocked by low concentrations of cycloheximide which neither affected cell viability nor lowered the intracellular enzyme levels. The amounts of lysosomal hydrolases secreted were highest in TA- elicited macrophages. The rates of secretion of PP- or SA-elicited and of nonelicited macrophages were about one-fourth of that of the TA- elicited cells. This difference, although significant, is much smaller than that observed for the secretion of plasminogen activator which was 20-50 times higher in TA-elicited cells. Acid glycosidases were also found in the peritoneal lavage media used for cell harvesting from both treated and nontreated mice. This indicates that active secretion of lysosomal hydrolases may be an in vivo property of the macrophage. PMID:29935

  17. Genomic organization of the human lysosomal acid lipase gene (LIPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Aslandis, C.; Klima, H.; Lackner, K.J.; Schmitz, G. (Univ. of Regensburg (Germany))

    1994-03-15

    Defects in the human lysosomal acid lipase gene are responsible for cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) and Wolman disease. Exon skipping as the cause for CESD has been demonstrated. The authors present here a summary of the exon structure of the entire human lysosomal acid lipase gene consisting of 10 exons, together with the sizes of genomic EcoRI and SacI fragments hybridizing to each exon. In addition, the DNA sequence of the putative promoter region is presented. The EMBL accession numbers for adjacent intron sequences are given. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Lysosomal storage in Swainsona spp. toxicosis: an induced mannosidosis.

    PubMed

    Dorling, P R; Huxtable, C R; Vogel, P

    1978-01-01

    Ingestion of Swainsona spp. by grazing livestock results in a chronic disease characterized by neurological disturbances and intense vacuolation of cells in most organs. Experiments were carried out using Swainsona canescens and evidence is presented to show that tissues from affected animals contain high levels of mannose-rich oligosaccharides and that the plant contains an inhibitor of lysosomal alpha-mannosidase. It is concluded that ingestion of Swainsona induces a lysosomal storage disease, biochemically and morphologically similar to genetically determined mannosidosis. The role of this process in relation to Swainsona toxicosis is discussed. PMID:703929

  19. Targeted Multifunctional Nanoparticles cure and image Brain Tumors: Selective MRI Contrast Enhancement and Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelman, Raoul

    2008-03-01

    Aimed at targeted therapy and imaging of brain tumors, our approach uses targeted, multi-functional nano-particles (NP). A typical nano-particle contains a biologically inert, non-toxic matrix, biodegradable and bio-eliminable over a long time period. It also contains active components, such as fluorescent chemical indicators, photo-sensitizers, MRI contrast enhancement agents and optical imaging dyes. In addition, its surface contains molecular targeting units, e.g. peptides or antibodies, as well as a cloaking agent, to prevent uptake by the immune system, i.e. enabling control of the plasma residence time. These dynamic nano-platforms (DNP) contain contrast enhancement agents for the imaging (MRI, optical, photo-acoustic) of targeted locations, i.e. tumors. Added to this are targeted therapy agents, such as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). A simple protocol, for rats implanted with human brain cancer, consists of tail injection with DNPs, followed by 5 min red light illumination of the tumor region. It resulted in excellent cure statistics for 9L glioblastoma.

  20. The role of edges in the selection of a jump target in Mantis religiosa.

    PubMed

    Hyden, Karin; Kral, Karl

    2005-09-30

    Before jumping to a landing object, praying mantids determine the distance, using information obtained from retinal image motion resulting from horizontal peering movements. The present study investigates the peering-jump behaviour of Mantis religiosa larvae with regard to jump targets differing in shape and size. The experimental animals were presented with square, triangular and round target objects with visual extensions of 20 degrees and 40 degrees. The cardboard objects, presented against a uniform white background, were solid black or shaded with a gradation from white to black. It was found that larger objects were preferred to smaller ones as jump targets, and that the square and triangle were preferred to the round disk. When two objects were presented, no preference was exhibited between square and triangular objects. However, when three objects were presented, the square was preferred. For targets with a visual angle of 40 degrees, the amplitude and velocity of the horizontal peering movements were greater for the round disk than for the square or triangle. This amplification of the peering movements suggests that weaker motion signals are generated in the case of curved edges. This may help to account for the preference for the square and triangle as jump targets. PMID:16002235

  1. Lysoplex: An efficient toolkit to detect DNA sequence variations in the autophagy-lysosomal pathway.

    PubMed

    Di Fruscio, Giuseppina; Schulz, Angela; De Cegli, Rossella; Savarese, Marco; Mutarelli, Margherita; Parenti, Giancarlo; Banfi, Sandro; Braulke, Thomas; Nigro, Vincenzo; Ballabio, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    The autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP) regulates cell homeostasis and plays a crucial role in human diseases, such as lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) and common neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the identification of DNA sequence variations in genes involved in this pathway and their association with human diseases would have a significant impact on health. To this aim, we developed Lysoplex, a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach, which allowed us to obtain a uniform and accurate coding sequence coverage of a comprehensive set of 891 genes involved in lysosomal, endocytic, and autophagic pathways. Lysoplex was successfully validated on 14 different types of LSDs and then used to analyze 48 mutation-unknown patients with a clinical phenotype of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), a genetically heterogeneous subtype of LSD. Lysoplex allowed us to identify pathogenic mutations in 67% of patients, most of whom had been unsuccessfully analyzed by several sequencing approaches. In addition, in 3 patients, we found potential disease-causing variants in novel NCL candidate genes. We then compared the variant detection power of Lysoplex with data derived from public whole exome sequencing (WES) efforts. On average, a 50% higher number of validated amino acid changes and truncating variations per gene were identified. Overall, we identified 61 truncating sequence variations and 488 missense variations with a high probability to cause loss of function in a total of 316 genes. Interestingly, some loss-of-function variations of genes involved in the ALP pathway were found in homozygosity in the normal population, suggesting that their role is not essential. Thus, Lysoplex provided a comprehensive catalog of sequence variants in ALP genes and allows the assessment of their relevance in cell biology as well as their contribution to human disease. PMID:26075876

  2. Update on selective treatments targeting neutrophilic inflammation in atherogenesis and atherothrombosis.

    PubMed

    Gomes Quinderé, Ana Luíza; Benevides, Norma Maria Barros; Carbone, Federico; Mach, François; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2014-04-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common pathological process underlying cardiovascular diseases. Current therapies are largely focused on alleviating hyperlipidaemia and preventing thrombotic complications, but do not completely eliminate risk of suffering recurrent acute ischaemic events. Specifically targeting the inflammatory processes may help to reduce this residual risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in atherosclerotic patients. The involvement of neutrophils in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis is an emerging field, where evidence for their causal contribution during various stages of atherosclerosis is accumulating. Therefore, the identification of neutrophils as a potential therapeutic target may offer new therapeutic perspective to reduce the current atherosclerotic burden. This narrative review highlights the expanding role of neutrophils in atherogenesis and discusses on the potential treatment targeting neutrophil-related inflammation and associated atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. PMID:24285257

  3. Effects of Type and Strength of Force Feedback on Movement Time in a Target Selection Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorie, Robert Conrad; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Marayong, Panadda; Robles, Jose; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol

    2013-01-01

    Future cockpits will likely include new onboard technologies, such as cockpit displays of traffic information, to help support future flight deck roles and responsibilities. These new technologies may benefit from multimodal feedback to aid pilot information processing. The current study investigated the effects of multiple levels of force feedback on operator performance in an aviation task. Participants were presented with two different types of force feedback (gravitational and spring force feedback) for a discrete targeting task, with multiple levels of gain examined for each force feedback type. Approach time and time in target were recorded. Results suggested that the two highest levels of gravitational force significantly reduced approach times relative to the lowest level of gravitational force. Spring force level only affected time in target. Implications of these findings for the design of future cockpit displays will be discussed.

  4. Ferritin-stimulated lipid peroxidation, lysosomal leak, and macroautophagy promote lysosomal "metastability" in primary hepatocytes determining in vitro cell survival.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Margit A; Schürz, Melanie; Teufl, Bernhard; Uchida, Koji; Eckl, Peter M; Bresgen, Nikolaus

    2015-03-01

    Several pathologies are associated with elevated levels of serum ferritin, for which growth inhibitory properties have been reported; however, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly defined. Previously we have described cytotoxic properties of isoferritins released from primary hepatocytes in vitro, which induce apoptosis in an iron and oxidative stress-dependent mode. Here we show that this ferritin species stimulates endosome clustering and giant endosome formation in primary hepatocytes accompanied by enhanced lysosomal membrane permeability (LMP). In parallel, protein modification by lipid peroxidation-derived 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) is strongly promoted by ferritin, the HNE-modified proteins (HNE-P) showing remarkable aggregation. Emphasizing the prooxidant context, GSH is rapidly depleted and the GSH/GSSG ratio is substantially declining in ferritin-treated cells. Furthermore, ferritin triggers a transient upregulation of macroautophagy which is abolished by iron chelation and apparently supports HNE-P clearance. Macroautophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine strongly amplifies ferritin cytotoxicity in a time- and concentration-dependent mode, suggesting an important role of macroautophagy on cellular responses to ferritin endocytosis. Moreover, pointing at an involvement of lysosomal proteolysis, ferritin cytotoxicity and lysosome fragility are aggravated by the protease inhibitor leupeptin. In contrast, EGF which suppresses ferritin-induced cell death attenuates ferritin-mediated LMP. In conclusion, we propose that HNE-P accumulation, lysosome dysfunction, and macroautophagy stimulated by ferritin endocytosis provoke lysosomal "metastability" in primary hepatocytes which permits cell survival as long as in- and extrinsic determinants (e.g., antioxidant availability, damage repair, EGF signaling) keep the degree of lysosomal destabilization below cell death-inducing thresholds. PMID:25532933

  5. Emerging therapies for neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders - from concept to reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim M. Hemsley; John J. Hopwood

    Lysosomal storage disorders are inherited metabolic diseases in which a mutation in a gene encoding a lysosomal enzyme or\\u000a lysosome-related protein results in the intra-cellular accumulation of substrate and reduced cell\\/tissue function. Few patients\\u000a with neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders have access to safe and effective treatments although many therapeutic\\u000a strategies have been or are presently being studied in vivo thanks

  6. Useful methods for targeted plant selection in the discovery of potential new drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Schwikkard, Sianne L; Mulholland, Dulcie A

    2014-09-01

    The efficient and effective selection of appropriate plants for investigative purposes in a drug discovery program is of crucial importance for a successful outcome. A variety of approaches have been used by researchers with varying levels of success. A variety of different approaches to plant selection are discussed, including the ethnomedicinal approach, some ecological approaches, and the use of combinatorial and computational methodologies. PMID:24922276

  7. On and off-target effects of telomere uncapping G-quadruplex selective ligands based on pentacyclic acridinium salts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Quadruplexes DNA are present in telomeric DNA as well as in several cancer-related gene promoters and hence affect gene expression and subsequent biological processes. The conformations of G4 provide selective recognition sites for small molecules and thus these structures have become important drug-design targets for cancer treatment. The DNA G-quadruplex binding pentacyclic acridinium salt RHPS4 (1) has many pharmacological attributes of an ideal telomere-targeting agent but has undesirable off-target liabilities. Notably a cardiovascular effect was evident in a guinea pig model, manifested by a marked and sustained increase in QTcB interval. In accordance with this, significant interaction with the human recombinant ?2 adrenergic receptor, and M1, M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors was observed, together with a high inhibition of the hERG tail current tested in a patch clamp assay. Two related pentacyclic structures, the acetylamines (2) and (3), both show a modest interaction with ?2 adrenergic receptor, and do not significatively inhibit the hERG tail current while demonstrating potent telomere on-target properties comparing closely with 1. Of the two isomers, the 2-acetyl-aminopentacycle (2) more closely mimics the overall biological profile of 1 and this information will be used to guide further synthetic efforts to identify novel variants of this chemotype, to maximize on-target and minimize off-target activities. Consequently, the improvement of toxicological profile of these compounds could therefore lead to the obtainment of suitable molecules for clinical development offering new pharmacological strategies in cancer treatment. PMID:24330541

  8. Selective freezing of target biological tissues after injection of solutions with specific thermal properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tian-Hua Yu; Jing Liu; Yi-Xin Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Cryosurgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique that employs the destructive effect of freezing to eradicate undesirable tissues. This paper proposes a flexible method to control the size and shape of the iceball by injecting solutions with specific thermal properties into the target tissues, to enhance freezing damage to the diseased tissues while preserving the normal tissues from injury. The

  9. A structural annotation resource for the selection of putative target proteins in the malaria parasite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yolandi Joubert; Fourie Joubert

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Protein structure plays a pivotal role in elucidating mechanisms of parasite functioning and drug resistance. Moreover, protein structure aids the determination of protein function, which can together with the structure be used to identify novel drug targets in the parasite. However, various structural features in Plasmodium falciparum proteins complicate the experimental determination of protein structures. Limited similarity to proteins

  10. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 95, 267282, 2009 SENSOR SELECTION FOR TARGET TRACKING IN

    E-print Network

    So, Hing-Cheung

    . The effectiveness of the proposed methods is validated by computer simulation results in target tracking for WSNs. 1 years. The WSNs have wide applications in environmental, medical, food-safety and habitat monitoring, inventory control, home and building automation, homeland security and military initiatives [1, 2

  11. Structural genomics target selection for the New York consortium on membrane protein structure

    E-print Network

    Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    extract all annotated proteins from our reagent genomes, i.e. the 96 fully sequenced prokaryotic genomes Notations used Reagent genomes List of entirely sequenced organisms from which PSI clones its targets sequence SG Structural genomics TM Transmembrane TMH Transmembrane helix UPF Uncharacterized protein family

  12. A dual selection based, targeted gene replacement tool for Magnaporthe grisea and Fusarium oxysporum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang Hyun Khang; Sook-Young Park; Yong-Hwan Lee; Seogchan Kang

    2005-01-01

    Rapid progress in fungal genome sequencing presents many new opportunities for functional genomic analysis of fungal biology through the systematic mutagenesis of the genes identified through sequencing. However, the lack of efficient tools for targeted gene replacement is a limiting factor for fungal functional genomics, as it often necessitates the screening of a large number of transformants to identify the

  13. Folate-targeting magnetic core-shell nanocarriers for selective drug release and imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanjie; Wang, Sheng; Liao, Zhenyu; Zhao, Peiqi; Su, Wenya; Niu, Ruifang; Chang, Jin

    2012-07-01

    One of the most urgent medical requirements for cancer diagnosis and treatment is how to construct a multifunctional vesicle for simultaneous diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. In our study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals (SPIONs) and doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) are co-encapsulated into PLGA/polymeric liposome core-shell nanocarriers for achieving simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging and targeting drug delivery. The core-shell nanocarrier was self-assembled from a hydrophobic PLGA core and a hydrophilic folate coated PEGlated lipid shell. The experiment showed that folate-targeting magnetic core-shell nanocarriers show clear core-shell structure, excellent magnetism and controlled drug release behavior. Importantly, the core-shell nanoparticles achieve the possibility of co-delivering drugs and SPIONs to the same cells for enhancing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) effect and improving drug delivery efficiency simultaneously. Our data suggests that the folate-targeting magnetic core-shell nanocarriers (FMNs) could provide effective cancer-targeting and MRI as well as drug delivery. The FMNs may become a useful nanomedical carrier system for cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22525087

  14. Selective Search for Conjunctively Defined Targets by Children and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Edward C.; Lookadoo, Regan

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate age-related differences in visual search for targets defined by the conjunction of two features. In the experiments, 7- and 10-year-old children and young adults searched visual displays for a black circle among distractors consisting of gray circles and black squares. In Experiment 1 (N=60), we…

  15. Digestion of milk proteins and lysosomal proteinases of the ileal mucosa of young rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. R. Nikolaevskaya; M. P. Chernikov

    1979-01-01

    To study whether lysosomal proteinases of the ileal mucosa can participate in intraluminal digestion, the proteolytic activity of lysosomal and pancreatic proteinases was determined both in the chyme and in a homogenate of ileal and jejunal tissues from rats aged 12 and 30 days. In the period of milk feeding the proteolytic activity of acid (lysosomal) proteinases was shown to

  16. Lysosomal cholesterol derived from mildly oxidized low density lipoprotein is resistant to efflux

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia G. Yancey; W. Gray Jerome

    In atherosclerotic lesions, macrophages store lipid in cytoplasmic inclusions and lysosomes. Regression studies show that lysosomal lipid is not as easily cleared as cytoplasmic inclusion lipid. Macrophages enriched with mildly oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) accumu- late cholesteryl ester (CE) and free cholesterol (FC) in lyso- somes. We examined whether lysosomal stores of choles- terol from oxLDL are cleared from

  17. Selective pathogen targeting and macrophage evading carbon nanotubes through dextran sulfate coating and PEGylation for photothermal theranostics.

    PubMed

    Kotagiri, Nalinikanth; Lee, Ju Seok; Kim, Jin-Woo

    2013-06-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have shown promise as in vivo contrast nanoagents for medical theranostics, in particular photoacoustic and photothermal imaging and therapy, as well as targeted drug delivery systems. However, SWNTs have not proved able to evade biological obstacles, such as opsonization and phagocytosis by macrophage and nonspecific attachments to cells and other biological components in the bloodstream, before reaching target tissues and cells in vivo. Here, we demonstrate the stealth character of dextran sulfate (DS) coated SWNTs (DS-SWNTs) towards human macrophages and other biological barriers using Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial pathogen, as a model. DS-SWNTs were compared to PEGylated SWNTs, a commonly accepted standard for rendering nanoparticles immune to opsonization. Also a new site-specific conjugation strategy was developed to functionalize antibody (Ab) on DS-SWNT in an upright way, enhancing their targeting efficiency. DS coating was proved to be resistant to opsonins and bacterial cells, demonstrating its potential to provide considerable stealth.character to SWNTs with excellent immunity versus macrophages and other biological barriers, and achieve prolonged blood circulation times. Moreover, the hybrid nanoagents could not only selectively bind to target pathogenic cells upon the controlled Ab attachment but also effectively eradicate pathogens after near-infrared laser irradiation. PMID:23858965

  18. Direct Multiplex Assay of Lysosomal Enzymes in Dried Blood Spots for Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijun; Scott, C. Ronald; Chamoles, Nestor A.; Ghavami, Ahmad; Pinto, B. Mario; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Newborn screening for deficiency in the lysosomal enzymes that cause Fabry, Gaucher, Krabbe, Niemann–Pick A/B, and Pompe diseases is warranted because treatment for these syndromes is now available or anticipated in the near feature. We describe a multiplex screening method for all five lysosomal enzymes that uses newborn-screening cards containing dried blood spots as the enzyme source. Methods We used a cassette of substrates and internal standards to directly quantify the enzymatic activities, and tandem mass spectrometry for enzymatic product detection. Rehydrated dried blood spots were incubated with the enzyme substrates. We used liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction with silica gel to remove buffer components. Acarbose served as inhibitor of an interfering acid ?-glucosidase present in neutrophils, which allowed the lysosomal enzyme implicated in Pompe disease to be selectively analyzed. Results We analyzed dried blood spots from 5 patients with Gaucher, 5 with Niemann–Pick A/B, 11 with Pompe, 5 with Fabry, and 12 with Krabbe disease, and in all cases the enzyme activities were below the minimum activities measured in a collection of heterozygous carriers and healthy noncarrier individuals. The enzyme activities measured in 5–9 heterozygous carriers were approximately one-half those measured with 15–32 healthy individuals, but there was partial overlap of each condition between the data sets for carriers and healthy individuals. Conclusion For all five diseases, the affected individuals were detected. The assay can be readily automated, and the anticipated reagent and supply costs are well within the budget limits of newborn-screening centers. PMID:15292070

  19. Animal models for medications development targeting alcohol abuse using selectively bred rat lines: Neurobiological and pharmacological validity

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Richard L.; Sable, Helen J.K.; Colombo, Giancarlo; Hyytia, Petri; Rodd, Zachary A.; Lumeng, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to present evidence that rat animal models of alcoholism provide an ideal platform for developing and screening medications that target alcohol abuse and dependence. The focus is on the 5 oldest international rat lines that have been selectively bred for a high alcohol-consumption phenotype. The behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes of these rat lines are reviewed and placed in the context of the clinical literature. The paper presents behavioral models for assessing the efficacy of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence in rodents, with particular emphasis on rats. Drugs that have been tested for their effectiveness in reducing alcohol/ethanol consumption and/or self-administration by these rat lines and their putative site of action are summarized. The paper also presents some current and future directions for developing pharmacological treatments targeting alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:22841890

  20. Lysosomal enzyme activities of the bovine corneal endothelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Hara; Seiji Hayasaka; Katsuyoshi Mizuno

    1986-01-01

    A quantitative study was carried out on the lysosomal enzyme activities of the bovine corneal endothelium-Descemet's membrane preparation. The corneal endothelium and Descemet's membrane were peeled off together. Cathepsin D was assayed using hemoglobin as substrate;N-acetyl-?-

  1. Different fates of phagocytosed particles after delivery into macrophage lysosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Kyoung Oh; Joel A. Swanson

    1996-01-01

    Phagocytosis in macrophages is often studied using inert polymer microspheres. An implicit assump- tion in these studies is that such particles contain little or no specific information in their structure that affects their intracellular fate. We tested that assumption by examining macrophage phagosomes containing differ- ent kinds of particles and found that although all parti- cles progressed directly to lysosomes,

  2. A model of lysosomal pH regulation.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yoichi; Nayak, Smita; Mindell, Joseph A; Grabe, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Lysosomes must maintain an acidic luminal pH to activate hydrolytic enzymes and degrade internalized macromolecules. Acidification requires the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase to pump protons into the lumen and a counterion flux to neutralize the membrane potential created by proton accumulation. Early experiments suggested that the counterion was chloride, and more recently a pathway consistent with the ClC-7 Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter was identified. However, reports that the steady-state luminal pH is unaffected in ClC-7 knockout mice raise questions regarding the identity of the carrier and the counterion. Here, we measure the current-voltage characteristics of a mammalian ClC-7 antiporter, and we use its transport properties, together with other key ion regulating elements, to construct a mathematical model of lysosomal pH regulation. We show that results of in vitro lysosome experiments can only be explained by the presence of ClC-7, and that ClC-7 promotes greater acidification than Cl(-), K(+), or Na(+) channels. Our models predict strikingly different lysosomal K(+) dynamics depending on the major counterion pathways. However, given the lack of experimental data concerning acidification in vivo, the model cannot definitively rule out any given mechanism, but the model does provide concrete predictions for additional experiments that would clarify the identity of the counterion and its carrier. PMID:23712550

  3. Interaction of Streptomyces sp. VITSTK7 compounds with selected antifungal drug target enzymes by in silico molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Thenmozhi, M; Kannabiran, K

    2013-06-01

    Antifungal drugs are inhibitors either of fungal cell wall biosynthesis or essential reaction steps of fungal metabolic pathways. In silico studies have proved to be very effective on screening small molecules to be used as drugs and identifying essential reactions and pathways as targets. The aim of the present study was to predict the interactions of compounds present in the ethyl acetate extract of Streptomyces sp. VITSTK7 against selected fungal drug target enzymes. The ethyl acetate extract of the isolate showed significant anti-Aspergillus activity against the selected Aspergillus pathogens. Presence of the three compounds (C22H37NO7, C17H24N4O6 and C24H28N2O5) in the extract was identified by GC-MS spectra and matched with reference compounds available in the MS spectra library, NIST (National Institute for Standards and Technology). These compounds were analysed for the interaction with five selected fungal target proteins 1AFR, 1EA1, 1LKP, 1ZHX and 3PD73i3E. Docking was done using Patch dock beta 1.3 version and analysed by pymol 1.3 version. The tested compounds C22H37NO7, C17H24N4O6 and C24H28N2O5 showed least binding energy of -254.64 kcal/mol, -248.71 kcal/mol and -338.57 kcal/mol respectively with 1ZHX. The result of this study revealed that all the three compounds from the strain had higher interaction with 1ZHX protein than with the other proteins. It shows that this strain could be the promising source for the antifungal drug. PMID:23740396

  4. Selectivity and Efficiency of Late Transgene Expression by Transcriptionally Targeted Oncolytic Adenoviruses Are Dependent on the Transgene Insertion Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Quirin, Christina; Rohmer, Stanimira; Fernández-Ulibarri, Inés; Behr, Michael; Hesse, Andrea; Engelhardt, Sarah; Erbs, Philippe; Enk, Alexander H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Key challenges facing cancer therapy are the development of tumor-specific drugs and potent multimodal regimens. Oncolytic adenoviruses possess the potential to realize both aims by restricting virus replication to tumors and inserting therapeutic genes into the virus genome, respectively. A major effort in this regard is to express transgenes in a tumor-specific manner without affecting virus replication. Using both luciferase as a sensitive reporter and genetic prodrug activation, we show that promoter control of E1A facilitates highly selective expression of transgenes inserted into the late transcription unit. This, however, required multistep optimization of late transgene expression. Transgene insertion via internal ribosome entry site (IRES), splice acceptor (SA), or viral 2A sequences resulted in replication-dependent expression. Unexpectedly, analyses in appropriate substrates and with matching control viruses revealed that IRES and SA, but not 2A, facilitated indirect transgene targeting via tyrosinase promoter control of E1A. Transgene expression via SA was more selective (up to 1,500-fold) but less effective than via IRES. Notably, we also revealed transgene-dependent interference with splicing. Hence, the prodrug convertase FCU1 (a cytosine deaminase–uracil phosphoribosyltransferase fusion protein) was expressed only after optimizing the sequence surrounding the SA site and mutating a cryptic splice site within the transgene. The resulting tyrosinase promoter-regulated and FCU1-encoding adenovirus combined effective oncolysis with targeted prodrug activation therapy of melanoma. Thus, prodrug activation showed potent bystander killing and increased cytotoxicity of the virus up to 10-fold. We conclude that armed oncolytic viruses can be improved substantially by comparing and optimizing strategies for targeted transgene expression, thereby implementing selective and multimodal cancer therapies. PMID:20939692

  5. Genomic analysis identifies targets of convergent positive selection in drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Maha R; Shapiro, B Jesse; Kieser, Karen J; Sultana, Razvan; Jacobson, Karen R; Victor, Thomas C; Warren, Robin M; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Calver, Alistair; Sloutsky, Alex; Kaur, Devinder; Posey, Jamie E; Plikaytis, Bonnie; Oggioni, Marco R; Gardy, Jennifer L; Johnston, James C; Rodrigues, Mabel; Tang, Patrick K C; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Borowsky, Mark L; Muddukrishna, Bhavana; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Kurepina, Natalia; Galagan, James; Gagneux, Sebastien; Birren, Bruce; Rubin, Eric J; Lander, Eric S; Sabeti, Pardis C; Murray, Megan

    2013-10-01

    M. tuberculosis is evolving antibiotic resistance, threatening attempts at tuberculosis epidemic control. Mechanisms of resistance, including genetic changes favored by selection in resistant isolates, are incompletely understood. Using 116 newly sequenced and 7 previously sequenced M. tuberculosis whole genomes, we identified genome-wide signatures of positive selection specific to the 47 drug-resistant strains. By searching for convergent evolution--the independent fixation of mutations in the same nucleotide position or gene--we recovered 100% of a set of known resistance markers. We also found evidence of positive selection in an additional 39 genomic regions in resistant isolates. These regions encode components in cell wall biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation and DNA repair pathways. Mutations in these regions could directly confer resistance or compensate for fitness costs associated with resistance. Functional genetic analysis of mutations in one gene, ponA1, demonstrated an in vitro growth advantage in the presence of the drug rifampicin. PMID:23995135

  6. Tipping the MYC–MIZ1 balance: targeting the HUWE1 ubiquitin ligase selectively blocks MYC-activated genes

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Franz X; Cleveland, John L

    2014-01-01

    MYC family oncoproteins (MYC, N-MYC and L-MYC) function as basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors that are activated (i.e., overexpressed) in well over half of all human malignancies (Boxer & Dang, 2001; Beroukhim et al, 2010). In this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, Eilers and colleagues (Peter et al, 2014) describe a novel approach to disable MYC, whereby inhibition of the ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 stabilizes MIZ1 and leads to the selective repression of MYC-activated target genes. See also: S Peter et al (December 2014) PMID:25368331

  7. Acquisition of a “Group A”-Selective Src Kinase Inhibitor via A Global Targeting Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Hah, Jung-Mi; Sharma, Vyas; Li, Haishan; Lawrence, David S.

    2008-01-01

    A “global” strategy for the acquisition of selective high affinity inhibitors for the Src kinase subfamily of tyrosine kinases is described. Members of the Src family exhibit a strong amino acid sequence homology. However, recent studies have revealed differences in the relative spatial relationships of the three distinct protein-binding domains present in these enzymes. We have constructed an inhibitor, using an amalgamation of combinatorial methods and directed design, which simultaneously associates with the active site and an ancillary protein-binding region (SH2 domain). The inhibitor exhibits high inhibitory potency and selectivity for the Group A versus Group B subset of Src kinases. PMID:16669643

  8. Lysosomal dysfunction and impaired autophagy underlie the pathogenesis of amyloidogenic light chain-mediated cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jian; Mishra, Shikha; Qiu, Yiling; Shi, Jianru; Trudeau, Kyle; Las, Guy; Liesa, Marc; Shirihai, Orian S; Connors, Lawreen H; Seldin, David C; Falk, Rodney H; MacRae, Calum A; Liao, Ronglih

    2014-01-01

    AL amyloidosis is the consequence of clonal production of amyloidogenic immunoglobulin light chain (LC) proteins, often resulting in a rapidly progressive and fatal amyloid cardiomyopathy. Recent work has found that amyloidogenic LC directly initiate a cardio-toxic response underlying the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathy; however, the mechanisms that contribute to this proteotoxicity remain unknown. Using human amyloidogenic LC isolated from patients with amyloid cardiomyopathy, we reveal that dysregulation of autophagic flux is critical for mediating amyloidogenic LC proteotoxicity. Restoration of autophagic flux by pharmacological intervention using rapamycin protected against amyloidogenic light chain protein-induced pathologies including contractile dysfunction and cell death at the cellular and organ level and also prolonged survival in an in vivo zebrafish model of amyloid cardiotoxicity. Mechanistically, we identify impaired lysosomal function to be the major cause of defective autophagy and amyloidogenic LC-induced proteotoxicity. Collectively, these findings detail the downstream molecular mechanisms underlying AL amyloid cardiomyopathy and highlight potential targeting of autophagy and lysosomal dysfunction in patients with amyloid cardiomyopathy. PMID:25319546

  9. WIPI-1 Positive Autophagosome-Like Vesicles Entrap Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus for Lysosomal Degradation.

    PubMed

    Mauthe, Mario; Yu, Wenqi; Krut, Oleg; Krönke, Martin; Götz, Friedrich; Robenek, Horst; Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula

    2012-01-01

    Invading pathogens provoke the autophagic machinery and, in a process termed xenophagy, the host cell survives because autophagy is employed as a safeguard for pathogens that escaped phagosomes. However, some pathogens can manipulate the autophagic pathway and replicate within the niche of generated autophagosome-like vesicles. By automated fluorescence-based high content analyses, we demonstrate that Staphylococcus aureus strains (USA300, HG001, SA113) stimulate autophagy and become entrapped in intracellular PtdIns(3)P-enriched vesicles that are decorated with human WIPI-1, an essential PtdIns(3)P effector of canonical autophagy and membrane protein of both phagophores and autophagosomes. Further, agr-positive S. aureus (USA300, HG001) strains were more efficiently entrapped in WIPI-1 positive autophagosome-like vesicles when compared to agr-negative cells (SA113). By confocal and electron microscopy we provide evidence that single- and multiple-Staphylococci entrapped undergo cell division. Moreover, the number of WIPI-1 positive autophagosome-like vesicles entrapping Staphylococci significantly increased upon (i) lysosomal inhibition by bafilomycin A(1) and (ii) blocking PIKfyve-mediated PtdIns(3,5)P(2) generation by YM201636. In summary, our results provide evidence that the PtdIns(3)P effector function of WIPI-1 is utilized during xenophagy of Staphylococcus aureus. We suggest that invading S. aureus cells become entrapped in autophagosome-like WIPI-1 positive vesicles targeted for lysosomal degradation in nonprofessional host cells. PMID:22829830

  10. Selective identification of new therapeutic targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by IVIAT approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Deb; P. Dahiya; K. K. Srivastava; R. Srivastava; B. S. Srivastava

    2002-01-01

    The in vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT)1 has been used for the identification of open reading frames (ORFs) which could be possible therapeutic targets. A recombinant ?gt11:: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv expression library was screened with pooled TB patient sera preabsorbed with in vitro grown M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Preabsorption of pooled TB patient sera allowed identification of antigens specifically expressed or

  11. Killing mechanism of stable N-halamine cross-linked polymethacrylamide nanoparticles that selectively target bacteria.

    PubMed

    Natan, Michal; Gutman, Ori; Lavi, Ronit; Margel, Shlomo; Banin, Ehud

    2015-02-24

    Increased resistance of bacteria to disinfection and antimicrobial treatment poses a serious public health threat worldwide. This has prompted the search for agents that can inhibit both bacterial growth and withstand harsh conditions (e.g., high organic loads). In the current study, N-halamine-derivatized cross-linked polymethacrylamide nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by copolymerization of the monomer methacrylamide (MAA) and the cross-linker monomer N,N-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAA) and were subsequently loaded with oxidative chlorine using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The chlorinated NPs demonstrated remarkable stability and durability to organic reagents and to repetitive bacterial loading cycles as compared with the common disinfectant NaOCl (bleach), which was extremely labile under these conditions. The antibacterial mechanism of the cross-linked P(MAA-MBAA)-Cl NPs was found to involve generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) only upon exposure to organic media. Importantly, ROS were not generated upon suspension in water, revealing that the mode of action is target-specific. Further, a unique and specific interaction of the chlorinated NPs with Staphylococcus aureus was discovered, whereby these microorganisms were all specifically targeted and marked for destruction. This bacterial encircling was achieved without using a targeting module (e.g., an antibody or a ligand) and represents a highly beneficial, natural property of the P(MAA-MBAA)-Cl nanostructures. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of action of P(MAA-MBAA)-Cl NPs and demonstrate the superior efficacy of the NPs over bleach (i.e., stability, specificity, and targeting). This work underscores the potential of developing sustainable P(MAA-MBAA)-Cl NP-based devices for inhibiting bacterial colonization and growth. PMID:25602279

  12. 768. Redirected T Cells to Selectively Target Mature B Cell Derived Malignancies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Vera; Barbara Savoldo; Stephane Vigouroux; Ettore Biagi; Martin Pule; Claudia Rossig; Malcolm Brenner; Gianpietro Dotti

    2006-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of CD19 or CD20 chimeric artificial receptors (CARs) to T-lymphocytes has been proposed to treat B-cell malignancies. If successful, however, the approach would likely severely impair humoral immunity. Since low grade lymphomas express surface monoclonal immunoglobulins (Igs) carrying kappa (?) or lambda (?) light chain, we explored whether chimeric T-cells targeting these immunoglobulin chains could be used instead.

  13. Leaky lysosomes in lung transplant macrophages: azithromycin prevents oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lung allografts contain large amounts of iron (Fe), which inside lung macrophages may promote oxidative lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), cell death and inflammation. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) accumulates 1000-fold inside the acidic lysosomes and may interfere with the lysosomal pool of Fe. Objective Oxidative lysosomal leakage was assessed in lung macrophages from lung transplant recipients without or with AZM treatment and from healthy subjects. The efficiency of AZM to protect lysosomes and cells against oxidants was further assessed employing murine J774 macrophages. Methods Macrophages harvested from 8 transplant recipients (5 without and 3 with ongoing AZM treatment) and 7 healthy subjects, and J774 cells pre-treated with AZM, a high-molecular-weight derivative of the Fe chelator desferrioxamine or ammonium chloride were oxidatively stressed. LMP, cell death, Fe, reduced glutathione (GSH) and H-ferritin were assessed. Results Oxidant challenged macrophages from transplants recipients without AZM exhibited significantly more LMP and cell death than macrophages from healthy subjects. Those macrophages contained significantly more Fe, while GSH and H-ferritin did not differ significantly. Although macrophages from transplant recipients treated with AZM contained both significantly more Fe and less GSH, which would sensitize cells to oxidants, these macrophages resisted oxidant challenge well. The preventive effect of AZM on oxidative LMP and J774 cell death was 60 to 300 times greater than the other drugs tested. Conclusions AZM makes lung transplant macrophages and their lysososomes more resistant to oxidant challenge. Possibly, prevention of obliterative bronchiolitis in lung transplants by AZM is partly due to this action. PMID:23006592

  14. From triplex to B-form duplex stabilization: reversal of target selectivity by aminoglycoside dimers

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    stabilization shown by aminoglycoside dimers (neomycin­neomycin and neomycin­tobramycin). The dimers are highly the unexpected nucleic acid stabilization results observed in the presence of a tobramycin­neomycin and neomycin in selectivity for neomycin versus neomycin­tobramycin dimer at low temperature (Fig. 2). While the minimum

  15. Tricyclic covalent inhibitors selectively target Jak3 through an active site thiol.

    PubMed

    Goedken, Eric R; Argiriadi, Maria A; Banach, David L; Fiamengo, Bryan A; Foley, Sage E; Frank, Kristine E; George, Jonathan S; Harris, Christopher M; Hobson, Adrian D; Ihle, David C; Marcotte, Douglas; Merta, Philip J; Michalak, Mark E; Murdock, Sara E; Tomlinson, Medha J; Voss, Jeffrey W

    2015-02-20

    The action of Janus kinases (JAKs) is required for multiple cytokine signaling pathways, and as such, JAK inhibitors hold promise for treatment of autoimmune disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis. However, due to high similarity in the active sites of the four members (Jak1, Jak2, Jak3, and Tyk2), developing selective inhibitors within this family is challenging. We have designed and characterized substituted, tricyclic Jak3 inhibitors that selectively avoid inhibition of the other JAKs. This is accomplished through a covalent interaction between an inhibitor containing a terminal electrophile and an active site cysteine (Cys-909). We found that these ATP competitive compounds are irreversible inhibitors of Jak3 enzyme activity in vitro. They possess high selectivity against other kinases and can potently (IC50 < 100 nm) inhibit Jak3 activity in cell-based assays. These results suggest irreversible inhibitors of this class may be useful selective agents, both as tools to probe Jak3 biology and potentially as therapies for autoimmune diseases. PMID:25552479

  16. The pan erbB inhibitor PD168393 enhances lysosomal dysfunction-induced apoptotic death in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Latika; Kaza, Niroop; Lavalley, Nicholas J.; Turner, Kathryn L.; Byer, Stephanie; Carroll, Steven L.; Roth, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are rapidly progressive Schwann cell neoplasms. The erbB family of membrane tyrosine kinases has been implicated in MPNST mitogenesis and invasion and, thus, is a potential therapeutic target. However, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used alone have limited tumoricidal activity. Manipulating the autophagy lysosomal pathway in cells treated with cytostatic agents can promote apoptotic cell death in some cases. The goal of this study was to establish a mechanistic basis for formulating drug combinations to effectively trigger death in MPNST cells. We assessed the effects of the pan erbB inhibitor PD168393 on MPNST cell survival, caspase activation, and autophagy. PD168393 induced a cytostatic but not a cytotoxic response in MPNST cells that was accompanied by suppression of Akt and mTOR activation and increased autophagic activity. The effects of autophagy modulation on MPNST survival were then assessed following the induction of chloroquine (CQ)–induced lysosomal stress. In CQ-treated cells, suppression of autophagy was accompanied by increased caspase activation. In contrast, increased autophagy induction by inhibition of mTOR did not trigger cytotoxicity, possibly because of Akt activation. We thus hypothesized that dual targeting of mTOR and Akt by PD168393 would significantly increase cytotoxicity in cells exposed to lysosomal stress. We found that PD168393 and CQ in combination significantly increased cytotoxicity. We conclude that combinatorial therapies with erbB inhibitors and agents inducing lysosomal dysfunction may be an effective means of treating MPNSTs. PMID:22259051

  17. Sensitization to the Lysosomal Cell Death Pathway by Oncogene Induced Down-regulation of Lysosome-Associated Membrane Proteins 1 and 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Fehrenbacher; Lone Bastholm; Bo Rafn; Trine Bøttzauw; Christina Nielsen; Ekkehard Weber; Senji Shirasawa; Tuula Kallunki; Marja Jaattela

    Expression and activity of lysosomal cysteine cathepsins correlate with the metastatic capacity and aggressiveness of tumors. Here, we show that transformation of murine embryonic fibroblasts with v-H-ras or c-srcY527F changes the distribution, density, and ultrastructure of the lysosomes, decreases the levels of lysosome-associated membrane pro- teins (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2) in an extracellular signal- regulated kinase (ERK)- and cathepsin-dependent manner, and

  18. Bactericidal properties of lysosomal proteins obtained from human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) examined in vitro. I. Characteristics of obtained fractions of lysosomal proteins.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, M; Denys, A

    1980-06-01

    In the present investigation the fractions obtained from lysosomal proteins of human peripheral blood granulocytes were analysed morphologically. In the analysis a column with DEAE-cellulose and ultracentrifugation in stepwise saccharose were employed. Electro-microscopic examinations of every fraction of lysosomes pointed to their morphological differences; the highest contents of lysosomal bags was noted in fraction number III. Correlations between activity of "indicatory" enzymes and content of protein and bactericidal activity in four studied fractions were discovered. PMID:7001809

  19. ?2-microglobulin amyloid fibrils are nanoparticles that disrupt lysosomal membrane protein trafficking and inhibit protein degradation by lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Jakhria, Toral; Hellewell, Andrew L; Porter, Morwenna Y; Jackson, Matthew P; Tipping, Kevin W; Xue, Wei-Feng; Radford, Sheena E; Hewitt, Eric W

    2014-12-26

    Fragmentation of amyloid fibrils produces fibrils that are reduced in length but have an otherwise unchanged molecular architecture. The resultant nanoscale fibril particles inhibit the cellular reduction of the tetrazolium dye 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), a substrate commonly used to measure cell viability, to a greater extent than unfragmented fibrils. Here we show that the internalization of ?2-microglobulin (?2m) amyloid fibrils is dependent on fibril length, with fragmented fibrils being more efficiently internalized by cells. Correspondingly, inhibiting the internalization of fragmented ?2m fibrils rescued cellular MTT reduction. Incubation of cells with fragmented ?2m fibrils did not, however, cause cell death. Instead, fragmented ?2m fibrils accumulate in lysosomes, alter the trafficking of lysosomal membrane proteins, and inhibit the degradation of a model protein substrate by lysosomes. These findings suggest that nanoscale fibrils formed early during amyloid assembly reactions or by the fragmentation of longer fibrils could play a role in amyloid disease by disrupting protein degradation by lysosomes and trafficking in the endolysosomal pathway. PMID:25378395

  20. The SM Protein Car/Vps33A Regulates SNARE-mediated Trafficking to Lysosomes and Lysosome-related Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Mohammed A.; Ray, Sanchali

    2009-01-01

    The SM proteins Vps33A and Vps33B are believed to act in membrane fusions in endosomal pathways, but their specific roles are controversial. In Drosophila, Vps33A is the product of the carnation (car) gene. We generated a null allele of car to test its requirement for trafficking to different organelles. Complete loss of car function is lethal during larval development. Eye-specific loss of Car causes late, light-independent degeneration of photoreceptor cells. Earlier in these cells, two distinct phenotypes were detected. In young adults, autophagosomes amassed indicating that their fusion with lysosomes requires Car. In eye discs, endocytosed receptors and ligands accumulate in Rab7-positive prelysosomal compartments. The requirement of Car for late endosome-to-lysosome fusion in imaginal discs is specific as early endosomes are unaffected. Furthermore, lysosomal delivery is not restored by expression of dVps33B. This specificity reflects the distinct pattern of binding to different Syntaxins in vitro: dVps33B predominantly binds the early endosomal Avl and Car to dSyntaxin16. Consistent with a role in Car-mediated fusion, dSyntaxin16 is not restricted to Golgi membranes but also present on lysosomes. PMID:19158398

  1. The Fab1/PIKfyve phosphoinositide phosphate kinase is not necessary to maintain the pH of lysosomes and of the yeast vacuole.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cheuk Y; Choy, Christopher H; Wattson, Christina A; Johnson, Danielle E; Botelho, Roberto J

    2015-04-10

    Lysosomes and the yeast vacuole are degradative and acidic organelles. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2), a master architect of endolysosome and vacuole identity, is thought to be necessary for vacuolar acidification in yeast. There is also evidence that PtdIns(3,5)P2 may play a role in lysosomal acidification in higher eukaryotes. Nevertheless, these conclusions rely on qualitative assays of lysosome/vacuole pH. For example, quinacrine, an acidotropic fluorescent base, does not accumulate in the vacuoles of fab1? yeast. Fab1, along with its mammalian ortholog PIKfyve, is the lipid kinase responsible for synthesizing PtdIns(3,5)P2. In this study, we employed several assays that quantitatively assessed the lysosomal and vacuolar pH in PtdIns(3,5)P2-depleted cells. Using ratiometric imaging, we conclude that lysosomes retain a pH < 5 in PIKfyve-inhibited mammalian cells. In addition, quantitative fluorescence microscopy of vacuole-targeted pHluorin, a pH-sensitive GFP variant, indicates that fab1? vacuoles are as acidic as wild-type yeast. Importantly, we also employed fluorimetry of vacuoles loaded with cDCFDA, a pH-sensitive dye, to show that both wild-type and fab1? vacuoles have a pH < 5.0. In comparison, the vacuolar pH of the V-ATPase mutant vph1? or vph1? fab1? double mutant was 6.1. Although the steady-state vacuolar pH is not affected by PtdIns(3,5)P2 depletion, it may have a role in stabilizing the vacuolar pH during salt shock. Overall, we propose a model in which PtdIns(3,5)P2 does not govern the steady-state pH of vacuoles or lysosomes. PMID:25713145

  2. Genomics-driven reconstruction of acinetobacter NAD metabolism: insights for antibacterial target selection.

    PubMed

    Sorci, Leonardo; Blaby, Ian; De Ingeniis, Jessica; Gerdes, Svetlana; Raffaelli, Nadia; de Crécy Lagard, Valérie; Osterman, Andrei

    2010-12-10

    Enzymes involved in the last steps of NAD biogenesis, nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD) and NAD synthetase (NadE), are conserved and essential in most bacterial species and are established targets for antibacterial drug development. Our genomics-based reconstruction of NAD metabolism in the emerging pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii revealed unique features suggesting an alternative targeting strategy. Indeed, genomes of all analyzed Acinetobacter species do not encode NadD, which is functionally replaced by its distant homolog NadM. We combined bioinformatics with genetic and biochemical techniques to elucidate this and other important features of Acinetobacter NAD metabolism using a model (nonpathogenic) strain Acinetobacter baylyi sp. ADP1. Thus, a comparative kinetic characterization of PncA, PncB, and NadV enzymes allowed us to suggest distinct physiological roles for the two alternative, deamidating and nondeamidating, routes of nicotinamide salvage/recycling. The role of the NiaP transporter in both nicotinate and nicotinamide salvage was confirmed. The nondeamidating route was shown to be transcriptionally regulated by an ADP-ribose-responsive repressor NrtR. The NadM enzyme was shown to possess dual substrate specificity toward both nicotinate and nicotinamide mononucleotide substrates, which is consistent with its essential role in all three routes of NAD biogenesis, de novo synthesis as well as the two salvage pathways. The experimentally confirmed unconditional essentiality of nadM provided support for the choice of the respective enzyme as a drug target. In contrast, nadE, encoding a glutamine-dependent NAD synthetase, proved to be dispensable when the nondeamidating salvage pathway functioned as the only route of NAD biogenesis. PMID:20926389

  3. Selective uncoupling of individual mitochondria within a cell using a mitochondria-targeted photoactivated protonophore.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Susan; Caldwell, Stuart T; Quin, Caroline; Prime, Tracy A; James, Andrew M; Cairns, Andrew G; Murphy, Michael P; McCarron, John G; Hartley, Richard C

    2012-01-18

    Depolarization of an individual mitochondrion or small clusters of mitochondria within cells has been achieved using a photoactivatable probe. The probe is targeted to the matrix of the mitochondrion by an alkyltriphenylphosphonium lipophilic cation and releases the protonophore 2,4-dinitrophenol locally in predetermined regions in response to directed irradiation with UV light via a local photolysis system. This also provides a proof of principle for the general temporally and spatially controlled release of bioactive molecules, pharmacophores, or toxins to mitochondria with tissue, cell, or mitochondrion specificity. PMID:22239373

  4. 6-alkylsalicylates are selective Tip60 inhibitors and target the acetyl-CoA binding site

    PubMed Central

    Ghizzoni, Massimo; Wu, Jiang; Gao, Tielong; Haisma, Hidde J.; Dekker, Frank J.; Zheng, Y. George

    2011-01-01

    Histone acetyltransferases are important enzymes that regulate various cellular functions, such as epigenetic control of DNA transcription. Development of HAT inhibitors with high selectivity and potency will provide powerful mechanistic tools for the elucidation of the biological functions of HATs and may also have pharmacological value for potential new therapies. In this work, analogs of the known HAT inhibitor anacardic acid were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of HAT activity. Biochemical assays revealed novel anacardic acid analogs that inhibited the human recombinant enzyme Tip60 selectively compared to PCAF and p300. Enzyme kinetics studies demonstrated that inhibition of Tip60 by one such novel anacardic acid derive, 20, was essentially competitive with Ac-CoA and noncompetitive with the histone substrate. In addition, these HAT inhibitors effectively inhibited acetyltransferase activity of nuclear extracts on the histone H3 and H4 at micromolar concentrations. PMID:22100137

  5. mTor Regulates Lysosomal ATP-sensitive Two-Pore Na+ Channel to Adapt to Metabolic State

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Betsy; Seo, Young-jun; Aranda, Kimberly; Shi, Lucy; Battaglia-Hsu, Shyuefang; Nissim, Itzhak; Clapham, David E.; Ren, Dejian

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Survival in the wild requires organismal adaptations to the availability of nutrients. Endosomes and lysosomes are key intracellular organelles that couple nutrition and metabolic status to cellular responses, but how they detect cytosolic ATP levels is not well understood. Here we identify an endolysosomal ATP-sensitive Na+ channel (lysoNaATP). The channel is a complex formed by Two-Pore Channels (TPC1 and TPC2), ion channels previously thought to be gated by nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The channel complex detects nutrient status, becomes constitutively open upon nutrient removal and mTOR translocation off the lysosomal membrane, and controls the lysosome's membrane potential, pH stability, and the amino acid homeostasis. Mutant mice lacking lysoNaATP have much reduced exercise endurance after fasting. Thus, TPCs are a new ion channel family that couple the cell's metabolic state to endolysosomal function and are crucial for physical endurance during food restriction. PMID:23394946

  6. Selective inhibitors of nuclear export show that CRM1/XPO1 is a target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lapalombella, Rosa; Sun, Qingxiang; Williams, Katie; Tangeman, Larissa; Jha, Shruti; Zhong, Yiming; Goettl, Virginia; Mahoney, Emilia; Berglund, Caroline; Gupta, Sneha; Farmer, Alicia; Mani, Rajeswaran; Johnson, Amy J.; Lucas, David; Mo, Xiaokui; Daelemans, Dirk; Sandanayaka, Vincent; Shechter, Sharon; McCauley, Dilara; Shacham, Sharon; Kauffman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear export protein XPO1 is overexpressed in cancer, leading to the cytoplasmic mislocalization of multiple tumor suppressor proteins. Existing XPO1-targeting agents lack selectivity and have been associated with significant toxicity. Small molecule selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINEs) were designed that specifically inhibit XPO1. Genetic experiments and X-ray structures demonstrate that SINE covalently bind to a cysteine residue in the cargo-binding groove of XPO1, thereby inhibiting nuclear export of cargo proteins. The clinical relevance of SINEs was explored in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a disease associated with recurrent XPO1 mutations. Evidence is presented that SINEs can restore normal regulation to the majority of the dysregulated pathways in CLL both in vitro and in vivo and induce apoptosis of CLL cells with a favorable therapeutic index, with enhanced killing of genomically high-risk CLL cells that are typically unresponsive to traditional therapies. More importantly, SINE slows disease progression, and improves overall survival in the E?-TCL1-SCID mouse model of CLL with minimal weight loss or other toxicities. Together, these findings demonstrate that XPO1 is a valid target in CLL with minimal effects on normal cells and provide a basis for the development of SINEs in CLL and related hematologic malignancies. PMID:23034282

  7. Selective targeting of neuroblastoma tumour-initiating cells by compounds identified in stem cell-based small molecule screens

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kristen M; Datti, Alessandro; Fujitani, Mayumi; Grinshtein, Natalie; Zhang, Libo; Morozova, Olena; Blakely, Kim M; Rotenberg, Susan A; Hansford, Loen M; Miller, Freda D; Yeger, Herman; Irwin, Meredith S; Moffat, Jason; Marra, Marco A; Baruchel, Sylvain; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Kaplan, David R

    2010-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most deadly extra-cranial solid tumour in children necessitating an urgent need for effective and less toxic treatments. One reason for the lack of efficacious treatments may be the inability of existing drugs to target the tumour-initiating or cancer stem cell population responsible for sustaining tumour growth, metastases and relapse. Here, we describe a strategy to identify compounds that selectively target patient-derived cancer stem cell-like tumour-initiating cells (TICs) while sparing normal paediatric stem cells (skin-derived precursors, SKPs) and characterize two therapeutic candidates. DECA-14 and rapamycin were identified as NB TIC-selective agents. Both compounds induced TIC death at nanomolar concentrations in vitro, significantly reduced NB xenograft tumour weight in vivo, and dramatically decreased self-renewal or tumour-initiation capacity in treated tumours. These results demonstrate that differential drug sensitivities between TICs and normal paediatric stem cells can be exploited to identify novel, patient-specific and potentially less toxic therapies. PMID:20721990

  8. Targeted Toxin-Based Selectable Drug-Free Enrichment of Mammalian Cells with High Transgene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masahiro; Akasaka, Eri; Saitoh, Issei; Ohtsuka, Masato; Nakamura, Shingo; Sakurai, Takayuki; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Almost all transfection protocols for mammalian cells use a drug resistance gene for the selection of transfected cells. However, it always requires the characterization of each isolated clone regarding transgene expression, which is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In the current study, we developed a novel method to selectively isolate clones with high transgene expression without drug selection. Porcine embryonic fibroblasts were transfected with pCEIEnd, an expression vector that simultaneously expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and endo-?-galactosidase C(EndoGalC; an enzyme capable of digesting cell surface ?-Gal epitope) upon transfection. After transfection, the surviving cells were briefly treated with IB4SAP (?-Gal epitope-specific BS-I-B4 lectin conjugated with a toxin saporin). The treated cells were then allowed to grow in normal medium, during which only cells strongly expressing EndoGalC and EGFP would survive because of the absence of ?-Gal epitopes on their cell surface. Almost all the surviving colonies after IB4SAP treatment were in fact negative for BS-I-B4 staining, and also strongly expressed EGFP. This system would be particularly valuable for researchers who wish to perform large-scale production of therapeutically important recombinant proteins. PMID:24832665

  9. Endocytic delivery to lysosomes mediated by concurrent fusion and kissing events in living cells.

    PubMed

    Bright, Nicholas A; Gratian, Matthew J; Luzio, J Paul

    2005-02-22

    In mammalian cells, macromolecules internalized by endocytosis are transported via endosomes for digestion by lysosomal acid hydrolases . The mechanism by which endosomes and lysosomes exchange content remains equivocal . However, lysosomes are reusable organelles because they remain accessible to endocytic enzyme replacement therapies and undergo content mixing with late endosomes . The maturation model, which proposes that endosomes mature into lysosomes , cannot explain these observations. Three mechanisms for content mixing have been proposed. The first is vesicular transport, best supported by a yeast cell-free assay . The second suggests that endosomes and lysosomes engage in repeated transient fusions termed "kiss-and-run" . The third is that endosomes and lysosomes fuse completely, yielding hybrid compartments from which lysosomes reform , termed "fusion-fission" . We utilized time-lapse confocal microscopy to test these hypotheses in living cells. Lysosomes were loaded with rhodamine dextran by pulse-chase, and subsequently late endosomes were loaded with Oregon green 488 dextran. Direct fusions were observed between endosomes and lysosomes, and one such event was captured by correlative electron microscopy. Fluorescence intensity analyses of endosomes that encountered lysosomes revealed a gradual accumulation of lysosomal content. Our data are compatible with a requirement for direct contact between organelles before content is exchanged. PMID:15723798

  10. Selective ?v integrin depletion identifies a core, targetable molecular pathway that regulates fibrosis across solid organs

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Neil C; Arnold, Thomas D; Katamura, Yoshio; Giacomini, Marilyn M; Rodriguez, Juan D; McCarty, Joseph H; Pellicoro, Antonella; Raschperger, Elisabeth; Betsholtz, Christer; Ruminski, Peter G; Griggs, David W; Prinsen, Michael J; Maher, Jacquelyn J; Iredale, John P; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Adams, Ralf H; Sheppard, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Myofibroblasts are the major source of extracellular matrix components that accumulate during tissue fibrosis, and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major source of myofibroblasts in the liver. To date, robust systems to genetically manipulate these cells have not existed. We report that Pdgfrb-Cre inactivates genes in murine HSCs with high efficiency. We used this system to delete the ?v integrin subunit because of the suggested role of multiple ?v integrins as central mediators of fibrosis in multiple organs. Depletion of the ?v integrin subunit in HSCs protected mice from CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis, whereas global loss of ?v?3, ?v?5 or ?v?6 or conditional loss of ?v?8 on HSCs did not. Pdgfrb-Cre effectively targeted myofibroblasts in multiple organs, and depletion of ?v integrins using this system was also protective in models of pulmonary and renal fibrosis. Critically, pharmacological blockade of ?v integrins by a novel small molecule (CWHM 12) attenuated both liver and lung fibrosis, even when administered after fibrosis was established. These data identify a core pathway that regulates fibrosis, and suggest that pharmacological targeting of all ?v integrins may have clinical utility in the treatment of patients with a broad range of fibrotic diseases. PMID:24216753

  11. Lysosomal and mitochondrial pathways in miltefosine-induced apoptosis in U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Paris, Caroline; Bertoglio, Jacques; Bréard, Jacqueline

    2007-07-01

    Hexadecylphosphocholine (HePC) is an anticancer agent whose effect has been shown to involve apoptosis induction but the signaling pathways leading to apoptosis remain to be elucidated. We show here that HePC induces activation of caspase-9, -3, and -8 via the intrinsic pathway, release of cytochrome c, activation and relocation of Bax to the mitochondria as well as the cleavage of Bid. Moreover, a lysosomal pathway characterized by partial lysosomal rupture, cathepsin B activation and relocation from lysosomes to the cytosol, is involved in HePC-induced apoptosis. A cathepsin B/L inhibitor partially suppresses caspase activation and apoptosis induction, indicating signaling between lysosomes and mitochondria. Conversely, the pancaspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPH inhibits lysosomal rupture, but only at early time points, suggesting that immediate lysosomal rupture involves caspases. Overexpression of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein known to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction, totally abrogates lysosomal destabilization and cell death. PMID:17347868

  12. Fungal sterol C22-desaturase is not an antimycotic target as shown by selective inhibitors and testing on clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christoph; Binder, Ulrike; Maurer, Elisabeth; Grimm, Christian; Giera, Martin; Bracher, Franz

    2015-09-01

    Inhibition of concise enzymes in ergosterol biosynthesis is one of the most prominent strategies for antifungal chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the enzymes sterol C5-desaturase and sterol C22-desaturase, which introduce double bonds into the sterol core and side chain, have not been fully investigated yet for their potential as antifungal drug targets. Lathosterol side chain amides bearing N-alkyl groups of proper length are known as potent inhibitors of the enzymes sterol C5-desaturase and sterol ?(24)-reductase in mammalian cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we present the results of our evaluation of these amides for their ability to inhibit enzymes in fungal ergosterol biosynthesis. In the presence of inhibitor(s) an accumulation of sterols lacking a double bond at C22/23 (mainly ergosta-5,7-dien-3?-ol) was observed in Candida glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Hence, the lathosterol side chain amides were identified as selective inhibitors of the fungal sterol C22-desaturase, which was discussed as a specific target for novel antifungals. One representative inhibitor, (3S,20S)-20-N-butylcarbamoylpregn-7-en-3?-ol was subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing on patient isolates according to modified EUCAST guidelines. But, the test organisms showed no significant reduction of cell growth and/or viability up to an inhibitor concentration of 100?g/mL. This leads to the conclusion that sterol C22-desaturase is not an attractive target for the development of antifungals. PMID:26022150

  13. Partial Restoration of Mutant Enzyme Homeostasis in Three Distinct Lysosomal Storage Disease Cell Lines by Altering Calcium Homeostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting-Wei Mu; Douglas M Fowler; Jeffery W Kelly

    2008-01-01

    A lysosomal storage disease (LSD) results from deficient lysosomal enzyme activity, thus the substrate of the mutant enzyme accumulates in the lysosome, leading to pathology. In many but not all LSDs, the clinically most important mutations compromise the cellular folding of the enzyme, subjecting it to endoplasmic reticulum–associated degradation instead of proper folding and lysosomal trafficking. A small molecule that

  14. Dexamphetamine selectively increases 40 Hz auditory steady state response power to target and nontarget stimuli in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Matthew A.; Price, Greg; Lee, Joseph; Iyyalol, Rajan; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T.

    2013-01-01

    Background An emerging endophenotype of schizophrenia is the reduction of both power and phase locking of the 40 Hz auditory steady state response (ASSR), and there have been a number of reports linking increased ? activity with positive psychotic symptoms. Schizophrenia and, more specifically, positive psychotic symptoms have been closely linked to increased dopamine (DA) neurophysiology. Therefore, we gave dexamphetamine to healthy participants to determine the effect that increased DA transmission would have on the ASSR. Methods We administered 0.45 mg/kg of dexamphetamine orally in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Stimuli were 20 Hz and 40 Hz click trains presented in an auditory oddball-type stimulus format (probability of stimulus presentation: 0.2 for targets, 0.8 for nontargets). Results We included 44 healthy volunteers (18 women) in the study. Dexamphetamine significantly increased the 40 Hz power for both target and nontarget ASSR stimuli. Dexamphetamine did not significantly affect the 40 Hz phase-locking factor (PLF) or the 20 Hz power and PLF. Whereas there were significant effects of selective attention on power and PLF for 20 and 40 Hz ASSR, there were no significant interactions between dexamphetamine and selective attention. Limitations Dexampheta-mine releases both noradrenaline and DA with equal potency. Further research with selective dopaminergic and noradrenergic agents will better characterize the effects of monoamines on ? activity. Conclusion The results demonstrate a frequency-specific effect of dexamphetamine on the ASSR. This finding is consistent with previous research that has found an association between increased ? and positive symptoms of psychosis. However, this result also raises the possibility that previous 40 Hz ASSR findings in people with schizophrenia may be confounded by effects of antipsychotic medication. Possible neural mechanisms by which dexamphetamine specifically increases 40 Hz power are also discussed. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number ACTRN12608000610336. PMID:22894820

  15. LuIII parvovirus selectively and efficiently targets, replicates in, and kills human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Paglino, Justin C; Ozduman, Koray; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2012-07-01

    Because productive infection by parvoviruses requires cell division and is enhanced by oncogenic transformation, some parvoviruses may have potential utility in killing cancer cells. To identify the parvovirus(es) with the optimal oncolytic effect against human glioblastomas, we screened 12 parvoviruses at a high multiplicity of infection (MOI). MVMi, MVMc, MVM-G17, tumor virus X (TVX), canine parvovirus (CPV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), rat parvovirus 1A (RPV1A), and H-3 were relatively ineffective. The four viruses with the greatest oncolytic activity, LuIII, H-1, MVMp, and MVM-G52, were tested for the ability, at a low MOI, to progressively infect the culture over time, causing cell death at a rate higher than that of cell proliferation. LuIII alone was effective in all five human glioblastomas tested. H-1 progressively infected only two of five; MVMp and MVM-G52 were ineffective in all five. To investigate the underlying mechanism of LuIII's phenotype, we used recombinant parvoviruses with the LuIII capsid replacing the MVMp capsid or with molecular alteration of the P4 promoter. The LuIII capsid enhanced efficient replication and oncolysis in MO59J gliomas cells; other gliomas tested required the entire LuIII genome to exhibit enhanced infection. LuIII selectively infected glioma cells over normal glial cells in vitro. In mouse models, human glioblastoma xenografts were selectively infected by LuIII when administered intratumorally; LuIII reduced tumor growth by 75%. LuIII also had the capacity to selectively infect subcutaneous or intracranial gliomas after intravenous inoculation. Intravenous or intracranial LuIII caused no adverse effects. Intracranial LuIII caused no infection of mature mouse neurons or glia in vivo but showed a modest infection of developing neurons. PMID:22553327

  16. Model-specific selection of molecular targets for heart failure gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Michael G.; Fargnoli, Anthony S.; Tomasulo, Catherine E.; Pritchette, Louella A.; Bridges, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex multifaceted problem of abnormal ventricular function and structure. In recent years, new information has been accumulated allowing for a more detailed understanding of the cellular and molecular alterations that are the underpinnings of diverse causes of HF, including myocardial ischemia, pressure-overload, volume-overload or intrinsic cardiomyopathy. Modern pharmacological approaches to treat HF have had a significant impact on the course of the disease, although they do not reverse the underlying pathological state of the heart. Therefore gene-based therapy holds a great potential as a targeted treatment for cardiovascular diseases. Here, we survey the relative therapeutic efficacy of genetic modulation of ?-adrenergic receptor signaling, Ca2+ handling proteins and angiogenesis in the most common extrinsic models of HF. PMID:21954055

  17. Selectively targeting Mcl-1 for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia and solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gores, Gregory J.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2012-01-01

    Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, and A1 are the predominant anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family in somatic cells. Malignant B lymphocytes are critically dependent on Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL for survival. In contrast, a new study by Glaser and colleagues in the January 15, 2012, issue of Genes & Development (pp. 120–125) demonstrates that Mcl-1 is essential for development and survival of acute myelogenous leukemia cells. These results provide new impetus for the generation of selective Mcl-1 inhibitors. PMID:22345513

  18. Selective RNase H cleavage of target RNAs from a tRNA scaffold.

    PubMed

    Ponchon, Luc; Beauvais, Geneviève; Nonin-Lecomte, Sylvie; Dardel, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    In vivo overproduction of tRNA chimeras yields an RNA insert within a tRNA scaffold. For some applications, it may be necessary to discard the scaffold. Here we present a protocol for selective cleavage of the RNA of interest from the tRNA scaffold, using RNase H and two DNA oligonucleotides. After cleavage, we show that the RNA of interest can be isolated in a one-step purification. This method has, in particular, applications in structural investigations of RNA. PMID:23065550

  19. Unnatural Polyketide Analogues Selectively Target the HER Signaling Pathway in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seok Joon; Kim, Moon Il; Ku, Bosung; Coulombel, Lydie; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Shawky, Joseph H.; Linhardt, Robert J.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases are critical targets for the regulation of cell survival. Cancer patients with abnormal receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) tend to have more aggressive disease with poor clinical outcomes. As a result, human epidermal growth factor receptor kinases, such as EGFR (HER1), HER2, and HER3, represent important therapeutic targets. Several plant polyphenols including the type III polyketide synthase products (genistein, curcumin, resveratrol, and epigallocatechin-3-galate) possess chemopreventive activity, primarily as a result of RTK inhibition. However, only a small fraction of the polyphenolic structural universe has been evaluated. Along these lines, we have developed an in vitro route to the synthesis and subsequent screening of unnatural polyketide analogs with N-acetylcysteamine (SNAc) starter substrates and malonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and methylmalonyl-CoA as extender substrates. The resulting polyketide analogs possessed a similar strucutral polyketide backbone (aromatic-2-pyrone) with variable side chains. Screening chalcone synthase (CHS) reaction products against BT-474 cells resulted in identification of several trifluoromethylcinnamoyl-based polyketides that showed strong suppression of the HER2-associated PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, yet did not inhibit the growth of nontransformed MCF-10A breast cells (IC50 > 100 µm). Specifically, 4-trifluoromethylcinnamoyl pyrone (compound 2e) was highly potent (IC50 < 200 nm) among the test compounds toward proliferation of several breast cancer cell lines. This breadth of activity likely stems from the ability of compound 2e to inhibit the phosphorylation of HER1, HER2, and HER3. Therefore, these polyketide analogs might prove to be useful drug candidates for potential breast cancer therapy. PMID:20058253

  20. Targeting ferritin receptors for the selective delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents to breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Geninatti Crich, S; Cadenazzi, M; Lanzardo, S; Conti, L; Ruiu, R; Alberti, D; Cavallo, F; Cutrin, J C; Aime, S

    2015-04-21

    In this work the selective uptake of native horse spleen ferritin and apoferritin loaded with MRI contrast agents has been assessed in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). The higher expression of L-ferritin receptors (SCARA5) led to an enhanced uptake in MCF-7 as shown in T2 and T1 weighted MR images, respectively. The high efficiency of ferritin internalization in MCF-7 has been exploited for the simultaneous delivery of curcumin, a natural therapeutic molecule endowed with antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory action, and the MRI contrast agent Gd-HPDO3A. This theranostic system is able to treat selectively breast cancer cells over-expressing ferritin receptors. By entrapping in apoferritin both Gd-HPDO3A and curcumin, it was possible to deliver a therapeutic dose of 167 ?g ml(-1) (as calculated by MRI) of this natural drug to MCF-7 cells, thus obtaining a significant reduction of cell proliferation. PMID:25786779

  1. Self-assembled pentablock copolymers for selective and sustained gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bingqi

    The poly(diethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDEAEM) - Pluronic F127 - PDEAEM pentablock copolymer (PB) gene delivery vector system has been found to possess an inherent selectivity in transfecting cancer cells over non-cancer cells in vitro, without attaching any targeting ligands. In order to understand the mechanism of this selective transfection, three possible intracellular barriers to transfection were investigated in both cancer and non-cancer cells. We concluded that escape from the endocytic pathway served as the primary intracellular barrier for PB-mediated transfection. Most likely, PB vectors were entrapped and rendered non-functional in acidic lysosomes of non-cancer cells, but survived in less acidic lysosomes of cancer cells. The work highlights the importance of identifying intracellular barriers for different gene delivery systems and provides a new paradigm for designing targeting vectors based on intracellular differences between cell types, rather than through the use of targeting ligands. The PB vector was further developed to simultaneously deliver anticancer drugs and genes, which showed a synergistic effect demonstrated by significantly enhanced gene expression in vitro. Due to the thermosensitive gelation behavior, the PB vector packaging both drug and gene was also investigated for its in vitro sustained release properties by using polyethylene glycol diacrylate as a barrier gel to mimic the tumor matrix in vivo . Overall, this work resulted in the development of a gene delivery vector for sustained and selective gene delivery to tumor cells for cancer therapy.

  2. Self-assembled pentablock copolymers for selective and sustained gene delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bingqi

    2011-05-15

    The poly(diethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDEAEM) - Pluronic F127 - PDEAEM pentablock copolymer (PB) gene delivery vector system has been found to possess an inherent selectivity in transfecting cancer cells over non-cancer cells in vitro, without attaching any targeting ligands. In order to understand the mechanism of this selective transfection, three possible intracellular barriers to transfection were investigated in both cancer and non-cancer cells. We concluded that escape from the endocytic pathway served as the primary intracellular barrier for PB-mediated transfection. Most likely, PB vectors were entrapped and rendered non-functional in acidic lysosomes of non-cancer cells, but survived in less acidic lysosomes of cancer cells. The work highlights the importance of identifying intracellular barriers for different gene delivery systems and provides a new paradigm for designing targeting vectors based on intracellular differences between cell types, rather than through the use of targeting ligands. The PB vector was further developed to simultaneously deliver anticancer drugs and genes, which showed a synergistic effect demonstrated by significantly enhanced gene expression in vitro. Due to the thermosensitive gelation behavior, the PB vector packaging both drug and gene was also investigated for its in vitro sustained release properties by using polyethylene glycol diacrylate as a barrier gel to mimic the tumor matrix in vivo. Overall, this work resulted in the development of a gene delivery vector for sustained and selective gene delivery to tumor cells for cancer therapy.

  3. Use of single stranded targeting DNA or negative selection does not further increase the efficiency of a GGTA1 promoter trap

    PubMed Central

    Beaton, Benjamin P.; Mao, Jiude; Murphy, Clifton N.; Samuel, Melissa S.; Prather, Randall S.; Wells, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Although several techniques have been developed to create gene knockouts in pigs, homologous recombination will continue to be required for site-specific genome modifications that are more sophisticated than gene disruption (base changes, domain exchanges, conditional knockouts). The objective of the present paper was to improve the efficiency of homologous recombination in porcine fetal fibroblasts, which would be used to produce gene knockout pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer. A promoter-trap was used to enable selection of GGTA1 targeted cells. Cells were transfected with either a single stranded or double stranded targeting vector, or a vector, with or without a negative selectable marker gene (diphtheria toxin-A). Although targeting efficiencies were numerically lower for single stranded targeting vectors, statistical differences could not be detected. Similarly, the use of a negative selectable marker (in cis or trans) provided numerically lower targeting efficiencies, statistical differences again could not be detected. Overall, the targeting efficiencies ranged from 1.5×10?5 to 2.5×10?6 targeting events per transfected cell. Given the results, it may be applicable to investigate multiple enrichment techniques for homologous recombination, given that every targeted locus is different. PMID:25309937

  4. Gaucher's disease: the changing paradigm of a lysosomal disorder.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Atul

    2011-09-01

    Gaucher's disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disease with a frequency of approximately 1:50,000 people. It is the result of the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme beta-glucocerebrosidase. The deficiency of the enzyme results in the accumulation of the substrate, glucosyl-ceramide, in the organs. Substitutive enzymatic treatment has been available since almost 20 years. This brief overview highlights some of the most important milestones and the treatments for this disease. The study of this rare disorder is beginning to provide information on the pathogenesis of common diseases such as Parkinson's disease or cancer. Individuals with GD are at greater risk of developing cancer in general, especially hepatobiliary and hematologic (multiple myeloma and B-cell neoplasms). This association has been attributed to the immunologic abnormalities associated with abnormal expression of cytokines such as interleukin-6. Alternative and complementary, some recently marketed and licensed, are providing options for patients throughout Europe and the world. PMID:22230118

  5. Intact Lysosome Transport and Phagosome Function Despite Kinectin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Plitz, Thomas; Pfeffer, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of cargo coupling to kinesin motor proteins is a fundamental issue in organelle transport along microtubules. Kinectin has been postulated to function as a membrane anchor protein that attaches various organelles to the prototype motor protein kinesin. To verify the biological relevance of kinectin in vivo, the murine kinectin gene was disrupted by homologous recombination. Unexpectedly, kinectin-deficient mice were viable and fertile, and no gross abnormalities were observed up to 1 year of age. The assembly of the endoplasmic reticulum was essentially unaffected in kinectin-deficient cells. Mitochondria appeared to be correctly distributed throughout the cytoplasm along the microtubules. Furthermore, the stationary distribution and the bidirectional movement of lysosomes did not depend on kinectin. Kinectin-deficient phagocytes internalized and cleared bacteria, indicating that phagosome trafficking and maturation are functional without kinectin. Thus, these data unequivocally indicate that kinectin is not essential for trafficking of lysosomes, phagosomes, and mitochondria in vivo. PMID:11486041

  6. LINGO-1 promotes lysosomal degradation of amyloid-? protein precursor

    PubMed Central

    de Laat, Rian; Meabon, James S.; Wiley, Jesse C.; Hudson, Mark P.; Montine, Thomas J.; Bothwell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sequential proteolytic cleavages of amyloid-? protein precursor (A?PP) by ?-secretase and ?-secretase generate amyloid ? (A?) peptides, which are thought to contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Much of this processing occurs in endosomes following endocytosis of A?PP from the plasma membrane. However, this pathogenic mode of processing A?PP may occur in competition with lysosomal degradation of A?PP, a common fate of membrane proteins trafficking through the endosomal system. Following up on published reports that LINGO-1 binds and promotes the amyloidogenic processing of A?PP we have examined the consequences of LINGO-1/A?PP interactions. We report that LINGO-1 and its paralogs, LINGO-2 and LINGO-3, decrease processing of A?PP in the amyloidogenic pathway by promoting lysosomal degradation of A?PP. We also report that LINGO-1 levels are reduced in AD brain, representing a possible pathogenic mechanism stimulating the generation of A? peptides in AD. PMID:25758563

  7. Direct multiplex assay of enzymes in dried blood spots by tandem mass spectrometry for the newborn screening of lysosomal storage disorders

    PubMed Central

    Turecek, Frantisek; Scott, C. Ron; Chamoles, Nestor A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Tandem mass spectrometry is currently used in newborn screening programmes to quantify the level of amino acids and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots for detection of metabolites associated with treatable diseases. We have developed assays for lysosomal enzymes in re-hydrated dried blood spots in which a set of substrates is added and the set of corresponding enzymatic products are quantified using tandem mass spectrometry with the aid of mass-differentiated internal standards. We have developed a multiplex assay of the set of enzymes that, when deficient, cause the lysosomal storage disorders Fabry, Gaucher, Hurler, Krabbe, Niemann–Pick A/B and Pompe diseases. These diseases were selected because treatments are now available or expected to emerge shortly. The discovery that acarbose is a selective inhibitor of maltase glucoamylase allows the Pompe disease enzyme, acid ?-glucosidase, to be selectively assayed in white blood cells and dried blood spots. When tested with dried blood spots from 40 unaffected individuals and 10–12 individuals with the lysosomal storage disorder, the tandem mass spectrometry assay led to the correct identification of the affected individuals with 100% sensitivity. Many of the reagents needed for the new assays are commercially available, and those that are not are being prepared under Good Manufacturing Procedures for approval by the FDA. Our newborn screening assay for Krabbe disease is currently being put in place at the Wadsworth Center in New York State for the analysis of ~1000 dried blood spots per day. Summary We have developed tandem mass spectrometry for the direct assay of lysosomal enzymes in rehydrated dried blood spots that can be implemented for newborn screening of lysosomal storage disorders. Several enzymes can be analysed by a single method (multiplex analysis) and in a high-throughput manner appropriate for newborn screening laboratories. PMID:16763908

  8. The HCMV membrane glycoprotein US10 selectively targets HLA-G for degradation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoun; Spooner, Eric; Houser, Brandy L.; Strominger, Jack L.

    2010-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident transmembrane glycoprotein, US10, expressed early in the replicative cycle of HCMV as part of the same cluster that encodes the known immunoevasins US2, US3, US6, and US11. We show that US10 down-regulates cell surface expression of HLA-G, but not that of classical class I MHC molecules. The unique and short cytoplasmic tail of HLA-G (RKKSSD) is essential in its role as a US10 substrate, and a tri-leucine motif in the cytoplasmic tail of US10 is responsible for down-regulation of HLA-G. Both the kinetics of HLA-G degradation and the mechanisms responsible appear to be distinct from those used by the US2 and US11 pathways, suggesting the existence of a third route of protein dislocation from the ER. We show that US10-mediated degradation of HLA-G interferes with HLA-G–mediated NK cell inhibition. Given the role of HLA-G in protecting the fetus from attack by the maternal immune system and in directing the differentiation of human dendritic cells to promote the evolution of regulatory T cells, HCMV likely targets the HLA-G–dependent axis of immune recognition no less efficiently than it interferes with classical class I MHC–restricted antigen presentation. PMID:20713594

  9. Recombinant HIV envelope trimer selects for quaternary-dependent antibodies targeting the trimer apex.

    PubMed

    Sok, Devin; van Gils, Marit J; Pauthner, Matthias; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Saye-Francisco, Karen L; Hsueh, Jessica; Briney, Bryan; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Le, Khoa M; Lee, Peter S; Hua, Yuanzi; Seaman, Michael S; Moore, John P; Ward, Andrew B; Wilson, Ian A; Sanders, Rogier W; Burton, Dennis R

    2014-12-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeting the trimer apex of HIV envelope are favored candidates for vaccine design and immunotherapy because of their great neutralization breadth and potency. However, methods of isolating bnAbs against this site have been limited by the quaternary nature of the epitope region. Here we report the use of a recombinant HIV envelope trimer, BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140, as an affinity reagent to isolate quaternary-dependent bnAbs from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a chronically infected donor. The newly isolated bnAbs, named "PGDM1400-1412," show a wide range of neutralization breadth and potency. One of these variants, PGDM1400, is exceptionally broad and potent with cross-clade neutralization coverage of 83% at a median IC50 of 0.003 µg/mL. Overall, our results highlight the utility of BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140 as a tool for the isolation of quaternary-dependent antibodies and reveal a mosaic of antibody responses against the trimer apex within a clonal family. PMID:25422458

  10. Selective freezing of target biological tissues after injection of solutions with specific thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian-Hua; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Yi-Xin

    2005-04-01

    Cryosurgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique that employs the destructive effect of freezing to eradicate undesirable tissues. This paper proposes a flexible method to control the size and shape of the iceball by injecting solutions with specific thermal properties into the target tissues, to enhance freezing damage to the diseased tissues while preserving the normal tissues from injury. The cryosurgical procedure was performed using a minimally invasive cryoprobe cooled by liquid nitrogen (LN2) to obtain deep regional freezing. Several needle thermocouples were applied simultaneously to record the transient temperature to detect the freezing effect on the tissues. Simulation experiments on biological tissue (fresh pork) were performed in vitro and four different liquids were injected into the test materials; these were distilled water, an aqueous suspension of aluminum nanoparticles in water, ethanol, and a 10% solution of the cryoprotective agent dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO). The experimental results demonstrate that the localized injection of an appropriate solution could enhance the tumor-killing effect without altering the freezing conditions. The study also suggests the potential value of combining cryosurgery with other therapeutic methods, such as electrical, chemical, and thermal treatments, to develop new clinical modalities in the near future. PMID:15843007

  11. Effect of 'irrelevant' IgG protein selection on target uptake ratios of radiolabeled antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Freimanis, R.; Zoghbi, S.S.; Gottschalk, A.

    1988-07-01

    The uptake ratios of radiolabeled antibodies (Ab) commonly are two to three times the uptake ratios of the normal surrounding tissue. In an experimental crush injury model, we also defined a two to three times greater range of uptake of type I anticollagen antibody (Ac-Ab-I) from 1.5 hours to 48 hours after tail injury in the rat. Specific target uptake, however, often is further categorized by comparing the uptake ratio of Ab to that of a nonspecific protein. We present data to indicate that this nonspecific uptake may represent a significant variable. We found that sheep IgG gave consistently less nonspecific uptake in our model than did rabbit IgG. In the acute model (protein injected 1.5 hours after injury), damaged: normal tail ratios were Ac-Ab-I = 2.34, sheep = 0.8, and rabbit = 1.6. The extent of specific Ab uptake seems dependent upon the choice of irrelevant IgG controls.

  12. In-silico analyses of sesquiterpene-related compounds on selected Leishmania enzyme-based targets.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Freddy A; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson

    2014-01-01

    A great number of sesquiterpenes are reported in the available literature as good antileishmanial leads. However, their mode of action at the molecular level has not been elucidated. The lack of molecular studies could be considered an impediment for studies seeking to improve sesquiterpene-based drug design. The present in silico study allows us to make important observations about the molecular details of the binding modes of a set of antileishmanial sesquiterpenes against four drug-enzyme targets [pteridine reductase-1 (PTR1), N-myristoyl transferase (NMT), cysteine synthase (CS), trypanothione synthetase (TryS)]. Through molecular docking it was found that two sesquiterpene coumarins are promising leads for the PTR1 and TryS inhibition purposes, and some xanthanolides also exhibited better affinity towards PTR1 and CS binding. In addition, the affinity values were clustered by Principal Component Analysis and drug-like properties were analyzed for the strongest-docking sesquiterpenes. The results are an excellent starting point for future studies of structural optimization of this kind of compounds. PMID:24786692

  13. Recombinant HIV envelope trimer selects for quaternary-dependent antibodies targeting the trimer apex

    PubMed Central

    Sok, Devin; van Gils, Marit J.; Pauthner, Matthias; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Saye-Francisco, Karen L.; Hsueh, Jessica; Briney, Bryan; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Le, Khoa M.; Lee, Peter S.; Hua, Yuanzi; Seaman, Michael S.; Moore, John P.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Burton, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeting the trimer apex of HIV envelope are favored candidates for vaccine design and immunotherapy because of their great neutralization breadth and potency. However, methods of isolating bnAbs against this site have been limited by the quaternary nature of the epitope region. Here we report the use of a recombinant HIV envelope trimer, BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140, as an affinity reagent to isolate quaternary-dependent bnAbs from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a chronically infected donor. The newly isolated bnAbs, named “PGDM1400–1412,” show a wide range of neutralization breadth and potency. One of these variants, PGDM1400, is exceptionally broad and potent with cross-clade neutralization coverage of 83% at a median IC50 of 0.003 µg/mL. Overall, our results highlight the utility of BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140 as a tool for the isolation of quaternary-dependent antibodies and reveal a mosaic of antibody responses against the trimer apex within a clonal family. PMID:25422458

  14. Group XV phospholipase A 2, a lysosomal phospholipase A 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Shayman; Robert Kelly; Jessica Kollmeyer; Yongqun He; Akira Abe

    2011-01-01

    A phospholipase A2 was identified from MDCK cell homogenates with broad specificity toward glycerophospholipids including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol. The phospholipase has the unique ability to transacylate short chain ceramides. This phospholipase is calcium-independent, localized to lysosomes, and has an acidic pH optimum. The enzyme was purified from bovine brain and found to be a water-soluble glycoprotein consisting of

  15. TFEB activation promotes the recruitment of lysosomal glycohydrolases ?-hexosaminidase and ?-galactosidase to the plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Magini, Alessandro [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy) [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Department of Medical and Biological Sciences (DSMB), University of Udine, Udine (Italy); Polchi, Alice; Urbanelli, Lorena [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy)] [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Cesselli, Daniela; Beltrami, Antonio [Department of Medical and Biological Sciences (DSMB), University of Udine, Udine (Italy)] [Department of Medical and Biological Sciences (DSMB), University of Udine, Udine (Italy); Tancini, Brunella [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy)] [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Emiliani, Carla, E-mail: carla.emiliani@unipg.it [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy)] [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •TFEB activation promotes the increase of Hex and Gal activities. •The increase of Hex and Gal activities is related to transcriptional regulation. •TFEB promotes the recruitment of mature Hex and Gal on cell surface. -- Abstract: Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed organelles containing acid hydrolases. They mediate a variety of physiological processes, such as cellular clearance, lipid homeostasis, energy metabolism and pathogen defence. Lysosomes can secrete their content through a process called lysosome exocytosis in which lysosomes fuse with the plasma membrane realising their content into the extracellular milieu. Lysosomal exocytosis is not only responsible for the secretion of lysosomal enzymes, but it also has a crucial role in the plasma membrane repair. Recently, it has been demonstrated that lysosome response to the physiologic signals is regulated by the transcription factor EB (TFEB). In particular, lysosomal secretion is transcriptionally regulated by TFEB which induces both the docking and fusion of lysosomes with the plasma membrane. In this work we demonstrated that TFEB nuclear translocation is accompanied by an increase of mature glycohydrolases ?-hexosaminidase and ?-galactosidase on cell surface. This evidence contributes to elucidate an unknown TFEB biological function leading the lysosomal glycohydrolases on plasma membrane.

  16. The Endosymbiotic Bacterium Wolbachia Selectively Kills Male Hosts by Targeting the Masculinizing Gene

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, Sumio; Shimada, Toru; Suzuki, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens are known to manipulate the reproduction and development of their hosts for their own benefit. Wolbachia is an endosymbiotic bacterium that infects a wide range of insect species. Wolbachia is known as an example of a parasite that manipulates the sex of its host's progeny. Infection of Ostrinia moths by Wolbachia causes the production of all-female progeny, however, the mechanism of how Wolbachia accomplishes this male-specific killing is unknown. Here we show for the first time that Wolbachia targets the host masculinizing gene of Ostrinia to accomplish male-killing. We found that Wolbachia-infected O. furnacalis embryos do not express the male-specific splice variant of doublesex, a gene which acts at the downstream end of the sex differentiation cascade, throughout embryonic development. Transcriptome analysis revealed that Wolbachia infection markedly reduces the mRNA level of Masc, a gene that encodes a protein required for both masculinization and dosage compensation in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Detailed bioinformatic analysis also elucidated that dosage compensation of Z-linked genes fails in Wolbachia-infected O. furnacalis embryos, a phenomenon that is extremely similar to that observed in Masc mRNA-depleted male embryos of B. mori. Finally, injection of in vitro transcribed Masc cRNA into Wolbachia-infected embryos rescued male progeny. Our results show that Wolbachia-induced male-killing is caused by a failure of dosage compensation via repression of the host masculinizing gene. Our study also shows a novel strategy by which a pathogen hijacks the host sex determination cascade. PMID:26172536

  17. Selective targeting of the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint to improve the therapeutic index of radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dillon, M T; Good, J S; Harrington, K J

    2014-05-01

    Despite tremendous advances in radiotherapy techniques, allowing dose escalation to tumour tissues and sparing of organs at risk, cure rates from radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy remain suboptimal for most cancers. In tandem with our growing understanding of tumour biology, we are beginning to appreciate that targeting the molecular response to radiation-induced DNA damage holds great promise for selective tumour radiosensitisation. In particular, approaches that inhibit cell cycle checkpoint controls offer a means of exploiting molecular differences between tumour and normal cells, thereby inducing so-called cancer-specific synthetic lethality. In this overview, we discuss cellular responses to radiation-induced damage and discuss the potential of using G2/M cell cycle checkpoint inhibitors as a means of enhancing tumour control rates. PMID:24581946

  18. Novel ROS-activated agents utilize a tethered amine to selectively target acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Horwath, Tiffany R.; Vadukoot, Anish Kizhakkekkara; Thowfeik, Fathima Shazna; Li, Guorui; Wunderlich, Mark; Mulloy, James C.; Merino, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the possible use of reactive oxygen-activated DNA modifying agents against acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A key amine on the lead agent was investigated via cytotoxicity assays and was found necessary for potency. The two best compounds were screened via the NCI-60 cell panel. These two compounds had potency between 200 and 800 nM against many of the leukemia cancer cell types. Subsequent experiments explored activity against a transformed AML model that mimics the molecular signatures identified in primary AML patient samples. A lead compound had an IC50 of 760 nM against this AML cell line as well as a therapeutic index of 7.7 ± 3 between the transformed AML model cell line and non-cancerous human CD34+ blood stem/progenitor cells (UCB). The selectivity was much greater than the mainstays of AML treatment: doxorubicin and cytarabine. This manuscript demonstrates that this novel type of agent may be useful against AML. PMID:23578690

  19. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Large T Antigen Disrupts Lysosome Clustering by Translocating Human Vam6p from the Cytoplasm to the Nucleus*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xi; Hein, Jennifer; Richardson, Simon C. W.; Basse, Per H.; Toptan, Tuna; Moore, Patrick S.; Gjoerup, Ole V.; Chang, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) has been recently described as the cause for most human Merkel cell carcinomas. MCV is similar to simian virus 40 (SV40) and encodes a nuclear large T (LT) oncoprotein that is usually mutated to eliminate viral replication among tumor-derived MCV. We identified the hVam6p cytoplasmic protein involved in lysosomal processing as a novel interactor with MCV LT but not SV40 LT. hVam6p binds through its clathrin heavy chain homology domain to a unique region of MCV LT adjacent to the retinoblastoma binding site. MCV LT translocates hVam6p to the nucleus, sequestering it from involvement in lysosomal trafficking. A naturally occurring, tumor-derived mutant LT (MCV350) lacking a nuclear localization signal binds hVam6p but fails to inhibit hVam6p-induced lysosomal clustering. MCV has evolved a novel mechanism to target hVam6p that may contribute to viral uncoating or egress through lysosomal processing during virus replication. PMID:21454559

  20. Selective Targeting of CTNNB1-, KRAS- or MYC-Driven Cell Growth by Combinations of Existing Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Uitdehaag, Joost C. M.; de Roos, Jeroen A. D. M.; van Doornmalen, Antoon M.; Prinsen, Martine B. W.; Spijkers-Hagelstein, Jill A. P.; de Vetter, Judith R. F.; de Man, Jos; Buijsman, Rogier C.; Zaman, Guido J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of combination drug treatment in cancer therapy is to improve response rate and to decrease the probability of the development of drug resistance. Preferably, drug combinations are synergistic rather than additive, and, ideally, drug combinations work synergistically only in cancer cells and not in non-malignant cells. We have developed a workflow to identify such targeted synergies, and applied this approach to selectively inhibit the proliferation of cell lines with mutations in genes that are difficult to modulate with small molecules. The approach is based on curve shift analysis, which we demonstrate is a more robust method of determining synergy than combination matrix screening with Bliss-scoring. We show that the MEK inhibitor trametinib is more synergistic in combination with the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib than with vemurafenib, another BRAF inhibitor. In addition, we show that the combination of MEK and BRAF inhibitors is synergistic in BRAF-mutant melanoma cells, and additive or antagonistic in, respectively, BRAF-wild type melanoma cells and non-malignant fibroblasts. This combination exemplifies that synergistic action of drugs can depend on cancer genotype. Next, we used curve shift analysis to identify new drug combinations that specifically inhibit cancer cell proliferation driven by difficult-to-drug cancer genes. Combination studies were performed with compounds that as single agents showed preference for inhibition of cancer cells with mutations in either the CTNNB1 gene (coding for ?-catenin), KRAS, or cancer cells expressing increased copy numbers of MYC. We demonstrate that the Wnt-pathway inhibitor ICG-001 and trametinib acted synergistically in Wnt-pathway-mutant cell lines. The ERBB2 inhibitor TAK-165 was synergistic with trametinib in KRAS-mutant cell lines. The EGFR/ERBB2 inhibitor neratinib acted synergistically with the spindle poison docetaxel and with the Aurora kinase inhibitor GSK-1070916 in cell lines with MYC amplification. Our approach can therefore efficiently discover novel drug combinations that selectively target cancer genes. PMID:26018524

  1. miRNA-Target Gene Regulatory Networks: A Bayesian Integrative Approach to Biomarker Selection with Application to Kidney Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chekouo, Thierry; Stingo, Francesco C.; Doecke, James D.; Do, Kim-Anh

    2015-01-01

    Summary The availability of cross-platform, large-scale genomic data has enabled the investigation of complex biological relationships for many cancers. Identification of reliable cancer-related biomarkers requires the characterization of multiple interactions across complex genetic networks. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression; however, the direct relationship between a microRNA and its target gene is difficult to measure. We propose a novel Bayesian model to identify microRNAs and their target genes that are associated with survival time by incorporating the microRNA regulatory network through prior distributions. We assume that biomarkers involved in regulatory networks are likely associated with survival time. We employ non-local prior distributions and a stochastic search method for the selection of biomarkers associated with the survival outcome. We use KEGG pathway information to incorporate correlated gene effects within regulatory networks. Using simulation studies, we assess the performance of our method, and apply it to experimental data of kidney renal cell carcinoma (KIRC) obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Our novel method validates previously identified cancer biomarkers and identifies biomarkers specific to KIRC progression that were not previously discovered. Using the KIRC data, we confirm that biomarkers involved in regulatory networks are more likely to be associated with survival time, showing connections in one regulatory network for five out of six such genes we identified. PMID:25639276

  2. Generalized window factor analysis for selective analysis of the target component in real samples with complex matrices.

    PubMed

    Li, Pao; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2015-08-14

    In chromatographic analysis of multicomponent real samples, peak overlapping, high level of noise and background are frequently encountered, making the qualitative and quantitative analysis difficult or even impossible. In this work, an algorithm named as generalized window factor analysis (GWFA) was proposed for quantitative analysis of the target components in the samples with complex matrices by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The theory and calculation of GWFA are just similar with the conventional window factor analysis (WFA), but the "window" is defined as the selected channels (mass-to-charge ratios) in the mass spectral dimension of the data matrix, instead of a continuous region in chromatographic dimension along the retention time. Therefore, the generalized window for a target component can be easily determined with the help of the mass spectrum. Then, the calculated mass spectrum can be obtained with the window and quantitative determination can be achieved with the help of the standard. Both simulated and experimental data were investigated with the proposed method. Whether or not a peak shift occurs during the test, accurate results were obtained from the overlapping GC-MS signals with high level of noise and background. PMID:26152528

  3. Sulfonoquinovosyl diacylglyceride selectively targets acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells and exerts potent anti-leukemic effects in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Chetan Kumar; Pradhan, Bhola Shankar; Banerjee, Sukdeb; Mondal, Nirup Bikash; Majumder, Subeer S.; Bhattacharyya, Madhumita; Chakrabarti, Saikat; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Majumder, Hemanta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors e.g. doxorubicin and etoposide are currently used in the chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). These inhibitors have serious side effects during the chemotherapy e.g. cardiotoxicity and secondary malignancies. In this study we show that sulfonoquinovosyl diacylglyceride (SQDG) isolated from Azadirachta indica exerts potent anti-ALL activity both in vitro and in vivo in nude mice and it synergizes with doxorubicin and etoposide. SQDG selectively targets ALL MOLT-4 cells by inhibiting catalytic activity of topoisomerase I enzyme and inducing p53 dependent apoptotic pathway. SQDG treatment induces recruitment of ATR at chromatin and arrests the cells in S-phase. Down-regulation of topoisomerase I or p53 renders the cells less sensitive for SQDG, while ectopic expression of wild type p53 protein in p53 deficient K562 cells results in chemosensitization of the cells for SQDG. We also show that constant ratio combinations of SQDG and etoposide or SDQG and doxorubicin exert synergistic effects on MOLT-4 cell killing. This study suggests that doses of etoposide/doxorubicin can be substantially reduced by combining SQDG with these agents during ALL chemotherapy and side effects caused can be minimized. Thus dual targeting of topoisomerase I and II enzymes is a promising strategy for improving ALL chemotherapy. PMID:26189912

  4. Numerical simulation of selective freezing of target biological tissues following injection of solutions with specific thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhong-Shan; Liu, Jing

    2005-04-01

    Recently, we proposed a method for controlling the extent of freezing during cryosurgery by percutaneously injecting some solutions with particular thermal properties into the target tissues. In order to better understand the mechanism of the enhancement of freezing by these injections, a new numerical algorithm was developed to simulate the corresponding heat transfer process that is involved. The three-dimensional phase change processes in biological tissues subjected to cryoprobe freezing, with or without injection, were compared numerically. Two specific cases were investigated to illustrate the selective freezing method: the injection of solutions with high thermal conductivity; the injection of solutions with low latent heat. It was found that the localized injection of such solutions could significantly enhance the freezing effect and decrease the lowest temperature in the target tissues. The result also suggests that the injection of these solutions may be a feasible and flexible way to control the size of the ice ball and its direction of growth during cryosurgery, which will help to optimize the treatment process. PMID:15843008

  5. miRNA-target gene regulatory networks: A Bayesian integrative approach to biomarker selection with application to kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Chekouo, Thierry; Stingo, Francesco C; Doecke, James D; Do, Kim-Anh

    2015-06-01

    The availability of cross-platform, large-scale genomic data has enabled the investigation of complex biological relationships for many cancers. Identification of reliable cancer-related biomarkers requires the characterization of multiple interactions across complex genetic networks. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression; however, the direct relationship between a microRNA and its target gene is difficult to measure. We propose a novel Bayesian model to identify microRNAs and their target genes that are associated with survival time by incorporating the microRNA regulatory network through prior distributions. We assume that biomarkers involved in regulatory networks are likely associated with survival time. We employ non-local prior distributions and a stochastic search method for the selection of biomarkers associated with the survival outcome. We use KEGG pathway information to incorporate correlated gene effects within regulatory networks. Using simulation studies, we assess the performance of our method, and apply it to experimental data of kidney renal cell carcinoma (KIRC) obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Our novel method validates previously identified cancer biomarkers and identifies biomarkers specific to KIRC progression that were not previously discovered. Using the KIRC data, we confirm that biomarkers involved in regulatory networks are more likely to be associated with survival time, showing connections in one regulatory network for five out of six such genes we identified. PMID:25639276

  6. The chromodomain of Tf1 integrase promotes binding to cDNA and mediates target site selection.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Atreyi Ghatak; Leem, Young Eun; Kelly, Felice D; Levin, Henry L

    2009-03-01

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon Tf1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe integrates specifically into the promoters of pol II-transcribed genes. Its integrase (IN) contains a C-terminal chromodomain related to the chromodomains that bind to the N-terminal tail of histone H3. Although we have been unable to detect an interaction between histone tails and the chromodomain of Tf1 IN, it is possible that the chromodomain plays a role in directing IN to its target sites. To test this idea, we generated transposons with single amino acid substitutions in highly conserved residues of the chromodomain and created a chromodomain-deleted mutant. The mutations, V1290A, Y1292A, W1305A, and CHDDelta, substantially reduced transposition activity in vivo. Blotting assays showed that there was little or no reduction in the levels of IN or cDNA. By measuring the homologous recombination between cDNA and the plasmid copy of Tf1, we found that two of the mutations did not reduce the import of cDNA into the nucleus, while another caused a 33% reduction. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that CHDDelta caused an approximately threefold reduction in the binding of IN to the downstream LTR of the cDNA. These data indicate that the chromodomain contributed directly to integration. We therefore tested whether the chromodomain contributed to selecting insertion sites. Results of a target plasmid assay showed that the deletion of the chromodomain resulted in a drastic reduction in the preference for pol II promoters. Collectively, these data indicate that the chromodomain promotes binding of cDNA and plays a key role in efficient targeting. PMID:19109383

  7. NO, via its target Cx37, modulates calcium signal propagation selectively at myoendothelial gap junctions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gap junctional calcium signal propagation (transfer of calcium or a calcium releasing messenger via gap junctions) between vascular cells has been shown to be involved in the control of vascular tone. We have shown before that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits gap junctional communication in HeLa cells exclusively expressing connexin 37 (HeLa-Cx37) but not in HeLa-Cx40 or HeLa-Cx43. Here we studied the effect of NO on the gap junctional calcium signal propagation in endothelial cells which, in addition to Cx37, also express Cx40 and Cx43. Furthermore, we analyzed the impact of NO on intermuscle and on myoendothelial gap junction-dependent calcium signal propagation. Since specific effects of NO at one of these three junctional areas (interendothelial/ myoendothelial/ intermuscle) may depend on a differential membrane localization of the connexins, we also studied the distribution of the vascular connexins in small resistance arteries. Results In endothelial (HUVEC) or smooth muscle cells (HUVSMC) alone, NO did not affect gap junctional Ca2+ signal propagation as assessed by analyzing the spread of Ca2+ signals after mechanical stimulation of a single cell. In contrast, at myoendothelial junctions, it decreased Ca2+ signal propagation in both directions by about 60% (co-cultures of HUVEC and HUVSMC). This resulted in a longer maintenance of calcium elevation at the endothelial side and a faster calcium signal propagation at the smooth muscle side, respectively. Immunohistochemical stainings (confocal and two-photon-microscopy) of cells in co-cultures or of small arteries revealed that Cx37 expression was relatively higher in endothelial cells adjoining smooth muscle (culture) or in potential areas of myoendothelial junctions (arteries). Accordingly, Cx37 - in contrast to Cx40 - was not only expressed on the endothelial surface of small arteries but also in deeper layers (corresponding to the internal elastic lamina IEL). Holes of the IEL where myoendothelial contacts can only occur, stained significantly more frequently for Cx37 and Cx43 than for Cx40 (endothelium) or Cx45 (smooth muscle). Conclusion NO modulates the calcium signal propagation specifically between endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The effect is due to an augmented distribution of Cx37 towards myoendothelial contact areas and potentially counteracts endothelial Ca2+ signal loss from endothelial to smooth muscle cells. This targeted effect of NO may optimize calcium dependent endothelial vasomotor function. PMID:24885166

  8. In vitro selection, characterization, and biosensing application of high-affinity cylindrospermopsin-targeting aptamers.

    PubMed

    Elshafey, Reda; Siaj, Mohamed; Zourob, Mohammed

    2014-09-16

    Contamination of freshwater with cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) represents a significant global concern for public health. The sensitive detection of CYN is necessary to effectively manage and control the treatment of water resources. Here we report a novel, highly sensitive label-free aptasensor for CYN analysis, using aptamers as specific receptors. We have selected the DNA aptamers from a diverse random library using the in vitro screening SELEX approach. The aptamers exhibited high affinity for CYN with Kd of nanomolar range. One aptamer exhibited conformational change upon CYN recognition (CD analysis) and was used to fabricate the label-free impedimetric aptasensor for CYN. A self-assembled monolayer from a disulfide-derivatized aptamer was formed on a gold electrode to fabricate the aptasensor. Upon CYN capturing to the aptasensor surface, a marked drop in the electron transfer resistance was obtained, which was used as the principle of detection of CYN. This resulted from the aptamer's conformational change induced by CYN recognition. The present aptasensor could detect CYN with the limit of detection as low as 100 pM and a wide linear range of 0.1 to 80 nM. When mounted on the gold surface, the aptamer exhibited a lower dissociation constant for CYN than that observed in the fluorescence assay, implying that the anchoring of the aptamer on the Au surface improved its affinity to CYN. Moreover, the aptasensor showed high specificity toward other coexistent cyanobacterial toxins of microcystin-LR and Anatoxin-a. Further biosensor designs will be generated using those aptamers for simple and sensitive CYN monitoring. PMID:25122072

  9. Signals for the lysosome: a control center for cellular clearance and energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Settembre, Carmine; Fraldi, Alessandro; Medina, Diego L.

    2015-01-01

    Preface For a long time lysosomes were considered merely to be cellular “incinerators” involved in the degradation and recycling of cellular waste. However, there is now compelling evidence indicating that lysosomes have a much broader function and that they are involved in fundamental processes such as secretion, plasma membrane repair, signaling and energy metabolism. Furthermore, the essential role of lysosomes in the autophagic pathway puts these organelles at the crossroads of several cellular processes, with significant implications for health and disease. The identification of a master gene, transcription factor EB (TFEB), that regulates lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy, has revealed how the lysosome adapts to environmental cues, such as starvation, and suggests novel therapeutic strategies for modulating lysosomal function in human disease. PMID:23609508

  10. Identification of a Lysosomal Pathway That Modulates Glucocorticoid Signaling and the Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Chenghai; Gao, Xiang; Dykema, Karl J.; Martin, Katie R.; Ke, Jiyuan; Hudson, Eric A.; Khoo, Sok Kean; Resau, James H.; Alberts, Arthur S.; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P.; Furge, Kyle A.; Xu, H. Eric

    2013-01-01

    The antimalaria drug chloroquine has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent for treating systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. We report that chloroquine promoted the transrepression of proinflammatory cytokines by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In a mouse collagen-induced arthritis model, chloroquine enhanced the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoid treatment. By inhibiting lysosome function, chloroquine synergistically activated glucocorticoid signaling. Lysosomal inhibition by either bafilomycin A1 (an inhibitor of the vacuolar adenosine triphosphatase) or knockdown of transcription factor EB (TFEB, a master activator of lysosomal biogenesis) mimicked the effects of chloroquine. The abundance of the GR, as well as that of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor, correlated with changes in lysosomal biogenesis. Thus, we showed that glucocorticoid signaling is regulated by lysosomes, which provides a mechanistic basis for treating inflammation and autoimmune diseases with a combination of glucocorticoids and lysosomal inhibitors. PMID:21730326

  11. Selective Photothermolysis to target Sebaceous Glands: Theoretical Estimation of Parameters and Preliminary Results Using a Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Fernanda Sakamoto, Apostolos Doukas, William Farinelli, Zeina Tannous, Michelle D. Shinn, Stephen Benson, Gwyn P. Williams, H. Dylla, Richard Anderson

    2011-12-01

    The success of permanent laser hair removal suggests that selective photothermolysis (SP) of sebaceous glands, another part of hair follicles, may also have merit. About 30% of sebum consists of fats with copious CH2 bond content. SP was studied in vitro, using free electron laser (FEL) pulses at an infrared CH2 vibrational absorption wavelength band. Absorption spectra of natural and artificially prepared sebum were measured from 200 nm to 3000 nm, to determine wavelengths potentially able to target sebaceous glands. The Jefferson National Accelerator superconducting FEL was used to measure photothermal excitation of aqueous gels, artificial sebum, pig skin, human scalp and forehead skin (sebaceous sites). In vitro skin samples were exposed to FEL pulses from 1620 to 1720 nm, spot diameter 7-9.5 mm with exposure through a cold 4C sapphire window in contact with the skin. Exposed and control tissue samples were stained using H and E, and nitroblue tetrazolium chloride staining (NBTC) was used to detect thermal denaturation. Natural and artificial sebum both had absorption peaks near 1210, 1728, 1760, 2306 and 2346 nm. Laser-induced heating of artificial sebum was approximately twice that of water at 1710 and 1720 nm, and about 1.5x higher in human sebaceous glands than in water. Thermal camera imaging showed transient focal heating near sebaceous hair follicles. Histologically, skin samples exposed to {approx}1700 nm, {approx}100-125 ms pulses showed evidence of selective thermal damage to sebaceous glands. Sebaceous glands were positive for NBTC staining, without evidence of selective loss in samples exposed to the laser. Epidermis was undamaged in all samples. Conclusions: SP of sebaceous glands appears to be feasible. Potentially, optical pulses at {approx}1720 nm or {approx}1210 nm delivered with large beam diameter and appropriate skin cooling in approximately 0.1 s may provide an alternative treatment for acne.

  12. The Yin and Yang of Protein Kinase C-theta (PKC?): A Novel Drug Target for Selective Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Yan Zhang, Elizabeth; Kong, Kok-Fai; Altman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase C-? (PKC?) is a PKC family member expressed predominantly in T lymphocytes, and extensive studies addressing its function have been conducted. PKC? is the only T cell-expressed PKC that localizes selectively to the center of the immunological synapse (IS) following conventional T cell antigen stimulation, and this unique localization is essential for PKC?-mediated downstream signaling. While playing a minor role in T cell development, early in vitro studies relying, among others, on the use of PKC?-deficient (Prkcq?/?) T cells revealed that PKC? is required for the activation and proliferation of mature T cells, reflecting its importance in activating the transcription factors NF-?B, AP-1 and NFAT, as well as for the survival of activated T cells. Upon subsequent analysis of in vivo immune responses in Prkcq?/? mice, it became clear that PKC? has a selective role in the immune system: It is required for experimental Th2 and Th17-mediated allergic and autoimmune diseases, respectively, and for alloimmune responses, but is dispensable for protective responses against pathogens and for graft-vs.-leukemia responses. Surprisingly, PKC? was recently found to be excluded from the IS of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and to negatively regulate their suppressive function. These attributes of PKC? make it an attractive target for catalytic or allosteric inhibitors that are expected to selectively suppress harmful inflammatory and alloimmune responses without interfering with beneficial immunity to infections. Early progress in developing such drugs is being made, but additional studies on the role of PKC? in the human immune system are urgently needed. PMID:23433459

  13. [Effect of a lysosome triton WR 1339 load on distribution of C14-albumin in the livers of rats with chronic hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Korolenko, T A; Titova, V G

    1976-07-01

    A possible mechanism of the protective effect of Triton WR1339 during chronic CC14-hepatitis was considered. Supposing that the improvement of the process was due to the intensification of the lysosome heterophage function the authors studied the intensity of the C14-albumin uptake by the liver and its subcellular distribution in the liver of rats in the administration of the detergent to the animals with chronic CCI4-hepatitis, Preliminary administration of the detergent failed to influence the intensity of C14-albumin uptake; subsequent administration of triton WR1339 to rats with toxic hepatitis decrease the protein uptake which reached the values in intact rats. In chronic hepatitis C14-albumin was concentrated in the lysosome fraction. Administration of trition WR1339 to CCI4-treated animals was not accompanied by any coincidence in the peaks of labeled protein and lysosome enzymes. The selective participation of lysosomes of the Kupffer cells providing a more rapid restoration of the liver in chronic hepatitis is discussed. PMID:953340

  14. Selection of targets and the most efficient hairpin ribozymes for inactivation of mRNAs using a self-cleaving RNA library.

    PubMed

    Barroso-DelJesus, A; Berzal-Herranz, A

    2001-12-01

    The identification of proficient target sites within long RNA molecules, as well as the most efficient ribozymes for each, is a major concern for the use of ribozymes as gene suppressers. In vitro selection methods using combinatorial libraries are powerful tools for the rapid elucidation of interactions between macromolecules, and have been successfully used for different types of ribozyme study. This paper describes a new method for selecting effective target sites within long RNAs using a combinatorial library of self-cleaving hairpin ribozymes that includes all possible specificities. The method also allows the identification of the most appropriate ribozyme for each identified site. Searching for targets within the lacZ gene with this strategy yielded a clearly accessible site. Sequence analysis of ribozymes identified two variants as the most appropriate for this site. Both selected ribozymes showed significant inhibitory activity in the cell milieu. PMID:11743025

  15. Are lysosomal enzymes involved in rapid damage in vertebrate muscle cells?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Duncan; M. F. Rudge

    1988-01-01

    Experiments with lysosomotropic agents suggest that the sarcotubular system subserves some of the functions of the lysosomal apparatus in frog skeletal muscle. Dinitrophenol or A23187 trigger lysosome labilization and myofilament damage in mammalian cardiac muscle. Lysolecithin labilizes isolated liver lysosomes, but has no action following phospholipase A2 activation in vivo. Zinc ions or a pHi of 7.5 do not protect

  16. Role of lysosome rupture in controlling Nlrp3 signaling and necrotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Jr., Heriberto; Jacobson, Lee S.; Goldberg, Michael F.; Chandran, Kartik; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Lisanti, Michael P.; Brojatsch, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The Nod-like receptor, Nlrp3, has been linked to inflammatory diseases and adjuvant-mediated immune responses. A wide array of structurally diverse agents does not interact directly with Nlrp3, but is thought to activate the Nlrp3 inflammasome by inducing a common upstream signal, such as lysosome rupture. To test the connection between lysosome integrity and Nlrp3 signaling, we analyzed inflammasome activation following stimulation of murine macrophages with lysosome-destabilizing agents and pyroptosis inducers. Here we provide evidence that lysosomal rupture and the corresponding release of lysosomal hydrolases is an early event in macrophages exposed to the lysosome-destabilizing adjuvants LLOMe and alum. Lysosome rupture preceded cell death induction mediated by these agents and was associated with the degradation of low-molecular weight proteins, including the inflammasome component caspase-1. Proteolysis of caspase-1 was controlled by specific cathepsins, but was independent of autocatalytic processes and Nlrp3 signaling. Consistent with these findings, lysosome-disrupting agents triggered only minimal caspase-1 activation and failed to cause caspase-1-dependent cell death (pyroptosis), generally associated with Nlrp3 signaling. In contrast, lysosome rupture was a late event in macrophages exposed to prototypical pyroptosis inducers. These agents triggered extensive Nlrp3 signaling prior to lysosome rupture with only minimal impact on the cellular proteome. Taken together, our findings suggest that lysosome impairment triggers a cascade of events culminating in cell death but is not crucial for Nlrp3 signaling. The significant differences observed between lysosome-disrupting agents and pyroptosis inducers might explain the distinct immunologic responses associated with these compounds. PMID:23708522

  17. The Structure of Bovine Lysosomal ?-Mannosidase Suggests a Novel Mechanism for Low-pH Activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pirkko Heikinheimo; Ronny Helland; Hanna-Kirsti Schrøder Leiros; Ingar Leiros; Solveig Karlsen; Gry Evjen; Raimond Ravelli; Guy Schoehn; Rob Ruigrok; Ole-Kristian Tollersrud; Seán McSweeney; Edward Hough

    2003-01-01

    Lysosomal ?-mannosidase (LAM: EC 3.2.1.24) belongs to the sequence-based glycoside hydrolase family 38 (GH38). Two other mammalian GH38 members, Golgi ?-mannosidase II (GIIAM) and cytosolic ?-mannosidase, are expressed in all tissues. In humans, cattle, cat and guinea pig, lack of lysosomal ?-mannosidase activity causes the autosomal recessive disease ?-mannosidosis. Here, we describe the three-dimensional structure of bovine lysosomal ?-mannosidase (bLAM)

  18. An Effector-Targeted Protease Contributes to Defense against Phytophthora infestans and Is under Diversifying Selection in Natural Hosts1[W

    PubMed Central

    Kaschani, Farnusch; Shabab, Mohammed; Bozkurt, Tolga; Shindo, Takayuki; Schornack, Sebastian; Gu, Christian; Ilyas, Muhammad; Win, Joe; Kamoun, Sophien; van der Hoorn, Renier A.L.

    2010-01-01

    Since the leaf apoplast is a primary habitat for many plant pathogens, apoplastic proteins are potent, ancient targets for apoplastic effectors secreted by plant pathogens. So far, however, only a few apoplastic effector targets have been identified and characterized. Here, we discovered that the papain-like cysteine protease C14 is a new common target of EPIC1 and EPIC2B, two apoplastic, cystatin-like proteins secreted by the potato (Solanum tuberosum) late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. C14 is a secreted protease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and potato typified by a carboxyl-terminal granulin domain. The EPIC-C14 interaction occurs at a wide pH range and is stronger than the previously described interactions of EPICs with tomato defense proteases PIP1 and RCR3. The selectivity of the EPICs is also different when compared with the AVR2 effector of the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum, which targets PIP1 and RCR3, and only at apoplastic pH. Importantly, silencing of C14 increased susceptibility to P. infestans, demonstrating that this protease plays a role in pathogen defense. Although C14 is under conservative selection in tomato, it is under diversifying selection in wild potato species (Solanum demissum, Solanum verrucosum, and Solanum stoliniferum) that are the natural hosts of P. infestans. These data reveal a novel effector target in the apoplast that contributes to immunity and is under diversifying selection, but only in the natural host of the pathogen. PMID:20940351

  19. Selective Tumor Targeting of Desacetyl Vinblastine Hydrazide and Tubulysin B via Conjugation to a Cholecystokinin 2 Receptor (CCK2R) Ligand.

    PubMed

    Wayua, Charity; Roy, Jyoti; Putt, Karson S; Low, Philip S

    2015-07-01

    As the delivery of selectively targeted cytotoxic agents via antibodies or small molecule ligands to malignancies has begun to show promise in the clinic, the need to identify and validate additional cellular targets for specific therapeutic delivery is critical. Although a multitude of cancers have been targeted using the folate receptor, PSMA, bombesin receptor, somatostatin receptor, LHRH, and ?v?3, there is a notable lack of specific small molecule ligand/receptor pairs to cellular targets found within cancers of the GI tract. Because of the selective GI tract expression of the cholecystokinin 2 receptor (CCK2R), we undertook the creation of conjugates that would deliver microtubule-disrupting drugs to malignancies through the specific targeting of CCK2R via a high affinity small molecule ligand. The cytotoxic activity of these conjugates were shown to be receptor mediated in vitro and in vivo with xenograft mouse models exhibiting delayed growth or regression of tumors that expressed CCK2R. Overall, this work demonstrates that ligands to CCK2R can be used to create selectively targeted therapeutic conjugates. PMID:26043355

  20. LIP5 Interacts with Aquaporin 2 and Facilitates Its Lysosomal Degradation

    PubMed Central

    van Balkom, Bas W.M.; Boone, Michelle; Hendriks, Giel; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Robben, Joris H.; Stronks, H. Christiaan; van der Voorde, Anne; van Herp, Francois; van der Sluijs, Peter; Deen, Peter M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Vasopressin binding to the V2 receptor in renal principal cells leads to activation of protein kinase A, phosphorylation of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) at Ser256, and the translocation of AQP2 to the apical membrane, resulting in concentration of the urine. In contrast, phorbol ester–induced activation of protein kinase C pathway leads to ubiquitination of AQP2 at Lys270 and its internalization to multivesicular bodies, where it is targeted for lysosomal degradation or stored for recycling. Because little is known about the regulation of AQP2 trafficking, we used the carboxy-terminal tail of constitutively nonphosphorylated AQP2 (S256A) as a bait for interacting proteins in a yeast two-hybrid assay. We isolated lysosomal trafficking regulator–interacting protein 5 (LIP5) and found that LIP5 interacted with the proximal carboxy-terminal tail (L230-D243) of AQP2 in vitro but not with AQP3 or AQP4, which are also expressed in principal cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed that LIP5 co-localized with AQP2 in principal cells. LIP5 binding occurred independent of the state of Ser256 phosphorylation or Lys270 ubiquitination. LIP5 has been shown to facilitate degradation of the EGF receptor; here, LIP5 seemed to bind this receptor. Knockdown of LIP5 in mouse renal cells (mpkCCD) reduced the phorbol ester–induced degradation of AQP2 approximately two-fold. In summary, LIP5 binds cargo proteins and, considering the role of LIP5 in protein sorting to multivesicular bodies, plays a role in the degradation of AQP2, possibly by reducing the formation of late endosomes. PMID:19357255

  1. Novel steps in the autophagic-lysosomal pathway.

    PubMed

    Saetre, Frank; Hagen, Linda Korseberg; Engedal, Nikolai; Seglen, Per O

    2015-06-01

    Autophagy is the process by which portions of cytoplasm are enclosed by membranous organelles, phagophores, which deliver the sequestered cytoplasm to degradative autophagic vacuoles. Genes and proteins involved in phagophore manufacture have been extensively studied, but little is known about how mature phagophores proceed through the subsequent steps of expansion, closure and fusion. Here we have addressed these issues by combining our unique autophagic cargo sequestration assay (using the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase as a cargo marker) with quantitative measurements of the lipidation-dependent anchorage and turnover of the phagophore-associated protein LC3. In isolated rat hepatocytes, amino acid starved to induce maximal autophagic activity, the two unrelated reversible autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3MA) and thapsigargin (TG) both blocked cargo sequestration completely. However, whereas 3MA inhibited LC3 lipidation, TG did not, thus apparently acting at a post-lipidation step to prevent phagophore closure. Intriguingly, the resumption of cargo sequestration seen upon release from a reversible TG block was completely suppressed by 3MA, revealing that 3MA not only inhibits LC3 lipidation but also (like TG) blocks phagophore closure at a post-lipidation step. 3MA did not, however, prevent the resumption of lysosomal LC3 degradation, indicating that phagophores could fuse directly with degradative autophagic vacuoles without carrying cytosolic cargo. This fusion step was clearly blocked by TG. Furthermore, density gradient centrifugation revealed that a fraction of the LC3-marked phagophores retained by TG could be density-shifted by the acidotropic drug propylamine along with the lysosomal marker cathepsin B, suggesting physical association of some phagophores with lysosomes prior to cargo sequestration. PMID:25779646

  2. Exploring the limitations of pathophysiological indicators used for targeted selective treatment in sheep experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Chylinski, C; Cortet, J; Neveu, C; Cabaret, J

    2015-01-15

    Identifying which sheep to treat as part of a Targeted Selective Treatment approach to gastro-intestinal nematode control relies entirely on the efficacy of the indicators. Indicators such as FAMACHA© (anaemia), DISCO (diarrhea) and reductions in weight gains were designed specifically to reflect those sheep experiencing symptomatic consequences of infection. Using the gastro-intestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus as a model species, this study explored the utility and sensitivity of these indicators under controlled experimental conditions on 63 adult sheep. The potential effect of sheep with different H. contortus resistance phenotypes on indicator efficacy was compared in three different phenotypes, i.e. high (Blackbelly females), medium (Blackbelly rams) and low resistance (Romane rams). The potential effect of the H. contortus isolate on indicator efficacy was also explored by using four different isolates, with varying anthelmintic resistance capacities, to infect the sheep. We limited the study to the first month of infection to evaluate the interest of these indicators as an early predictive means for controlling infection. The pathophysiological indicators FAMACHA© and DISCO do not reflect infection intensity based on Faecal Egg Counts, nor do reductions in weight gains. FAMACHA© was however a good indicator of anaemia with strong correlations to haematocrit. There was little agreement among the three indicators to identify the same animals in need of treatment and even combining them did not increase their predictive value of infection intensity or relative host damage from infection. The indicator sensitivity was influenced by the H. contortus isolate and sheep resistance phenotype in which they were tested. One isolate was poorly infective but induced high levels of anaemia (FAMACHA©) and diarrhea (DISCO) compared to the three others. The FAMACHA© and DISCO had higher values in the sheep group with a medium resistance phenotype (Blackbelly rams) indicating higher levels of damage compared to the high and low resistance phenotypes. We conclude that there is no 'one size fits all' approach to the use of indicators for Targeted Selective Treatment and the indicators should be calibrated to farm-specific conditions to increase their efficacy. PMID:25466619

  3. The acylation of lipophilic alcohols by lysosomal phospholipase A2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Abe; Miki Hiraoka; James A. Shayman

    2007-01-01

    A novel lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) with specificity toward phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphati- dylcholine was previously purified and cloned. LPLA2 trans- ferssn-1orsn-2acylgroupsofphospholipidstotheC1hydroxyl of the short-chain ceramide N-acetylsphingosine (NAS) un- der acidic conditions. The common features of lipophilic alco- hols serving as acceptor molecules in the transacylase reaction were examined. 1-O-Hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (HAG) was acylated by LPLA2 similar to NAS. HAG competed with

  4. Aberrant Ca2+ handling in lysosomal storage disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kiselyov, Kirill; Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Lyons, Christopher W.; Muallem, Shmuel

    2010-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are caused by inability of cells to process the material captured during endocytosis. While they are essentially diseases of cellular “indigestion”, LSDs affect large number of cellular activities and, as such, they teach us about the integrative function of the cell, as well as about the gaps in our knowledge of the endocytic pathway and membrane transport. The present review summarizes recent findings on Ca2+ handling in LSDs and attempts to identify the key questions on alterations inCa2+ signaling and membrane transport in this group of diseases, answers to which may lie in delineating the cellular pathogeneses of LSDs. PMID:20053447

  5. PET radiotracer [18F]-P6 selectively targeting COX-1 as a novel biomarker in ovarian cancer: Preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Jashim; Vitale, Paola; Panella, Andrea; Crews, Brenda C.; Daniel, Cristina K.; Ghebreselasie, Kebreab; Nickels, Mike; Tantawy, Mohammed N.; Manning, H. Charles; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Scilimati, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), but not COX-2, is expressed at high levels in the early stages of human epithelial ovarian cancer where it seems to play a key role in cancer onset and progression. As a consequence, COX-1 is an ideal biomarker for early ovarian cancer detection. A series of novel fluorinated COX-1-targeted imaging agents derived from P6 was developed by using a highly selective COX-1 inhibitor as a lead compound. Among these new compounds, designed by structural modification of P6, 3-(5-chlorofuran-2-yl)-5-(fluoromethyl)-4-phenylisoxazole ([18/19F]-P6) is the most promising derivative [IC50 = 2.0 ?M (purified oCOX-1) and 1.37 ?M (hOVCAR-3 cell COX-1)]. Its tosylate precursor was also prepared and, a method for radio[18F]chemistry was developed and optimized. The radiochemistry was carried out using a carrier-free K18F/Kryptofix 2.2.2 complex, that afforded [18F]-P6 in good radio-chemical yield (18%) and high purity (>95%). In vivo PET/CT imaging data showed that the radiotracer [18F]-P6 was selectively taken up by COX-1-expressing ovarian carcinoma (OVCAR 3) tumor xenografts as compared with the normal leg muscle. Our results suggest that [18F]-P6 might be an useful radiotracer in preclinical and clinical settings for in vivo PET-CT imaging of tissues that express elevated levels of COX-1. PMID:24832612

  6. P-glycoprotein mediates drug resistance via a novel mechanism involving lysosomal sequestration.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Tetsuo; Sahni, Sumit; Sharp, Danae M; Arvind, Akanksha; Jansson, Patric J; Richardson, Des R

    2013-11-01

    Localization of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) to the plasma membrane is thought to be the only contributor of Pgp-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). However, very little work has focused on the contribution of Pgp expressed in intracellular organelles to drug resistance. This investigation describes an additional mechanism for understanding how lysosomal Pgp contributes to MDR. These studies were performed using Pgp-expressing MDR cells and their non-resistant counterparts. Using confocal microscopy and lysosomal fractionation, we demonstrated that intracellular Pgp was localized to LAMP2-stained lysosomes. In Pgp-expressing cells, the Pgp substrate doxorubicin (DOX) became sequestered in LAMP2-stained lysosomes, but this was not observed in non-Pgp-expressing cells. Moreover, lysosomal Pgp was demonstrated to be functional because DOX accumulation in this organelle was prevented upon incubation with the established Pgp inhibitors valspodar or elacridar or by silencing Pgp expression with siRNA. Importantly, to elicit drug resistance via lysosomes, the cytotoxic chemotherapeutics (e.g. DOX, daunorubicin, or vinblastine) were required to be Pgp substrates and also ionized at lysosomal pH (pH 5), resulting in them being sequestered and trapped in lysosomes. This property was demonstrated using lysosomotropic weak bases (NH4Cl, chloroquine, or methylamine) that increased lysosomal pH and sensitized only Pgp-expressing cells to such cytotoxic drugs. Consequently, a lysosomal Pgp-mediated mechanism of MDR was not found for non-ionizable Pgp substrates (e.g. colchicine or paclitaxel) or ionizable non-Pgp substrates (e.g. cisplatin or carboplatin). Together, these studies reveal a new mechanism where Pgp-mediated lysosomal sequestration of chemotherapeutics leads to MDR that is amenable to therapeutic exploitation. PMID:24062304

  7. LYSOSOME FUNCTION IN THE REGULATION OF THE SECRETORY PROCESS IN CELLS OF THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert E.; Farquhar, Marilyn G.

    1966-01-01

    The nature and content of lytic bodies and the localization of acid phosphatase (AcPase) activity were investigated in mammotrophic hormone-producing cells (MT) from rat anterior pituitary glands. MT were examined from lactating rats in which secretion of MTH1 was high and from postlactating rats in which MTH secretion was suppressed by removing the suckling young. MT from lactating animals contained abundant stacks of rough-surfaced ER, a large Golgi complex with many forming secretory granules, and a few lytic bodies, primarily multivesicular bodies and dense bodies. MT from postlactating animals, sacrificed at selected intervals up to 96 hr after separation from their suckling young, showed (a) progressive involution of the protein synthetic apparatus with sequestration of ER and ribosomes in autophagic vacuoles, and (b) incorporation of secretory granules into multivesicular and dense bodies. The content of mature granules typically was incorporated into dense bodies whereas that of immature granules found its way preferentially into multivesicular bodies. The secretory granules and cytoplasmic constituents segregated within lytic bodies were progressively degraded over a period of 24 to 72 hr to yield a common residual body, the vacuolated dense body. In MT from lactating animals, AcPase reaction product was found in lytic bodies, and in several other sites not usually considered to be lysosomal in nature, i.e., inner Golgi cisterna and associated vesicles, and around most of the immature, and some of the mature secretory granules. In MT from postlactating animals, AcPase was concentrated in lytic bodies; reaction product and incorporated secretory granules were frequently recognizable within the same multivesicular or dense body which could therefore be identified as "autolysosomes" connected with the digestion of endogenous materials. Several possible explanations for the occurrence of AcPase in nonlysosomal sites are discussed. From the findings it is concluded that, in secretory cells, lysosomes function in the regulation of the secretory process by providing a mechanism which takes care of overproduction of secretory products. PMID:19866704

  8. Selection and delineation of lymph node target volumes in head and neck conformal radiotherapy. Proposal for standardizing terminology and procedure based on the surgical experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Grégoire; Emmanuel Coche; Guy Cosnard; Marc Hamoir; Hervé Reychler

    2000-01-01

    The increasing use of 3D treatment planning in head and neck radiation oncology has created an urgent need for new guidelines for the selection and the delineation of the neck node areas to be included in the clinical target volume. Surgical literature has provided us with valuable information on the extent of pathological nodal involvement in the neck as a

  9. Group XV phospholipase A?, a lysosomal phospholipase A?.

    PubMed

    Shayman, James A; Kelly, Robert; Kollmeyer, Jessica; He, Yongqun; Abe, Akira

    2011-01-01

    A phospholipase A? was identified from MDCK cell homogenates with broad specificity toward glycerophospholipids including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol. The phospholipase has the unique ability to transacylate short chain ceramides. This phospholipase is calcium-independent, localized to lysosomes, and has an acidic pH optimum. The enzyme was purified from bovine brain and found to be a water-soluble glycoprotein consisting of a single peptide chain with a molecular weight of 45 kDa. The primary structure deduced from the DNA sequences is highly conserved between chordates. The enzyme was named lysosomal phospholipase A? (LPLA?) and subsequently designated group XV phospholipase A?. LPLA? has 49% of amino acid sequence identity to lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase and is a member of the ??-hydrolase superfamily. LPLA? is highly expressed in alveolar macrophages. A marked accumulation of glycerophospholipids and extensive lamellar inclusion bodies, a hallmark of cellular phospholipidosis, is observed in alveolar macrophages in LPLA?(-/-) mice. This defect can also be reproduced in macrophages that are exposed to cationic amphiphilic drugs such as amiodarone. In addition, older LPLA?(-/-) mice develop a phenotype similar to human autoimmune disease. These observations indicate that LPLA? may play a primary role in phospholipid homeostasis, drug toxicity, and host defense. PMID:21074554

  10. Spectrum of Paediatric Lysosomal Storage Disorders in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maawali, Almundher A; Joshi, Surendra N; Koul, Roshan L; Al-Maawali, Ali A; Al-Sedari, Hilal S; Al-Amri, Bader M; Al-Futaisi, Amna M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to look at the spectrum of paediatric lysosomal disorders in Oman. Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic diseases. Few studies on the birth prevalence and prevalence of LSDs have been reported from the Arabian Peninsula. Methods: We studied 86 children with LSDs diagnosed over a period of nine years, from June 1998 to May 2007. Detailed clinical data, including age of onset, sex, age and mode of first presentation, and presence of consanguinity were collected. Results: Our data showed the combined birth prevalence for all LSDs in Oman to be around 1 in 4,700 live births. Sphingolipidoses was the most common group of disorder encountered (47.7%), followed by neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) (23.2%) and mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) (23.2%). The proportion of consanguineous marriages in our series was found to be 87.5%. Conclusion: Our data represent the birth prevalence and clinical spectrum of such disorders in Oman, one of the highly consanguineous societies in the Middle East. PMID:22912921

  11. [Structural basis for ?-galactosidase associated with lysosomal disease].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    G(M1)-gangliosidosis and Morquio B are rare lysosomal storage diseases associated with a neurodegenerative disorder or dwarfism and skeletal abnormalities, respectively. These diseases are caused by deficiencies in the lysosomal enzyme human ?-D-galactosidase (h-?-GAL), which lead to accumulations of the h-?-GAL substrates, G(M1) ganglioside and keratan sulfate due to mutations in the h-?-GAL gene. H-?-GAL is an exoglycosidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal ?-linked galactose residues. Here, we present the crystal structures of h-?-GAL in complex with its catalytic product galactose or with its inhibitor 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin. H-?-GAL showed a novel homodimer structure; each monomer was comprised of a catalytic TIM barrel domain followed by ?-domain 1 and ?-domain 2. The long loop region connecting the TIM barrel domain with ?-domain 1 was responsible for the dimerization. To gain structural insight into the molecular defects of h-?-GAL in the above diseases, the disease-causing mutations were mapped onto the three-dimensional structure. Finally, the possible causes of the diseases are discussed. PMID:23649392

  12. Tumor-targeted delivery of liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin by use of a peptide that selectively binds to irradiated tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Lowery; Halina Onishko; Dennis E. Hallahan; Zhaozhong Han

    2011-01-01

    Tumor-targeted drug delivery improves anti-tumor efficacy and reduces systemic toxicity by limiting bioavailability of cytotoxic drugs to within tumors. Targeting reagents, such as peptides or antibodies recognizing molecular targets over-expressed within tumors, have been used to improve liposome-encapsulated drug accumulation within tumors and resulted in enhanced tumor growth control. In this report, we expand the scope of targeting reagents by

  13. Lipid and lysosomal enzymes in human fibroblasts cultured with perhexiline maleate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samia Albouz; Jeanne-Marie Boutry; Gisèle Dubois; Raymond Bourdon; Jean-Jacques Hauw; Nicole Baumann

    1981-01-01

    Summary To understand the mechanism of the lysosomal lipid storage induced by perhexiline maleate, we performed simultaneous lipid analysis and lysosomal enzymes determinations. Human libroblasts were cultured for 5 days in the presence of perhexiline maleate at a concentration of 2 ?g\\/ml of culture medium. Lipid analysis showed that those non toxic levels determined the same changes as seen with

  14. A TRP Channel in the Lysosome Regulates Large Particle Phagocytosis via Focal Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Samie, Mohammad; Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Goschka, Andrew; Li, Xinran; Cheng, Xiping; Gregg, Evan; Azar, Marlene; Zhuo, Yue; Garrity, Abigail; Gao, Qiong; Slaugenhaupt, Susan; Pickel, Jim; Zolov, Sergey N.; Weisman, Lois S.; Lenk, Guy M.; Titus, Steve; Bryant-Genevier, Marthe; Southall, Noel; Juan, Marugan; Ferrer, Marc; Xu, Haoxing

    2013-01-01

    Summary Phagocytosis of large extracellular particles such as apoptotic bodies requires delivery of the intracellular endosomal and lysosomal membranes to form plasmalemmal pseudopods. Here we identified Mucolipin TRP channel 1 (TRPML1) as the key lysosomal Ca2+ channel regulating focal exocytosis and phagosome biogenesis. Both particle ingestion and lysosomal exocytosis are inhibited by synthetic TRPML1 blockers, and are defective in macrophages isolated from TRPML1 knockout mice. Furthermore, TRPML1 overexpression and TRPML1 agonists facilitate both lysosomal exocytosis and particle uptake. Using time-lapse confocal imaging and direct patch-clamping of phagosomal membranes, we found that particle binding induces lysosomal PI(3,5)P2 elevation to trigger TRPML1-mediated lysosomal Ca2+ release specifically at the site of uptake, rapidly delivering TRPML1-resident lysosomal membranes to nascent phagosomes via lysosomal exocytosis. Thus phagocytic ingestion of large particles activates a phosphoinositide- and Ca2+- dependent exocytosis pathway to provide membranes necessary for pseudopod extension, leading to clearance of senescent and apoptotic cells in vivo. PMID:23993788

  15. Lysosomal dysfunction on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of osteoarthritic chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiaki; Kitaoka, Ken-Ichi; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Seguchi, Harumichi; Tani, Toshikazu; Yoshida, Shoji

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanism of hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. We evaluated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lysosomal staining and dysfunction of the mitochondrial membrane potential in these cells after exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Osteoarthritic chondrocytes were isolated, and divided into 4 dishes in which different concentrations (0.1 mM, 1 mM and 10 mM) of hydrogen peroxide, or no additive (control) was added. The cells were incubated for 1 or 4 h, then assayed for ROS formation, mitochondrial membrane potential and lysosomal staining. ROS formation was detected in chondrocytes after 1 h of exposure to hydrogen peroxide concentrations over 0.1 mM. Lysosomal swelling was detected after 1 h of exposure to hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 0.1 mM and over, possibly revealing lysosomal membrane instability. Moreover, indications of lysosomal rupture, including release of lysosomal enzymes, were apparent 1 h after addition of 10 mM of hydrogen peroxide. The addition of hydrogen peroxide to chondrocytes induces ROS formation and lysosomal dysfunction, revealed by swelling and rupture, prior to dysfunction of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Anti-oxidants may have a therapeutic application in the prevention of lysosomal dysfunction to inhibit chondrocyte apoptosis and degradation of the cartilage matrix. PMID:15254765

  16. Effect of environmental parameters on lysosomal marker enzymes in the tropical blood clam Anadara granosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Patel; B. Patel

    1985-01-01

    The lysosomal marker enzymes, arylsulfatase and acid phosphatase, in a tropical burrowing arcid clam Anadara granosa L. have been found to exhibit seasonal variations. The activity of both enzymes decreased with increase in ambient temperature and fell with increase in salinity. Lysosomal latency for these enzymes, however, was not significantly affected by environmental parameters, including salinity, temperature, nutritional status, breeding

  17. Current status of diagnosis and treatment of lysosomal storage diseases in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Huang; Nanbert Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of inherited disorders caused by deficiency of lysosomal enzymes or structural components. LSDs have been models of molecular and cellular therapies for inherited metabolic diseases. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), bone marrow transplantation and substrate reduction therapy (SRT) have been shown to be effective for many of the LSDs. Early diagnosis and treatment have

  18. Membrane Vesicles Shed by Legionella pneumophila Inhibit Fusion of Phagosomes with Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Moreira, Esteban; Helbig, Juergen H.; Swanson, Michele S.

    2006-01-01

    When cultured in broth to the transmissive phase, Legionella pneumophila infects macrophages by inhibiting phagosome maturation, whereas replicative-phase cells are transported to the lysosomes. Here we report that the ability of L. pneumophila to inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion correlated with developmentally regulated modifications of the pathogen's surface, as judged by its lipopolysaccharide profile and by its binding to a sialic acid-specific lectin and to the hydrocarbon hexadecane. Likewise, the composition of membrane vesicles shed by L. pneumophila was developmentally regulated, based on binding to the lectin and to the lipopolysaccharide-specific monoclonal antibody 3/1. Membrane vesicles were sufficient to inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion by a mechanism independent of type IV secretion, since only ?25% of beads suspended with or coated by vesicles from transmissive phase wild type or dotA secretion mutants colocalized with lysosomal probes, whereas ?75% of beads were lysosomal when untreated or presented with vesicles from the L. pneumophila letA regulatory mutant or E. coli. As observed previously for L. pneumophila infection of mouse macrophages, vesicles inhibited phagosome-lysosome fusion only temporarily; by 10 h after treatment with vesicles, macrophages delivered ?72% of ingested beads to lysosomes. Accordingly, in the context of the epidemiology of the pneumonia Legionnaires' disease and virulence mechanisms of Leishmania and Mycobacteria, we discuss a model here in which L. pneumophila developmentally regulates its surface composition and releases vesicles into phagosomes that inhibit their fusion with lysosomes. PMID:16714556

  19. Spatial distribution of phagolysosomes is independent of the regulation of lysosome position by Rab34.

    PubMed

    Kasmapour, Bahram; Cai, Liang; Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel

    2013-09-01

    Within a cell, the regulation of organelle positioning is considered to be critical in spatio-temporal responses. The position of late endocytic organelles (named here lysosomes for simplicity) is tightly controlled and has a functional impact on processes like endocytosis, phagocytosis and autophagocytosis. The cytoplasmic distribution profile of lysosomes can be easily determined in cells where the cytoplasm/nuclear ratio in a cross-section area is high. However, determining lysosomal position in cells with lower cytoplasm/nuclear ratio, such as macrophages is more challenging. Here, we describe a method that can be efficiently and accurately used to determine the position of organelles in macrophages using confocal microscopy in two-dimensional (2D) images. Using this approach in macrophages, we confirmed previous observations in epithelial cells that both changes in cytoplasmic pH and the levels of active Rab34 induced a re-distribution of lysosomes to the cell centre or periphery. Noteworthy is that this Rab34-dependent re-distribution of lysosomes did not significantly affect the spatial distribution profile of phagolysosomes in the cytoplasm. We conclude that although Rab34 regulates both lysosomal positioning and lysosome to phagosome fusion, the latter effect is not due to the regulation of the cytoplasmic accessibility of lysosomes to phagosomes by Rab34. PMID:23871933

  20. Lysosomal acid hydrolases in established lymphoblastoid cell lines, transformed by Epstein-Barr virus, from patients with genetic lysosomal storage diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Minami; Y. Watanabe; T. Kudoh; M. Suzuki; K. Oyanagi; T. Orii; T. Nakao

    1978-01-01

    Lysosomal acid hydrolases were determined in established lymphoblastoid cell lines, transformed in vitro by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from lymphocyte-rich cell populations isolated from the peripheral blood of patients with genetic lysosomal storage diseases—Hurler syndrome, Scheie syndrome, GM1-gangliosidosis type 1 and type 2, Tay-Sachs disease, and I-cell disease—and from obligate heterozygotes for these diseases.

  1. Manipulating Autophagic Processes in Autoimmune Diseases: A Special Focus on Modulating Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy, an Emerging Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengjuan; Muller, Sylviane

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a constitutive intracellular degradation pathway, displays essential role in the homeostasis of immune cells, antigen processing and presentation, and many other immune processes. Perturbation of autophagy has been shown to be related to several autoimmune syndromes, including systemic lupus erythematosus. Therefore, modulating autophagy processes appears most promising for therapy of such autoimmune diseases. Autophagy can be said non-selective or selective; it is classified into three main forms, namely macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), the former process being by far the most intensively investigated. The role of CMA remains largely underappreciated in autoimmune diseases, even though CMA has been claimed to play pivotal functions into major histocompatibility complex class II-mediated antigen processing and presentation. Therefore, hereby, we give a special focus on CMA as a therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases, based in particular on our most recent experimental results where a phosphopeptide modulates lupus disease by interacting with CMA regulators. We propose that specifically targeting lysosomes and lysosomal pathways, which are central in autophagy processes and seem to be altered in certain autoimmune diseases such as lupus, could be an innovative approach of efficient and personalized treatment. PMID:26042127

  2. Manipulating autophagic processes in autoimmune diseases: a special focus on modulating chaperone-mediated autophagy, an emerging therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengjuan; Muller, Sylviane

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a constitutive intracellular degradation pathway, displays essential role in the homeostasis of immune cells, antigen processing and presentation, and many other immune processes. Perturbation of autophagy has been shown to be related to several autoimmune syndromes, including systemic lupus erythematosus. Therefore, modulating autophagy processes appears most promising for therapy of such autoimmune diseases. Autophagy can be said non-selective or selective; it is classified into three main forms, namely macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), the former process being by far the most intensively investigated. The role of CMA remains largely underappreciated in autoimmune diseases, even though CMA has been claimed to play pivotal functions into major histocompatibility complex class II-mediated antigen processing and presentation. Therefore, hereby, we give a special focus on CMA as a therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases, based in particular on our most recent experimental results where a phosphopeptide modulates lupus disease by interacting with CMA regulators. We propose that specifically targeting lysosomes and lysosomal pathways, which are central in autophagy processes and seem to be altered in certain autoimmune diseases such as lupus, could be an innovative approach of efficient and personalized treatment. PMID:26042127

  3. A novel conserved targeting motif found in ABCA transporters mediates trafficking to early post-Golgi compartments[S

    PubMed Central

    Beers, Michael F.; Hawkins, Arie; Shuman, Henry; Zhao, Ming; Newitt, Jennifer L.; Maguire, Jean Ann; Ding, Wenge; Mulugeta, Surafel

    2011-01-01

    The ATP binding cassette, class A (ABCA) proteins are homologous polytopic transmembrane transporters that function as lipid pumps at distinct subcellular sites in a variety of cells. Located within the N terminus of these transporters, there exists a highly conserved xLxxKN motif of unknown function. To define its role, human ABCA3 was employed as a primary model representing ABCA transporters, while mouse ABCA1 was utilized to support major findings. Transfection studies showed colocalization of both transporters with surfactant protein C (SP-C), a marker peptide for successful protein targeting to lysosomal-like organelles. In contrast, alanine mutation of xLxxKN resulted in endoplasmic reticulum retention. As proof of principle, swapping xLxxKN for the known lysosomal targeting motif of SP-C resulted in post-Golgi targeting of the SP-C chimera. However, these products failed to reach their terminal processing compartments, suggesting that the xLxxKN motif only serves as a Golgi exit signal. We propose a model whereby an N-terminal signal sequence, xLxxKN, directs ABCA transporters to a post-Golgi vesicular sorting station where additional signals may be required for selective delivery of individual transporters to final subcellular destinations. PMID:21586796