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1

Quantitative Modeling of Selective Lysosomal Targeting for Drug Design  

PubMed Central

Lysosomes are acidic organelles and are involved in various diseases, the most prominent is malaria. Accumulation of molecules in the cell by diffusion from the external solution into cytosol, lysosome and mitochondrium was calculated with the Fick-Nernst-Planck-equation. The cell model considers the diffusion of neutral and ionic molecules across biomembranes, dissociation to mono- or bivalent ions, adsorption to lipids, and electrical attraction or repulsion. Based on simulation results, high and selective accumulation in lysosomes was found for weak mono- and bivalent bases with intermediate to high log Kow. These findings were validated with experimental results and by a comparison to the properties of antimalarial drugs in clinical use. For ten active compounds, nine were predicted to accumulate to a greater extent in lysosomes than in other organelles, six of these were in the optimum range predicted by the model and three were close. Five of the antimalarial drugs were lipophilic weak dibasic compounds. The predicted optimum properties for a selective accumulation of weak bivalent bases in lysosomes are consistent with experimental values and are more accurate than any prior calculation. This demonstrates that the cell model can be a useful tool for the design of effective lysosome-targeting drugs with minimal off-target interactions.

Rosania, Gus R.; Horobin, Richard W.; Kornhuber, Johannes

2009-01-01

2

Lysosomal disruption preferentially targets acute myeloid leukemia cells and progenitors  

PubMed Central

Despite efforts to understand and treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML), there remains a need for more comprehensive therapies to prevent AML-associated relapses. To identify new therapeutic strategies for AML, we screened a library of on- and off-patent drugs and identified the antimalarial agent mefloquine as a compound that selectively kills AML cells and AML stem cells in a panel of leukemia cell lines and in mice. Using a yeast genome-wide functional screen for mefloquine sensitizers, we identified genes associated with the yeast vacuole, the homolog of the mammalian lysosome. Consistent with this, we determined that mefloquine disrupts lysosomes, directly permeabilizes the lysosome membrane, and releases cathepsins into the cytosol. Knockdown of the lysosomal membrane proteins LAMP1 and LAMP2 resulted in decreased cell viability, as did treatment of AML cells with known lysosome disrupters. Highlighting a potential therapeutic rationale for this strategy, leukemic cells had significantly larger lysosomes compared with normal cells, and leukemia-initiating cells overexpressed lysosomal biogenesis genes. These results demonstrate that lysosomal disruption preferentially targets AML cells and AML progenitor cells, providing a rationale for testing lysosomal disruption as a novel therapeutic strategy for AML.

Sukhai, Mahadeo A.; Prabha, Swayam; Hurren, Rose; Rutledge, Angela C.; Lee, Anna Y.; Sriskanthadevan, Shrivani; Sun, Hong; Wang, Xiaoming; Skrtic, Marko; Seneviratne, Ayesh; Cusimano, Maria; Jhas, Bozhena; Gronda, Marcela; MacLean, Neil; Cho, Eunice E.; Spagnuolo, Paul A.; Sharmeen, Sumaiya; Gebbia, Marinella; Urbanus, Malene; Eppert, Kolja; Dissanayake, Dilan; Jonet, Alexia; Dassonville-Klimpt, Alexandra; Li, Xiaoming; Datti, Alessandro; Ohashi, Pamela S.; Wrana, Jeff; Rogers, Ian; Sonnet, Pascal; Ellis, William Y.; Corey, Seth J.; Eaves, Connie; Minden, Mark D.; Wang, Jean C.Y.; Dick, John E.; Nislow, Corey; Giaever, Guri; Schimmer, Aaron D.

2012-01-01

3

Lysosome-targeted stress reveals increased stability of lipofuscin-containing lysosomes  

PubMed Central

Cellular ageing is associated with accumulation of undegradable intralysosomal material, called lipofuscin. In order to accelerate the lipofuscin accumulation, confluent, growth-arrested human fibroblasts were cultured under hyperoxic conditions. To provide a better insight into the effects of lipofuscin on cellular functions, we compared lysosomal stability in control and lipofuscin-loaded human fibroblasts under conditions of lysosome-targeted stress induced by exposure to either the lysosomotropic detergent MSDH or the redox-cycling quinone naphthazarin. We show that lysosomal damage, assessed by acridine-orange relocation, translocation of cathepsin D to the cytosol, and alkalinization of lysosomes, is more pronounced in control than in lipofuscin-loaded fibroblasts. Finding that lysosomal integrity was less affected or even preserved in case of lipofuscin-loaded cells enables us to suggest that lipofuscin exerts lysosome-stabilizing properties.

Mild, Hanna; Johansson, Uno; Roberg, Karin; Ollinger, Karin

2008-01-01

4

Protein Networks Supporting AP-3 Function in Targeting Lysosomal Membrane Proteins  

PubMed Central

The AP-3 adaptor complex targets selected transmembrane proteins to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles. We reconstituted its preferred interaction with liposomes containing the ADP ribosylation factor (ARF)-1 guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase), specific cargo tails, and phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate, and then we performed a proteomic screen to identify new proteins supporting its sorting function. We identified ?30 proteins belonging to three networks regulating either AP-3 coat assembly or septin polymerization or Rab7-dependent lysosomal transport. RNA interference shows that, among these proteins, the ARF-1 exchange factor brefeldin A-inhibited exchange factor 1, the ARF-1 GTPase-activating protein 1, the Cdc42-interacting Cdc42 effector protein 4, an effector of septin-polymerizing GTPases, and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase IIIC3 are key components regulating the targeting of lysosomal membrane proteins to lysosomes in vivo. This analysis reveals that these proteins, together with AP-3, play an essential role in protein sorting at early endosomes, thereby regulating the integrity of these organelles.

Baust, Thorsten; Anitei, Mihaela; Czupalla, Cornelia; Parshyna, Iryna; Bourel, Line; Thiele, Christoph; Krause, Eberhard

2008-01-01

5

Lysosome-targeted octadecyl-rhodamine B-liposomes enhance lysosomal accumulation of glucocerebrosidase in Gaucher's cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

Aim We hypothesized that liposomes modified with lysosomotropic octadecyl-rhodamine B (Rh) and loaded with therapeutic glucocerebroside velaglucerase alfa (VPRIV™) will improve lysosomal delivery of the enzyme into Gaucher’s cells. Materials & methods Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the ability of Rh-modified liposomes loaded with VPRIV to improve the lysosomal targeting in monocyte-derived macrophages and Gaucher’s fibroblasts. Results Confocal microscopy demonstrated that Rh-modified liposomes localized primarily in the lysosomes. As confirmed by flow cytometry using specific substrate 5-(pentafluorobenzoylamino)fluorescein diglucoside, intralysosomal accumulation of VPRIV in the cells treated with Rh-modified liposomes was significantly increased (up to 68%) relative to the cells treated with plain liposomes or free VPRIV. Conclusion Rh-modified lysosomotropic liposomes can improve lysosomal accumulation of liposomal enzymes both in nonphagocytic Gaucher’s fibroblasts and phagocytic monocyte-derived macrophages.

Thekkedath, Ritesh; Koshkaryev, Alexander; Torchilin, Vladimir P

2013-01-01

6

Targeting of lysosomes by liposomes modified with octadecyl-rhodamine B  

PubMed Central

The use of lysosome-targeted liposomes may significantly improve a delivery of therapeutic enzymes into lysosomes for the treatment of lysosome-associated diseases. The aim of this research was to achieve a specific intracellular targeting of lysosomes, by using liposomes modified with the lysosomotropic octadecyl-rhodamine B (RhB) and loaded with a model compound, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–dextran (FD). Plain and RhB-modified liposomes were prepared by hydration of lipid films and loaded with FD or with 5-dodecanoylaminofluorescein di-?-D-galactopyranoside (C12FDG), a specific substrate for the intralysosomal ?-galactosidase. The delivery of these liposomes and their content to lysosomes in HeLa cells was investigated by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and subcellular fractionation. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that RhB-liposomes co-localize well with the specific lysosomal markers, unlike plain liposomes. The comparison of the FITC fluorescence of the lysosomes isolated by subcellular fractionation also showed that the efficiency of FD delivery into lysosomes by RhB-modified liposomes was significantly higher compared with plain liposomes. These results were additionally confirmed by the flow cytometry of the intact cells treated with C12FDG-loaded liposomes that also demonstrated increased lysosomal targeting by RhB-modified liposomes. The modification of the liposomal surface with a lysosomotropic ligand, such as octadecyl-RhB, can significantly increase the delivery of liposomal loads to lysosomes.

Koshkaryev, Alexander; Thekkedath, Ritesh; Pagano, Cinzia; Meerovich, Igor; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

2014-01-01

7

Lysosomal Rerouting of Hsp70 Trafficking as a Potential Immune Activating Tool for Targeting Melanoma  

PubMed Central

Tumor specific cell surface localization and release of the stress inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) stimulate the immune system against cancer cells. A key immune stimulatory function of tumor-derived Hsp70 has been exemplified with the murine melanoma cell model, B16 overexpressing exogenous Hsp70. Despite the therapeutic potential mechanism of Hsp70 transport to the surface and release remained poorly understood. We investigated principles of Hsp70 trafficking in B16 melanoma cells with low and high level of Hsp70. In cells with low level of Hsp70 apparent trafficking of Hsp70 was mediated by endosomes. Excess Hsp70 triggered a series of changes such as a switch of Hsp70 trafficking from endosomes to lysosomes and a concomitant accumulation of Hsp70 in lysosomes. Moreover, lysosomal rerouting resulted in an elevated concentration of surface Hsp70 and enabled active release of Hsp70. In fact, hyperthermia, a clinically applicable approach triggered immediate active lysosomal release of soluble Hsp70 from cells with excess Hsp70. Furthermore, excess Hsp70 enabled targeting of internalized surface Hsp70 to lysosomes, allowing in turn heat-induced secretion of surface Hsp70. Altogether, we show that excess Hsp70 expressed in B16 melanoma cells diverts Hsp70 trafficking from endosomes to lysosomes, thereby supporting its surface localization and lysosomal release. Controlled excess-induced lysosomal rerouting and secretion of Hsp70 is proposed as a promising tool to stimulate anti-tumor immunity targeting melanoma.

Juhasz, Kata; Thuenauer, Roland; Spachinger, Andrea; Duda, Erno; Horvath, Ibolya; Vigh, Laszlo; Sonnleitner, Alois; Balogi, Zsolt

2013-01-01

8

Plasticity of Polyubiquitin Recognition as Lysosomal Targeting Signals by the Endosomal Sorting Machinery  

PubMed Central

Lysosomal targeting is fundamental for the regulated disposal of ubiquitinated membrane proteins from the cell surface. To elucidate ubiquitin (Ub) configurations that are necessary and sufficient as multivesicular body (MVB)/lysosomal-sorting motifs, the intraendosomal destination and transport kinetics of model transmembrane cargo molecules bearing monoubiquitinated, multi-monoubiquitinated, or polyubiquitinated cytoplasmic tails were determined. Monomeric CD4 chimeras with K63-linked poly-Ub chains and tetrameric CD4-mono-Ub chimeras were rapidly targeted to the lysosome. In contrast, lysosomal delivery of CD4 chimeras exposing K48-linked Ub chains was delayed, whereas delivery of monoubiquitinated CD4 chimeras was undetectable. Similar difference was observed in the lysosomal targeting of mono- versus polyubiquitinated invariant chain and CD4 ubiquitinated by the MARCH (membrane-associated RING-CH) IV Ub ligase. Consistent with this, Hrs (hepatocyte growth factor regulated tyrosine kinase phosphorylated substrate), an endosomal sorting adaptor, binds preferentially to K63-Ub chain and negligibly to mono-Ub. These results highlight the plasticity of Ub as a sorting signal and its recognition by the endosomal sorting machinery, and together with previous data, suggest a regulatory role for assembly and disassembly of Ub chains of specific topology in lysosomal cargo sorting.

Barriere, Herve; Nemes, Csilla; Du, Kai

2007-01-01

9

Ubiquitin-dependent lysosomal targeting of GABAA receptors regulates neuronal inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we investigated the role of GABAAR ubiquitination in regulating GABAAR endosomal trafficking. We show that the GABAAR 2 subunit, which plays a key role in synaptic targeting, can preferentially target internalized GABAARs to the lysosome for degradation. We demonstrate that this process is regulated by an amino acid motif within the intracellular loop of the 2

I. L. Arancibia-Carcamo; E. Y. Yuen; James Muir; M. J. Lumb; Guido Michels; R. S. Saliba; T. G. Smart; Zhen Yan; J. T. Kittler; S. J. Moss

2009-01-01

10

Glycosylation-independent targeting enhances enzyme delivery to lysosomes and decreases storage in mucopolysaccharidosis type VII mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzyme-replacement therapy is an established means of treating lysosomal storage diseases. Infused therapeutic enzymes are targeted to lysosomes of affected cells by interactions with cell-surface receptors that recognize carbohydrate moieties, such as mannose and mannose 6-phosphate, on the enzymes. We have tested an alternative, peptide-based targeting system for delivery of enzymes to lysosomes in a murine mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS

Jonathan H. Lebowitz; Jeffrey H. Grubb; John A. Maga; Deborah H. Schmiel; Carole Vogler; William S. Sly

2004-01-01

11

IKK phosphorylates Huntingtin and targets it for degradation by the proteasome and lysosome  

PubMed Central

Expansion of the polyglutamine repeat within the protein Huntingtin (Htt) causes Huntington's disease, a neurodegenerative disease associated with aging and the accumulation of mutant Htt in diseased neurons. Understanding the mechanisms that influence Htt cellular degradation may target treatments designed to activate mutant Htt clearance pathways. We find that Htt is phosphorylated by the inflammatory kinase IKK, enhancing its normal clearance by the proteasome and lysosome. Phosphorylation of Htt regulates additional post-translational modifications, including Htt ubiquitination, SUMOylation, and acetylation, and increases Htt nuclear localization, cleavage, and clearance mediated by lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2A and Hsc70. We propose that IKK activates mutant Htt clearance until an age-related loss of proteasome/lysosome function promotes accumulation of toxic post-translationally modified mutant Htt. Thus, IKK activation may modulate mutant Htt neurotoxicity depending on the cell's ability to degrade the modified species.

Thompson, Leslie Michels; Aiken, Charity T.; Kaltenbach, Linda S.; Agrawal, Namita; Illes, Katalin; Khoshnan, Ali; Martinez-Vincente, Marta; Arrasate, Montserrat; O'Rourke, Jacqueline Gire; Khashwji, Hasan; Lukacsovich, Tamas; Zhu, Ya-Zhen; Lau, Alice L.; Massey, Ashish; Hayden, Michael R.; Zeitlin, Scott O.; Finkbeiner, Steven; Green, Kim N.; LaFerla, Frank M.; Bates, Gillian; Huang, Lan; Patterson, Paul H.; Lo, Donald C.; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Marsh, J. Lawrence

2009-01-01

12

The polymorphic HCMV glycoprotein UL20 is targeted for lysosomal degradation by multiple cytoplasmic dileucine motifs.  

PubMed

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread and persistent beta-herpesvirus. The large DNA genome of HCMV encodes many proteins that are non-essential for viral replication including numerous proteins subverting host immunosurveillance. One of them is the barely characterized UL20, which is encoded adjacent to the well-defined immunoevasins UL16 and UL18. UL20 is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein with an immunoglobulin-like ectodomain that is highly polymorphic among HCMV strains. Here, we show that the homodimeric UL20, by virtue of its cytoplasmic domain, does not reach the cell surface but is targeted to endosomes and lysosomes. Accordingly, UL20 exhibits a short half-life because of rapid lysosomal degradation. Trafficking of UL20 to lysosomes is determined by several, independently functioning dileucine-based sorting motifs in the cytoplasmic domain of UL20 and involves the adaptor protein (AP) complex AP-1. Combined substitution of three dileucine motifs allowed strong cell surface expression of UL20 comparable to UL20 mutants lacking the cytoplasmic tail. Finally, we show that the intracellularly located UL20 also is subject to lysosomal degradation in the context of viral infection. Altogether, from these data, we hypothesize that UL20 is destined to efficiently sequester yet-to-be defined cellular proteins for degradation in lysosomes. PMID:21689255

Jelcic, Ivan; Reichel, Johanna; Schlude, Christoph; Treutler, Eva; Sinzger, Christian; Steinle, Alexander

2011-10-01

13

The zinc finger protein A20 targets TRAF2 to the lysosomes for degradation  

PubMed Central

The zinc finger-containing protein A20 is a negative regulator of TNF-induced JNK (c-Jun-N-terminal kinase) and NF?B (nuclear factor ?B) signaling. A20 is an unusual enzyme that contains both ubiquitinating and deubiquitinating activities. Although A20 is mostly localized in the cytosol, our recent studies reveal that a fraction of A20 can associate with a lysosome-interacting compartment in a manner that requires its carboxy terminal zinc fingers, but independent of its ubiquitin modifying activities. Whether the lysosome-associated A20 has a function in cellular signaling is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that A20 is capable of targeting an associated signaling molecule such as TRAF2 to the lysosomes for degradation. This process is dependent on the membrane tethering zinc finger domains of A20, but does not require A20 ubiquitin modifying activity. Our findings suggest a novel mode of A20 action that involves lysosomal targeting of signal molecules bound to A20.

Li, Lianyun; Soetandyo, Nia; Wang, Qiuyan; Ye, Yihong

2009-01-01

14

Lysosome sorting of ?-glucocerebrosidase by LIMP-2 is targeted by the mannose 6-phosphate receptor  

PubMed Central

The integral membrane protein LIMP-2 has been a paradigm for mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR) independent lysosomal targeting, binding to ?-glucocerebrosidase (?-GCase) and directing it to the lysosome, before dissociating in the late-endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Here we report structural results illuminating how LIMP-2 binds and releases ?-GCase according to changes in pH, via a histidine trigger, and suggesting that LIMP-2 localizes the ceramide portion of the substrate adjacent to the ?-GCase catalytic site. Remarkably, we find that LIMP-2 bears P-Man9GlcNAc2 covalently attached to residue N325, and that it binds MPR, via mannose 6-phosphate, with a similar affinity to that observed between LIMP-2 and ?-GCase. The binding sites for ?-GCase and the MPR are functionally separate, so that a stable ternary complex can be formed. By fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, we also demonstrate that LIMP-2 interacts with MPR in living cells. These results revise the accepted view of LIMP-2–?-GCase lysosomal targeting.

Zhao, Yuguang; Ren, Jingshan; Padilla-Parra, Sergi; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Stuart, David I.

2014-01-01

15

Proteasome Inhibitors Block a Late Step in Lysosomal Transport of Selected Membrane but not Soluble Proteins  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway acts as a regulator of the endocytosis of selected membrane proteins. Recent evidence suggests that it may also function in the intracellular trafficking of membrane proteins. In this study, several models were used to address the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in sorting of internalized proteins to the lysosome. We found that lysosomal degradation of ligands, which remain bound to their receptors within the endocytic pathway, is blocked in the presence of specific proteasome inhibitors. In contrast, a ligand that dissociates from its receptor upon endosome acidification is degraded under the same conditions. Quantitative electron microscopy showed that neither the uptake nor the overall distribution of the endocytic marker bovine serum albumin-gold is substantially altered in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor. The data suggest that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is involved in an endosomal sorting step of selected membrane proteins to lysosomes, thereby providing a mechanism for regulated degradation.

van Kerkhof, Peter; dos Santos, Cristina M. Alves; Sachse, Martin; Klumperman, Judith; Bu, Guojun; Strous, Ger J.

2001-01-01

16

Campylobacter jejuni cell lysates differently target mitochondria and lysosomes on HeLa cells.  

PubMed

Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The synthesis of cytolethal distending toxin appears essential in the infection process. In this work we evaluated the sequence of lethal events in HeLa cells exposed to cell lysates of two distinct strains, C. jejuni ATCC 33291 and C. jejuni ISS3. C. jejuni cell lysates (CCLys) were added to HeLa cell monolayers which were analysed to detect DNA content, death features, bcl-2 and p53 status, mitochondria/lysosomes network and finally, CD54 and CD59 alterations, compared to cell lysates of C. jejuni 11168H cdtA mutant. We found mitochondria and lysosomes differently targeted by these bacterial lysates. Death, consistent with apoptosis for C. jejuni ATCC 33291 lysate, occurred in a slow way (>48 h); concomitantly HeLa cells increase their endolysosomal compartment, as a consequence of toxin internalization besides a simultaneous and partial lysosomal destabilization. C. jejuni CCLys induces death in HeLa cells mainly via a caspase-dependent mechanism although a p53 lysosomal pathway (also caspase-independent) seems to appear in addition. In C. jejuni ISS3-treated cells, the p53-mediated oxidative degradation of mitochondrial components seems to be lost, inducing the deepest lysosomal alterations. Furthermore, CD59 considerably decreases, suggesting both a degradation or internalisation pathway. CCLys-treated HeLa cells increase CD54 expression on their surface, because of the action of lysate as its double feature of toxin and bacterial peptide. In conclusion, we revealed that C. jejuni CCLys-treated HeLa cells displayed different features, depending on the particular strain. PMID:24880782

Canonico, B; Campana, R; Luchetti, F; Arcangeletti, M; Betti, M; Cesarini, E; Ciacci, C; Vittoria, E; Galli, L; Papa, S; Baffone, W

2014-08-01

17

Targeting lysosomal membrane permeabilization to induce and image apoptosis in cancer cells by multifunctional Au-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles.  

PubMed

We have developed multifunctional Au-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted induction lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP)-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells and real-time imaging. PMID:24924212

Gao, Wen; Cao, Wenhua; Zhang, Huaibin; Li, Ping; Xu, Kehua; Tang, Bo

2014-07-01

18

Two Novel Human Cytomegalovirus NK Cell Evasion Functions Target MICA for Lysosomal Degradation  

PubMed Central

NKG2D plays a major role in controlling immune responses through the regulation of natural killer (NK) cells, ?? and ?? T-cell function. This activating receptor recognizes eight distinct ligands (the MHC Class I polypeptide-related sequences (MIC) A andB, and UL16-binding proteins (ULBP)1–6) induced by cellular stress to promote recognition cells perturbed by malignant transformation or microbial infection. Studies into human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) have aided both the identification and characterization of NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs). HCMV immediate early (IE) gene up regulates NKGDLs, and we now describe the differential activation of ULBP2 and MICA/B by IE1 and IE2 respectively. Despite activation by IE functions, HCMV effectively suppressed cell surface expression of NKGDLs through both the early and late phases of infection. The immune evasion functions UL16, UL142, and microRNA(miR)-UL112 are known to target NKG2DLs. While infection with a UL16 deletion mutant caused the expected increase in MICB and ULBP2 cell surface expression, deletion of UL142 did not have a similar impact on its target, MICA. We therefore performed a systematic screen of the viral genome to search of addition functions that targeted MICA. US18 and US20 were identified as novel NK cell evasion functions capable of acting independently to promote MICA degradation by lysosomal degradation. The most dramatic effect on MICA expression was achieved when US18 and US20 acted in concert. US18 and US20 are the first members of the US12 gene family to have been assigned a function. The US12 family has 10 members encoded sequentially through US12–US21; a genetic arrangement, which is suggestive of an ‘accordion’ expansion of an ancestral gene in response to a selective pressure. This expansion must have be an ancient event as the whole family is conserved across simian cytomegaloviruses from old world monkeys. The evolutionary benefit bestowed by the combinatorial effect of US18 and US20 on MICA may have contributed to sustaining the US12 gene family.

Fielding, Ceri A.; Aicheler, Rebecca; Stanton, Richard J.; Wang, Eddie C. Y.; Han, Song; Seirafian, Sepehr; Davies, James; McSharry, Brian P.; Weekes, Michael P.; Antrobus, P. Robin; Prod'homme, Virginie; Blanchet, Fabien P.; Sugrue, Daniel; Cuff, Simone; Roberts, Dawn; Davison, Andrew J.; Lehner, Paul J.; Wilkinson, Gavin W. G.; Tomasec, Peter

2014-01-01

19

Two novel human cytomegalovirus NK cell evasion functions target MICA for lysosomal degradation.  

PubMed

NKG2D plays a major role in controlling immune responses through the regulation of natural killer (NK) cells, ?? and ?? T-cell function. This activating receptor recognizes eight distinct ligands (the MHC Class I polypeptide-related sequences (MIC) A andB, and UL16-binding proteins (ULBP)1-6) induced by cellular stress to promote recognition cells perturbed by malignant transformation or microbial infection. Studies into human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) have aided both the identification and characterization of NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs). HCMV immediate early (IE) gene up regulates NKGDLs, and we now describe the differential activation of ULBP2 and MICA/B by IE1 and IE2 respectively. Despite activation by IE functions, HCMV effectively suppressed cell surface expression of NKGDLs through both the early and late phases of infection. The immune evasion functions UL16, UL142, and microRNA(miR)-UL112 are known to target NKG2DLs. While infection with a UL16 deletion mutant caused the expected increase in MICB and ULBP2 cell surface expression, deletion of UL142 did not have a similar impact on its target, MICA. We therefore performed a systematic screen of the viral genome to search of addition functions that targeted MICA. US18 and US20 were identified as novel NK cell evasion functions capable of acting independently to promote MICA degradation by lysosomal degradation. The most dramatic effect on MICA expression was achieved when US18 and US20 acted in concert. US18 and US20 are the first members of the US12 gene family to have been assigned a function. The US12 family has 10 members encoded sequentially through US12-US21; a genetic arrangement, which is suggestive of an 'accordion' expansion of an ancestral gene in response to a selective pressure. This expansion must have be an ancient event as the whole family is conserved across simian cytomegaloviruses from old world monkeys. The evolutionary benefit bestowed by the combinatorial effect of US18 and US20 on MICA may have contributed to sustaining the US12 gene family. PMID:24787765

Fielding, Ceri A; Aicheler, Rebecca; Stanton, Richard J; Wang, Eddie C Y; Han, Song; Seirafian, Sepehr; Davies, James; McSharry, Brian P; Weekes, Michael P; Antrobus, P Robin; Prod'homme, Virginie; Blanchet, Fabien P; Sugrue, Daniel; Cuff, Simone; Roberts, Dawn; Davison, Andrew J; Lehner, Paul J; Wilkinson, Gavin W G; Tomasec, Peter

2014-05-01

20

The AAA-ATPase VPS4 Regulates Extracellular Secretion and Lysosomal Targeting of ?-Synuclein  

PubMed Central

Many neurodegenerative diseases share a common pathological feature: the deposition of amyloid-like fibrils composed of misfolded proteins. Emerging evidence suggests that these proteins may spread from cell-to-cell and encourage the propagation of neurodegeneration in a prion-like manner. Here, we demonstrated that ?-synuclein (?SYN), a principal culprit for Lewy pathology in Parkinson's disease (PD), was present in endosomal compartments and detectably secreted into the extracellular milieu. Unlike prion protein, extracellular ?SYN was mainly recovered in the supernatant fraction rather than in exosome-containing pellets from the neuronal culture medium and cerebrospinal fluid. Surprisingly, impaired biogenesis of multivesicular body (MVB), an organelle from which exosomes are derived, by dominant-negative mutant vacuolar protein sorting 4 (VPS4) not only interfered with lysosomal targeting of ?SYN but facilitated ?SYN secretion. The hypersecretion of ?SYN in VPS4-defective cells was efficiently restored by the functional disruption of recycling endosome regulator Rab11a. Furthermore, both brainstem and cortical Lewy bodies in PD were found to be immunoreactive for VPS4. Thus, VPS4, a master regulator of MVB sorting, may serve as a determinant of lysosomal targeting or extracellular secretion of ?SYN and thereby contribute to the intercellular propagation of Lewy pathology in PD.

Hasegawa, Takafumi; Konno, Masatoshi; Baba, Toru; Sugeno, Naoto; Kikuchi, Akio; Kobayashi, Michiko; Miura, Emiko; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Tamai, Keiichi; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Mori, Fumiaki; Wakabayashi, Koichi; Aoki, Masashi; Itoyama, Yasuto; Takeda, Atsushi

2011-01-01

21

Glycosylation-independent targeting enhances enzyme delivery to lysosomes and decreases storage in mucopolysaccharidosis type VII mice  

PubMed Central

Enzyme-replacement therapy is an established means of treating lysosomal storage diseases. Infused therapeutic enzymes are targeted to lysosomes of affected cells by interactions with cell-surface receptors that recognize carbohydrate moieties, such as mannose and mannose 6-phosphate, on the enzymes. We have tested an alternative, peptide-based targeting system for delivery of enzymes to lysosomes in a murine mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) model. This strategy depends on the interaction of a fragment of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), with the IGF-II binding site on the bifunctional, IGF-II cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. A chimeric protein containing a portion of mature human IGF-II fused to the C terminus of human ?-glucuronidase was taken up by MPS VII fibroblasts in a mannose 6-phosphate-independent manner, and its uptake was inhibited by the addition of IGF-II. Furthermore, the tagged enzyme was delivered effectively to clinically significant tissues in MPS VII mice and was effective in reversing the storage pathology. The tagged enzyme was able to reduce storage in glomerular podocytes and osteoblasts at a dose at which untagged enzyme was much less effective. This peptide-based, glycosylation-independent lysosomal targeting system may enhance enzyme-replacement therapy for certain human lysosomal storage diseases.

LeBowitz, Jonathan H.; Grubb, Jeffrey H.; Maga, John A.; Schmiel, Deborah H.; Vogler, Carole; Sly, William S.

2004-01-01

22

CDTI target selection criteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) is a cockpit instrument which provides information to the aircrew on the relative location of aircraft traffic in the vicinity of their aircraft (township). In addition, the CDTI may provide information to assist in navigation and in aircraft control. It is usually anticipated that the CDTI will be integrated with a horizontal situation indicator used for navigational purposes and/or with a weather radar display. In this study, several sets of aircraft traffic data are analyzed to determine statistics on the number of targets that will be displayed on a CDTI using various target selection criteria. Traffic data were obtained from an Atlanta Terminal Area Simulation and from radar tapes recorded at the Atlanta and Miami terminal areas. Results are given in the form of plots showing the average percentage of time (or probability) that an aircraft equipped with a CDTI would observe from 0 to 10 other aircraft on the display for range settings on the CDTI up to 30 n. mi. and using various target discrimination techniques.

Britt, C. L.; Davis, C. M.; Jackson, C. B.; Mcclellan, V. A.

1984-01-01

23

AN UNCONVENTIONAL DILEUCINE AND A NOVEL CYTOSOLIC MOTIF ARE REQUIRED FOR THE LYSOSOMAL/MELANOSOMAL TARGETING OF OA1  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The protein product of the gene responsible for ocular albinism type 1, named OA1, is a pigment cell-specific membrane glycoprotein, displaying features of G protein-coupled receptors, yet exclusively localized to late endosomes/lysosomes and melanosomes. To dissect the signals responsible for the intracellular localization of OA1 we generated LAMP1/OA1 chimeras and OA1 mutants at the cytosolic domains of the protein. By this approach we identified two separate sorting signals that are both necessary and sufficient for intracellular retention and lysosomal/melanosomal localization in melanocytic and non-melanocytic cells: an unconventional dileucine motif within the third cytosolic loop and a novel motif, characterized by a tryptophan-glutamic acid doublet, within the C-terminal tail. Both motifs must be mutated to promote the plasma membrane localization of OA1, suggesting that they can independently drive its intracellular targeting. In addition, both motifs act similarly as lysosomal sorting signals in non-melanocytic cells, but appear to carry different specificities in melanocytic cells. Our findings indicate that OA1 contains multiple unconventional signals responsible for its lysosomal/melanosomal localization, and reveal a remarkable and unforeseen complexity in the regulation of polytopic protein sorting to specialized secretory organelles.

Piccirillo, Rosanna; Palmisano, Ilaria; Innamorati, Giulio; Bagnato, Paola; Altimare, Domenico; Schiaffino, Maria Vittoria

2006-01-01

24

BCA2/Rabring7 Targets HIV-1 Gag for Lysosomal Degradation in a Tetherin-Independent Manner  

PubMed Central

BCA2 (Rabring7, RNF115 or ZNF364) is a RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligase that was identified as a co-factor in the restriction imposed by tetherin/BST2 on HIV-1. Contrary to the current model, in which BCA2 lacks antiviral activity in the absence of tetherin, we found that BCA2 possesses tetherin-independent antiviral activity. Here we show that the N-terminus of BCA2 physically interacts with the Matrix region of HIV-1 and other retroviral Gag proteins and promotes their ubiquitination, redistribution to endo-lysosomal compartments and, ultimately, lysosomal degradation. The targeted depletion of BCA2 in tetherin-expressing and tetherin-deficient cells results in a significant increase in virus release and replication, indicating that endogenous BCA2 possesses antiviral activity. Therefore, these results indicate that BCA2 functions as an antiviral factor that targets HIV-1 Gag for degradation, impairing virus assembly and release.

Nityanandam, Ramya; Serra-Moreno, Ruth

2014-01-01

25

Distinctive inhibition of the lysosomal targeting of lysozyme and cathepsin D by drugs affecting pH gradients and protein kinase C.  

PubMed Central

Morphological and biochemical evidence indicates that in several cell types, lysozyme is found in both lysosomes and the medium. Here we report that in calcitriol-treated human promonocytes U937, in which approx. two-thirds of the synthesized lysozyme is secreted, most of the intracellular lysozyme co-localizes with cathepsin D in lysosomal organelles. In the presence of NH4Cl the lysosomal targeting of procathepsin D, but not that of lysozyme, is inhibited. In the presence of 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (4 beta-PMA; 'TPA'), the lysosomal packaging of lysozyme is almost completely inhibited, while that of procathepsin D is only partially so. However, the inhibition of the lysosomal targeting of procathepsin D by NH4Cl and 4 beta-PMA is additive. The targeting of lysozyme is partially inhibited in the presence of R-59022, an inhibitor of diacylglycerol kinase, whereas it is not affected by 4 alpha-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, an isomer of 4 beta-PMA that does not activate protein kinase C. It is concluded that in U937 cells both carbohydrate-dependent and -independent recognition contributes to the lysosomal targeting of soluble proteins. We suggest that the carbohydrate-independent traffic of proteins to lysosomal compartments is controlled by a signalling pathway involving protein kinase C. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Radons, J; Biewusch, U; Grassel, S; Geuze, H J; Hasilik, A

1994-01-01

26

Chaperone-mediated Autophagy Targets Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1? (HIF-1?) for Lysosomal Degradation*  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that mediates adaptive responses to hypoxia. We demonstrate that lysosomal degradation of the HIF-1? subunit by chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a major regulator of HIF-1 activity. Pharmacological inhibitors of lysosomal degradation, such as bafilomycin and chloroquine, increased HIF-1? levels and HIF-1 activity, whereas activators of chaperone-mediated autophagy, including 6-aminonicotinamide and nutrient starvation, decreased HIF-1? levels and HIF-1 activity. In contrast, macroautophagy inhibitors did not increase HIF-1 activity. Transcription factor EB, a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, also negatively regulated HIF-1 activity. HIF-1? interacts with HSC70 and LAMP2A, which are core components of the CMA machinery. Overexpression of HSC70 or LAMP2A decreased HIF-1? protein levels, whereas knockdown had the opposite effect. Finally, hypoxia increased the transcription of genes involved in CMA and lysosomal biogenesis in cancer cells. Thus, pharmacological and genetic approaches identify CMA as a major regulator of HIF-1 activity and identify interplay between autophagy and the response to hypoxia.

Hubbi, Maimon E.; Hu, Hongxia; Kshitiz; Ahmed, Ishrat; Levchenko, Andre; Semenza, Gregg L.

2013-01-01

27

Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Ameliorates ?-Amyloid Pathology and Restores Lysosomal Acidification and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Activity in the Alzheimer Disease Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?) deposits is a primary pathological feature of Alzheimer disease that is correlated with neurotoxicity and cognitive decline. The role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis has been debated. To study the role of GSK-3 in A? pathology, we used 5XFAD mice co-expressing mutated amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 that develop massive cerebral A? loads. Both GSK-3 isozymes (?/?) were hyperactive in this model. Nasal treatment of 5XFAD mice with a novel substrate competitive GSK-3 inhibitor, L803-mts, reduced A? deposits and ameliorated cognitive deficits. Analyses of 5XFAD hemi-brain samples indicated that L803-mts restored the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and inhibited autophagy. Lysosomal acidification was impaired in the 5XFAD brains as indicated by reduced cathepsin D activity and decreased N-glycoyslation of the vacuolar ATPase subunit V0a1, a modification required for lysosomal acidification. Treatment with L803-mts restored lysosomal acidification in 5XFAD brains. Studies in SH-SY5Y cells confirmed that GSK-3? and GSK-3? impair lysosomal acidification and that treatment with L803-mts enhanced the acidic lysosomal pool as demonstrated in LysoTracker Red-stained cells. Furthermore, L803-mts restored impaired lysosomal acidification caused by dysfunctional presenilin-1. We provide evidence that mTOR is a target activated by GSK-3 but inhibited by impaired lysosomal acidification and elevation in amyloid precursor protein/A? loads. Taken together, our data indicate that GSK-3 is a player in A? pathology. Inhibition of GSK-3 restores lysosomal acidification that in turn enables clearance of A? burdens and reactivation of mTOR. These changes facilitate amelioration in cognitive function.

Avrahami, Limor; Farfara, Dorit; Shaham-Kol, Maya; Vassar, Robert; Frenkel, Dan; Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit

2013-01-01

28

Assessment of a targeted resequencing assay as a support tool in the diagnosis of lysosomal storage disorders  

PubMed Central

Background With over 50 different disorders and a combined incidence of up to 1/3000 births, lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) constitute a major public health problem and place an enormous burden on affected individuals and their families. Many factors make LSD diagnosis difficult, including phenotype and penetrance variability, shared signs and symptoms, and problems inherent to biochemical diagnosis. Developing a powerful diagnostic tool could mitigate the protracted diagnostic process for these families, lead to better outcomes for current and proposed therapies, and provide the basis for more appropriate genetic counseling. Methods We have designed a targeted resequencing assay for the simultaneous testing of 57 lysosomal genes, using in-solution capture as the enrichment method and two different sequencing platforms. A total of 84 patients with high to moderate-or low suspicion index for LSD were enrolled in different centers in Spain and Portugal, including 18 positive controls. Results We correctly diagnosed 18 positive blinded controls, provided genetic diagnosis to 25 potential LSD patients, and ended with 18 diagnostic odysseys. Conclusion We report the assessment of a next–generation-sequencing-based approach as an accessory tool in the diagnosis of LSDs, a group of disorders which have overlapping clinical profiles and genetic heterogeneity. We have also identified and quantified the strengths and limitations of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology applied to diagnosis.

2014-01-01

29

Biotherapeutic target or sink: analysis of the macrophage mannose receptor tissue distribution in murine models of lysosomal storage diseases.  

PubMed

Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are metabolic disorders caused by enzyme deficiencies that lead to lysosomal accumulation of undegraded substrates. Enzyme replacement therapies (ERT) have been developed as treatments for patients with Gaucher, Niemann-Pick, Fabry, and Pompe diseases. Depending on the disease, the corresponding therapeutic enzyme is designed to be internalized by diseased cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis via macrophage mannose receptors (MMR) or mannose-6-phosphate receptors (M6PR). Enzymes developed to treat Gaucher and Niemann-Pick diseases are meant to target MMR-expressing cells, and in the case of Cerezyme [recombinant human ?-glucocerebrosidase (rh?GC)] for treating Gaucher disease, glycans on the enzyme are modified to increase specificity toward this receptor. Due to heterogeneity in glycosylation on enzymes intended to target the M6PR, however, there may also be some unintended targeting to MMR-expressing cells, which could act as unwanted sinks. Examples include Fabrazyme [recombinant human ?-galactosidase A (rh?Gal)] for treating Fabry disease and Myozyme [recombinant human acid ?-glucosidase (rhGAA)] for treating Pompe disease. It is therefore of great interest to better understand the cell type and tissue distribution of MMR in murine LSD models used to evaluate ERT efficacy and mechanism of action. In this study, we generated affinity-purified polyclonal antibody against murine MMR and used it to carry out a systematic examination of MMR protein localization in murine models of Gaucher, Niemann-Pick, Fabry, and Pompe diseases. Using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and confocal microscopy, we examined MMR distribution in liver, spleen, lung, kidney, heart, diaphragm, quadriceps, and triceps in these animal models and compared them with MMR distribution in wild-type mice. PMID:21416197

Zhang, Xin Sheen; Brondyk, William; Lydon, John T; Thurberg, Beth L; Piepenhagen, Peter A

2011-06-01

30

Chemical principles for the design of a novel fluorescent probe with high cancer-targeting selectivity and sensitivity.  

PubMed

Understanding of principles governing selective and sensitive cancer targeting is critical for development of chemicals for cancer diagnostics and treatment. We determined the underlying mechanisms of how a novel fluorescent small organic molecule, 3,6-bis(1-methyl-4-vinylpyridinium)carbazole diiodide (BMVC), selectively labels cancer cells but not normal cells. We show that BMVC is retained in the lysosomes of normal cells. In cancer cells, BMVC escapes lysosomal retention and localizes to the mitochondria or to the nucleus, where DNA-binding dramatically increases BMVC fluorescence intensity, allowing it to light up only cancer cells. Structure-function analyses of BMVC derivatives show that hydrogen-bonding capacity is a key determinant of lysosomal retention in normal cells, whereas lipophilicity directs these derivatives to the mitochondria or the nucleus in cancer cells. In addition, drug-resistant cancer cells preferentially retain BMVC in their lysosomes compared to drug-sensitive cancer cells, and BMVC can be released from drug-resistant lysosomes using lysosomotropic agents. Our results further our understanding of how properties of cellular organelles differ between normal and cancer cells, which can be exploited for diagnostic and/or therapeutic use. We also provide physiochemical design principles for selective targeting of small molecules to different organelles. Moreover, our results suggest that agents which can increase lysosomal membrane permeability may re-sensitize drug-resistant cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:23970166

Kang, Chi-Chih; Huang, Wei-Chun; Kouh, Chiung-Wen; Wang, Zi-Fu; Cho, Chih-Chien; Chang, Cheng-Chung; Wang, Chiung-Lin; Chang, Ta-Chau; Seemann, Joachim; Huang, Lily Jun-shen

2013-10-01

31

Secretory lysosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulated secretion of stored secretory products is important in many cell types. In contrast to professional secretory cells, which store their secretory products in specialized secretory granules, some secretory cells store their secretory proteins in a dual-function organelle, called a secretory lysosome. Functionally, secretory lysosomes are unusual in that they serve both as a degradative and as a secretory compartment.

Emma J. Blott; Gillian M. Griffiths

2002-01-01

32

Membrane-Associated RING-CH Proteins Associate with Bap31 and Target CD81 and CD44 to Lysosomes  

PubMed Central

Membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) proteins represent a family of transmembrane ubiquitin ligases modulating intracellular trafficking and turnover of transmembrane protein targets. While homologous proteins encoded by gamma-2 herpesviruses and leporipoxviruses have been studied extensively, limited information is available regarding the physiological targets of cellular MARCH proteins. To identify host cell proteins targeted by the human MARCH-VIII ubiquitin ligase we used stable isotope labeling of amino-acids in cell culture (SILAC) to monitor MARCH-dependent changes in the membrane proteomes of human fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, we observed that MARCH-VIII reduced the surface expression of Bap31, a chaperone that predominantly resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We demonstrate that Bap31 associates with the transmembrane domains of several MARCH proteins and controls intracellular transport of MARCH proteins. In addition, we observed that MARCH-VIII reduced the surface expression of the hyaluronic acid-receptor CD44 and both MARCH-VIII and MARCH-IV sequestered the tetraspanin CD81 in endo-lysosomal vesicles. Moreover, gene knockdown of MARCH-IV increased surface levels of endogenous CD81 suggesting a constitutive involvement of this family of ubiquitin ligases in the turnover of tetraspanins. Our data thus suggest a role of MARCH-VIII and MARCH-IV in the regulated turnover of CD81 and CD44, two ubiquitously expressed, multifunctional proteins.

Bartee, Eric; Eyster, Craig A.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Mansouri, Mandana; Donaldson, Julie G.; Fruh, Klaus

2010-01-01

33

Genetic engineering of a lysosomal enzyme fusion protein for targeted delivery across the human blood-brain barrier.  

PubMed

Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I, Hurler's Syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disorder that affects the brain. The missing enzyme, alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA), does not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To enable BBB transport of the enzyme, human IDUA was fused to the carboxyl terminus of the heavy chain of a chimeric monoclonal antibody (MAb) to the human insulin receptor (HIR). The HIRMAb crosses the BBB on the endogenous insulin receptor, and acts as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry into brain the IDUA. Transfection of COS cells resulted in high levels of IDUA enzyme activity both in the medium and in the intracellular space. The size of the fusion heavy chain, as measured with Western blotting and antibodies to either human IDUA or human IgG, was increased about 80 kDa, relative to the size of the heavy chain of the parent HIRMAb. The IDUA enzyme specific activity of the affinity purified HIRMAb-IDUA fusion protein was 363 +/- 37 U/microg protein, which is comparable to specific activity of recombinant IDUA. The accumulation of glycosoaminoglycans in Hurler fibroblasts was decreased 70% by treatment with the HIRMAb-IDUA fusion protein. Confocal microscopy showed targeting of the fusion protein to the lysosome. The HIRMAb-IDUA fusion protein bound with high affinity to the HIR, and was rapidly transported into the brain of the adult Rhesus monkey following intravenous administration. The HIRMAb-IDUA fusion protein is a new treatment for Hurler's syndrome, which has been specifically engineered to cross the human BBB. PMID:17680664

Boado, Ruben J; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yufeng; Xia, Chun-Fang; Wang, Yuntao; Pardridge, William M

2008-02-01

34

Fusion to the Lysosome Targeting Signal of the Invariant Chain Alters the Processing and Enhances the Immunogenicity of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase  

PubMed Central

Intracellular processing of the antigen encoded by a DNA vaccine is one of the key steps in generating an immune response. Immunization with DNA constructs targeted to the endosomal-lysosomal compartments and to the MHC class II pathway can elicit a strong immune response. Herein, the weakly immunogenic reverse transcriptase of HIV-1 was fused to the minimal lysosomal targeting motif of the human MHC class II invariant chain. The motif fused to the N-terminus shifted the enzyme intracellular localization and accelerated its degradation. Degradation of the chimeric protein occurred predominantly in the lysosomal compartment. BALB/c mice immunized with the plasmid encoding the chimeric protein demonstrated an enhanced immune response, in the form of an increased antigen-specific production of Th1 cytokines, INF-? and IL-2, by mouse splenocytes. Moreover, the majority of the splenocytes secreted both cytokines; i.e., were polyfunctional. These findings suggest that retargeting of the antigen to the lysosomes enhances the immune response to DNA vaccine candidates with low intrinsic immunogenicity.

Starodubova, E. S.; Isaguliants, M. G.; Kuzmenko, Y. V.; Latanova, A. A.; Krotova, O. A.; Karpov, V. L.

2014-01-01

35

Selectively targeting estrogen receptors for cancer treatment  

PubMed Central

Estrogens regulate growth and development through the action of two distinct estrogen receptors (ERs), ER? and ER?, which mediate proliferation and differentiation of cells. For decades, ER? mediated estrogen signaling has been therapeutically targeted to treat breast cancer, most notably with the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen. Selectively targeting ERs occurs at two levels: tissue selectivity and receptor subtype selectivity. SERMs have been developed with emphasis on tissue selectivity to target ER signaling for breast cancer treatment. Additionally, new approaches to selectively target the action of ER? going beyond ligand-dependent activity are under current investigation. As evidence of the anti-proliferative role of ER? accumulates, selectively targeting ER? is an attractive approach for designing new cancer therapies with the emphasis shifted to designing ligands with subtype selectivity. This review will present the mechanistic and structural features of ERs that determine tissue and subtype selectivity with an emphasis on current approaches to selectively target ER? and ER? for cancer treatment.

Shanle, Erin K.; Xu, Wei

2010-01-01

36

Absence of gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase in melanomas disrupts T cell recognition of select immunodominant epitopes.  

PubMed

Long-lasting tumor immunity requires functional mobilization of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes. CD4+ T cell activation is enhanced by presentation of shed tumor antigens by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), coupled with display of similar antigenic epitopes by major histocompatibility complex class II on malignant cells. APCs readily processed and presented several self-antigens, yet T cell responses to these proteins were absent or reduced in the context of class II+ melanomas. T cell recognition of select exogenous and endogenous epitopes was dependent on tumor cell expression of gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT). The absence of GILT in melanomas altered antigen processing and the hierarchy of immunodominant epitope presentation. Mass spectral analysis also revealed GILT's ability to reduce cysteinylated epitopes. Such disparities in the profile of antigenic epitopes displayed by tumors and bystander APCs may contribute to tumor cell survival in the face of immunological defenses. PMID:12021307

Haque, M Azizul; Li, Ping; Jackson, Sheila K; Zarour, Hassane M; Hawes, John W; Phan, Uyen T; Maric, Maja; Cresswell, Peter; Blum, Janice S

2002-05-20

37

Transformation-associated changes in sphingolipid metabolism sensitize cells to lysosomal cell death induced by inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase.  

PubMed

Lysosomal membrane permeabilization and subsequent cell death may prove useful in cancer treatment, provided that cancer cell lysosomes can be specifically targeted. Here, we identify acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) inhibition as a selective means to destabilize cancer cell lysosomes. Lysosome-destabilizing experimental anticancer agent siramesine inhibits ASM by interfering with the binding of ASM to its essential lysosomal cofactor, bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate. Like siramesine, several clinically relevant ASM inhibitors trigger cancer-specific lysosomal cell death, reduce tumor growth in vivo, and revert multidrug resistance. Their cancer selectivity is associated with transformation-associated reduction in ASM expression and subsequent failure to maintain sphingomyelin hydrolysis during drug exposure. Taken together, these data identify ASM as an attractive target for cancer therapy. PMID:24029234

Petersen, Nikolaj H T; Olsen, Ole D; Groth-Pedersen, Line; Ellegaard, Anne-Marie; Bilgin, Mesut; Redmer, Susanne; Ostenfeld, Marie S; Ulanet, Danielle; Dovmark, Tobias H; Lønborg, Andreas; Vindeløv, Signe D; Hanahan, Douglas; Arenz, Christoph; Ejsing, Christer S; Kirkegaard, Thomas; Rohde, Mikkel; Nylandsted, Jesper; Jäättelä, Marja

2013-09-01

38

TFEB regulates lysosomal proteostasis.  

PubMed

Loss-of-function diseases are often caused by destabilizing mutations that lead to protein misfolding and degradation. Modulating the innate protein homeostasis (proteostasis) capacity may lead to rescue of native folding of the mutated variants, thereby ameliorating the disease phenotype. In lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), a number of highly prevalent alleles have missense mutations that do not impair the enzyme's catalytic activity but destabilize its native structure, resulting in the degradation of the misfolded protein. Enhancing the cellular folding capacity enables rescuing the native, biologically functional structure of these unstable mutated enzymes. However, proteostasis modulators specific for the lysosomal system are currently unknown. Here, we investigate the role of the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and function, in modulating lysosomal proteostasis in LSDs. We show that TFEB activation results in enhanced folding, trafficking and lysosomal activity of a severely destabilized glucocerebrosidase (GC) variant associated with the development of Gaucher disease (GD), the most common LSD. TFEB specifically induces the expression of GC and of key genes involved in folding and lysosomal trafficking, thereby enhancing both the pool of mutated enzyme and its processing through the secretory pathway. TFEB activation also rescues the activity of a ?-hexosaminidase mutant associated with the development of another LSD, Tay-Sachs disease, thus suggesting general applicability of TFEB-mediated proteostasis modulation to rescue destabilizing mutations in LSDs. In summary, our findings identify TFEB as a specific regulator of lysosomal proteostasis and suggest that TFEB may be used as a therapeutic target to rescue enzyme homeostasis in LSDs. PMID:23393155

Song, Wensi; Wang, Fan; Savini, Marzia; Ake, Ashley; di Ronza, Alberto; Sardiello, Marco; Segatori, Laura

2013-05-15

39

DRUG INDUCED PHOSPHOLIPIDOSIS: AN ACQUIRED LYSOSOMAL STORAGE DISORDER  

PubMed Central

There is a strong association between lysosome enzyme deficiencies and monogenic disorders resulting in lysosomal storage disease. Of the more than 75 characterized lysosomal proteins, two thirds are directly linked to inherited diseases of metabolism. Only one lysosomal storage disease, Niemann-Pick disease, is associated with impaired phospholipid metabolism. However, other phospholipases are found in the lysosome but remain poorly characterized. A recent exception is lysosomal phospholipase A2 (group XV phospholipase A2). Although no inherited disorder of lysosomal phospholipid metabolism has yet been associated with a loss of function of this lipase, this enzyme may be a target for an acquired form of lysosomal storage, drug induced phospholipidosis.

Shayman, James A.; Abe, Akira

2012-01-01

40

Targeting of Salmonella typhimurium to vesicles containing lysosomal membrane glycoproteins bypasses compartments with mannose 6-phosphate receptors  

PubMed Central

Salmonella typhimurium is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that remains enclosed in vacuoles (SCV) upon entry into the host cell. In this study we have examined the intracellular trafficking route of S. typhimurium within epithelial cells. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis showed that bacteria initiated fusion with lysosomal membrane glycoprotein (lgp)-containing compartments approximately 15 min after bacterial internalization. This process was completed approximately 75 min later and did not require microtubules. Cation-independent (CI)- or cation-dependent (CD)-mannose 6-phosphate receptors (M6PRs) were not observed at detectable levels in SCV. Lysosomal enzymes showed a different distribution in SCV: lysosomal-acid phosphatase (LAP) was incorporated into these vacuoles with the same kinetics as lgps, while cathepsin D was present in a low proportion (approximately 30%) of SCV. Uptake experiments with fluid endocytic tracers such as fluorescein- dextran sulphate (F-DX) or horseradish-peroxidase (HRP) showed that after 2 h of uptake, F-DX was present in approximately 75% of lgp- containing vesicles in uninfected cells, while only approximately 15% of SCV contained small amounts of the tracer during the same uptake period. SCV also showed only partial fusion with HRP-preloaded secondary lysosomes, with approximately 30% of SCV having detectable amounts of HRP at 6 h after infection. These results indicate that SCV show limited accessibility to fluid endocytic tracers and mature lysosomes, and are therefore functionally separated from the endocytic route. Moreover, the unusual intracellular trafficking route of S. typhimurium inside epithelial cells has allowed us to establish the existence of two different lgp-containing vesicles in Salmonella- infected cells: one population is separated from the endocytic route, fusogenic with incoming SCV and may arise from a secretory pathway, while the second involves the classical secondary or mature lysosomes.

1995-01-01

41

A Cytotoxic Type III Secretion Effector of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Targets Vacuolar H+-ATPase Subunit c and Ruptures Host Cell Lysosomes  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the human pathogenic vibrios. During the infection of mammalian cells, this pathogen exhibits cytotoxicity that is dependent on its type III secretion system (T3SS1). VepA, an effector protein secreted via the T3SS1, plays a major role in the T3SS1-dependent cytotoxicity of V. parahaemolyticus. However, the mechanism by which VepA is involved in T3SS1-dependent cytotoxicity is unknown. Here, we found that protein transfection of VepA into HeLa cells resulted in cell death, indicating that VepA alone is cytotoxic. The ectopic expression of VepA in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae interferes with yeast growth, indicating that VepA is also toxic in yeast. A yeast genome-wide screen identified the yeast gene VMA3 as essential for the growth inhibition of yeast by VepA. Although VMA3 encodes subunit c of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase), the toxicity of VepA was independent of the function of V-ATPases. In HeLa cells, knockdown of V-ATPase subunit c decreased VepA-mediated cytotoxicity. We also demonstrated that VepA interacted with V-ATPase subunit c, whereas a carboxyl-terminally truncated mutant of VepA (VepA?C), which does not show toxicity, did not. During infection, lysosomal contents leaked into the cytosol, revealing that lysosomal membrane permeabilization occurred prior to cell lysis. In a cell-free system, VepA was sufficient to induce the release of cathepsin D from isolated lysosomes. Therefore, our data suggest that the bacterial effector VepA targets subunit c of V-ATPase and induces the rupture of host cell lysosomes and subsequent cell death.

Matsuda, Shigeaki; Okada, Natsumi; Kodama, Toshio; Honda, Takeshi; Iida, Tetsuya

2012-01-01

42

Selective autophagy of non-ubiquitylated targets in plants: looking for cognate receptor/adaptor proteins  

PubMed Central

Cellular homeostasis is essential for the physiology of eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells, including plant cells, utilize two main pathways to adjust the level of cytoplasmic components, namely the proteasomal and the lysosomal/vacuolar pathways. Macroautophagy is a lysosomal/vacuolar pathway which, until recently, was thought to be non-specific and a bulk degradation process. However, selective autophagy which can be activated in the cell under various physiological conditions, involves the specific degradation of defined macromolecules or organelles by a conserved molecular mechanism. For this process to be efficient, the mechanisms underlying the recognition and selection of the cargo to be engulfed by the double membrane autophagosome are critical, and not yet well understood. Ubiquitin (poly-ubiquitin) conjugation to the target appears to be a conserved ligand mechanism in many types of selective autophagy, and defined receptors/adaptors recognizing and regulating the autophagosomal capture of the ubiquitylated target have been characterized. However, non-proteinaceous and non-ubiquitylated cargoes are also selectively degraded by this pathway. This ubiquitin-independent selective autophagic pathway also involves receptor and/or adaptor proteins linking the cargo to the autophagic machinery. Some of these receptor/adaptor proteins including accessory autophagy-related (Atg) and non-Atg proteins have been described in yeast and animal cells but not yet in plants. In this review we discuss the ubiquitin-independent cargo selection mechanisms in selective autophagy degradation of organelles and macromolecules and speculate on potential plant receptor/adaptor proteins.

Veljanovski, Vasko; Batoko, Henri

2014-01-01

43

Regulation of lysosomal enzyme secretion: Role in inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is first to discuss the lysosomal concept as it applies to the mediation of tissue injury, and second to provide new evidence for the regulation of lysosomal enzyme secretion from human neutrophils by cyclic nucleotides, autonomic neurohormones, prostaglandins, glucocorticosteroids and calcium. Lysosomal enzymes gain access to the extracellular environment by the selective secretion of lysosome

Louis J. Ignarro

1974-01-01

44

Niemann-Pick C1 Protein: Obligatory Roles for N-Terminal Domains and Lysosomal Targeting in Cholesterol Mobilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is an inherited lipid storage disorder that affects the viscera and central nervous system. A characteristic feature of NPC cells is the lysosomal accumulation of low density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol. To elucidate important structural features of the recently identified NPC1 gene product defective in NPC disease, we examined the ability of wild-type NPC1 and NPC1 mutants

Hidemichi Watari; E. Joan Blanchette-Mackie; Nancy K. Dwyer; Jane M. Glick; Shutish Patel; Edward B. Neufeld; Roscoe O. Brady; Peter G. Pentchev; Jerome F. Strauss III

1999-01-01

45

Target selection for the HRIBF Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments are in progress at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) which are designed to select the most appropriate target materials for generating particular radioactive ion beams for the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF). The 25-MV t...

J. Dellwo G. D. Alton J. C. Batchelder

1994-01-01

46

Lysosomal dysfunction causes neurodegeneration in mucolipidosis II 'knock-in' mice  

PubMed Central

Mucolipidosis II is a neurometabolic lysosomal trafficking disorder of infancy caused by loss of mannose 6-phosphate targeting signals on lysosomal proteins, leading to lysosomal dysfunction and accumulation of non-degraded material. However, the identity of storage material and mechanisms of neurodegeneration in mucolipidosis II are unknown. We have generated ‘knock-in’ mice with a common mucolipidosis II patient mutation that show growth retardation, progressive brain atrophy, skeletal abnormalities, elevated lysosomal enzyme activities in serum, lysosomal storage in fibroblasts and brain and premature death, closely mimicking the mucolipidosis II disease in humans. The examination of affected mouse brains at different ages by immunohistochemistry, ultrastructural analysis, immunoblotting and mass spectrometric analyses of glycans and anionic lipids revealed that the expression and proteolytic processing of distinct lysosomal proteins such as ?-l-fucosidase, ?-hexosaminidase, ?-mannosidase or Niemann–Pick C2 protein are more significantly impacted by the loss of mannose 6-phosphate residues than enzymes reaching lysosomes independently of this targeting mechanism. As a consequence, fucosylated N-glycans, GM2 and GM3 gangliosides, cholesterol and bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate accumulate progressively in the brain of mucolipidosis II mice. Prominent astrogliosis and the accumulation of organelles and storage material in focally swollen axons were observed in the cerebellum and were accompanied by a loss of Purkinje cells. Moreover, an increased neuronal level of the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 and the formation of p62-positive neuronal aggregates indicate an impairment of constitutive autophagy in the mucolipidosis II brain. Our findings demonstrate the essential role of mannose 6-phosphate for selected lysosomal proteins to maintain the capability for degradation of sequestered components in lysosomes and autophagolysosomes and prevent neurodegeneration. These lysosomal proteins might be a potential target for a valid therapeutic approach for mucolipidosis II disease.

Kollmann, K.; Damme, M.; Markmann, S.; Morelle, W.; Schweizer, M.; Hermans-Borgmeyer, I.; Rochert, A. K.; Pohl, S.; Lubke, T.; Michalski, J.-C.; Kakela, R.; Walkley, S. U.

2012-01-01

47

Lysosomal dysfunction causes neurodegeneration in mucolipidosis II 'knock-in' mice.  

PubMed

Mucolipidosis II is a neurometabolic lysosomal trafficking disorder of infancy caused by loss of mannose 6-phosphate targeting signals on lysosomal proteins, leading to lysosomal dysfunction and accumulation of non-degraded material. However, the identity of storage material and mechanisms of neurodegeneration in mucolipidosis II are unknown. We have generated 'knock-in' mice with a common mucolipidosis II patient mutation that show growth retardation, progressive brain atrophy, skeletal abnormalities, elevated lysosomal enzyme activities in serum, lysosomal storage in fibroblasts and brain and premature death, closely mimicking the mucolipidosis II disease in humans. The examination of affected mouse brains at different ages by immunohistochemistry, ultrastructural analysis, immunoblotting and mass spectrometric analyses of glycans and anionic lipids revealed that the expression and proteolytic processing of distinct lysosomal proteins such as ?-l-fucosidase, ?-hexosaminidase, ?-mannosidase or Niemann-Pick C2 protein are more significantly impacted by the loss of mannose 6-phosphate residues than enzymes reaching lysosomes independently of this targeting mechanism. As a consequence, fucosylated N-glycans, GM2 and GM3 gangliosides, cholesterol and bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate accumulate progressively in the brain of mucolipidosis II mice. Prominent astrogliosis and the accumulation of organelles and storage material in focally swollen axons were observed in the cerebellum and were accompanied by a loss of Purkinje cells. Moreover, an increased neuronal level of the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 and the formation of p62-positive neuronal aggregates indicate an impairment of constitutive autophagy in the mucolipidosis II brain. Our findings demonstrate the essential role of mannose 6-phosphate for selected lysosomal proteins to maintain the capability for degradation of sequestered components in lysosomes and autophagolysosomes and prevent neurodegeneration. These lysosomal proteins might be a potential target for a valid therapeutic approach for mucolipidosis II disease. PMID:22961545

Kollmann, K; Damme, M; Markmann, S; Morelle, W; Schweizer, M; Hermans-Borgmeyer, I; Röchert, A K; Pohl, S; Lübke, T; Michalski, J-C; Käkelä, R; Walkley, S U; Braulke, T

2012-09-01

48

Microsatellites as Targets of Natural Selection  

PubMed Central

The ability to survey polymorphism on a genomic scale has enabled genome-wide scans for the targets of natural selection. Theory that connects patterns of genetic variation to evidence of natural selection most often assumes a diallelic locus and no recurrent mutation. Although these assumptions are suitable to selection that targets single nucleotide variants, fundamentally different types of mutation generate abundant polymorphism in genomes. Moreover, recent empirical results suggest that mutationally complex, multiallelic loci including microsatellites and copy number variants are sometimes targeted by natural selection. Given their abundance, the lack of inference methods tailored to the mutational peculiarities of these types of loci represents a notable gap in our ability to interrogate genomes for signatures of natural selection. Previous theoretical investigations of mutation-selection balance at multiallelic loci include assumptions that limit their application to inference from empirical data. Focusing on microsatellites, we assess the dynamics and population-level consequences of selection targeting mutationally complex variants. We develop general models of a multiallelic fitness surface, a realistic model of microsatellite mutation, and an efficient simulation algorithm. Using these tools, we explore mutation-selection-drift equilibrium at microsatellites and investigate the mutational history and selective regime of the microsatellite that causes Friedreich’s ataxia. We characterize microsatellite selective events by their duration and cost, note similarities to sweeps from standing point variation, and conclude that it is premature to label microsatellites as ubiquitous agents of efficient adaptive change. Together, our models and simulation algorithm provide a powerful framework for statistical inference, which can be used to test the neutrality of microsatellites and other multiallelic variants.

Haasl, Ryan J.; Payseur, Bret A.

2013-01-01

49

Gamma-interferon causes a selective induction of the lysosomal proteases, cathepsins B and L, in macrophages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous studies have indicated that acid-optimal cysteine proteinase(s) in the endosomal-lysosomal compartments, cathepsins, play a critical role in the proteolytic processing of endocytosed proteins to generate the antigenic peptides presented to the immune system on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. The presentation of these peptides and the expression of MHC class II molecules by macrophages and lymphocytes are stimulated by gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN). We found that treatment of human U-937 monocytes with gamma-IFN increased the activities and the content of the two major lysosomal cysteine proteinases, cathepsins B and L. Assays of protease activity, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISA) and immunoblotting showed that this cytokine increased the amount of cathepsin B 5-fold and cathepsin L 3-fold in the lysosomal fraction. By contrast, the aspartic proteinase, cathepsin D, in this fraction was not significantly altered by gamma-IFN treatment. An induction of cathepsins B and L was also observed in mouse macrophages, but not in HeLa cells. These results suggest coordinate regulation in monocytes of the expression of cathepsins B and L and MHC class II molecules. Presumably, this induction of cysteine proteases contributes to the enhancement of antigen presentation by gamma-IFN.

Lah, T. T.; Hawley, M.; Rock, K. L.; Goldberg, A. L.

1995-01-01

50

Neural basis of saccade target selection.  

PubMed

Saccade target selection must be understood in relation to the obvious fact that vision naturally occurs in a continuous cycle of fixations interrupted by gaze shifts. The guidance of eye movements requires information about what is where in the visual field. The identities of objects are derived from their visible features. Single neurons in the visual system represent the presence of specific features by the level of activation; the reliability of the discriminating signal from single neurons varies over time. Each point in the visual field is represented by many populations of neurons activated by all types of features. Topographic representations are found throughout the visual and oculomotor systems; neighboring neurons tend to represent similar visual field locations or saccades. Selecting one out of many stimuli to which to direct gaze requires comparing stimulus attributes across the visual field. The existence of retinotopic maps of the visual field makes possible local interactions to implement such comparisons /41/. For example, a lateral inhibition network can extract the location of the most conspicuous stimulus in the visual field /30,40,81/. Coordinated with this parallel visual processing is activation in structures responsible for producing the movement such as FEF and the superior colliculus. A saccade is produced when the neurons at one location within the motor maps become sufficiently active. One job of visual processing, then, is to ensure that only one site within a movement map becomes activated. This is done when the neurons signalling the location of the desired target develop enhanced activation while the neurons responding to other locations are attenuated. Saccade target selection often converts an initially ambiguous pattern of neural activation into a pattern that reliably signals one target location. The ambiguity may be reduced through prior knowledge of the likely target location or identity, and extraretinal signals reflecting such expectations can modulate the responsiveness of afferent visual neurons. Specifying the metrics of a saccade and triggering the movement are coordinated but dissociable processes. Speed-accuracy trade-offs can thereby be produced allowing the visuomotor system to produce a saccade that is inaccurate because it is premature relative to the target selection process. While there are many gaps in our knowledge, the questions to ask seem reasonably clear. Because saccade target selection involves visual processing and eye movement programming combined with mnemonic influences, only continued experimental ingenuity will disentangle the various and variable contributions of individual neurons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7633641

Schall, J D

1995-01-01

51

Inhibition of Glioma Cell Lysosome Exocytosis Inhibits Glioma Invasion  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells invade by secreting enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix and these are sequestered in lysosomal vesicles. In this study, the effects of the selective lysosome lysing drug GPN and the lysosome exocytosis inhibitor vacuolin-1 on lysosome exocytosis were studied to determine their effect on glioma cell migration and invasion. Both GPN and vacuolin-1 evidently inhibited migration and invasion in transwell experiments and scratch experiments. There are more lysosomes located on the cell membrane of glioma cells than of astrocytes. GPN decreased the lysosome number on the cell membrane. We found that rab27A was expressed in glioma cells, and colocalized with cathepsin D in lysosome. RNAi-Rab27A inhibited lysosome cathepsin D exocytosis and glioma cell invasion in an in vitro assay. Inhibition of cathepsin D inhibited glioma cell migration. The data suggest that the inhibition of lysosome exocytosis from glioma cells plays an important modulatory role in their migration and invasion.

Zhu, Keqing

2012-01-01

52

BACE is degraded via the lysosomal pathway.  

PubMed

Amyloid plaques are formed by aggregates of amyloid-beta-peptide, a 37-43-amino acid fragment (primarily Abeta(40) and Abeta(42)) generated by proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretases. A type I transmembrane aspartyl protease, BACE (beta-site APP cleaving enzyme), has been identified to be the beta-secretase. BACE is targeted through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane where it can be internalized to endosomes. The carboxyl terminus of BACE contains a di-leucine-based signal for sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes and lysosomes. In this study, we set out to determine whether BACE is degraded by the lysosomal pathway and whether the di-leucine motif is necessary for targeting BACE to the lysosomes. Here we show that lysosomal inhibitors, chloroquine and NH(4)Cl, lead to accumulation of endogenous and ectopically expressed BACE in a variety of cell types, including primary neurons. Furthermore, the inhibition of lysosomal hydrolases results in the redistribution and accumulation of BACE in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartments (lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2)-positive). In contrast, the BACE-LL/AA mutant, in which Leu(499) and Leu(500) in the COOH-terminal sequence (DDISLLK) were replaced by alanines, only partially co-localized with LAMP2-positive compartments following inhibition of lysosomal hydrolases. Collectively, our data indicate that BACE is transported to the late endosomal/lysosomal compartments where it is degraded via the lysosomal pathway and that the di-leucine motif plays a role in sorting BACE to lysosomes. PMID:16033761

Koh, Young Ho; von Arnim, Christine A F; Hyman, Bradley T; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Tesco, Giuseppina

2005-09-16

53

PIPing on lysosome tubes  

PubMed Central

EMBO J (2013) 32, 324–339 doi:10.1038/emboj.2012.341; published online 12212012 The role of lysosomes in important cellular responses, including phagocytosis, cell surface repair, and autophagy underlies a number of human diseases. Furthermore, the role of the lysosomal surface in TORC1 signalling has revealed unexpected properties of these organelles. In this issue, Sridhar et al (2013) uncover an important role for PI(4)P for lysosome function under normal nutrient conditions and after prolonged nutrient deprivation. Ana Maria Cuervo, the late Dennis Shields, and colleagues (Sridhar et al, 2013) conclude that PI4 kinase III? on the surface of the lysosome controls the fidelity of sorting from the lysosome, and is required for autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR). These novel findings provide important insights into the complexities of the lipid composition of the lysosome, and how these lipids may control lysosome function.

Ktistakis, Nicholas T; Tooze, Sharon A

2013-01-01

54

The protonophore CCCP interferes with lysosomal degradation of autophagic cargo in yeast and mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Mitophagy is a selective pathway, which targets and delivers mitochondria to the lysosomes for degradation. Depolarization of mitochondria by the protonophore CCCP is a strategy increasingly used to experimentally trigger not only mitophagy, but also bulk autophagy. Using live-cell fluorescence microscopy we found that treatment of HeLa cells with CCCP caused redistribution of mitochondrially targeted dyes, including DiOC6, TMRM, MTR, and MTG, from mitochondria to the cytosol, and subsequently to lysosomal compartments. Localization of mitochondrial dyes to lysosomal compartments was caused by retargeting of the dye, rather than delivery of mitochondrial components to the lysosome. We showed that CCCP interfered with lysosomal function and autophagosomal degradation in both yeast and mammalian cells, inhibited starvation-induced mitophagy in mammalian cells, and blocked the induction of mitophagy in yeast cells. PARK2/Parkin-expressing mammalian cells treated with CCCP have been reported to undergo high levels of mitophagy and clearance of all mitochondria during extensive treatment with CCCP. Using correlative light and electron microscopy in PARK2-expressing HeLa cells, we showed that mitochondrial remnants remained present in the cell after 24 h of CCCP treatment, although they were no longer easily identifiable as such due to morphological alterations. Our results showed that CCCP inhibits autophagy at both the initiation and lysosomal degradation stages. In addition, our data demonstrated that caution should be taken when using organelle-specific dyes in conjunction with strategies affecting membrane potential. PMID:24150213

Padman, Benjamin S; Bach, Markus; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Prescott, Mark; Ramm, Georg

2013-11-01

55

Drug induced phospholipidosis: an acquired lysosomal storage disorder.  

PubMed

There is a strong association between lysosome enzyme deficiencies and monogenic disorders resulting in lysosomal storage disease. Of the more than 75 characterized lysosomal proteins, two thirds are directly linked to inherited diseases of metabolism. Only one lysosomal storage disease, Niemann-Pick disease, is associated with impaired phospholipid metabolism. However, other phospholipases are found in the lysosome but remain poorly characterized. A recent exception is lysosomal phospholipase A2 (group XV phospholipase A2). Although no inherited disorder of lysosomal phospholipid metabolism has yet been associated with a loss of function of this lipase, this enzyme may be a target for an acquired form of lysosomal storage, drug induced phospholipidosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. PMID:22960355

Shayman, James A; Abe, Akira

2013-03-01

56

Lysosomal diseases: diagnostic update.  

PubMed

Technological developments in newborn and population screening, biomarker discovery for monitoring treatment and rapid high throughput DNA sequencing are having a great impact on the diagnostic procedure for symptomatic patients with lysosomal storage diseases. The use of dried blood spots, initially for newborn screening, has stimulated the introduction of automated, rapid and more sensitive methods for the assay of lysosomal enzymes, including the synthesis of novel substrates. Storage products and secondary metabolites in urine and cells can be identified and measured very accurately and sensitively by high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. This has enhanced the preliminary metabolite screen for LSDs and facilitated the diagnosis of transport defects. Fast, reliable and affordable high throughput DNA sequencing, such as whole or selected exome sequencing, is helping to make diagnoses in difficult cases, to reveal novel gene defects, to widen the clinical spectrum of diseases and possibly to identify modifying genetic factors. Bioinformatics will be necessary to handle the data generated by these new technologies. Notwithstanding, these technical innovations, accurate and reliable diagnosis will still depend on the knowledge and experience of skilled laboratory staff. PMID:24711203

Winchester, Bryan

2014-07-01

57

Activation of lysosomal function in the course of autophagy via mTORC1 suppression and autophagosome-lysosome fusion  

PubMed Central

Lysosome is a key subcellular organelle in the execution of the autophagic process and at present little is known whether lysosomal function is controlled in the process of autophagy. In this study, we first found that suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity by starvation or two mTOR catalytic inhibitors (PP242 and Torin1), but not by an allosteric inhibitor (rapamycin), leads to activation of lysosomal function. Second, we provided evidence that activation of lysosomal function is associated with the suppression of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), but not mTORC2, and the mTORC1 localization to lysosomes is not directly correlated to its regulatory role in lysosomal function. Third, we examined the involvement of transcription factor EB (TFEB) and demonstrated that TFEB activation following mTORC1 suppression is necessary but not sufficient for lysosomal activation. Finally, Atg5 or Atg7 deletion or blockage of the autophagosome-lysosome fusion process effectively diminished lysosomal activation, suggesting that lysosomal activation occurring in the course of autophagy is dependent on autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Taken together, this study demonstrates that in the course of autophagy, lysosomal function is upregulated via a dual mechanism involving mTORC1 suppression and autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

Zhou, Jing; Tan, Shi-Hao; Nicolas, Valerie; Bauvy, Chantal; Yang, Nai-Di; Zhang, Jianbin; Xue, Yuan; Codogno, Patrice; Shen, Han-Ming

2013-01-01

58

Selecting Potential Targetable Biomarkers for Imaging Purposes in Colorectal Cancer Using TArget Selection Criteria (TASC): A Novel Target Identification Tool  

PubMed Central

Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of colorectal origin is associated with a poor prognosis. However, cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is available for a selected group of PC patients, which significantly increases overall survival rates up to 30%. As a consequence, there is substantial room for improvement. Tumor targeting is expected to improve the treatment efficacy of colorectal cancer (CRC) further through 1) more sensitive preoperative tumor detection, thus reducing overtreatment; 2) better intraoperative detection and surgical elimination of residual disease using tumor-specific intraoperative imaging; and 3) tumor-specific targeted therapeutics. This review focuses, in particular, on the development of tumor-targeted imaging agents. A large number of biomarkers are known to be upregulated in CRC. However, to date, no validated criteria have been described for the selection of the most promising biomarkers for tumor targeting. Such a scoring system might improve the selection of the correct biomarker for imaging purposes. In this review, we present the TArget Selection Criteria (TASC) scoring system for selection of potential biomarkers for tumor-targeted imaging. By applying TASC to biomarkers for CRC, we identified seven biomarkers (carcinoembryonic antigen, CXC chemokine receptor 4, epidermal growth factor receptor, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, matrix metalloproteinases, mucin 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor A) that seem most suitable for tumor-targeted imaging applications in colorectal cancer. Further cross-validation studies in CRC and other tumor types are necessary to establish its definitive value.

van Oosten, Marleen; Crane, Lucia MA; Bart, Joost; van Leeuwen, Fijs W; van Dam, Gooitzen M

2011-01-01

59

Localization of Atypical Protein Kinase C Isoforms into Lysosome-Targeted Endosomes through Interaction with p62  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of independent studies indicate that the atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (aPKCs) are critically involved in the control of cell proliferation and survival. The aPKCs are targets of important lipid mediators such as ceramide and the products of the PI 3-kinase. In addition, the aPKCs have been shown to interact with Ras and with two novel

PILAR SANCHEZ; GUILLERMO DE CARCER; IGNACIO V. SANDOVAL; JORGE MOSCAT; MARIA T. DIAZ-MECO

1998-01-01

60

78 kDa receptor for Man6P-independent lysosomal enzyme targeting: Biosynthetic transport from endoplasmic reticulum to 'high-density vesicles'  

SciTech Connect

Recent work has shown that the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate and the 78 kDa receptors for lysosomal enzyme targeting are located in different cell compartments. While the mannose 6-phosphate receptor is enriched in the Percoll fractions that contain Golgi apparatus, most of the 78 kDa receptor is localized in a heavy fraction at the bottom of the Percoll gradient. This report presents the biosynthetic transport of the 78 kDa receptor. Newly synthesized 78 kDa receptor was transported to Golgi from endoplasmic reticulum with a half life of 5 min. From the Golgi apparatus, the receptor takes two routes; about 15-25% is transported to the plasma membrane, and the rest migrates to late endosomes, subsequently to prelysosomes and finally to the dense vesicles. The 78 kDa receptor starts appearing at the dense vesicles 120 min after biosynthesis and reaches a maximum of 40-50% of the total receptor. Treatment of cells with NH{sub 4}Cl causes depletion of the receptor from the dense vesicles and prelysosomes and corresponding augmentation in endosomes and plasma membrane. These results suggest that the 78 kDa receptor cycles between compartments and that the dense vesicles seem to represent the most distal compartment in the biosynthetic pathway of this receptor.

Gonzalez-Noriega, Alfonso [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, PO Box 70228, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: gonor@biomedicas.unam.mx; Ortega Cuellar, Daniel D. [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, PO Box 70228, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Michalak, Colette [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, PO Box 70228, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2006-04-15

61

Lysosomal membrane proteomics and biogenesis of lysosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on events involved in the biogenesis of the lysosome. This organelle contains a diverse array of soluble,\\u000a luminal proteins capable of digesting all the macromolecules in the cell. Altered function of lysosomes or its constituent\\u000a enzymes has been implicated in a host of human pathologies, including storage diseases, cancer, and infectious and neurodegenerative\\u000a diseases. Luminal enzymes are

Richard D. Bagshaw; Don J. Mahuran; John W. Callahan

2005-01-01

62

The targeting of Lamp1 to lysosomes is dependent on the spacing of its cytoplasmic tail tyrosine sorting motif relative to the membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lamp1 is a type I transmembrane glycopro- tein that is localized primarily in lysosomes and late en- dosomes. Newly synthesized molecules are mostly transported from the trans-Golgi network directly to endosomes and then to lysosomes. A minor pathway involves transport via the plasma membrane. The 11- amino acid cytoplasmic tail of lampl contains a ty- rosine-based motif that has been

Jack Rohrer; Anja Schweizer; David Russell; Stuart Kornfeld

1996-01-01

63

Lysosomes, cholesterol and atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Cholesterol-engorged macrophage foam cells are a critical component of the atherosclerotic lesion. Reducing the sterol deposits in lesions reduces clinical events. Sterol accumulations within lysosomes have proven to be particularly hard to mobilize out of foam cells. Moreover, excess sterol accumulation in lysosomes has untoward effects, including a complete disruption of lysosome function. Recently, we demonstrated that treatment of sterol-engorged macrophages in culture with triglyceride-containing particles can reverse many of the effects of cholesterol on lysosomes and dramatically reduce the sterol burden in these cells. This article describes what is known about lysosomal sterol engorgement, discusses the possible mechanisms by which triglyceride could produce its effects, and evaluates the possible positive and negative effects of reducing the lysosomal cholesterol levels in foam cells.

Jerome, W Gray

2011-01-01

64

Calpain 1 induce lysosomal permeabilization by cleavage of lysosomal associated membrane protein 2.  

PubMed

In light induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) photoreceptor cell death is mediated by caspase independent mechanisms. The activation of LEI/L-DNase II pathway in this model, is due to cathepsin D release from lysosomes, although the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this paper we studied the involvement of calpains in lysosomal permeabilization. We investigated, for the first time, the calpain targets at lysosomal membrane level. We found that calpain 1 is responsible for lysosomal permeabilization by cleavage of the lysosomal associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP 2). Moreover, LAMP 2 degradation and lysosomal permeabilization were rescued by calpain inhibition and the use of MEF(-/-)lamp 2 cells indicates that the cleavage of LAMP 2A is essential for this permeabilization. Finally, we found that LAMP 2 is cleaved in LIRD, suggesting that the mechanism of calpain induced lysosomal permeabilization is not exclusive of a single cell death model. Overall, these data shed new light on understanding the mechanisms of lysosomal and caspase-independent cell death and point to the original targets for development of the new therapeutic protocols. PMID:23747342

Villalpando Rodriguez, Gloria E; Torriglia, Alicia

2013-10-01

65

Selective targeting of microglia by quantum dots  

PubMed Central

Background Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, have been implicated in brain injury and various neurological disorders. However, their precise roles in different pathophysiological situations remain enigmatic and may range from detrimental to protective. Targeting the delivery of biologically active compounds to microglia could help elucidate these roles and facilitate the therapeutic modulation of microglial functions in neurological diseases. Methods Here we employ primary cell cultures and stereotaxic injections into mouse brain to investigate the cell type specific localization of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in vitro and in vivo. Two potential receptors for QDs are identified using pharmacological inhibitors and neutralizing antibodies. Results In mixed primary cortical cultures, QDs were selectively taken up by microglia; this uptake was decreased by inhibitors of clathrin-dependent endocytosis, implicating the endosomal pathway as the major route of entry for QDs into microglia. Furthermore, inhibiting mannose receptors and macrophage scavenger receptors blocked the uptake of QDs by microglia, indicating that QD uptake occurs through microglia-specific receptor endocytosis. When injected into the brain, QDs were taken up primarily by microglia and with high efficiency. In primary cortical cultures, QDs conjugated to the toxin saporin depleted microglia in mixed primary cortical cultures, protecting neurons in these cultures against amyloid beta-induced neurotoxicity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that QDs can be used to specifically label and modulate microglia in primary cortical cultures and in brain and may allow for the selective delivery of therapeutic agents to these cells.

2012-01-01

66

Lysosomal storage disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Although the first description of a lysosomal storage disorder was that of Tay-Sachs disease in 1881, the lysosome was not discovered until 1955, by Christian De Duve. The first demonstration by Hers in 1963 of a link between an enzyme deficiency and a storage disorder (Pompe's disease) paved the way for a series of seminal discoveries about the intracellular

Ashok Vellodi

2005-01-01

67

Proteomics of the Lysosome  

PubMed Central

Defects in lysosomal function have been associated with numerous monogenic human diseases typically classified as lysosomal storage diseases. However, there is increasing evidence that lysosomal proteins are also involved in more widespread human diseases including cancer and Alzheimer disease. Thus, there is a continuing interest in understanding the cellular functions of the lysosome and an emerging approach to this is the identification of its constituent proteins by proteomic analyses. To date, the mammalian lysosome has been shown to contain ~ 60 soluble luminal proteins and ~25 transmembrane proteins. However, recent proteomic studies based upon affinity purification of soluble components or subcellular fractionation to obtain both soluble and membrane components suggest that there may be many more of both classes of protein resident within this organelle than previously appreciated. Discovery of such proteins has important implications for understanding the function and the dynamics of the lysosome but can also lead the way towards the discovery of the genetic basis for human diseases of hitherto unknown etiology. Here, we describe current approaches to lysosomal proteomics and data interpretation and review the new lysosomal proteins that have recently emerged from such studies.

Lubke, Torben; Lobel, Peter; Sleat, David

2009-01-01

68

Clarifying lysosomal storage diseases  

PubMed Central

Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a class of metabolic disorders caused by mutations in proteins critical for lysosomal function. Such proteins include lysosomal enzymes, lysosomal integral membrane proteins, and proteins involved in the post-translational modification and trafficking of lysosomal proteins. There are many recognized forms of LSDs, and although individually rare, their combined prevalence is estimated to be 1 in 8000 births. Over two-thirds of LSDs involve central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction—progressive cognitive and motor decline—and these symptoms are often the most debilitating. Although the genetic basis for these disorders are clear and the biochemistry of the proteins well understood, the cellular mechanisms by which deficiencies in these proteins disrupts neuronal viability remain ambiguous. In this review, we provide an overview of the widespread cellular perturbations occurring in LSDs, how they may be linked, and interventions that may specifically or globally correct those defects.

Schultz, Mark L; Tecedor, Luis; Chang, Michael; Davidson, Beverly L.

2011-01-01

69

Selecting a Targeting Method to Identify BPL Households in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes how to select a methodology to target multidimensionally poor households, and how to update that targeting exercise periodically. We present this methodology in the context of discussions regarding the selection of a targeting methodology in India. In 1992, 1997, and 2002 the Indian government identified households that are…

Alkire, Sabina; Seth, Suman

2013-01-01

70

Demonstration of lysosomal localization for the mammalian ependymin-related protein using classical approaches combined with a novel density shift method.  

PubMed

Most newly synthesized soluble lysosomal proteins are delivered to the lysosome via the mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P)-targeting pathway. The presence of the Man-6-P post-translational modification allows these proteins to be affinity-purified on immobilized Man-6-P receptors. This approach has formed the basis for a number of proteomic studies that identified multiple as yet uncharacterized Man-6-P glycoproteins that may represent new lysosomal proteins. Although the presence of Man-6-P is suggestive of lysosomal function, the subcellular localization of such candidates requires experimental verification. Here, we have investigated one such candidate, ependymin-related protein (EPDR). EPDR is a protein of unknown function with some sequence similarity to ependymin, a fish protein thought to play a role in memory consolidation and learning. Using classical subcellular fractionation on rat brain, EPDR co-distributes with lysosomal proteins, but there is significant overlap between lysosomal and mitochondrial markers. For more definitive localization, we have developed a novel approach based upon a selective buoyant density shift of the brain lysosomes in a mutant mouse lacking NPC2, a lysosomal protein involved in lipid transport. EPDR, in parallel with lysosomal markers, shows this density shift in gradient centrifugation experiments comparing mutant and wild type mice. This approach, combined with morphological analyses, demonstrates that EPDR resides in the lysosome. In addition, the lipidosis-induced density shift approach represents a valuable tool for identification and validation of both luminal and membrane lysosomal proteins that should be applicable to high throughput proteomic studies. PMID:16954209

Della Valle, Maria Cecilia; Sleat, David E; Sohar, Istvan; Wen, Ting; Pintar, John E; Jadot, Michel; Lobel, Peter

2006-11-17

71

Intracellular protein degradation: from a vague idea thru the lysosome and the ubiquitin–proteasome system and onto human diseases and drug targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between the 1950s and 1980s, scientists were focusing mostly on how the genetic code is transcribed to RNA and translated to proteins, but how proteins are degraded has remained a neglected research area. With the discovery of the lysosome by Christian de Duve, it was assumed that cellular proteins are degraded within this organelle. Yet, several independent lines of experimental

Aaron Ciechanover

2005-01-01

72

A stretch of 17 amino acids in the prosaposin C terminus is critical for its binding to sortilin and targeting to lysosomes.  

PubMed

Prosaposin, the precursor of four lysosomal cofactors required for the hydrolysis of sphingolipids, is transported to the lysosomes via the alternative receptor, sortilin. In this study, we identified a specific domain of 17 amino acids within the C terminus of prosaposin involved in binding to this sorting receptor. We generated six prosaposin deletion constructs and examined the effect of truncation by coimmunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy. The experiments revealed that the first half of the prosaposin C terminus (aa 524-540), containing a saposin-like motif, was required and necessary to bind sortilin and to transport it to the lysosomes. Based on this result, we introduced twelve site-directed point mutations within the first half of the C terminus. Although the interaction of prosaposin with sortilin was pH dependent, the mutation of hydrophilic amino acids that usually modulate pH-dependent protein interactions did not affect the binding of prosaposin to sortilin. Conversely, a tryptophan (W530) and two cysteines (C528 and C536) were essential for its interaction with sortilin and for its transport to the lysosomes. In conclusion, our investigation demonstrates that a saposin-like motif within the first half of the prosaposin C terminus contains the sortilin recognition site. PMID:19934382

Yuan, Libin; Morales, Carlos R

2010-03-01

73

Lysosomal storage disease.  

PubMed

We report a case of lysosomal storage disease diagnosed by lysosomal enzyme assay in a two year old boy with a history of gradual onset of weakness of body, poor vision, flaccid neck and spasticity in all four limbs with hyper-reflexia. On fundus examination cherry red spots were noted at macula. On performing lysosomal enzyme assay, beta-galactosidase level was considerably low. This indicates that the child is affected by lysosomal storage disease most likely GM1 gangliosidosis. The diagnosis is important because the disease is rare and it may be missed as the symptoms are similar to other neurological conditions and the diagnosis can help with future conception. PMID:20795466

Khatiwada, B; Pokharel, A

2009-01-01

74

Sphingolipid lysosomal storage disorders.  

PubMed

Lysosomal storage diseases are inborn errors of metabolism, the hallmark of which is the accumulation, or storage, of macromolecules in the late endocytic system. They are monogenic disorders that occur at a collective frequency of 1 in 5,000 live births and are caused by inherited defects in genes that mainly encode lysosomal proteins, most commonly lysosomal enzymes. A subgroup of these diseases involves the lysosomal storage of glycosphingolipids. Through our understanding of the genetics, biochemistry and, more recently, cellular aspects of sphingolipid storage disorders, we have gained insights into fundamental aspects of cell biology that would otherwise have remained opaque. In addition, study of these disorders has led to significant progress in the development of therapies, several of which are now in routine clinical use. Emerging mechanistic links with more common diseases suggest we need to rethink our current concept of disease boundaries. PMID:24899306

Platt, Frances M

2014-06-01

75

Dissociation of pursuit target selection from saccade execution.  

PubMed

Pursuit and saccades almost always select the same target. Is this the results of a common selection process or does smooth pursuit obligatorily follow the stimulus targeted by saccades? To address this question, we used microstimulation of the primate superior colliculus (SC) to redirect the eyes from a selected pursuit target to a distracter moving in the opposite direction. During each trial, monkeys pursued a horizontally moving array of colored target stimuli. In half of the trials, this target array was accompanied by a distracter array moving horizontally in the opposite direction, offset by the vertical amplitude of the stimulation-evoked saccade. We stimulated the SC during maintained pursuit on half of the trials, and measured pursuit eye velocity during the 50-ms interval immediately following the stimulation-evoked saccade to the distracter array. Saccades evoked by SC stimulation did not alter pursuit target selection. Pursuit velocity on average changed by less than 10% of that expected if the monkey had completely switched targets. Moreover, the same changes in velocity occurred when there was no distracter, indicating that even these small changes in pursuit velocity were a direct effect of the evoked saccade, not partial selection of the distracter. These results show that motor execution of saccades is not sufficient to select a pursuit target, and support the idea that the coordination of pursuit and saccades is accomplished by a shared target selection process. PMID:23022138

Krauzlis, Richard J; Dill, Natalie; Fowler, Garth A

2012-12-01

76

Intracellular Protein Degradation: From a Vague Idea through the Lysosome and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and onto Human Diseases and Drug Targeting  

PubMed Central

Between the 1950s and 1980s, scientists were focusing mostly on how the genetic code was transcribed to RNA and translated to proteins, but how proteins were degraded had remained a neglected research area. With the discovery of the lysosome by Christian de Duve it was assumed that cellular proteins are degraded within this organelle. Yet, several independent lines of experimental evidence strongly suggested that intracellular proteolysis was largely non-lysosomal, but the mechanisms involved have remained obscure. The discovery of the ubiquitin-proteasome system resolved the enigma. We now recognize that degradation of intracellular proteins is involved in regulation of a broad array of cellular processes, such as cell cycle and division, regulation of transcription factors, and assurance of the cellular quality control. Not surprisingly, aberrations in the system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human disease, such as malignancies and neurodegenerative disorders, which led subsequently to an increasing effort to develop mechanism-based drugs.

Ciechanover, Aaron

2012-01-01

77

Selecting Spatial Frames of Reference for Visual Target Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the selection of spatial frames of reference for target localization in visual search. Participants searched for local target characters in global character configurations. The local targets could be localized relative to the character configuration in which they were embedded or relative to the presentation screen on which the configurations were displayed. We investigated under which conditions the

Wilfried Kunde; Joachim Hoffmann

2005-01-01

78

Intrinsic neuronal properties control selective targeting of regenerating motoneurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in microsurgical techniques, recovery of motor function after peripheral nerve injury is often poor because many regenerating axons reinnervate inappropriate targets. Consequently, surgical repair must include treatment strategies that improve motor axon targeting. Development of such treatments will require a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing selective motor axon targeting. This study used a well-established model of

Colin K. Franz; Urs Rutishauser; Victor F. Rafuse

2008-01-01

79

Selective protein covalent binding and target organ toxicity.  

PubMed

Protein covalent binding by xenobiotic metabolites has long been associated with target organ toxicity but mechanistic involvement of such binding has not been widely demonstrated. Modern biochemical, molecular, and immunochemical approaches have facilitated identification of specific protein targets of xenobiotic covalent binding. Such studies have revealed that protein covalent binding is not random, but rather selective with respect to the proteins targeted. Selective binding to specific cellular target proteins may better correlate with toxicity than total protein covalent binding. Current research is directed at characterizing and identifying the targeted proteins and clarifying the effect of such binding on their structure, function, and potential roles in target organ toxicity. The approaches employed to detect and identify the tartgeted proteins are described. Metabolites of acetaminophen, halothane, and 2,5-hexanedione form covalently bound adducts to recently identified protein targets. The selective binding may influence homeostatic or other cellular responses which in turn contribute to drug toxicity, hypersensitivity, or autoimmunity. PMID:9073586

Cohen, S D; Pumford, N R; Khairallah, E A; Boekelheide, K; Pohl, L R; Amouzadeh, H R; Hinson, J A

1997-03-01

80

[Lysosomal storage diseases - update and new therapeutic options].  

PubMed

Lysosomal storage diseases represent a group of about 50 genetic disorders. The deficiencies of lysosomal and non-lysosomal proteins cause an accumulation of compounds which are normally degraded within the lysosome. There are currently no therapeutic options to cure patients suffering from a lysosomal storage disease. Due to their progressive nature there is considerable morbidity and mortality. Thus, an early treatment to maintain major systemic functions is of utmost importance. While so far only symptomatic therapies are in use, the newly available enzyme replacement therapies offer a real causal approach for selected storage diseases. Many of these disorders are characterised by pathognomonic eye findings. Therefore, the ophthalmological examination provides the opportunity for an early and non-invasive diagnosis and a chance to initiate early treatment. This review is intended to give a survey of the most common lysosomal storage diseases, particularly with regard to ophthalmological changes as well as illustrate new therapeutic options. PMID:20309790

Schöpfer, K; Miebach, E; Beck, M; Pitz, S

2011-02-01

81

Design and exploration of target-selective chemical space representations.  

PubMed

We report the design of target-selective chemical spaces using CA-DynaMAD, a mapping algorithm that generates and navigates flexible space representations for the identification of active or selective compounds. The algorithm iteratively increases the dimensionality of reference spaces in a controlled manner by evaluating a single descriptor per iteration. For seven sets of closely related biogenic amine G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists with different selectivity, target-selective reference spaces were designed and used to identify selective compounds by screening a biologically annotated database. Combinations of descriptors that constitute target-selective reference spaces identified with CA-DynaMAD can also be used to build other computational models for the prediction of compound selectivity. PMID:18558671

Vogt, Ingo; Bajorath, Jürgen

2008-07-01

82

Late Steps in Secretory Lysosome Exocytosis in Cytotoxic Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Natural Killer cells are a subset of cytotoxic lymphocytes that are important in host defense against infections and transformed cells. They exert this function through recognition of target cells by cell surface receptors, which triggers a signaling program that results in a re-orientation of the microtubule organizing center and secretory lysosomes toward the target cell. Upon movement of secretory lysosomes to the plasma membrane and subsequent fusion, toxic proteins are released by secretory lysosomes in the immunological synapse which then enter and kill the target cell. In this minireview we highlight recent progress in our knowledge of late steps in this specialized secretion pathway and address important open questions.

van der Sluijs, Peter; Zibouche, Mallik; van Kerkhof, Peter

2013-01-01

83

Predictive saccade target selection in superior colliculus during visual search.  

PubMed

Searching for a visual object naturally involves sequences of gaze fixations, during which the current foveal image is analyzed and the next object to inspect is selected as a saccade target. Fixation durations during such sequences are short, suggesting that saccades may be concurrently processed. Therefore, the selection of the next saccade target may occur before the current saccade target is acquired. To test this hypothesis, we trained four female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to perform a multiple-fixation visual conjunction search task. We simultaneously recorded the activity of sensorimotor neurons in the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) in two monkeys. In this task, monkeys made multiple fixations before foveating the target. Fixation durations were significantly shorter than the latency of the initial responses to the search display, with approximately one-quarter being shorter than the shortest response latencies. The time at which SC sensorimotor activity discriminated the target from distracters occurred significantly earlier for the selection of subsequent fixations than for the selection of the first fixation. Target selection during subsequent fixations occurred even before the visual afferent delay in more than half of the neuronal sample, suggesting that the process of selection can encompass at least two future saccade targets. This predictive selection was present even when differences in saccade latencies were taken into account. Altogether, these findings demonstrate how neural representations on the visual salience map are processed in parallel, thus facilitating visual search. PMID:24741054

Shen, Kelly; Paré, Martin

2014-04-16

84

Computational approaches to selecting and optimising targets for structural biology.  

PubMed

Selection of protein targets for study is central to structural biology and may be influenced by numerous factors. A key aim is to maximise returns for effort invested by identifying proteins with the balance of biophysical properties that are conducive to success at all stages (e.g. solubility, crystallisation) in the route towards a high resolution structural model. Selected targets can be optimised through construct design (e.g. to minimise protein disorder), switching to a homologous protein, and selection of experimental methodology (e.g. choice of expression system) to prime for efficient progress through the structural proteomics pipeline. Here we discuss computational techniques in target selection and optimisation, with more detailed focus on tools developed within the Scottish Structural Proteomics Facility (SSPF); namely XANNpred, ParCrys, OB-Score (target selection) and TarO (target optimisation). TarO runs a large number of algorithms, searching for homologues and annotating the pool of possible alternative targets. This pool of putative homologues is presented in a ranked, tabulated format and results are also visualised as an automatically generated and annotated multiple sequence alignment. The target selection algorithms each predict the propensity of a selected protein target to progress through the experimental stages leading to diffracting crystals. This single predictor approach has advantages for target selection, when compared with an approach using two or more predictors that each predict for success at a single experimental stage. The tools described here helped SSPF achieve a high (21%) success rate in progressing cloned targets to diffraction-quality crystals. PMID:21906678

Overton, Ian M; Barton, Geoffrey J

2011-09-01

85

Lysosomal storage disorders.  

PubMed

Although the first description of a lysosomal storage disorder was that of Tay-Sachs disease in 1881, the lysosome was not discovered until 1955, by Christian De Duve. The first demonstration by Hers in 1963 of a link between an enzyme deficiency and a storage disorder (Pompe's disease) paved the way for a series of seminal discoveries about the intracellular biology of these enzymes and their substrates, culminating in the successful treatment of Gaucher's disease with beta-glucosidase in the early 1990s. It is now recognized that these disorders are not simply a consequence of pure storage, but result from perturbation of complex cell signalling mechanisms. These in turn give rise to secondary structural and biochemical changes, which have important implications for therapy. Significant challenges remain, particularly the treatment of central nervous system disease. It is hoped that recent advances in our understanding of lysosomal biology will enable successful therapies to be developed. PMID:15686451

Vellodi, Ashok

2005-02-01

86

Endocytosis provides a major alternative pathway for lysosomal biogenesis in kidney proximal tubular cells  

PubMed Central

Recruitment of acid hydrolases to lysosomes generally occurs by intracellular sorting based on recognition of a common mannose 6-phosphate signal in the transGolgi network and selective transport to late endosomes/lysosomes. Here we provide evidence for an alternative, efficient secretion-recapture pathway mediated by megalin and exemplified by cathepsin B in kidney proximal convoluted tubules (PCT). We found that in mouse kidneys with defective megalin expression [megalin knockout (KO)] or apical PCT trafficking (ClC-5 KO), the (pro)cathepsin B mRNA level was essentially preserved, but the protein content was greatly decreased and the enzyme was excreted in the urine as mannose 6-phosphate-devoid species. In polarized PCT-derived cells, purified cathepsin B was avidly and selectively taken up at the apical membrane, and uptake was abolished by the megalin competitor, receptor-associated protein. Direct interaction of cathepsin B with megalin was demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance. Procathepsin B was detected in normal mouse serum. Purified cathepsin B injected into mice was efficiently taken up by kidneys (?10% of injection) and targeted to lysosomes where it remained active, as shown by autoradiography and subcellular fractionation. A single cathepsin B injection into cathepsin B KO mice could reconstitute full lysosomal enzyme activity in the kidneys. These findings demonstrate a pathway whereby circulating lysosomal enzymes are continuously filtered in glomeruli, reabsorbed by megalin-mediated endocytosis, and transferred into lysosomes to exert their function, providing a major source of enzymes to PCT. These results also extend the significance of megalin in PCT and have several physiopathological and clinical implications.

Nielsen, Rikke; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Jacobsen, Christian; Dom, Genevieve; Lima, Wania Rezende; Jadot, Michel; Willnow, Thomas E.; Devuyst, Olivier; Christensen, Erik I.

2007-01-01

87

At the acidic edge: emerging functions for lysosomal membrane proteins.  

PubMed

It has recently become clear that lysosomes have more complex functions than simply being the end-point on a degradative pathway. Similarly, it is now emerging that there are interesting functions for the limiting membranes around these organelles and their associated proteins. Although it has been known for several decades that the lysosomal membrane contains several highly N-glycosylated proteins, including the lysosome-associated membrane proteins LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 and lysosomal integral membrane protein-2/lysosomal membrane glycoprotein-85 (LIMP-2/LGP85), specific functions of these proteins have only recently begun to be recognized. Although the normal functions of LAMP-1 can be substituted by the structurally related LAMP-2, LAMP-2 itself has more specific tasks. Knockout of LAMP-2 in mice has revealed roles for LAMP-2 in lysosomal enzyme targeting, autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis. LAMP-2 deficiency in humans leads to Danon disease, a fatal cardiomyopathy and myopathy. Furthermore, there is evidence that LAMP-2 functions in chaperone-mediated autophagy. LIMP-2/LGP85 also seems to have specific functions in maintaining endosomal transport and lysosomal biogenesis. The pivotal function of lysosomal membrane proteins is also highlighted by the recent identification of disease-causing mutations in cystine and sialic acid transporter proteins, leading to nephropathic cystinosis and Salla disease. PMID:12628346

Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Saftig, Paul

2003-03-01

88

Plasma hyaluronidase activity in mucolipidoses II and III: marked differences from other lysosomal enzymes.  

PubMed

A nearly pathognomonic finding of the lysosomal storage disorders mucolipidoses II and III is the marked increase of plasma lysosomal enzyme activities. The genetic lesion in ML II and III causes defective function of the enzyme UDP-GlcNAc:lysosomal enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase. Defective function of this enzyme results in deficient phosphorylation of lysosomal enzyme asparagine-linked oligosaccharides and a consequent misrouting of many newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes. These enzymes are secreted from cells instead of being targeted to lysosomes, with resultant marked elevations of multiple lysosomal enzyme activities in plasma. We report here that plasma hyaluronidase activity, an endoglycosidase of presumably lysosomal origin, is not increased in the plasma from individuals with mucolipidoses II and III, unlike most lysosomal enzymes. Our data suggest the possibility that hyaluronidase is not targeted to lysosomes by a lysosomal enzyme phosphosmannosyl recognition mechanism. Alternatively, hyaluronidase activity may not be present in the cell type(s) responsible for the lysosomal enzyme hypersecretion in mucolipidoses II and III which, along with its deficiency in fibroblasts and leukocytes, would constitute an unusual tissue distribution of activity for a soluble lysosomal enzyme. PMID:9240745

Natowicz, M R; Wang, Y

1996-10-28

89

UVA causes dual inactivation of cathepsin B and L underlying lysosomal dysfunction in human dermal fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Cutaneous exposure to chronic solar UVA-radiation is a causative factor in photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Recently, we have identified the thiol-dependent cysteine-protease cathepsin B as a novel UVA-target undergoing photo-oxidative inactivation upstream of autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in fibroblasts. In this study, we examined UVA effects on a wider range of cathepsins and explored the occurrence of UVA-induced cathepsin inactivation in other cultured skin cell types. In dermal fibroblasts, chronic exposure to non-cytotoxic doses of UVA caused pronounced inactivation of the lysosomal cysteine-proteases cathepsin B and L, effects not observed in primary keratinocytes and occurring only to a minor extent in primary melanocytes. In order to determine if UVA-induced lysosomal impairment requires single or dual inactivation of cathepsin B and/or L, we used a genetic approach (siRNA) to selectively downregulate enzymatic activity of these target cathepsins. Monitoring an established set of protein markers (including LAMP1, LC3-II, and p62) and cell ultrastructural changes detected by electron microscopy, we observed that only dual genetic antagonism (targeting both CTSB and CTSL expression) could mimic UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations, whereas single knockdown (targeting CTSB or CTSL only) did not display 'UVA-mimetic' effects failing to reproduce the UVA-induced phenotype. Taken together, our data demonstrate that chronic UVA inhibits both cathepsin B and L enzymatic activity and that dual inactivation of both enzymes is a causative factor underlying UVA-induced impairment of lysosomal function in dermal fibroblasts. PMID:23603447

Lamore, Sarah D; Wondrak, Georg T

2013-06-01

90

UVA Causes Dual Inactivation of Cathepsin B and L Underlying Lysosomal Dysfunction in Human Dermal Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous exposure to chronic solar UVA-radiation is a causative factor in photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Recently, we have identified the thiol-dependent cysteine-protease cathepsin B as a novel UVA-target undergoing photo-oxidative inactivation upstream of autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in fibroblasts. In this study, we examined UVA effects on a wider range of cathepsins and explored the occurrence of UVA-induced cathepsin inactivation in other cultured skin cell types. In dermal fibroblasts, chronic exposure to non-cytotoxic doses of UVA caused pronounced inactivation of the lysosomal cysteine-proteases cathepsin B and L, effects not observed in primary keratinocytes and occurring only to a minor extent in primary melanocytes. In order to determine if UVA-induced lysosomal impairment requires single or dual inactivation of cathepsin B and/or L, we used a genetic approach (siRNA) to selectively downregulate enzymatic activity of these target cathepsins. Monitoring an established set of protein markers (including LAMP1, LC3-II, and p62) and cell ultrastructural changes detected by electron microscopy, we observed that only dual genetic antagonism (targeting both CTSB and CTSL expression) could mimic UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations, whereas single knockdown (targeting CTSB or CTSL only) did not display ‘UVA-mimetic’ effects failing to reproduce the UVA-induced phenotype. Taken together, our data demonstrate that chronic UVA inhibits both cathepsin B and L enzymatic activity and that dual inactivation of both enzymes is a causative factor underlying UVA-induced impairment of lysosomal function in dermal fibroblasts.

Lamore, Sarah D.; Wondrak, Georg T.

2013-01-01

91

The selection of aptamers specific for membrane molecular targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing number of RNA aptamers have been selected experimentally using the SELEX combinatorial approach, and these aptamers\\u000a have several advantages over monoclonal protein antibodies or peptides with respect to their applications in medicine and\\u000a nanobiotechnology. Relatively few successful selections have been reported for membrane molecular targets, in contrast to\\u000a the situation with non-membrane molecular targets. This review compares the

Teresa Janas; Tadeusz Janas

2011-01-01

92

Lysosomal Lipid Storage Diseases  

PubMed Central

Lysosomal lipid storage diseases, or lipidoses, are inherited metabolic disorders in which typically lipids accumulate in cells and tissues. Complex lipids, such as glycosphingolipids, are constitutively degraded within the endolysosomal system by soluble hydrolytic enzymes with the help of lipid binding proteins in a sequential manner. Because of a functionally impaired hydrolase or auxiliary protein, their lipid substrates cannot be degraded, accumulate in the lysosome, and slowly spread to other intracellular membranes. In Niemann-Pick type C disease, cholesterol transport is impaired and unesterified cholesterol accumulates in the late endosome. In most lysosomal lipid storage diseases, the accumulation of one or few lipids leads to the coprecipitation of other hydrophobic substances in the endolysosomal system, such as lipids and proteins, causing a “traffic jam.” This can impair lysosomal function, such as delivery of nutrients through the endolysosomal system, leading to a state of cellular starvation. Therapeutic approaches are currently restricted to mild forms of diseases with significant residual catabolic activities and without brain involvement.

Schulze, Heike; Sandhoff, Konrad

2011-01-01

93

Motion-pointing: target selection using elliptical motions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel method calledmotion-pointingfor select- ing a set of visual items such as push-buttons without actu- ally pointing to them. Instead, each potential target displays a rhythmically animated point we call the driver. To select a specific item, the user only has to imitate the motion of its driver using the input device. Once the motion has been

Jean-daniel Fekete; Niklas Elmqvist; Yves Guiard

2009-01-01

94

Boundary Node Selection and Target Detection in Wireless Sensor Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recording information of the entry and exit of a target through the boundary of the deployed region is highly essential in wireless sensor network. In this paper, sequential boundary node selection (SBNS) and distributed boundary node selection (DBNS) algorithms are proposed to find out the boundary nodes of the wireless sensor network with or without presence of obstacles over the

P. K. Sahoo; Kun-Ying Hsieh; Jang-Ping Sheu

2007-01-01

95

Lysosomal Storage Disease: Revealing Lysosomal Function and Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The discovery over five decades ago of the lysosome, as a degradative organelle and its dysfunction in lysosomal storage disorder patients, was both insightful and simple in concept. Here, we review some of the history and pathophysiology of lysosomal storage disorders to show how they have impacted on our knowledge of lysosomal biology. Although a significant amount of information has been accrued on the molecular genetics and biochemistry of lysosomal storage disorders, we still do not fully understand the mechanistic link between the storage material and disease pathogenesis. However, the accumulation of undegraded substrate(s) can disrupt other lysosomal degradation processes, vesicular traffic, and lysosomal biogenesis to evoke the diverse pathophysiology that is evident in this complex set of disorders.

Emma J. Parkinson-Lawrence (South Australian Pathology Services); Tetyana Shandala (South Australian Pathology Services); Mark Prodoehl (South Australian Pathology Services); Revecca Plew (South Australian Pathology Services); Glenn N. Borlace (South Australian Pathology Services); Doug A. Brooks (South Australian Pathology Services)

2010-04-01

96

Targeted exon sequencing by in-solution hybrid selection.  

PubMed

This unit describes a protocol for the targeted enrichment of exons from randomly sheared genomic DNA libraries using an in-solution hybrid selection approach for sequencing on an Illumina Genome Analyzer II. The steps for designing and ordering a hybrid selection oligo pool are reviewed, as are critical steps for performing the preparation and hybrid selection of an Illumina paired-end library. Critical parameters, performance metrics, and analysis workflow are discussed. PMID:20582916

Blumenstiel, Brendan; Cibulskis, Kristian; Fisher, Sheila; DeFelice, Matthew; Barry, Andrew; Fennell, Tim; Abreu, Justin; Minie, Brian; Costello, Maura; Young, Geneva; Maquire, Jared; Kernytsky, Andrew; Melnikov, Alexandre; Rogov, Peter; Gnirke, Andreas; Gabriel, Stacey

2010-07-01

97

Novel target configurations for selective ionization state studies in molybdenum  

SciTech Connect

Details of experiments aimed at achieving low ionization state selectivity in molybdenum are presented. Targets are excited with a 10 J CO{sub 2} laser and the resultant VUV spectrum (300--700 {Angstrom}) has been studied. Combinations of focal spot size, target depth, and target geometries are compared. Simple attenuation of energy is shown not to vary ionization stage composition significantly. Experiments conducted with grazing incidence targets result only in a hot plasma. Modular targets with cooling cylinders of various radii demonstrated good selectivity of the ionization states, but with low absolute signals. Finally, results from combinations of focal spot adjustment and radiative cooling illustrate increased control over desired plasma temperature and density for spectroscopic studies of molybdenum. 7 refs., 14 figs.

Ilcisin, K.J.; Feldman, U.; Schwob, J.L.; Wouters, A. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Suckewer, S. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab. Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

1990-03-01

98

Clathrin heavy chain functions in sorting and secretion of lysosomal enzymes in Dictyostelium discoideum  

PubMed Central

The clathrin heavy chain is a major component of clathrin-coated vesicles that function in selective membrane traffic in eukaryotic cells. We disrupted the clathrin heavy chain gene (chcA) in Dictyostelium discoideum to generate a stable clathrin heavy chain- deficient cell line. Measurement of pinocytosis in the clathrin-minus mutant revealed a four-to five-fold deficiency in the internalization of fluid-phase markers. Once internalized, these markers recycled to the cell surface of mutant cells at wild-type rates. We also explored the involvement of clathrin heavy chain in the trafficking of lysosomal enzymes. Pulse chase analysis revealed that clathrin-minus cells processed most alpha-mannosidase to mature forms, however, approximately 20-25% of the precursor molecules remained uncleaved, were missorted, and were rapidly secreted by the constitutive secretory pathway. The remaining intracellular alpha-mannosidase was successfully targeted to mature lysosomes. Standard secretion assays showed that the rate of secretion of alpha-mannosidase was significantly less in clathrin-minus cells compared to control cells in growth medium. Interestingly, the secretion rates of another lysosomal enzyme, acid phosphatase, were similar in clathrin-minus and wild-type cells. Like wild-type cells, clathrin-minus mutants responded to starvation conditions with increased lysosomal enzyme secretion. Our study of the mutant cells provide in vivo evidence for roles for the clathrin heavy chain in (a) the internalization of fluid from the plasma membrane; (b) sorting of hydrolase precursors from the constitutive secretory pathway to the lysosomal pathway; and (c) secretion of mature hydrolases from lysosomes to the extracellular space.

1994-01-01

99

Regulation of HIV-Gag Expression and Targeting to the Endolysosomal/Secretory Pathway by the Luminal Domain of Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein (LAMP-1) Enhance Gag-Specific Immune Response  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated that a DNA vaccine encoding HIV-p55gag in association with the lysosomal associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) elicited a greater Gag-specific immune response, in comparison to a DNA encoding the native gag. In vitro studies have also demonstrated that LAMP/Gag was highly expressed and was present in MHCII containing compartments in transfected cells. In this study, the mechanisms involved in these processes and the relative contributions of the increased expression and altered traffic for the enhanced immune response were addressed. Cells transfected with plasmid DNA constructs containing p55gag attached to truncated sequences of LAMP-1 showed that the increased expression of gag mRNA required p55gag in frame with at least 741 bp of the LAMP-1 luminal domain. LAMP luminal domain also showed to be essential for Gag traffic through lysosomes and, in this case, the whole sequence was required. Further analysis of the trafficking pathway of the intact LAMP/Gag chimera demonstrated that it was secreted, at least in part, associated with exosome-like vesicles. Immunization of mice with LAMP/gag chimeric plasmids demonstrated that high expression level alone can induce a substantial transient antibody response, but targeting of the antigen to the endolysosomal/secretory pathways was required for establishment of cellular and memory response. The intact LAMP/gag construct induced polyfunctional CD4+ T cell response, which presence at the time of immunization was required for CD8+ T cell priming. LAMP-mediated targeting to endolysosomal/secretory pathway is an important new mechanistic element in LAMP-mediated enhanced immunity with applications to the development of novel anti-HIV vaccines and to general vaccinology field.

Lucas, Carolina Goncalves de Oliveira; Rigato, Paula Ordonhez; Goncalves, Jorge Luiz Santos; Sato, Maria Notomi; Maciel, Milton; Pecanha, Ligia Maria Torres; August, J. Thomas; de Azevedo Marques, Ernesto Torres; de Arruda, Luciana Barros

2014-01-01

100

Lysosomal calcium homeostasis defects, not proton pump defects, cause endo-lysosomal dysfunction in PSEN-deficient cells  

PubMed Central

Presenilin (PSEN) deficiency is accompanied by accumulation of endosomes and autophagosomes, likely caused by impaired endo-lysosomal fusion. Recently, Lee et al. (2010. Cell. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2010.05.008) attributed this phenomenon to PSEN1 enabling the transport of mature V0a1 subunits of the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) to lysosomes. In their view, PSEN1 mediates the N-glycosylation of V0a1 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); consequently, PSEN deficiency prevents V0a1 glycosylation, compromising the delivery of unglycosylated V0a1 to lysosomes, ultimately impairing V-ATPase function and lysosomal acidification. We show here that N-glycosylation is not a prerequisite for proper targeting and function of this V-ATPase subunit both in vitro and in vivo in Drosophila melanogaster. We conclude that endo-lysosomal dysfunction in PSEN?/? cells is not a consequence of failed N-glycosylation of V0a1, or compromised lysosomal acidification. Instead, lysosomal calcium storage/release is significantly altered in PSEN?/? cells and neurons, thus providing an alternative hypothesis that accounts for the impaired lysosomal fusion capacity and accumulation of endomembranes that accompanies PSEN deficiency.

Coen, Katrijn; Flannagan, Ronald S.; Baron, Szilvia; Carraro-Lacroix, Luciene R.; Wang, Dong; Vermeire, Wendy; Michiels, Christine; Munck, Sebastian; Baert, Veerle; Sugita, Shuzo; Wuytack, Frank; Hiesinger, Peter Robin; Grinstein, Sergio

2012-01-01

101

Selective Targeting of Nanocarriers to Neutrophils and Monocytes  

PubMed Central

We previously identified and characterized cell-type selective binding peptides from random peptide phage display libraries. Here, we used one of these peptides (GGP) to target liposomal nanocarriers to leukocyte subsets. To profile the binding selectivity of GGP-coated liposomes to human blood cells, we performed flow cytometric analysis with whole anti-coagulated blood. It is shown that when liposomal nanocarriers present these peptides on their surface, they facilitated cell-type specific targeting of liposomes to neutrophils and monocytes in contrast to nontargeted liposomes. Our data suggest that engineering the appropriate number of targeting peptide ligands on the nanocarrier surface is a factor in cell-binding selectivity, as is dose. Increasing the peptide density on the surface of the liposomes from 250 to 500 molecules resulted in more binding to neutrophils and monocytes. Fluorescence confocal microscopy corroborated the flow cytometry data revealing that liposomes coated with targeting GGP peptides decorated the surface of targeting cells and facilitate cell uptake of payload as evidenced by nuclear localization of tracer. These data suggest that small peptides identified by phage display techniques can be used to target nanocarriers that potentially carry therapeutic or imaging agents to leukocyte subsets. This ability has important implications for diseases where neutrophils and monocytes play a major role such as arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and glomerulonephritis.

Karathanasis, Efstathios; Geigerman, Cissy M.; Parkos, Charles A.; Chan, Leslie; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.; Jaye, David L.

2014-01-01

102

The carbamoylmannose moiety of bleomycin mediates selective tumor cell targeting.  

PubMed

Recently, we reported that both bleomycin (BLM) and its disaccharide, conjugated to the cyanine dye Cy5**, bound selectively to cancer cells. Thus, the disaccharide moiety alone recapitulates the tumor cell targeting properties of BLM. Here, we demonstrate that the conjugate of the BLM carbamoylmannose moiety with Cy5** showed tumor cell selective binding and also enhanced cellular uptake in most cancer cell lines. The carbamoyl functionality was required for tumor cell targeting. A dye conjugate prepared from a trivalent cluster of carbamoylmannose exhibited levels of tumor cell binding and internalization significantly greater than those of the simple carbamoylmannose-dye conjugate, consistent with a possible multivalent receptor. PMID:24811347

Bhattacharya, Chandrabali; Yu, Zhiqiang; Rishel, Michael J; Hecht, Sidney M

2014-05-27

103

Nutrition and lysosomal activity  

PubMed Central

1. Experiments on rats were made to find whether the increased liability of the kidney-cortex tubules to autolysis post mortem, which is a well-established abnormality in vitamin E deficiency, can be correlated with changes in lysosomal activity. Parallel observations were made on the development of certain other abnormalities characteristic of avitaminosis E. 2. In rats killed after long periods (8–10 months) of subsistence on a standard vitamin E-deficient diet, containing lard, both the rate of kidney autolysis post mortem and the enzyme activity of lysosome preparations from the fresh tissues were much greater than in controls. A greater percentage difference was usually found in the `free' enzyme fraction than in `bound' or `total' activity. 3. In rats killed after graded periods (3–8 months) of deficiency, two abnormalities (decreased resistance of the erythrocytes to haemolysis, and brown discoloration of the uterus) were already evident at a stage (3–4 months) when the liability to rapid kidney autolysis had not begun. At this point the enzymic activity of kidney extracts differed little between deficient animals and controls given ?-tocopherol. As the duration of deficiency advanced, parallel increases occurred in the rate of kidney autolysis and in lysosomal instability. 4. When cod-liver oil, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids but freed from vitamin A, was substituted for lard in the diet, the time (1½ months) required for the inducement of both rapid kidney autolysis and decreased lysosomal stability was greatly shortened. The time for the inducement of brown discoloration of the uterus was not shortened and the kidney abnormalities appeared while the uterus was still normal. 5. Confirmation was thus obtained for the view that the various tissues of the rat respond differently to the relationship between the adequacy of the vitamin E status and the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The kidney-cortex tubules, as evidenced by autolysis post mortem and the corresponding decrease in lysosomal stability, may be classed among those tissues that are most sensitive to the effect of high intakes of polyunsaturated acids.

Moore, T.; Sharman, I. M.; Stanton, M. G.; Dingle, J. T.

1967-01-01

104

Target selection and determination of function in structural genomics.  

PubMed

The first crucial step in any structural genomics project is the selection and prioritization of target proteins for structure determination. There may be a number of selection criteria to be satisfied, including that the proteins have novel folds, that they be representatives of large families for which no structure is known, and so on. The better the selection at this stage, the greater is the value of the structures obtained at the end of the experimental process. This value can be further enhanced once the protein structures have been solved if the functions of the given proteins can also be determined. Here we describe the methods used at either end of the experimental process: firstly, sensitive sequence comparison techniques for selecting a high-quality list of target proteins, and secondly the various computational methods that can be applied to the eventual 3D structures to determine the most likely biochemical function of the proteins in question. PMID:12880206

Watson, James D; Todd, Annabel E; Bray, James; Laskowski, Roman A; Edwards, Aled; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Orengo, Christine A; Thornton, Janet M

2003-01-01

105

Feature extraction and selection strategies for automated target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several feature extraction and selection methods for an existing automatic target recognition (ATR) system using JPLs Grayscale Optical Correlator (GOC) and Optimal Trade-Off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter were tested using MATLAB. The ATR system is composed of three stages: a cursory regionof- interest (ROI) search using the GOC and OT-MACH filter, a feature extraction and selection stage, and a final classification stage. Feature extraction and selection concerns transforming potential target data into more useful forms as well as selecting important subsets of that data which may aide in detection and classification. The strategies tested were built around two popular extraction methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Performance was measured based on the classification accuracy and free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) output of a support vector machine(SVM) and a neural net (NN) classifier.

Greene, W. Nicholas; Zhang, Yuhan; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

2010-04-01

106

Influence of methylprednisolone on ultrastructural and cytochemical changes during myocardial ischemia. Selective effects on various cell inclusions and organelles including lysosomes.  

PubMed Central

Occlusion of the circumflex branch of the coronary artery of rabbit hearts for 45 minutes elicits structural and cytochemical changes in myocytes similar to those observed in ischemic dog myocardium, which are indicative of irreversible cell injury. When methylprednisolone is administered prior to occluding the artery, myocytes are transiently protected and many of the electron microscopic signs of irreversible damage are delayed for 15 minutes or more. During this period, the steroid preferentially protects mitochondria, lysosomes, and sarcolemma from the ischemic changes that normally develop. However, some other events, including depletion of glycogen and margination of nuclear chromatin, are only minimally influenced by the therapy, if at all. In all hearts, treated and untreated, the development of severe cell damage, whenever it occurs, is closely associated with cell swelling, mitochondrial dilation with concomitant appearance of amorphous osmiophilic densities, and abnormalities in and, ultimately disappearance of lysosomes, suggesting that damage to cell membranes is a central event in the progression of reversible injury to irreversible infarction and that protection of membrane integrity should be a reasonable aim in efforts to ameliorate or delay ischemic injury. Images Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 14 Figure 2 through 4 Figures 6 through 8 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 5 Figures 9 and 10

Decker, R. S.; Wildenthal, K.

1978-01-01

107

Lysosomal Storage Disease: Revealing Lysosomal Function and Physiology - Figure 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This figure shows the morphology of storage compartments commonly observed lysosomal storage disorders: (A) floccular-granular storage, (B) lipid whorls, (C) zebra bodies, and (D) autophagic vacuoles.

Emma J. Parkinson-Lawrence (South Australian Pathology Services); Tetyana Shandala (South Australian Pathology Services); Mark Prodoehl (South Australian Pathology Services); Revecca Plew (South Australian Pathology Services); Glenn N. Borlace (South Australian Pathology Services); Doug A. Brooks (South Australian Pathology Services)

2010-04-01

108

Autophagic-lysosomal dysregulation downstream of cathepsin B inactivation in human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA  

PubMed Central

Recently, using 2D-DIGE proteomics we have identified cathepsin B as a novel target of UVA in human Hs27 skin fibroblasts. In response to chronic exposure to noncytotoxic doses of UVA (9.9 J/cm2, twice a week, 3 weeks), photooxidative impairment of cathepsin B enzymatic activity occurred with accumulation of autofluorescent aggregates colocalizing with lysosomes, an effect mimicked by pharmacological antagonism of cathepsin B using the selective inhibitor CA074Me. Here, we have further explored the mechanistic involvement of cathepsin B inactivation in UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations using autophagy-directed PCR expression array analysis as a discovery tool. Consistent with lysosomal expansion, UVA upregulated cellular protein levels of the lysosomal marker glycoprotein Lamp-1, and increased levels of the lipidated autophagosomal membrane constituent LC3-II were detected. UVA did not alter expression of beclin 1 (BECN1), an essential factor for initiation of autophagy, but upregulation of p62 (sequestosome 1, SQSTM1), a selective autophagy substrate, and ?-synuclein (SNCA), an autophagic protein substrate and aggresome component, was observed at the mRNA and protein level. Moreover, UVA downregulated transglutaminase-2 (TGM2), an essential enzyme involved in autophagolysosome maturation. Strikingly, UVA effects on Lamp-1, LC3-II, beclin 1, p62, ?-synuclein, and transglutaminase-2 were mimicked by CA074Me treatment. Taken together, our data suggest that UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations occur as a consequence of impaired autophagic flux downstream of cathepsin B inactivation, a novel molecular mechanism potentially involved in UVA-induced skin photodamage.

Lamore, Sarah D.; Wondrak, Georg T.

2014-01-01

109

Selective Cell Targeting with Light-Absorbing Microparticles and Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new method for selective cell targeting based on the use of light-absorbing microparticles and nanoparticles that are heated by short laser pulses to create highly localized cell damage. The method is closely related to chromophore-assisted laser inactivation and photodynamic therapy, but is driven solely by light absorption, without the need for photochemical intermediates (particularly singlet oxygen). The

Costas M. Pitsillides; Edwin K. Joe; Xunbin Wei; R. Rox Anderson; Charles P. Lin

2003-01-01

110

Peptide-Directed Highly Selective Targeting of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder of the pulmonary vasculature associated with elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Despite recent advances in the treatment of PAH, with eight approved clinical therapies and additional therapies undergoing clinical trials, PAH remains a serious life-threatening condition. The lack of pulmonary vascular selectivity and associated systemic adverse effects of these therapies remain the main obstacles to successful treatment. Peptide-mediated drug delivery that specifically targets the vasculature of PAH lungs may offer a solution to the lack of drug selectivity. Herein, we show highly selective targeting of rat PAH lesions by a novel cyclic peptide, CARSKNKDC (CAR). Intravenous administration of CAR peptide resulted in intense accumulation of the peptide in monocrotaline-induced and SU5416/hypoxia-induced hypertensive lungs but not in healthy lungs or other organs of PAH rats. CAR homed to all layers of remodeled pulmonary arteries, ie, endothelium, neointima, medial smooth muscle, and adventitia, in the hypertensive lungs. CAR also homed to capillary vessels and accumulated in the interstitial space of the PAH lungs, manifesting its extravasation activity. These results demonstrated the remarkable ability of CAR to selectively target PAH lung vasculature and effectively penetrate and spread throughout the diseased lung tissue. These results suggest the clinical utility of CAR in the targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds and imaging probes to PAH lungs.

Urakami, Takeo; Jarvinen, Tero A.H.; Toba, Michie; Sawada, Junko; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Mann, David; McMurtry, Ivan; Oka, Masahiko; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Komatsu, Masanobu

2011-01-01

111

Imprinted nanoporous organosilicas for selective adsorption of nitroenergetic targets.  

PubMed

Periodic mesoporous organosilicas incorporating diethylbenzene bridges in their pore walls were applied for the adsorption of nitroenegetic targets from aqueous solution. The materials were synthesized by co-condensing 1,4-bis(trimethoxysilylethyl)benzene (DEB) with 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane to improve structural characteristics. Molecular imprinting of the pore surfaces was employed through the use of a novel target-like surfactant to further enhance selectivity for targets of interest (tri- and dinitrotoluenes) over targets of similar structure ( p-cresol and p-nitrophenol). The headgroup of the commonly used alkylene oxide surfactant Brij76 was modified by esterification with 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride. This provided a target analogue which was readily miscible with the Brij76 surfactant micelles used to direct material mesopore structures. The impact of variations in precursor ratios and amounts of imprint molecule was evaluated. The use of 12.5% of the modified Brij surfactant with a co-condensate employing 30% DEB was found to provide the best compromise between total capacity and selectivity for nitroenergetic targets. PMID:18590292

Johnson, Brandy J; Melde, Brian J; Charles, Paul T; Cardona, Damaris Concepción; Dinderman, Michael A; Malanoski, Anthony P; Qadri, Syed B

2008-08-19

112

The cell biology of lysosomal storage disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysosomal storage disorders, of which more than 40 are known, are caused by the defective activity of lysosomal proteins, which results in the intra-lysosomal accumulation of undegraded metabolites. Despite years of study of the genetic and molecular bases of lysosomal storage disorders, little is known about the events that lead from this intra-lysosomal accumulation to pathology. Here, we summarize the

Anthony H. Futerman; Gerrit van Meer

2004-01-01

113

Dynamics of target selection in multiple object tracking (MOT).  

PubMed

In four experiments we address the question whether several visual objects can be selected voluntarily (exogenously) and then tracked in a Multiple Object Tracking paradigm and, if so, whether the selection involves a different process. Experiment 1 showed that items can indeed be selected based on their labels. Experiment 2 showed that to select the complement set to a set that is automatically (exogenously) selected--e.g. to select all objects not flashed--observers require additional time and that given 1080 ms they were able to select and track them as well as those selected automatically. Experiment 3 showed that the additional time needed in the previous experiment cannot be attributed solely to time required to disengage attention from the initially automatic selections. Experiment 4 showed that the added time provides a monotonically greater benefit when there are more targets, suggesting a serial process. These results are discussed in relation to the Visual Index (FINST) theory which assumes that visual indexes are captured by a data-driven process. It is suggested that voluntarily allocated attention can be used to facilitate the automatic attention capture by objects of interest. PMID:17278524

Pylyshyn, Zenon W; Annan, Vidal

2006-01-01

114

Selective screening for lysosomal storage diseases with dried blood spots collected on filter paper in 4,700 high-risk colombian subjects.  

PubMed

Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are a very heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders. The diagnostic process usually involves complex sampling, processing, testing, and validation procedures, performed by specialized laboratories only, which causes great limitations in reaching a diagnosis for patients affected by these diseases.There are few studies about LSDs in Colombia. The diagnostic limitations often make medical practitioners disregard the possibility of these disorders while diagnosing their patients. The current study documents the results of a 7-year screening in high-risk patients, aimed to detect LSDs using dried blood spots (DBS) collected on filter paper, with a micromethodology that facilitates diagnosis even with a large number of samples.The activities of ?-galactosidase A, ? glucosidase, ?-L-iduronidase, arylsulfatase B, ?-galactosidase, ?-glucosidase, total hexosaminidase, iduronate sulfatase, and chitotriosidase were analyzed in high-risk patients for lysosomal disease. The catalytic activity was evaluated with fluorometric micromethods using artificial substrates marked with 4-methylumbelliferone.The reference values for a control population were established for the enzymes listed above, and 242 patients were found to have an enzyme deficiency, guiding to the following diagnoses: Fabry disease (n = 31), Pompe disease (n = 16), Hurler Syndrome (n = 15), Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome (n = 34), GM1 Gangliosidosis (n = 10), Morquio B (n = 1), Gaucher disease (n = 101), Sandhoff disease (n = 1), Mucolipidosis (n = 2), and Hunter Syndrome (n = 31). In conclusion, this protocol provides a comprehensive diagnostic approach which could be carried out in Colombia and made it available to medical services spread around the country, enabling the identification of a large number of patients affected by LSDs, which could potentially benefit from the therapeutic tools already available for many of these diseases. PMID:23609959

Uribe, Alfredo; Giugliani, Roberto

2013-01-01

115

The HYPER-MUCHFUSS project—target selection and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HYPER-MUCHFUSS project targets a population of high velocity subluminous B stars to discover either close binaries with massive unseen companions or hyper-velocity stars. Our starting point is the enormous database of SDSS. We preselected sdO/B candidates by colour and classified them by visual inspection of their spectra. We measured the radial velocity from the coadded SDSS spectra, which serves as first epoch measurement. Stars with high Galactic rest-frame velocities were selected and second epoch observations were obtained starting in 2007 at several sites. For the brighter targets we also included the SDSS individual spectra as additional information. In the course of our survey we observed 88 out of 265 stars from our target list. We discovered 39 HVS candidates as well as 49 close binaries. In addition we analysed all single spectra of sdBs from SDSS and found 120 close binaries. For the targets with constant RVs we performed a proper motion analysis with the highest possible accuracy from the available digitised photographic plates. Together with the analysed spectra and the calculation of the spectroscopic distance, we calculated complete trajectories and deduced the origins of these stars. Targets with high RV variability on short timescales were selected for follow-up. Numerical simulations based on the period and companion mass distribution of the known sdB binary sample were carried out to optimise the target selection and single out candidate binaries with massive companions. The follow-up campaign using WHT/ISIS and CAHA-3.5m/TWIN started in 2009.

Tillich, A.; Geier, S.; Heber, U.; Hirsch, H.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Marsh, T.; Gänsicke, B.; Napiwotzki, R.; Østensen, R.; Scholz, R.-D.

2010-10-01

116

GSK-3 and lysosomes meet in Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Aberrant regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the mechanisms involved remain elusive. Our recent study shows that GSK-3 impairs lysosomal acidification and that inhibition of GSK-3 re-acidified lysosomes in brains of AD mice. This effect was accompanied by reductions in ?-amyloid pathology and amelioration of cognitive deficits. Presenilin-1 (PS1) is an essential factor in lysosomal acidification. To determine whether the inhibition of GSK-3 restores lysosomal malfunction caused by dysfunctional PS1, we treated MEF cells deficient in presenilin proteins (MEF-PS1/2?/?) with a selective substrate competitive GSK-3 inhibitor, L803-mts. L803-mts enhanced the acidic lysosomal pool in MEF-PS1/2?/? cells and increased levels of activated cathepsin D in the lysosomes. We conclude that GSK-3 and PS1 operate via similar mechanisms to disrupt lysosomal acidification. Importantly, these data indicate that GSK-3 inhibitors have potential in treatment of conditions associated with defective PS1.

Avrahami, Limor; Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit

2013-01-01

117

Target Selection and Imaging Requirements for JWST Fine Phasing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To achieve and maintain the fine alignment of its segmented primary mirror the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) plans to use focus-diverse wavefront sensing (WFS) techniques with science camera imagery. The optical requirements for JWST are such that the error contribution from the WFS itself must be limited 10nm rms over all the controllable degrees of freedom of the telescope. In this paper, we will explore the requirements on the target selection and imaging requirements necessary to achieve the desired level of WFS accuracy. Using Monte Carlo simulations we explore the WFS error as a function of wavefront aberrations level, defocus-diversity level, optical bandwidth and imaging signal-to-noise ratio to establish the key imaging requirements. By taking into account practical integration time limits along with the distribution of the defocused point-spread functions, we establish the bright and faint star magnitude limits suitable for WFS target selection.

Green, Joseph J.; Dean, Bruce H.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Zhang, Yan

2004-01-01

118

Histone target selection within chromatin: an exemplary case of teamwork.  

PubMed

Histone modifiers like acetyltransferases, methyltransferases, and demethylases are critical regulators of most DNA-based nuclear processes, de facto controlling cell cycle progression and cell fate. These enzymes perform very precise post-translational modifications on specific histone residues, which in turn are recognized by different effector modules/proteins. We now have a better understanding of how these enzymes exhibit such specificity. As they often reside in multisubunit complexes, they use associated factors to target their substrates within chromatin structure and select specific histone mark-bearing nucleosomes. In this review, we cover the current understanding of how histone modifiers select their histone targets. We also explain how different experimental approaches can lead to conflicting results about the histone specificity and function of these enzymes. PMID:24831698

Lalonde, Marie-Eve; Cheng, Xue; Côté, Jacques

2014-05-15

119

Neuroactive insecticides: targets, selectivity, resistance, and secondary effects.  

PubMed

Neuroactive insecticides are the principal means of protecting crops, people, livestock, and pets from pest insect attack and disease transmission. Currently, the four major nerve targets are acetylcholinesterase for organophosphates and methylcarbamates, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for neonicotinoids, the ?-aminobutyric acid receptor/chloride channel for polychlorocyclohexanes and fiproles, and the voltage-gated sodium channel for pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Species selectivity and acquired resistance are attributable in part to structural differences in binding subsites, receptor subunit interfaces, or transmembrane regions. Additional targets are sites in the sodium channel (indoxacarb and metaflumizone), the glutamate-gated chloride channel (avermectins), the octopamine receptor (amitraz metabolite), and the calcium-activated calcium channel (diamides). Secondary toxic effects in mammals from off-target serine hydrolase inhibition include organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy and disruption of the cannabinoid system. Possible associations between pesticides and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases are proposed but not established based on epidemiological observations and mechanistic considerations. PMID:23317040

Casida, John E; Durkin, Kathleen A

2013-01-01

120

Identification and characterization of a lysosomal membrane protein of Dictyostelium discoideum with monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Lysosomes are responsible for the degradation of macromolecules derived from the cell exterior by endocytosis, or from within the cell by autophagy. While our knowledge of the biosynthesis and targeting of lysosomal hydrolases is considerable, much less is known about the lysosomal membrane itself. To identify the lysosomal membrane proteins that mediate these functions, we have isolated lysosomes from amebae and injected them into mice to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We produced nine MAbs against Dictyostelium lysosomes from the batches of fused cells. Among them, three MAbs were specific to lysosomal membrane and gave a strong signal, and thus used in this study. The MAbs specifically reacted with a single protein band of 27 kd and stained a lysosome-like structure by immunofluorescence microscopy. To identify the antigen that the MAbs recognize, we processed differential centrifugation with whole-cell extract of Dictyostelium and traced p27 protein by activity assay of organelle marker enzyme. We showed that p27 is one component of the lysosomal system on the basis of comigration with a lysosomal marker enzyme. We also demonstrated that the 27-kd lysosomal protein is a tightly bound integral membrane protein by using a phase separation method of Triton X-114. PMID:17203995

Ha, Sung-Gil; Jeong, So-Young; Oh, Sang Wook; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Choi, Eui Yul

2006-12-01

121

PDT: loss of autophagic cytoprotection after lysosomal photodamage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy is known to evoke both autophagy and apoptosis. Apoptosis is an irreversible death pathway while autophagy can serve a cytoprotective function. In this study, we examined two photosensitizing agents that target lysosomes, although they differ in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during irradiation. With both agents, the 'shoulder' on the PDT dose-response curve was substantially attenuated, consistent with loss of a cytoprotective pathway. In contrast, this 'shoulder' is commonly observed when PDT targets mitochondria or the ER. We propose that lysosomal targets may offer the possibility of promoting PDT efficacy by eliminating a potentially protective pathway.

Kessel, David; Price, Michael

2012-02-01

122

Selection of molecular targets for drug development against trypanosomatids.  

PubMed

Trypanosomatid parasites are a group of flagellated protozoa that includes the genera Leishmania and Trypanosoma, which are the causative agents of diseases (leishmaniases, sleeping sickness and Chagas disease) that cause considerable morbidity and mortality, affecting more than 27 million people worldwide. Today no effective vaccines for the prevention of these diseases exist, whereas current chemotherapy is ineffective, mainly due to toxic side effects of current drugs and to the emergence of drug resistance and lack of cost effectiveness. For these reasons, rational drug design and the search of good candidate drug targets is of prime importance. The search for drug targets requires a multidisciplinary approach. To this end, the completion of the genome project of many trypanosomatid species gives a vast amount of new information that can be exploited for the identification of good drug candidates with a prediction of "druggability" and divergence from mammalian host proteins. In addition, an important aspect in the search for good drug targets is the "target identification" and evaluation in a biological pathway, as well as the essentiality of the gene in the mammalian stage of the parasite, which is provided by basic research and genetic and proteomic approaches. In this chapter we will discuss how these bioinformatic tools and experimental evaluations can be integrated for the selection of candidate drug targets, and give examples of metabolic and signaling pathways in the parasitic protozoa that can be exploited for rational drug design. PMID:24264240

Smirlis, Despina; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

2014-01-01

123

Rational design of chemical ligands for selective mitochondrial targeting.  

PubMed

The rational design of molecules with selective intracellular targeting is a great challenge for contemporary chemistry and life sciences. Here, we demonstrate a rational approach to development of compartment-specific fluorescent dyes from the ?-aryl substituted pentamethine family. These novel dyes exhibit an extraordinary affinity and selectivity for cardiolipin in inner mitochondrial membrane and possess excellent photostability, fluorescent properties, and low phototoxicity. Selective imaging of live and fixed mitochondria was achieved in various cell lines using nanomolar concentrations of these dyes. Their high localization specificity and low toxicity enables study of morphological changes, structural complexity, and dynamics of mitochondria playing a pivotal role in many pathological diseases. These far-red emitting dyes could also serve in a variety of biomedical applications. PMID:23961900

Rimpelová, Silvie; B?íza, Tomáš; Králová, Jarmila; Záruba, Kamil; Kejík, Zden?k; Císa?ová, Ivana; Martásek, Pavel; Ruml, Tomáš; Král, Vladimír

2013-09-18

124

Context-dependent sequential effects of target selection for action  

PubMed Central

Humans exhibit variation in behavior from moment to moment even when performing a simple, repetitive task. Errors are typically followed by cautious responses, minimizing subsequent distractor interference. However, less is known about how variation in the execution of an ultimately correct response affects subsequent behavior. We asked participants to reach toward a uniquely colored target presented among distractors and created two categories to describe participants' responses in correct trials based on analyses of movement trajectories; partial errors referred to trials in which observers initially selected a nontarget for action before redirecting the movement and accurately pointing to the target, and direct movements referred to trials in which the target was directly selected for action. We found that latency to initiate a hand movement was shorter in trials following partial errors compared to trials following direct movements. Furthermore, when the target and distractor colors were repeated, movement time and reach movement curvature toward distractors were greater following partial errors compared to direct movements. Finally, when the colors were repeated, partial errors were more frequent than direct movements following partial-error trials, and direct movements were more frequent following direct-movement trials. The dependence of these latter effects on repeated-task context indicates the involvement of higher-level cognitive mechanisms in an integrated attention-action system in which execution of a partial-error or direct-movement response affects memory representations that bias performance in subsequent trials. Altogether, these results demonstrate that whether a nontarget is selected for action or not has a measurable impact on subsequent behavior.

Moher, Jeff; Song, Joo-Hyun

2012-01-01

125

X-linked Angelman-like syndrome caused by Slc9a6 knockout in mice exhibits evidence of endosomal-lysosomal dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Mutations in solute carrier family 9 isoform 6 on chromosome Xq26.3 encoding sodium–hydrogen exchanger 6, a protein mainly expressed in early and recycling endosomes are known to cause a complex and slowly progressive degenerative human neurological disease. Three resulting phenotypes have so far been reported: an X-linked Angelman syndrome-like condition, Christianson syndrome and corticobasal degeneration with tau deposition, with each characterized by severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, autistic behaviour and ataxia. Hypothesizing that a sodium–hydrogen exchanger 6 deficiency would most likely disrupt the endosomal–lysosomal system of neurons, we examined Slc9a6 knockout mice with tissue staining and related techniques commonly used to study lysosomal storage disorders. As a result, we found that sodium–hydrogen exchanger 6 depletion leads to abnormal accumulation of GM2 ganglioside and unesterified cholesterol within late endosomes and lysosomes of neurons in selective brain regions, most notably the basolateral nuclei of the amygdala, the CA3 and CA4 regions and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and some areas of cerebral cortex. In these select neuronal populations, histochemical staining for ?-hexosaminidase activity, a lysosomal enzyme involved in the degradation of GM2 ganglioside, was undetectable. Neuroaxonal dystrophy similar to that observed in lysosomal disease was observed in the cerebellum and was accompanied by a marked and progressive loss of Purkinje cells, particularly in those lacking the expression of Zebrin II. On behavioural testing, Slc9a6 knockout mice displayed a discrete clinical phenotype attributable to motor hyperactivity and cerebellar dysfunction. Importantly, these findings show that sodium–hydrogen exchanger 6 loss of function in the Slc9a6-targeted mouse model leads to compromise of endosomal–lysosomal function similar to lysosomal disease and to conspicuous neuronal abnormalities in specific brain regions, which in concert could provide a unified explanation for the cellular and clinical phenotypes in humans with SLC9A6 mutations.

Str?mme, Petter; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Sillitoe, Roy V.; Gulinello, Maria; Ali, Nafeeza F.; Davidson, Cristin; Micsenyi, Matthew C.; Stephney, Gloria; Ellevog, Linda; Klungland, Arne

2011-01-01

126

Autophagy in lysosomal storage disorders  

PubMed Central

Lysosomes are ubiquitous intracellular organelles that have an acidic internal pH, and play crucial roles in cellular clearance. Numerous functions depend on normal lysosomes, including the turnover of cellular constituents, cholesterol homeostasis, downregulation of surface receptors, inactivation of pathogenic organisms, repair of the plasma membrane and bone remodeling. Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are characterized by progressive accumulation of undigested macromolecules within the cell due to lysosomal dysfunction. As a consequence, many tissues and organ systems are affected, including brain, viscera, bone and cartilage. The progressive nature of phenotype development is one of the hallmarks of LSDs. In recent years biochemical and cell biology studies of LSDs have revealed an ample spectrum of abnormalities in a variety of cellular functions. These include defects in signaling pathways, calcium homeostasis, lipid biosynthesis and degradation and intracellular trafficking. Lysosomes also play a fundamental role in the autophagic pathway by fusing with autophagosomes and digesting their content. Considering the highly integrated function of lysosomes and autophagosomes it was reasonable to expect that lysosomal storage in LSDs would have an impact upon autophagy. The goal of this review is to provide readers with an overview of recent findings that have been obtained through analysis of the autophagic pathway in several types of LSDs, supporting the idea that LSDs could be seen primarily as “autophagy disorders.”

Lieberman, Andrew P.; Puertollano, Rosa; Raben, Nina; Slaugenhaupt, Susan; Walkley, Steven U.; Ballabio, Andrea

2012-01-01

127

Targeting DC-SIGN via its neck region leads to prolonged antigen residence in early endosomes, delayed lysosomal degradation, and cross-presentation.  

PubMed

Targeting antigens to dendritic cell (DC)-specific receptors, such as DC-SIGN, induces potent T cell-mediated immune responses. DC-SIGN is a transmembrane C-type lectin receptor with a long extracellular neck region and a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Thus far, only antibodies binding the CRD have been used to target antigens to DC-SIGN. We evaluated the endocytic pathway triggered by antineck antibodies as well as their intracellular routing and ability to induce CD8(+) T-cell activation. In contrast to anti-CRD antibodies, antineck antibodies induced a clathrin-independent mode of DC-SIGN internalization, as demonstrated by the lack of colocalization with clathrin and the observation that silencing clathrin did not affect antibody internalization in human DCs. Interestingly, we observed that anti-neck and anti-CRD antibodies were differentially routed within DCs. Whereas anti-CRD antibodies were mainly routed to late endosomal compartments, anti-neck antibodies remained associated with early endosomal compartments positive for EEA-1 and MHC class I for up to 2 hours after internalization. Finally, cross-presentation of protein antigen conjugated to antineck antibodies was approximately 1000-fold more effective than nonconjugated antigen. Our studies demonstrate that anti-neck antibodies trigger a distinct mode of DC-SIGN internalization that shows potential for targeted vaccination strategies. PMID:21860028

Tacken, Paul J; Ginter, Wiebke; Berod, Luciana; Cruz, Luis J; Joosten, Ben; Sparwasser, Tim; Figdor, Carl G; Cambi, Alessandra

2011-10-13

128

THINK OUTSIDE THE COLOR BOX: PROBABILISTIC TARGET SELECTION AND THE SDSS-XDQSOQUASAR TARGETING CATALOG  

SciTech Connect

We present the SDSS-XDQSO quasar targeting catalog for efficient flux-based quasar target selection down to the faint limit of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) catalog, even at medium redshifts (2.5 {approx}< z {approx}< 3) where the stellar contamination is significant. We build models of the distributions of stars and quasars in flux space down to the flux limit by applying the extreme-deconvolution method to estimate the underlying density. We convolve this density with the flux uncertainties when evaluating the probability that an object is a quasar. This approach results in a targeting algorithm that is more principled, more efficient, and faster than other similar methods. We apply the algorithm to derive low-redshift (z < 2.2), medium-redshift (2.2 {le} z {le} 3.5), and high-redshift (z > 3.5) quasar probabilities for all 160,904,060 point sources with dereddened i-band magnitude between 17.75 and 22.45 mag in the 14,555 deg{sup 2} of imaging from SDSS Data Release 8. The catalog can be used to define a uniformly selected and efficient low- or medium-redshift quasar survey, such as that needed for the SDSS-III's Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey project. We show that the XDQSO technique performs as well as the current best photometric quasar-selection technique at low redshift, and outperforms all other flux-based methods for selecting the medium-redshift quasars of our primary interest. We make code to reproduce the XDQSO quasar target selection publicly available.

BOVY, J.; Sheldon, E.; Hennawi, J.F.; Hogg, D.W.; Myers, A.D.; et al.

2011-03-10

129

Lysosomal Storage Disease: Revealing Lysosomal Function and Physiology - Figure 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This figure is a timeline of discoveries in lysosomal storage disorders and their impact on cell biology, including endocytic processes and the subsequent development of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT).

Emma J. Parkinson-Lawrence (South Australian Pathology Services); Tetyana Shandala (South Australian Pathology Services); Mark Prodoehl (South Australian Pathology Services); Revecca Plew (South Australian Pathology Services); Glenn N. Borlace (South Australian Pathology Services); Doug A. Brooks (South Australian Pathology Services)

2010-04-01

130

Target selection and the superior colliculus: goals, choices and hypotheses.  

PubMed

The intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus (SC) compose a retinotopically organized motor map and are known to be important for the control of saccadic eye movements. However, recent studies have shown that the functions of the SC are not restricted to the motor control of saccades. The pattern of activity observed during multi-saccade movements, combined eye-head movements, and pursuit eye movements argue that activity in the SC indicates the location of the goal, but does not specify the particular movements that will be used to acquire the goal. Prior to the onset of a movement, the SC is involved in representing possible targets, as has been shown by the effects of manipulating target probability and the changes in pre-motor activity found during visual search tasks. A major unresolved issue is how target-related activity in the SC is transformed into the signal that triggers the movement. One possibility is that the levels of activity across the SC motor map correspond to the likelihood of the possible targets, and that the movement decision is based on the neural equivalent of hypothesis testing. In one version of this mechanism, the decision to select a new goal would occur each time the null hypothesis, represented by neurons in the rostral SC, was rejected in favor of an alternative represented elsewhere in the SC. PMID:15066403

Krauzlis, Richard J; Liston, Dorion; Carello, Christopher D

2004-06-01

131

Glucosamine-Bound Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probes with Lysosomal Specificity for Breast Tumor Imaging1  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive imaging of lysosomes will be useful 1) to elucidate the role of lysosomal parameters in cancer, 2) to diagnose malignant lesions, and 3) to evaluate future lysosome-targeted anticancer therapies. Lysosome-specific labeling of glucosamine-bound near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes, IR-1 and IR-2, but not control probe IR-15 without the glucosamine moiety, was observed by fluorescence microscopy in human breast epithelial cell lines. Lysosome labeling and tumor specificity of these NIR probes were investigated by dynamic optical imaging and immunofluorescence staining in human breast tumor xenografts. IR-1 and IR-2 demonstrated faster lysosome labeling rates in highly aggressive MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells compared with less aggressive MCF-7 and nontumorigenic MCF-12A cells. IR-1 and IR-2, but not IR-15, accumulated in human MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, and MCF-7 breast tumor xenografts in vivo. IR-2 demonstrated the highest maximum fluorescence and tumor/normal tissue ratios in all tumor models. Specific lysosome labeling from IR-2 in vivo was validated by colocalization of the NIR fluorescence with CD63 immunofluorescence in tumor sections. IR-1 and IR-2 demonstrated high lysosome-labeling ability and breast tumor-targeting specificity in vitro and in vivo. They are promising for diagnosing malignant lesions and may provide a means for evaluating and monitoring future lysosome-targeted anticancer therapies.

Li, Cong; Greenwood, Tiffany R; Glunde, Kristine

2008-01-01

132

Target Search and Selection for the DI/EPOXI Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upon completion of the Hartley 2 flyby in November 2010, the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft resided in a solar orbit without possibility for gravity assist with any large body. Conservative estimates of remaining fuel were enough to provide only an 18 m/s impulse on the spacecraft. We present our method and results of our systematic scan of potential small body encounters for DI, and our criteria to narrow the selection to the asteroid 2002 GT as the target flyby body. The mission profile has two deterministic maneuvers to achieve the encounter, the first of which executed on November 25, 2011.

Grebow, Daniel J.; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Chesley, Steven R.

2012-01-01

133

Lysosomes and autophagy in cell death control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysosomal hydrolases participate in the digestion of endocytosed and autophagocytosed material inside the lysosomal\\/autolysosomal compartment in acute cell death when released into the cytosol and in cancer progression following their release into the extracellular space. Lysosomal alterations are common in cancer cells. The increased expression and altered trafficking of lysosomal enzymes participates in tissue invasion, angiogenesis and sensitization to the

Guido Kroemer; Marja Jäättelä

2005-01-01

134

Sphingolipids and lysosomal pathologies.  

PubMed

Endocytosed (glyco)sphingolipids are degraded, together with other membrane lipids in a stepwise fashion by endolysosomal enzymes with the help of small lipid binding proteins, the sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs), at the surface of intraluminal lysosomal vesicles. Inherited defects in a sphingolipid-degrading enzyme or SAP cause the accumulation of the corresponding lipid substrates, including cytotoxic lysosphingolipids, such as galactosylsphingosine and glucosylsphingosine, and lead to a sphingolipidosis. Analysis of patients with prosaposin deficiency revealed the accumulation of intra-endolysosmal vesicles and membrane structures (IM). Feeding of prosaposin reverses the storage, suggesting inner membrane structures as platforms of sphingolipid degradation. Water soluble enzymes can hardly attack sphingolipids embedded in the membrane of inner endolysosomal vesicles. The degradation of sphingolipids with few sugar residues therefore requires the help of the SAPs, and is strongly stimulated by anionic membrane lipids. IMs are rich in anionic bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled New Frontiers in Sphingolipid Biology. PMID:24184515

Schulze, Heike; Sandhoff, Konrad

2014-05-01

135

Purification and immunological quantification of rat liver lysosomal glycosidases.  

PubMed Central

Although lysosomal enzyme activities are known to vary in response to numerous physiological and pharmacological stimuli, the relationship between lysosomal enzyme activity and enzyme concentration has not been systematically studied. Therefore we developed radioimmunoassays for two lysosomal glycosidases in order to determine lysosomal enzyme concentration. beta-Galactosidase and beta-glucuronidase were purified from rat liver 2780-fold and 1280-fold respectively, by using differential centrifugation, affinity chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and molecular-sieve chromatography. Polyclonal antibodies to these enzymes were raised in rabbits, and two radioimmunoassays were established. Antibody specificity was shown by: (i) selective immunoprecipitation of enzyme activity; (ii) identical bands of purified enzyme on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis; (iii) single immunoreactive peaks in molecular-sieve chromatography experiments. Sensitivities of the assays were such that 15 ng of beta-galactosidase and 45 ng of beta-glucuronidase decreased the ratio of bound to free radiolabel by 50%; minimal detectable amounts of immunoreactive enzymes were 2 ng and 10 ng respectively. The assays were initially used to assess the effects of physiological perturbations (i.e. fasting and age) on enzyme concentrations in rat liver; these experiments showed that changes in enzyme concentrations do not always correlate with changes in enzyme activities. This represents the first report of radioimmunoassays for lysosomal glycosidases. The results suggest that these radioimmunoassays provide useful technology for the study of regulatory control mechanisms of the concentrations of lysosomal glycosidases in mammalian tissues. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3.

de Groen, P C; LeSage, G D; Tietz, P S; LaRusso, N F

1989-01-01

136

Disruption of chaperone-mediated autophagy-dependent degradation of MEF2A by oxidative stress-induced lysosome destabilization.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress has been implicated in both normal aging and various neurodegenerative disorders and it may be a major cause of neuronal death. Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) targets selective cytoplasmic proteins for degradation by lysosomes and protects neurons against various extracellular stimuli including oxidative stress. MEF2A (myocyte enhancer factor 2A), a key transcription factor, protects primary neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell damage. However, the precise mechanisms of how the protein stability and the transcriptional activity of MEF2A are regulated under oxidative stress remain unknown. In this study, we report that MEF2A is physiologically degraded through the CMA pathway. In pathological conditions, mild oxidative stress (200 ?M H 2O 2) enhances the degradation of MEF2A as well as its activity, whereas excessive oxidative stress (> 400 ?M H 2O 2) disrupts its degradation process and leads to the accumulation of nonfunctional MEF2A. Under excessive oxidative stress, an N-terminal HDAC4 (histone deacetylase 4) cleavage product (HDAC4-NT), is significantly induced by lysosomal serine proteases released from ruptured lysosomes in a PRKACA (protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, ?)-independent manner. The production of HDAC4-NT, as a MEF2 repressor, may account for the reduced DNA-binding and transcriptional activity of MEF2A. Our work provides reliable evidence for the first time that MEF2A is targeted to lysosomes for CMA degradation; oxidative stress-induced lysosome destabilization leads to the disruption of MEF2A degradation as well as the dysregulation of its function. These findings may shed light on the underlying mechanisms of pathogenic processes of neuronal damage in various neurodegenerative-related diseases. PMID:24879151

Zhang, Li; Sun, Yang; Fei, Mingjian; Tan, Cheng; Wu, Jing; Zheng, Jie; Tang, Jiqing; Sun, Wei; Lv, Zhaoliang; Bao, Jiandong; Xu, Qiang; Yu, Huixin

2014-06-01

137

STUDIES ON LYSOSOMES  

PubMed Central

Pure suspensions of human lymphocytes were separated from peripheral blood by means of nylon wool, homogenized in 0.34 M sucrose-0.01 M EDTA solution, and fractionated by differential centrifugation. The bulk of acid hydrolase activity was found to be concentrated in a 20,000 g x 20 min granular fraction, whereas nuclear, debris, and supernatant fractions contained lesser concentrations of hydrolases. Acid hydrolase activity present in the granular fraction showed appropriate "latency" as judged by its dose-dependent release into the 20,000 g x 20 min supernatant after exposure to membrane-disruptive agents such as streptolysin S, filipin, and lysolecithin. Heparin proved to be necessary in the suspending medium so that reproducible homogenization and cell fractionation could be obtained. Even excessive contamination of lymphocyte suspensions with platelets did not appreciably alter the acid hydrolase activity of lymphocyte homogenates or the distribution of enzymes in subcellular fractions. Discontinuous density-gradient centrifugation of a 500 g x 10 min supernatant, containing both acid hydrolase-rich organelles and mitochondria, resulted in partial resolution of hydrolase-rich organelles from mitochondria. Fine structural studies of the intact lymphocytes showed the presence of acid phosphatase-positive, membrane-bounded organelles. Electron microscopy of the "large granule" (20,000 g x 20 min) fraction of such lymphocytes demonstrated 80–90% mitochondria, 5–10% platelets, and 5–10% membrane-bounded acid phosphatase-positive structures. The data indicate the presence in human peripheral blood lymphocytes of acid hydrolase-rich granules which possess many of the biochemical and structural characteristics of lysosomes in other tissues.

Brittinger, Gunter; Hirschhorn, Rochelle; Douglas, Steven D.; Weissmann, Gerald

1968-01-01

138

Genetic algorithm based feature selection for target detection in SAR images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic algorithm (GA) approach is presented to select a set of features to discriminate the targets from the natural clutter false alarms in SAR images. Four stages of an automatic target detection system are developed: the rough target detection, feature extraction from the potential target regions, GA based feature selection and the final Bayesian classification. A new fitness function

Bir Bhanu; Yingqiang Lin

2003-01-01

139

The nutrient-responsive transcription factor TFE3 promotes autophagy, lysosomal biogenesis, and clearance of cellular debris.  

PubMed

The discovery of a gene network regulating lysosomal biogenesis and its transcriptional regulator transcription factor EB (TFEB) revealed that cells monitor lysosomal function and respond to degradation requirements and environmental cues. We report the identification of transcription factor E3 (TFE3) as another regulator of lysosomal homeostasis that induced expression of genes encoding proteins involved in autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis in ARPE-19 cells in response to starvation and lysosomal stress. We found that in nutrient-replete cells, TFE3 was recruited to lysosomes through interaction with active Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) and exhibited mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent phosphorylation. Phosphorylated TFE3 was retained in the cytosol through its interaction with the cytosolic chaperone 14-3-3. After starvation, TFE3 rapidly translocated to the nucleus and bound to the CLEAR elements present in the promoter region of many lysosomal genes, thereby inducing lysosomal biogenesis. Depletion of endogenous TFE3 entirely abolished the response of ARPE-19 cells to starvation, suggesting that TFE3 plays a critical role in nutrient sensing and regulation of energy metabolism. Furthermore, overexpression of TFE3 triggered lysosomal exocytosis and resulted in efficient cellular clearance in a cellular model of a lysosomal storage disorder, Pompe disease, thus identifying TFE3 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of lysosomal disorders. PMID:24448649

Martina, José A; Diab, Heba I; Lishu, Li; Jeong-A, Lim; Patange, Simona; Raben, Nina; Puertollano, Rosa

2014-01-21

140

Selecting appropriate test targets for portal weapons detection  

SciTech Connect

Adjusting a portal metal detector for weapons detection must be performed with great care. Set the sensitivity too high and the false rejection rate for personnel passing through the portal will slow traffic to everyone's annoyance. Set the sensitivity too low and run the risk that the machine will allow some of today's small handguns to pass with impunity. Because many of the modern handguns are so small the difference between a sensitivity setting that is too high and one that is too low is quite small. In order to find that fine line between too much sensitivity and too little, a set of test targets must be selected that represent the widest possible spectrum of weapons. The test set must not only be representative of small guns but also reflect the wide variety of metals that are used to manufacture today's weapons.

Murray, D.W.

1990-01-01

141

Selection and mass spectrometry characterization of peptides targeting semiconductor surfaces.  

PubMed

We report on elaboration of 12-mer peptides that reveal specific recognition for the following semiconductor (SC) surfaces: GaAs(100), InAs(100), GaN(0001), ZnSe(100), ZnTe(100), GaAs(111)A, GaSb(100), CdSe(100). A M13 bacteriophage library was used to screen 10(9) different 12-mer peptides against these substrates to finally isolate, in maximum six amplification cycles, peptides that bind to the target surfaces. The specific peptides for the InAs and ZnSe surfaces were obtained. Contrary, for the other SC surfaces several peptides with high affinities have been isolated. Aiming for a better specificity, when the phage display has been conducted through six cycles, the screening procedure got dominated by a phage present in the M13 bacteriophage library and the SVSVGMKPSPRP peptide has been selected for different SCs. The high amplification potential of this phage has been observed previously with different targets. Thus, precaution should be undertaken in defining adhesion peptides with the phage display technique and real affinity of the obtained biolinkers should be studied with other methods. We employed mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) to demonstrate the preferential attachment (or not) of the SVSVGMKPSPRP peptide to the different SC surfaces. This allows us to define a realistic selection of the expressed peptides presenting affinity for the studied eight SC surfaces. We demonstrate that with increasing the dielectric constants of the employed solvents, adhesion of the SVSVGMKPSPRP peptide onto GaN(0001) is hindered. PMID:19634182

Estephan, Elias; Larroque, Christian; Bec, Nicole; Martineau, Pierre; Cuisinier, Frédéric J G; Cloitre, Thierry; Gergely, Csilla

2009-12-15

142

Motor neuron target selectivity and survival after prolonged axotomy  

PubMed Central

Purpose After a cut peripheral nerve is repaired, motor neurons usually regenerate across the lesion site, however they often enter an inappropriate Schwann cell tube and may be directed to an inappropriate target organ such as skin, resulting in continued loss of function. In fact, only about 10% of adults who receive a peripheral nerve repair display full functional recovery. The reasons for this are many and complex, however one aspect is whether the motor neuron has undergone a prolonged period of axotomy prior to nerve repair. Previous studies have suggested a deleterious effect of prolonged axotomy. Methods We examined the influence of prolonged axotomy on target selectivity using a cross-reinnervation model of rat obturator motor neurons regrowing into the distal femoral nerve, with its normal bifurcating pathways to muscle and skin. Results Surprisingly, we found that a prolonged period of axotomy resulted in an increase in motor neuron regeneration accuracy. In addition, we found that regeneration accuracy could be increased even further by a simple surgical manipulation of the distal terminal nerve pathway to skin. Conclusions These results suggest that under certain conditions prolonged axotomy may not be detrimental to the final accuracy of motor neuron regeneration and highlight that a simple manipulation of terminal nerve pathways may be one approach to increase such regeneration accuracy.

Robinson, Grant A.; Madison, Roger D.

2013-01-01

143

Selective Targeting of TGF-? Activation to Treat Fibroinflammatory Airway Disease.  

PubMed

Airway remodeling, caused by inflammation and fibrosis, is a major component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and currently has no effective treatment. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) has been widely implicated in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling in COPD. TGF-? is expressed in a latent form that requires activation. The integrin ?v?8 (encoded by the itgb8 gene) is a receptor for latent TGF-? and is essential for its activation. Expression of integrin ?v?8 is increased in airway fibroblasts in COPD and thus is an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of airway remodeling in COPD. We demonstrate that an engineered optimized antibody to human ?v?8 (B5) inhibited TGF-? activation in transgenic mice expressing only human and not mouse ITGB8. The B5 engineered antibody blocked fibroinflammatory responses induced by tobacco smoke, cytokines, and allergens by inhibiting TGF-? activation. To clarify the mechanism of action of B5, we used hydrodynamic, mutational, and electron microscopic methods to demonstrate that ?v?8 predominantly adopts a constitutively active, extended-closed headpiece conformation. Epitope mapping and functional characterization of B5 revealed an allosteric mechanism of action due to locking-in of a low-affinity ?v?8 conformation. Collectively, these data demonstrate a new model for integrin function and present a strategy to selectively target the TGF-? pathway to treat fibroinflammatory airway diseases. PMID:24944194

Minagawa, Shunsuke; Lou, Jianlong; Seed, Robert I; Cormier, Anthony; Wu, Shenping; Cheng, Yifan; Murray, Lynne; Tsui, Ping; Connor, Jane; Herbst, Ronald; Govaerts, Cedric; Barker, Tyren; Cambier, Stephanie; Yanagisawa, Haruhiko; Goodsell, Amanda; Hashimoto, Mitsuo; Brand, Oliver J; Cheng, Ran; Ma, Royce; McKnelly, Kate J; Wen, Weihua; Hill, Arthur; Jablons, David; Wolters, Paul; Kitamura, Hideya; Araya, Jun; Barczak, Andrea J; Erle, David J; Reichardt, Louis F; Marks, James D; Baron, Jody L; Nishimura, Stephen L

2014-06-18

144

Selective Cell Targeting with Light-Absorbing Microparticles and Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

We describe a new method for selective cell targeting based on the use of light-absorbing microparticles and nanoparticles that are heated by short laser pulses to create highly localized cell damage. The method is closely related to chromophore-assisted laser inactivation and photodynamic therapy, but is driven solely by light absorption, without the need for photochemical intermediates (particularly singlet oxygen). The mechanism of light-particle interaction was investigated by nanosecond time-resolved microscopy and by thermal modeling. The extent of light-induced damage was investigated by cell lethality, by cell membrane permeability, and by protein inactivation. Strong particle size dependence was found for these interactions. A technique based on light to target endogenous particles is already being exploited to treat pigmented cells in dermatology and ophthalmology. With exogenous particles, phamacokinetics and biodistribution studies are needed before the method can be evaluated against photodynamic therapy for cancer treatment. However, particles are unique, unlike photosensitizers, in that they can remain stable and inert in cells for extended periods. Thus they may be particularly useful for prelabeling cells in engineered tissue before implantation. Subsequent irradiation with laser pulses will allow control of the implanted cells (inactivation or modulation) in a noninvasive manner.

Pitsillides, Costas M.; Joe, Edwin K.; Wei, Xunbin; Anderson, R. Rox; Lin, Charles P.

2003-01-01

145

Deciphering the Code for Retroviral Integration Target Site Selection  

PubMed Central

Upon cell invasion, retroviruses generate a DNA copy of their RNA genome and integrate retroviral cDNA within host chromosomal DNA. Integration occurs throughout the host cell genome, but target site selection is not random. Each subgroup of retrovirus is distinguished from the others by attraction to particular features on chromosomes. Despite extensive efforts to identify host factors that interact with retrovirion components or chromosome features predictive of integration, little is known about how integration sites are selected. We attempted to identify markers predictive of retroviral integration by exploiting Precision-Recall methods for extracting information from highly skewed datasets to derive robust and discriminating measures of association. ChIPSeq datasets for more than 60 factors were compared with 14 retroviral integration datasets. When compared with MLV, PERV or XMRV integration sites, strong association was observed with STAT1, acetylation of H3 and H4 at several positions, and methylation of H2AZ, H3K4, and K9. By combining peaks from ChIPSeq datasets, a supermarker was identified that localized within 2 kB of 75% of MLV proviruses and detected differences in integration preferences among different cell types. The supermarker predicted the likelihood of integration within specific chromosomal regions in a cell-type specific manner, yielding probabilities for integration into proto-oncogene LMO2 identical to experimentally determined values. The supermarker thus identifies chromosomal features highly favored for retroviral integration, provides clues to the mechanism by which retrovirus integration sites are selected, and offers a tool for predicting cell-type specific proto-oncogene activation by retroviruses.

Santoni, Federico Andrea; Hartley, Oliver; Luban, Jeremy

2010-01-01

146

Theoretical consideration of selective enrichment in in vitro selection: optimal concentration of target molecules.  

PubMed

We considered an in vitro selection system composed of a peptide-ligand library and a single target protein receptor, and examined effective strategies to realize maximum efficiency in selection. In the system, a ligand molecule with sequence s binds to a target receptor with probability of [R]/(K(ds)+[R]) (specific binding) or binds to non-target materials with probability of q (non-specific binding), where [R] and K(ds) represent the free target-receptor concentration at equilibrium and dissociation constant K(d) of the ligand sequence s with the receptor, respectively. Focusing on the fittest sequence with the highest affinity (represented by K(d1) ? min{K(ds)|s=1,2,…,M}) in the ligand library with a library size N and diversity M, we examined how the target concentration [R] should be set in each round to realize the maximum enrichment of the fittest sequence. In conclusion, when N > M (that realizes a deterministic process), it is desirable to adopt [R]=K(d1), and when N=M (that realizes a stochastic process), [R]=[Formula in text] only in the first round (where * represents the population average) and [R]=K(d1) in the subsequent rounds. Based on this strategy, the mole fraction of the fittest increases by (2q)(-r) times after the rth round. With realistic parameters, we calculated several quantities such as the optimal [R] values and number of rounds needed. These values were quite reasonable and consistent with observations, suggesting the validity of our theory. PMID:22884878

Aita, Takuyo; Nishigaki, Koichi; Husimi, Yuzuru

2012-12-01

147

Reporter assay for endo/lysosomal escape of toxin-based therapeutics.  

PubMed

Protein-based therapeutics with cytosolic targets are capable of exhibiting their therapeutic effect once they have escaped from the endosomes or lysosomes. In this study, the reporters-horseradish peroxidase (HRP), Alexa Fluor 488 (Alexa) and ricin A-chain (RTA)-were investigated for their capacity to monitor the endo/lysosomal escape of the ribosome-inactivating protein, saporin. The conjugates-saporin-HRP, (Alexa)saporin and saporin-KQ-RTA-were constructed, and the endo/lysosomal escape of these conjugates alone (lack of endo/lysosomal release) or in combination with certain structurally-specific triterpenoidal saponins (efficient endo/lysosomal escape) was characterized. HRP failed in reporting the endo/lysosomal escape of saporin. Contrastingly, Alexa Fluor 488 successfully allowed the report of the process at a toxin concentration of 1000 nM. In addition, single endo/lysosome analysis facilitated the determination of the amount of (Alexa)saporin released from each vesicle. RTA was also successful in reporting the endo/lysosomal escape of the enzymatically inactive mutant, saporin-KQ, but in this case, the sensitivity of the method reached a toxin concentration of 10 nM. In conclusion, the simultaneous usage of Alexa Fluor 488 and RTA as reporters may provide the possibility of monitoring the endo/lysosomal escape of protein-based therapeutics in the concentration range of 10-1000 nM. PMID:24859158

Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Thakur, Mayank; von Mallinckrodt, Benedicta; Bhargava, Cheenu; Wiesner, Burkhard; Eichhorst, Jenny; Melzig, Matthias F; Fuchs, Hendrik; Weng, Alexander

2014-05-01

148

Reporter Assay for Endo/Lysosomal Escape of Toxin-Based Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Protein-based therapeutics with cytosolic targets are capable of exhibiting their therapeutic effect once they have escaped from the endosomes or lysosomes. In this study, the reporters—horseradish peroxidase (HRP), Alexa Fluor 488 (Alexa) and ricin A-chain (RTA)—were investigated for their capacity to monitor the endo/lysosomal escape of the ribosome-inactivating protein, saporin. The conjugates—saporin-HRP, Alexasaporin and saporin-KQ-RTA—were constructed, and the endo/lysosomal escape of these conjugates alone (lack of endo/lysosomal release) or in combination with certain structurally-specific triterpenoidal saponins (efficient endo/lysosomal escape) was characterized. HRP failed in reporting the endo/lysosomal escape of saporin. Contrastingly, Alexa Fluor 488 successfully allowed the report of the process at a toxin concentration of 1000 nM. In addition, single endo/lysosome analysis facilitated the determination of the amount of Alexasaporin released from each vesicle. RTA was also successful in reporting the endo/lysosomal escape of the enzymatically inactive mutant, saporin-KQ, but in this case, the sensitivity of the method reached a toxin concentration of 10 nM. In conclusion, the simultaneous usage of Alexa Fluor 488 and RTA as reporters may provide the possibility of monitoring the endo/lysosomal escape of protein-based therapeutics in the concentration range of 10–1000 nM.

Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Thakur, Mayank; von Mallinckrodt, Benedicta; Bhargava, Cheenu; Wiesner, Burkhard; Eichhorst, Jenny; Melzig, Matthias F.; Fuchs, Hendrik; Weng, Alexander

2014-01-01

149

Lysosomal degradation of membrane lipids.  

PubMed

The constitutive degradation of membrane components takes place in the acidic compartments of a cell, the endosomes and lysosomes. Sites of lipid degradation are intralysosomal membranes that are formed in endosomes, where the lipid composition is adjusted for degradation. Cholesterol is sorted out of the inner membranes, their content in bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate increases, and, most likely, sphingomyelin is degraded to ceramide. Together with endosomal and lysosomal lipid-binding proteins, the Niemann-Pick disease, type C2-protein, the GM2-activator, and the saposins sap-A, -B, -C, and -D, a suitable membrane lipid composition is required for degradation of complex lipids by hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:19836391

Kolter, Thomas; Sandhoff, Konrad

2010-05-01

150

Neuronal lysosomal enzyme replacement using fragment C of tetanus toxin.  

PubMed Central

Development of a strategy for efficient delivery of exogenous enzyme to neuronal lysosomes is essential to achieve enzyme replacement in neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases. We tested whether effective lysosomal targeting of the human enzyme beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase A (Hex A; beta-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminide N-acetylhexosaminohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.52) can be obtained by coupling it via disulfide linkage to the atoxic fragment C of tetanus toxin (TTC) that is bound avidly by neuronal membrane. TTC-Hex A conjugation resulted in neuronal surface binding and enhanced endocytosis of enzyme as observed in immunofluorescence studies with rat brain cultures. In immunoelectrophoretic quantitative uptake studies, rat neuronal cell cultures contained 16- and 40-fold greater amounts of enzyme after incubation with TTC-Hex A than with nonderivatized Hex A. In cerebral cortex cell cultures from a feline model of human GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases), binding and uptake patterns of the enzymes were similar to those in the rat brain cell cultures. After exposure to extracellular concentrations of enzyme attainable in vivo, lysosomal storage of immunodetectable GM2 ganglioside was virtually eliminated in neurons exposed to TTC-Hex A, whereas a minimal effect was observed with Hex A. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of TTC adducts for effective neuronal lysosomal enzyme replacement. Images

Dobrenis, K; Joseph, A; Rattazzi, M C

1992-01-01

151

Lysosome-mediated processing of chromatin in senescence  

PubMed Central

Cellular senescence is a stable proliferation arrest, a potent tumor suppressor mechanism, and a likely contributor to tissue aging. Cellular senescence involves extensive cellular remodeling, including of chromatin structure. Autophagy and lysosomes are important for recycling of cellular constituents and cell remodeling. Here we show that an autophagy/lysosomal pathway processes chromatin in senescent cells. In senescent cells, lamin A/C–negative, but strongly ?-H2AX–positive and H3K27me3-positive, cytoplasmic chromatin fragments (CCFs) budded off nuclei, and this was associated with lamin B1 down-regulation and the loss of nuclear envelope integrity. In the cytoplasm, CCFs were targeted by the autophagy machinery. Senescent cells exhibited markers of lysosomal-mediated proteolytic processing of histones and were progressively depleted of total histone content in a lysosome-dependent manner. In vivo, depletion of histones correlated with nevus maturation, an established histopathologic parameter associated with proliferation arrest and clinical benignancy. We conclude that senescent cells process their chromatin via an autophagy/lysosomal pathway and that this might contribute to stability of senescence and tumor suppression.

Ivanov, Andre; Pawlikowski, Jeff; Manoharan, Indrani; van Tuyn, John; Nelson, David M.; Rai, Taranjit Singh; Shah, Parisha P.; Hewitt, Graeme; Korolchuk, Viktor I.; Passos, Joao F.; Wu, Hong; Berger, Shelley L.

2013-01-01

152

BACE2 degradation mediated by the macroautophagy-lysosome pathway.  

PubMed

Neuritic plaque is the pathological hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid-? protein (A?), the central component of neuritic plaques, is generated from amyloid-? precursor protein (APP) by ?-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and ?-secretase. ?-site APP cleaving enzyme 2 (BACE2), a homolog of BACE1, functions differently from BACE1 in APP processing. BACE1 is the ?-secretase essential for A? production, and BACE2, a ?-secretase, cleaves APP within the A? domain, preventing A? production. Elucidation of the mechanism underlying BACE2 degradation is important for defining its biological features and its potential role in Alzheimer's disease drug development. In this report we first showed that the half-life of BACE2 is approximately 20 h. Lysosomal inhibition increased BACE2 protein levels whereas proteasomal inhibition had no effect on BACE2 protein expression. Furthermore, we identified that macroautophagy mediated BACE2 degradation. Finally, we showed that lysosomal inhibition increased BACE2 cleavage of APP. Taken together, our in vitro study showed that BACE2 is degraded through the macrophagy-lysosome pathway and that lysosomal inhibition affects BACE2 processing of APP. Modulation of BACE2 degradation via the lysosomal pathway could be a new target for AD drug development. PMID:23773066

Liu, Xi; Wang, Zhe; Wu, Yili; Wang, Jianping; Song, Weihong

2013-06-01

153

Neuronal lysosomal enzyme replacement using fragment C of tetanus toxin.  

PubMed

Development of a strategy for efficient delivery of exogenous enzyme to neuronal lysosomes is essential to achieve enzyme replacement in neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases. We tested whether effective lysosomal targeting of the human enzyme beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase A (Hex A; beta-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminide N-acetylhexosaminohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.52) can be obtained by coupling it via disulfide linkage to the atoxic fragment C of tetanus toxin (TTC) that is bound avidly by neuronal membrane. TTC-Hex A conjugation resulted in neuronal surface binding and enhanced endocytosis of enzyme as observed in immunofluorescence studies with rat brain cultures. In immunoelectrophoretic quantitative uptake studies, rat neuronal cell cultures contained 16- and 40-fold greater amounts of enzyme after incubation with TTC-Hex A than with nonderivatized Hex A. In cerebral cortex cell cultures from a feline model of human GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases), binding and uptake patterns of the enzymes were similar to those in the rat brain cell cultures. After exposure to extracellular concentrations of enzyme attainable in vivo, lysosomal storage of immunodetectable GM2 ganglioside was virtually eliminated in neurons exposed to TTC-Hex A, whereas a minimal effect was observed with Hex A. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of TTC adducts for effective neuronal lysosomal enzyme replacement. PMID:1532255

Dobrenis, K; Joseph, A; Rattazzi, M C

1992-03-15

154

DNA Aptamers Selectively Target Leishmania infantum H2A Protein  

PubMed Central

Parasites of the genus Leishmania produce leishmaniasis which affects millions people around the world. Understanding the molecular characteristics of the parasite can increase the knowledge about the mechanisms underlying disease development and progression. Thus, the study of the molecular features of histones has been considered of particular interest because Leishmania does not condense the chromatin during mitosis and, consequently, a different role for these proteins in the biology of the parasite can be expected. Furthermore, the sequence divergences in the amino and in the carboxy-terminal domains of the kinetoplastid core histones convert them in potential diagnostic and/or therapeutics targets. Aptamers are oligonucleotide ligands that are selected in vitro by their affinity and specificity for the target as a consequence of the particular tertiary structure that they are able to acquire depending on their sequence. Development of high-affinity molecules with the ability to recognize specifically Leishmania histones is essential for the progress of this kind of study. Two aptamers which specifically recognize Leishmania infantum H2A histone were cloned from a previously obtained ssDNA enriched population. These aptamers were sequenced and subjected to an in silico analysis. ELONA, slot blot and Western blot were performed to establish aptamer affinity and specificity for LiH2A histone and ELONA assays using peptides corresponding to overlapped sequences of LiH2A were made mapping the aptamers:LiH2A interaction. As “proofs of concept”, aptamers were used to determine the number of parasites in an ELONA platform and to purify LiH2A from complex mixtures. The aptamers showed different secondary structures among them; however, both of them were able to recognize the same peptides located in a side of the protein. In addition, we demonstrate that these aptamers are useful for LiH2A identification and also may be of potential application as diagnostic system and as a laboratory tool with purification purpose.

Martin, M. Elena; Garcia-Hernandez, Marta; Garcia-Recio, Eva M.; Gomez-Chacon, Geronimo F.; Sanchez-Lopez, Marta; Gonzalez, Victor M.

2013-01-01

155

Nix is a selective autophagy receptor for mitochondrial clearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autophagy is the cellular homeostatic pathway that delivers large cytosolic materials for degradation in the lysosome. Recent evidence indicates that autophagy mediates selective removal of protein aggregates, organelles and microbes in cells. Yet, the specificity in targeting a particular substrate to the autophagy pathway remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the mitochondrial protein Nix is a selective autophagy receptor

Ivana Novak; Vladimir Kirkin; David G McEwan; Ji Zhang; Philipp Wild; Alexis Rozenknop; Vladimir Rogov; Frank Löhr; Doris Popovic; Angelo Occhipinti; Andreas S Reichert; Janos Terzic; Volker Dötsch; Paul A Ney; Ivan Dikic

2009-01-01

156

Rat-kidney lysosomes: isolation and properties  

PubMed Central

1. The activities of lysosomal enzymes in the cortexes and medullas and the principal subcellular fractions of rat kidney were measured. 2. A method is described for the isolation of rat-kidney lysosomes and a detailed analysis of the enzymic composition of the lysosomes is reported. Enzyme analysis of the other principal subcellular fractions is included for comparison. 3. Studies of the distribution of ?-glucosidase showed that the lysosomal fraction contained only 10% of the total enzyme activity. The microsomal fraction contained most of the particulate ?-glucosidase. Lysozyme was concentrated mainly in the lysosomal fraction with only small amounts present in the microsomal fraction. Lysosomal ?-glucosidase had optimum pH5 whereas the microsomal form had optimum pH6. Both lysosomal and microsomal lysozyme had optimum pH6·2. 4. The stability of lysosomal suspensions was studied. Incubation at 37° and pH7 resulted in first an increased availability of enzymes without parallel release of enzyme. This was followed by a second stage during which the availability of enzymes was closely related to the release of enzymes. These changes were closely paralleled by changes in light-scattering properties of lysosomes. 5. The latent nature of the ?-glucosidase and lysozyme of intact kidney lysosomes was demonstrated by their graded and parallel release with other typical lysosomal enzymes. 6. Isolated lysosomes were unstable at pH values lower than 5, most stable at pH6–7 and less stable at pH 8–9. Lysosomes were not disrupted when the osmolarity of the suspending medium was decreased from 0·6m to 0·25m. 7. The discussion compares the properties and composition of kidney lysosomes, liver lysosomes and the granules of macrophages. 8. The possible origin of the lysozyme in kidney lysosomes by reabsorption of the lysozyme in blood is discussed. ImagesFig. 2.

Shibko, S.; Tappel, A. L.

1965-01-01

157

M-CSF inhibition selectively targets pathological angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Antiangiogenic therapy for the treatment of cancer and other neovascular diseases is desired to be selective for pathological angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), a cytokine required for the differentiation of monocyte lineage cells, promotes the formation of high-density vessel networks in tumors and therefore possesses therapeutic potential as an M-CSF inhibitor. However, the physiological role of M-CSF in vascular and lymphatic development, as well as the precise mechanisms underlying the antiangiogenic effects of M-CSF inhibition, remains unclear. Moreover, therapeutic potential of M-CSF inhibition in other neovascular diseases has not yet been evaluated. We used osteopetrotic (op/op) mice to demonstrate that M-CSF deficiency reduces the abundance of LYVE-1+ and LYVE1? macrophages, resulting in defects in vascular and lymphatic development. In ischemic retinopathy, M-CSF was required for pathological neovascularization but was not required for the recovery of normal vasculature. In mouse osteosarcoma, M-CSF inhibition effectively suppressed tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, and it disorganized extracellular matrices. In contrast to VEGF blockade, interruption of M-CSF inhibition did not promote rapid vascular regrowth. Continuous M-CSF inhibition did not affect healthy vascular and lymphatic systems outside tumors. These results suggest that M-CSF–targeted therapy is an ideal strategy for treating ocular neovascular diseases and cancer.

Takubo, Keiyo; Shimizu, Takatsune; Ohno, Hiroaki; Kishi, Kazuo; Shibuya, Masabumi; Saya, Hideyuki; Suda, Toshio

2009-01-01

158

Lysosomal disorders associated with leukoencephalopathy.  

PubMed

Metachromatic leukodystrophy and Krabbe's disease are among the most widely recognized causes of leukodystrophy. However, white matter changes have been described in several other lysosomal storage disorders. These conditions are summarized and those associated with hypomyelination are reviewed in more detail. PMID:22422206

Renaud, Deborah L

2012-02-01

159

Immunochemistry of Lysosomal Storage Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lysosomal storage disorders are a group of genetic diseases, each with a broad spectrum of clinical presentation that ranges from attenuated to severe. The immunochemical analysis of patient samples is aimed at several key aspects of patient management, including early detection of the disorder, prediction of clinical severity, determining the most appropriate therapeutic regimen, and monitoring of patients on

Emma Parkinson-Lawrence; Maria Fuller; John J. Hopwood; Peter J. Meikle; Doug A. Brooks

2006-01-01

160

Identification and Validation of Mannose 6Phosphate Glycoproteins in Human Plasma Reveal a Wide Range of Lysosomal and Non-lysosomal Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid hydrolase activities are normally confined within the cell to the lysosome, a membrane-delimited cytoplasmic organelle primarily responsible for the degradation of macromolecules. However, lysosomal proteins are also present in human plasma, and a proportion of these retain mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P), a modification on N- linked glycans that is recognized by Man-6-P receptors (MPRs) that normally direct the targeting of

David E. Sleat; Yanhong Wang; Istvan Sohar; Henry Lackland; Yan Li; Hong Li; Haiyan Zheng; Peter Lobel

2006-01-01

161

EFFECTIVELY SELECTING A TARGET POPULATION FOR A FUTURE COMPARATIVE STUDY  

PubMed Central

When comparing a new treatment with a control in a randomized clinical study, the treatment effect is generally assessed by evaluating a summary measure over a specific study population. The success of the trial heavily depends on the choice of such a population. In this paper, we show a systematic, effective way to identify a promising population, for which the new treatment is expected to have a desired benefit, utilizing the data from a current study involving similar comparator treatments. Specifically, using the existing data, we first create a parametric scoring system as a function of multiple multiple baseline covariates to estimate subject-specific treatment differences. Based on this scoring system, we specify a desired level of treatment difference and obtain a subgroup of patients, defined as those whose estimated scores exceed this threshold. An empirically calibrated threshold-specific treatment difference curve across a range of score values is constructed. The subpopulation of patients satisfying any given level of treatment benefit can then be identified accordingly. To avoid bias due to overoptimism, we utilize a cross-training-evaluation method for implementing the above two-step procedure. We then show how to select the best scoring system among all competing models. Furthermore, for cases in which only a single pre-specified working model is involved, inference procedures are proposed for the average treatment difference over a range of score values using the entire data set, and are justified theoretically and numerically. Lastly, the proposals are illustrated with the data from two clinical trials in treating HIV and cardiovascular diseases. Note that if we are not interested in designing a new study for comparing similar treatments, the new procedure can also be quite useful for the management of future patients, so that treatment may be targeted towards those who would receive nontrivial benefits to compensate for the risk or cost of the new treatment.

Zhao, Lihui; Tian, Lu; Cai, Tianxi; Claggett, Brian; Wei, L. J.

2013-01-01

162

Autophagy negatively regulates cancer cell proliferation via selectively targeting VPRBP.  

PubMed

There have been multiple lines of evidence suggesting that autophagy selectively targets signalling proteins and regulates cancer cell signalling in addition to bulk clearance of long-lived proteins and organelles. Protein degradation through autophagy requires receptor protein LC3B to sequester the substrates into the autophagosome. In the present study, we screened LC3B (light-chain 3B)-binding partners and identified autophagic substrates in cancer cells. With lung cancer NCI-H1975 and oesophageal cancer KYSE30 cell lines as models, we found that VPRBP (viral protein R-binding protein) was a novel LC3B-binding protein through GST (glutathione transferase)-LC3B pull-down combined with LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem MS) methods. Co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that VPRBP-LC3/p62 were in the same protein complex as the two cell lines. Induction of autophagy led to a down-regulation of VPRPB, which could be rescued by the inhibition of autophagy degradation by BFA1 (bafilomycin A1) and by the disruption of autophagy through ATG5-knockdown. We also found that induction of autophagy promotes VPRBP-LC3/p62 interaction. Immunohistochemical examination of human NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) tissues showed that VPRBP was positively correlated with p62 and negatively correlated with LC3B. Moreover, p62 and VPRBP were associated with poor prognosis in lung ADC (adenocarcinoma) (p62, P=0.019; VPRBP, P=0.005). Patients with low expression of both p62 and VPRBP showed the best prognosis. PMID:22963397

Wang, Bo-Shi; Liu, Yi-Zhen; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yu; Hao, Jia-Jie; Yang, Hai; Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Zi-Qiang; Zhan, Qi-Min; Wang, Ming-Rong

2013-02-01

163

Radiation selective system for target range and imaging readout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical radiation is propagated through an attenuating medium to a target from which it is reflected and picked up by an echo receiver system to provide ranging and imaging data during one mode of operation. The optical radiation is transformed into acoustical pulse energy alternatively radiated to and reflected from the target in another mode of operation. The operational mode

Bruce Maccabee

1992-01-01

164

Targeting Schwann cells by nonlytic arenaviral infection selectively inhibits myelination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the arenavirus family, famous for their hemorrhagic syndromes, cause distinct neurological disorders; however, cellular and molecular targets as well as pathogenesis of peripheral nervous system disorders associated with these viruses are unknown. Using noncytolytic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, the prototype arenavirus, and pseudotyped Lassa fever virus, we showed that the Schwann cells, but not the neurons, were preferentially targeted

Anura Rambukkana; Stefan Kunz; Jenny Min; Kevin P. Campbell; Michael B. A. Oldstone

2003-01-01

165

Genome-level identification of targets of Hox protein Ultrabithorax in Drosophila: novel mechanisms for target selection  

PubMed Central

Hox proteins are transcription factors and key regulators of segmental identity along the anterior posterior axis across all bilaterian animals. Despite decades of research, the mechanisms by which Hox proteins select and regulate their targets remain elusive. We have carried out whole-genome ChIP-chip experiments to identify direct targets of Hox protein Ultrabithorax (Ubx) during haltere development in Drosophila. Direct targets identified include upstream regulators or cofactors of Ubx. Homothorax, a cofactor of Ubx during embryonic development, is one such target and is required for normal specification of haltere. Although Ubx bound sequences are conserved amongst various insect genomes, no consensus Ubx-specific motif was detected. Surprisingly, binding motifs for certain transcription factors that function either upstream or downstream to Ubx are enriched in these sequences suggesting complex regulatory loops governing Ubx function. Our data supports the hypothesis that specificity during Hox target selection is achieved by associating with other transcription factors.

Agrawal, Pavan; Habib, Farhat; Yelagandula, Ramesh; Shashidhara, L. S.

2011-01-01

166

Blood dolichol in lysosomal diseases.  

PubMed

Highly elevated serum total dolichol (free dolichol + dolichyl ester) concentrations have recently been found in two lysosomal storage diseases, aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) and mannosidosis. The present study demonstrates that the increase of serum dolichol in AGU patients is caused by an increase of serum free dolichol. In 15 patients the mean serum level of free dolichol (227 +/- 16 ng/mL) was 1.9 times higher (p < 0.001) than that in healthy controls (120 +/- 6 ng/mL), while the amounts of dolichol fatty acid esters were similar in the patients and controls (110 +/- 9 vs. 118 +/- 6 ng/mL). In contrast, 10 patients with neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (NCL) (three with infantile, four with juvenile, and three with variant late infantile NCL) had significantly (p < 0.01) lower mean serum levels of both free (79 +/- 5 ng/mL) and total (159 +/- 6 ng/mL) dolichol than age-adjusted healthy controls (free, 100 +/- 6 ng/mL; total, 206 +/- 14 ng/mL). Decreased blood dolichol has not been reported earlier for any other disease. We conclude that the increased serum free dolichol in AGU reflects disturbed lysosomal function and that the decreased free and esterified dolichols in NCLs speak against their presumed primary lysosomal nature. PMID:1449714

Jokelainen, K; Salmela, K S; Humaloja, K; Roine, R; Autio, S; Arvio, M; Järvelä, I; Nykänen, I; Palo, J; Salaspuro, M

1992-06-01

167

Target  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to an isolated target sequence. The target sequence is a splice variant of PDE5 called a PDE5a1, a component of which is presented as SEQ ID No 1. The identified target sequence of the present invention may be used to as a target to identify agents (such as modulators) useful in the prevention and/or treatment of a disease associated with scarring and/or fibrosis or to selectively identify smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts and myoepithelial cells in samples of normal and diseased tissue from individuals.

2004-09-21

168

Hepatitis B virus X protein inhibits autophagic degradation by impairing lysosomal maturation.  

PubMed

Deficiency in autophagy, a lysosome-dependent cell degradation pathway, has been associated with a variety of diseases especially cancer. Recently, the activation of autophagy by hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein, which is implicated in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), has been identified in hepatic cells. However, the underlying mechanism and the relevance of HBx-activated autophagy to the carcinogenesis caused by HBV remain elusive. Here, by transfection of HBV genomic DNA and HBx in hepatic and hepatoma cells, we showed that HBV- or HBx-induced autophagosome formation was accompanied by unchanged MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) activity and decreased degradation of LC3 and SQSTM1/p62, the typical autophagic cargo proteins. Further functional and morphological analysis indicated that HBx dramatically impaired lysosomal acidification leading to a drop in lysosomal degradative capacity and the accumulation of immature lysosomes possibly through interaction with V-ATPase affecting its lysosome targeting. Moreover, clinical specimen test showed increased SQSTM1 and immature lysosomal hydrolase CTSD (cathepsin D) in human liver tissues with chronic HBV infection and HBV-associated liver cancer. These data suggest that a repressive effect of HBx on lysosomal function is responsible for the inhibition of autophagic degradation, and this may be critical to the development of HBV-associated HCC. PMID:24401568

Liu, Bo; Fang, Mengdie; Hu, Ye; Huang, Baoshan; Li, Ning; Chang, Chunmei; Huang, Rui; Xu, Xiao; Yang, Zhenggang; Chen, Zhi; Liu, Wei

2014-03-01

169

Evaluating Gaze-Based Interface Tools to Facilitate Point-and-Select Tasks with Small Targets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gaze interaction affords hands-free control of computers. Pointing to and selecting small targets using gaze alone is difficult because of the limited accuracy of gaze pointing. This is the first experimental comparison of gaze-based interface tools for small-target (e.g. less than 12 x 12 pixels) point-and-select tasks. We conducted two…

Skovsgaard, Henrik; Mateo, Julio C.; Hansen, John Paulin

2011-01-01

170

Advanced feature selection methodology for automatic target recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates independent feature selection as used in neural networks for solving classification problems. Radial basis functions and wavelet transforms are used to preprocess the input data. A class of nonorthogonal classifiers is defined and their properties are investigated. It is demonstrated that nonorthogonal classifiers perform better than the orthogonal ones. Feature selection using mutual information is also investigated.

Dale E. Nelson; Janusz A. Starzyk

1997-01-01

171

Chelation of lysosomal iron protects against ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage and consequent apoptosis, mainly due to the production of hydroxyl radicals (HO•) that follows radiolytic splitting of water. However, superoxide (O2•-) and H2O2 also form and induce oxidative stress with resulting LMP (lysosomal membrane permeabilization) arising from iron-catalysed oxidative events. The latter will contribute significantly to radiation-induced cell death and its degree largely depends on the quantities of lysosomal redox-active iron present as a consequence of autophagy and endocytosis of iron-rich compounds. Therefore radiation sensitivity might be depressed by lysosome-targeted iron chelators. In the present study, we have shown that cells in culture are significantly protected from ionizing radiation damage if initially exposed to the lipophilic iron chelator SIH (salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone), and that this effect is based on SIH-dependent lysosomal stabilization against oxidative stress. According to its dose-response-modifying effect, SIH is a most powerful radioprotector and a promising candidate for clinical application, mainly to reduce the radiation sensitivity of normal tissue. We propose, as an example, that inhalation of SIH before each irradiation session by patients undergoing treatment for lung malignancies would protect normally aerated lung tissue against life-threatening pulmonary fibrosis, whereas the sensitivity of malignant lung tumours, which usually are non-aerated, will not be affected by inhaled SIH. PMID:20846118

Berndt, Carsten; Kurz, Tino; Selenius, Markus; Fernandes, Aristi P; Edgren, Margareta R; Brunk, Ulf T

2010-12-01

172

Brief overview of selected approaches in targeting pancreatic adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Introduction: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has the worst prognosis of any major malignancy, with 5-year survival painfully inadequate at under 5%. Investigators have struggled to target and exploit PDAC unique biology, failing to bring meaningful results from bench to bedside. Nonetheless, in recent years, several promising targets have emerged. Areas covered: This review will discuss novel drug approaches in development for use in PDAC. The authors examine the continued efforts to target Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRas), which have recently been successfully abated using novel small interfering RNA (siRNA) eluting devices. The authors also discuss other targets relevant to PDAC including those downstream of mutated KRas, such as MAPK kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Expert opinion: Although studies into novel biomarkers and advanced imaging have highlighted the potential new avenues toward discovering localized tumors earlier, the current therapeutic options highlight the fact that PDAC is a highly metastatic and chemoresistant cancer that often must be fought with virulent, systemic therapies. Several newer approaches, including siRNA targeting of mutated KRas and enzymatic depletion of hyaluronan with PEGylated hyaluronidase are particularly exciting given their early stage results. Further research should help in elucidating their potential impact as therapeutic options. PMID:24673265

Samore, Wesley R; Gondi, Christopher S

2014-06-01

173

Thiadiazole Carbamates: Potent Inhibitors of Lysosomal Acid Lipase and Potential Niemann-Pick Type C Disease Therapeuticsa  

PubMed Central

Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized at the cellular level by abnormal accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids in lysosomal storage organelles. Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) has been recently identified as a potential therapeutic target for NPC. LAL can be specifically inhibited by a variety of 3,4-disubstituted thiadiazole carbamates. An efficient synthesis of the C(3) oxygenated/C(4) aminated analogues has been developed that furnishes the products in high yields and high degrees of purity. Common intermediates can also be used for the synthesis of the C(3) carbon substituted derivatives. Herein we tested various thiadiazole carbamates, amides, esters, and ketones for inhibition of LAL. In addition, we tested a diverse selection of commercially available non-thiadiazole carbamates. Our studies show that, among the compounds examined herein, only thiadiazole carbamates are effective inhibitors of LAL. We present a mechanism for LAL inhibition by these compounds whereby LAL transiently carbamoylates the enzyme similarly to previously described inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by rivastigmine and other carbamates as well as acylation of various lipases by orlistat.

Rosenbaum, Anton I.; Cosner, Casey C.; Mariani, Christopher J.; Maxfield, Frederick R.; Wiest, Olaf; Helquist, Paul

2010-01-01

174

Genes Associated with SLE Are Targets of Recent Positive Selection  

PubMed Central

The reasons for the ethnic disparities in the prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the relative high frequency of SLE risk alleles in the population are not fully understood. Population genetic factors such as natural selection alter allele frequencies over generations and may help explain the persistence of such common risk variants in the population and the differential risk of SLE. In order to better understand the genetic basis of SLE that might be due to natural selection, a total of 74 genomic regions with compelling evidence for association with SLE were tested for evidence of recent positive selection in the HapMap and HGDP populations, using population differentiation, allele frequency, and haplotype-based tests. Consistent signs of positive selection across different studies and statistical methods were observed at several SLE-associated loci, including PTPN22, TNFSF4, TET3-DGUOK, TNIP1, UHRF1BP1, BLK, and ITGAM genes. This study is the first to evaluate and report that several SLE-associated regions show signs of positive natural selection. These results provide corroborating evidence in support of recent positive selection as one mechanism underlying the elevated population frequency of SLE risk loci and supports future research that integrates signals of natural selection to help identify functional SLE risk alleles.

Ramos, Paula S.; Shaftman, Stephanie R.; Ward, Ralph C.; Langefeld, Carl D.

2014-01-01

175

Immune system irregularities in lysosomal storage disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are genetically inherited diseases characterized by the accumulation of disease-specific\\u000a biological materials such as proteolipids or metabolic intermediates within the lysosome. The lysosomal compartment’s central\\u000a importance to normal cellular function can be appreciated by examining the various pathologies that arise in LSDs. These disorders\\u000a are invariably fatal, and many display profound neurological impairment that begins in

Julian A. Castaneda; Ming J. Lim; Jonathan D. Cooper; David A. Pearce

2008-01-01

176

Studies of lysosomal sialic acid metabolism: retention of sialic acid by Salla disease lysosomes.  

PubMed

Purified rat liver lysosomes were incubated in 0.2 M sialic acid resulting in an increase in lysosomal free sialic acid of 3.8 +/- 1.5 nmol/unit beta hexosaminidase. Sialic acid loss by these lysosomes was stimulated 2-3 fold by 25 mM sodium phosphate. Loss of sialic acid by lysosomes from cultured human diploid fibroblasts was similar to that observed in rat liver lysosomes while loss of sialic acid by lysosomes from cultured fibroblasts from a patient with infantile Salla disease occurred much more slowly. Salla disease appears to be the consequence of defective lysosomal transport of sialic acid and is analogous to cystinosis, a disorder of lysosomal amino acid transport. PMID:3718508

Jonas, A J

1986-05-29

177

Docosahexaenoic acid selectively inhibits plasma membrane targeting of lipidated proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane localization of lipidated cytosolic signaling proteins is mediated by interactions between specific lipid anchors and membranes, but little is known about the regulatory role of membrane composition in lipidated protein membrane targeting. Here, using green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeras and quantitative fluorescence microscopy in living mouse colonocytes, we show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)

Jeongmin Seo; Rola Barhoumi; Arthur E. Johnson; Joanne R. Lupton; Robert S. Chapkin

2006-01-01

178

A cation counterflux supports lysosomal acidification  

PubMed Central

The profound luminal acidification essential for the degradative function of lysosomes requires a counter-ion flux to dissipate an opposing voltage that would prohibit proton accumulation. It has generally been assumed that a parallel anion influx is the main or only counter-ion transport that enables acidification. Indeed, defective anion conductance has been suggested as the mechanism underlying attenuated lysosome acidification in cells deficient in CFTR or ClC-7. To assess the individual contribution of counter-ions to acidification, we devised means of reversibly and separately permeabilizing the plasma and lysosomal membranes to dialyze the cytosol and lysosome lumen in intact cells, while ratiometrically monitoring lysosomal pH. Replacement of cytosolic Cl? with impermeant anions did not significantly alter proton pumping, while the presence of permeant cations in the lysosomal lumen supported acidification. Accordingly, the lysosomes were found to acidify to the same pH in both CFTR- and ClC-7–deficient cells. We conclude that cations, in addition to chloride, can support lysosomal acidification and defects in lysosomal anion conductance cannot explain the impaired microbicidal capacity of CF phagocytes.

Steinberg, Benjamin E.; Huynh, Kassidy K.; Brodovitch, Alexandre; Jabs, Sabrina; Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

179

Regional Personalized Electrodes to Select Transcranial Current Stimulation Target  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Personalizing transcranial stimulations promises to enhance beneficial effects for individual patients. Objective: To stimulate specific cortical regions by developing a procedure to bend and position custom shaped electrodes; to probe the effects on cortical excitability produced when the properly customized electrode is targeting different cortical areas. Method: An ad hoc neuronavigation procedure was developed to accurately shape and place the personalized electrodes on the basis of individual brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) on bilateral primary motor (M1) and somatosensory (S1) cortices. The transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) protocol published by Feurra et al. (2011b) was used to test the effects on cortical excitability of the personalized electrode when targeting S1 or M1. Results: Neuronal excitability as evaluated by tACS was different when targeting M1 or S1, with the General Estimating Equation model indicating a clear tCS Effect (p?targeted by tCS properly shaping and positioning the stimulating electrode. Significance: Through multimodal brain investigations continuous efforts in understanding the neuronal changes related to specific neurological or psychiatric diseases become more relevant as our ability to build the compensating interventions improves. An important step forward on this path is the ability to target the specific cortical area of interest, as shown in the present pilot work.

Tecchio, Franca; Cancelli, A.; Cottone, C.; Tomasevic, L.; Devigus, B.; Zito, G.; Ercolani, Matilde; Carducci, F.

2013-01-01

180

Inhibitor screening of pharmacological chaperones for lysosomal ?-glucocerebrosidase by capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacological chaperones (PCs) represent a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of lysosomal storage disorders based\\u000a on enhanced stabilization and trafficking of mutant protein upon orthosteric and\\/or allosteric binding. Herein, we introduce\\u000a a simple yet reliable enzyme assay using capillary electrophoresis (CE) for inhibitor screening of PCs that target the lysosomal\\u000a enzyme, ?-glucocerebrosidase (GCase). The rate of GCase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the

Meera Shanmuganathan; Philip Britz-McKibbin

2011-01-01

181

The ELG target selection with the BOSS survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) feature in the power spectrum of galaxies can be used as a standard ruler to probe the accelerated expansion of the Universe. In this paper, we study several galaxy selection schemes aiming at building an emission-line galaxy (ELG) sample in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.7, that would be suitable for future BAO studies using the Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) spectrograph on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) telescope. We explore two different color selections using both the SDSS and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) photometry in the u, g, r, i bands and evaluate their performance for selecting bright ELG. This study confirms the feasibility of massive ELG surveys using the BOSS spectrographs on the SDSS telescope for a BAO detection at redshift z˜1, in particular for the proposed eBOSS experiment.

Escoffier, S.; Comparat, J.; Ealet, A.; Kneib, J.-P.; Zoubian, J.; Lamareille, F.

2012-12-01

182

Selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors: a promising target for cognition enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  One of the major complaints most people face during aging is an impairment in cognitive functioning. This has a negative impact\\u000a on the quality of daily life and is even more prominent in patients suffering from neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders\\u000a including Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, and depression. So far, the majority of cognition enhancers are generally targeting\\u000a one particular neurotransmitter system.

Olga A. H. Reneerkens; Kris Rutten; Harry W. M. Steinbusch; Arjan Blokland; Jos Prickaerts

2009-01-01

183

The safety of ONRAB® in select non-target wildlife.  

PubMed

ONRAB(®) is a recombinant human adenovirus type 5 (HAd5) with the rabies glycoprotein gene incorporated into its genome. ONRAB(®) has been used in Canada as an oral rabies vaccine in target wildlife species such as: red fox (Vulpes vulpes), raccoon (Procyon lotor), and striped skunk (Mepthis mephitis). We evaluated the safety of ONRAB(®) in non-target wildlife species likely to contact the vaccine baits during oral rabies vaccine campaigns in the United States. We investigated the effects of oral inoculation of high titer ONRAB(®), approximately ten times the dose given to target species, in wood rats (Neotoma spp.), eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestri), and fox squirrels (Sciurus niger). We performed real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on fecal swabs, oral swabs, and tissues, including lung, liver, kidney, small intestine, large intestine, and when appropriate nasal turbinates, to detect ONRAB(®) DNA from inoculated animals. By seven days post-inoculation, turkeys, opossums, and cottontails had all stopped shedding ONRAB(®) DNA. One wood rat and one fox squirrel still had detectable levels of ONRAB(®) DNA in fecal swabs 14 days post-inoculation. Real-time PCR analysis of the tissues revealed some ONRAB(®) DNA persisting in certain tissues; however, there were no significant gross or histologic lesions associated with ONRAB(®) in any of the species studied. Our results suggest that many non-target species are not likely to be impacted by the distribution of ONRAB(®) as part of oral rabies vaccination programs in the United States. PMID:23831321

Fry, Tricia L; Vandalen, Kaci K; Duncan, Colleen; Vercauteren, Kurt

2013-08-20

184

Selective imaging of adherent targeted ultrasound contrast agents.  

PubMed

The goal of ultrasonic molecular imaging is the detection of targeted contrast agents bound to receptors on endothelial cells. We propose imaging methods that can distinguish adherent microbubbles from tissue and from freely circulating microbubbles, each of which would otherwise obscure signal from molecularly targeted adherent agents. The methods are based on a harmonic signal model of the returned echoes over a train of pulses. The first method utilizes an 'image-push-image' pulse sequence where adhesion of contrast agents is rapidly promoted by acoustic radiation force and the presence of adherent agents is detected by the signal change due to targeted microbubble adhesion. The second method rejects tissue echoes using a spectral high-pass filter. Free agent signal is suppressed by a pulse-to-pulse low-pass filter in both methods. An overlay of the adherent and/or flowing contrast agents on B-mode images can be readily created for anatomical reference. Contrast-to-tissue ratios from adherent microbubbles exceeding 30 dB and 20 dB were achieved for the two methods proposed, respectively. The performance of these algorithms is compared, emphasizing the significance and potential applications in ultrasonic molecular imaging. PMID:17404455

Zhao, S; Kruse, D E; Ferrara, K W; Dayton, P A

2007-04-21

185

Selective imaging of adherent targeted ultrasound contrast agents  

PubMed Central

The goal of ultrasonic molecular imaging is the detection of targeted contrast agents bound to receptors on endothelial cells. We propose imaging methods that can distinguish adherent microbubbles from tissue and from freely circulating microbubbles, each of which would otherwise obscure signal from molecularly targeted adherent agents. The methods are based on a harmonic signal model of the returned echoes over a train of pulses. The first method utilizes an ‘image–push–image’ pulse sequence where adhesion of contrast agents is rapidly promoted by acoustic radiation force and the presence of adherent agents is detected by the signal change due to targeted microbubble adhesion. The second method rejects tissue echoes using a spectral high-pass filter. Free agent signal is suppressed by a pulse-to-pulse low-pass filter in both methods. An overlay of the adherent and/or flowing contrast agents on B-mode images can be readily created for anatomical reference. Contrast-to-tissue ratios from adherent microbubbles exceeding 30 dB and 20 dB were achieved for the two methods proposed, respectively. The performance of these algorithms is compared, emphasizing the significance and potential applications in ultrasonic molecular imaging.

Zhao, S; Kruse, D E; Ferrara, K W; Dayton, P A

2007-01-01

186

The unfolded protein response selectively targets active smoothened mutants.  

PubMed

The Hedgehog signaling pathway, an essential regulator of developmental patterning, has been implicated in playing causative and survival roles in a range of human cancers. The signal-transducing component of the pathway, Smoothened, has revealed itself to be an efficacious therapeutic target in combating oncogenic signaling. However, therapeutic challenges remain in cases where tumors acquire resistance to Smoothened antagonists, and also in cases where signaling is driven by active Smoothened mutants that exhibit reduced sensitivity to these compounds. We previously demonstrated that active Smoothened mutants are subjected to prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention, likely due to their mutations triggering conformation shifts that are detected by ER quality control. We attempted to exploit this biology and demonstrate that deregulated Hedgehog signaling driven by active Smoothened mutants is specifically attenuated by ER stressors that induce the unfolded protein response (UPR). Upon UPR induction, active Smoothened mutants are targeted by ER-associated degradation, resulting in attenuation of inappropriate pathway activity. Accordingly, we found that the UPR agonist thapsigargin attenuated mutant Smoothened-induced phenotypes in vivo in Drosophila melanogaster. Wild-type Smoothened and physiological Hedgehog patterning were not affected, suggesting that UPR modulation may provide a novel therapeutic window to be evaluated for targeting active Smoothened mutants in disease. PMID:23572559

Marada, Suresh; Stewart, Daniel P; Bodeen, William J; Han, Young-Goo; Ogden, Stacey K

2013-06-01

187

Non-esterified Cholesterol Content of Lysosomes Modulates Susceptibility to Oxidant-induced Permeabilization  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). Photoirradiation of murine hepatoma 1c1c7 cultures preloaded with the photosensitizer NPe6 generates singlet oxygen within acidic organelles, and causes LMP and the activation of procaspases. Treatment with the cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) U18666A, imipramine, and clozapine stimulated the accumulation of filipin-stainable non-esterified cholesterol/sterols in late endosomes/lysosomes, but not in mitochondria. Concentration-response studies demonstrated an inverse relationship between lysosomal non-esterified cholesterol/sterol contents and susceptibility to NPe6 photoirradiation-induced intracellular membrane oxidation, LMP, and activation of procaspases-9 and -3. Similarly, the kinetics of restoration of NPe6 photoirradiation-induced LMP paralleled the losses of lysosomal cholesterol that occurred upon replating U18666A-treated cultures in CAD-free medium. Consistent with the oxidation of lysosomal cholesterol, filipin staining in U18666A-treated cultures progressively decreased with increasing photoirradiating light dose. U18666A also suppressed the inductions of LMP and procaspase activation by exogenously added hydrogen peroxide. However, neither U18666A nor imipramine suppressed the induction of apoptosis by agents that did not directly induce LMP. These studies indicate that lysosomal non-esterified cholesterol/sterol content modulates susceptibility to ROS-induced LMP, and possibly does so by being an alternative target for oxidants and lowering the probability of damage to other lysosomal membrane lipids and/or proteins.

Reiners, John J.; Kleinman, Miriam; Kessel, David; Mathieu, Patricia A.; Caruso, Joseph A.

2010-01-01

188

Targeting nucleic acid secondary structures by antisense oligonucleotides designed through in vitro selection.  

PubMed Central

Using an in vitro selection approach, we have isolated oligonucleotides that can bind to a DNA hairpin structure. Complex formation of these oligonucleotides with the target hairpin involves some type of triple-stranded structure with noncanonical interaction, as indicated by bandshift assays and footprinting studies. The selected oligomers can block restriction endonuclease cleavage of the target hairpin in a sequence-specific manner. We demonstrate that in vitro selection can extend the antisense approach to functional targeting of secondary structure motifs. This could provide a basis for interfering with regulatory processes mediated by a variety of nucleic acid structures. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Mishra, R K; Le Tinevez, R; Toulme, J J

1996-01-01

189

Signal Transduction and Molecular Targets of Selected Flavonoids  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Diet exerts a major influence on the risk for developing cancer and heart disease. Food factors such as flavonoids are alleged to protect cells from premature aging and disease by shielding DNA, proteins, and lipids from oxidative damage. Recent Advances: Our work has focused on clarifying the effects of dietary components on cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth, discovering mechanisms to explain the effects, and identifying the specific molecular targets of these compounds. Our strategy for identifying specific molecular targets of phytochemicals involves the use of supercomputer technology combined with protein crystallography, molecular biology, and experimental laboratory verification. Critical Issues: One of the greatest challenges for scientists is to reduce the accumulation of distortion and half truths reported in the popular media regarding the health benefits of certain foods or food supplements. The use of these is not new, but interest has increased dramatically because of perceived health benefits that are presumably acquired without unpleasant side effects. Flavonoids are touted to exert many beneficial effects in vitro. However, whether they can produce these effects in vivo is disputed. Future Directions: The World Health Organization indicates that one third of all cancer deaths are preventable and that diet is closely linked to prevention. Based on this idea and epidemiological findings, attention has centered on dietary phytochemicals as an effective intervention in cancer development. However, an unequivocal link between diet and cancer has not been established. Thus, identifying cancer preventive dietary agents with specific molecular targets is essential to move forward toward successful cancer prevention. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 163–180.

Bode, Ann M.

2013-01-01

190

Selective Pharmacological Targeting of a DEAD Box RNA Helicase  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA helicases represent a large family of proteins implicated in many biological processes including ribosome biogenesis, splicing, translation and mRNA degradation. However, these proteins have little substrate specificity, making inhibition of selected helicases a challenging problem. The prototypical DEAD box RNA helicase, eIF4A, works in conjunction with other translation factors to prepare mRNA templates for ribosome recruitment during translation initiation.

Lisa Lindqvist; Monika Oberer; Mikhail Reibarkh; Regina Cencic; Marie-Eve Bordeleau; Emily Vogt; Assen Marintchev; Junichi Tanaka; Francois Fagotto; Michael Altmann; Gerhard Wagner; Jerry Pelletier; Thomas Preiss

2008-01-01

191

Lysosomal activity associated with developmental axon pruning.  

PubMed

Clearance of cellular debris is a critical feature of the developing nervous system, as evidenced by the severe neurological consequences of lysosomal storage diseases in children. An important developmental process, which generates considerable cellular debris, is synapse elimination, in which many axonal branches are pruned. The fate of these pruned branches is not known. Here, we investigate the role of lysosomal activity in neurons and glia in the removal of axon branches during early postnatal life. Using a probe for lysosomal activity, we observed robust staining associated with retreating motor axons. Lysosomal function was involved in axon removal because retreating axons were cleared more slowly in a mouse model of a lysosomal storage disease. In addition, we found lysosomal activity in the cerebellum at the time of, and at sites where, climbing fibers are eliminated. We propose that lysosomal activity is a central feature of synapse elimination. Moreover, staining for lysosomal activity may serve as a marker for regions of the developing nervous system undergoing axon pruning. PMID:18768693

Song, Jae W; Misgeld, Thomas; Kang, Hyuno; Knecht, Sharm; Lu, Ju; Cao, Yi; Cotman, Susan L; Bishop, Derron L; Lichtman, Jeff W

2008-09-01

192

Sensitivity to Lysosome-Dependent Cell Death Is Directly Regulated by Lysosomal Cholesterol Content  

PubMed Central

Alterations in lipid homeostasis are implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, although the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. We evaluated the impact of cholesterol accumulation, induced by U18666A, quinacrine or mutations in the cholesterol transporting Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) protein, on lysosomal stability and sensitivity to lysosome-mediated cell death. We found that neurons with lysosomal cholesterol accumulation were protected from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. In addition, human fibroblasts with cholesterol-loaded lysosomes showed higher lysosomal membrane stability than controls. Previous studies have shown that cholesterol accumulation is accompanied by the storage of lipids such as sphingomyelin, glycosphingolipids and sphingosine and an up regulation of lysosomal associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2), which may also influence lysosomal stability. However, in this study the use of myriocin and LAMP deficient fibroblasts excluded these factors as responsible for the rescuing effect and instead suggested that primarily lysosomal cholesterol content determineD the cellular sensitivity to toxic insults. Further strengthening this concept, depletion of cholesterol using methyl-?-cyclodextrin or 25-hydroxycholesterol decreased the stability of lysosomes and cells became more prone to undergo apoptosis. In conclusion, cholesterol content regulated lysosomal membrane permeabilization and thereby influenced cell death sensitivity. Our data suggests that lysosomal cholesterol modulation might be used as a therapeutic strategy for conditions associated with accelerated or repressed apoptosis.

Appelqvist, Hanna; Sandin, Linnea; Bjornstrom, Karin; Saftig, Paul; Garner, Brett; Ollinger, Karin; Kagedal, Katarina

2012-01-01

193

Prodigiosins uncouple lysosomal vacuolar-type ATPase through promotion of H+/Cl- symport.  

PubMed Central

We reported previously [Kataoka, Muroi, Ohkuma, Waritani, Magae, Takatsuki, Kondo, Yamasaki and Nagai (1995) FEBS Lett. 359, 53-59] that prodigiosin 25-C (one of the red pigments of the prodigiosin group produced by micro-organisms like Streptomyces and Serratia) uncoupled vacuolar H+-ATPase, inhibited vacuolar acidification and affected glycoprotein processing. In the present study we show that prodigiosin, metacycloprodigiosin and prodigiosin 25-C, all raise intralysosomal pH through inhibition of lysosomal acidification driven by vacuolar-type (V-)ATPase without inhibiting ATP hydrolysis in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 30-120 pmol/mg of protein. The inhibition against lysosomal acidification was quick and reversible, showing kinetics of simple non-competitive (for ATP) inhibition. However, the prodigiosins neither raised the internal pH of isolated lysosomes nor showed ionophoric activity against H+ or K+ at concentrations where they strongly inhibited lysosomal acidification. They required Cl- for their acidification inhibitory activity even when driven in the presence of K+ and valinomycin, suggesting that their target is not anion (chloride) channel(s). In fact, the prodigiosins inhibited acidification of proteoliposomes devoid of anion channels that were reconstituted from lysosomal vacuolar-type (V-)ATPase and Escherichia coli phospholipids. However, they did not inhibit the formation of an inside-positive membrane potential driven by lysosomal V-ATPase. Instead, they caused quick reversal of acidified pH driven by lysosomal V-ATPase and, in acidic buffer, produced quick acidification of lysosomal pH, both only in the presence of Cl-. In addition, they induced swelling of liposomes and erythrocytes in iso-osmotic ammonium salt of chloride but not of gluconate, suggesting the promotion of Cl- entry by prodigiosins. These results suggest that prodigiosins facilitate the symport of H+ with Cl- (or exchange of OH- with Cl-) through lysosomal membranes, resulting in uncoupling of vacuolar H+-ATPase.

Ohkuma, S; Sato, T; Okamoto, M; Matsuya, H; Arai, K; Kataoka, T; Nagai, K; Wasserman, H H

1998-01-01

194

Intraepidermal morphologic manifestations in lysosomal diseases.  

PubMed

This paper reports the ultrastructural findings for the epidermis of biopsied skin specimens in numerous lysosomal diseases, which can be grouped as follows: a) presence of vacuolar lysosomal residual bodies in mucopolysaccharidoses I, II and III, Salla disease, GM1-gangliosidoses and infantile type II glycogenosis; b) avacuolar lysosomal residual bodies in Niemann-Pick disease type C, mucolipidosis IV, Farber disease, Fabry disease, and late infantile and juvenile neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses; c) absence of lysosomal residual bodies in GM2-gangliosidoses, metachromatic leukodystrophy, Gaucher disease and sialidosis type III. Whenever possible, a biopsy of the skin for morphological diagnosis of lysosomal disorders ought not to be confined to the epidermis. PMID:2554741

Kaesgen, U; Goebel, H H

1989-01-01

195

Treatment of lysosomal storage diseases: recent patents and future strategies.  

PubMed

Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of rare genetic multisystemic disorders, resulting in deficient lysosomal activity. These pathologies are characterized by progressive accumulation of storage material within the lysosomes, ultimately leading to organ dysfunctions. LSDs patient's clinical outcomes have significantly improved, since the advent of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). ERT is approved worldwide for 6 LSDs: Gaucher disease, Fabry disease, Mucopolysaccharidosis types I, II, and VI, and Pompe disease. The efficacy and safety of ERT for LSDs has been confirmed by extensive clinical trials, however therapy with infused protein is life-long and disease progression is still observed in treated patients. Obstacles to successful ERT, such as immune reactions against the infused enzyme, miss-targeting of recombinant enzymes, and difficult delivery to crucial tissues (i.e. brain and bone), determine the need for further research, in order to ameliorate therapeutic strategies. Viral gene therapy, stem cell based therapy, pharmacological chaperones and could be considered essential tools for future improvement of recombinant enzyme trafficking and targeting. This review will discuss recent patents and new strategic approaches for enzyme delivery to highlight the most relevant aspects, concerning next generation LSDs treatment. PMID:24433521

Ortolano, Saida; Viéitez, Irene; Navarro, Carmen; Spuch, Carlos

2014-01-01

196

Merge and Acquisition Target Selection Based on Grey Multi-objective Decision-making  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper build a grey Multi-objective decision-making model which maximums synergistic effects. Enterprises can select the best one from many target enterprises from this model. An example presented shows that the model is effective.

Yuming Zhai; Haifeng Liu

2010-01-01

197

Bowel microorganisms--a target for selective antimicrobial control.  

PubMed

This article reviews the eight factors that determine the outcome of selective antimicrobial control (SAC) a technique aimed at the clearance of intestinal Gram-negative bacillary carriage by means of lethal faecal anti-microbial concentrations. They are as follows: (i) the carrier state; (ii) compliance; (iii) SAC aiming at prophylaxis vs treatment; (iv) minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the antimicrobial; (v) dosage; (vi) pharmacokinetics; (vii) faecal inactivation; and (viii) microorganisms to be controlled. In the second part, non-absorbable SAC regimens are compared with absorbable trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) and the fluoroquinolones in different clinical settings including neutropenia, intensive care, hepatic encephalopathy, liver transplantation and the salmonella carrier state. Ablation of gut carriage and superinfections are the main endpoints reviewed in this article. The newer fluoroquinolones are potent SAC agents to deal with enterobacteria. Pseudomonads are the major gap in their SAC spectrum. TMP/SMZ emerges as a SAC agent of limited value, whilst the newer non-absorbable combination of polymyxin/tobramycin seems to be the most potent SAC programme since it has activity against pseudomonads. In a third part, three current issues--the emergence of resistance, the selectivity and the tissue effect are discussed. Finally, a potent fluoroquinolone combined with oral polymyxin/tobramycin seems to be the most effective SAC programme currently available to control enterobacteria and pseudomonads in patients in whom bacterial translocation is a risk with minimal risk of resistance emerging. PMID:1684194

van Saene, H K; Percival, A

1991-09-01

198

Derived protein sequence, oligosaccharides, and membrane insertion of the 120-kDa lysosomal membrane glycoprotein (lgp120): identification of a highly conserved family of lysosomal membrane glycoproteins.  

PubMed Central

The 120-kDa lysosomal membrane glycoprotein (lgp120) is an acidic, heavily glycosylated membrane protein enriched in the lysosomal membrane. To determine the basis for its selective transport to and stability in lysosomes, we have investigated the structure of lgp120. By using an oligonucleotide probe corresponding to the amino terminus of rat lgp120, we isolated and characterized cDNA clones containing the entire coding region. The deduced amino acid sequence demonstrates that lgp120 contains a putative signal peptide, 18 sites for N-linked glycosylation, a single membrane-spanning segment, and a short (11 amino acid) cytosolic tail. The sequence suggests a distinct domain organization, with two luminal glycosylated regions separated by a nonglycosylated proline-rich region. Proteolysis in detergent showed that the protein was not intrinsically resistant to exogenous or endogenous proteases. The N-linked oligosaccharides on lgp120, tetraantennary structures with two lactosamine repeats on one of the branches, were not different from those of glycoproteins on the plasma membrane. lgp120 was similar in its domain organization and portions of its amino acid sequence to the avian 100-kDa lysosomal membrane protein LEP100 [Fambrough, D. M., Takeyasu, K., Lippincott-Schwartz, J., Siegel, N. R. & Somerville, D. (1988) J. Cell Biol. 106, 61-67], and to a distinct 110-kDa lysosomal membrane protein (lgp110) that colocalizes with lgp120. The similarities between lysosomal membrane glycoproteins from diverse species, coupled with the fact that at least two distinct lysosomal membrane glycoproteins are expressed in a single species, indicate the existence of a conserved family of glycoproteins enriched in the lysosomal membrane.

Howe, C L; Granger, B L; Hull, M; Green, S A; Gabel, C A; Helenius, A; Mellman, I

1988-01-01

199

Podocytes Degrade Endocytosed Albumin Primarily in Lysosomes  

PubMed Central

Albuminuria is a strong, independent predictor of chronic kidney disease progression. We hypothesize that podocyte processing of albumin via the lysosome may be an important determinant of podocyte injury and loss. A human urine derived podocyte-like epithelial cell (HUPEC) line was used for in vitro experiments. Albumin uptake was quantified by Western blot after loading HUPECs with fluorescein-labeled (FITC) albumin. Co-localization of albumin with lysosomes was determined by confocal microscopy. Albumin degradation was measured by quantifying FITC-albumin abundance in HUPEC lysates by Western blot. Degradation experiments were repeated using HUPECs treated with chloroquine, a lysosome inhibitor, or MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor. Lysosome activity was measured by fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching (FRAP). Cytokine production was measured by ELISA. Cell death was determined by trypan blue staining. In vivo, staining with lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) was performed on tissue from a Denys-Drash trangenic mouse model of nephrotic syndrome. HUPECs endocytosed albumin, which co-localized with lysosomes. Choloroquine, but not MG-132, inhibited albumin degradation, indicating that degradation occurs in lysosomes. Cathepsin B activity, measured by FRAP, significantly decreased in HUPECs exposed to albumin (12.5% of activity in controls) and chloroquine (12.8%), and declined further with exposure to albumin plus chloroquine (8.2%, p<0.05). Cytokine production and cell death were significantly increased in HUPECs exposed to albumin and chloroquine alone, and these effects were potentiated by exposure to albumin plus chloroquine. Compared to wild-type mice, glomerular staining of LAMP-1 was significantly increased in Denys-Drash mice and appeared to be most prominent in podocytes. These data suggest lysosomes are involved in the processing of endocytosed albumin in podocytes, and lysosomal dysfunction may contribute to podocyte injury and glomerulosclerosis in albuminuric diseases. Modifiers of lysosomal activity may have therapeutic potential in slowing the progression of glomerulosclerosis by enhancing the ability of podocytes to process and degrade albumin.

Carson, John M.; Okamura, Kayo; Wakashin, Hidefumi; McFann, Kim; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Blaine, Judith

2014-01-01

200

The Phosphoinositide 3Kinase\\/Akt1\\/Par4 Axis: A Cancer-Selective Therapeutic Target  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)\\/Akt cell survival pathway in many cancers makes it an appealing target for therapeutic development. However, because this pathway also has an important role in the survival of normal cells, tactics to achieve cancer selectivity may prove impor- tant. We recently showed that the cancer-selective proapop- totic protein Par-4 is a key target for inactivation

Anindya Goswami

201

Selecting targeted therapies for patients with renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous disease with variable histology, biology, and response to treatment. In the past 5 years, 6 new agents have been approved for the treatment of RCC, and many more are in clinical development. With an ever-increasing number of treatment options, selecting among them for a particular patient can be a daunting task for clinicians. This article describes how treatment choice can be guided by the disease setting and histology, as well as patient characteristics, comorbidities, and preference within the context of available data. Results from clinical trials are combined with practical considerations to make recommendations for first-line and subsequent treatment of patients with clear cell and non-clear cell RCC. These recommendations should supplement the current NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for the treatment of advanced RCC. PMID:21917624

Plimack, Elizabeth R; Hudes, Gary R

2011-09-01

202

Salience-Based Selection: Attentional Capture by Distractors Less Salient Than the Target  

PubMed Central

Current accounts of attentional capture predict the most salient stimulus to be invariably selected first. However, existing salience and visual search models assume noise in the map computation or selection process. Consequently, they predict the first selection to be stochastically dependent on salience, implying that attention could even be captured first by the second most salient (instead of the most salient) stimulus in the field. Yet, capture by less salient distractors has not been reported and salience-based selection accounts claim that the distractor has to be more salient in order to capture attention. We tested this prediction using an empirical and modeling approach of the visual search distractor paradigm. For the empirical part, we manipulated salience of target and distractor parametrically and measured reaction time interference when a distractor was present compared to absent. Reaction time interference was strongly correlated with distractor salience relative to the target. Moreover, even distractors less salient than the target captured attention, as measured by reaction time interference and oculomotor capture. In the modeling part, we simulated first selection in the distractor paradigm using behavioral measures of salience and considering the time course of selection including noise. We were able to replicate the result pattern we obtained in the empirical part. We conclude that each salience value follows a specific selection time distribution and attentional capture occurs when the selection time distributions of target and distractor overlap. Hence, selection is stochastic in nature and attentional capture occurs with a certain probability depending on relative salience.

Goschy, Harriet; Muller, Hermann Joseph

2013-01-01

203

An exact almost optimal algorithm for target set selection in social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Target Set Selection problem proposed by Kempe, Kleinberg, and Tardos, gives a nice clean combi- natorial formulation for many problems arising in econ- omy, sociology, and medicine. Its input is a graph with vertex thresholds, the social network, and the goal is to find a subset of vertices, the target set, that\\

Oren Ben-zwi; Danny Hermelin; Daniel Lokshtanov; Ilan Newman

2009-01-01

204

Visual Cells Remember Earlier Applied Target: Plasticity of Orientation Selectivity  

PubMed Central

Background A canonical proposition states that, in mature brain, neurons responsive to sensory stimuli are tuned to specific properties installed shortly after birth. It is amply demonstrated that that neurons in adult visual cortex of cats are orientation-selective that is they respond with the highest firing rates to preferred oriented stimuli. Methodology/Principal Findings In anesthetized cats, prepared in a conventional fashion for single cell recordings, the present investigation shows that presenting a stimulus uninterruptedly at a non-preferred orientation for twelve minutes induces changes in orientation preference. Across all conditions orientation tuning curves were investigated using a trial by trial method. Contrary to what has been previously reported with shorter adaptation duration, twelve minutes of adaptation induces mostly attractive shifts, i.e. toward the adapter. After a recovery period allowing neurons to restore their original orientation tuning curves, we carried out a second adaptation which produced three major results: (1) more frequent attractive shifts, (2) an increase of their magnitude, and (3) an additional enhancement of responses at the new or acquired preferred orientation. Additionally, we also show that the direction of shifts depends on the duration of the adaptation: shorter adaptation in most cases produces repulsive shifts, whereas adaptation exceeding nine minutes results in attractive shifts, in the same unit. Consequently, shifts in preferred orientation depend on the duration of adaptation. Conclusion/Significance The supplementary response improvements indicate that neurons in area 17 keep a memory trace of the previous stimulus properties, thereby upgrading cellular performance. It also highlights the dynamic nature of basic neuronal properties in adult cortex since repeated adaptations modified both the orientation tuning selectivity and the response strength to the preferred orientation. These enhanced neuronal responses suggest that the range of neuronal plasticity available to the visual system is broader than anticipated.

Ghisovan, Narcis; Nemri, Abdellatif; Shumikhina, Svetlana; Molotchnikoff, Stephane

2008-01-01

205

Microgravity induced selective lesions in immunosignaling: Upstream targets in lymphocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microgravity is a novel milieu for cells where re-ordering of forces induces different responses. Human lymphocytes undergo a suppression of activation and locomotion in space and modeled microgravity. Based on recovery of activation and locomotion with the phorbol ester PMA, the lesion induced by microgravity is presumed up- stream of the level of PKC signaling. Lymphocytes cultured in ground-based microgravity analog conditions display depressed calcium independent PKC isoforms. Upstream signaling molecules such as Phospholipase C gamma were not sufficiently activated in modeled microgravity. Immunoblotting revealed LAT, which is an adaptor protein crucial for Phospholipase C gamma recruitment in T cell activation, was down regulated in lymphocytes cultured at 72 and 96 hours in modeled microgravity. Also, ZAP 70 kinase, which is a LAT activator, down- regulated (>2 fold) at 96 hours modeled microgravity culture. Microarray analysis of lymphocytes cultured in 1g and modeled microgravity revealed significant down- regulation in upstream T cell activation molecules such as Diacylglycerol kinase, serine/threonine kinases, and tyrosine kinases. All up-stream targets in T cell activation are negatively affected in microgravity. Optimal immune function is critical in the ISS era where long term space travel is inevitable. Elucidation of the key mechanisms affected by microgravity lays the foundation for development of treatments that can counter these deleterious effects.

Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N.

206

LYSOSOMES OF THE ARTERIAL WALL  

PubMed Central

Smooth muscle cells were dissociated from normal rabbit aorta by incubating the tissue in Hanks' solution containing elastase, collagenase, and hyaluronidase. The isolated cells contained significant amounts of the following acid hydrolases: N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase, N-acetyl-?-galactosaminidase, ?-galactosidase, ?-glucuronidase, ?-mannosidase, ?-glucosidase, acid phosphatase, and cathepsins C and D. The cells were disrupted and fractionated by isopycnic centrifugation on sucrose density gradients in the Beaufay automatic zonal rotor. Lysosomes with a modal density of 1.16 were identified by the distribution of these acid hydrolases and by the latency of N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase and ?-galactosidase. Other particulate enzymes studied in these sucrose gradients included cytochrome oxidase and monoamine oxidase (mitochondria), 5'-nucleotidase and leucyl-?-naphthylamidase (plasma membrane), and catalase (? peroxisome). This microanalytical subcellular fractionation technique is applicable to the study of milligram quantities of many other tissues, both normal and pathological.

Peters, T. J.; Muller, M.; de Duve, Amo C.

1972-01-01

207

Cell-SELEX-based selection of aptamers that recognize distinct targets on metastatic colorectal cancer cells.  

PubMed

The development of diagnostic/therapeutic strategies against metastasis-related molecular targets is critical for improving the survival rate of cancer patients. Subtractive Cell-SELEX was performed using highly metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) LoVo cells and non-metastatic HCT-8 cells as the target and negative cells, respectively, for the selection of metastatic-specific aptamers. This process generated seven aptamers that displayed highly specific binding to the target cells with Kds in the nanomolar range. Based on the distinct chemical/biological properties of their individual cell surface targets, the aptamers were separately functionalized: the receptor-targeting aptamer W14 was used as a carrier for doxorubicin, resulting in the specific delivery of the drug to the target cells and a significant reduction of its cytotoxicity to non-target cells, and the non-receptor-binding aptamer W3 was used as a molecular probe conjugated to quantum dots for the targeted imaging of metastatic cancer cell lines, spontaneous lung metastasis murine tissue, and metastatic CRC patient tissues. In addition, these aptamers can be used in combination due to their lack of detectable mutual-binding interference. The study demonstrates that a panel of aptamers that recognize distinct features of target molecules can be obtained through single Cell-SELEX selection, and the selected aptamers may be individually functionalized for specific applications and/or utilized in combination. PMID:24857291

Li, Wan-Ming; Bing, Tao; Wei, Jia-Yi; Chen, Zhe-Zhou; Shangguan, Di-Hua; Fang, Jin

2014-08-01

208

Concept for On-Board Safe Landing Target Selection and Landing for the Mars 2020 Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a concept for a potential enhancement to Mars 2020 to enable landing on hazardous landing sites. It adds to MSL-EDL the capability to select and divert to a safe site through on-board terrain relative localization and target selection.

Brugarolas, P.; Chen, A.; Johnson, A.; Casoliva, J.; Singh, G.; Stehura, A.; Way, D.; Dutta, S.

2014-06-01

209

Selection of aptamers targeting the sialic acid receptor of hemagglutinin by epitope-specific SELEX.  

PubMed

A new SELEX scheme is proposed for the selection of aptamers targeting a specific epitope of a native protein. Anti-sialic acid receptor (SAR) aptamers that inhibit H1 hemagglutination at a low picomole dose are selected accordingly. PMID:24964092

Lao, Yeh-Hsing; Chiang, Hui-Yu; Yang, Deng-Kai; Peck, Konan; Chen, Lin-Chi

2014-08-14

210

Biochemical differences in the mechanism of macrophage lysosomal exocytosis initiated by zymosan particles and weak bases.  

PubMed Central

By utilizing compounds with different inhibitory properties, discrete biochemical differences were found in the mechanism of selective lysosomal enzyme secretion by macrophages in response to stimulation with zymosan particles and methylamine. Pretreatment of macrophages with trypsin markedly impaired the capacity of the cells to respond to stimulation with zymosan particles, but had no effect on methylamine-stimulated lysosomal enzyme secretion. Similarly, the addition of phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride or EDTA to the incubation medium substantially inhibited zymosan-induced lysosomal enzyme secretion, whereas the methylamine-stimulated response was unaffected by these agents. The addition of 2-deoxyglucose to incubation media, however, strongly inhibited both zymosan- and methylamine-stimulated beta-galactosidase secretion. These findings are consistent with a mechanism for lysosomal enzyme secretion by macrophages, based on a receptor-dependent uptake of zymosan particles and a receptor-independent uptake of methylamine.

Riches, D W; Watkins, J L; Stanworth, D R

1983-01-01

211

The inactivation of the sortilin gene leads to a partial disruption of prosaposin trafficking to the lysosomes  

SciTech Connect

Lysosomes are intracellular organelles which contain enzymes and activator proteins involved in the digestion and recycling of a variety of cellular and extracellular substances. We have identified a novel sorting receptor, sortilin, which is involved in the lysosomal trafficking of the sphingolipid activator proteins, prosaposin and GM{sub 2}AP, and the soluble hydrolases cathepsin D, cathepsin H, and acid sphingomyelinase. Sortilin belongs to a growing family of receptors with homology to the yeast Vps10 protein, which acts as a lysosomal sorting receptor for carboxypeptidase Y. In this study we examined the effects of the sortilin gene inactivation in mice. The inactivation of this gene did not yield any noticeable lysosomal pathology. To determine the existence of an alternative receptor complementing the sorting function of sortilin, we quantified the concentration of prosaposin in the lysosomes of the nonciliated epithelial cells lining the efferent ducts. These cells were chosen because they express sortilin and have a large number of lysosomes containing prosaposin. In addition, the nonciliated cells are known to endocytose luminal prosaposin that is synthesized and secreted by Sertoli cells into the seminiferous luminal fluids. Consequently, the nonciliated cells are capable of targeting both exogenous and endogenous prosaposin to the lysosomes. Using electron microscope immunogold labeling and quantitative analysis, our results demonstrate that inactivation of the sortilin gene produces a significant decrease of prosaposin in the lysosomes. When luminal prosaposin was excluded from the efferent ducts, the level of prosaposin in lysosomes was even lower in the mutant mice. Nonetheless, a significant amount of prosaposin continues to reach the lysosomal compartment. These results strongly suggest the existence of an alternative receptor that complements the function of sortilin and explains the lack of lysosomal storage disorders in the sortilin-deficient mice.

Zeng, Jibin; Racicott, Jesse [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)] [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Morales, Carlos R., E-mail: carlos.morales@mcgill.ca [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)

2009-11-01

212

Lysosomotropic Properties of Weakly Basic Anticancer Agents Promote Cancer Cell Selectivity In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Drug distribution in cells is a fundamentally important, yet often overlooked, variable in drug efficacy. Many weakly basic anticancer agents accumulate extensively in the acidic lysosomes of normal cells through ion trapping. Lysosomal trapping reduces the activity of anticancer drugs, since anticancer drug targets are often localized in the cell cytosol or nucleus. Some cancer cells have defective acidification of lysosomes, which causes a redistribution of trapped drugs from the lysosomes to the cytosol. We have previously established that such differences in drug localization between normal and cancer cells can contribute to the apparent selectivity of weakly basic drugs to cancer cells in vitro. In this work, we tested whether this intracellular distribution-based drug selectivity could be optimized based on the acid dissociation constant (pKa) of the drug, which is one of the determinants of lysosomal sequestration capacity. We synthesized seven weakly basic structural analogs of the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GDA) with pKa values ranging from 5 to 12. The selectivity of each analog was expressed by taking ratios of anti-proliferative IC50 values of the inhibitors in normal fibroblasts to the IC50 values in human leukemic HL-60 cells. Similar selectivity assessments were performed in a pair of cancer cell lines that differed in lysosomal pH as a result of siRNA-mediated alteration of vacuolar proton ATPase subunit expression. Optimal selectivity was observed for analogs with pKa values near 8. Similar trends were observed with commercial anticancer agents with varying weakly basic pKa values. These evaluations advance our understanding of how weakly basic properties can be optimized to achieve maximum anticancer drug selectivity towards cancer cells with defective lysosomal acidification in vitro. Additional in vivo studies are needed to examine the utility of this approach for enhancing selectivity.

Ndolo, Rosemary A.; Luan, Yepeng; Duan, Shaofeng; Forrest, M. Laird; Krise, Jeffrey P.

2012-01-01

213

Molecular and cellular basis of lysosomal transmembrane protein dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysosomal membrane proteins act at several crucial steps of the lysosome life cycle, including lumen acidification, metabolite export, molecular motor recruitment and fusion with other organelles. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of lysosomal storage diseases caused by defective transport of small molecules or ions across the lysosomal membrane, as well as Danon disease. In cystinosis and free sialic acid

Raquel Ruivo; Christine Anne; Corinne Sagné; Bruno Gasnier

2009-01-01

214

The Transcription Factor TFEB Links mTORC1 Signaling to Transcriptional Control of Lysosome Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Lysosomes are the major cellular site for clearance of defective organelles and digestion of internalized material. Demand on lysosomal capacity varies greatly, but the mechanisms that adjust lysosomal function to maintain cellular homeostasis are unknown. In this study, we identify an interaction between mTOR and the TFEB transcription factor on the surface of lysosomes that allows mTOR to transduce signals arising from changes in lysosomal status to TFEB and thus control the ability of TFEB to enter the nucleus. This occurs via regulation of the serine 211 phosphorylation-dependent binding of 14-3-3 proteins to TFEB. These results identify TFEB as a novel target of mTOR that couples the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding proteins of autophagosomes and lysosomes to cellular need. We further present evidence that the closely related MITF and TFE3 transcription factors are regulated in a similar manner, thus broadening the range of physiological contexts under which such regulation may prove important.

Roczniak-Ferguson, Agnes; Petit, Constance S.; Froehlich, Florian; Qian, Sharon; Ky, Jennifer; Angarola, Brittany; Walther, Tobias C.; Ferguson, Shawn M.

2012-01-01

215

Wilson Disease Protein ATP7B Utilizes Lysosomal Exocytosis to Maintain Copper Homeostasis.  

PubMed

Copper is an essential yet toxic metal and its overload causes Wilson disease, a disorder due to mutations in copper transporter ATP7B. To remove excess copper into the bile, ATP7B traffics toward canalicular area of hepatocytes. However, the trafficking mechanisms of ATP7B remain elusive. Here, we show that, in response to elevated copper, ATP7B moves from the Golgi to lysosomes and imports metal into their lumen. ATP7B enables lysosomes to undergo exocytosis through the interaction with p62 subunit of dynactin that allows lysosome translocation toward the canalicular pole of hepatocytes. Activation of lysosomal exocytosis stimulates copper clearance from the hepatocytes and rescues the most frequent Wilson-disease-causing ATP7B mutant to the appropriate functional site. Our findings indicate that lysosomes serve as an important intermediate in ATP7B trafficking, whereas lysosomal exocytosis operates as an integral process in copper excretion and hence can be targeted for therapeutic approaches to combat Wilson disease. PMID:24909901

Polishchuk, Elena V; Concilli, Mafalda; Iacobacci, Simona; Chesi, Giancarlo; Pastore, Nunzia; Piccolo, Pasquale; Paladino, Simona; Baldantoni, Daniela; van IJzendoorn, Sven C D; Chan, Jefferson; Chang, Christopher J; Amoresano, Angela; Pane, Francesca; Pucci, Piero; Tarallo, Antonietta; Parenti, Giancarlo; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Settembre, Carmine; Ballabio, Andrea; Polishchuk, Roman S

2014-06-23

216

Wilson Disease Protein ATP7B Utilizes Lysosomal Exocytosis to Maintain Copper Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Summary Copper is an essential yet toxic metal and its overload causes Wilson disease, a disorder due to mutations in copper transporter ATP7B. To remove excess copper into the bile, ATP7B traffics toward canalicular area of hepatocytes. However, the trafficking mechanisms of ATP7B remain elusive. Here, we show that, in response to elevated copper, ATP7B moves from the Golgi to lysosomes and imports metal into their lumen. ATP7B enables lysosomes to undergo exocytosis through the interaction with p62 subunit of dynactin that allows lysosome translocation toward the canalicular pole of hepatocytes. Activation of lysosomal exocytosis stimulates copper clearance from the hepatocytes and rescues the most frequent Wilson-disease-causing ATP7B mutant to the appropriate functional site. Our findings indicate that lysosomes serve as an important intermediate in ATP7B trafficking, whereas lysosomal exocytosis operates as an integral process in copper excretion and hence can be targeted for therapeutic approaches to combat Wilson disease.

Polishchuk, Elena V.; Concilli, Mafalda; Iacobacci, Simona; Chesi, Giancarlo; Pastore, Nunzia; Piccolo, Pasquale; Paladino, Simona; Baldantoni, Daniela; van IJzendoorn, Sven C.D.; Chan, Jefferson; Chang, Christopher J.; Amoresano, Angela; Pane, Francesca; Pucci, Piero; Tarallo, Antonietta; Parenti, Giancarlo; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Settembre, Carmine; Ballabio, Andrea; Polishchuk, Roman S.

2014-01-01

217

Sphingosine mediates TNF?-induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization and ensuing programmed cell death in hepatoma cells  

PubMed Central

Normally, cell proliferation and death are carefully balanced in higher eukaryotes, but one of the most important regulatory mechanisms, apoptosis, is upset in many malignancies, including hepatocellular-derived ones. Therefore, reinforcing cell death often is mandatory in anticancer therapy. We previously reported that a combination of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) and cycloheximide (CHX) efficiently kill HTC cells, a rat hepatoma line, in an apoptosis-like mode. Death is actively mediated by the lysosomal compartment, although lysosomal ceramide was previously shown not to be directly implicated in this process. In the present study, we show that TNF/CHX increase lysosomal ceramide that is subsequently converted into sphingosine. Although ceramide accumulation does not significantly alter the acidic compartment, the sphingosine therein generated causes lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) followed by relocation of lysosomal cathepsins to the cytoplasm. TNF/CHX-induced LMP is effectively abrogated by siRNAs targeting acid sphingomyelinase or acid ceramidase, which prevent both LMP and death induced by TNF/CHX. Taken together, our results demonstrate that lysosomal accumulation of ceramide is not detrimental per se, whereas its degradation product sphingosine, which has the capacity to induce LMP, appears responsible for the observed apoptotic-like death.

Ullio, Chiara; Casas, Josefina; Brunk, Ulf T.; Sala, Giuseppina; Fabrias, Gemma; Ghidoni, Riccardo; Bonelli, Gabriella; Baccino, Francesco M.; Autelli, Riccardo

2012-01-01

218

Salmonella inhibits retrograde trafficking of mannose-6-phosphate receptors and lysosome function.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that replicates within membrane-bound vacuoles through the action of effector proteins translocated into host cells. Salmonella vacuoles have characteristics of lysosomes but are reduced in hydrolytic enzymes transported by mannose-6-phosphate receptors (MPRs). We found that the effector SifA subverted Rab9-dependent retrograde trafficking of MPRs, thereby attenuating lysosome function. This required binding of SifA to its host cell target SKIP/PLEKHM2. Furthermore, SKIP regulated retrograde trafficking of MPRs in noninfected cells. Translocated SifA formed a stable complex with SKIP and Rab9 in infected cells. Sequestration of Rab9 by SifA-SKIP accounted for the effect of SifA on MPR transport and lysosome function. Growth of Salmonella increased in cells with reduced lysosomal activity and decreased in cells with higher lysosomal activity. These results suggest that Salmonella vacuoles undergo fusion with lysosomes whose potency has been reduced by SifA. PMID:23162002

McGourty, Kieran; Thurston, Teresa L; Matthews, Sophie A; Pinaud, Laurie; Mota, Luís Jaime; Holden, David W

2012-11-16

219

The importance of endo-lysosomal escape with lipid nanocapsules for drug subcellular bioavailability.  

PubMed

To establish the therapeutic relevance of new nanocarriers, rationalization of knowledge on their interactions with biological structures is essential. In the present study, we have investigated endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) in rat glioma cells. Radiolabelled and fluorescent LNCs were synthesized by using a phase inversion process that follows the formation of an oil/water microemulsion containing triglycerides, lecithins and a non-ionic surfactant, the hydroxystearate of poly(ethylene glycol) (HS-PEG). Our data revealed that LNCs were rapidly accumulated within cells (from 2 min exposure) through active and saturating mechanisms involving endogenous cholesterol with a major contribution of clathrin/caveolae-independent pathways. Although initially present in endosomes, LNCs can bypass the endo-lysosomal compartment with only 10% of the cell-internalized fraction found in isolated lysosomes after 2 h exposure. As demonstrated by use of lysosomal probes, LNCs reverted lysosome integrity similarly to V-ATPase inhibitors and in a size-dependent fashion with best efficiency for small nanoparticles. When loaded with paclitaxel, smallest LNCs also triggered the best cell death activity. Those LNC properties are ascribed to the proportion of HS-PEG they provided to the cell. They are important to consider toward the development of nanomedicines that use drugs sensitive to lysosomal degradation or that need to reach extra endo-lysosomal targets. PMID:20630585

Paillard, Archibald; Hindré, François; Vignes-Colombeix, Caroline; Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Garcion, Emmanuel

2010-10-01

220

Lysosomes and Intracellular Digestion in Sea Stars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study of lysosomes and intracellular digestion in sea stars seemed ideal. Echinoderms occupy an intermediate position in the phylogenetic progression from protozoan to mammal. A single sea star can cleanly provide a large amount of relatively homogeno...

G. S. Araki

1969-01-01

221

Renal lysosomal protein digestion in experimental lipidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The present study was undertaken to clarify whether or not chlorphentermine-induced lipidosis in the proximal tubules of the\\u000a rat kidney interferes with lysosomal degradation of an absorbed exogenous protein.125I-lysozyme was injected in vivo; its degradation was measured in vitro using slices from renal cortex. The subcellular distribution\\u000a of the protein was examined by electron microscope autoradiography. Lysosomes structurally altered by

Erik Ilsø Christensen; Arvid B. Maunsbach; Renate Lüllmann-Rauch

1983-01-01

222

Modulation of the transport of a lysosomal enzyme by PDGF  

PubMed Central

The major excreted protein (MEP) of transformed mouse fibroblasts is the lysosomal protease, cathepsin L. MEP is also secreted by untransformed mouse cells in response to growth factors and tumor promoters, and is thought to play a role in cell growth and transformation. To determine the relationship between MEP synthesis and MEP secretion, we have examined these events in PDGF-treated NIH 3T3 cells. PDGF enhanced MEP synthesis and caused the diversion of MEP from the lysosomal delivery pathway to a secretory pathway. These two effects were found to be regulated independently at various times after growth factor addition. Short PDGF treatments (0.5 or 1 h) resulted in quantitative secretion of MEP although synthesis was near the control level. High levels of both synthesis and secretion occurred between 2 and 14 h of PDGF treatment. Between 18 and 30 h, the amount of secreted MEP returned to the low control level even though synthesis remained elevated. The secretion was specific for MEP; other lysosomal enzymes were not found in the media from PDGF-treated cells. PDGF-induced secretion of MEP was inhibited 84% by cycloheximide, suggesting that protein synthesis is required to elicit this effect. PDGF also caused a time-dependent increase in mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P) receptor- mediated endocytosis. These data support a model in which PDGF alters the distribution of Man-6-P receptors such that the Golgi concentration of receptors becomes limiting, thereby causing the selective secretion of the low affinity ligand, MEP.

1990-01-01

223

Auditory Stream Segregation Improves Infants' Selective Attention to Target Tones Amid Distractors  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the role of auditory stream segregation in the selective attention to target tones in infancy. Using a task adapted from Bregman and Rudnicky’s (1975) study and implemented in a conditioned head-turn procedure, infant and adult listeners had to discriminate the temporal order of 2200 and 2400 Hz target tones presented alone, preceded and followed by 1460 Hz flanker tones, and presented within a series of 1460 Hz captor tones meant to release the target tones from the effects of the flankers by capturing the flankers into a separate stream. Infants showed the same pattern of discrimination across conditions as adults: discrimination of target tones in the target-alone condition, a decrease in performance when flanker tones were introduced, and a return to target-alone level in the captor condition. These results suggest that infants’ perceptual organization of tones is similar to that of adults, and that their ability to selectively attend to target sounds and ignore distractors depends on the structural properties and perceptual organization of the non-target sounds.

Smith, Nicholas A.; Trainor, Laurel J.

2011-01-01

224

Combinatorial selection of a single stranded DNA thioaptamer targeting TGF-beta1 protein  

PubMed Central

A phosphorothioate single-stranded DNA aptamer (thioaptamer) targeting transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) was isolated by in vitro combinatorial selection. The aptamer selection procedure was designed to modify the backbone of single-stranded DNA aptamers, where 5? of both A and C are phosphorothioates since this provides enhanced nuclease resistance as well as higher affinity than that of a phosphate counterpart. The thioaptamer selected from a combinatorial library (5 × 1014 sequences) binds to TGF-?1 protein with an affinity of 90 nM. In this report, sequence, predicted secondary structure, and binding affinity of the selected thioaptamer (T18_1_3) are presented.

Kang, Jonghoon; Lee, Myung Soog; Copland, John A.; Luxon, Bruce A.; Gorenstein, David G.

2008-01-01

225

Immune system irregularities in lysosomal storage disorders.  

PubMed

Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are genetically inherited diseases characterized by the accumulation of disease-specific biological materials such as proteolipids or metabolic intermediates within the lysosome. The lysosomal compartment's central importance to normal cellular function can be appreciated by examining the various pathologies that arise in LSDs. These disorders are invariably fatal, and many display profound neurological impairment that begins in childhood. However, recent studies have revealed that several LSDs also have irregularities in the function of the immune system. Gaucher disease, mucopolysaccharidosis VII, and alpha-mannosidosis are examples of a subset of LSD patients that are predisposed towards immune suppression. In contrast, GM2 gangliosidosis, globoid cell leukodystrophy, Niemann-Pick disease type C1 and juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis are LSDs that are predisposed towards immune system hyperactivity. Antigen presentation and processing by dedicated antigen presenting cells (APCs), secretion of pore-forming perforins by cytotoxic-T lymphocytes, and release of pro-inflammatory mediators by mast cells are among the many crucial immune system functions in which the lysosome plays a central role. Although the relationship between the modification of the lysosomal compartment in LSDs and modulation of the immune system remains unknown, there is emerging evidence for early neuroimmune responses in a variety of LSDs. In this review we bridge biochemical studies on the lysosomal compartment's role in the immune system with clinical data on immune system irregularities in a subset of LSDs. PMID:17924126

Castaneda, Julian A; Lim, Ming J; Cooper, Jonathan D; Pearce, David A

2008-02-01

226

Lysosomal Storage Disorders in the Newborn  

PubMed Central

Lysosomal storage disorders are rare inborn errors of metabolism, with a combined incidence of 1 in 1500 to 7000 live births. These relatively rare disorders are seldom considered when evaluating a sick newborn. A significant number of the >50 different lysosomal storage disorders, however, do manifest in the neonatal period and should be part of the differential diagnosis of several perinatal phenotypes. We review the earliest clinical features, diagnostic tests, and treatment options for lysosomal storage disorders that can present in the newborn. Although many of the lysosomal storage disorders are characterized by a range in phenotypes, the focus of this review is on the specific symptoms and clinical findings that present in the perinatal period, including neurologic, respiratory, endocrine, and cardiovascular manifestations, dysmorphic features, hepatosplenomegaly, skin or ocular involvement, and hydrops fetalis/congenital ascites. A greater awareness of these features may help to reduce misdiagnosis and promote the early detection of lysosomal storage disorders. Implementing therapy at the earliest stage possible is crucial for several of the lysosomal storage disorders; hence, an early appreciation of these disorders by physicians who treat newborns is essential.

Staretz-Chacham, Orna; Lang, Tess C.; LaMarca, Mary E.; Krasnewich, Donna; Sidransky, Ellen

2009-01-01

227

Optimal Intermittence in Search Strategies under Speed-Selective Target Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Random search theory has been previously explored for both continuous and intermittent scanning modes with full target detection capacity. Here we present a new class of random search problems in which a single searcher performs flights of random velocities, the detection probability when it passes over a target location being conditioned to the searcher speed. As a result, target detection involves an N-passage process for which the mean search time is here analytically obtained through a renewal approximation. We apply the idea of speed-selective detection to random animal foraging since a fast movement is known to significantly degrade perception abilities in many animals. We show that speed-selective detection naturally introduces an optimal level of behavioral intermittence in order to solve the compromise between fast relocations and target detection capability.

Campos, Daniel; Méndez, Vicenç; Bartumeus, Frederic

2012-01-01

228

Phylogeny-driven target selection for large-scale genome-sequencing (and other) projects  

PubMed Central

Despite the steadily decreasing costs of genome sequencing, prioritizing organisms for sequencing remains important in large-scale projects. Phylogeny-based selection is of interest to identify those organisms whose genomes can be expected to differ most from those that have already been sequenced. Here, we describe a method that infers a phylogenetic scoring independent of which set of organisms has previously been targeted, which is computationally simple and easy to apply in practice. The scoring itself, as well as pre- and post-processing of the data, is illustrated using two real-world examples in which the method has already been applied for selecting targets for genome sequencing. These projects are the JGI CSP Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea phase I, targeting 1,000 type strains, and, on a smaller-scale, the phylogenomics of the Roseobacter clade. Potential artifacts of the method are discussed and compared to a selection approach based on the taxonomic classification.

Goker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

2013-01-01

229

Phylogeny-driven target selection for large-scale genome-sequencing (and other) projects.  

PubMed

Despite the steadily decreasing costs of genome sequencing, prioritizing organisms for sequencing remains important in large-scale projects. Phylogeny-based selection is of interest to identify those organisms whose genomes can be expected to differ most from those that have already been sequenced. Here, we describe a method that infers a phylogenetic scoring independent of which set of organisms has previously been targeted, which is computationally simple and easy to apply in practice. The scoring itself, as well as pre- and post-processing of the data, is illustrated using two real-world examples in which the method has already been applied for selecting targets for genome sequencing. These projects are the JGI CSP Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea phase I, targeting 1,000 type strains, and, on a smaller-scale, the phylogenomics of the Roseobacter clade. Potential artifacts of the method are discussed and compared to a selection approach based on the taxonomic classification. PMID:23991265

Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

2013-01-01

230

Comparison of the cancer gene targeting and biochemical selectivities of all targeted kinase inhibitors approved for clinical use.  

PubMed

The anti-proliferative activities of all twenty-five targeted kinase inhibitor drugs that are in clinical use were measured in two large assay panels: (1) a panel of proliferation assays of forty-four human cancer cell lines from diverse tumour tissue origins; and (2) a panel of more than 300 kinase enzyme activity assays. This study provides a head-on comparison of all kinase inhibitor drugs in use (status Nov. 2013), and for six of these drugs, the first kinome profiling data in the public domain. Correlation of drug activities with cancer gene mutations revealed novel drug sensitivity markers, suggesting that cancers dependent on mutant CTNNB1 will respond to trametinib and other MEK inhibitors, and cancers dependent on SMAD4 to small molecule EGFR inhibitor drugs. Comparison of cellular targeting efficacies reveals the most targeted inhibitors for EGFR, ABL1 and BRAF(V600E)-driven cell growth, and demonstrates that the best targeted agents combine high biochemical potency with good selectivity. For ABL1 inhibitors, we computationally deduce optimized kinase profiles for use in a next generation of drugs. Our study shows the power of combining biochemical and cellular profiling data in the evaluation of kinase inhibitor drug action. PMID:24651269

Uitdehaag, Joost C M; de Roos, Jeroen A D M; van Doornmalen, Antoon M; Prinsen, Martine B W; de Man, Jos; Tanizawa, Yoshinori; Kawase, Yusuke; Yoshino, Kohichiro; Buijsman, Rogier C; Zaman, Guido J R

2014-01-01

231

Comparison of the Cancer Gene Targeting and Biochemical Selectivities of All Targeted Kinase Inhibitors Approved for Clinical Use  

PubMed Central

The anti-proliferative activities of all twenty-five targeted kinase inhibitor drugs that are in clinical use were measured in two large assay panels: (1) a panel of proliferation assays of forty-four human cancer cell lines from diverse tumour tissue origins; and (2) a panel of more than 300 kinase enzyme activity assays. This study provides a head-on comparison of all kinase inhibitor drugs in use (status Nov. 2013), and for six of these drugs, the first kinome profiling data in the public domain. Correlation of drug activities with cancer gene mutations revealed novel drug sensitivity markers, suggesting that cancers dependent on mutant CTNNB1 will respond to trametinib and other MEK inhibitors, and cancers dependent on SMAD4 to small molecule EGFR inhibitor drugs. Comparison of cellular targeting efficacies reveals the most targeted inhibitors for EGFR, ABL1 and BRAF(V600E)-driven cell growth, and demonstrates that the best targeted agents combine high biochemical potency with good selectivity. For ABL1 inhibitors, we computationally deduce optimized kinase profiles for use in a next generation of drugs. Our study shows the power of combining biochemical and cellular profiling data in the evaluation of kinase inhibitor drug action.

Uitdehaag, Joost C. M.; de Roos, Jeroen A. D. M.; van Doornmalen, Antoon M.; Prinsen, Martine B. W.; de Man, Jos; Tanizawa, Yoshinori; Kawase, Yusuke; Yoshino, Kohichiro; Buijsman, Rogier C.; Zaman, Guido J. R.

2014-01-01

232

Differential effects of laminar stimulation of V1 cortex on target selection by macaque monkeys.  

PubMed

We explored the effects of microstimulation on target selection by delivering stimulation at different depths within V1 (striate cortex) of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Stimulation evoked saccadic eye movements that terminated in the receptive-field location of the activated neurons. The current thresholds for saccade evocation were highest (> or = 30 micro A) in the superficial layers and lowest (< or = 10 micro A) in the deep layers. To study target selection, one visual target was presented in the receptive-field location of the stimulated neurons and a second visual target was presented outside this location. Microstimulation delivered in concert with the appearance of the two targets decreased the probability that a monkey would select the target placed in the receptive-field location when the upper layers of V1 were stimulated, and it increased this probability when the lower layers were stimulated. We suggest that microstimulation of the upper layers of V1 disrupts visual signals from retina en route to higher cortical areas, whereas microstimulation of the lower layers activates V1 efferents that innervate the oculomotor system. PMID:12270051

Tehovnik, Edward J; Slocum, Warren M; Schiller, Peter H

2002-08-01

233

Site-selective in vivo targeting of cytosine-5 DNA methylation by zinc-finger proteins  

PubMed Central

Cytosine-5 DNA methylation is a critical signal defining heritable epigenetic states of transcription. As aberrant methylation patterns often accompany disease states, the ability to target cytosine methylation to preselected regions could prove valuable in re-establishing proper gene regulation. We employ the strategy of targeted gene methylation in yeast, which has a naturally unmethylated genome, selectively directing de novo DNA methylation via the fusion of C5 DNA methyltransferases to heterologous DNA-binding proteins. The zinc-finger proteins Zif268 and Zip53 can target DNA methylation by M.CviPI or M.SssI 5–52 nt from single zinc-factor binding sites. Modification at specific GC (M.CviPI) or CG (M.SssI) sites is enhanced as much as 20-fold compared with strains expressing either the free enzyme or a fusion protein with the zinc-finger protein moiety unable to bind to DNA. Interestingly, methylation is also selectively targeted as far as 353 nt from the zinc-finger protein binding sites, possibly indicative of looping, nucleosomes or higher-order chromatin structure. These data demonstrate that methylation can be targeted in vivo to a potentially broad range of sequences using specifically engineered zinc-finger proteins. Further more, the selective targeting of methylation by zinc-finger proteins demonstrates that binding of distinct classes of factors can be monitored in living cells.

Carvin, Christopher D.; Parr, Rebecca D.; Kladde, Michael P.

2003-01-01

234

Visual Target Selection and Motor Planning Define Attentional Enhancement at Perceptual Processing Stages  

PubMed Central

Extracting information from the visual field can be achieved by covertly orienting attention to different regions, or by making saccades to bring areas of interest onto the fovea. While much research has shown a link between covert attention and saccade preparation, the nature of that link remains a matter of dispute. Covert presaccadic orienting could result from target selection or from planning a motor act toward an object. We examined the contribution of visual target selection and motor preparation to attentional orienting in humans by dissociating these two habitually aligned processes with saccadic adaptation. Adaptation introduces a discrepancy between the visual target evoking a saccade and the motor metrics of that saccade, which, unbeknownst to the participant, brings the eyes to a different spatial location. We examined attentional orienting by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to task-irrelevant visual probes flashed during saccade preparation at four equidistant locations including the visual target location and the upcoming motor endpoint. ERPs as early as 130–170?ms post-probe were modulated by attention at both the visual target and motor endpoint locations. These results indicate that both target selection and motor preparation determine the focus of spatial attention, resulting in enhanced processing of stimuli at early visual-perceptual stages.

Collins, Therese; Heed, Tobias; Roder, Brigitte

2009-01-01

235

Expression of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) in astrocytomas  

PubMed Central

Targeting of lysosomes is a novel therapeutic anti-cancer strategy for killing the otherwise apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. Such strategies are urgently needed for treatment of brain tumors, especially the glioblastoma, which is the most frequent and most malignant type. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of lysosomes in astrocytic brain tumors focussing also on the therapy resistant tumor stem cells. Expression of the lysosomal marker LAMP-1 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1) was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 112 formalin fixed paraffin embedded astrocytomas and compared with tumor grade and overall patient survival. Moreover, double immunofluorescence stainings were performed with LAMP-1 and the astrocytic marker GFAP and the putative stem cell marker CD133 on ten glioblastomas. Most tumors expressed the LAMP-1 protein in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells, while the blood vessels were positive in all tumors. The percentage of LAMP-1 positive tumor cells and staining intensities increased with tumor grade but variations in tumors of the same grade were also found. No association was found between LAMP-1 expression and patient overall survival in the individual tumor grades. LAMP-1/GFAP showed pronounced co-expression and LAMP-1/CD133 was co-expressed as well suggesting that tumor cells including the proposed tumor stem cells contain lysosomes. The results suggest that high amounts of lysosomes are present in glioblastomas and in the proposed tumor stem cells. Targeting of lysosomes may be a promising novel therapeutic strategy against this highly malignant neoplasm.

Jensen, Stine S; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Christensen, Karina G; Kristensen, Bjarne

2013-01-01

236

A hybrid fibronectin motif protein as an integrin targeting selective tumor vascular thrombogen.  

PubMed

Targeted thrombotic eradication of solid tumors is a novel therapeutic strategy. The feasibility, efficacy, selectivity, and safety are dependent on multiple variables of protein design, molecular assembly, vascular target, and exclusive restriction of function to the tumor vasculature. To advance this strategy, we describe a design of an integrin targeting selective tumor vascular thrombogen. We adopted the fibronectin structural motif of tandem repeating modules with four type III repeat modules of fibronectin followed by two structurally homologous modules of the extracellular domain of tissue factor. This hybrid protein of six tandem modules recognizes integrins and selectively docks and initiates the thrombogenic protease cascade locally on the target cell surfaces. The protein is inactive in blood but is functionally active once assembled on integrin-positive cells. When administered i.v. to tumor-bearing mice, it selectively induces extensive local microthrombosis of the tumor microvasculature. The principles are addressed from the perspective of protein structural design for a class of selective tumor vascular thrombogen proteins that, through interaction with tumor angiogenic endothelium, elicit thrombotic occlusion rather than apoptosis or arrest of angiogenesis. This response can produce local tumor infarction followed by intratumoral ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammation, and a local host tumor eradicative response. PMID:15252140

Liu, Cheng; Dickinson, Craig; Shobe, Justin; Doñate, Fernando; Ruf, Wolfram; Edgington, Thomas

2004-07-01

237

The exploitation of differential endocytic pathways in normal and tumor cells in the selective targeting of nanoparticulate chemotherapeutic agents  

PubMed Central

Polymeric micelles with cross-linked ionic cores of poly(methacrylic acid) and nonionic shell of poly(ethylene oxide) (cl-micelles) are shown here to readily internalize in epithelial cancer cells but not in normal epithelial cells that form tight junctions (TJ). The internalization of such cl-micelles in the cancer cells proceeded mainly through caveolae-mediated endocytosis. In confluent normal epithelial cells this endocytosis route was absent at the apical side and the cl-micelles sequestered in TJ regions of the cell membrane without entering the cells for at least 24 hours. Disruption of the TJ by calcium deprivation resulted in redistribution of cl-micelles inside the cells. In cancer cells following initial cellular entry the cl-micelles bypassed the early endosomes and reached the lysosomes within 30 minutes. This allowed designing cl-micelles with cytotoxic drug, doxorubicin, linked via pH-sensitive hydrazone bonds, which were cleaved in the acidic environment of lysosomes resulting in accumulation of the drug in the nucleus after 5 hours. Such pH-sensitive cl-micelles displayed selective toxicity to cancer cells but were nontoxic to normal epithelial cells. In conclusion, we describe major difference in interactions of cl-micelles with cancer and normal cells that can lead to development of novel drug delivery system with reduced side effects and higher efficacy in cancer chemotherapy.

Sahay, Gaurav; Kim, Jong Oh; Kabanov, Alexander V; Bronich, Tatiana K

2011-01-01

238

Risk-Targeted Selection of Agricultural Holdings for Post-Epidemic Surveillance: Estimation of Efficiency Gains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current post-epidemic sero-surveillance uses random selection of animal holdings. A better strategy may be to estimate the benefits gained by sampling each farm and use this to target selection. In this study we estimate the probability of undiscovered infection for sheep farms in Devon after the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak using the combination of a previously published model of daily

Ian G. Handel; Barend M. De C. Bronsvoort; John F. Forbes; Mark E. J. Woolhouse; Michael George Roberts

2011-01-01

239

Role of lysosomal and cytosolic pH in the regulation of macrophage lysosomal enzyme secretion.  

PubMed Central

Rapid and parallel secretion of lysosomal beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and preloaded fluorescein-labelled dextran was initiated in macrophages by agents affecting intracellular pH (methylamine, chlorpromazine, and the ionophores monensin and nigericin). In order to evaluate the relative role of changes in lysosomal and cytosolic pH, these parameters were monitored by using pH-sensitive fluorescent probes [fluorescein-labelled dextran or 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein]. All agents except chlorpromazine caused large increases in lysosomal pH under conditions where they induced secretion. By varying extracellular pH and ion composition, the changes in lysosomal and cytosolic pH could be dissociated. Secretion was then found to be significantly modulated by changes in cytosolic pH, being enhanced by alkalinization and severely inhibited by cytosolic acidification. However, changes in cytosolic pH in the absence of stimulus were unable to initiate secretion. Dissociation of the effects on lysosomal and cytosolic pH was also achieved by combining stimuli with either nigericin or acetate. Further support for a role of intracellular pH in the control of lysosomal enzyme secretion was provided by experiments where bicarbonate was included in the medium. The present study demonstrates that an increase in lysosomal pH is sufficient to initiate lysosomal enzyme secretion in macrophages and provides evidence for a significant regulatory role of cytosolic pH.

Tapper, H; Sundler, R

1990-01-01

240

Frontoparietal theta activity supports behavioral decisions in movement-target selection  

PubMed Central

There is recent EEG evidence describing task-related changes of theta power in spatial attention and reaching/pointing tasks. Here, we aim to better characterize this theta activity and determine whether it is associated with visuospatial memory or with visuospatial selection functions of the frontoparietal cortex. We recorded EEG from 20 participants during a movement precuing task with center-out joystick movements. Precues displayed 1, 2, or 4 potential targets and were followed (stimulus onset asynchrony 1.2 s) by a central response cue indicating the movement-target. Remembering the precued target location(s) was mandatory in one and optional in a second version of the task. Analyses evaluated two slow brain potentials (CNV, contingent negative variation and CDA, contralateral delay activity) and task-related power changes. Results showed a differential modulation of frontal CNV and parietal CDA, consistent with earlier described set-size effects on motor preparation and visual short-term memory. Short-lived phases of theta event-related synchronization (ERS) were found 150–500 ms after precue and response cue presentation, exhibiting parietal and frontal maxima. The increase of frontoparietal theta power following response cue presentation was strongly modulated by target load, i.e., absent for 1-target (when the movement-target could be selected in advance), contrasting with a robust 20–50% ERS response in 2- and 4-target conditions. The scalp distribution, the timing, and the modulation by set-size suggest a role of theta activity in movement-target selection. The results support a recently proposed view of theta as emerging around behavioral decision points, linked to the evaluation of choice-relevant information.

Rawle, Christian J.; Miall, R. Chris; Praamstra, Peter

2012-01-01

241

Imaging and imagination: understanding the endo-lysosomal system  

PubMed Central

Lysosomes are specialized compartments for the degradation of endocytosed and intracellular material and essential regulators of cellular homeostasis. The importance of lysosomes is illustrated by the rapidly growing number of human disorders related to a defect in lysosomal functioning. Here, we review current insights in the mechanisms of lysosome biogenesis and protein sorting within the endo-lysosomal system. We present increasing evidence for the existence of parallel pathways for the delivery of newly synthesized lysosomal proteins directly from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endo-lysosomal system. These pathways are either dependent or independent of mannose 6-phosphate receptors and likely involve multiple exits for lysosomal proteins from the TGN. In addition, we discuss the different endosomal intermediates and subdomains that are involved in sorting of endocytosed cargo. Throughout our review, we highlight some examples in the literature showing how imaging, especially electron microscopy, has made major contributions to our understanding of the endo-lysosomal system today.

van Meel, Eline

2008-01-01

242

Near Surface Swimming of Salmonella Typhimurium Explains Target-Site Selection and Cooperative Invasion  

PubMed Central

Targeting of permissive entry sites is crucial for bacterial infection. The targeting mechanisms are incompletely understood. We have analyzed target-site selection by S. Typhimurium. This enteropathogenic bacterium employs adhesins (e.g. fim) and the type III secretion system 1 (TTSS-1) for host cell binding, the triggering of ruffles and invasion. Typically, S. Typhimurium invasion is focused on a subset of cells and multiple bacteria invade via the same ruffle. It has remained unclear how this is achieved. We have studied target-site selection in tissue culture by time lapse microscopy, movement pattern analysis and modeling. Flagellar motility (but not chemotaxis) was required for reaching the host cell surface in vitro. Subsequently, physical forces trapped the pathogen for ?1.5–3 s in “near surface swimming”. This increased the local pathogen density and facilitated “scanning” of the host surface topology. We observed transient TTSS-1 and fim-independent “stopping” and irreversible TTSS-1-mediated docking, in particular at sites of prominent topology, i.e. the base of rounded-up cells and membrane ruffles. Our data indicate that target site selection and the cooperative infection of membrane ruffles are attributable to near surface swimming. This mechanism might be of general importance for understanding infection by flagellated bacteria.

Kreibich, Saskia; Vonaesch, Pascale; Andritschke, Daniel; Rout, Samuel; Weidner, Kerstin; Sormaz, Milos; Songhet, Pascal; Horvath, Peter; Chabria, Mamta; Vogel, Viola; Spori, Doris M.; Jenny, Patrick; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

2012-01-01

243

The feasibility of targeted selective gene therapy of the hair follicle.  

PubMed

Loss of hair and hair colour is associated with ageing, and when it involves the scalp hair, it can be distressing to both sexes. Hair loss resulting from cancer chemotherapy is particularly distressing. However, safe, effective therapies directed to hair have only just started to be developed. The hair follicle is a complex skin appendage composed of epidermal and dermal tissue, with specialized keratinocytes, the hair matrix cells, forming the hair shaft. Specific therapy of the hair follicle depends on selective targeting of specific cells of the hair follicle. We have developed the histoculture of intact hair-growing skin on sponge-gel matrices. We have recently found in histocultured skin that liposomes can selectively target hair follicles to deliver both small and large molecules. That liposomes can target the hair follicle for delivery has been confirmed independently. Two decades ago we introduced the technique of entrapping DNA in liposomes for use in gene therapy. In this report we describe the selective targeting of the lacZ reporter gene to the hair follicles in mice after topical application of the gene entrapped in liposomes. These results demonstrate that highly selective, safe gene therapy for the hair process is feasible. PMID:7585157

Li, L; Hoffman, R M

1995-07-01

244

Target Selection for the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a high-resolution infrared spectroscopic survey spanning all Galactic environments (i.e., bulge, disk, and halo), with the principal goal of constraining dynamical and chemical evolution models of the Milky Way. APOGEE takes advantage of the reduced effects of extinction at infrared wavelengths to observe the inner Galaxy and bulge at an unprecedented level of detail. The survey's broad spatial and wavelength coverage enables users of APOGEE data to address numerous Galactic structure and stellar populations issues. In this paper we describe the APOGEE targeting scheme and document its various target classes to provide the necessary background and reference information to analyze samples of APOGEE data with awareness of the imposed selection criteria and resulting sample properties. APOGEE's primary sample consists of ~105 red giant stars, selected to minimize observational biases in age and metallicity. We present the methodology and considerations that drive the selection of this sample and evaluate the accuracy, efficiency, and caveats of the selection and sampling algorithms. We also describe additional target classes that contribute to the APOGEE sample, including numerous ancillary science programs, and we outline the targeting data that will be included in the public data releases.

Zasowski, G.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Majewski, S. R.; Nidever, D. L.; Rocha Pinto, H. J.; Girardi, L.; Andrews, B.; Chojnowski, S. D.; Cudworth, K. M.; Jackson, K.; Munn, J.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Beaton, R. L.; Blake, C. H.; Covey, K.; Deshpande, R.; Epstein, C.; Fabbian, D.; Fleming, S. W.; Garcia Hernandez, D. A.; Herrero, A.; Mahadevan, S.; Mészáros, Sz.; Schultheis, M.; Sellgren, K.; Terrien, R.; van Saders, J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Bizyaev, D.; Burton, A.; Cunha, K.; da Costa, L. N.; Hasselquist, S.; Hearty, F.; Holtzman, J.; García Pérez, A. E.; Maia, M. A. G.; O'Connell, R. W.; O'Donnell, C.; Pinsonneault, M.; Santiago, B. X.; Schiavon, R. P.; Shetrone, M.; Smith, V.; Wilson, J. C.

2013-10-01

245

The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt1/Par-4 axis: a cancer-selective therapeutic target.  

PubMed

Activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt cell survival pathway in many cancers makes it an appealing target for therapeutic development. However, because this pathway also has an important role in the survival of normal cells, tactics to achieve cancer selectivity may prove important. We recently showed that the cancer-selective proapoptotic protein Par-4 is a key target for inactivation by PI3K/Akt signaling. Additionally, we found that Par-4 participates in mediating apoptosis by PTEN, the tumor suppressor responsible for blocking PI3K/Akt signaling. As a central player in cancer cell survival, Par-4 may provide a useful focus for the development of cancer-selective therapeutics. PMID:16540633

Goswami, Anindya; Ranganathan, Padhma; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2006-03-15

246

Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 is a target for selective kinase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

New drugs are needed to treat toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinases (TgCDPKs) are attractive targets because they are absent in mammals. We show that TgCDPK1 is inhibited by low nanomolar levels of bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs), compounds designed to be inactive against mammalian kinases. Cocrystal structures of TgCDPK1 with BKIs confirm that the structural basis for selectivity is due to the unique glycine gatekeeper residue in the ATP-binding site at residue 128. We show that BKIs interfere with an early step in T. gondii infection of human cells in culture. Furthermore, we show that TgCDPK1 is the in vivo target of BKIs because T. gondii cells expressing a glycine to methionine gatekeeper mutant enzyme show significantly decreased sensitivity to this class of selective kinase inhibitors. Thus, design of selective TgCDPK1 inhibitors with low host toxicity may be achievable.

Ojo, Kayode K; Larson, Eric T; Keyloun, Katelyn R; Castaneda, Lisa J; DeRocher, Amy E; Inampudi, Krishna K; Kim, Jessica E; Arakaki, Tracy L; Murphy, Ryan C; Zhang, Li; Napuli, Alberto J; Maly, Dustin J; Verlinde, Christophe LMJ; Buckner, Frederick S; Parsons, Marilyn; Hol, Wim GJ; Merritt, Ethan A; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

2010-01-01

247

Dictyostelium LvsB Mutants Model the Lysosomal Defects Associated with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Chediak-Higashi syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in a gene encoding a protein named LYST in humans (“lysosomal trafficking regulator”) or Beige in mice. A prominent feature of this disease is the accumulation of enlarged lysosome-related granules in a variety of cells. The genome of Dictyostelium discoideum contains six genes encoding proteins that are related to LYST/Beige in amino acid sequence, and disruption of one of these genes, lvsA (large volume sphere), results in profound defects in cytokinesis. To better understand the function of this family of proteins in membrane trafficking, we have analyzed mutants disrupted in lvsA, lvsB, lvsC, lvsD, lvsE, and lvsF. Of all these, only lvsA and lvsB mutants displayed interesting phenotypes in our assays. lvsA-null cells exhibited defects in phagocytosis and contained abnormal looking contractile vacuole membranes. Loss of LvsB, the Dictyostelium protein most similar to LYST/Beige, resulted in the formation of enlarged vesicles that by multiple criteria appeared to be acidic lysosomes. The rates of endocytosis, phagocytosis, and fluid phase exocytosis were normal in lvsB-null cells. Also, the rates of processing and the efficiency of targeting of lysosomal ?-mannosidase were normal, although lvsB mutants inefficiently retained ?-mannosidase, as well as two other lysosomal cysteine proteinases. Finally, results of pulse-chase experiments indicated that an increase in fusion rates accounted for the enlarged lysosomes in lvsB-null cells, suggesting that LvsB acts as a negative regulator of fusion. Our results support the notion that LvsB/LYST/Beige function in a similar manner to regulate lysosome biogenesis.

Harris, Edward; Wang, Ning; Wu, Wei-l; Weatherford, Alisha; De Lozanne, Arturo; Cardelli, James

2002-01-01

248

Abnormal autophagy, ubiquitination, inflammation and apoptosis are dependent upon lysosomal storage and are useful biomarkers of mucopolysaccharidosis VI  

PubMed Central

Background Lysosomal storage diseases are characterized by intracellular accumulation of metabolites within lysosomes. Recent evidence suggests that lysosomal storage impairs autophagy resulting in accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and dysfunctional mitochondria, ultimately leading to apoptosis. We studied the relationship between lysosome storage and impairment of different intracellular pathways and organelle function in mucopolysaccharidosis VI, which is characterized by accumulation of dermatan sulfate and signs of visceral and skeletal but not cerebral involvement. Results We show lysosomal storage, impaired autophagy, accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins, and mitochondrial dysfunction in fibroblasts from mucopolysaccharidosis VI patients. We observe similar anomalies, along with inflammation and cell death, in association with dermatan sulfate storage in the visceral organs of mucopolysaccharidosis VI rats, but not in their central nervous system where dermatan sulfate storage is absent. Importantly, we show that prevention of dermatan sulfate storage in the mucopolysaccharidosis VI rat visceral organs by gene transfer results in correction of abnormal autophagy, inflammation, and apoptosis, suggesting that dermatan sulfate accumulation impairs lysosomal ability to receive and degrade molecules and organelles from the autophagic pathway, thus leading to cell toxicity. Conclusion These results indicate that the non-lysosomal degradation pathways we found activated in mucopolysaccharidosis VI can be both targets of new experimental therapies and biomarkers for follow-up of existing treatments.

Tessitore, Alessandra; Pirozzi, Marinella; Auricchio, Alberto

2009-01-01

249

"Salla disease": a new lysosomal storage disorder.  

PubMed

Severe mental retardation, coarse facial features, clumsiness, and speech failure were common findings in three brothers and one female third-cousin of a family from northern Finland. All the patients had vacuolated lymphocytes in peripheral blood smears, and electron microscopy of fresh skin biopsy specimens showed abundant cytoplasmic inclusions in various types of cells of the skin. Eight lysosomal hydrolases were assayed in peripheral blood lymphocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts, but no enzyme deficiency was detected. Urinary excretion of mucopolysaccharides, amino acids, glycoasparagines, and oligosaccharides was normal. Clinical findings, course of the disease, and the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions, indicating lysosomal storage phenomenon, suggest that the patients suffer from a genetic lysosomal storage disorder not described earlier. The eponym "Salla disease" was introduced, referring to the geographically restricted area where the family resides. PMID:420628

Aula, P; Autio, S; Raivio, K O; Rapola, J; Thodén, C J; Koskela, S L; Yamashina, I

1979-02-01

250

Reduction of Nanoparticle Avidity Enhances the Selectivity of Vascular Targeting and PET Detection of Pulmonary Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Targeting nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with drugs and probes to precise locations in the body may improve the treatment and detection of many diseases. Generally, to achieve targeting, affinity ligands are introduced on the surface of NPs that can bind to molecules present on the cell of interest. Optimization of ligand density is a critical parameter in controlling NP binding to target cells and a higher ligand density is not always the most effective. In this study, we investigated how NP avidity affects targeting to the pulmonary vasculature, using NPs targeted to ICAM-1. This cell adhesion molecule is expressed by quiescent endothelium at modest levels and is upregulated in a variety of pathological settings. NP avidity was controlled by ligand density, with the expected result that higher avidity NPs demonstrated greater pulmonary uptake than lower avidity NPs in both naïve and pathological mice. However, in comparison with high avidity NPs, low avidity NPs exhibited several-fold higher selectivity of targeting to pathological endothelium. This finding was translated into a PET imaging platform that was more effective in detecting pulmonary vascular inflammation using low avidity NPs. Furthermore, computational modeling revealed that elevated expression of ICAM-1 on the endothelium is critical for multivalent anchoring of NPs with low avidity, while high avidity NPs anchor effectively to both quiescent and activated endothelium. These results provide a paradigm that can be used to optimize NP targeting by manipulating ligand density, and may find biomedical utility for increasing detection of pathological vasculature.

Zern, Blaine J.; Chacko, Ann-Marie; Liu, Jin; Greineder, Colin F.; Blankemeyer, Eric R.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Muzykantov, Vladimir

2013-01-01

251

Arylsulfatase K, a novel lysosomal sulfatase.  

PubMed

The human sulfatase family has 17 members, 13 of which have been characterized biochemically. These enzymes specifically hydrolyze sulfate esters in glycosaminoglycans, sulfolipids, or steroid sulfates, thereby playing key roles in cellular degradation, cell signaling, and hormone regulation. The loss of sulfatase activity has been linked to severe pathophysiological conditions such as lysosomal storage disorders, developmental abnormalities, or cancer. A novel member of this family, arylsulfatase K (ARSK), was identified bioinformatically through its conserved sulfatase signature sequence directing posttranslational generation of the catalytic formylglycine residue in sulfatases. However, overall sequence identity of ARSK with other human sulfatases is low (18-22%). Here we demonstrate that ARSK indeed shows desulfation activity toward arylsulfate pseudosubstrates. When expressed in human cells, ARSK was detected as a 68-kDa glycoprotein carrying at least four N-glycans of both the complex and high-mannose type. Purified ARSK turned over p-nitrocatechol and p-nitrophenyl sulfate. This activity was dependent on cysteine 80, which was verified to undergo conversion to formylglycine. Kinetic parameters were similar to those of several lysosomal sulfatases involved in degradation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. An acidic pH optimum (~4.6) and colocalization with LAMP1 verified lysosomal functioning of ARSK. Further, it carries mannose 6-phosphate, indicating lysosomal sorting via mannose 6-phosphate receptors. ARSK mRNA expression was found in all tissues tested, suggesting a ubiquitous physiological substrate and a so far non-classified lysosomal storage disorder in the case of ARSK deficiency, as shown before for all other lysosomal sulfatases. PMID:23986440

Wiegmann, Elena Marie; Westendorf, Eva; Kalus, Ina; Pringle, Thomas H; Lübke, Torben; Dierks, Thomas

2013-10-18

252

Allele-Selective Inhibition of Mutant Huntingtin Expression with Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting the Expanded CAG Repeat  

PubMed Central

Huntington's disease (HD) is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat within the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Therapeutic approaches include selectively inhibiting the expression of the mutated HTT allele while conserving function of the normal allele. We have evaluated a series of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeted to the expanded CAG repeat within HTT mRNA for their ability to selectively inhibit expression of mutant HTT protein. Several ASOs incorporating a variety of modifications, including bridged nucleic acids and phosphorothioate internucleotide linkages, exhibited allele-selective silencing in patient-derived fibroblasts. Allele-selective ASOs did not affect the expression of other CAG repeat-containing genes and selectivity was observed in cell lines containing minimal CAG repeat lengths representative of most HD patients. Allele-selective ASOs left HTT mRNA intact and did not support ribonuclease H activity in vitro. We observed cooperative binding of multiple ASO molecules to CAG repeat-containing HTT mRNA transcripts in vitro. These results are consistent with a mechanism involving inhibition at the level of translation. ASOs targeted to the CAG repeat of HTT provide a starting point for the development of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics that can inhibit gene expression with allelic discrimination in patients with HD.

Gagnon, Keith T.; Pendergraff, Hannah M.; Deleavey, Glen F.; Swayze, Eric E.; Potier, Pierre; Randolph, John; Roesch, Eric B.; Chattopadhyaya, Jyoti; Damha, Masad J.; Bennett, C. Frank; Montaillier, Christophe; Lemaitre, Marc; Corey, David R.

2010-01-01

253

Glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage diseases: therapy and pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Paediatric neurodegenerative diseases are frequently caused by inborn errors in glycosphingolipid (GSL) catabolism and are collectively termed the glycosphingolipidoses. GSL catabolism occurs in the lysosome and a defect in an enzyme involved in GSL degradation leads to the lysosomal storage of its substrate(s). GSLs are abundantly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and the disorders frequently have a progressive neurodegenerative course. Our understanding of pathogenesis in these diseases is incomplete and currently few options exist for therapy. In this review we discuss how mouse models of these disorders are providing insights into pathogenesis and also leading to progress in evaluating experimental therapies. PMID:12366816

Jeyakumar, M; Butters, T D; Dwek, R A; Platt, F M

2002-10-01

254

Lysosomal membrane permeability stimulates protein aggregate formation in neurons of a lysosomal disease.  

PubMed

Protein aggregates are a common pathological feature of neurodegenerative diseases and several lysosomal diseases, but it is currently unclear what aggregates represent for pathogenesis. Here we report the accumulation of intraneuronal aggregates containing the macroautophagy adapter proteins p62 and NBR1 in the neurodegenerative lysosomal disease late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN2 disease). CLN2 disease is caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase I, which results in aberrant lysosomal storage of catabolites, including the subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase (SCMAS). In an effort to define the role of aggregates in CLN2, we evaluated p62 and NBR1 accumulation in the CNS of Cln2(-/-) mice. Although increases in p62 and NBR1 often suggest compromised degradative mechanisms, we found normal ubiquitin-proteasome system function and only modest inefficiency in macroautophagy late in disease. Importantly, we identified that SCMAS colocalizes with p62 in extra-lysosomal aggregates in Cln2(-/-) neurons in vivo. This finding is consistent with SCMAS being released from lysosomes, an event known as lysosomal membrane permeability (LMP). We predicted that LMP and storage release from lysosomes results in the sequestration of this material as cytosolic aggregates by p62 and NBR1. Notably, LMP induction in primary neuronal cultures generates p62-positive aggregates and promotes p62 localization to lysosomal membranes, supporting our in vivo findings. We conclude that LMP is a previously unrecognized pathogenic event in CLN2 disease that stimulates cytosolic aggregate formation. Furthermore, we offer a novel role for p62 in response to LMP that may be relevant for other diseases exhibiting p62 accumulation. PMID:23804102

Micsenyi, Matthew C; Sikora, Jakub; Stephney, Gloria; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Walkley, Steven U

2013-06-26

255

A Proteolytic Cascade Controls Lysosome Rupture and Necrotic Cell Death Mediated by Lysosome-Destabilizing Adjuvants  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have linked necrotic cell death and proteolysis of inflammatory proteins to the adaptive immune response mediated by the lysosome-destabilizing adjuvants, alum and Leu-Leu-OMe (LLOMe). However, the mechanism by which lysosome-destabilizing agents trigger necrosis and proteolysis of inflammatory proteins is poorly understood. The proteasome is a cellular complex that has been shown to regulate both necrotic cell death and proteolysis of inflammatory proteins. We found that the peptide aldehyde proteasome inhibitors, MG115 and MG132, block lysosome rupture, degradation of inflammatory proteins and necrotic cell death mediated by the lysosome-destabilizing peptide LLOMe. However, non-aldehyde proteasome inhibitors failed to prevent LLOMe-induced cell death suggesting that aldehyde proteasome inhibitors triggered a pleotropic effect. We have previously shown that cathepsin C controls lysosome rupture, necrotic cell death and the adaptive immune response mediated by LLOMe. Using recombinant cathepsin C, we found that aldehyde proteasome inhibitors directly block cathepsin C, which presumably prevents LLOMe toxicity. The cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074-Me also blocks lysosome rupture and necrotic cell death mediated by a wide range of necrosis inducers, including LLOMe. Using cathepsin-deficient cells and recombinant cathepsins, we demonstrate that the cathepsins B and C are not required for the CA-074-Me block of necrotic cell death. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that lysosome-destabilizing adjuvants trigger an early proteolytic cascade, involving cathepsin C and a CA-074-Me-dependent protease. Identification of these early events leading to lysosome rupture will be crucial in our understanding of processes controlling necrotic cell death and immune responses mediated by lysosome-destabilizing adjuvants.

Muehlbauer, Stefan M.; Chandran, Kartik; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

2014-01-01

256

Principles of lysosomal membrane degradation: Cellular topology and biochemistry of lysosomal lipid degradation.  

PubMed

Cellular membranes enter the lysosomal compartment by endocytosis, phagocytosis, or autophagy. Within the lysosomal compartment, membrane components of complex structure are degraded into their building blocks. These are able to leave the lysosome and can then be utilized for the resynthesis of complex molecules or can be further degraded. Constitutive degradation of membranes occurs on the surface of intra-endosomal and intra-lysosomal membrane structures. Many integral membrane proteins are sorted to the inner membranes of endosomes and lysosome after ubiquitinylation. In the lysosome, proteins are degraded by proteolytic enzymes, the cathepsins. Phospholipids originating from lipoproteins or cellular membranes are degraded by phospholipases. Water-soluble glycosidases sequentially cleave off the terminal carbohydrate residues of glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, and glycosphingolipids. For glycosphingolipids with short oligosaccharide chains, the additional presence of membrane-active lysosomal lipid-binding proteins is required. The presence of lipid-binding proteins overcomes the phase problem of water soluble enzymes and lipid substrates by transferring the substrate to the degrading enzyme or by solubilizing the internal membranes. The lipid composition of intra-lysosomal vesicles differs from that of the plasma membrane. To allow at least glycosphingolipid degradation by hydrolases and activator proteins, the cholesterol content of these intraorganellar membranes decreases during endocytosis and the concentration of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate, a stimulator of sphingolipid degradation, increases. A considerable part of our current knowledge about mechanism and biochemistry of lysosomal lipid degradation is derived from a class of human diseases, the sphingolipidoses, which are caused by inherited defects within sphingolipid and glycosphingolipid catabolism. PMID:19014978

Schulze, Heike; Kolter, Thomas; Sandhoff, Konrad

2009-04-01

257

Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors display broad selectivity and inhibit multiple carboxylesterases as off-targets.  

PubMed

Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the primary regulator of several bioactive lipid amides including anandamide. Inhibitors of FAAH are potentially useful for the treatment of pain, anxiety, depression, and other nervous system disorders. However, FAAH inhibitors must display selectivity for this enzyme relative to the numerous other serine hydrolases present in the human proteome in order to be therapeutically acceptable. Here we employed activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) to assess the selectivity of FAAH inhibitors in multiple rat and human tissues. We discovered that some inhibitors, including carbamate compounds SA-47 and SA-72, and AM404 are exceptionally selective while others, like URB597, BMS-1, OL-135, and LY2077855 are less selective, displaying multiple off-targets. Since proteins around 60kDa constitute the major off-targets for URB597 and several other FAAH inhibitors with different chemical structures, we employed the multi-dimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) approach to analyze their identities. We identified multiple carboxylesterase isozymes as bona fide off-targets of FAAH inhibitors. Consistently, enzymatic assay confirmed inhibition of carboxylesterase activities in rat liver by FAAH inhibitors. Since carboxylesterases hydrolyze a variety of ester-containing drugs and prodrugs, we speculate that certain FAAH inhibitors, by inhibiting carboxylesterases, might have drug-drug interactions with other medicines if developed as therapeutic agents. PMID:17217969

Zhang, Di; Saraf, Anita; Kolasa, Teodozyi; Bhatia, Pramila; Zheng, Guo Zhu; Patel, Meena; Lannoye, Greg S; Richardson, Paul; Stewart, Andrew; Rogers, John C; Brioni, Jorge D; Surowy, Carol S

2007-03-01

258

The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and the Autophagic-Lysosomal System in Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

As neurons age, their survival depends on eliminating a growing burden of damaged, potentially toxic proteins and organelles—a capability that declines owing to aging and disease factors. Here, we review the two proteolytic systems principally responsible for protein quality control in neurons and their important contributions to Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. In the first section, the discovery of paired helical filament ubiquitination is described as a backdrop for discussing the importance of the ubiquitin–proteasome system in Alzheimer disease. In the second section, we review the prominent involvement of the lysosomal system beginning with pathological endosomal–lysosomal activation and signaling at the very earliest stages of Alzheimer disease followed by the progressive failure of autophagy. These abnormalities, which result in part from Alzheimer-related genes acting directly on these lysosomal pathways, contribute to the development of each of the Alzheimer neuropathological hallmarks and represent a promising therapeutic target.

Ihara, Yasuo; Morishima-Kawashima, Maho; Nixon, Ralph

2012-01-01

259

Mucolipidosis II and III. The genetic relationships between two disorders of lysosomal enzyme biosynthesis.  

PubMed Central

The genetic relationships between the multiple variants of mucolipidosis II (I-cell disease) and mucolipidosis III (pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy) were investigated with a sensitive genetic complementation analysis procedure. These clinically distinct disorders have defects in the synthesis of a recognition marker necessary for the intracellular transport of acid hydrolases into lysosomes. Both disorders are associated with an inherited deficiency of a uridine diphosphate-N-acetyl-glucosamine: lysosomal enzyme precursor N-acetyl-glucosamine-phosphate transferase activity. We had previously shown that both disorders are genetically heterogeneous. Complementation analysis between mucolipidosis II and III fibroblasts indicated an identity of mucolipidosis II with one of the three mucolipidosis III complementation groups (ML IIIA), suggesting a close genetic relationship between these groups. The presence of several instances of complementation within this group suggested an intragenic complementation mechanism. Genetic complementation in heterokaryons resulted in increases in N-acetyl-glucosamine-phosphate transferase activity, as well as in the correction of lysosomal enzyme transport. This resulted in increases in the intracellular levels of several lysosomal enzymes and in the correction of the abnormal electrophoretic mobility pattern of intracellular beta-hexosaminidase. The findings demonstrate that a high degree of genetic heterogeneity exists within these disorders. N-acetyl-glucosamine-phosphate transferase is apparently a multicomponent enzyme with a key role in the biosynthesis and targeting of lysosomal enzymes. Images FIGURE 2

Mueller, O T; Honey, N K; Little, L E; Miller, A L; Shows, T B

1983-01-01

260

Correction of target-controlled infusion following wrong selection of emulsion concentrations of propofol  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the correction methods following wrong-settings of emulsion concentrations of propofol as a countermeasure against erroneous target-controlled infusions (TCI). Methods TCIs were started with targeting 4.0 µg/ml of effect-site concentration (Ceff) of propofol, and the emulsion concentrations were selected for 2.0% instead of 1.0% (FALSE1-2, n = 24), or 1.0% instead of 2.0% (FALSE2-1, n = 24). These wrong TCIs were corrected at 3 min after infusion start. During FALSE1-2, the deficit was filled up while injecting after equilibrium (n = 12), or while overriding (n = 12). During FALSE2-1, the overdose was evacuated while targeting Ceff (n = 12) or targeting plasma concentration (Cp) (n = 12). The gravimetrical measurements of TCI reproduced the Cp and Ceff using simulations. The reproduced Ceff at 3 min (Ceff-3min) and the time to be normalized within ± 5% of target Ceff (T±5%), were compared between the correction methods. Results During the wrong TCI, Ceff-3min was 1.98 ± 0.01 µg/ml in FALSE1-2, and 7.99 ± 0.05 µg/ml in FALSE2-1. In FALSE1-2, T±5% was significantly shorter when corrected while overriding (3.9 ± 0.25 min), than corrected after equilibrium (6.9 ± 0.05 min) (P < 0.001). In FALSE2-1, T±5% was significantly shorter during targeting Cp (3.6 ± 0.04 min) than targeting Ceff (6.7 ± 0.15 min) (P < 0.001). Conclusions The correction methods, based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics, could effectively and rapidly normalize the wrong TCI following erroneously selections of the emulsion concentration of propofol.

Chae, Yun-Jeong; Joe, Han Bum; Lee, Won-Il; Kim, Jin-A

2014-01-01

261

Combinatorial selection of a single stranded DNA thioaptamer targeting TGF-beta1 protein.  

PubMed

A phosphorothioate single-stranded DNA aptamer (thioaptamer) targeting transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) was isolated by in-vitro combinatorial selection. The aptamer selection procedure was designed to modify the backbone of single-stranded DNA aptamers, where 5' of both A and C are phosphorothioates, since this provides enhanced nuclease resistance as well as higher affinity than that of a phosphate counterpart. The thioaptamer selected from a combinatorial library (5x10(14) sequences) binds to TGF-beta1 protein with an affinity of 90 nM. In this report, sequence, predicted secondary structure, and binding affinity of the selected thioaptamer (T18_1_3) are presented. PMID:18294846

Kang, Jonghoon; Lee, Myung Soog; Copland, John A; Luxon, Bruce A; Gorenstein, David G

2008-03-15

262

The lipid kinase PI4KIII? preserves lysosomal identity  

PubMed Central

Lipid modifications are essential in cellular sorting and trafficking inside cells. The role of phosphoinositides in trafficking between Golgi and endocytic/lysosomal compartments has been extensively explored and the kinases responsible for these lipid changes have been identified. In contrast, the mechanisms that mediate exit and recycling from lysosomes (Lys), considered for a long time as terminal compartments, are less understood. In this work, we identify a dynamic association of the lipid kinase PI4KIII? with Lys and unveil its regulatory function in lysosomal export and retrieval. We have found that absence of PI4KIII? leads to abnormal formation of tubular structures from the lysosomal surface and loss of lysosomal constituents through these tubules. We demonstrate that the kinase activity of PI4KIII? is necessary to prevent this unwanted lysosomal efflux under normal conditions, and to facilitate proper sorting when recycling of lysosomal material is needed, such as in the physiological context of lysosomal reformation after prolonged starvation.

Sridhar, Sunandini; Patel, Bindi; Aphkhazava, David; Macian, Fernando; Santambrogio, Laura; Shields, Dennis; Cuervo, Ana Maria

2013-01-01

263

Neuraminidase 1 is a negative regulator of lysosomal exocytosis.  

PubMed

Lysosomal exocytosis is a Ca2+-regulated mechanism that involves proteins responsible for cytoskeletal attachment and fusion of lysosomes with the plasma membrane. However, whether luminal lysosomal enzymes contribute to this process remains unknown. Here we show that neuraminidase NEU1 negatively regulates lysosomal exocytosis in hematopoietic cells by processing the sialic acids on the lysosomal membrane protein LAMP-1. In macrophages from NEU1-deficient mice, a model of the disease sialidosis, and in patients' fibroblasts, oversialylated LAMP-1 enhances lysosomal exocytosis. Silencing of LAMP-1 reverts this phenotype by interfering with the docking of lysosomes at the plasma membrane. In neu1-/- mice the excessive exocytosis of serine proteases in the bone niche leads to inactivation of extracellular serpins, premature degradation of VCAM-1, and loss of bone marrow retention. Our findings uncover an unexpected mechanism influencing lysosomal exocytosis and argue that exacerbations of this process form the basis for certain genetic diseases. PMID:18606142

Yogalingam, Gouri; Bonten, Erik J; van de Vlekkert, Diantha; Hu, Huimin; Moshiach, Simon; Connell, Samuel A; d'Azzo, Alessandra

2008-07-01

264

Neuraminidase 1 is a Negative Regulator of Lysosomal Exocytosis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Lysosomal exocytosis is a Ca2+-regulated mechanism that involves proteins responsible for cytoskeletal attachment and fusion of lysosomes with the plasma membrane. However, whether luminal lysosomal enzymes contribute to this process remains unknown. Here we show that neuraminidase Neu1 negatively regulates lysosomal exocytosis in hematopoietic cells by processing the sialic acids on the lysosomal membrane protein Lamp-1. In macrophages from Neu1-deficient mice, a model of the disease sialidosis, and in patients’ fibroblasts, oversialylated Lamp-1 enhances lysosomal exocytosis. Silencing of Lamp-1 reverts this phenotype by interfering with the docking of lysosomes at the plasma membrane. In Neu1-/- mice the excessive exocytosis of serine proteases in the bone niche leads to inactivation of extracellular serpins, premature degradation of VCAM-1, and loss of bone marrow retention. Our findings uncover an unexpected mechanism influencing lysosomal exocytosis and argue that exacerbations of this process form the basis for certain genetic diseases.

Yogalingam, Gouri; Bonten, Erik J.; van de Vlekkert, Diantha; Hu, Huimin; Moshiach, Simon; Connell, Samuel A.; d'Azzo, Alessandra

2009-01-01

265

Artificial microRNAs as antiviral strategy to FMDV: structural implications of target selection.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) appears as a promising strategy to control virus replication. While the antiviral power of short-hairpin RNAs or small-interfering RNAs against FMDV has been demonstrated widely, safer RNAi effectors such as artificial microRNAs (amiRs) have not been evaluated extensively. In this work, transgenic monoclonal cell lines constitutively expressing different amiRs targeting FMDV 3D-coding region or 3'UTR were established. Certain cell lines showed an effective, sequence-specific amiR-mediated silencing activity that was accomplished by degradation of the target mRNA, as demonstrated in co-transfection experiments of reporter genes fused to FMDV target sequences. However, FMDV replication in these amiR-expressing cells was affected barely. Experiments aimed at elucidating the cause of RNAi failure demonstrated limited accessibility of the targeted region in the molecular environment of the viral RNA. Since RNAi is mediated by large-dimension silencing complexes containing the siRNA and not simply by a linear oligonucleotide, we propose that target selection should consider not only the local RNA structure but also the global conformation of target RNA. PMID:24406623

Gismondi, María Inés; Ortiz, Xoana P; Currá, Anabella P; Asurmendi, Sebastián; Taboga, Oscar

2014-04-01

266

Sensor selection for target localization in a network of proximity sensors and bearing sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work considers sensor fusion in a heterogeneous network of proximity and bearings-only sensors for multiple target tracking. Specifically, various particle implementations of the probability hypothesis density filter are proposed that consider two different fusion strategies: 1) the traditional iterated-corrector approach, and 2) explicit fusion of the multitarget density. This work also investigates sensor type (proximity or bearings-only) selection via the Renyi entropy criteria. The simulation results demonstrate comparable localization performances for the two fusion methods, and they show that sensor type selection usually outperforms single sensor type performance.

Le, Qiang; Kaplan, Lance M.

2013-05-01

267

Pathogenic cascades in lysosomal disease—Why so complex?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Lysosomal disease represents a large group of more than 50 clinically recognized conditions resulting from inborn errors of\\u000a metabolism affecting the organelle known as the lysosome. The lysosome is an integral part of the larger endosomal\\/lysosomal\\u000a system, and is closely allied with the ubiquitin–proteosomal and autophagosomal systems, which together comprise essential\\u000a cell machinery for substrate degradation and recycling, homeostatic control,

S. U. Walkley

2009-01-01

268

Molecular physiology and pathophysiology of lysosomal membrane transporters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In contrast to lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes, the lysosomal membrane remains poorly characterized. In particular, although\\u000a the genetic study of cystinosis and sialic acid storage disorders led to the identification of two lysosomal transporters\\u000a for cystine and sialic acids, respectively, ten years ago, most transporters responsible for exporting lysosomal hydrolysis\\u000a products to the cytosol are still unknown at the molecular level.

C. Sagné; B. Gasnier

2008-01-01

269

Lorcaserin and pimavanserin: emerging selectivity of serotonin receptor subtype-targeted drugs.  

PubMed

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) receptors mediate a plethora of physiological phenomena in the brain and the periphery. Additionally, serotonergic dysfunction has been implicated in nearly every neuropsychiatric disorder. The effects of serotonin are mediated by fourteen GPCRs. Both the therapeutic actions and side effects of commonly prescribed drugs are frequently due to nonspecific actions on various 5-HT receptor subtypes. For more than 20 years, the search for clinically efficacious drugs that selectively target 5-HT receptor subtypes has been only occasionally successful. This review provides an overview of 5-HT receptor pharmacology and discusses two recent 5-HT receptor subtype-selective drugs, lorcaserin and pimavanserin, which target the 5HT2C and 5HT2A receptors and provide new treatments for obesity and Parkinson's disease psychosis, respectively. PMID:24292660

Meltzer, Herbert Y; Roth, Bryan L

2013-12-01

270

Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 is a target for selective kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

New drugs are needed to treat toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinases (TgCDPKs) are attractive targets because they are absent in mammals. We show that TgCDPK1 is inhibited by low nanomolar levels of bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs), compounds inactive against mammalian kinases. Cocrystal structures of TgCDPK1 with BKIs confirm that the structural basis for selectivity is due to the unique glycine gatekeeper residue in the ATP-binding site. We show that BKIs interfere with an early step in T. gondii infection of human cells in culture. Furthermore, we show that TgCDPK1 is the in vivo target of BKIs because T. gondii expressing a glycine to methionine gatekeeper mutant enzyme show significantly decreased sensitivity to BKIs. Thus, design of selective TgCDPK1 inhibitors with low host toxicity may be achievable. PMID:20436472

Ojo, Kayode K; Larson, Eric T; Keyloun, Katelyn R; Castaneda, Lisa J; Derocher, Amy E; Inampudi, Krishna K; Kim, Jessica E; Arakaki, Tracy L; Murphy, Ryan C; Zhang, Li; Napuli, Alberto J; Maly, Dustin J; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Buckner, Frederick S; Parsons, Marilyn; Hol, Wim G J; Merritt, Ethan A; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

2010-05-01

271

Mitochondrial permeability transition pore as a selective target for anti-cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) is the ultimate step in dozens of lethal apoptotic signal transduction pathways which converge on mitochondria. One of the representative systems proposed to be responsible for the MOMP is the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). Although the molecular composition of the MPTP is not clearly understood, the MPTP attracts much interest as a promising target for resolving two conundrums regarding cancer treatment: tumor selectivity and resistance to treatment. The regulation of the MPTP is closely related to metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells including mitochondrial alterations. Restoration of deregulated apoptotic machinery in cancer cells by tumor-specific modulation of the MPTP could therefore be a promising anti-cancer strategy. Currently, a number of MPTP-targeting agents are under pre-clinical and clinical studies. Here, we reviewed the structure and regulation of the MPTP as well as the current status of the development of promising MPTP-targeting drugs.

Suh, Dong H.; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hee S.; Chung, Hyun H.; Song, Yong S.

2012-01-01

272

Structural genomics target selection for the New York consortium on membrane protein structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New York Consortium on Membrane Protein Structure (NYCOMPS), a part of the Protein Structure Initiative (PSI) in the USA,\\u000a has as its mission to establish a high-throughput pipeline for determination of novel integral membrane protein structures.\\u000a Here we describe our current target selection protocol, which applies structural genomics approaches informed by the collective\\u000a experience of our team of investigators.

Marco Punta; James Love; Samuel Handelman; John F. Hunt; Lawrence Shapiro; Wayne A. Hendrickson; Burkhard Rost

2009-01-01

273

Software first: applying Ada megaprogramming technology to target platform selection trades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 14-state European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) has recently completed its target platform selection analyses for the Central Flow Management Unit’s (CFMU) Tactical subsystem (TACT). TACT will provide support to CFMU and other users of the airspace in their tactical and pm-tactical Air Traffic Plow Management (A- activities for Europe. Its estimated size is about 160,000+

A. R. Filarey; W. E. Royce; R. Rao; P. Schmutz; L. Doan-Minh

1993-01-01

274

Microfluidics for Drug Discovery and Development: From Target Selection to Product Lifecycle Management  

PubMed Central

Microfluidic technologies’ ability to miniaturize assays and increase experimental throughput have generated significant interest in the drug discovery and development domain. These characteristics make microfluidic systems a potentially valuable tool for many drug discovery and development applications. Here, we review the recent advances of microfluidic devices for drug discovery and development and highlight their applications in different stages of the process, including target selection, lead identification, preclinical tests, clinical trials, chemical synthesis, formulations studies, and product management.

Kang, Lifeng; Chung, Bong Geun; Langer, Robert; Khademhosseini, Ali

2009-01-01

275

Lysosomal storage diseases--the horizon expands.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of the lysosome in 1955, advances have been made in understanding the key roles and functions of this organelle. The concept of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs)--disorders characterized by aberrant, excessive storage of cellular material in lysosomes--developed following the discovery of ?-glucosidase deficiency as the cause of Pompe disease in 1963. Great strides have since been made in understanding the pathobiology of LSDs and the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs). The NCLs are neurodegenerative disorders that display symptoms of cognitive and motor decline, seizures, blindness, early death, and accumulation of lipofuscin in various cell types, and also show some similarities to 'classic' LSDs. Defective lysosomal storage can occur in many cell types, but the CNS and PNS are particularly vulnerable to LSDs and NCLs, being affected in two-thirds of these disorders. Most LSDs are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, with the exception of X-linked Hunter disease, Fabry disease and Danon disease, and a variant type of adult NCL (Kuf disease). This Review provides a summary of known LSDs, and the pathways affected in these disorders. Existing therapies and barriers to development of novel and improved treatments for LSDs and NCLs are also discussed. PMID:23938739

Boustany, Rose-Mary Naaman

2013-10-01

276

Lysosomal Activity Associated with Developmental Axon Pruning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clearance of cellular debris is a critical feature of the developing nervous system, as evidenced by the severe neurological consequences of lysosomal storage diseases in children. An important developmental process, which generates considerable cellular debris, is synapse elimination, in which many axonal branches are pruned. The fate of these pruned branches is not known. Here, we investigate the role of

Jae W. Song; Thomas Misgeld; Hyuno Kang; Sharm Knecht; Ju Lu; Yi Cao; Susan L. Cotman; Derron L. Bishop; Jeff W. Lichtman

2008-01-01

277

Lysosomal diseases: biochemical pathways and investigations.  

PubMed

This chapter summarizes our current knowledge of lysosomes and lysosomal proteins referring to recent reviews, general schemes for degradation of substrates, and various causes of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). It then discusses the main principles for laboratory diagnosis. Initial screening by study of accumulated substrates in urine is helpful for mucopolysaccharidoses and oligosaccharidoses. A majority of LSDs result from the deficient activity of one acid hydrolase (in some diseases, several). Establishment of the diagnosis in this group of disorders is based on the measurement of the particular enzymic activity. Pseudodeficiencies are a possible source of error. For defects in lysosomal membrane transporters such as cystinosin or sialin, study of substrate accumulation in readily available cells/fluids is still the method of choice. Demonstration of a metabolic block in living cells is rarely used today, except for Niemann-Pick C disease. For primary diagnosis of patients, molecular genetic testing is necessary when no functional tests exist (e.g., many ceroid lipofuscinoses, Danon disease) and it is the preferred strategy when functional tests are too elaborate. Genotyping patients already diagnosed by biochemical methods is, however, essential for genetic counseling in the family; it may also be useful for optimal management. PMID:23622390

Vanier, Marie T

2013-01-01

278

Update on treatment of lysosomal storage diseases  

PubMed Central

Summary Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a large group of disorders caused by a deficiency of specific enzymes responsible for the degradation of substances present in lysosomes. In the past few years, treatments for LSDs were non specific and could only cope with signs and symptoms of the diseases. A successful therapeutic approach to LSDs should instead address to the underlying causes of the diseases, thus helping the degradation of the accumulated metabolites in the various organs, and at the same time preventing their further deposition. One way is to see to an available source of the deficient enzyme: bone marrow transplantation, enzyme replacement therapy and gene therapy are based on this rationale. The purpose of substrate reduction therapy is to down regulate the formation of the lysosomal substance to a rate at which the residual enzyme activity can catabolize the stored and de novo produced lysosomal substrate. Chemical chaperone therapy is based on small molecules able to bind and stabilize the misfolded enzymes. This paper offers a historical overview on the therapeutic strategies for LSDs.

Bruni, S; Loschi, L; Incerti, C; Gabrielli, O; Coppa, GV

2007-01-01

279

Dualsteric GPCR targeting: a novel route to binding and signaling pathway selectivity.  

PubMed

Selective modulation of cell function by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation is highly desirable for basic research and therapy but difficult to achieve. We present a novel strategy toward this goal using muscarinic acetylcholine receptors as a model. The five subtypes bind their physiological transmitter in the highly conserved orthosteric site within the transmembrane domains of the receptors. Orthosteric muscarinic activators have no binding selectivity and poor signaling specificity. There is a less well conserved allosteric site at the extracellular entrance of the binding pocket. To gain subtype-selective receptor activation, we synthesized two hybrids fusing a highly potent oxotremorine-like orthosteric activator with M(2)-selective bis(ammonio)alkane-type allosteric fragments. Radioligand binding in wild-type and mutant receptors supplemented by receptor docking simulations proved M(2) selective and true allosteric/orthosteric binding. G protein activation measurements using orthosteric and allosteric blockers identified the orthosteric part of the hybrid to engender receptor activation. Hybrid-induced dynamic mass redistribution in CHO-hM(2) cells disclosed pathway-specific signaling. Selective receptor activation (M(2)>M(1)>M(3)) was verified in living tissue preparations. As allosteric sites are increasingly recognized on GPCRs, the dualsteric concept of GPCR targeting represents a new avenue toward potent agonists for selective receptor and signaling pathway activation. PMID:18842964

Antony, Johannes; Kellershohn, Kerstin; Mohr-Andrä, Marion; Kebig, Anna; Prilla, Stefanie; Muth, Mathias; Heller, Eberhard; Disingrini, Teresa; Dallanoce, Clelia; Bertoni, Simona; Schrobang, Jasmin; Tränkle, Christian; Kostenis, Evi; Christopoulos, Arthur; Höltje, Hans-Dieter; Barocelli, Elisabetta; De Amici, Marco; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Mohr, Klaus

2009-02-01

280

A RANKL-PKC?-TFEB signaling cascade is necessary for lysosomal biogenesis in osteoclasts.  

PubMed

Bone resorption by osteoclasts requires a large number of lysosomes that release proteases in the resorption lacuna. Whether lysosomal biogenesis is a consequence of the action of transcriptional regulators of osteoclast differentiation or is under the control of a different and specific transcriptional pathway remains unknown. We show here, through cell-based assays and cell-specific gene deletion experiments in mice, that the osteoclast differentiation factor RANKL promotes lysosomal biogenesis once osteoclasts are differentiated through the selective activation of TFEB, a member of the MITF/TFE family of transcription factors. This occurs following PKC? phosphorylation of TFEB on three serine residues located in its last 15 amino acids. This post-translational modification stabilizes and increases the activity of this transcription factor. Supporting these biochemical observations, mice lacking in osteoclasts--either TFEB or PKC?--show decreased lysosomal gene expression and increased bone mass. Altogether, these results uncover a RANKL-dependent signaling pathway taking place in differentiated osteoclasts and culminating in the activation of TFEB to enhance lysosomal biogenesis-a necessary step for proper bone resorption. PMID:23599343

Ferron, Mathieu; Settembre, Carmine; Shimazu, Junko; Lacombe, Julie; Kato, Shigeaki; Rawlings, David J; Ballabio, Andrea; Karsenty, Gerard

2013-04-15

281

A RANKL-PKC?-TFEB signaling cascade is necessary for lysosomal biogenesis in osteoclasts  

PubMed Central

Bone resorption by osteoclasts requires a large number of lysosomes that release proteases in the resorption lacuna. Whether lysosomal biogenesis is a consequence of the action of transcriptional regulators of osteoclast differentiation or is under the control of a different and specific transcriptional pathway remains unknown. We show here, through cell-based assays and cell-specific gene deletion experiments in mice, that the osteoclast differentiation factor RANKL promotes lysosomal biogenesis once osteoclasts are differentiated through the selective activation of TFEB, a member of the MITF/TFE family of transcription factors. This occurs following PKC? phosphorylation of TFEB on three serine residues located in its last 15 amino acids. This post-translational modification stabilizes and increases the activity of this transcription factor. Supporting these biochemical observations, mice lacking in osteoclasts—either TFEB or PKC?—show decreased lysosomal gene expression and increased bone mass. Altogether, these results uncover a RANKL-dependent signaling pathway taking place in differentiated osteoclasts and culminating in the activation of TFEB to enhance lysosomal biogenesis—a necessary step for proper bone resorption.

Ferron, Mathieu; Settembre, Carmine; Shimazu, Junko; Lacombe, Julie; Kato, Shigeaki; Rawlings, David J.; Ballabio, Andrea; Karsenty, Gerard

2013-01-01

282

Recruitment of folliculin to lysosomes supports the amino acid-dependent activation of Rag GTPases  

PubMed Central

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, a human disease characterized by fibrofolliculomas (hair follicle tumors) as well as a strong predisposition toward the development of pneumothorax, pulmonary cysts, and renal carcinoma, arises from loss-of-function mutations in the folliculin (FLCN) gene. In this study, we show that FLCN regulates lysosome function by promoting the mTORC1-dependent phosphorylation and cytoplasmic sequestration of transcription factor EB (TFEB). Our results indicate that FLCN is specifically required for the amino acid–stimulated recruitment of mTORC1 to lysosomes by Rag GTPases. We further demonstrated that FLCN itself was selectively recruited to the surface of lysosomes after amino acid depletion and directly bound to RagA via its GTPase domain. FLCN-interacting protein 1 (FNIP1) promotes both the lysosome recruitment and Rag interactions of FLCN. These new findings define the lysosome as a site of action for FLCN and indicate a critical role for FLCN in the amino acid–dependent activation of mTOR via its direct interaction with the RagA/B GTPases.

Petit, Constance S.; Roczniak-Ferguson, Agnes

2013-01-01

283

Gordon Research Conference on Lysosomes Held in Andover, New Hampshire on July 3-8, 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Gordon Research Conference on Lysosomes was held at the Proctor Academy, Andover, New Hampshire on July 3-8, 1994. There were 146 participants at the meeting selected from over 200 applicants. The program included leaders from the U.S. and abroad in t...

A. Cruickshank

1994-01-01

284

Lysosomal multienzyme complex: Biochemistry, genetics, and molecular pathophysiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysosomal enzymes sialidase (?-neuraminidase), ?-galactosidase, and N-acetylaminogalacto-6-sulfate sulfatase are involved in the catabolism of glycolipids, glycoproteins, and oligosaccharides. Their functional activity in the cell depends on their association in a multienzyme complex with lysosomal carboxypeptidase, cathepsin A. We review the data suggesting that the integrity of the complex plays a crucial role at different stages of biogenesis of lysosomal enzymes,

Alexey V Pshezhetsky; Mila Ashmarina

2001-01-01

285

Pharmacological small molecules for the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Importance of the field: Inherited lysosomal storage diseases often cause severe disability and have a devastating effect on quality of life. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) forms a cornerstone in the treatment of lysosomal enzyme deficiencies. Although for some lysosomal disorders ERT is lifesaving, important intrinsic restrictions of the approach are limited access of infused enzyme to less accessible body compartments

B. E. Smid; J. M. F. G. Aerts; R. G. Boot; G. E. Linthorst; C. E. M. Hollak

2010-01-01

286

Gene Transfer Strategies for Correction of Lysosomal Storage Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) represent a large group of monogenic disorders of metabolism, which affect approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. LSDs result from a single or multiple deficiency of specific lysosomal hydrolases, the enzymes responsible for the luminal catabolization of macromolecular substrates. The consequent accumulation of undigested metabolites in lysosomes leads to polysystemic dysfunction, including progressive neurologic deterioration, mental

Alessandra d’Azzo

2003-01-01

287

Selection of RIB targets using ion implantation at the Holifield radioactive ion beam facility  

SciTech Connect

Among several major challenges posed by generating and accelerating adequate intensities of RIBs, selection of the most appropriate target material is perhaps the most difficult because of the requisite fast and selective thermal release of minute amounts of the short-lived product atoms from the ISOL target in the presence of bulk amounts of target material. Experimental studies are under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) which are designed to measure the time evolution of implanted elements diffused from refractory target materials which are candidates for forming radioactive ion beams (RIBs) at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF). The diffusion coefficients are derived by comparing experimental data with numerical solutions to a one-dimensional form of Fick`s second law for ion implanted distributions. In this report, we describe the experimental arrangement, experimental procedures, and provide time release data and diffusion coefficients for releasing ion implanted {sup 37}Cl from Zr{sub 5}Si{sub 3} and {sup 75}As, {sup 79}Br, and {sup 78}Se from Zr{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} and estimates of the diffusion coefficients for{sup 35}Cl, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 69}Ga and {sup 71}Ga diffused from BN; {sup 35}Cl, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 69}Ga, {sup 75}As, and {sup 78}Se diffused from C; {sup 35}Cl, {sup 68}Cu, {sup 69}Ga, {sup 75}As, and {sup 78}Se diffused from Ta.

Alton, G.D.; Dellwo, J.

1995-12-31

288

Targeting hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites to manage disease risk  

PubMed Central

Endemic and emerging diseases are rarely uniform in their spatial distribution or prevalence among cohorts of wildlife. Spatial models that quantify risk-driven differences in resource selection and hunter mortality of animals at fine spatial scales can assist disease management by identifying high-risk areas and individuals. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) and selection ratios (SRs) to quantify sex- and age-specific resource selection patterns of collared (n = 67) and hunter-killed (n = 796) nonmigratory elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis) during the hunting season between 2002 and 2012, in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. Distance to protected area was the most important covariate influencing resource selection and hunter-kill sites of elk (AICw = 1.00). Collared adult males (which are most likely to be infected with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) and chronic wasting disease) rarely selected for sites outside of parks during the hunting season in contrast to adult females and juvenile males. The RSFs showed selection by adult females and juvenile males to be negatively associated with landscape-level forest cover, high road density, and water cover, whereas hunter-kill sites of these cohorts were positively associated with landscape-level forest cover and increasing distance to streams and negatively associated with high road density. Local-level forest was positively associated with collared animal locations and hunter-kill sites; however, selection was stronger for collared juvenile males and hunter-killed adult females. In instances where disease infects a metapopulation and eradication is infeasible, a principle goal of management is to limit the spread of disease among infected animals. We map high-risk areas that are regularly used by potentially infectious hosts but currently underrepresented in the distribution of kill sites. We present a novel application of widely available data to target hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites as a promising tool for applying selective hunting to the management of transmissible diseases in a game species.

Dugal, Cherie J; van Beest, Floris M; Vander Wal, Eric; Brook, Ryan K

2013-01-01

289

Efficient inhibition of HIV1 expression by LNA modified antisense oligonucleotides and DNAzymes targeted to functionally selected binding sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A primary concern when targeting HIV-1 RNA by means of antisense related technologies is the accessibility of the targets. Using a library selection approach to define the most accessible sites for 20-mer oligonucleotides annealing within the highly structured 5'-UTR of the HIV-1 genome we have shown that there are at least four optimal targets available. RESULTS: The biological effect

Martin R Jakobsen; Joost Haasnoot; Jesper Wengel; Ben Berkhout; Jørgen Kjems

2007-01-01

290

Target Selection and Deselection at the Berkeley StructuralGenomics Center  

SciTech Connect

At the Berkeley Structural Genomics Center (BSGC), our goalis to obtain a near-complete structural complement of proteins in theminimal organisms Mycoplasma genitalium and M. pneumoniae, two closelyrelated pathogens. Current targets for structure determination have beenselected in six major stages, starting with those predicted to be mosttractable to high throughput study and likely to yield new structuralinformation. We report on the process used to select these proteins, aswell as our target deselection procedure. Target deselection reducesexperimental effort by eliminating targets similar to those recentlysolved by the structural biology community or other centers. We measurethe impact of the 69 structures solved at the BSGC as of July 2004 onstructure prediction coverage of the M. pneumoniae and M. genitaliumproteomes. The number of Mycoplasma proteins for which thefold couldfirst be reliably assigned based on structures solved at the BSGC (24 M.pneumoniae and 21 M. genitalium) is approximately 25 percent of the totalresulting from work at all structural genomics centers and the worldwidestructural biology community (94 M. pneumoniae and 86M. genitalium)during the same period. As the number of structures contributed by theBSGC during that period is less than 1 percent of the total worldwideoutput, the benefits of a focused target selection strategy are apparent.If the structures of all current targets were solved, the percentage ofM. pneumoniae proteins for which folds could be reliably assigned wouldincrease from approximately 57 percent (391 of 687) at present to around80 percent (550 of 687), and the percentage of the proteome that could beaccurately modeled would increase from around 37 percent (254 of 687) toabout 64 percent (438 of 687). In M. genitalium, the percentage of theproteome that could be structurally annotated based on structures of ourremaining targets would rise from 72 percent (348 of 486) to around 76percent (371 of 486), with the percentage of accurately modeled proteinswould rise from 50 percent (243 of 486) to 58 percent (283 of 486).Sequences and data on experimental progress on our targets are availablein the public databases Target DB and PEPCdb.

Chandonia, John-Marc; Kim, Sung-Hou; Brenner, Steven E.

2005-03-22

291

Isolation of highly purified lysosomes from rat liver: identification of electron carrier components on lysosomal membranes.  

PubMed

Using Percoll density gradient centrifugation after treatment of the postnuclear supernatant (PNS) with 1 mM Ca2+ to swell and lighten mitochondria, we isolated highly purified lysosomes (dextranosomes) in high yield (25%) from the livers of rats to which dextran had been administered. The lysosomal fraction obtained by this method was enriched more than 100-fold in N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and arylsulfatase and 40-fold in acid phosphatase and beta-glucosidase. Electron microscopic examination and measurement of marker enzyme activity for various subcellular organella indicated that the lysosomal fraction was essentially free from contamination by other organella. Flavins, ubiquinones, and hemochromes were found on lysosomal membranes and investigated. The FAD and ubiquinone-9 contents of the purified lysosomal membranes were 0.118 and 6.93 nmol/mg of protein, respectively. Hemochromes in lysosomes showed spectra similar to that of a b-type cytochrome, with the alpha-peak at 562 nm and the gamma-peak at 436 nm. PMID:1663946

Arai, K; Kanaseki, T; Ohkuma, S

1991-10-01

292

Selective targeting of the retinal pigment epithelium using an acousto-optic laser scanner.  

PubMed

Selective targeting of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a new strategy for treating certain retinal disorders while preserving adjacent photoreceptors. The treatment currently relies on a complex laser system to produce the required microsecond pulse structure. In our new approach, we scan the focus of a continuous-wave (cw) laser beam with acousto-optic deflectors to produce microsecond-long exposures at each RPE cell. Experiments were performed in vitro with a bench-top scanner on samples of young bovine RPE and in vivo on Dutch belted rabbits with a slit-lamp adapted scanner. Effective dose 50% (ED50) for RPE damage was determined in vitro by fluorescence cell viability assay and in vivo by fluorescein angiography. Damage to individual RPE cells was achieved with laser power on the order of 100 mW. Using separated scan lines, we demonstrate selectivity in the form of alternating lines of dead and surviving cells that resemble the scan pattern. Selectivity is also shown by the absence of retinal thermal coagulation in vivo. Selective RPE damage is feasible by rapidly scanning a cw laser beam. The scanning device is an attractive alternative to conventional laser coagulation and pulsed laser targeting of the RPE. PMID:16409079

Alt, Clemens; Framme, Carsten; Schnell, Susanne; Lee, Ho; Brinkmann, Ralf; Lin, Charles P

2005-01-01

293

Global changes in STAT target selection and transcription regulation upon interferon treatments  

PubMed Central

The STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) proteins play a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression, but their targets and the manner in which they select them remain largely unknown. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA microarray analysis (ChIP-chip), we have identified the regions of human chromosome 22 bound by STAT1 and STAT2 in interferon-treated cells. Analysis of the genomic loci proximal to these binding sites introduced new candidate STAT1 and STAT2 target genes, several of which are affiliated with proliferation and apoptosis. The genes on chromosome 22 that exhibited interferon-induced up- or down-regulated expression were determined and correlated with the STAT-binding site information, revealing the potential regulatory effects of STAT1 and STAT2 on their target genes. Importantly, the comparison of STAT1-binding sites upon interferon (IFN)-? and IFN-? treatments revealed dramatic changes in binding locations between the two treatments. The IFN-? induction revealed nonconserved STAT1 occupancy at IFN-?-induced sites, as well as novel sites of STAT1 binding not evident in IFN-?-treated cells. Many of these correlated with binding by STAT2, but others were STAT2 independent, suggesting that multiple mechanisms direct STAT1 binding to its targets under different activation conditions. Overall, our results reveal a wealth of new information regarding IFN/STAT-binding targets and also fundamental insights into mechanisms of regulation of gene expression in different cell states.

Hartman, Stephen E.; Bertone, Paul; Nath, Anjali K.; Royce, Thomas E.; Gerstein, Mark; Weissman, Sherman; Snyder, Michael

2005-01-01

294

Patient selection and targeted treatment in the management of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Ovarian cancer (OC) has the highest mortality rate of any gynecologic cancer, and patients generally have a poor prognosis due to high chemotherapy resistance and late stage disease diagnosis. Platinum-resistant OC can be treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy such as paclitaxel, topotecan, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, and gemcitabine, but many patients eventually relapse upon treatment. Fortunately, there are currently a number of targeted therapies in development for these patients who have shown promising results in recent clinical trials. These treatments often target the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway (eg, bevacizumab and aflibercept), DNA repair mechanisms (eg, iniparib and olaparib), or they are directed against folate related pathways (eg, pemetrexed, farletuzumab, and vintafolide). As many targeted therapies are only effective in a subset of patients, there is an increasing need for the identification of response predictive biomarkers. Selecting the right patients through biomarker screening will help tailor therapy to patients and decrease superfluous treatment to those who are biomarker negative; this approach should lead to improved clinical results and decreased toxicities. In this review the current targeted therapies used for treating platinum-resistant OC are discussed. Furthermore, use of prognostic and response predictive biomarkers to define OC patient populations that may benefit from specific targeted therapies is also highlighted.

Leamon, Christopher P; Lovejoy, Chandra D; Nguyen, Binh

2013-01-01

295

Enzymatic reduction of disulfide bonds in lysosomes: Characterization of a Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins internalized into the endocytic pathway are usually degraded. Efficient proteolysis requires denaturation, induced by acidic conditions within lysosomes, and reduction of inter- and intrachain disulfide bonds. Cytosolic reduction is mediated enzymatically by thioredoxin, but the mechanism of lysosomal reduction is unknown. We describe here a lysosomal thiol reductase optimally active at low pH and capable of catalyzing disulfide bond

Balasubramanian Arunachalam; Uyen T. Phan; Hans J. Geuze; Peter Cresswell

2000-01-01

296

Selective Small Molecule Targeting ?-Catenin Function Discovered by In Vivo Chemical Genetic Screen  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Canonical Wnt signaling pathway, mediated by the transcription factor ?-catenin, plays critical roles in embryonic development, and represents an important therapeutic target. In a zebrafish-based in vivo screen for small molecules that specifically perturb embryonic dorsoventral patterning, we discovered a novel compound, named windorphen, which selectively blocks the Wnt signal required for ventral development. Windorphen exhibits remarkable specificity toward ?-catenin-1 function, indicating that the two ?-catenin isoforms found in zebrafish are not functionally redundant. We show that windorphen is a selective inhibitor of p300 histone acetyl transferase, a co-activator that associates with ?-catenin. Lastly, windorphen robustly and selectively kills cancer cells that harbor Wnt-activating mutations, supporting the therapeutic potential of this novel Wnt inhibitor class.

Hao, Jijun; Ao, Ada; Zhou, Li; Murphy, Clare K.; Frist, Audrey Y.; Keel, Jessica J.; Thorne, Curtis A.; Kim, Kwangho; Lee, Ethan; Hong, Charles C.

2013-01-01

297

Monitoring lysosomal activity in nanoparticle-treated cells.  

PubMed

Certain nanoparticles have been shown to accumulate within lysosome and hence may cause lysosomal pathologies such as phospholipidosis, lysosomal overload, and autophagy. This chapter describes a method for evaluation of lysosomal activity in porcine kidney cells (LLC-PK1) after exposure to nanoparticles. This method uses the accumulation of a cationic fluorescent dye (LysoTracker Red) in acidic cellular compartments as an indicator of total lysosome content. The lysotracker signal is normalized to the signal from a thiol-reactive dye which is proportional to the total number of viable cells. PMID:21116970

Neun, Barry W; Stern, Stephan T

2011-01-01

298

GHRH receptor-targeted botulinum neurotoxin selectively inhibits pulsatile GH secretion in male rats.  

PubMed

Botulinum neurotoxin is a potent inhibitor of acetylcholine secretion and acts by cleaving members of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptor family, which are critical to exocytotic vesicular secretion. However, the potential of botulinum neurotoxin for treating secretory disease is limited both by its neural selectivity and the necessity for direct injection into the relevant target tissue. To circumvent these limitations, a technology platform called targeted secretion inhibitors (TSIs) is being developed. TSIs are derived from botulinum neurotoxin but are retargeted to specific cell types to inhibit aberrant secretion. A TSI called qGHRH-LHN/D, with a GHRH receptor targeting domain and designed to specifically inhibit pituitary somatotroph GH release through cleavage of the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptor protein, vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP), has recently been described. Here we show this TSI activates GHRH receptors in primary cultured rat pituicytes is internalized into these cells, depletes VAMP-3, and inhibits phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced GH secretion. In vivo studies show that this TSI, but not one with an inactive catalytic unit, produces a dose-dependent inhibition of pulsatile GH secretion, thus confirming its mechanism of action through VAMP cleavage. Selectivity of action has been shown by the lack of effect of this TSI in vivo on secretion from thyrotrophs, corticotrophs, and gonadotrophs. In the absence of suitable in vivo models, these data provide proof of concept for the use of somatotroph-targeted TSIs in the treatment of acromegaly and moreover raise the potential that TSIs could be used to target other diseases characterized by hypersecretion. PMID:23825127

Leggett, James; Harper, Elaine; Waite, Eleanor; Marks, Philip; Martinez, Alberto; Lightman, Stafford

2013-09-01

299

Mitochondrial Targeted Coenzyme Q, Superoxide, and Fuel Selectivity in Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Previously, we reported that the “antioxidant” compound “mitoQ” (mitochondrial-targeted ubiquinol/ubiquinone) actually increased superoxide production by bovine aortic endothelial (BAE) cell mitochondria incubated with complex I but not complex II substrates. Methods and Results To further define the site of action of the targeted coenzyme Q compound, we extended these studies to include different substrate and inhibitor conditions. In addition, we assessed the effects of mitoquinone on mitochondrial respiration, measured respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential in intact cells, and tested the intriguing hypothesis that mitoquinone might impart fuel selectivity in intact BAE cells. In mitochondria respiring on differing concentrations of complex I substrates, mitoquinone and rotenone had interactive effects on ROS consistent with redox cycling at multiple sites within complex I. Mitoquinone increased respiration in isolated mitochondria respiring on complex I but not complex II substrates. Mitoquinone also increased oxygen consumption by intact BAE cells. Moreover, when added to intact cells at 50 to 1000 nM, mitoquinone increased glucose oxidation and reduced fat oxidation, at doses that did not alter membrane potential or induce cell toxicity. Although high dose mitoquinone reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, the positively charged mitochondrial-targeted cation, decyltriphenylphosphonium (mitoquinone without the coenzyme Q moiety), decreased membrane potential more than mitoquinone, but did not alter fuel selectivity. Therefore, non-specific effects of the positive charge were not responsible and the quinone moiety is required for altered nutrient selectivity. Conclusions In summary, the interactive effects of mitoquinone and rotenone are consistent with redox cycling at more than one site within complex I. In addition, mitoquinone has substrate dependent effects on mitochondrial respiration, increases repiration by intact cells, and alters fuel selectivity favoring glucose over fatty acid oxidation at the intact cell level.

Fink, Brian D.; O'Malley, Yunxia; Dake, Brian L.; Ross, Nicolette C.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.; Sivitz, William I.

2009-01-01

300

Cancer cell injury by cytotoxins from cobra venom is mediated through lysosomal damage  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxins from cobra venom are known to manifest cytotoxicity in various cell types. It is widely accepted that the plasma membrane is a target of cytotoxins, but the mechanism of their action remains obscure. Using the confocal spectral imaging technique, we show for the first time that cytotoxins from cobra venom penetrate readily into living cancer cells and accumulate markedly in lysosomes. Cytotoxins CT1 and CT2 from Naja oxiana, CT3 from Naja kaouthia and CT1 from Naja haje are demonstrated to possess this property with respect to human lung adenocarcinoma A549 and promyelocytic leukaemia HL60 cells. Immobilized plasma membrane binding accompanies the internalization of CT3 from Naja kaouthia in the HL60 cells, but it is very weak for other cytotoxins. Detectable membrane binding is not a property of any of the cytotoxins tested in A549 cells. The kinetics and concentration-dependence of cytotoxin accumulation in lysosomes correlate well with their cytotoxic effects. On the basis of the results obtained, we propose that lysosomes are a primary target of the lytic action of cytotoxins. Plasma membrane permeabilization seems to be a downstream event relative to lysosome rupture. Direct damage to the plasma membrane may be a complementary mechanism, but its relative contribution to the cytotoxic action depends on the cytotoxin structure and cell type.

2005-01-01

301

Effective and selective targeting of Ph+ leukemia cells using a TORC1/2 kinase inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Targeting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. However, the mTOR kinase functions in two complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, neither of which is fully inhibited by the allosteric inhibitor rapamycin or analogs. We compared rapamycin with the active-site TORC1/2 inhibitor PP242, in acute leukemia models harboring the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) translocation. We demonstrate that PP242, but not rapamycin, causes death of mouse and human leukemia cells. In vivo, PP242 delays leukemia onset and augments the effects of current front-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors, more effectively than rapamycin. Surprisingly, PP242 has much weaker effects than rapamycin on proliferation and function of normal lymphocytes. PI-103, a less selective TORC1/2 inhibitor that also targets phosphoinositide 3-kinase, is more immunosuppressive than PP242. These findings establish that Ph+ transformed cells are more sensitive than normal lymphocytes to selective TORC1/2 inhibitors, and support the development of such inhibitors for leukemia therapy.

Janes, Matthew R.; Limon, Jose J.; So, Lomon; Chen, Jing; Lim, Raymond J.; Chavez, Melissa A.; Vu, Collin; Lilly, Michael B.; Mallya, Sharmila; Ong, S. Tiong; Marina, Konopleva; Martin, Michael B.; Ren, Pingda; Liu, Yi; Rommel, Christian; Fruman, David A.

2014-01-01

302

PITPs as Targets for Selectively Interfering With Phosphoinositide Signaling in Cells  

PubMed Central

Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs) integrate diverse territories of intracellular lipid metabolism with stimulated phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate production, and are discriminating portals for interrogating phosphoinositide signaling. Yet, neither Sec14-like PITPs, nor PITPs in general, have been exploited as targets for chemical inhibition for such purposes. Herein, we validate the first small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) of the yeast PITP Sec14. These SMIs are nitrophenyl(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)methanones (NPPMs), and are effective inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. We further establish Sec14 is the sole essential NPPM target in yeast, that NPPMs exhibit exquisite targeting specificities for Sec14 (relative to related Sec14-like PITPs), propose a mechanism for how NPPMs exert their inhibitory effects, and demonstrate NPPMs exhibit exquisite pathway selectivity in inhibiting phosphoinositide signaling in cells. These data deliver proof-of-concept that PITP-directed SMIs offer new and generally applicable avenues for intervening with phosphoinositide signaling pathways with selectivities superior to those afforded by contemporary lipid kinase-directed strategies.

Nile, Aaron H.; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Yuan, Peihua; Mousley, Carl J.; Suresh, Sundari; Wallace, Iain Michael; Shah, Sweety D.; Pohlhaus, Denise Teotico; Temple, Brenda; Nislow, Corey; Giaever, Guri; Tropsha, Alexander; Davis, Ronald W.; St Onge, Robert P.; Bankaitis, Vytas A.

2013-01-01

303

Molecular pathologies of and enzyme replacement therapies for lysosomal diseases.  

PubMed

Lysosomal diseases comprise a group of inherited disorders resulting from defects of lysosomal enzymes and their cofactors, and in many of them the nervous system is affected. Recently, enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant lysosomal enzymes has been clinically available for several lysosomal diseases. Such enzyme replacement therapies can improve non-neurological disorders but is not effective for neurological ones. In this review, we discuss the molecular pathologies of lysosomal diseases from the protein structural aspect, current enzyme replacement therapies, and attempts to develop enzyme replacement therapies effective for lysosomal diseases associated with neurological disorders, i.e., production of enzymes, brain-specific delivery and incorporation of lysosomal enzymes into cells. PMID:16918392

Sakuraba, Hitoshi; Sawada, Makoto; Matsuzawa, Fumiko; Aikawa, Sei-ichi; Chiba, Yasunori; Jigami, Yoshifumi; Itoh, Kohji

2006-08-01

304

Constitutive expression of a COOH-terminal leucine mutant of lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 causes its exclusive localization in low density intracellular vesicles.  

PubMed

Lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) is a type I transmembrane protein with a short cytoplasmic tail that possesses a lysosome-targeting signal of GYQTI(382)-COOH. Wild-type (WT)-LAMP-1 was exclusively localized in high density lysosomes, and efficiency of LAMP-1's transport to lysosomes depends on its COOH-terminal amino acid residue. Among many different COOH-terminal amino acid substitution mutants of LAMP-1, a leucine-substituted mutant (I382L) displays the most efficient targeting to late endosomes and lysosomes [Akasaki et al. (2010) J. Biochem. 148: , 669-679]. In this study, we generated two human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 cell lines) that stably express WT-LAMP-1 and I382L, and compared their intracellular distributions. The subcellular fractionation study using Percoll density gradient centrifugation revealed that WT-LAMP-1 had preferential localization in the high density secondary lysosomes where endogenous human LAMP-1 was enriched. In contrast, a major portion of I382L was located in a low density fraction. The low density fraction also contained approximately 80% of endogenous human LAMP-1 and significant amounts of endogenous ?-glucuronidase and LAMP-2, which probably represents occurrence of low density lysosomes in the I382L-expressing cells. Double immunofluorescence microscopic analyses distinguished I382L-containing intracellular vesicles from endogenous LAMP-1-containing lysosomes and early endosomes. Altogether, constitutive expression of I382L causes its aberrant intracellular localization and generation of low density lysosomes, indicating that the COOH-terminal isoleucine is critical for normal localization of LAMP-1 in the dense lysosomes. PMID:24695761

Akasaki, Kenji; Shiotsu, Keiko; Michihara, Akihiro; Ide, Norie; Wada, Ikuo

2014-07-01

305

Combinatorial selection of DNA thioaptamers targeted to the HA binding domain of human CD44.  

PubMed

CD44, the primary receptor for hyaluronic acid, plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis. CD44-hyaluronic acid interactions can be exploited for targeted delivery of anticancer agents specifically to cancer cells. Although various splicing variants of CD44 are expressed on the plasma membrane of cancer cells, the hyaluronic acid binding domain (HABD) is highly conserved among the CD44 splicing variants. Using a novel two-step process, we have identified monothiophosphate-modified aptamers (thioaptamers) that specifically bind to the CD44's HABD with high affinities. Binding affinities of the selected thioaptamers for the HABD were in the range of 180-295 nM, an affinity significantly higher than that of hyaluronic acid (K(d) above the micromolar range). The selected thioaptamers bound to CD44 positive human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3, IGROV, and A2780) but failed to bind the CD44 negative NIH3T3 cell line. Our results indicated that thio substitution at specific positions of the DNA phosphate backbone results in specific and high-affinity binding of thioaptamers to CD44. The selected thioaptamers will be of great interest for further development as a targeting or imaging agent for the delivery of therapeutic payloads for cancer tissues. PMID:20843027

Somasunderam, Anoma; Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Tanaka, Takemi; Li, Xin; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Lokesh, Ganesh Lakshmana Rao; Mann, Aman; Peng, Yang; Ferrari, Mauro; Klostergaard, Jim; Gorenstein, David G

2010-10-26

306

Combinatorial selection of DNA thioaptamers targeted towards the HA binding domain of human CD44†  

PubMed Central

CD44, the primary receptor for hyaluronic acid, plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis. CD44-hyaluronic acid interactions can be exploited for targeted delivery of anti-cancer agents specifically to cancer cells. Although various splicing variants of CD44 are expressed on the plasma membrane of cancer cells, the hyaluronic acid binding domain (HABD) is highly conserved among the CD44 splicing variants. Using a novel two-step process, we have identified monothiophosphate-modified aptamers (thioaptamers) that specifically bind to the CD44’s HABD with high affinities. Binding affinities of the selected thioaptamers for the HABD were in the range of 180–295 nM, significantly higher affinity than that of hyaluronic acid (Kd > ?M range). The selected thioaptamers bound to CD44 positive human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3, IGROV, and A2780), but failed to bind CD44 negative NIH3T3 cell line. Our results indicated that thio substitution at specific positions of the DNA phosphate backbone result in specific and high affinity binding of thioaptamers to CD44. The selected thioaptamers will be of great interest for further development as a targeting or imaging agent to deliver therapeutic payloads for cancer tissues.

Somasunderam, Anoma; Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Tanaka, Takemi; Li, Xin; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Lokesh, Ganesh Lakshmana Rao; Mann, Aman; Peng, Yang; Ferrari, Mauro; Klostergaard, Jim; Gorenstein, David G.

2010-01-01

307

Trihydroxamate Siderophore-Fluoroquinolone Conjugates are Selective Sideromycin Antibiotics that Target Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Siderophores are multidentate iron(III) chelators used by bacteria for iron assimilation. Sideromycins, also called siderophore-antibiotic conjugates, are a unique subset of siderophores that enter bacterial cells via siderophore uptake pathways and deliver the toxic antibiotic in a ‘Trojan Horse’ fashion. Sideromycins represent a novel antibiotic delivery technology with untapped potential for developing sophisticated microbe-selective antibacterial agents that limit the emergence of bacterial resistance. The chemical synthesis of a series of mono-, bis-, and trihydroxamate sideromycins are described here along with their biological evaluation in antibacterial susceptibility assays. The linear hydroxamate siderophores used for the sideromycins in this study were derived from the ferrioxamine family and inspired by the naturally occurring salmycin sideromycins. The antibacterial agents used were a ?-lactam carbacepholosporin, Lorabid®, and a fluoroquinolone, ciprofloxacin, chosen for the different locations of their biological targets, the periplasm (extracellular) and the cytoplasm (intracellular). The linear hydroxamate-based sideromycins were selectively toxic towards Gram-positive bacteria, especially Staphylococcus aureus SG511 (MIC = 1.0 µM for the trihydroxamate-fluoroquinolone sideromycin). Siderophore-sideromycin competition assays demonstrated that only the fluoroquinolone sideromycins required membrane transport to reach their cytoplasmic biological target and that a trihydroxamate siderophore backbone was required for protein-mediated active transport of the sideromycins into S. aureus cells via siderophore uptake pathways. This work represents a comprehensive study of linear hydroxamate sideromycins and teaches how to build effective hydroxamate-based sideromycins as Gram-positive selective antibiotic agents.

Wencewicz, Timothy A.; Long, Timothy E.; Mollmann, Ute; Miller, Marvin J.

2013-01-01

308

Targeting class IA PI3K isoforms selectively impairs cell growth, survival, and migration in glioblastoma.  

PubMed

The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is frequently activated in human cancer and plays a crucial role in glioblastoma biology. We were interested in gaining further insight into the potential of targeting PI3K isoforms as a novel anti-tumor approach in glioblastoma. Consistent expression of the PI3K catalytic isoform PI3K p110? was detected in a panel of glioblastoma patient samples. In contrast, PI3K p110? expression was only rarely detected in glioblastoma patient samples. The expression of a module comprising the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/PI3K p110?/phosphorylated ribosomal S6 protein (p-S6) was correlated with shorter patient survival. Inhibition of PI3K p110? activity impaired the anchorage-dependent growth of glioblastoma cells and induced tumor regression in vivo. Inhibition of PI3K p110? or PI3K p110? also led to impaired anchorage-independent growth, a decreased migratory capacity of glioblastoma cells, and reduced the activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway. These effects were selective, because targeting of PI3K p110? did not result in a comparable impairment of glioblastoma tumorigenic properties. Together, our data reveal that drugs targeting PI3K p110? can reduce growth in a subset of glioblastoma tumors characterized by the expression of EGFR/PI3K p110?/p-S6. PMID:24718026

Höland, Katrin; Boller, Danielle; Hagel, Christian; Dolski, Silvia; Treszl, András; Pardo, Olivier E; Cwiek, Paulina; Salm, Fabiana; Leni, Zaira; Shepherd, Peter R; Styp-Rekowska, Beata; Djonov, Valentin; von Bueren, André O; Frei, Karl; Arcaro, Alexandre

2014-01-01

309

Targeting Class IA PI3K Isoforms Selectively Impairs Cell Growth, Survival, and Migration in Glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is frequently activated in human cancer and plays a crucial role in glioblastoma biology. We were interested in gaining further insight into the potential of targeting PI3K isoforms as a novel anti-tumor approach in glioblastoma. Consistent expression of the PI3K catalytic isoform PI3K p110? was detected in a panel of glioblastoma patient samples. In contrast, PI3K p110? expression was only rarely detected in glioblastoma patient samples. The expression of a module comprising the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/PI3K p110?/phosphorylated ribosomal S6 protein (p-S6) was correlated with shorter patient survival. Inhibition of PI3K p110? activity impaired the anchorage-dependent growth of glioblastoma cells and induced tumor regression in vivo. Inhibition of PI3K p110? or PI3K p110? also led to impaired anchorage-independent growth, a decreased migratory capacity of glioblastoma cells, and reduced the activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway. These effects were selective, because targeting of PI3K p110? did not result in a comparable impairment of glioblastoma tumorigenic properties. Together, our data reveal that drugs targeting PI3K p110? can reduce growth in a subset of glioblastoma tumors characterized by the expression of EGFR/PI3K p110?/p-S6.

Holand, Katrin; Boller, Danielle; Hagel, Christian; Dolski, Silvia; Treszl, Andras; Pardo, Olivier E.; Cwiek, Paulina; Salm, Fabiana; Leni, Zaira; Shepherd, Peter R.; Styp-Rekowska, Beata; Djonov, Valentin; von Bueren, Andre O.; Frei, Karl; Arcaro, Alexandre

2014-01-01

310

MuB gives a new twist to target DNA selection  

PubMed Central

Transposition target immunity is a phenomenon observed in some DNA transposons that are able to distinguish the host chromosome from their own DNA sequence, thus avoiding self-destructive insertions. The first molecular insight into target selection and immunity mechanisms came from the study of phage Mu transposition, which uses the protein MuB as a barrier to self-insertion. MuB is an ATP-dependent non-specific DNA binding protein that regulates the activity of the MuA transposase and captures target DNA for transposition. However, a detailed mechanistic understanding of MuB functioning was hindered by the poor solubility of the MuB-ATP complexes. Here we comment on the recent discovery that MuB is an AAA+ ATPase that upon ATP binding assembles into helical filaments that coat the DNA. Remarkably, the helical parameters of the MuB filament do not match those of the bound DNA. This intriguing mismatch symmetry led us to propose a model on how MuB targets DNA for transposition, favoring DNA bending and recognition by the transposase at the filament edge. We also speculate on a different protective role of MuB during immunity, where filament stickiness could favor the condensation of the DNA into a compact state that occludes it from the transposase.

Dramicanin, Marija; Ramon-Maiques, Santiago

2013-01-01

311

Lysosomal destabilization and cathepsin B contributes for cytochrome c release and caspase activation in embelin-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

XIAP is an important antiapoptotic protein capable of conferring resistance to cancer cells. Embelin, the small molecular inhibitor of XIAP, possesses wide spectrum of biological activities with strong inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B and downstream antiapoptotic genes. However, the mechanism of its cell death induction is not known. Our studies using colon cancer cells lacking p53 and Bax suggest that both lysosomes and mitochondria are prominent targets of embelin-induced cell death. Embelin induced cell-cycle arrest in G(1) phase through p21, downstream of p53. In the absence of p21, the cells are sensitized to death in a Bax-dependent manner. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by embelin was independent of Bax and p53, but lysosomal integrity loss was strongly influenced by the presence of p53 but not by Bax. Lysosomal role was further substantiated by enhanced cathepsin B activity noticed in embelin-treated cells. p53-dependent lysosomal destabilization and cathepsin B activation contribute for increased sensitivity of p21-deficient cells to embelin with enhanced caspase 9 and caspase 3 activation. Cathepsin B inhibitor reduced cell death and cytochrome c release in embelin-treated cells indicating lysosomal pathway as the upstream of mitochondrial death signaling. Deficiency of cell-cycle arrest machinery renders cells more sensitive to embelin with enhanced lysosomal destabilization and caspase processing emphasizing its potential therapeutic importance to address clinical drug resistance. PMID:19943316

Joy, Beena; Sivadasan, Rajeeve; Abraham T, Emilia; John, Mohan; Sobhan, Praveen K; Seervi, Mahendra; T R, Santhoshkumar

2010-04-01

312

Structural genomics of human proteins - target selection and generation of a public catalogue of expression clones  

PubMed Central

Background The availability of suitable recombinant protein is still a major bottleneck in protein structure analysis. The Protein Structure Factory, part of the international structural genomics initiative, targets human proteins for structure determination. It has implemented high throughput procedures for all steps from cloning to structure calculation. This article describes the selection of human target proteins for structure analysis, our high throughput cloning strategy, and the expression of human proteins in Escherichia coli host cells. Results and Conclusion Protein expression and sequence data of 1414 E. coli expression clones representing 537 different proteins are presented. 139 human proteins (18%) could be expressed and purified in soluble form and with the expected size. All E. coli expression clones are publicly available to facilitate further functional characterisation of this set of human proteins.

Bussow, Konrad; Scheich, Christoph; Sievert, Volker; Harttig, Ulrich; Schultz, Jorg; Simon, Bernd; Bork, Peer; Lehrach, Hans; Heinemann, Udo

2005-01-01

313

Discovery of selective bioactive small molecules by targeting an RNA dynamic ensemble.  

PubMed

Current approaches used to identify protein-binding small molecules are not suited for identifying small molecules that can bind emerging RNA drug targets. By docking small molecules onto an RNA dynamic ensemble constructed by combining NMR spectroscopy and computational molecular dynamics, we virtually screened small molecules that target the entire structure landscape of the transactivation response element (TAR) from HIV type 1 (HIV-1). We quantitatively predict binding energies for small molecules that bind different RNA conformations and report the de novo discovery of six compounds that bind TAR with high affinity and inhibit its interaction with a Tat peptide in vitro (K(i) values of 710 nM-169 ?M). One compound binds HIV-1 TAR with marked selectivity and inhibits Tat-mediated activation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat by 81% in T-cell lines and HIV replication in an HIV-1 indicator cell line (IC(50) ?23.1 ?M). PMID:21706033

Stelzer, Andrew C; Frank, Aaron T; Kratz, Jeremy D; Swanson, Michael D; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Marta J; Lee, Janghyun; Andricioaei, Ioan; Markovitz, David M; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M

2011-08-01

314

Candidate targets of balancing selection in the genome of Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Signatures of balancing selection can highlight polymorphisms and functions that are important to the long-term fitness of a species. We performed a first genome-wide scan for balancing selection in a bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus, which is a common cause of serious antimicrobial-resistant infections of humans. Using a sliding window approach, the genomes of 16 strains of S. aureus, including 5 new genome sequences presented here, and 1 outgroup strain of S. epidermidis were scanned for signatures of balancing selection. A total of 195 short windows were investigated based on their extreme values of both Tajima's D (>2.03) and ?/K ratios (>0.12) relative to the rest of the genome. To test the unusualness of these windows, an Approximate Bayesian Computation framework was used to select a null demographic model that better accounted for the observed data than did the standard neutral model. A total of 186 windows were demonstrated to be unusual under the null model and, thus, represented candidate loci under balancing selection. These 186 candidate windows were located within 99 candidate genes that were spread across 62 different loci. Nearly all the signal (97.2%) was located within coding sequences; balancing selection on gene regulation apparently occurs through the targeting of global regulators such as agr and gra/aps. The agr locus had some of the strongest signatures of balancing selection, which provides new insight into the causes of diversity at this locus. The list of candidate genes included multiple virulence-associated genes and was significantly enriched for functions in amino acid and inorganic ion transport and metabolism and in defense mechanisms against innate immunity and antimicrobials, highlighting these particular functions as important to the fitness of this pathogen. PMID:22114360

Thomas, Jonathan C; Godfrey, Paul A; Feldgarden, Michael; Robinson, D Ashley

2012-04-01

315

A gene with major phenotypic effects as a target for selection vs. homogenizing gene flow.  

PubMed

Genes with major phenotypic effects facilitate quantifying the contribution of genetic vs. plastic effects to adaptive divergence. A classical example is Ectodysplasin (Eda), the major gene controlling lateral plate phenotype in three-spined stickleback. Completely plated marine stickleback populations evolved repeatedly towards low-plated freshwater populations, representing a prime example of parallel evolution by natural selection. However, many populations remain polymorphic for lateral plate number. Possible explanations for this polymorphism include relaxation of selection, disruptive selection or a balance between divergent selection and gene flow. We investigated 15 polymorphic stickleback populations from brackish and freshwater habitats in coastal North-western Europe. At each site, we tracked changes in allele frequency at the Eda gene between subadults in fall, adults in spring and juveniles in summer. Eda genotypes were also compared for body size and reproductive investment. We observed a fitness advantage for the Eda allele for the low morph in freshwater and for the allele for the complete morph in brackish water. Despite these results, the differentiation at the Eda gene was poorly correlated with habitat characteristics. Neutral population structure was the best predictor of spatial variation in lateral plate number, suggestive of a substantial effect of gene flow. A meta-analysis revealed that the signature of selection at Eda was weak compared to similar studies in stickleback. We conclude that a balance between divergent selection and gene flow can maintain stickleback populations polymorphic for lateral plate number and that ecologically relevant genes may not always contribute much to local adaptation, even when targeted by selection. PMID:24192132

Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Konijnendijk, Nellie; Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Hellemans, Bart; De Meester, Luc; Volckaert, Filip A M

2014-01-01

316

Masitinib (AB1010), a Potent and Selective Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Targeting KIT  

PubMed Central

Background The stem cell factor receptor, KIT, is a target for the treatment of cancer, mastocytosis, and inflammatory diseases. Here, we characterise the in vitro and in vivo profiles of masitinib (AB1010), a novel phenylaminothiazole-type tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets KIT. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro, masitinib had greater activity and selectivity against KIT than imatinib, inhibiting recombinant human wild-type KIT with an half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 200±40 nM and blocking stem cell factor-induced proliferation and KIT tyrosine phosphorylation with an IC50 of 150±80 nM in Ba/F3 cells expressing human or mouse wild-type KIT. Masitinib also potently inhibited recombinant PDGFR and the intracellular kinase Lyn, and to a lesser extent, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. In contrast, masitinib demonstrated weak inhibition of ABL and c-Fms and was inactive against a variety of other tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. This highly selective nature of masitinib suggests that it will exhibit a better safety profile than other tyrosine kinase inhibitors; indeed, masitinib-induced cardiotoxicity or genotoxicity has not been observed in animal studies. Molecular modelling and kinetic analysis suggest a different mode of binding than imatinib, and masitinib more strongly inhibited degranulation, cytokine production, and bone marrow mast cell migration than imatinib. Furthermore, masitinib potently inhibited human and murine KIT with activating mutations in the juxtamembrane domain. In vivo, masitinib blocked tumour growth in mice with subcutaneous grafts of Ba/F3 cells expressing a juxtamembrane KIT mutant. Conclusions Masitinib is a potent and selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting KIT that is active, orally bioavailable in vivo, and has low toxicity.

Dubreuil, Patrice; Letard, Sebastien; Ciufolini, Marco; Gros, Laurent; Humbert, Martine; Casteran, Nathalie; Borge, Laurence; Hajem, Berengere; Lermet, Anne; Sippl, Wolfgang; Voisset, Edwige; Arock, Michel; Auclair, Christian; Leventhal, Phillip S.; Mansfield, Colin D.; Moussy, Alain; Hermine, Olivier

2009-01-01

317

Selective pressures for accurate altruism targeting: evidence from digital evolution for difficult-to-test aspects of inclusive fitness theory  

PubMed Central

Inclusive fitness theory predicts that natural selection will favour altruist genes that are more accurate in targeting altruism only to copies of themselves. In this paper, we provide evidence from digital evolution in support of this prediction by competing multiple altruist-targeting mechanisms that vary in their accuracy in determining whether a potential target for altruism carries a copy of the altruist gene. We compete altruism-targeting mechanisms based on (i) kinship (kin targeting), (ii) genetic similarity at a level greater than that expected of kin (similarity targeting), and (iii) perfect knowledge of the presence of an altruist gene (green beard targeting). Natural selection always favoured the most accurate targeting mechanism available. Our investigations also revealed that evolution did not increase the altruism level when all green beard altruists used the same phenotypic marker. The green beard altruism levels stably increased only when mutations that changed the altruism level also changed the marker (e.g. beard colour), such that beard colour reliably indicated the altruism level. For kin- and similarity-targeting mechanisms, we found that evolution was able to stably adjust altruism levels. Our results confirm that natural selection favours altruist genes that are increasingly accurate in targeting altruism to only their copies. Our work also emphasizes that the concept of targeting accuracy must include both the presence of an altruist gene and the level of altruism it produces.

Clune, Jeff; Goldsby, Heather J.; Ofria, Charles; Pennock, Robert T.

2011-01-01

318

Lysosomes in iron metabolism, ageing and apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lysosomal compartment is essential for a variety of cellular functions, including the normal turnover of most long-lived\\u000a proteins and all organelles. The compartment consists of numerous acidic vesicles (pH ?4 to 5) that constantly fuse and divide.\\u000a It receives a large number of hydrolases (?50) from the trans-Golgi network, and substrates from both the cells’ outside (heterophagy) and inside

Tino Kurz; Alexei Terman; Bertil Gustafsson; Ulf T. Brunk

2008-01-01

319

Route to destruction: autophagosomes SNARE lysosomes.  

PubMed

Autophagy allows cells to encapsulate parts of their cytosol into unique double-membrane structures. These autophagosomes mature to fuse with lysosomes and deliver the enclosed contents for degradation. Three recent papers, including one by Takáts et al. (2013. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201211160), have taken different routes to discover a role for Syntaxin 17 in the maturation of autophagosomes. PMID:23671308

Krämer, Helmut

2013-05-13

320

Route to destruction: Autophagosomes SNARE lysosomes  

PubMed Central

Autophagy allows cells to encapsulate parts of their cytosol into unique double-membrane structures. These autophagosomes mature to fuse with lysosomes and deliver the enclosed contents for degradation. Three recent papers, including one by Takáts et al. (2013. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201211160), have taken different routes to discover a role for Syntaxin 17 in the maturation of autophagosomes.

Kramer, Helmut

2013-01-01

321

Lysosomal enzymuria in protein energy malnutrition.  

PubMed

Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is common in underprivileged populations in many parts of the world and results from diets deficient in protein (kwashiorkor) or protein and calories (marasmus). The literature documents renal tubular abnormalities in children with PEM. In PEM the reabsorption of amino acids and phosphate is defective. In many kidney disorders in which renal tubular function is impaired (e.g., diabetes, preeclampsia, nephrotic syndrome, sickle cell anemia), lysosomal enzymuria ensues. We compared the urinary excretion of the following five lysosomal enzymes in 31 Nigerian children with marasmus, kwashiorkor, or marasmic-kwashiorkor: beta-hexosaminidase, alpha-galactosidase, beta-galactosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and alpha-mannosidase. All of the protein energy malnourished children and the 18 age- and gender-matched controls were from the city of Jos, located in central Nigeria. In the severely malnourished children, the urine levels of all five lysosomal enzymes (expressed as units of enzyme activity per mg creatinine) were markedly increased. The greatest increases were seen with beta-hexosaminidase (16-fold) and beta-glucuronidase (14-fold). Routine clinical analyses also revealed that, relative to the control population, the sera of the 14 most severely malnourished patients contained 2- to 5-fold more vitamin B12 and markedly reduced levels (15%, p < 0.00001) of calcium. These data are significant in that they document lysosomal enzymuria in Nigerian children with severe PEM and point to the potential diagnostic utility of the urinary beta-galactosidase determination for assessing renal function in children with this disorder. PMID:9481433

Yazzie, D; Dasgupta, A; Okolo, A; Glew, R H

1998-01-01

322

Biosensors: selective detection of target proteins by Peptide-enabled graphene biosensor (small 8/2014).  

PubMed

Depiction of the graphene FET-based bionanosensor functionalized with two engineered chimeric peptides, bio-GrBP5 , and SS-GrBP5 , which undergo spatially controlled self-assembly on the sensor surface to bind to target protein (SA) with enhanced molecular selectivity. This novel peptide-enabled graphene FET tool described on page 1505 by M. Sarikaya and co-workers has potential to address a wide range of bio-sensing problems, such as studying ligand-receptor interactions and clinical detection of biomarkers. PMID:24729260

Khatayevich, Dmitriy; Page, Tamon; Gresswell, Carolyn; Hayamizu, Yuhei; Grady, William; Sarikaya, Mehmet

2014-04-01

323

Lysosomal acid phosphatase is transported to lysosomes via the cell surface.  

PubMed Central

Lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP) is transported as a transmembrane protein to dense lysosomes. The pathway of LAP to lysosomes includes the passage through the plasma membrane. LAP is transported from the trans-Golgi to the cell surface with a half-time of less than 10 min. Cell surface LAP is rapidly internalized. Most of the internalized LAP is transported back to the cell surface. On average, each LAP molecule cycles greater than 15 times between the cell surface and the endosomes before it is transferred to dense lysosomes. At equilibrium approximately 4 times more LAP precursor is present in endosomes than at the cell surface. Exposing cells to reduced temperature or weak bases such as NH4Cl, chloroquine and primaquine decreases the steady-state concentration of LAP at the cell surface. The recycling pathway is operative at greater than or equal to 20 degrees C and does not include passage of the Golgi/trans-Golgi network. LAP is transferred with a half-time of 5-6 h from the plasma membrane/endosome pool to dense lysosomes, from where it does not recycle to the endosome/plasma membrane pool at a measurable rate. Images

Braun, M; Waheed, A; von Figura, K

1989-01-01

324

The RNA Polymerase II Trigger Loop Functions in Substrate Selection and is Directly Targeted by ?-amanitin  

PubMed Central

Summary Structural, biochemical and genetic studies have led to proposals that a mobile element of multi-subunit RNA polymerases, the Trigger Loop (TL), plays a critical role in catalysis and can be targeted by antibiotic inhibitors. Here we present evidence that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) TL participates in substrate selection. Amino acid substitutions within the Pol II TL preferentially alter substrate usage and enzyme fidelity, as does inhibition of transcription by ?-amanitin. Finally, substitution of His1085 in the TL specifically renders Pol II highly resistant to ?-amanitin, indicating a functional interaction between His1085 and ?-amanitin that is supported by re-refinement of an ?-amanitin-Pol II crystal structure. We propose that ?-amanitin inhibited Pol II elongation, which is slow and exhibits reduced substrate selectivity, results from direct ?-amanitin interference with the TL.

Kaplan, Craig D.; Larsson, Karl-Magnus; Kornberg, Roger D.

2008-01-01

325

Rapid and Targeted Introgression of Genes into Popular Wheat Cultivars Using Marker-Assisted Background Selection  

PubMed Central

A marker-assisted background selection (MABS)-based gene introgression approach in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was optimized, where 97% or more of a recurrent parent genome (RPG) can be recovered in just two backcross (BC) generations. A four-step MABS method was developed based on ‘Plabsim’ computer simulations and wheat genome structure information. During empirical optimization of this method, double recombinants around the target gene were selected in a step-wise fashion during the two BC cycles followed by selection for recurrent parent genotype on non-carrier chromosomes. The average spacing between carrier chromosome markers was <4 cM. For non-carrier chromosome markers that flanked each of the 48 wheat gene-rich regions, this distance was ?12 cM. Employed to introgress seedling stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) resistance gene Yr15 into the spring wheat cultivar ‘Zak’, marker analysis of 2,187 backcross-derived progeny resulted in the recovery of a BC2F2?3 plant with 97% of the recurrent parent genome. In contrast, only 82% of the recurrent parent genome was recovered in phenotypically selected BC4F7 plants developed without MABS. Field evaluation results from 17 locations indicated that the MABS-derived line was either equal or superior to the recurrent parent for the tested agronomic characteristics. Based on these results, MABS is recommended as a strategy for rapidly introgressing a targeted gene into a wheat genotype in just two backcross generations while recovering 97% or more of the recurrent parent genotype.

Kidwell, Kim; Morris, Craig F.; Chen, Xianming; Gill, Kulvinder S.

2009-01-01

326

Lysosomal NEU1 deficiency affects Amyloid Precursor Protein levels and amyloid-? secretion via deregulated lysosomal exocytosis  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) belongs to a category of adult neurodegenerative conditions which are associated with intracellular and extracellular accumulation of neurotoxic protein aggregates. Understanding how these aggregates are formed, secreted and propagated by neurons has been the subject of intensive research, but so far no preventive or curative therapy for AD is available and clinical trials have been largely unsuccessful. Here we show that deficiency of the lysosomal sialidase NEU1 leads to the spontaneous occurrence of an AD-like amyloidogenic process in mice. This involves two consecutive events linked to NEU1 loss-of-function – accumulation and amyloidogenic processing of an oversialylated amyloid precursor protein in lysosomes, and extracellular release of A?-peptides by excessive lysosomal exocytosis. Furthermore, cerebral injection of NEU1 in an established AD mouse model substantially reduces ?-amyloid plaques. Our findings identify an additional pathway for the secretion of A? and define NEU1 as a potential therapeutic molecule for AD.

Annunziata, Ida; Patterson, Annette; Helton, Danielle; Hu, Huimin; Moshiach, Simon; Gomero, Elida; Nixon, Ralph; d'Azzo, Alessandra

2013-01-01

327

Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS). 0. Target Selection and Data Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Star clusters are superb astrophysical laboratories containing cospatial and coeval samples of stars with similar chemical composition. We initiate the Sejong Open cluster Survey (SOS) - a project dedicated to providing homogeneous photometry of a large number of open clusters in the SAAO Johnson-Cousins' UBVI system. To achieve our main goal, we pay much attention to the observation of standard stars in order to reproduce the SAAO standard system. Many of our targets are relatively small sparse clusters that escaped previous observations. As clusters are considered building blocks of the Galactic disk, their physical properties such as the initial mass function, the pattern of mass segregation, etc. give valuable information on the formation and evolution of the Galactic disk. The spatial distribution of young open clusters will be used to revise the local spiral arm structure of the Galaxy. In addition, the homogeneous data can also be used to test stellar evolutionary theory, especially concerning rare massive stars. In this paper we present the target selection criteria, the observational strategy for accurate photometry, and the adopted calibrations for data analysis such as color-color relations, zero-age main sequence relations, Sp - M_V relations, Sp - T_{eff} relations, Sp - color relations, and T_{eff} - BC relations. Finally we provide some data analysis such as the determination of the reddening law, the membership selection criteria, and distance determination.

Sung, Hwankyung; Lim, Beomdu; Bessell, Michael S.; Kim, Jinyoung S.; Hur, Hyeonoh; Chun, Moo-Young; Park, Byeong-Gon

2013-06-01

328

Getting to the source: selective drug targeting of cancer stem cells.  

PubMed

Cancers are among the most important and most difficult to treat diseases of the 21st century. Conventional therapies include surgery, immunotherapy, and radiotherapy, as well many forms of drug treatments such as tamoxifen and Gleevec. However, these forms of treatment often do not eradicate the cancer stem cells, only managing to decrease the size of the tumor, allowing the cancer to return. The cancer stem cell hypothesis stipulates that malignancy is maintained through self-renewal of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which generate rapidly dividing progeny that comprise the tumors, and that are largely untouched by conventional therapies. Evidence for the central role of CSCs in many tumors has provided a paradigm shift in the way cancer chemotherapy may be addressed. Recent discoveries regarding the nature of the stem cell niche, and the key signaling pathways involved in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation from regenerative medicine, have provided key information that facilitates selective targeting of CSCs by small-molecule drugs. The growing body of biochemical knowledge on the nature of CSCs, and differences between them and normal adult stem cells essential for maintaining organisms, has augmented the increasing number of small molecules shown to control normal and aberrant stem cells. Here, we review small-molecule approaches to the selective targeting of CSCs. PMID:24760779

Ismail, Fatima; Winkler, David A

2014-05-01

329

Advancing the sensitivity of selected reaction monitoring-based targeted quantitative proteomics  

PubMed Central

Selected reaction monitoring (SRM)—also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)—has emerged as a promising high-throughput targeted protein quantification technology for candidate biomarker verification and systems biology applications. A major bottleneck for current SRM technology, however, is insufficient sensitivity for e.g., detecting low-abundance biomarkers likely present at the low ng/mL to pg/mL range in human blood plasma or serum, or extremely low-abundance signaling proteins in cells or tissues. Herein we review recent advances in methods and technologies, including front-end immunoaffinity depletion, fractionation, selective enrichment of target proteins/peptides including posttranslational modifications (PTMs), as well as advances in MS instrumentation which have significantly enhanced the overall sensitivity of SRM assays and enabled the detection of low-abundance proteins at low to sub- ng/mL level in human blood plasma or serum. General perspectives on the potential of achieving sufficient sensitivity for detection of pg/mL level proteins in plasma are also discussed.

Shi, Tujin; Su, Dian; Liu, Tao; Tang, Keqi; Camp, David G.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.

2012-01-01

330

Photothermal nanotherapeutics and nanodiagnostics for selective killing of bacteria targeted with gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

We describe a new method for selective laser killing of bacteria targeted with light-absorbing gold nanoparticles conjugated with specific antibodies. The multifunctional photothermal (PT) microscope/spectrometer provides a real-time assessment of this new therapeutic intervention. In this integrated system, strong laser-induced overheating effects accompanied by the bubble-formation phenomena around clustered gold nanoparticles are the main cause of bacterial damage. PT imaging and time-resolved monitoring of the integrated PT responses assessed these effects. Specifically, we used this technology for selective killing of the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus by targeting the bacterial surface using 10-, 20-, and 40-nm gold particles conjugated with anti-protein A antibodies. Labeled bacteria were irradiated with focused laser pulses (420-570 nm, 12 ns, 0.1-5 J/cm(2), 100 pulses), and laser-induced bacterial damage observed at different laser fluences and nanoparticle sizes was verified by optical transmission, electron microscopy, and conventional viability testing. PMID:16239330

Zharov, Vladimir P; Mercer, Kelly E; Galitovskaya, Elena N; Smeltzer, Mark S

2006-01-15

331

Discovery of a novel small-molecule targeting selective clearance of mutant huntingtin fragments.  

PubMed

CAG-triplet repeat extension, translated into polyglutamines within the coding frame of otherwise unrelated gene products, causes 9 incurable neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease. Although an expansion in the CAG repeat length is the autosomal dominant mutation that causes the fully penetrant neurological phenotypes, the repeat length is inversely correlated with the age of onset. The precise molecular mechanism(s) of neurodegeneration remains elusive, but compelling evidence implicates the protein or its proteolytic fragments as the cause for the gain of novel pathological function(s). The authors sought to identify small molecules that target the selective clearance of polypeptides containing pathological polyglutamine extension. In a high-throughput chemical screen, they identified compounds that facilitate the clearance of a small huntingtin fragment with extended polyglutamines fused to green fluorescent protein reporter. Identified hits were validated in dose-response and toxicity tests. Compounds have been further tested in an assay for clearance of a larger huntingtin fragment, containing either pathological or normal polyglutamine repeats. In this assay, the authors identified compounds selectively targeting the clearance of mutant but not normal huntingtin fragments. These compounds were subjected to a functional assay, which yielded a lead compound that rescues cells from induced mutant polyglutamine toxicity. PMID:17379859

Coufal, Myra; Maxwell, Michele M; Russel, Deborah E; Amore, Allison M; Altmann, Stephen M; Hollingsworth, Zane R; Young, Anne B; Housman, David E; Kazantsev, Aleksey G

2007-04-01

332

SUMOylation modulates the transcriptional activity of androgen receptor in a target gene and pathway selective manner.  

PubMed

Androgen receptor (AR) plays an important regulatory role in prostate cancer. AR's transcriptional activity is regulated by androgenic ligands, but also by post-translational modifications, such as SUMOylation. To study the role of AR SUMOylation in genuine chromatin environment, we compared androgen-regulated gene expression and AR chromatin occupancy in PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines stably expressing wild-type (wt) or doubly SUMOylation site-mutated AR (AR-K386R,K520R). Our genome-wide gene expression analyses reveal that the SUMOylation modulates the AR function in a target gene and pathway selective manner. The transcripts that are differentially regulated by androgen and SUMOylation are linked to cellular movement, cell death, cellular proliferation, cellular development and cell cycle. Fittingly, SUMOylation mutant AR cells proliferate faster and are more sensitive to apoptosis. Moreover, ChIP-seq analyses show that the SUMOylation can modulate the chromatin occupancy of AR on many loci in a fashion that parallels their differential androgen-regulated expression. De novo motif analyses reveal that FOXA1, C/EBP and AP-1 motifs are differentially enriched at the wtAR- and the AR-K386R,K520R-preferred genomic binding positions. Taken together, our data indicate that SUMOylation does not simply repress the AR activity, but it regulates AR's interaction with the chromatin and the receptor's target gene selection. PMID:24981513

Sutinen, Päivi; Malinen, Marjo; Heikkinen, Sami; Palvimo, Jorma J

2014-09-01

333

Selective Targeted Cerebral Revascularization via Microscope Integrated Indocyanine Green Videoangiography Technology.  

PubMed

Protective or flow replacement bypass surgery has an important role in the management of complex middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms. Protective bypass is useful when prolonged temporary arterial occlusion is needed for clip reconstruction. Flow replacement bypass is instead important when aneurysmal trapping is the treatment of choice in order to supply permanent collateral blood flow to the brain distal to the "trapped" vessel. In both cases, the identification of the correct recipient artery is an essential surgical step. When a superficial (cortical) artery is chosen as recipient, it indeed has to represent a distal branch of the involved (temporarily or permanently occluded) vessel.Here we describe a technique for selective-targeted revascularization based on the use of indocyanine green video angiography (ICG-VA), a microscope-integrated intraoperative tool nowadays known to provide real-time assessment of the cerebral circulation with distinct visualization of arterial, capillary and venous angiographic phases. The technique is founded on the analysis of differences in the timing of filling of M4 vessels seen on serial ICG-VAs. It enables reliable identification of the cortical recipient and eliminates the risk of erroneous revascularization of non-involved territories. The surgical decision-making of two patients treated for complex MCA aneurysms with selective-targeted bypass is presented. PMID:24728634

Esposito, Giuseppe; Regli, Luca

2014-01-01

334

Sensitive and Specific Target Sequences Selected from Retrotransposons of Schistosoma japonicum for the Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis japonica is a serious debilitating and sometimes fatal disease. Accurate diagnostic tests play a key role in patient management and control of the disease. However, currently available diagnostic methods are not ideal, and the detection of the parasite DNA in blood samples has turned out to be one of the most promising tools for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. In our previous investigations, a 230-bp sequence from the highly repetitive retrotransposon SjR2 was identified and it showed high sensitivity and specificity for detecting Schistosoma japonicum DNA in the sera of rabbit model and patients. Recently, 29 retrotransposons were found in S. japonicum genome by our group. The present study highlighted the key factors for selecting a new perspective sensitive target DNA sequence for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis, which can serve as example for other parasitic pathogens. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we demonstrated that the key factors based on the bioinformatic analysis for selecting target sequence are the higher genome proportion, repetitive complete copies and partial copies, and active ESTs than the others in the chromosome genome. New primers based on 25 novel retrotransposons and SjR2 were designed and their sensitivity and specificity for detecting S. japonicum DNA were compared. The results showed that a new 303-bp sequence from non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon (SjCHGCS19) had high sensitivity and specificity. The 303-bp target sequence was amplified from the sera of rabbit model at 3 d post-infection by nested-PCR and it became negative at 17 weeks post-treatment. Furthermore, the percentage sensitivity of the nested-PCR was 97.67% in 43 serum samples of S. japonicum-infected patients. Conclusions/Significance Our findings highlighted the key factors based on the bioinformatic analysis for selecting target sequence from S. japonicum genome, which provide basis for establishing powerful molecular diagnostic techniques that can be used for monitoring early infection and therapy efficacy to support schistosomiasis control programs.

Xu, Jing; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Xia, Chao-Ming

2012-01-01

335

Targeting the XIAP/caspase-7 complex selectively kills caspase-3-deficient malignancies  

PubMed Central

Caspase-3 downregulation (CASP3/DR) in tumors frequently confers resistance to cancer therapy and is significantly correlated with a poor prognosis in cancer patients. Because CASP3/DR cancer cells rely heavily on the activity of caspase-7 (CASP7) to initiate apoptosis, inhibition of activated CASP7 (p19/p12-CASP7) by X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a potential mechanism by which apoptosis is prevented in those cancer cells. Here, we identify the pocket surrounding the Cys246 residue of p19/p12-CASP7 as a target for the development of a protein-protein interaction (PPI) inhibitor of the XIAP:p19/p12-CASP7 complex. Interrupting this PPI directly triggered CASP7-dependent apoptotic signaling that bypassed the activation of the apical caspases and selectively killed CASP3/DR malignancies in vitro and in vivo without adverse side effects in nontumor cells. Importantly, CASP3/DR combined with p19/p12-CASP7 accumulation correlated with the aggressive evolution of clinical malignancies and a poor prognosis in cancer patients. Moreover, targeting of this PPI effectively killed cancer cells with multidrug resistance due to microRNA let-7a-1–mediated CASP3/DR and resensitized cancer cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. These findings not only provide an opportunity to treat CASP3/DR malignancies by targeting the XIAP:p19/p12-CASP7 complex, but also elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying CASP3/DR in cancers.

Lin, Yuan-Feng; Lai, Tsung-Ching; Chang, Chih-Kang; Chen, Chi-Long; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Yang, Chih-Jen; Liu, Hon-Ge; Dong, Jhih-Jhong; Chou, Yi-An; Teng, Kuo-Hsun; Chen, Shih-Hsun; Tian, Wei-Ting; Jan, Yi-Hua; Hsiao, Michael; Liang, Po-Huang

2013-01-01

336

Selective targeting of distinct active site nucleophiles by irreversible SRC-family kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Src-family tyrosine kinases play pivotal roles in human physiology and disease, and several drugs that target members of this family are in clinical use. None of these drugs appear to discriminate among closely related kinases. However, assessing their selectivity toward endogenous kinases in living cells remains a significant challenge. Here, we report the design of two Src-directed chemical probes, each consisting of a nucleoside scaffold with a 5'-electrophile. A 5'-fluorosulfonylbenzoate (1) reacts with the conserved catalytic lysine (Lys295) and shows little discrimination among related kinases. By contrast, a 5'-vinylsulfonate (2) reacts with a poorly conserved, proximal cysteine (Cys277) found in three Src-family and six unrelated kinases. Both 1 and 2 bear an alkyne tag and efficiently label their respective endogenous kinase targets in intact cells. Using 1 as a competitive probe, we determined the extent to which ponatinib, a clinical Bcr-Abl inhibitor, targets Src-family kinases. Remarkably, while ponatinib had little effect on endogenous Fyn or Src, it potently blocked the critical T-cell kinase, Lck. Probes 1 and 2 thus enable competitive profiling versus distinct kinase subsets in living cells. PMID:23190395

Gushwa, Nathan N; Kang, Sumin; Chen, Jing; Taunton, Jack

2012-12-19

337

Discovery of Selective Bioactive Small Molecules by Targeting an RNA Dynamic Ensemble  

PubMed Central

RNA is growing in its importance as a drug target but current approaches used to identify protein-targeting small molecules are ill-suited for RNA. By docking small molecules onto an RNA dynamic ensemble constructed by combining Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and computational molecular dynamics, we virtually screened small molecules that target the entire structure landscape of the transactivation response element (TAR) from the human immunodeficiency type 1 virus (HIV-1). We quantitatively predict binding energies for small molecules that bind different RNA conformations and report the de novo discovery of six compounds that bind TAR with near record affinity and inhibit its interaction with a Tat peptide in vitro (Kis = 710 nM–169 ?M). One compound binds HIV-1 TAR with exceptional selectivity and inhibits Tat-mediated activation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat by 81% in T cell lines and HIV replication in an HIV-1 indicator cell line (IC50 ~23.1 ?M).

Stelzer, Andrew C.; Frank, Aaron T.; Kratz, Jeremy D.; Swanson, Michael D.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Marta J.; Lee, Janghyun; Andricioaei, Ioan; Markovitz, David M.; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.

2012-01-01

338

Selection of flowing liquid lead target structural materials for accelerator driven transmutation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beam entry window and container for a liquid lead spallation target will be exposed to high fluxes of protons and neutrons that are both higher in magnitude and energy than have been experienced in proton accelerators and fission reactors, as well as in a corrosive environment. The structural material of the target should have a good compatibility with liquid lead, a sufficient mechanical strength at elevated temperatures, a good performance under an intense irradiation environment, and a low neutron absorption cross section; these factors have been used to rank the applicability of a wide range of materials for structural containment. Nb-1Zr has been selected for use as the structural container for the LANL ABC/ATW molten lead target. Corrosion and mass transfer behavior for various candidate structural materials in liquid lead are reviewed, together with the beneficial effects of inhibitors and various coatings to protect substrate against liquid lead corrosion. Mechanical properties of some candidate materials at elevated temperatures and the property changes resulting from 800 MeV proton irradiation are also reviewed.

Park, John J.; Buksa, John J.

1995-09-01

339

Lysosomal membrane dynamics: structure and interorganellar movement of a major lysosomal membrane glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

The biochemistry and intracellular transit of an integral membrane glycoprotein of chicken fibroblast lysosomes were studied with monoclonal antibody techniques. The glycoprotein had an apparent molecular weight of 95,000-105,000. Structural analysis involving metabolic labeling with [35S]methionine and cleavage with glycosidases revealed the presence of numerous oligosaccharide chains N-linked to a core polypeptide of apparent molecular weight 48,000. A primary localization of the glycoprotein to lysosomes was demonstrated by the coincidence of antibody binding sites with regions of acridine orange uptake, electron immunocytochemical labeling on the inner surface of lysosome-like vacuolar membranes, and preferential association of the glycoprotein with lysosome-enriched subcellular fractions from Percoll gradients. In addition, small quantities of the glycoprotein were detected on endocytic vesicle and plasma membranes. To study the intracellular pathway of the glycoprotein, we used a monoclonal antibody whose binding to the glycoprotein at the cell surface had no effect on the number or subcellular distribution of antigen molecules. Incubation of chicken fibroblasts with monoclonal antibody at 37 degrees C led to the rapid uptake and subsequent delivery of antibody to lysosomes, where antibody was degraded. This process continued undiminished for many hours on cells continuously exposed to the antibody and was not blocked by the addition of cycloheximide. The rate at which antigen sites were replenished in the plasma membrane of cells prelabeled with antibody (t1/2 = 2 min) was essentially equivalent to the rate of internalization of antibody bound to cell surfaces. These results suggest that there is a continuous and rapid exchange of this glycoprotein between plasma membrane and the membranes of endosomes and/or lysosomes.

1986-01-01

340

A lysosome-to-nucleus signalling mechanism senses and regulates the lysosome via mTOR and TFEB  

PubMed Central

The lysosome plays a key role in cellular homeostasis by controlling both cellular clearance and energy production to respond to environmental cues. However, the mechanisms mediating lysosomal adaptation are largely unknown. Here, we show that the Transcription Factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, colocalizes with master growth regulator mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) on the lysosomal membrane. When nutrients are present, phosphorylation of TFEB by mTORC1 inhibits TFEB activity. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1, as well as starvation and lysosomal disruption, activates TFEB by promoting its nuclear translocation. In addition, the transcriptional response of lysosomal and autophagic genes to either lysosomal dysfunction or pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 is suppressed in TFEB?/? cells. Interestingly, the Rag GTPase complex, which senses lysosomal amino acids and activates mTORC1, is both necessary and sufficient to regulate starvation- and stress-induced nuclear translocation of TFEB. These data indicate that the lysosome senses its content and regulates its own biogenesis by a lysosome-to-nucleus signalling mechanism that involves TFEB and mTOR.

Settembre, Carmine; Zoncu, Roberto; Medina, Diego L; Vetrini, Francesco; Erdin, Serkan; Erdin, SerpilUckac; Huynh, Tuong; Ferron, Mathieu; Karsenty, Gerard; Vellard, Michel C; Facchinetti, Valeria; Sabatini, David M; Ballabio, Andrea

2012-01-01

341

Recombinogenic Properties of Pyrococcus furiosus Strain COM1 Enable Rapid Selection of Targeted Mutants  

PubMed Central

We recently reported the isolation of a mutant of Pyrococcus furiosus, COM1, that is naturally and efficiently competent for DNA uptake. While we do not know the exact nature of this mutation, the combined transformation and recombination frequencies of this strain allow marker replacement by direct selection using linear DNA. In testing the limits of its recombination efficiency, we discovered that marker replacement was possible with as few as 40 nucleotides of flanking homology to the target region. We utilized this ability to design a strategy for selection of constructed deletions using PCR products with subsequent excision, or “pop-out,” of the selected marker. We used this method to construct a “markerless” deletion of the trpAB locus in the GLW101 (COM1 ?pyrF) background to generate a strain (JFW02) that is a tight tryptophan auxotroph, providing a genetic background with two auxotrophic markers for further strain construction. The utility of trpAB as a selectable marker was demonstrated using prototrophic selection of plasmids and genomic DNA containing the wild-type trpAB alleles. A deletion of radB was also constructed that, surprisingly, had no obvious effect on either recombination or transformation, suggesting that its gene product is not involved in the COM1 phenotype. Attempts to construct a radA deletion mutation were unsuccessful, suggesting that this may be an essential gene. The ease and speed of this procedure will facilitate the construction of strains with multiple genetic changes and allow the construction of mutants with deletions of virtually any nonessential gene.

Farkas, Joel; Stirrett, Karen; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Nixon, William; Scott, Robert A.; Adams, Michael W. W.

2012-01-01

342

Practical considerations for dose selection in pediatric patients to ensure target exposure requirements.  

PubMed

Pediatric dosing recommendations are often not based on allometry, despite recognition that metabolic processes in mammals scale to the ¾ power. This report reviews the allometric size model for clearance and its implications for defining doses for children while considering practical limitations. Fondaparinux exposures in children were predicted using allometric and mg/kg dosing. Additional simulations further refined the dose based on the predicted Cmax, target exposure range, complexity of the dosing regimen, and previous exposure/response data. The percent reduction of the adult dose of an oral lozenge fixed-dose formulation which would predict similar exposures in children and adults was recommended based on simulations. Allometric dosing predicted a consistent fondaparinux exposure across the weight range. Size-optimized mg/kg dosing, which partially approximates the allometric relationship, allows for consistent fondaparinux exposures (i.e., 0.12 mg/kg ?35 kg or 0.1 mg/kg >35 kg). Simulations of the oral lozenge formulation demonstrated rapidly changing clearance in children less than 6 years prohibiting practical dosing recommendations for satisfying all conventional exposure metrics (Cmax and AUC) in this age group. In children between 13 and 18 or 6 and 13 years, a 8.6% and 54% reduction in dose would maintain target exposures but dose reductions of 12.5% or 62.5% were ultimately recommended as deemed manufacturable. Dose selection in children should consider the known and/or predicted covariate relationships which affect exposure. Presented examples applied the allometric model in dose selection with the goal of PK bridging and considered practical limitations in dose selection. PMID:24841797

Barbour, April M; Fossler, Michael J; Barrett, Jeffrey

2014-07-01

343

Rag GTPases are cardioprotective by regulating lysosomal function.  

PubMed

The Rag family proteins are Ras-like small GTPases that have a critical role in amino-acid-stimulated mTORC1 activation by recruiting mTORC1 to lysosome. Despite progress in the mechanistic understanding of Rag GTPases in mTORC1 activation, little is known about the physiological function of Rag GTPases in vivo. Here we show that loss of RagA and RagB (RagA/B) in cardiomyocytes results in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and phenocopies lysosomal storage diseases, although mTORC1 activity is not substantially impaired in vivo. We demonstrate that despite upregulation of lysosomal protein expression by constitutive activation of the transcription factor EB (TFEB) in RagA/B knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, lysosomal acidification is compromised owing to decreased v-ATPase level in the lysosome fraction. Our study uncovers RagA/B GTPases as key regulators of lysosomal function and cardiac protection. PMID:24980141

Kim, Young Chul; Park, Hyun Woo; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Mo, Jung-Soon; Jewell, Jenna L; Russell, Ryan C; Wu, Xiaohui; Sadoshima, Junichi; Guan, Kun-Liang

2014-01-01

344

AChBP-targeted ?-conotoxin correlates distinct binding orientations with nAChR subtype selectivity  

PubMed Central

Neuronal nAChRs are a diverse family of pentameric ion channels with wide distribution throughout cells of the nervous and immune systems. However, the role of specific subtypes in normal and pathological states remains poorly understood due to the lack of selective probes. Here, we used a binding assay based on acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP), a homolog of the nicotinic acetylcholine ligand-binding domain, to discover a novel ?-conotoxin (?-TxIA) in the venom of Conus textile. ?-TxIA bound with high affinity to AChBPs from different species and selectively targeted the ?3?2 nAChR subtype. A co-crystal structure of Ac-AChBP with the enhanced potency analog TxIA(A10L), revealed a 20° backbone tilt compared to other AChBP–conotoxin complexes. This reorientation was coordinated by a key salt bridge formed between Arg5 (TxIA) and Asp195 (Ac-AChBP). Mutagenesis studies, biochemical assays and electrophysiological recordings directly correlated the interactions observed in the co-crystal structure to binding affinity at AChBP and different nAChR subtypes. Together, these results establish a new pharmacophore for the design of novel subtype-selective ligands with therapeutic potential in nAChR-related diseases.

Dutertre, Sebastien; Ulens, Chris; Buttner, Regina; Fish, Alexander; van Elk, Rene; Kendel, Yvonne; Hopping, Gene; Alewood, Paul F; Schroeder, Christina; Nicke, Annette; Smit, August B; Sixma, Titia K; Lewis, Richard J

2007-01-01

345

Target dependence of orientation and direction selectivity of corticocortical projection neurons in the mouse V1  

PubMed Central

Higher order visual areas that receive input from the primary visual cortex (V1) are specialized for the processing of distinct features of visual information. However, it is still incompletely understood how this functional specialization is acquired. Here we used in vivo two photon calcium imaging in the mouse visual cortex to investigate whether this functional distinction exists at as early as the level of projections from V1 to two higher order visual areas, AL and LM. Specifically, we examined whether sharpness of orientation and direction selectivity and optimal spatial and temporal frequency of projection neurons from V1 to higher order visual areas match with that of target areas. We found that the V1 input to higher order visual areas were indeed functionally distinct: AL preferentially received inputs from V1 that were more orientation and direction selective and tuned for lower spatial frequency compared to projection of V1 to LM, consistent with functional differences between AL and LM. The present findings suggest that selective projections from V1 to higher order visual areas initiates parallel processing of sensory information in the visual cortical network.

Matsui, Teppei; Ohki, Kenichi

2013-01-01

346

Glucose regulates protein catabolism in ras-transformed fibroblasts through a lysosomal-dependent proteolytic pathway.  

PubMed Central

Transformed cells are exposed to heterogeneous microenvironments, including low D-glucose (Glc) concentrations inside tumours. The regulation of protein turnover is commonly impaired in many types of transformed cells, but the role of Glc in this regulation is unknown. In the present study we demonstrate that Glc controls protein turnover in ras-transformed fibroblasts (KBALB). The regulation by Glc of protein breakdown was correlated with modifications in the levels of lysosomal cathepsins B, L and D, while autophagic sequestration and non-lysosomal proteolytic systems (m- and mu-calpains and the zeta-subunit of the proteasome) remained unaffected. Lactacystin, a selective inhibitor of the proteasome, depressed proteolysis, but did not prevent its regulation by Glc. The sole inhibition of the cysteine endopeptidases (cathepsins B and L, and calpains) by E-64d [(2S,3S)-trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-3-methylbutane ethyl ester] was also not sufficient to alter the effect of Glc on proteolysis. The Glc-dependent increase in proteolysis was, however, prevented after optimal inhibition of lysosomal cysteine and aspartic endopeptidases by methylamine. We conclude that, in transformed cells, Glc plays a critical role in the regulation of protein turnover and that the lysosomal proteolytic capacity is mainly responsible for the control of intracellular proteolysis by Glc.

Tournu, C; Obled, A; Roux, M P; Ferrara, M; Omura, S; Bechet, D M

2001-01-01

347

Effective heritability of targets of sex-ratio selection under environmental sex determination.  

PubMed

Selection is expected to maintain primary sex ratios at an evolutionary equilibrium. In organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), targets of sex-ratio selection include the thermal sensitivity of the sex-determining pathway (hereafter, sex determination threshold) and nest-site choice. However, offspring sex may be canalized for nests located in thermally extreme environments; thus, genetic variance for the sex determination threshold is not expressed and is invisible to direct selection. The concept of 'effective heritability' accounts for this dependence and provides a more realistic prediction of the expected evolutionary response to selection in the wild. Past estimates of effective heritability of the sex determination threshold, which were derived from laboratory data, suggested that the potential for the sex determination threshold to evolve in the wild was extremely low. We re-evaluated original estimates of this parameter by analysing field-collected measures of nest temperatures, vegetation cover and clutch sex ratios from nests in a population of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta). We coupled these data with measurements of broad-sense heritability of the sex determination threshold in C. picta, using an experiment that splits clutches of eggs between a constant temperature (i.e. typical laboratory incubation) and a daily fluctuating temperature (i.e. similar to natural nests) with the same mean. We found that (i) the effective heritability of the sex determination threshold appears to have been historically underestimated and the effective heritability of nest-site choice has been overestimated and (ii) significant family-by-incubation treatment interaction exists for sex for C. picta between constant- and fluctuating-temperature regimes. Our results suggest that the thermal sensitivity of the sex-determining pathway may play a larger, more complex role in the microevolution of TSD than traditionally thought. PMID:21261771

McGaugh, S E; Janzen, F J

2011-04-01

348

[Treatment of patients with lysosomal storage diseases].  

PubMed

A problem of management of patients with lysosomal storage diseases in own experience with over 100 children with such diseases has been discussed. Symptomatic therapy of carpal tunnel syndrome, Pudenz valves, splenectomies, plasty of hernia, locomotive rehabilitation and various forms of cooperation with patients' families have been used in the treatment. An attempt of the treatment of the storage diseases with implantation of fetal membranes has been undertaken in view of the fact, that such membranes are the source of deficit enzyme. PMID:1437765

Tylki-Szyma?ska, A

349

Molecules to selectively target receptors for treatment of pain and neurogenic inflammation.  

PubMed

Receptors that are involved in generation and transduction of pain signals attract much interest from the scientific and corporate communities. Good commercial prospects for successful development of effective analgesic drugs stimulate significantly the research. This article provides a brief overview of the key molecular targets, i.e. cell receptors, inhibition of which can lead to analgesia. Today transient receptor potential (TRP), purinergic (P2X) receptors and acidsensing ion channels (ASIC) are considered to be the most important proteins for perception of pain stimuli. These ionotropic receptors also participate in the development of inflammation; their hyperactivity leads to many pathological conditions and is closely associated with acute and inflammatory pain. Development of molecules capable to selectively modulate these receptors, their in vitro and in vivo effects, as well as perspectives for practical application described in patents and research articles are reviewed in this paper. PMID:22185455

Andreev, Yaroslav A; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Kozlov, Sergey A

2012-01-01

350

Plausible improvements for selective targeting of dopamine receptors in therapy of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive and profound loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta leading to the formation of eosinophillic, intracytoplamic, proteinacious inclusions termed as lewy bodies. L-dopa remains as a gold standard for the treatment of PD, and is often combined with carbidopa to reduce the dose-limiting side effects. Long-term levodopa treatment is associated with the development of motor fluctuations and peak dose dyskinesias. Dopamine Replacement Therapy (DRT) with dopamine agonists (DAs) (ropinirole and pramipexole) is used to manage complications of L-dopa treatment, however, has been associated with numerous pharmacovigilence reports. The present review attempts to narrate the multiple receptor interaction of DAs followed by the assessment of their side effects during the treatment of PD and possible remedial strategy for selective targeting of dopamine receptors to overcome these affects in therapy of Parkinson's disease. PMID:22697513

Luthra, Pratibha Mehta; Kumar, J B Senthil

2012-12-01

351

Biodistribution studies with tumor-targeting bispecific antibodies reveal selective accumulation at the tumor site.  

PubMed

Bispecific antibodies are proteins that bind two different antigens and may retarget immune cells with a binding moiety specific for a leukocyte marker. A binding event in blood could in principle prevent antibody extravasation and accumulation at the site of disease. In this study, we produced and characterized two tetravalent bispecific antibodies that bind with high affinity to the alternatively-spliced EDB domain of fibronectin, a tumor-associated antigen. The bispecific antibodies simultaneously engaged the cognate antigens (murine T cell co-receptor CD3 and hen egg lysozyme) and selectively accumulated on murine tumors in vivo. The results, which were in agreement with predictions based on pharmacokinetic modeling and antibody binding characteristics, confirmed that bispecific antibodies can reach abluminal targets without being blocked by peripheral blood leukocytes. PMID:23032949

List, Thomas; Neri, Dario

2012-01-01

352

Lysine suppresses protein degradation through autophagic-lysosomal system in C2C12 myotubes.  

PubMed

Muscle mass is determined between protein synthesis and protein degradation. Reduction of muscle mass leads to bedridden condition and attenuation of resistance to diseases. Moreover, bedridden condition leads to additional muscle loss due to disuse muscle atrophy. In our previous study (Sato et al. 2013), we showed that administered lysine (Lys), one of essential amino acid, suppressed protein degradation in skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated that the mechanism of the suppressive effects of Lys on skeletal muscle proteolysis in C2C12 cell line. C2C12 myotubes were incubated in the serum-free medium containing 10 mM Lys or 20 mM Lys, and myofibrillar protein degradation was determined by the rates of 3-methylhistidine (MeHis) release from the cells. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity from the phosphorylation levels of p70-ribosormal protein S6 kinase 1 and eIF4E-binding protein 1 and the autophagic-lysosomal system activity from the ratio of LC3-II/I in C2C12 myotubes stimulated by 10 mM Lys for 0-3 h were measured. The rates of MeHis release were markedly reduced by addition of Lys. The autophagic-lysosomal system activity was inhibited upon 30 min of Lys supplementation. The activity of mTOR was significantly increased upon 30 min of Lys supplementation. The suppressive effect of Lys on the proteolysis by the autophagic-lysosomal system was maintained partially when mTOR activity was inhibited by 100 nM rapamycin, suggesting that some regulator other than mTOR signaling, for example, Akt, might also suppress the autophagic-lysosomal system. From these results, we suggested that Lys suppressed the activity of the autophagic-lysosomal system in part through activation of mTOR and reduced myofibrillar protein degradation in C2C12 myotubes. PMID:24532005

Sato, Tomonori; Ito, Yoshiaki; Nedachi, Taku; Nagasawa, Takashi

2014-06-01

353

Micelles derivatized with octreotide as potential target-selective contrast agents in MRI.  

PubMed

New amphiphilic monomers (OCA-DTPAGlu and OCA-DOTA) containing, in the same molecule, three different functions: (i) the chelating agent (DTPAGlu or DOTA) able to coordinate gadolinium ion, (ii) the octreotide bioactive peptide able to target somatostatin receptors, and (iii) a hydrophobic moiety with two 18-carbon atoms alkyl chains have been designed and synthesized by solid-phase methods. The novel amphiphilic monomers aggregate, in water solution, giving stable micelles at very low concentration (cmc values of 2.3 x 10(-6) mol kg(-1) and 2.5 x 10(-6) mol kg(-1) for OCA-DTPAGlu and OCA-DOTA, respectively) as confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence studies and circular dichroism experiments indicate, for the two compounds as well as for their gadolinium complexes (OCA-DOTA(Gd) and OCA-DTPAGlu(Gd)), the complete exposure of octreotide on the micelle surface, and the predominant presence of an antiparallel beta-sheet peptide conformation characterized by a beta-like turn. The high relaxivity value (r(1p) = 13.9 mM(-1) s(-1) at 20 MHz and 25 degrees C), measured for micelles obtained by the gadolinium complex OCA-DTPAGlu(Gd), indicates these aggregates as promising target-selective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. PMID:19035577

Morisco, Anna; Accardo, Antonella; Gianolio, Eliana; Tesauro, Diego; Benedetti, Ettore; Morelli, Giancarlo

2009-03-01

354

Selective Visualization of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Inflammation and Cancer by Targeted Fluorescent Imaging Agents†  

PubMed Central

Effective diagnosis of inflammation and cancer by molecular imaging is challenging because of interference from non-selective accumulation of the contrast agents in normal tissues. Here we report a series of novel fluorescence imaging agents that efficiently target cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which is normally absent from cells, but is found at high levels in inflammatory lesions, and in many premalignant and malignant tumors. After either intraperitoneal or intravenous injection, these reagents become highly enriched in inflamed or tumor tissue compared to normal tissue and this accumulation provides sufficient signal for in vivo fluorescence imaging. Further, we show that only the intact parent compound is found in the region of interest. COX-2-specific delivery was unambiguously confirmed using animals bearing targeted deletions of COX-2 and by blocking the COX-2 active site with high affinity inhibitors in both in vitro and in vivo models. Because of their high specificity, contrast, and detectability, these COX-2 beacons are ideal candidates for detection of inflammatory lesions or early-stage COX-2-expressing human cancers, such as those in the esophagus, oropharynx, and colon.

Uddin, Md. Jashim; Crews, Brenda C.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Kingsley, Philip J.; Gorden, D. Lee; McIntyre, J. Oliver; Matrisian, Lynn M.; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Dannenberg, Andrew J.; Piston, David W.; Marnett, Lawrence J.

2010-01-01

355

Cancer stem cells as targets for cancer therapy: selected cancers as examples  

PubMed Central

It is becoming increasingly evident that cancer constitutes a group of diseases involving altered stem-cell maturation/differentiation and the disturbance of regenerative processes. The observed malignant transformation is merely a symptom of normal differentiation processes gone astray rather than the primary event. This review focuses on the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in three common but also relatively under-investigated cancers: head and neck, ovarian, and testicular cancer. For didactic purpose, the physiology of stem cells is first introduced using hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells as examples. This is followed by a discussion of the (possible) role of CSCs in head and neck, ovarian, and testicular cancer. Aside from basic information about the pathophysiology of these cancers, current research results focused on the discovery of molecular markers specific to these cancers are also discussed. The last part of the review is largely dedicated to signaling pathways active within various normal and CSC types (e.g. Nanog, Nestin, Notch1, Notch2, Oct3 and 4, Wnt). Different elements of these pathways are also discussed in the context of therapeutic opportunities for the development of targeted therapies aimed at CSCs. Finally, alternative targeted anticancer therapies arising from recently identified molecules with cancer--(semi-)selective capabilities (e.g. apoptin, Brevinin-2R) are considered.

Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine; Paranjothy, Ted; Wiechec, Emilia; Pocar, Paola; Mustafa, Tarek; Seifert, Anja; Zahl, Christian; Gerlach, Klaus Luis; Biermann, Katharina; Steger, Klaus; Hoang-Vu, Cuong; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Los, Marek

2010-01-01

356

Development and maturation of invariant NKT cells in the presence of lysosomal engulfment.  

PubMed

A defect in invariant NKT (iNKT) cell selection was hypothesized in lysosomal storage disorders (LSD). Accumulation of glycosphingolipids (GSL) in LSD could influence lipid loading and/or presentation causing entrapment of endogenous ligand(s) within storage bodies or competition of the selecting ligand(s) by stored lipids for CD1d binding. However, when we analyzed the iNKT cell compartment in newly tested LSD animal models that accumulate GSL, glycoaminoglycans or both, we observed a defective iNKT cell selection only in animals affected by multiple sulfatase deficiency, in which a generalized aberrant T-cell development, rather than a pure iNKT defect, was present. Mice with single lysosomal enzyme deficiencies had normal iNKT cell development. Thus, GSL/glycoaminoglycans storage and lysosomal engulfment are not sufficient for affecting iNKT cell development. Rather, lipid ligand(s) or storage compounds, which are affected in those LSD lacking mature iNKT cells, might indeed be relevant for iNKT cell selection. PMID:19637231

Plati, Tiziana; Visigalli, Ilaria; Capotondo, Alessia; Buono, Mario; Naldini, Luigi; Cosma, Maria Pia; Biffi, Alessandra

2009-10-01

357

The latest evidence on target selection in deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is one of the most promising neuromodulatory techniques to gain momentum over the last 20years, with significant evidence showing the benefit of DBS for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, many questions still exist pertaining to the optimal placement of stimulation contacts. This paper aims to review the latest and most relevant studies evaluating subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus interna (GPi) stimulation. Additionally, it aims to shine a light on several of the lesser-known targets with mounting evidence of efficacy. Referenced literature for the main body of the article was gathered from Medline and PubMed databases. Results were limited to "full text", "English language" and publications from 1999 onwards. Case reports were excluded. The current evidence irrefutably demonstrates the benefits of both STN and GPi DBS on Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III motor scores, with very similar outcomes seen after 1-2years. Currently, it appears the greatest differences lie in the associated adverse effects. STN DBS was associated with a greater reduction in dopamine replacement therapy, but also appeared to have more negative effects on speech and mood. Meanwhile, in regards to alternative targets, the pedunculopontine nucleus has shown promising improvement in axial symptoms, while the ventral intermediate nucleus has demonstrated significant efficacy at suppressing tremor, and the caudal zona incerta may be superior to the STN and GPi in improving UPDRS-III scores. Due to the complexity of Parkinson's disease, an individual disease profile must be determined in a patient-by-patient fashion such that appropriate targets can be selected accordingly. PMID:24210797

Lukins, Timothy Ross; Tisch, Stephen; Jonker, Benjamin

2014-01-01

358

Mature Epitope Density - A strategy for target selection based on immunoinformatics and exported prokaryotic proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Current immunological bioinformatic approaches focus on the prediction of allele-specific epitopes capable of triggering immunogenic activity. The prediction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitopes is well studied, and various software solutions exist for this purpose. However, currently available tools do not account for the concentration of epitope products in the mature protein product and its relation to the reliability of target selection. Results We developed a computational strategy based on measuring the epitope's concentration in the mature protein, called Mature Epitope Density (MED). Our method, though simple, is capable of identifying promising vaccine targets. Our online software implementation provides a computationally light and reliable analysis of bacterial exoproteins and their potential for vaccines or diagnosis projects against pathogenic organisms. We evaluated our computational approach by using the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv exoproteome as a gold standard model. A literature search was carried out on 60 out of 553 Mtb's predicted exoproteins, looking for previous experimental evidence concerning their possible antigenicity. Half of the 60 proteins were classified as highest scored by the MED statistic, while the other half were classified as lowest scored. Among the lowest scored proteins, ~13% were confirmed as not related to antigenicity or not contributing to the bacterial pathogenicity, and 70% of the highest scored proteins were confirmed as related. There was no experimental evidence of antigenic or pathogenic contributions for three of the highest MED-scored Mtb proteins. Hence, these three proteins could represent novel putative vaccine and drug targets for Mtb. A web version of MED is publicly available online at http://med.mmci.uni-saarland.de/. Conclusions The software presented here offers a practical and accurate method to identify potential vaccine and diagnosis candidates against pathogenic bacteria by "reading" results from well-established reverse vaccinology software in a novel way, considering the epitope's concentration in the mature portion of the protein.

2013-01-01

359

VPS41, a protein involved in lysosomal trafficking, is protective in Caenorhabditis elegans and mammalian cellular models of Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

VPS41 is a protein identified as a potential therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease (PD) as a result of a high-throughput RNAi screen in Caenorhabditis elegans. VPS41 has a plausible mechanistic link to the pathogenesis of PD, as in yeast it is known to participate in trafficking of proteins to the lysosomal system and several recent lines of evidence have pointed

Qingmin Ruan; Adam J. Harrington; Kim A. Caldwell; Guy A. Caldwell; David G. Standaert

2010-01-01

360

BCL-2 inhibition targets oxidative phosphorylation and selectively eradicates quiescent human leukemia stem cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Most forms of chemotherapy employ mechanisms involving induction of oxidative stress, a strategy that can be effective due to the elevated oxidative state commonly observed in cancer cells. However, recent studies have shown that relative redox levels in primary tumors can be heterogeneous, suggesting that regimens dependent on differential oxidative state may not be uniformly effective. To investigate this issue in hematological malignancies, we evaluated mechanisms controlling oxidative state in primary specimens derived from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients. Our studies demonstrate three striking findings. First, the majority of functionally-defined leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are characterized by relatively low levels of reactive oxygen species (termed “ROS-low”). Second, ROS-low LSCs aberrantly over-express BCL-2. Third, BCL-2 inhibition reduced oxidative phosphorylation and selectively eradicated quiescent LSCs. Based on these findings, we propose a model wherein the unique physiology of ROS-low LSCs provides an opportunity for selective targeting via disruption of BCL-2-dependent oxidative phosphorylation.

Lagadinou, Eleni D.; Sach, Alexander; Callahan, Kevin; Rossi, Randall M.; Neering, Sarah J.; Minhajuddin, Mohammad; Ashton, John M.; Pei, Shanshan; Grose, Valerie; O'Dwyer, Kristen M.; Liesveld, Jane L.; Brookes, Paul S.; Becker, Michael W.; Jordan, Craig T.

2013-01-01

361

Tumorigenic Polyploid Cells Contain Elevated ROS and are Selectively Targeted by Antioxidant Treatment  

PubMed Central

Polyploidy has been linked to tumorigenicity mainly due to the chromosomal aberrations. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, on the other hand, has also been associated with oncogenic transformation in most cancer cells. However, a possible link between ploidy and ROS is largely unexplored. Here we have exemined the role of ROS in the tumorigenicity of polyploid cells. We show that polyploid prostate and mammary epithelial cells contain higher levels of ROS due to their higher mitochondrial contents. ROS levels and mitochondrial mass are also higher in dihydrocytochalasin B (DCB)-induced polyploid cells, suggesting that higher levels of ROS observed in polyploid cell can occur due to cytokinesis failure. Interestingly, polyploid cells were more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of the antioxidant, N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), than control diploid cells. Treatment of polyploid/diploid cells with NAC led to the selective elimination of polyploid cells over time and abrogated the tumorigenicity of polyploid cells. This effect was partially mediated via the Akt signaling pathway. We next explored a possible role for ROS in promoting chromosomal instability by analyzing the effects of ROS on the mitotic stage of the cell cycle. Enhancing ROS levels by treating cells with hydrogen peroxide delayed not only entry into and but also exit from mitosis. Furthermore, increasing ROS levels significantly increased taxol resistance. Our results indicated that increased ROS in polyploid cells can contribute to tumorigenicity and highlight the therapeutic potential of antioxidants by selectively targeting the tumorigenic polyploid cells and by reversing taxol resistance.

Roh, Meejeon; van der Meer, Riet; Abdulkadir, Sarki A.

2011-01-01

362

Antihypertensive effects of selective prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype 1 targeting  

PubMed Central

Clinical use of prostaglandin synthase–inhibiting NSAIDs is associated with the development of hypertension; however, the cardiovascular effects of antagonists for individual prostaglandin receptors remain uncharacterized. The present studies were aimed at elucidating the role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) E-prostanoid receptor subtype 1 (EP1) in regulating blood pressure. Oral administration of the EP1 receptor antagonist SC51322 reduced blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. To define whether this antihypertensive effect was caused by EP1 receptor inhibition, an EP1-null mouse was generated using a “hit-and-run” strategy that disrupted the gene encoding EP1 but spared expression of protein kinase N (PKN) encoded at the EP1 locus on the antiparallel DNA strand. Selective genetic disruption of the EP1 receptor blunted the acute pressor response to Ang II and reduced chronic Ang II–driven hypertension. SC51322 blunted the constricting effect of Ang II on in vitro–perfused preglomerular renal arterioles and mesenteric arteriolar rings. Similarly, the pressor response to EP1-selective agonists sulprostone and 17-phenyltrinor PGE2 were blunted by SC51322 and in EP1-null mice. These data support the possibility of targeting the EP1 receptor for antihypertensive therapy.

Guan, Youfei; Zhang, Yahua; Wu, Jing; Qi, Zhonghua; Yang, Guangrui; Dou, Dou; Gao, Yuansheng; Chen, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Davis, Linda S.; Wei, Mingfeng; Fan, Xuefeng; Carmosino, Monica; Hao, Chuanming; Imig, John D.; Breyer, Richard M.; Breyer, Matthew D.

2007-01-01

363

Targeted glycomics by selected reaction monitoring for highly sensitive glycan compositional analysis.  

PubMed

The development of glycomics increasingly requires the detection and quantification of large numbers of glycans, which is only partially achieved by current glycomics approaches. Taking advantage of selected reaction monitoring to enhance both sensitivity and selectivity, we report here a strategy termed targeted glycomics that enables highly sensitive and consistent identification and quantification of diverse glycans across multiple samples at the same time. In this proof-of-principle study, we validated the method by analyzing global N-glycans expressed in different systems: single proteins, cancer cells, and serum samples. A dynamic range of three orders of magnitude was obtained for the detection of all five glycans released from ribonuclease B. The limit of detection of 80 attomole for Man(9)GlcNAc(2) demonstrated the excellent sensitivity of the method. The capability of the strategy to identify diverse glycans was demonstrated by identification and detection of 162 different glycans and isomers from pancreatic cancer cells. The sensitivity of the method was illustrated further by the ability to detect eight glycans from 250 cancer cells and five glycans released from 100 cancer cells. In serum obtained from rabbits fed control diet or diet enriched with 2% cholesterol, differences to 42 glycans were accurately measured and this indicates that this strategy might find use in studies of biomarker discovery and validation. PMID:22821818

Zhang, Hongquan; Wang, Zhaohui; Stupak, Jacek; Ghribi, Othman; Geiger, Jonathan D; Liu, Qing Yan; Li, Jianjun

2012-08-01

364

Targeted glycomics by selected reaction monitoring for highly sensitive glycan compositional analysis  

PubMed Central

The development of glycomics increasingly requires the detection and quantification of large numbers of glycans, which is only partially achieved by current glycomics approaches. Taking advantage of selected reaction monitoring to enhance both sensitivity and selectivity, we report here a strategy termed targeted glycomics that enables highly sensitive and consistent identification and quantification of diverse glycans across multiple samples at the same time. In this proof-of-principle study, we validated the method by analyzing globally N-glycans expressed in different systems; single proteins, cancer cells and serum samples. A dynamic range of three orders of magnitude was obtained for the detection of all five glycans released from ribonuclease B. The limit of detection of 80 attomole for Man9GlcNAc2 demonstrated the excellent sensitivity of the method. The capability of the strategy to identify diverse glycans was demonstrated by identification and detection of 162 different glycans and isomers from pancreatic cancer cells. The sensitivity of the method was illustrated further by the ability to detect 8 glycans from 250 cancer cells and 5 glycans released from 100 cancer cells. In serum obtained from rabbits fed control diet or diet enriched with 2% cholesterol, differences to 42 glycans were accurately measured and this indicates that this strategy might find use in studies of biomarker discovery and validation.

Zhang, Hongquan; Wang, Zhaohui; Stupak, Jacek; Ghribi, Othman; Geiger, Jonathan D.; Liu, Qing Yan; Li, Jianjun

2013-01-01

365

Two lysosomal membrane proteins, LGP85 and LGP107, are delivered to late endosomes\\/lysosomes through different intracellular routes after exiting from the trans-Golgi network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysosomal membrane proteins are delivered from their synthesis site, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to late endosomes\\/lysosomes through the Golgi complex. It has been proposed that after leaving the Golgi they are transported either directly or indirectly (via the cell surface) to late endosomes\\/lysosomes. In the present study, we examined the transport routes taken by two structurally different lysosomal membrane proteins,

Kazuo Niwa; Rie Tanaka; Hiroshi Murase; Toyoko Ishikawa; Hideaki Fujita; Masaru Himeno; Yoshitaka Tanaka

2003-01-01

366

Stability of antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles in the endo-lysosomal nanoenvironment: Implications for non-invasive radiofrequency-based cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

The use of non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) electric fields as an energy source for thermal activation of nanoparticles within cancer cells could be a valuable addition to the emerging field of nano-mediated cancer therapies. Based on investigations of cell death through hyperthermia, and offering the ability for total body penetration by RF fields, this technique is thought to compliment and possibly out-perform existing nano-heat-treatments that utilize alternative heat production via optical or magnetic stimuli. However, it remains a challenge to understand fully the complex RF-nanoparticle-intracellular interactions before full system optimization can be engineered. Herein we have shown that liver cancer cells can selectively internalize antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) through receptor-mediated endocytosis, with the nanoparticles predominantly accumulating and aggregating within cytoplasmic endo-lysosomes. After exposure to an external RF field, non-aggregated AuNPs absorbed and dissipated energy as heat causing thermal damage to the targeted cancer cells. We also observed that RF absorption and heat dissipation is dependent on solubility of AuNPs in the colloid, which is pH dependent. Furthermore, by modulating endo-lysosomal pH it is possible to prevent intracellular AuNP aggregation and enhance thermal cytotoxicity in hepatocellular cancer cells.

Raoof, Mustafa; Corr, Stuart J.; Kaluarachchi, Warna D.; Massey, Katheryn L.; Briggs, Katrina; Zhu, Cihui; Cheney, Matthew A.; Wilson, Lon J.; Curley, Steven A.

2012-01-01

367

A guide to picking the most selective kinase inhibitor tool compounds for pharmacological validation of drug targets  

PubMed Central

To establish the druggability of a target, genetic validation needs to be supplemented with pharmacological validation. Pharmacological studies, especially in the kinase field, are hampered by the fact that many reference inhibitors are not fully selective for one target. Fortunately, the initial trickle of selective inhibitors released in the public domain has steadily swelled into a stream. However, rationally picking the most selective tool compound out of the increasing amounts of available inhibitors has become progressively difficult due to the lack of accurate quantitative descriptors of drug selectivity. A recently published approach, termed ‘selectivity entropy’, is an improved way of expressing selectivity as a single-value parameter and enables rank ordering of inhibitors. We provide a guide to select the best tool compounds for pharmacological validation experiments of candidate drug targets using selectivity entropy. In addition, we recommend which inhibitors to use for studying the biology of the 20 most investigated kinases that are clinically relevant: Abl (ABL1), AKT1, ALK, Aurora A/B, CDKs, MET, CSF1R (FMS), EGFR, FLT3, ERBB2 (HER2), IKBKB (IKK2), JAK2/3, JNK1/2/3 (MAPK8/9/10), MEK1/2, PLK1, PI3Ks, p38? (MAPK14), BRAF, SRC and VEGFR2 (KDR).

Uitdehaag, Joost CM; Verkaar, Folkert; Alwan, Husam; de Man, Jos; Buijsman, Rogier C; Zaman, Guido JR

2012-01-01

368

Expanding Newborn Screening for Lysosomal Disorders: Opportunities and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Newborn screening (NBS), since its implementation in the 1960s, has traditionally been successful in reducing mortality and disability in children with a range of different conditions. Lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) are a heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic diseases that result from lysosomal dysfunction. Based on available treatment and…

Waggoner, Darrel J.; Tan, Christopher A.

2011-01-01

369

Melanosomes Are Specialized Members of the Lysosomal Lineage of Organelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanosomes are specialized subcellular organelles in which melanin is synthesized and deposited. Electron microscopic, cytochemical, genetic, and biochemical evidence all support the contention that melanosomes are specialized lysosomes. The relationship of melanosomes and lysosomes provides a framework in which to understand the pathogenesis of disorders such as the Chediak-Higashi syndrome, allows the testing of hypotheses for the trafficking of proteins

Seth J. Orlow

1995-01-01

370

Membrane Localization of ?-Amyloid 1-42 in Lysosomes  

PubMed Central

?-Amyloid peptide (A?42) is the core protein of amyloid plaque in Alzheimer disease. The intracellular accumulation of A?42 in the endosomal/lysosomal system has been under investigation for many years, but the direct link between A?42 accumulation and dysfunction of the endosomal/lysosomal system is still largely unknown. Here, we found that both in vitro and in vivo, a major portion of A?42 was tightly inserted into and a small portion peripherally associated with the lysosomal membrane, whereas its soluble portion was minimal. We also found that the A?42 molecules inserted into the membrane tended to form multiple oligomeric aggregates, whereas A?40 peptides formed only dimers. Neutralizing lysosomal pH in differentiated PC12 cells decreased the lysosomal membrane insertion of A?42 and moderated A?42-induced lysosomal labilization and cytotoxicity. Our findings, thus, suggest that the membrane-inserted portion of A?42 accumulated in lysosomes may destabilize the lysosomal membrane and induce neurotoxicity.

Liu, Rui-Qin; Zhou, Qing-Hua; Ji, Shang-Rong; Zhou, Qiang; Feng, Du; Wu, Yi; Sui, Sen-Fang

2010-01-01

371

Mass spectrometry in the study of lysosomal storage disorders.  

PubMed

Lysosomal storage disorders represent a group of over 45 distinct genetic diseases, each one resulting from a deficiency of a particular lysosomal protein or, in a few cases, from non-lysosomal proteins that are involved in lysosomal biogenesis. A common biochemical feature of this group of disorders is the accumulation within lysosomes of undegraded or partially degraded substrates that are normally degraded within, and transported out of the lysosome. The particular substrates stored and the site(s) of storage vary with disease type and enzyme/protein deficiency. The nature of the substrate can be used to group the disorders into broad categories including the mucopolysaccharidoses, lipidoses, glycogenoses and oligosaccharidoses. These categories show many clinical similarities within groups as well as significant similarities between groups. For most lysosomal storage disorders the relationship between the stored substrates (type, amount and location) and the disease pathology is not well understood. The use of mass spectrometry and in particular tandem mass spectrometry provides a powerful tool for the investigation of stored substrates in this group of disorders. In this review we will describe the use of mass spectrometry for the analysis of stored substrates. We will discuss progress in the field, limitations of current methods, and summarise issues relating to the diagnosis and treatment of some of the more prevalent lysosomal storage disorders. PMID:14528914

Meikle, P J; Fuller, M; Hopwood, J J

2003-07-01

372

Mucolipidosis type IV: Abnormal transport of lipids to lysosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a lysosomal storage disorder in which various phospholipids and gangliosides accumulate. The cause of this storage has not yet been identified. Loading experiments in cultured fibroblasts with radioactive phosphatidylcholine ([14C]PC) labelled either in the acyl groups or in the choline residue, indicated increased retention of this lipid in the lysosomes of these patients. Chase experiments

R. Bargal; G. Bach

1997-01-01

373

Effects of Steroid Hormones on Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Lysosomes  

PubMed Central

Lysosomal membrane stabilization has been proposed as a mechanism for the anti-inflammatory action of corticosteroid hormones. This hypothesis was based on studies with liver organelles. We studied the action of steroids on intact lysosomes isolated from human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes. Both androstenedione and progesterone, 10-3-10-5 M, caused leakage of acid hydrolase markers from these organelles, thus resembling their effects on liver lysosomes. But none of the anti-inflammatory steroids tested protected organelle membranes from either detergent lysis (Triton X-100) or heat incubation (37°C, 90 min). Hydrocortisone (HC), HC sodium succinate, HC acetate, HC hemisuccinate, prednisone, and dexamethasone were without detectable stabilizing activity at concentrations of 10-3-5 × 10-8 M. Release of the lysosomal marker, ?-glucuronidase, was not retarded by any of the compounds studied. In addition, PMN leukocyte lysosomes isolated from human volunteers receiving prednisolone were not more stable than control organelles, nor did serum from steroid-treated humans protect intact lysosomes from detergent lysis. Variations in cholesterol and phospholipid contents of liver and PMN leukocyte lysosome membranes could possibly account for the different reactivity to corticosteroids observed. We believe that the anti-inflammatory activity of adrenal corticosteroids can best be explained by their inhibitory effects on cellular metabolism rather than by their direct interaction with lysosomal membranes.

Persellin, Robert H.; Ku, Leighton C.

1974-01-01

374

LYSOSOMES IN THE RAT SCIATIC NERVE FOLLOWING CRUSH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral nerves undergoing degeneration are favorable material for studying the types, origins, and functions of lysosomes. The following lysosomes are described: (a) Autophagic vacuoles in altered Schwann cells. Within these vacuoles the myelin and much of the axo- plasm which it encloses in the normal nerve are degraded (Wallerian degeneration). The delimiting membranes of the vacuoles apparently form from myelin

ERIC HOLTZMAN; ALEX B. NOVIKOFF

1965-01-01

375

At the acidic edge: emerging functions for lysosomal membrane proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently become clear that lysosomes have more complex functions than simply being the end-point on a degradative pathway. Similarly, it is now emerging that there are interesting functions for the limiting membranes around these organelles and their associated proteins. Although it has been known for several decades that the lysosomal membrane contains several highly N-glycosylated proteins, including the

Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen; Yoshitaka Tanaka; Paul Saftig

2003-01-01

376

Lysosome recruitment during host cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi uses an unusual mechanism to enter cells. Recent observations revealed that instead of trypanosomes being brought in to fuse with lysosomes, it is the lysosomes that migrate to the trypanosomes and actually participate in their internalization. Signalling events involving intracellular free Ca2+ occur upon contact of the parasites with host cells and may contribute to

Norma W. Andrews

1995-01-01

377

Storage solutions: treating lysosomal disorders of the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the accumulation of undegradable molecules in cells or at extracellular sites in the brain. One such family of diseases is the lysosomal storage disorders, which result from defects in various aspects of lysosomal function. Until recently, there was little prospect of treating storage diseases involving the CNS. However, recent progress has been made in

Mylvaganam Jeyakumar; Raymond A. Dwek; Terry D. Butters; Frances M. Platt