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Sample records for self-administered subjective gerd

  1. GERD

    MedlinePlus

    ... carries food from your mouth to your stomach. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) happens when a muscle at the end of ... more than twice a week, you may have GERD. You can also have GERD without having heartburn. ...

  2. Defining GERD.

    PubMed Central

    Sontag, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    "It is not the death of GERD that I seek, but that it turns from its evil ways and follows the path of righteousness." The reflux world is fully aware of what GERD is and what GERD does. What the world does not know, however, is the answer to the most important yet least asked question surrounding GERD's raison-d'etre: Why is GERD here and why do we have it? What GERD is: abnormal gastric reflux into the esophagus that causes any type of mischief. What GERD does: causes discomfort and/or pain with or without destroying the mucosa; causes stricture or stenosis, preventing food from being swallowed; sets the stage for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma; invades the surrounding lands to harass the peaceful oropharyngeal, laryngeal and broncho-pulmonary territories; reminds us that we are not only human, but that we are dust and ashes. Why GERD is here: We propose three separate and distinct etiologies of GERD, and we offer the following three hypotheses to explain why, after 1.5 million years of standing erect, we have evolved into a species (specifically Homosapiens sapiens) that is destined to live with the scourge of GERD. Hypothesis 1: congenital. The antireflux barrier, comprising the smooth-muscled lower esophageal sphincter, the skeletal-muscled right crural diaphragm and the phreno-esophageal ligament does not completely develop due to a developmental anomaly or incomplete gestation. Hypothesis 2: acute trauma: The antireflux barrier in adults suffering acute traumatic injury to the abdomen or chest is permanently disrupted by unexpected forces, such as motor vehicle accidents (with steering wheel crush impact), blows to the abdomen (from activities such as boxing, etc.), heavy lifting or moving (e.g., pianos, refrigerators) or stress positions (e.g., hand stands on parallel gym bars). The trauma creates a hiatal hernia that renders the antireflux mechanism useless and incapable of preventing GERD. Hypothesis 3: chronic trauma: The antireflux barrier

  3. Self-administered treatment for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Curry, Susan J; Ludman, Evette J; McClure, Jennifer

    2003-03-01

    Self-administered treatment for smoking cessation has the potential to reach a broad spectrum of the population of smokers. This article focuses on self-administration of behavioral and pharmacological treatments for smoking cessation. Evidence for the effectiveness of written manuals to self-administer behavioral treatment is mixed. There is no evidence that self-help manuals alone are effective. However, they do increase quit rates when combined with personalized adjuncts such as written feedback and outreach telephone counseling. Efficacy trials of first-line pharmacotherapies (nicotine gum, nicotine patch, and bupropion) result in doubling of cessation rates compared to placebo. It is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacotherapies when self-administered under real-world conditions. The general consensus is that they improve quit rates, although poor compliance and early discontinuation reduce their effectiveness. Areas for further research include randomized trials of the use of new technologies (e.g., hand-held computers and the Internet) to disseminate self-administered treatments as well as improved surveillance of the use of self-administered treatment in population-based health surveys. PMID:12579547

  4. Management of paediatric GERD.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan

    2014-03-01

    Paediatric GERD is complicated to manage, as symptoms are diverse and often difficult to interpret. In infants, regurgitation is a common physiological condition. Nevertheless, when it occurs frequently (>4 times per day) and causes the infant distress, parents often seek medical help. In children 2-10 years of age, GERD is often considered to cause extra-oesophageal symptoms, despite the absence of hard evidence. Diagnostic investigations often lack solid validation and the signs and symptoms of GERD overlap with those of cow's milk protein allergy and eosinophillic oesophagitis. Reassurance, dietary treatment and positional adaptations are recommended for troublesome infant reflux. Anti-acid medication, mainly PPIs, is over-used in infants even though, in many children, reflux is not an acid-related condition. Moreover, evidence is increasing that PPIs cause adverse events such as gastroenteritis and respiratory tract infections. Management in children older than 10 years is similar to that in adults. Using prokinetics to treat nonerosive reflux disease remains only a promising theoretical concept, as no such molecule is currently available. Today, the adverse effects of each prokinetic molecule largely outweigh its potential benefit. Laparoscopic surgery is indicated in children who have life-threatening symptoms or in cases of drug dependence. PMID:24126561

  5. Self-administered electroconvulsive treatment with a homemade device.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Takuya; Masumura, Toshiaki; Arai, Minoru; Adachi, Naoto; Akazawa, Shigeru; Arai, Heii

    2006-09-01

    Two patients with personality disorder and depression attempted to self-administer electroconvulsive therapy with a homemade device. The patients showed no proper psychopathological improvement after these attempts. Both of the patients' temples were seriously burned, and one of them required skin grafting. Both patients rejected to have reasonable psychosocial support, and followed a cult mental health manual in attempting to self-administer electroconvulsive therapy. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of its kind. The intractable psychopathology, poor interpersonal skills, and misleading information seemed to lead to the self-harm behaviors of our 2 patients. PMID:16957542

  6. Pediatric Acid Reflux and GERD in Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Share Reflux and GERD : Teen GERD Pediatric Acid Reflux and GERD in Teens If you’re ... And here’s the better news: Most kids with acid reflux are able to lead normal, active, healthy ...

  7. Have You Heard of GERD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be helpful for some people who have GERD. These work by lowering the amount of acid in the ... the stomach empty more quickly. If nothing else works, a person may need surgery to treat GERD, but this isn't done very often. How ...

  8. Self-Administered Behavioral Family Intervention for Parents of Toddlers: Part 1. Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a self-administered behavioral family intervention for 126 parents of toddlers. The effects of 2 different levels of intensity of the self-administered intervention were contrasted (self-administered alone or self-administered plus brief therapist telephone assistance). The results provide support for the…

  9. Psychology of computer use: IX. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Wilkes, R. L.; Kuntz, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests which may have application in screening for fitness-for-duty or for persons who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. 16 subjects self-administered 18 microcomputer-based tests (13 new, 5 "core"), without proctors, over 10 sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the tests from the "core" battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Eight of the new tests exceeded minimum criteria for metric and practical requirements and can be recommended as additions to the menu. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, implying factorial diversity. The menu can be used to form batteries with flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  10. A self administered reliable questionnaire to assess lower bowel symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Adelstein, Barbara-Ann; Irwig, Les; Macaskill, Petra; Katelaris, Peter H; Jones, David B; Bokey, Les

    2008-01-01

    Background Bowel symptoms are considered indicators of the presence of colorectal cancer and other bowel diseases. Self administered questionnaires that elicit information about lower bowel symptoms have not been assessed for reliability, although this has been done for upper bowel symptoms. Our aim was to develop a self administered questionnaire for eliciting the presence, nature and severity of lower bowel symptoms potentially related to colorectal cancer, and assess its reliability. Methods Immediately before consulting a gastroenterologist or colorectal surgeon, 263 patients likely to have a colonoscopy completed the questionnaire. Reliability was assessed in two ways: by assessing agreement between patient responses and (a) responses given by the doctor at the consultation; and (b) responses given by patients two weeks later. Results There was more than 75% agreement for 78% of the questions for the patient-doctor comparison and for 92% of the questions for the patient-patient comparison. Agreement for the length of time a symptom was present, its severity, duration, frequency of occurrence and whether or not medical consultation had been sought, all had agreement of greater than 70%. Over all questions, the chance corrected agreement for the patient-doctor comparison had a median kappa of 65% (which represents substantial agreement), interquartile range 57–72%. The patient-patient comparison also showed substantial agreement with a median kappa of 75%, interquartile range 68–81%. Conclusion This self administered questionnaire about lower bowel symptoms is a useful way of eliciting details of bowel symptoms. It is a reliable instrument that is acceptable to patients and easily completed. Its use could guide the clinical consultation, allowing a more efficient, comprehensive and useful interaction, ensuring that all symptoms are assessed. It will also be a useful tool in research studies on bowel symptoms and their predictive value for colorectal cancer

  11. Self-administered treatments for depression: a review.

    PubMed

    McKendree-Smith, Nancy L; Floyd, Mark; Scogin, Forrest R

    2003-03-01

    Although there are numerous self-help books for depression, relatively few have been empirically tested. However, those that have been used in clinical trials have fared well, with an average effect size roughly equivalent to the average effect size obtained in psychotherapy studies. Computer-based treatments are being developed and appear promising as an alternative to bibliotherapy for those interested in self-administered treatments. This article provides a summary of the depression bibliotherapy literature and discusses several remaining questions such as effectiveness versus efficacy, practice applications, ethics, and future research. PMID:12579545

  12. Emerging therapeutic options in GERD.

    PubMed

    Woodland, Philip; Amarasinghe, Gehanjali; Sifrim, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a prevalent problem resulting in a high level of healthcare consultation and expenditure in the Western World. Although standard medical therapy (in the form of proton pump inhibitor drugs) is effective in the majority of cases, there remains a significant proportion who are refractory to treatment. In addition, surgical therapy (in the form of laparoscopic fundoplication) is not always effective, and in some can be associated with significant side-effects, particularly gas-bloat, flatulence and dysphagia. As such there remains an unmet need in GERD to develop new therapies for refractory cases, and to develop alternatives to fundoplication with fewer side-effects. This article discusses the current state of pharmacological and non-pharmacological emerging therapies for GERD. PMID:23998982

  13. An Overview of Self-Administered Health Literacy Instruments

    PubMed Central

    O′Neill, Braden; Gonçalves, Daniela; Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Ziebland, Sue; Valderas, Jose

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing recognition of health literacy as a worldwide research priority, the development and refinement of indices to measure the construct is an important area of inquiry. Furthermore, the proliferation of online resources and research means that there is a growing need for self-administered instruments. We undertook a systematic overview to identify all published self-administered health literacy assessment indices to report their content and considerations associated with their administration. A primary aim of this study was to assist those seeking to employ a self-reported health literacy index to select one that has been developed and validated for an appropriate context, as well as with desired administration characteristics. Systematic searches were carried out in four electronic databases, and studies were included if they reported the development and/or validation of a novel health literacy assessment measure. Data were systematically extracted on key characteristics of the instruments: breadth of construct (“generic” vs. “content- or context- specific” health literacy), whether it was an original instrument or a derivative, country of origin, administration characteristics, age of target population (adult vs. pediatric), and evidence for validity. 35 articles met the inclusion criteria. There were 27 original instruments (27/35; 77.1%) and 8 derivative instruments (8/35; 22.9%). 22 indices measured “general” health literacy (22/35; 62.9%) while the remainder measured condition- or context- specific health literacy (13/35; 37.1%). Most health literacy measures were developed in the United States (22/35; 62.9%), and about half had adequate face, content, and construct validity (16/35; 45.7%). Given the number of measures available for many specific conditions and contexts, and that several have acceptable validity, our findings suggest that the research agenda should shift towards the investigation and elaboration of health literacy

  14. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann; Baltzley, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests. Researchers developed this battery to be used to screen the fitness for duty of persons in at-risk occupations (astronauts, race car drivers), or those who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. The menu under study contained cognitive and motor tests implemented on a portable microcomputer including: a five-test core battery, lasting six minutes, which had demonstrable reliabilities and stability from several previous repeated-measures studies, and also 13 new tests, lasting 42 minutes, which had appeared in other batteries but had not yet been evaluated for repeated-measures implementation in this medium. Sixteen subjects self-administered the battery over 10 repeated sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the test from the core battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Analyses of metric properties of the remaining 13 tests produced eight additional tests with satisfactory properties. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, indicating factorial richness. The menu can be used to form batteries of flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  15. Barrett’s esophagus: Prevalence and risk factors in patients with chronic GERD in Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Yasser M; Makhlouf, Madiha M; Tawfik, Heba M; Amin, Hussein El; Ghany, Wael Abdel; El-khayat, Hisham R

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence and possible risk factors of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in El Minya and Assuit, Upper Egypt. METHODS: One thousand consecutive patients with chronic GERD symptoms were included in the study over 2 years. They were subjected to history taking including a questionnaire for GERD symptoms, clinical examination and upper digestive tract endoscopy. Endoscopic signs suggestive of columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) were defined as mucosal tongues or an upward shift of the squamocolumnar junction. BE was diagnosed by pathological examination when specialized intestinal metaplasia was detected histologically in suspected CLE. pH was monitored in 40 patients. RESULTS: BE was present in 7.3% of patients with chronic GERD symptoms, with a mean age of 48.3 ± 8.2 years, which was significantly higher than patients with GERD without BE (37.4 ± 13.6 years). Adenocarcinoma was detected in eight cases (0.8%), six of them in BE patients. There was no significant difference between patients with BE and GERD regarding sex, smoking, alcohol consumption or symptoms of GERD. Patients with BE had significantly longer esophageal acid exposure time in the supine position, measured by pH monitoring. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of BE in patients with GERD who were referred for endoscopy was 7.3%. BE seems to be associated with older age and more in patients with nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux. PMID:19630106

  16. Dose and elasticity of demand for self-administered cocaine in rats.

    PubMed

    Kearns, David N; Silberberg, Alan

    2016-04-01

    The present experiment tested whether the elasticity of demand for self-administered cocaine in rats is dose-dependent. Subjects lever pressed for three different doses of intravenous cocaine - 0.11, 0.33, and 1.0 mg/kg/infusion - on a demand procedure where the number of lever presses required per infusion increased within a session. The main finding was that demand for the 0.11 mg/kg dose was more elastic than it was for the two larger doses. There was no difference in demand elasticity between the 0.33 and 1.0 mg/kg doses. These results parallel findings previously reported in monkeys. The present study also demonstrated that a within-session procedure can be used to generate reliable demand curves. PMID:26866971

  17. Comparative Discussion on Psychophysiological Effect of Self-administered Facial Massage by Treatment Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Akio; Takei, Yuya

    The aim of study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of self-administered facial massage, which was done by hand or facial roller. In this study, the psychophysiological effects of facial massage were evaluated. The central nerves system and the autonomic nervous system were administered to evaluate physiological system. The central nerves system was assessed by Electroencephalogram (EEG). The autonomic nervous system were assessed by peripheral skin temperature(PST) and heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, the high-frequency components (HF) were evaluated. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood Status (POMS) and subjective sensory amount with Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. These results suggest that kept brain activity and had strong effects on stress alleviation.

  18. Diagnostic work-up of GERD.

    PubMed

    Vela, Marcelo F

    2014-10-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is frequently diagnosed by symptoms and good response to acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors. Further work up is required when the diagnosis of GERD is uncertain, for alarm symptoms, PPI-refractoriness, and often for extraesophageal presentations. Useful tools include endoscopy for mucosal assessment and reflux monitoring (pH or impedance-pH) to quantify reflux burden. Objective documentation of pathological reflux is mandatory prior to anti-reflux surgery. In some patients, symptoms that can be attributed to GERD may have other causes; in these patients, testing that excludes GERD helps direct the diagnostic and treatment efforts to other causes. PMID:25216910

  19. Development of a self-administered early inflammatory arthritis detection tool

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Barriers to care limit the potential benefits of pharmacological intervention for inflammatory arthritis. A self-administered questionnaire for early inflammatory arthritis (EIA) detection may complement contemporary triage interventions to further reduce delays to rheumatologic care. The objective of this study was to develop a self-administered EIA detection tool for implementation in pre-primary care settings. Methods A core set of dimensions and constructs for EIA detection were systematically derived from the literature and augmented by investigative team arbitration. Identified constructs were formulated into lay language questions suitable for self-administration. A three-round Delphi consensus panel of EIA experts and stakeholders evaluated the relevance of each question to EIA detection and suggested additional items. Questions accepted by less than 70% of respondents in rounds one or two were eliminated. In round three, questions accepted by at least 80% of the panel were selected for the tool. Results Of 584 citations identified, data were extracted from 47 eligible articles. Upon arbitration of the literature synthesis, 30 constructs encompassing 13 dimensions were formulated into lay language questions and posed to the Delphi panel. A total of 181 EIA experts and stakeholders participated on the Delphi panel: round one, 60; round two, 59; and, round three, 169; 48 participated in all three rounds. The panel evaluated the 30 questions derived from the literature synthesis, suggested five additional items, and eliminated a total of 24. The eleven-question instrument developed captured dimensions of articular pain, swelling, and stiffness, distribution of joint involvement, function, and diagnostic and family history. Conclusions An eleven-question, EIA detection tool suitable for self-administration was developed to screen subjects with six to 52 weeks of musculoskeletal complaints. Psychometric and performance property testing of the tool is

  20. Management of refractory typical GERD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Scarpellini, Emidio; Ang, Daphne; Pauwels, Ans; De Santis, Adriano; Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The management of patients with refractory GERD (rGERD) is a major clinical challenge for gastroenterologists. In up to 30% of patients with typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or regurgitation), acid-suppressive therapy does not provide clinical benefit. In this Review, we discuss the current management algorithm for GERD and the features and management of patients who do not respond to treatment (such as those individuals with an incorrect diagnosis of GERD, inadequate PPI intake, persisting acid reflux and persisting weakly acidic reflux). Symptom response to existing surgical techniques, novel antireflux procedures, and the value of add-on medical therapies (including prokinetics and reflux inhibitors) for rGERD symptoms are discussed. Pharmaceutical agents targeting oesophageal sensitivity, a condition that can contribute to symptom generation in rGERD, are also discussed. Finally, on the basis of available published data and our expert opinion, we present an outline of a current, usable algorithm for management of patients with rGERD that considers the timing and diagnostic use of pH-impedance monitoring on or off PPI, additional diagnostic tests, the clinical use of baclofen and the use of add-on neuromodulators (tricyclic agents and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). PMID:27075264

  1. GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux) and LPR (Laryngopharyngeal Reflux)

    MedlinePlus

    ... throat, it causes a reaction similar to squirting lemon juice in your eye. This is why GERD ... of the stomach. Lifestyle factors include diet (chocolate, citrus, fatty foods, spices), destructive habits (overeating, alcohol and ...

  2. Laparoscopic Anti-Reflux (GERD) Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Opportunities Sponsorship Opportunities Login Laparoscopic Anti-Reflux (GERD) Surgery Patient Information from SAGES Print PDF Find a SAGES Surgeon Surgery for “Heartburn” If you suffer from moderate to ...

  3. Comparison Between a Self-Administered and Supervised Version of a Web-Based Cognitive Test Battery: Results From the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bailet, Marion; Lecoffre, Amandine C; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Amieva, Hélène; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Dementia is a major public health problem, and repeated cognitive data from large epidemiological studies could help to develop efficient measures of early prevention. Data collection by self-administered online tools could drastically reduce the logistical and financial burden of such large-scale investigations. In this context, it is important to obtain data concerning the comparability of such new online tools with traditional, supervised modes of cognitive assessment. Objective Our objective was to compare self-administration of the Web-based NutriNet-Santé cognitive test battery (NutriCog) with administration by a neuropsychologist. Methods The test battery included four tests, measuring, among others aspects, psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, episodic memory, working memory, and associative memory. Both versions of the cognitive battery were completed by 189 volunteers (either self-administered version first, n=99, or supervised version first, n=90). Subjects also completed a satisfaction questionnaire. Concordance was assessed by Spearman correlation. Results Agreement between both versions varied according to the investigated cognitive task and outcome variable. Spearman correlations ranged between .42 and .73. Moreover, a majority of participants responded that they “absolutely” or “rather” agreed that the duration of the self-administered battery was acceptable (184/185, 99.5%), that the tasks were amusing (162/185, 87.6%), that the instructions were sufficiently detailed (168/185; 90.8%) and understandable (164/185, 88.7%), and that they had overall enjoyed the test battery (182/185, 98.4%). Conclusions The self-administered version of the Web-based NutriCog cognitive test battery provided similar information as the supervised version. Thus, integrating repeated cognitive evaluations into large cohorts via the implementation of self-administered online versions of traditional test batteries appears to be feasible. PMID

  4. Comparison between web-based and paper versions of a self-administered anthropometric questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Pollet, Clothilde; Malon, Aurélie; Castetbon, Katia; Hercberg, Serge

    2010-05-01

    Online data collection could advantageously replace paper-and-pencil questionnaires in epidemiological studies by reducing the logistic burden, the cost and the duration of data processing. However, there is a need for studies comparing these new instruments to traditional ones. Our objective was to compare the web-based version of the NutriNet-Santé self-administered anthropometric questionnaire to the paper-based version. The questionnaire included 17 questions divided into subquestions (55 variables in all) dealing with height, weight, hip and waist circumferences, weight history, restrictive diet and weight self-perception. Both versions of the questionnaire were filled out by 147 volunteers (paper version first, N = 76, or web-based version first, N = 71) participating in the SU.VI.MAX ("Supplémentation en VItamines Minéraux et AntioXydants") cohort (age-range: 49-75 years; men: 46.3%). At the end of the test, subjects filled in a "satisfaction" questionnaire giving their opinions and feelings about each version. Agreement was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and kappas. We also quantified the number of errors inherent in the paper version. Agreement between the two versions was high. ICCs ranged from 0.86 to 1.00. Kappas ranged from 0.69 to 1.00 for comparable variables. A total of 82 data entry mistakes (1.5% of total entries), 60 missing values (1.1%), 57 inconsistent values (1.1%) and 3 abnormal values (0.1%) were counted in the paper version (non-existent in the web-based version due to integrated controls). The web-based version was preferred by 92.2% of users. In conclusion, the quality of information provided by the web-based anthropometric questionnaire used in the NutriNet-Santé Study was equal to, or better than, that of the paper version, with substantial logistic and cost advantages. PMID:20191377

  5. GERD, Barrett's Esophagus and the Risk for Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts About Common Colon Cancer Screening Tests PATIENTS GERD, Barrett's Esophagus and the Risk for Esophageal Cancer ... commonly in Caucasians as well as people with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This cancer is increasing in frequency. ...

  6. Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

  7. Stress Management for Special Educators: The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Krista; Poel, Elissa Wolfe

    2006-01-01

    The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR) is a stress management strategy designed to facilitate awareness of the physical, mental, emotional, and physiological effects of stress through the interconnectedness of the brain, body, and emotions. The purpose of this article is to present a stress-management model for teachers,…

  8. Psychomotor and Motor Speed in Power Athletes Self-Administering Testosterone and Anabolic Steroids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Era, Pertti; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Self-administered testosterone and anabolic steroids resulted in insignificant improvement in psychomotor and motor speed tests of power athletes. This study is part of a larger study on the effects of such drugs on endocrinology, metabolism and neuromuscular functions. Methodolgy and results are discussed. (Author/JL)

  9. Pharmacological management of GERD: where does it stand now?

    PubMed

    Hershcovici, Tiberiu; Fass, Ronnie

    2011-04-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is very common and advances in drug development over recent years have markedly improved GERD management. A wide range of medications are currently used in GERD treatment, including antacids, Gaviscon, sucralfate, histamine-2 receptor antagonists and prokinetics. However, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) remain the mainstay of treatment for GERD owing to their profound and consistent inhibitory effect on acid secretion. Despite the presence of a wide armamentarium of therapeutic modalities for GERD, many areas of unmet needs remain. Drug development has focused primarily on improving PPI efficacy, reducing the transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation rate, attenuating esophageal sensitivity and developing esophageal mucosal protectants. PMID:21429600

  10. Can the BASNEF Model Help to Develop Self-Administered Healthy Behavior in Iranian Youth?

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Hossein; Bee Koon, Poh; Abd Talib, Ruzita; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Ganjali Dashti, Marjan; Khatooni, Elham; Bahreini Esfahani, Nimah

    2016-01-01

    Background: The stage of youth is critical for human development in several ways. On the one hand, it can lead people towards the adoption of a healthy lifestyle during adulthood based on these earlier practices. On the other hand, it can comprise the development of healthy living practices later on in live, an outcome which is often caused by the youth adopting a risky lifestyle early on. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of implementing an educational intervention program based on the BASNEF Model (a simplified approach to understanding behavior), designed to cultivate self-administered lifestyle control skills in youths. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental intervention study, implemented during 2010 - 2011. A total of 288 randomly selected high-school students between the ages of 15 and 17 participated in this study. These students were later divided into experimental and control groups. Subjects completed a BASNEF questionnaire at the baseline (pre-test), one month later (post-test) and three months after the educational intervention (follow-up). Four educational sessions were held, each of a 120 - 150 minute duration. After the data had been collected, the ANOVA test was used to compare trends in changes. The Pearson correlation coefficient was then used to analyze the correlation between components of the BASNEF model. Finally, regression analysis was used to determine the predictive power of the study. Results: Results from the intervention study reveal that the beliefs and attitudes about nutrition of the intervention group, calculated in terms of scores, improved significantly for both male and female subjects (P < 0.001) as compared to the control group. The mean BASNEF scores for improvements in beliefs among girls and boys were 79.2% and 70.1%, respectively and for attitudes, 61.2% and 59.4%. The increase was significantly higher in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Furthermore

  11. The relative reinforcing strength of methamphetamine and D-amphetamine in monkeys self-administering cocaine.

    PubMed

    Lile, Joshua A; Charnigo, Richard J; Nader, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that rates of methamphetamine misuse surpass those of D-amphetamine, but self-administration research in animals and humans has not typically demonstrated differences in their reinforcing effects. The present study used a within-session, exponentially increasing progressive-ratio schedule and extended-access conditions to assess the relative reinforcing strength of D-amphetamine and methamphetamine in rhesus monkeys (n=5) trained to self-administer cocaine. A range of doses of methamphetamine (0.003-0.1 mg/kg/injection), D-amphetamine (0.003-0.1 mg/kg/injection), and cocaine (0.003-0.3 mg/kg/injection) was tested to capture the ascending and descending limbs of the dose-effect functions. Each drug functioned as a reinforcer, but the peak number of self-administered D-amphetamine injections was significantly lower compared with methamphetamine and cocaine; the peak number of self-administered injections of cocaine and methamphetamine did not differ. Although differences in availability and other social factors likely impact relative rates of abuse, the present data suggest that the greater reinforcing strength of methamphetamine contributes to its increased use compared with D-amphetamine. PMID:23907377

  12. Treatment of verb anomia in aphasia: efficacy of self-administered therapy using a smart tablet.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Monica; Routhier, Sonia; Légaré, Annie; Macoir, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Aphasia is a chronic condition that usually requires long-term rehabilitation. However, even if many effective treatments can be offered to patients and families, speech therapy services for individuals with aphasia often remain limited because of logistical and financial considerations, especially more than 6 months after stroke. Therefore, the need to develop tools to maximize rehabilitation potential is unquestionable. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a self-administered treatment delivered with a smart tablet to improve written verb naming skills in CP, a 63-year-old woman with chronic aphasia. An ABA multiple baseline design was used to compare CP's performance in verb naming on three equivalent lists of stimuli trained with a hierarchy of cues, trained with no cues, and not trained. Results suggest that graphemic cueing therapy, done four times a week for 3 weeks, led to better written verb naming compared to baseline and to the untrained list. Moreover, generalization of the effects of treatment was observed in verb production, assessed with a noun-to-verb production task. Results of this study suggest that self-administered training with a smart tablet is effective in improving naming skills in chronic aphasia. Future studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of new technologies in self-administered treatment of acquired language deficits. PMID:26007615

  13. Patient Impression and Satisfaction of a Self-administered, Automated Medical History-taking Device in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sanjay; Goldberg, Andrew D.; Menchine, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated patient impressions and satisfaction of an innovative self-administered, hand-held touch-screen tablet to gather detailed medical information from emergency department (ED) patients in the waiting room prior to physician contact. Methods: Adult, medically stable patients presenting to the ED at Los Angeles County Hospital used the PatientTouch™ system to answer a series of questions about their current history of present illness and past medical/surgical histories in English or Spanish. Patients then completed a survey rating their experience. Results: Among 173 participants, opinion of PatientTouch™ was strongly positive; 93.6% (95%CI 90.0–97.3%) felt the physical product was easy to hold and handle, and 97.1% (94.6–99.6%) felt the questions were detailed enough for them to fully describe their condition; 97.8% (95.4–100.0%) felt using PatientTouch™ would help them organize their thoughts and communicate better with their physician, 94.8% (91.4–98.1%) thought it would improve the quality of their care, and 97.1% (94.6–99.6%) expressed desire to use the product again in the future. Conclusion: The study was conducted at a largely Hispanic county ED, and only patients with 1 of 6 pre-determined chief complaints participated. We did not include a control group to assess if perceived improvements in communication translated to measurable differences. In this pilot study, patients were highly satisfied with all aspects of the PatientTouch™ self-administered, hand-held, touch-screen tablet. Importantly, subjects felt it would help them better communicate with their doctor, would improve their overall quality of care and overwhelmingly expressed a desire to use it in the future. PMID:24695871

  14. Effect of self-administered daily irrigation with 0.02% SnF2 on periodontal disease activity.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R L; Leggott, P; Quinn, R; Buchanan, S; Eakle, W; Chambers, D

    1985-07-01

    To determine the effect on periodontal health of a daily self-administered irrigation with 0.02% stannous fluoride (SnF2) solution, 28 subjects who had moderate to advanced periodontitis were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group (n = 9) which used no irrigation, a group (n = 8) which used a self-administered water irrigation device (Water Pik) daily with water (H2O group) and a group (n = 11) which used the Water Pik in a similar manner but with SnF2 solution (SnF2 group). All subjects were instructed in routine tooth brushing and flossing but received no other periodontal treatment. 4 study sites were selected from each patient which had pocket depths greater than 4 mm and bleeding upon probing. Plaque index, gingival index, bleeding tendency, pocket depth, loss of attachment, and microbiologic samples of subgingival plaque for morphologic determinations were collected from all study sites at baseline, 2, 6, and 10 weeks. A cross-over was then initiated for 2 additional monthly checks in which the H2O group changed to SnF2 and the SnF2 group was divided into 2 subgroups which either continued to use SnF2 or changed to H2O. The control group completed the study at the beginning of the crossover. The clinical data showed significantly more improvement in periodontal health during the first 10 weeks for the SnF2 group (p less than 0.01). After cross-over, the clinical data indicated the group that changed from H2O to SnF2 significantly improved their periodontal health, while the group that changed from SnF2 to H2O became worse. The microbiologic data showed trends which agreed with the clinical data during the first 10 weeks but were less significant. After cross-over, the %s of motile rods and spirochetes were too small (0-7%) to establish statistically significant changes considering the accuracy of the technique used. PMID:3860511

  15. Mood changes by self-administered acupressure in Japanese college students: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Honda, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Naruse, Mayu; Tsuchiyagaito, Aki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this 2-week study was to examine the effects of self-administered acupressure intervention onlevels of mood of 54 students (34 males and 20 females) majoring in acupuncture and moxibustion medicineat a college located in Fukuoka, Japan. Eligibility criteria were the ability to complete the intervention accurately and no history of psychiatric diseases. The students were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: an intervention group (IG, n = 28) and a control group (CG, n = 26). The IG participants completed fiveacupressure sessions three times a day (morning, noon, and night), involving the application of pressure to six acupuncture points (GB12, SI17, and LI18 according to 2008 World Health OrganizationRegional Office in the Western Pacific standard), three on the left and three on the right side of the neck for 5 s each. The CG participants were requested to spend their time as usual. Self-reported levels of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor, fatigue, and confusion over the past week were measured before and after the study as the main outcomes. Side effects were not predicted and not assessed. The retention rate of this trial was 100%. Improvements in mood, defined as a change from baseline to 2 weeks later, were significantly greater in IG. Our results showed that self-administered intervention had the ability to alter mood levels in college students. PMID:25946916

  16. Efficacy of self-administered treatments for pathological academic worry: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B; Telch, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Research on treatments for reducing pathological worry is limited. In particular, academic worry is a common theme in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) samples as well as non-clinical student samples. Given the high cost of anxiety disorders to society, research is needed to examine the efficacy of self-administered treatments designed to reduce pathological worry. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the benefits of three self-administered interventions for reducing academic worry. College students (N = 113) experiencing clinically significant academic worry were randomized to either: (a) worry exposure (WE); (b) expressive writing (EW); (c) relaxation consisting of pulsed audio-photic stimulation (APS); or (d) waitlist control (WLC). Participants were instructed to practice their interventions three times per week for one month and completed home practice logs online to track treatment adherence. Academic worry, general anxiety, and perceived stress were assessed at baseline and post-treatment. Academic worry and general anxiety were also assessed at a three-month follow-up. Those assigned to the WE and APS conditions showed significant improvement relative to EW and WLC at post-treatment. All treatment conditions showed continued improvement by follow-up, with no between-group differences. Treatment and public health implications are discussed. PMID:20663491

  17. Protecting eyewitness evidence: examining the efficacy of a self-administered interview tool.

    PubMed

    Gabbert, Fiona; Hope, Lorraine; Fisher, Ronald P

    2009-08-01

    Given the crucial role of eyewitness evidence, statements should be obtained as soon as possible after an incident. This is not always achieved due to demands on police resources. Two studies trace the development of a new tool, the Self-Administered Interview (SAI), designed to elicit a comprehensive initial statement. In Study 1, SAI participants reported more correct details than participants who provided a free recall account, and performed at the same level as participants given a Cognitive Interview. In Study 2, participants viewed a simulated crime and half recorded their statement using the SAI. After a delay of 1 week, all participants completed a free recall test. SAI participants recalled more correct details in the delayed recall task than control participants. PMID:18561007

  18. Test-retest reliability of psychological and neurobehavioral tests self-administered by computer.

    PubMed

    Campbell, K A; Rohlman, D S; Storzbach, D; Binder, L M; Anger, W K; Kovera, C A; Davis, K L; Grossmann, S J

    1999-03-01

    A series of 12 psychological and 7 neurobehavioral performance tests were administered twice to a nonclinical normative sample with 1 week between administrations. The tests were presented in a self-administered computerized format. One week test-retest reliabilities were comparable to conventional administration formats. The results suggest that individual test reliability is not affected when tests are administered as part of an extensive multi-measure battery. Computer administered test reliability coefficients also were compared to a Mixed Format (computer-conventional) administration with mixed format reliabilities generally similar to the reliabilities of published conventional tests but also generally lower than same format testing. Compared to psychological test reliability, neurobehavioral test reliability appeared more vulnerable to decreases with mixed format testing. These conclusions should not be generalized to all computer implemented tests as the qualities of the test implementation will affect the outcome. PMID:9971880

  19. Effect of self-administered auricular acupressure on smoking cessation --a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is still a worldwide health risk. Current pharmacotherapies have at best, a success rate of no more than 50%. Auricular (ear) acupressure has been purported to be beneficial in achieving smoking cessation in some studies, while in others has been deemed insignificant. We hereby describe the protocol for a three-arm randomised controlled trial to examine the possible benefits of self-administered acupressure for smoking cessation. Methods Sixty consenting participants with confirmed habit of tobacco smoking will be recruited and randomized into three arms to receive either auricular acupressure at five true acupoints (NADA protocol), auricular acupressure at five sham points, or no auricular acupressure at all. Participants having auricular acupressure will exert firm pressure to each acupoint bilaterally via the bead in the attached plasters whenever they feel the urge to smoke. The treatment phase will last for six weeks during which all participants will be assessed weekly to review their smoking log, state of abstinence, end-exhalation carbon monoxide levels and possible adverse effects including withdrawal reactions and stress levels. At any time, a successful quit date will be defined with continuous abstinence for the following consecutive 7 days. From then on, participants will be evaluated individually for continuous abstinence rate (CAR), end-exhalation carbon monoxide levels and adverse effects of stress and withdrawal at specified intervals up to 26 weeks. Expectancy of treatment will be assessed with a four-item Borkovec and Nau self-assessment credibility scale during and after intervention. Discussion We incorporate validated outcome measures of smoking cessation into our randomised controlled trial design with the objectives to evaluate the feasibility and possible benefits of self-administered auricular acupressure as a non-invasive alternative to pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Trial Registration Clinical

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of "The assessment of knowledge in ankylosing spondylitis patients by a self-administered questionnaire".

    PubMed

    da Rocha Lopes, Sofia Manuela; Duarte, José Alberto; Mesquita, Cristina Teresa Torrão Carvalho

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge is an important factor in patients with ankylosing spondylitis regarding the adoption of appropriate behaviours and education. The aim of this study was to culturally adapt and validate "The assessment of knowledge in ankylosing spondylitis patients by a self-administered questionnaire" for the Portuguese population with ankylosing spondylitis. The Portuguese version of "The assessment of knowledge in ankylosing spondylitis patients by a self-administered questionnaire" was administered to a sample of 180 subjects, from which 63 individuals responded. The adaptation process involved translation, back-translation and submission to a committee of experts in the area, culminating with a Portuguese version of the instrument. Next, the scale reliability and validity were assessed. There was a statistically significant decrease from test to retest, although the intra-class correlation coefficient between test and retest was 0.76 (95 % CI 0.61-0.86), which was considered good. From 180 individuals, 63 (35.0 %) subjects were available for the present study. The proportion of individuals that correctly answered each item ranged from 19 to 92 %, corresponding to items 8 and 13, respectively. The mean number of correct answers was 8.5 [mean (SD) = 2.4] in 12 questions. The proposed Portuguese version of the ankylosing spondylitis knowledge scale showed good reliability, reproducibility and construct validity. PMID:26856726

  1. Interviewer versus self-administered health-related quality of life questionnaires - Does it matter?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcomes are measured in many epidemiologic studies using self- or interviewer-administered questionnaires. While in some studies differences between these administration formats were observed, other studies did not show statistically significant differences important to patients. Since the evidence about the effect of administration format is inconsistent and mainly available from cross-sectional studies our aim was to assess the effects of different administration formats on repeated measurements of patient-reported outcomes in participants with AIDS enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications of AIDS. Methods We included participants enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications in AIDS (LSOCA) who completed the Medical Outcome Study [MOS] -HIV questionnaire, the EuroQol, the Feeling Thermometer and the Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ) 25 every six months thereafter using self- or interviewer-administration. A large print questionnaire was available for participants with visual impairment. Considering all measurements over time and adjusting for patient and study site characteristics we used linear models to compare HRQL scores (all scores from 0-100) between administration formats. We defined adjusted differences of ≥0.2 standard deviations [SD]) to be quantitatively meaningful. Results We included 2,261 participants (80.6% males) with a median of 43.1 years of age at enrolment who provided data on 23,420 study visits. The self-administered MOS-HIV, Feeling Thermometer and EuroQol were used in 70% of all visits and the VFQ-25 in 80%. For eight domains of the MOS-HIV differences between the interviewer- and self- administered format were < 0.1 SD. Differences in scores were highest for the social and role function domains but the adjusted differences were still < 0.2 SD. There was no quantitatively meaningful difference between administration formats for EuroQol, Feeling Thermometer and VFQ-25 domain

  2. Development of a self-administered web-based test for longitudinal cognitive assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ruano, Luis; Sousa, Andreia; Severo, Milton; Alves, Ivânia; Colunas, Márcio; Barreto, Rui; Mateus, Cátia; Moreira, Sandra; Conde, Eduardo; Bento, Virgílio; Lunet, Nuno; Pais, Joana; Tedim Cruz, Vítor

    2016-01-01

    Sequential testing with brief cognitive tools has been recommended to improve cognitive screening and monitoring, however the few available tools still depend on an external evaluator and periodic visits. We developed a self-administered computerized test intended for longitudinal cognitive testing (Brain on Track). The test can be performed from a home computer and is composed of several subtests, expected to evaluate different cognitive domains, all including random elements to minimize learning effects. An initial (A) and a refined version of the test (B) were applied to patients with mild cognitive impairment or early dementia (n = 88) and age and education-matched controls. A subsample of a population-based cohort (n = 113) performed the test at home every three months to evaluate test-retest reliability. The test’s final version Cronbach’s alpha was 0.90, test scores were significantly different between patients and controls (p = 0.001), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75 and the smallest real difference (43.04) was lower than the clinical relevant difference (56.82). In the test-retest reliability analysis 9/10 subtests showed two-way mixed single intraclass consistency correlation coefficient >0.70. These results imply good internal consistency, discriminative ability and reliability when performed at home, encouraging further longitudinal clinical and population-based studies. PMID:26743329

  3. Development of a self-administered web-based test for longitudinal cognitive assessment.

    PubMed

    Ruano, Luis; Sousa, Andreia; Severo, Milton; Alves, Ivânia; Colunas, Márcio; Barreto, Rui; Mateus, Cátia; Moreira, Sandra; Conde, Eduardo; Bento, Virgílio; Lunet, Nuno; Pais, Joana; Tedim Cruz, Vítor

    2016-01-01

    Sequential testing with brief cognitive tools has been recommended to improve cognitive screening and monitoring, however the few available tools still depend on an external evaluator and periodic visits. We developed a self-administered computerized test intended for longitudinal cognitive testing (Brain on Track). The test can be performed from a home computer and is composed of several subtests, expected to evaluate different cognitive domains, all including random elements to minimize learning effects. An initial (A) and a refined version of the test (B) were applied to patients with mild cognitive impairment or early dementia (n = 88) and age and education-matched controls. A subsample of a population-based cohort (n = 113) performed the test at home every three months to evaluate test-retest reliability. The test's final version Cronbach's alpha was 0.90, test scores were significantly different between patients and controls (p = 0.001), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75 and the smallest real difference (43.04) was lower than the clinical relevant difference (56.82). In the test-retest reliability analysis 9/10 subtests showed two-way mixed single intraclass consistency correlation coefficient >0.70. These results imply good internal consistency, discriminative ability and reliability when performed at home, encouraging further longitudinal clinical and population-based studies. PMID:26743329

  4. Effectiveness of a self-administered intervention for criminal thinking: Taking a Chance on Change.

    PubMed

    Folk, Johanna B; Disabato, David J; Daylor, Jordan M; Tangney, June P; Barboza, Sharen; Wilson, John S; Bonieskie, Lynda; Holwager, James

    2016-08-01

    The current study tested the effectiveness of a self-administered, cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting criminal thinking for inmates in segregated housing: Taking a Chance on Change (TCC). Participants included 273 inmates in segregated housing at state correctional institutions. Reductions in criminal thinking, as assessed by the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Styles-Simplified Version, were found in the general criminal thinking score as well as the proactive and reactive composite scores. Examination of demographic predictors of change (i.e., age, years of education, length of sentence) revealed older and more educated participants decreased in criminal thinking more than younger and less educated participants. For a subset of 48 inmates, completion of TCC was associated with significant reduction of disciplinary infractions. Reductions in reactive criminal thinking predicted reductions in disciplinary infractions. Although further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of TCC in reducing recidivism, the reductions in criminal thinking and disordered conduct suggest this is a promising intervention and mode of treatment delivery. By utilizing self-directed study at an accessible reading level, the intervention is uniquely suited to a correctional setting where staff and monetary resources are limited and security and operational issues limit the feasibility of traditional cognitive-behavioral group treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243111

  5. Analysis on Awareness of Functional Dyspepsia and Rome Criteria Among Japanese Internists by the Self-administered Questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Functional dyspepsia (FD) is one of the commonest diseases in the field of Internal Medicine. The Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE) has been enlightening the term and concept of FD. Aim of this survey was to elucidate the understanding status of FD and Rome criteria and attitude toward FD among Japanese internists. Methods Data were collected at the time of lifelong education course for certified members of Japanese Society of Internal Medicine. Self-administered questionnaires were delivered to the medical doctors prior to the lectures. Results Analysis subjects were 1,623 (24-90 years old) internists among 1,660 medical doctors out of 4,264 attendees. The terms related to FD were known in 62.0-68.9% of internists, whereas 95.5% understood chronic gastritis. Internists who had been taking care of FD patients informed them as chronic gastritis (50.0%), FD in Japanese Kanji character (50.8%) and FD in Kanji and Katakana (18.6%). Logistic linear regression analysis revealed that positive factors for the understanding of FD and intensive care for FD patients were practitioner, caring many patients and certified physician by JSGE. Existence of Rome criteria was known in 39.9% of internists, and 31.8% out of them put it to practical use. The certified physician by JSGE was a positive factor for awareness, but not for utilization. Conclusions The results suggest the needs of enlightening the medical term FD in Japan and revision of Rome criteria for routine clinical practice. Precise recognition of FD may enhance efficient patient-based clinical practice. PMID:24466450

  6. Comparability of Weighed Dietary Records and a Self-Administered Diet History Questionnaire for Estimating Monetary Cost of Dietary Energy

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have estimated monetary diet cost using various dietary assessment methods, based on databases on retail food prices, for investigating its association with dietary intake and health outcomes. However, information regarding the comparability of monetary diet cost across dietary assessment methods is absolutely lacking. This study compared monetary cost of dietary energy estimated from weighed dietary records (DRs) with that estimated from a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ). The subjects were 92 Japanese women aged 31–69 years and 92 Japanese men aged 32–76 years. The DHQ (assessing diet during the preceding month) and 4-day DRs (one weekend day and three weekdays) were completed in each season over a 1-year period (DHQs1-4 and DRs1-4, respectively). An additional DHQ was completed at one year after completing DHQ1 (DHQ5). Monetary cost of dietary energy (Japanese yen/4184 kJ) was calculated using food intake information derived from each dietary assessment method, based on retail food prices. Pearson correlation between the mean of DRs1-4 and mean of DHQs1-4 was 0.64 for women and 0.69 for men. Pearson correlation between the mean of DRs1-4 and DHQ1 was 0.60 for women and 0.52 for men, while intraclass correlation between DHQ1 and DHQ5 was 0.64 for women and 0.51 for men. These data indicate reasonable comparability of monetary cost of dietary energy across DR and a DHQ as well as usefulness of a single administration of the DHQ for estimating monetary cost of dietary energy. PMID:21572846

  7. Initial validation of a web-based self-administered neuropsychological test battery for older adults and seniors

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Tor Ivar; Haferstrom, Elise Christina D.; Brunner, Jan F.; Lehn, Hanne; Håberg, Asta Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Computerized neuropsychological tests are effective in assessing different cognitive domains, but are often limited by the need of proprietary hardware and technical staff. Web-based tests can be more accessible and flexible. We aimed to investigate validity, effects of computer familiarity, education, and age, and the feasibility of a new web-based self-administered neuropsychological test battery (Memoro) in older adults and seniors. Method: A total of 62 (37 female) participants (mean age 60.7 years) completed the Memoro web-based neuropsychological test battery and a traditional battery composed of similar tests intended to measure the same cognitive constructs. Participants were assessed on computer familiarity and how they experienced the two batteries. To properly test the factor structure of Memoro, an additional factor analysis in 218 individuals from the HUNT population was performed. Results: Comparing Memoro to traditional tests, we observed good concurrent validity (r = .49–.63). The performance on the traditional and Memoro test battery was consistent, but differences in raw scores were observed with higher scores on verbal memory and lower in spatial memory in Memoro. Factor analysis indicated two factors: verbal and spatial memory. There were no correlations between test performance and computer familiarity after adjustment for age or age and education. Subjects reported that they preferred web-based testing as it allowed them to set their own pace, and they did not feel scrutinized by an administrator. Conclusions: Memoro showed good concurrent validity compared to neuropsychological tests measuring similar cognitive constructs. Based on the current results, Memoro appears to be a tool that can be used to assess cognitive function in older and senior adults. Further work is necessary to ascertain its validity and reliability. PMID:26009791

  8. Validation of the Portuguese self-administered computerised 24-hour dietary recall among second-, third- and fourth-grade children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current methods for assessing children's dietary intake, such as interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall (24-h DR), are time consuming and resource intensive. Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use with children. The present study assessed the validity of ...

  9. Satisfaction with Therapist-Delivered vs. Self-Administered Online Cognitive Behavioural Treatments for Depression Symptoms in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Derek; Timulak, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Participants with symptoms of depression received either eight sessions of therapist-delivered email cognitive behaviour therapy (eCBT; n = 37), or eight sessions of computerised CBT self-administered treatment (cCBT; n = 43). At post-treatment participants completed a questionnaire to determine what they found satisfying about their online…

  10. Strategies and Considerations for Teaching an Adolescent with Down Syndrome and Type I Diabetes to Self-Administer Insulin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosner, Sylvia M.; Belfiore, Phillip J.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a system of least prompts, partial participation, and parental involvement was used to successfully teach an adolescent with Down syndrome, moderate mental retardation, and Type I diabetes to self-administer an injection of insulin as part of an overall plan to increase self-determination and independence. (Contains seven…

  11. Enhanced anxiety in the male offspring of sires that self-administered cocaine.

    PubMed

    White, Samantha L; Vassoler, Fair M; Schmidt, Heath D; Pierce, R Christopher; Wimmer, Mathieu E

    2016-07-01

    We previously showed that paternal cocaine exposure reduced the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine in male offspring. Here, we sought to determine whether paternal cocaine experience could also influence anxiety levels in offspring. Male rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine (controls received saline passively) for 60 days and then were bred with naïve females. Measures of anxiety and cocaine-induced anxiogenic effects were assessed in the adult offspring. Cocaine-sired male offspring exhibited increased anxiety-like behaviors, as measured using the novelty-induced hypophagia and defensive burying tasks, relative to saline-sired males. In contrast, sire cocaine experience had no effect on anxiety-like behaviors in female offspring. When challenged with an anxiogenic (but not anorectic) dose of cocaine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), anxiety-like behavior was enhanced in all animals to an equal degree regardless of sire drug experience. Since anxiety and depression are often co-morbid, we also assessed measures of depressive-like behavior. Sire cocaine experience had no effect on depression-like behaviors, as measured by the forced swim task, among male offspring. In a separate group of naïve littermates, select neuronal correlates of anxiety were measured. Male offspring of cocaine-experienced sires showed increased mRNA and protein expression of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 in the hippocampus. Together, these results indicate that cocaine-experienced sires produce male progeny that have increased baseline anxiety, which is unaltered by subsequent cocaine exposure. PMID:25923597

  12. Distinguishing GERD from eosinophilic oesophagitis: concepts and controversies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the detection of oesophageal mucosal eosinophils has transitioned from a biomarker of GERD to a diagnostic criterion for eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). In GERD, oesophageal eosinophils are considered part of the chronic inflammatory response to acid reflux, whereas the marked eosinophilia in EoE is viewed as a central feature of the immune response to ingested food and/or environmental antigen stimulation. Descriptions of a considerable subset of patients with symptomatic, endoscopic and histological findings of EoE that resolve with PPI therapy has led to confusion and controversy regarding the distinction of EoE from GERD. Study findings indicate that PPI-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE) more closely resembles EoE than GERD, both from a clinical and immunological aspect. Although responsiveness to PPI therapy should not be utilized to exclude EoE, PPI therapy is effective at reducing oesophageal eosinophilia in ~40% of patients, and PPI therapy is both a safe and practical initial step in the management of patients with oesophageal eosinophilia. Ongoing studies elucidating the mechanism behind PPI-REE will improve our understanding and management of EoE. In this Review, the mechanisms and evidence that underlie the controversy in the distinction between GERD and EoE are evaluated. PMID:25986303

  13. Diagnostic testing in extraesophageal GERD: another case of "furor medicus"?

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Brennan

    2013-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) work for most patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). But when PPIs fail to work, or when there are atypical extra-esophageal symptoms, diagnostic and management decisions become much more difficult. Although atypical GERD is common, there are limited data about how best to approach these patients. The temptation is often to perform extensive diagnostic testing, sometimes to little avail. In this issue of The Journal, Francis et al. present a new study to help close the research gap in understanding the costs and benefits of testing in atypical GERD. The authors conclude that diagnostic testing is very expensive and real-life benefits are modest. This editorial reviews the findings, places them into clinical perspective, and concludes that diagnostic testing in atypical GERD may be another example of "furor medicus" - an old but descriptive term referring to the instinct of doctors to implore "don't just stand there, do something!" The data from Francis et al. suggest we might do the opposite in atypical GERD: "Don't just do something, stand there." PMID:23735914

  14. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 version, for youth aged 9 to 11 Years: A validation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites using a quasiexperimental design. In one s...

  15. Self-administered sample collection for screening of sexually transmitted infection among reservation-based American Indian youth.

    PubMed

    Tingey, Lauren; Strom, Rachel; Hastings, Ranelda; Parker, Anthony; Barlow, Allison; Rompalo, Anne; Gaydos, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    American Indians suffer a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infection, particularly adolescents. Screening access barriers in rural and reservation-based communities necessitate alternatives to clinic-based options. Self-administered screening for three sexually transmitted infections was piloted among 32 American Indian adolescents aged 18 to 19. Participants self-collected in a private location; specimens were processed by trained, American Indian paraprofessionals and analysis was conducted by an outside laboratory. Participants testing positive were treated by a Public Health Nurse from the Indian Health Service. Results suggest high overall acceptability: 69% preferred a self-administered method over clinic-based screening, 75% would encourage their friends to use this method and 100% would use it again. A self-administered screening method has the ability to reach this and other high-risk populations that might not otherwise access screening, with added potential within the Indian Health Services system for uptake and dissemination in rural, reservation communities facing significant screening barriers. PMID:25228666

  16. Supplemental morphine infusion into the posterior ventral tegmentum extends the satiating effects of self-administered intravenous heroin

    PubMed Central

    Steidl, S; Myal, S; Wise, RA

    2015-01-01

    Rats learn to self-administer intravenous heroin; well-trained animals lever-press at a slow and regular pace over a wide range of intravenous doses. The pauses between successive earned infusions are proportional to the dose of the previous injection and are thought to reflect periods of drug satiety. Rats will also self-administer opiates by microinjection directly into sites in the posterior regions of the ventral tegmentum. To determine if the pauses between self-administered intravenous injections are due to opiate actions in posterior ventral tegmentum, we delivered supplemental morphine directly into this region during intravenous self-administration sessions in well-trained rats. Reverse dialysis of morphine into the posterior ventral tegmentum increased the intervals between earned injections. The inter-response intervals were greatest for infusion into the most posterior ventral tegmental sites, sites in a region variously known as the tail of the ventral tegmental area or as the rostromedial tegmental nucleus. These sites at which morphine prolongs inter-response intervals, correspond to the sites at which opiates have been found most effective in reinforcing instrumental behavior. PMID:25913296

  17. Self-administered sample collection for screening of sexually transmitted infection among reservation-based American Indian youth

    PubMed Central

    Tingey, Lauren; Strom, Rachel; Hastings, Ranelda; Parker, Anthony; Barlow, Allison; Rompalo, Anne; Gaydos, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Background American Indians suffer a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infection, particularly adolescents. Screening access barriers in rural and reservation-based communities necessitate alternatives to clinic-based options. Methods Self-administered screening for three sexually transmitted infections was piloted among 32 American Indian adolescents aged 18 to 19. Participants self-collected in a private location; specimens were processed by trained, American Indian paraprofessionals and analysis was conducted by an outside laboratory. Participants testing positive were treated by a Public Health Nurse from the Indian Health Service. Results Results suggest high overall acceptability: 69% preferred a self-administered method over clinic-based screening, 75% would encourage their friends to use this method and 100% would use it again. Conclusions A self-administered screening method has the ability to reach this and other high-risk populations that might not otherwise access screening, with added potential within the Indian Health Services system for uptake and dissemination in rural, reservation communities facing significant screening barriers. PMID:25228666

  18. Self-Administered, Home-Based SMART (Sensorimotor Active Rehabilitation Training) Arm Training: A Single-Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Neibling, Bridee A; Barker, Ruth N

    2015-01-01

    This single-case, mixed-method study explored the feasibility of self-administered, home-based SMART (sensorimotor active rehabilitation training) Arm training for a 57-yr-old man with severe upper-limb disability after a right frontoparietal hemorrhagic stroke 9 mo earlier. Over 4 wk of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training, the participant completed 2,100 repetitions unassisted. His wife provided support for equipment set-up and training progressions. Clinically meaningful improvements in arm impairment (strength), activity (arm and hand tasks), and participation (use of arm in everyday tasks) occurred after training (at 4 wk) and at follow-up (at 16 wk). Areas for refinement of SMART Arm training derived from thematic analysis of the participant's and researchers' journals focused on enabling independence, ensuring home and user friendliness, maintaining the motivation to persevere, progressing toward everyday tasks, and integrating practice into daily routine. These findings suggest that further investigation of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training is warranted for people with stroke who have severe upper-limb disability. PMID:26114456

  19. D1 Dopamine Receptor-Mediated LTP at GABA Synapses Encodes Motivation to Self-Administer Cocaine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Michal; Mason, Xenos; DeBacker, Julian; Sharma, Robyn; Normandeau, Catherine P.; Hawken, Emily R.; Di Prospero, Cynthia; Chiang, Cindy; Martinez, Audrey; Jones, Andrea A.; Doudnikoff, Évelyne; Caille, Stephanie; Bézard, Erwan; Georges, François; Dumont, Éric C.

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced motivation to take drugs is a central characteristic of addiction, yet the neural underpinning of this maladaptive behavior is still largely unknown. Here, we report a D1-like dopamine receptor (DRD1)-mediated long-term potentiation of GABAA-IPSCs (D1-LTPGABA) in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis that was positively correlated with motivation to self-administer cocaine in rats. Likewise, in vivo intra-oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis DRD1 pharmacological blockade reduced lever pressing for cocaine more effectively in rats showing enhanced motivation toward cocaine. D1-LTPGABA resulted from enhanced function and expression of G-protein-independent DRD1 coupled to c-Src tyrosine kinases and required local release of neurotensin. There was no D1-LTPGABA in rats that self-administered sucrose, in those with limited cocaine self-administration experience, or in those that received cocaine passively (yoked). Therefore, our study reveals a novel neurophysiological mechanism contributing to individual motivation to self-administer cocaine, a critical psychobiological element of compulsive drug use and addiction. PMID:23864683

  20. D1 dopamine receptor-mediated LTP at GABA synapses encodes motivation to self-administer cocaine in rats.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Michal; Mason, Xenos; DeBacker, Julian; Sharma, Robyn; Normandeau, Catherine P; Hawken, Emily R; Di Prospero, Cynthia; Chiang, Cindy; Martinez, Audrey; Jones, Andrea A; Doudnikoff, Évelyne; Caille, Stephanie; Bézard, Erwan; Georges, François; Dumont, Éric C

    2013-07-17

    Enhanced motivation to take drugs is a central characteristic of addiction, yet the neural underpinning of this maladaptive behavior is still largely unknown. Here, we report a D1-like dopamine receptor (DRD1)-mediated long-term potentiation of GABAA-IPSCs (D1-LTPGABA) in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis that was positively correlated with motivation to self-administer cocaine in rats. Likewise, in vivo intra-oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis DRD1 pharmacological blockade reduced lever pressing for cocaine more effectively in rats showing enhanced motivation toward cocaine. D1-LTPGABA resulted from enhanced function and expression of G-protein-independent DRD1 coupled to c-Src tyrosine kinases and required local release of neurotensin. There was no D1-LTPGABA in rats that self-administered sucrose, in those with limited cocaine self-administration experience, or in those that received cocaine passively (yoked). Therefore, our study reveals a novel neurophysiological mechanism contributing to individual motivation to self-administer cocaine, a critical psychobiological element of compulsive drug use and addiction. PMID:23864683

  1. The assessment of generalized anxiety disorder: psychometric validation of the Spanish version of the self-administered GAD-2 scale in daily medical practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim To psychometrically validate the Spanish version of the self-administered 2-item GAD-2 scale for screening probable patients with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods The GAD-2 was self-administered by patients diagnosed with GAD according to DSM-IV criteria and by age- and sex-matched controls who were recruited at random in mental health and primary care centres. Criteria validity was explored using ROC curve analysis, and sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were determined for different cut-off values. Concurrent validity was also established using the HAM-A, HADS, and WHODAS II scales. Results The study sample consisted of 212 subjects (106 patients with GAD) with a mean age of 50.38 years (SD = 16.76). No items of the scale were left blank. Floor and ceiling effects were negligible. No patients with GAD had to be assisted to complete the questionnaire. Reliability (internal consistency) was high; Cronbach’s α = 0.875. A cut-off point of 3 showed adequate sensitivity (91.5%) and specificity (85.8%), with a statistically significant area under the curve (AUC = 0.937, p < 0.001), to distinguish GAD patients from controls. Concurrent validity was also high and significant with HAM-A (0.806, p < 0.001), HADS (anxiety domain, 0.825, p < 0.001) and WHO-DAS II (0.642, p < 0.001) scales. Conclusion The Spanish version of the GAD-2 scale has been shown to have appropriate psychometric properties to rapidly detect probable cases of GAD in the Spanish cultural context under routine clinical practice conditions. PMID:22992432

  2. Smartphone-Based, Self-Administered Intervention System for Alcohol Use Disorders: Theory and Empirical Evidence Basis

    PubMed Central

    Dulin, Patrick L.; Gonzalez, Vivian M.; King, Diane K.; Giroux, Danielle; Bacon, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Advances in mobile technology provide an opportunity to deliver in-the-moment interventions to individuals with alcohol use disorders, yet availability of effective “apps” that deliver evidence-based interventions is scarce. We developed an immediately available, portable, smartphone-based intervention system whose purpose is to provide stand-alone, self-administered assessment and intervention. In this paper, we describe how theory and empirical evidence, combined with smartphone functionality contributed to the construction of a user-friendly, engaging alcohol intervention. With translation in mind, we discuss how we selected appropriate intervention components including assessments, feedback and tools, that work together to produce the hypothesized outcomes. PMID:24347811

  3. Comparison between an interactive web-based self-administered 24 h dietary record and an interview by a dietitian for large-scale epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Méjean, Caroline; Pollet, Clothilde; Malon, Aurélie; Castetbon, Katia; Hercberg, Serge

    2011-04-01

    Online self-administered data collection, by reducing the logistic burden and cost, could advantageously replace classical methods based on dietitian's interviews when assessing dietary intake in large epidemiological studies. Studies comparing such new instruments with traditional methods are necessary. Our objective was to compare one NutriNet-Santé web-based self-administered 24 h dietary record with one 24 h recall carried out by a dietitian. Subjects completed the web-based record, which was followed the next day by a dietitian-conducted 24 h recall by telephone (corresponding to the same day and using the same computerised interface for data entry). The subjects were 147 volunteers aged 48-75 years (women 59·2 %). The study was conducted in February 2009 in France. Agreement was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for foods and energy-adjusted Pearson's correlations for nutrients. Agreement between the two methods was high, although it may have been overestimated because the two assessments were consecutive to one another. Among consumers only, the median of ICC for foods was 0·8 in men and 0·7 in women (range 0·5-0·9). The median of energy-adjusted Pearson's correlations for nutrients was 0·8 in both sexes (range 0·6-0·9). The mean Pearson correlation was higher in subjects ≤ 60 years (P = 0·02) and in those who declared being 'experienced/expert' with computers (P = 0·0003), but no difference was observed according to educational level (P = 0·12). The mean completion time was similar between the two methods (median for both methods: 25 min). The web-based method was preferred by 66·1 % of users. Our web-based dietary assessment, permitting considerable logistic simplification and cost savings, may be highly advantageous for large population-based surveys. PMID:21080983

  4. Parent Use and Efficacy of a Self-Administered, Tablet-Based Parent Training Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Louis; Ocampo, Edith V; Acosta, Diana I

    2016-01-01

    Background Parent training programs are traditionally delivered in face-to-face formats and require trained facilitators and weekly parent attendance. Implementing face-to-face sessions is challenging in busy primary care settings and many barriers exist for parents to attend these sessions. Tablet-based delivery of parent training offers an alternative to face-to-face delivery to make parent training programs easier to deliver in primary care settings and more convenient and accessible to parents. We adapted the group-based Chicago Parent Program (CPP) to be delivered as a self-administered, tablet-based program called the ez Parentprogram. Objective The purpose of this study was to (1) assess the feasibility of the ez Parentprogram by examining parent satisfaction with the program and the percent of modules completed, (2) test the efficacy of the ez Parentprogram by examining the effects compared with a control condition for improving parenting and child behavior in a sample of low-income ethnic minority parents of young children recruited from a primary care setting, and (3) compare program completion and efficacy with prior studies of the group-based CPP. Methods The study used a two-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) design with repeated measures follow up. Subjects (n=79) were randomly assigned to an intervention or attention control condition. Data collection was at baseline and 12 and 24 weeks post baseline. Parents were recruited from a large, urban, primary care pediatric clinic. ez Parentmodule completion was calculated as the percentage of the six modules completed by the intervention group parents. Attendance in the group-based CPP was calculated as the percentage of attendance at sessions 1 through 10. Satisfaction data were summarized using item frequencies. Parent and child data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) with simple contrasts to determine if there were significant intervention effects on the outcome

  5. Attitudes and factors affecting acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping as an alternative to Pap testing among multiethnic Malaysian women

    PubMed Central

    Ma'som, Mahirah; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; Bellinson, Jerome; Subramaniam, Shridevi; Ma, Yuntong; Yap, Siew-Hwei; Goh, Pik-Pin; Gravitt, Patti; Woo, Yin Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the attitudes and acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling compared with conventional physician-acquired Papanicolaou (Pap) smear among multiethnic Malaysian women. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out via interviewer-administered surveys from August 2013 through August 2015 at five government-run, urban health clinics in the state of Selangor. Subjects were participants from an ongoing community-based human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study who answered a standard questionnaire before and after self-sampling. The cervicovaginal self-sampling for HPV genotyping was performed using a simple brush (‘Just for Me’; Preventive Oncology International, Hong Kong). Detailed data on sociodemographics, previous Pap smear experience, and attitudes towards self-administered cervicovaginal sampling were collected and analysed. Acceptability was inferred using a five-item Likert scale that included six different subjective descriptives: experience, difficulty, convenience, embarrassment, discomfort or pain, and confidence in collecting one's own sample. Results Of the 839 participants, 47.9% were Malays, followed by 30.8% Indians, 18.8% Chinese and 2.5% from other ethnicities. The median age of the participants was 38 years (IQR 30–48). Some 68.2% of participants indicated a preference for self-sampling over the Pap test, with 95% indicating willingness to follow-up a positive result at the hospital. Age, ethnicity and previous Pap test experience were significant independent factors associated with preference for self-sampling. The older the individual, the less likely they were to prefer self-sampling (adjusted OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98). The Chinese were less likely to prefer self-sampling (72.6%) than the Malays (85.1%) (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.98, p=0.004). Participants who had never undergone a Pap smear were also more likely to prefer self-sampling (88.5%) than

  6. Use of electrostatic dust cloth for self-administered home allergen collection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Most epidemiologic studies employ a vacuum cleaner used by a trained technician to collect household allergens. This approach is labor intensive, equipment dependent, and impractical if study subjects reside over a wide geographic area. We examined the feasibility of a s...

  7. Comprehensive Comparison of Self-Administered Questionnaires for Measuring Quantitative Autistic Traits in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masako; Adachi, Katsunori; Sumi, Satoshi; Okada, Kensuke; Kishino, Hirohisa; Sakai, Saeko; Kamio, Yoko; Kojima, Masayo; Suzuki, Sadao; Kanne, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively compared all available questionnaires for measuring quantitative autistic traits (QATs) in terms of reliability and construct validity in 3,147 non-clinical and 60 clinical subjects with normal intelligence. We examined four full-length forms, the Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire (SATQ), the Broader Autism Phenotype…

  8. Rat nucleus accumbens core astrocytes modulate reward and the motivation to self-administer ethanol after abstinence.

    PubMed

    Bull, Cecilia; Freitas, Kelen C C; Zou, Shiping; Poland, Ryan S; Syed, Wahab A; Urban, Daniel J; Minter, Sabrina C; Shelton, Keith L; Hauser, Kurt F; Negus, S Stevens; Knapp, Pamela E; Bowers, M Scott

    2014-11-01

    Our understanding of the active role that astrocytes play in modulating neuronal function and behavior is rapidly expanding, but little is known about the role that astrocytes may play in drug-seeking behavior for commonly abused substances. Given that the nucleus accumbens is critically involved in substance abuse and motivation, we sought to determine whether nucleus accumbens astrocytes influence the motivation to self-administer ethanol following abstinence. We found that the packing density of astrocytes that were expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein increased in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) during abstinence from EtOH self-administration. No change was observed in the nucleus accumbens shell. This increased NAcore astrocyte density positively correlated with the motivation for ethanol. Astrocytes can communicate with one another and influence neuronal activity through gap-junction hemichannels. Because of this, the effect of blocking gap-junction hemichannels on the motivation for ethanol was examined. The motivation to self-administer ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence was increased following microinjection of gap-junction hemichannel blockers into the NAcore at doses that block both neuronal and astrocytic channels. In contrast, no effect was observed following microinjection of doses that are not thought to block astrocytic channels or following microinjection of either dose into the nucleus accumbens shell. Additionally, the motivation for sucrose after 3 weeks abstinence was unaffected by NAcore gap-junction hemichannel blockers. Next, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) were selectively expressed in NAcore astrocytes to test the effect of astrocyte stimulation. DREADD activation increased cytosolic calcium in primary astrocytes, facilitated responding for rewarding brain stimulation, and reduced the motivation for ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence. This is the first work to modulate drug-seeking behavior with

  9. Rat Nucleus Accumbens Core Astrocytes Modulate Reward and the Motivation to Self-Administer Ethanol after Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Cecilia; Freitas, Kelen CC; Zou, Shiping; Poland, Ryan S; Syed, Wahab A; Urban, Daniel J; Minter, Sabrina C; Shelton, Keith L; Hauser, Kurt F; Negus, S Stevens; Knapp, Pamela E; Bowers, M Scott

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the active role that astrocytes play in modulating neuronal function and behavior is rapidly expanding, but little is known about the role that astrocytes may play in drug-seeking behavior for commonly abused substances. Given that the nucleus accumbens is critically involved in substance abuse and motivation, we sought to determine whether nucleus accumbens astrocytes influence the motivation to self-administer ethanol following abstinence. We found that the packing density of astrocytes that were expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein increased in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) during abstinence from EtOH self-administration. No change was observed in the nucleus accumbens shell. This increased NAcore astrocyte density positively correlated with the motivation for ethanol. Astrocytes can communicate with one another and influence neuronal activity through gap-junction hemichannels. Because of this, the effect of blocking gap-junction hemichannels on the motivation for ethanol was examined. The motivation to self-administer ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence was increased following microinjection of gap-junction hemichannel blockers into the NAcore at doses that block both neuronal and astrocytic channels. In contrast, no effect was observed following microinjection of doses that are not thought to block astrocytic channels or following microinjection of either dose into the nucleus accumbens shell. Additionally, the motivation for sucrose after 3 weeks abstinence was unaffected by NAcore gap-junction hemichannel blockers. Next, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) were selectively expressed in NAcore astrocytes to test the effect of astrocyte stimulation. DREADD activation increased cytosolic calcium in primary astrocytes, facilitated responding for rewarding brain stimulation, and reduced the motivation for ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence. This is the first work to modulate drug-seeking behavior with

  10. Can a self-administered questionnaire identify workers with chronic or recurring low back pain?

    PubMed Central

    TAKEKAWA, Karina Satiko; GONÇALVES, Josiane Sotrate; MORIGUCHI, Cristiane Shinohara; COURY, Helenice Jane Cote Gil; SATO, Tatiana de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    To verify if the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) and physical examination of the lumbar spine can identify workers with chronic or recurring low back pain, using health history for reference. Fifty office workers of both sexes, aged between 19 and 55 yr, were evaluated using a standardized physical examination and the NMQ, VAS and RDQ. Discriminant analysis was performed to determine the discriminant properties of these instruments. A higher success rate (94%) was observed in the model including only the NMQ and in the model including the NMQ and the physical examination. The lowest success rate (82%) was observed in the model including the NMQ, RDQ and VAS. The NMQ was able to detect subjects with chronic or recurring low back pain with 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity. The NMQ appears to be the best instrument for identifying subjects with chronic or recurring low back pain. Thus, this self-reported questionnaire is suitable for screening workers for chronic or recurring low back pain in occupational settings. PMID:25810448

  11. Assessing Developmental Trajectories of Sexual Minority Youth: Discrepant Findings from a Life History Calendar and a Self-Administered Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impacts myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of milestone events, which may conceal the distinctions between events and distort the recording of youths’ developmental trajectories. The purpose of this exploratory study was to compare responses to questions about psychosexual milestones elicited by a Life History Calendar and a self-administered survey. Results indicated discrepancies in the reported occurrence and timing of milestone events between the survey and Life History Calendar. Differences in the timing of specific milestone events ranged from two months to 15 years. Implications of these discordant findings for sexual minority youth are discussed. PMID:22957108

  12. Incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Denise O; Oh, Gi-Taik; O'Donnell, Francis L; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-07-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition among adults that can cause symptoms such as frequent heartburn, substernal chest pain, and regurgitation of food. During 2005-2014, a total of 137,081 active component service members had an incident (first-ever) diagnosis of GERD (incidence rate: 101.3 per 10,000 person-years). Incidence rates were higher than their respective counterparts among females, black and white non-Hispanics, service members in the Coast Guard and Air Force, officers, and those in healthcare occupations. Rates increased monotonically with increasing age groups. Most GERD cases (79.2%) were uncomplicated GERD; however, 20.8% were identified as having a symptom or complication linked to their GERD diagnosis. Lifestyle changes, medication, and prevention of serious complications should be emphasized among individuals diagnosed with GERD, particularly those at risk for severe disease. PMID:26207411

  13. Development of a menu of performance tests self-administered on a portable microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann; Kennedy, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen cognitive, motor, and information processing performance subtests were screened for self-administration over 10 trials by 16 subjects. When altered presentation forms of the same test were collectively considered, the battery composition was reduced to 10 distinctly different measures. A fully automated microbased testing system was employed in presenting the battery of subtests. Successful self-administration of the battery provided for the field testing of the automated system and facilitated convenient data collection. Total test administration time was 47.2 minutes for each session. Results indicated that nine of the tests stabilized, but for a short battery of tests only five are recommended for use in repeated-measures research. The five recommended tests include: the Tapping series, Number Comparison, Short-term Memory, Grammatical Reasoning, and 4-Choice Reaction Time. These tests can be expected to reveal three factors: (1) cognition, (2) processing quickness, and (3) motor. All the tests stabilized in 24 minutes, or approximately two 12-minute sessions.

  14. Treatment Challenges in the Management of Gastroparesis-Related GERD

    PubMed Central

    Fass, Ronnie; McCallum, Richard W.; Parkman, Henry P.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between gastroparesis and GERD is multi-factorial. The delay in gastric emptying associated with gastroparesis can lead to prolonged gastric retention of food that may have a propensity to reflux. Because gastroparesis allows material to remain in the stomach, there is an increase in the gastroesophageal pressure gradient, gastric volume, and the volume of potential refluxate. Additionally, the prolonged exposure of material in the stomach can increase gastric acid secretion. The onset of gastroparesis has been attributed to several causes, including comorbidities (mainly diabetes), surgical complications, and the use of specific medications (including anticholinergics, narcotics, tricyclic antidepressants, and calcium channel blockers). The etiology of some cases of gastroparesis remain unclear, a condition termed idiopathic gastroparesis. Symptoms commonly associated with gastroparesis or GERD, including nausea, vomiting, and regurgitation, may delay drug absorption. This has the potential to greatly impact systemic absorption and concentration of drugs. Several patient populations may benefit from the use of medication formulations that offer an alternative to swallowing a traditional tablet. In addition, prokinetic drugs, such as metoclopramide, are used in the first-line treatment of gastroparesis to improve the contractility of the gut muscles, as well as the movement of contents through the gastrointestinal system and regulate drug metabolism and absorption.

  15. Therapist-assisted, self-administered bibliotherapy to enhance parental competence: short- and long-term effects.

    PubMed

    Hahlweg, Kurt; Heinrichs, Nina; Kuschel, Annett; Feldmann, Marit

    2008-09-01

    The efficacy of bibliotherapy has primarily been investigated in anxiety disorders, depression, or substance dependence. The efficacy of self-help books to increase parenting competence was only investigated in a few studies despite their broad dissemination in public. The aims of the study were to investigate the short- and long-term efficacy of a therapist assisted version of the Triple P self-help booklet (Sanders, Markie-Dadds, & Turner, 2003) for families with preschool-age children in Germany. Sixty-nine families were randomly assigned to either a therapist-assisted self-administered parent training (SDPT+T) or to a waitlist control group (WL). Parents in the SDPT+T received the 10 chapter self-help book and an accompanying video. A Triple P facilitator offered seven telephone consultations which aimed to support parents in skill implementation. After the post test, the WL parents were also offered the intervention. A follow-up assessment was conducted six months after post. Compared to waitlist controls, SDPT+T mothers reported significant short- and long-term reductions in child behavior problems as well as in dysfunctional parenting practices. Fathers reported only marginal changes. The study adds further empirical support of parenting self-help materials. PMID:18456901

  16. Comparison of Interviewer-Administered and Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recalls in 3 Diverse Integrated Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Frances E; Dixit-Joshi, Sujata; Potischman, Nancy; Dodd, Kevin W; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Kushi, Lawrence H; Alexander, Gwen L; Coleman, Laura A; Zimmerman, Thea P; Sundaram, Maria E; Clancy, Heather A; Groesbeck, Michelle; Douglass, Deirdre; George, Stephanie M; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Subar, Amy F

    2015-06-15

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls provide high-quality intake data but have been prohibitively expensive for large epidemiologic studies. This study's goal was to assess whether the web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24) performs similarly enough to the standard interviewer-administered, Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) 24-hour dietary recall to be considered a viable alternative. In 2010-2011, 1,081 adults from 3 integrated health systems in Detroit, Michigan; Marshfield, Wisconsin; and Kaiser-Permanente Northern California participated in a field trial. A quota design ensured a diverse sample by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Each participant was asked to complete 2 recalls and was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 protocols differing by type of recall and administration order. For energy, the mean intakes were 2,425 versus 2,374 kcal for men and 1,876 versus 1,906 kcal for women by AMPM and ASA24, respectively. Of 20 nutrients/food groups analyzed and controlling for false discovery rate, 87% were judged equivalent at the 20% bound. ASA24 was preferred over AMPM by 70% of the respondents. Attrition was lower in the ASA24/AMPM study group than in the AMPM/ASA24 group, and it was lower in the ASA24/ASA24 group than in the AMPM/AMPM group. ASA24 offers the potential to collect high-quality dietary intake information at low cost with less attrition. PMID:25964261

  17. Conditioned cued recovery of responding following prolonged withdrawal from self-administered cocaine in rats: an animal model of relapse.

    PubMed

    Meil, W.M.; See, R.E.

    1996-12-01

    The present study investigated the ability of drug-associated cues to reinstate extinguished responding following an extended period of withdrawal from cocaine self-administration. Rats self-administered cocaine (0.33mg/infusion) for 2 weeks of daily 3-h limited-access sessions under a fixed-interval (FI) schedule of reinforcement, in which responding resulted in simultaneous illumination of a stimulus light and drug infusions. Rats were then exposed to 20 daily extinction sessions. Noncontingent presentation of the stimulus light and infusion pump sound on day 21 of extinction resulted in a significant increase in responding. Twenty days later (43 days after cocaine withdrawal), rats returned to the operant chamber and exposed to drug-associated cues responded significantly more than animals exposed to extinction conditions. In a second experiment, using a form of variable-interval schedule in which the stimulus light was presented prior to drug infusions, stimulus-cued recovery of responding was similar to that obtained under the FI schedule. A third experiment showed that noncontingent presentation of the stimulus light alone on day 21 failed to reinstate extinguished responding, suggesting that stimulus-cued reinstatement of responding was due to a compound stimulus or preferential conditioning of the infusion pump sound. The present paradigm may serve as a useful model for the investigation of drug abuse and relapse, since it allows for the independent examination of the reinforcing and conditioned effects of a drug. PMID:11224470

  18. Dopaminergic responses to self-administered cocaine in Rhesus monkeys do not sensitize following high cumulative intake.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Charles W; Rubino, Susan R

    2006-05-01

    Sensitization of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems by administration of psychostimulants has been observed repeatedly in rodents. This phenomenon has been incorporated into theories of neurobiological adaptation underlying addiction, and is believed to be a mechanism whereby drug-associated cues acquire the ability to control behaviour via a conditioned release of DA. However, we have previously demonstrated in nonhuman primates that drug cues that cause cocaine seeking do not promote a conditioned increase in DA release of sufficient endurance to be measured in 2-min samples. In addition, imaging studies in humans and nonhuman primates that have been chronically exposed to psychostimulants have not demonstrated an increase in DA release upon psychostimulant challenge. Here we report that following 32 weeks of self-administration by rhesus monkeys, no increase over time in the DA response to self-administered cocaine was observed in any striatal subregion or individual animal. These results are consistent with clinical imaging studies showing a lack of DA sensitization, and might provide a mechanism to explain our previous observation that the rodent and primate differ in neurochemical response to drug-associated cues. PMID:16817880

  19. A self-administered Timeline Followback to measure variations in underage drinkers' alcohol intake and binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Lorraine; Kashdan, Todd B; Koutsky, James R; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T; Vetter, Charlene J

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinkers typically have not developed regular patterns of drinking and so are likely to exhibit situational variation in alcohol intake, including binge drinking. Information about such variation is not well captured by quantity/frequency (QF) measures, which require that drinkers blend information over time to derive a representative estimate of "typical" drinking. The Timeline Followback (TLFB) method is designed to retrospectively capture situational variations in drinking during a specific period of time. We compared our newly-developed Self-administered TLFB (STLFB) measure to a QF measure for reporting alcohol intake. Our sample of 429 (men=204; women=225) underage (i.e., age 18-20 years) drinkers completed the two drinking measures and reported on alcohol problems. The STLFB and QF measures converged in assessing typical daily intake, but the STLFB provided more information about situational variations in alcohol use and better identification of regular versus intermittent binge drinkers. Regular binge drinkers reported more alcohol problems. The STLFB is an easy-to-administer measure of variations in alcohol intake, which can be useful for understanding drinking behavior. PMID:17720324

  20. Impact of self-reported Gastroesophageal reflux disease in subjects from COPDGene cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The coexistence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and COPD has been recognized, but there has been no comprehensive evaluation of the impact of GERD on COPD-related health status and patient-centered outcomes. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of 4,483 participants in the COPDGene cohort who met GOLD criteria for COPD. Physician-diagnosed GERD was ascertained by questionnaire. Clinical features, spirometry and imaging were compared between COPD subjects without versus with GERD. We evaluated the relationship between GERD and symptoms, exacerbations and markers of microaspiration in univariate and multivariate models. Associations were additionally tested for the confounding effect of covariates associated with a diagnosis of GERD and the use of proton-pump inhibitor medications (PPIs). To determine whether GERD is simply a marker for the presence of other conditions independently associated with worse COPD outcomes, we also tested models incorporating a GERD propensity score. Results GERD was reported by 29% of subjects with female predominance. Subjects with GERD were more likely to have chronic bronchitis symptoms, higher prevalence of prior cardiovascular events (combined myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease and stroke 21.3% vs. 13.4.0%, p < 0.0001). Subjects with GERD also had more severe dyspnea (MMRC score 2.2 vs. 1.8, p < 0.0001), and poorer quality of life (QOL) scores (St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score 41.8 vs. 34.9, p < 0.0001; SF36 Physical Component Score 38.2 vs. 41.4, p < 0.0001). In multivariate models, a significant relationship was detected between GERD and SGRQ (3.4 points difference, p < 0.001) and frequent exacerbations at baseline (≥2 exacerbation per annum at inclusion OR 1.40, p = 0.006). During a mean follow-up time of two years, GERD was also associated with frequent (≥2/year exacerbations OR 1.40, p = 0.006), even in models in which PPIs

  1. Treatment Options for GERD or Acid Reflux Disease: A Review of the Research for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery might help you. How does surgery for GERD work? In a fundoplication, the top part of your ... how well endoscopic treatments (EndoCinch™, Stretta®, and EsophyX™) work to control the symptoms of GERD. What are the side effects of endoscopic treatments? ...

  2. Self-Administered Cued Naming Therapy: A Single-Participant Investigation of a Computer-Based Therapy Program Replicated in Four Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsberger, Gail; Marie, Basem

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the benefits of a self-administered, clinician-guided, computer-based, cued naming therapy. Results of intense and nonintense treatment schedules were compared. Method: A single-participant design with multiple baselines across behaviors and varied treatment intensity for 2 trained lists was replicated over 4…

  3. Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

  4. A Self-Administered Method of Acute Pressure Block of Sciatic Nerves for Short-Term Relief of Dental Pain: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Wanghong; Wang, Ye; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Qiu; Yu, Juncai; Wu, Bin; Huang, Rong; Gao, Jie; He, Jiman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While stimulation of the peripheral nerves increases the pain threshold, chronic pressure stimulation of the sciatic nerve is associated with sciatica. We recently found that acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve inhibits pain. Therefore, we propose that, the pain pathology-causing pressure is chronic, not acute. Here, we report a novel self-administered method: acute pressure block of the sciatic nerves is applied by the patients themselves for short-term relief of pain from dental diseases. Design This was a randomized, single-blind study. Setting Hospital patients. Patients Patients aged 16–60 years with acute pulpitis, acute apical periodontitis, or pericoronitis of the third molar of the mandible experiencing pain ≥3 on the 11-point numerical pain rating scale. Interventions Three-minute pressure to sciatic nerves was applied by using the hands (hand pressure method) or by having the patients squat to force the thigh and shin as tightly as possible on the sandwiched sciatic nerve bundles (self-administered method). Outcomes The primary efficacy variable was the mean difference in pain scores from the baseline. Results One hundred seventy-two dental patients were randomized. The self-administered method produced significant relief from pain associated with dental diseases (P ≤ 0.001). The analgesic effect of the self-administered method was similar to that of the hand pressure method. Conclusions The self-administered method is easy to learn and can be applied at any time for pain relief. We believe that patients will benefit from this method. PMID:24400593

  5. Development and validation of a mental health subscale from the Quality of Well-Being Self-Administered

    PubMed Central

    Groessl, Erik J.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Tally, Steven R.; Kaplan, Robert M.; Sieber, William J.; Ganiats, Theodore G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to create and validate a mental health subscale for the Quality of Well-Being Self-Administered (QWB-SA). Methods The QWB-SA and other measures such as the Profile of Mood States (POMS), Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form (SF-36), EuroQOL 5D (EQ-5D), and Health Utilities Index Mark 2 (HUI) were administered to three samples: a general population (N = 3,844), a non-psychiatric medical population (N = 535), and a psychiatric population (N = 915). Independent expert ratings of which items represented the construct of mental health were used along with psychometric methods to develop and validate a 10-item QWB-SA mental health scale. Results The mental health scale demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.827–0.842) and strong correlations with other measures of mental health, such as the POMS (r = −0.77), mental health scale from the SF-36 (r = 0.72), EQ-5D mood item (r = 0.61), and HUI Emotion Scale (r = 0.59). It was not highly correlated with measures of physical health. Among the psychiatric population, the new mental health scale was moderately correlated with indicators of psychiatric problem severity. Conclusions It is now possible to report outcomes and relationships with mental health in studies that use the QWB-SA. This new mental health subscale can also be used with the large volume of previously collected data using the QWB-SA to examine the impact of illnesses and interventions on mental health-related quality of life. PMID:23104088

  6. Validity and Reliability of a Self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Vitamin K Intake in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunsu; Kim, Misung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess vitamin K intake in clinical and research settings based on data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V). We collected a subset of data on informative food items using the 24-hour recall method from adults aged 19 to 64 years from KNHANES V. The cumulative percent contribution and cumulative multiple regression coefficients for vitamin K intake from each food were computed. Twenty-five foods items were selected for the FFQ to assess vitamin K intake. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day food record (5DR) (n = 48). To assess the reliability of the FFQ, participants completed the self-administered FFQ (FFQ1) and a second FFQ (FFQ2) after a 6-month period (n = 54). Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, the cross-classification method, and Bland-Altman plots. Mean intakes were similar for vitamin K between the FFQ and dietary records, with significant correlations observed (r = 0.652), and cross-classification analyses demonstrated no major misclassification of participants into intake quartiles. Bland-Altman plots showed no serious systematic bias between the administrations of the two dietary assessment methods over the range of mean intakes. FFQ reliability was high, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.560. This pilot study shows promising validation and reliability evidence for the use of this FFQ, which is focused on vitamin K intake in adults, as an efficient screening tool in clinical and research settings. PMID:27482519

  7. Role Preferences of People with Multiple Sclerosis: Image-Revised, Computerized Self-Administered Version of the Control Preference Scale

    PubMed Central

    Solari, Alessandra; Giordano, Andrea; Kasper, Jurgen; Drulovic, Jelena; van Nunen, An; Vahter, Liina; Viala, Frederique; Pietrolongo, Erika; Pugliatti, Maura; Antozzi, Carlo; Radice, Davide; Köpke, Sascha; Heesen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background The Control Preference Scale (CPS) is the most frequently used measure of patients’ preferred roles in treatment decisions. We revised the original CPS and developed a new computerized patient self-administered version (eCPS). We used the eCPS to assess role preferences, and their determinants, in Italian and German people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods New cartoons were produced, based on MS health professional and patient input/feedback and previous findings, and pilot tested on 26 Italian and German MS patients. eCPS acceptability and reliability (weighted kappa statistic, wK) in comparison to the original tool, was determined in 92 MS patients who received both CPS versions in random order. Results The new cartoons were well accepted and easily interpreted by patients, who reported they based their choices mainly on the text and considered the images of secondary importance. eCPS reliability was moderate (wK 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40–0.65) and similar to the test-retest reliability of face-to-face administration assessed in a previous publication (wK 0.65, 95% CI 0.45–0.81). Higher education (odds ratio [OR] 3.74, 95% CI 1.00–14.05) and German nationality (OR 10.30, 95% CI 3.10–34.15) were associated with preference for an active role in the logistic model. Conclusions The newly devised eCPS was well received and considered easy to use by MS patients. Reliability was in line with that of the original version. Role preference appears affected by cultural characteristics and (borderline statistical significance) education. PMID:23823627

  8. A prospective longitudinal cohort study: evolution of GERD symptoms during the course of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in pregnancy are reported with a prevalence of 30–80%. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of GERD symptoms during the course of pregnancy. Furthermore current practice in medical care for GERD during pregnancy was assessed. Methods We performed a prospective longitudinal cohort study on 510 pregnant women (mean age 28.12, SD 5.3). Investigations for reflux symptoms where based on the use of validated reflux-disease questionnaire (RDQ). Additional information was collected about the therapy. A group of non-pregnant women (mean age 24.56, SD 5.7) was included as controls. Frequency and severity of reflux symptoms were recorded in each trimester of pregnancy. Results The prevalence of GERD symptoms in pregnant women increased from the first trimester with 26.1 to 36.1% in the second trimester and to 51.2% in the third trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of GERD symptoms in the control group was 9.3%. Pregnant women received medication for their GERD symptoms in 12.8% during the first, 9.1% during the second and 15.7% during the third trimester. Medications used >90% antacids, 0% PPI. Conclusion GERD symptoms occur more often in pregnant women than in non-pregnant and the frequency rises in the course of pregnancy. Medical therapy is used in a minority of cases and often with no adequate symptom relief. PMID:23006768

  9. Structural and functional analysis of the GerD spore germination protein of Bacillus species.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfeng; Jin, Kai; Ghosh, Sonali; Devarakonda, Parvathimadhavi; Carlson, Kristina; Davis, Andrew; Stewart, Kerry-Ann V; Cammett, Elizabeth; Pelczar Rossi, Patricia; Setlow, Barbara; Lu, Min; Setlow, Peter; Hao, Bing

    2014-05-01

    Spore germination in Bacillus species represents an excellent model system with which to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritional control of growth and development. Binding of specific chemical nutrients to their cognate receptors located in the spore inner membrane triggers the germination process that leads to a resumption of metabolism in spore outgrowth. Recent studies suggest that the inner membrane GerD lipoprotein plays a critical role in the receptor-mediated activation of downstream germination events. The 121-residue core polypeptide of GerD (GerD⁶⁰⁻¹⁸⁰) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus forms a stable α-helical trimer in aqueous solution. The 2.3-Å-resolution crystal structure of the trimer reveals a neatly twisted superhelical rope, with unusual supercoiling induced by parallel triple-helix interactions. The overall geometry comprises three interleaved hydrophobic screws of interacting helices linked by short turns that have not been seen before. Using complementation analysis in a series of Bacillus subtilis gerD mutants, we demonstrated that alterations in the GerD trimer structure have profound effects on nutrient germination. This important structure-function relationship of trimeric GerD is supported by our identification of a dominant negative gerD mutation in B. subtilis. These results and those of others lead us to propose that GerD mediates clustering of germination proteins in the inner membrane of dormant spores and thus promotes the rapid and cooperative germination response to nutrients. PMID:24530795

  10. Self-Administered Domiciliary tDCS Treatment for Tinnitus: A Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Mäkitie, Antti; Aarnisalo, Antti A.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown potential for providing tinnitus relief, although positive effects have usually been observed only during a short time period after treatment. In recent studies the focus has turned from one-session experiments towards multi-session treatment studies investigating long-term outcomes with double-blinded and sham-controlled study designs. Traditionally, tDCS has been administered in a clinical setting by a healthcare professional but in studies involving multiple treatment sessions, often a trade-off has to be made between sample size and the amount of labor needed to run the trial. Also, as the number of required visits to the clinic increases, the dropout rate is likely to rise proportionally.The aim of the current study was to find out if tDCS treatment for tinnitus could be patient-administered in a domiciliary setting and whether the results would be comparable to those from in-hospital treatment studies. Forty-three patients with chronic (> 6 months) tinnitus were involved in the study, and data on 35 out of these patients were included in final analysis. Patients received 20 minutes of left temporal area anodal (LTA) or bifrontal tDCS stimulation (2 mA) or sham stimulation (0.3 mA) for ten consecutive days. An overall reduction in the main outcome measure, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), was found (mean change −5.0 points, p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between active and sham treatment outcomes. Patients found the tDCS treatment easy to administer and they all tolerated it well. In conclusion, self-administered domiciliary tDCS treatment for tinnitus was found safe and feasible and gave outcome results similar to recent randomized controlled long-term treatment trials. The results suggest better overall treatment response—as measured by THI—with domiciliary treatment than with in-hospital treatment, but this advantage is not related to the tDCS variant. The study protocol

  11. Development, implementation, and evaluation of a computerized self-administered diet history questionnaire for use in studies of American Indian and Alaskan native people.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Murtaugh, Maureen A; Schumacher, Mary Catherine; Johnson, Jennifer; Edwards, Sandra; Edwards, Roger; Benson, Joan; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Lanier, Anne P

    2008-01-01

    Collection of dietary intake in epidemiologic studies involves using methods that are comprehensive yet appropriate for the population being studied. Here we describe a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) that was developed using an audio self-administered computer-assisted interview technique. The DHQ was developed for use in a cohort of American Indians and Alaskan Natives with tribal input and area-specific modules to incorporate local food availability. The DHQ includes 54 main food group questions, specific food items within the main food group, and food preparation and general eating practice questions. The questionnaire was programmed to be self-administered using a computer with a touch screen. The average time for the first 6,604 participants to complete the questionnaire was 36 minutes. Almost 100% of participants had complete DHQ data and the average number of food items selected was 70. The methods developed for collection of dietary data appear to be appropriate for the targeted population and may have usefulness for other populations where collecting dietary data in a self-administered format is desirable. PMID:18155994

  12. An alginate-antacid formulation (Gaviscon Double Action Liquid®) can eliminate the postprandial “acid pocket” in symptomatic GERD patients

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatek, Monika A.; Roman, Sabine; Fareeduddin, Anita; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND Recently, an “acid pocket” has been described in the proximal stomach, particularly evident postprandially in GERD patients, when heartburn is common. By creating a low density gel “raft” that floats on top of gastric contents, alginate-antacid formulations may neutralize the “acid pocket”. AIM We hypothesized that the postprandial “acid pocket” can be displaced distal to the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) by an alginate-antacid formulation. METHODS The “acid pocket” was studied in ten symptomatic GERD patients. Measurements were made using concurrent stepwise pH pull-throughs, high resolution manometry, and fluoroscopy in a semi-recumbent posture. Each subject was studied in three conditions: fasted, 20 min after consuming a high-fat meal and 20 min later after a 20 ml oral dose of an alginate-antacid formulation (Gaviscon Double Action Liquid®). The relative position of pH transition points (pH > 4) to the EGJ high-pressure zone was analyzed. RESULTS Most patients (8/10) exhibited an acidified segment extending from the proximal stomach into the EGJ when fasted that persisted postprandially. Gaviscon neutralized the acidified segment in 6 of the 8 subjects shifting the pH transition point significantly away from the EGJ. The length and pressure of the EGJ high-pressure zone were minimally affected. CONCLUSIONS Gaviscon can eliminate the “acid pocket” in GERD patients. Considering that EGJ length was unchanged throughout, this effect was likely attributable to the alginate “raft” displacing gastric contents away from the EGJ. These findings suggest the alginate-antacid formulation to be a well-targeted postprandial GERD therapy. PMID:21535446

  13. Six-item self-administered questionnaires in the waiting room: an aid to explain uncontrolled hypertension in high-risk patients seen in general practice.

    PubMed

    Mulazzi, Isabelle; Cambou, Jean Pierre; Girerd, Xavier; Nicodeme, Robert; Chamontin, Bernard; Amar, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    We designed a cross-sectional study to determine whether 6-item self-administered questionnaires addressing difficulties in taking treatment provide independent and relevant information on uncontrolled hypertension in high-risk cardiovascular patients seen in general practice. Patients with both treated hypertension and a history of vascular diseases-myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral artery disease-were included. Risk factors, treatment, history of vascular diseases, blood pressure, and difficulties in taking treatment were assessed by 6-item self-administered questionnaires and recorded. Each positive response to the questions was weighted by 1 and each negative response by 0. Individual item scores were added together to produce 1 composite score for all 6 questions. A total of 11,096 patients were analyzed. Among them, 5,288 (51.4%) were controlled at 140/90 mm Hg threshold. In multivariate analysis, in addition to age, male gender, treated diabetes, peripheral artery disease, treatment, and alcohol consumption, the adherence score was negatively and independently associated with hypertension control (odds ratio score >/= 3, 0.73; [95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.81; P < .0001]. This study overwhelmingly confirms on a very large scale the effectiveness of this self-administered questionnaire in identifying difficulties in taking treatment in general practice. This questionnaire constitutes an inexpensive and timesaving tool capable of helping general practitioners to understand why hypertension is not controlled in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Whether the use of this questionnaire will improve hypertension control remains to be established. PMID:20409962

  14. Choice in HIV testing: the acceptability and anticipated use of a self-administered at-home oral HIV test among South Africans.

    PubMed

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Cheruvillil, Sonia; Christian, Stephanie; Mantell, Joanne E; Milford, Cecilia; Rambally-Greener, Letitia; Mosery, Nzwakie; Greener, Ross; Smit, Jennifer A

    2016-07-01

    Combination HIV prevention is being widely promoted by funders. This strategy aims to offer HIV prevention choices that can be selected and combined to decrease HIV risk in ways that fit with each individual's situation. Treatment as prevention and pre-exposure prophylaxis are two new evidence-based strategies to decrease HIV incidence, both of which require high HIV testing rates to be effective, and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has set a goal of 90% of HIV-positive individuals knowing their status by 2030. However, HIV testing rates in many countries remain suboptimal. Just as no single HIV prevention method is ideal for all people in all situations, no single HIV testing modality is likely to be acceptable to everyone. By offering HIV testing choices, we may be able to increase testing rates. However, many low-resourced countries have been slow to take up new HIV testing options such as the self-administered at-home oral HIV test that is currently available in the United States. In this paper, we present findings from 20 in-depth interviews, conducted in 2010, documenting opinions about self-administered at-home oral HIV testing, a testing modality still largely unavailable in Africa. Participants were clients of three primary healthcare clinics in South Africa. Self-testing was seen as enabling confidentiality/privacy, saving time, and facilitating testing together with partners. However, concerns were raised about psychological distress when testing at home without a counsellor. Some suggested this concern could be minimised by having experienced clinic-based HIV testing and counselling before getting self-testing kits for home use. Thus, self-administered HIV testing could be an option added to the current testing modalities to address some important barriers to testing. PMID:27399040

  15. The effect of data collection mode on smoking attitudes and behavior in young African American and Latina women. Face-to-face interview versus self-administered questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, C P; Hilton, J F; Park-Tanjasiri, S; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2001-08-01

    Evaluating smoking prevention and cessation programs requires valid data collection. This study examined two survey modes--face-to-face (FTF) interview and self-administered questionnaire (SAQ)--comparing response rates, sample characteristics, data quality, and response effects. From two family planning clinics, 601 female Latina and African American clients ages 12 to 21 were recruited and randomized to either group. Results reveal that neither mode is superior to the other. The SAQ may therefore be preferable for this population, despite its higher rate of incompletes, because it yields results similar to the FTF yet is more cost effective and less disruptive to clinic routines. PMID:11480308

  16. GERD is becoming a challenge for the medical profession: is there any remedy?

    PubMed

    Yasawy, Mohammad Ismail; Randhawa, Mohammad Akram

    2014-09-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is becoming a common and serious problem. Proton pump inhibitors are considered as drugs of choice however, long term use leads to complications. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation inhibitors, i.e., gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor agonists, baclofen, and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonists, ADX10059, were tried in resistant cases, but caused central nervous and hepatic side effects, respectively. Irregular dietary habits possess the strongest association with GERD, because intake of food in between meals aggravates gastric distention in upper stomach and generates TLESRs, triggering reflux. During fasting, migrating myoelectrical complex clears stomach of food. Considering relationship between irregular dietary habits and GERD pathophysiology, it is suggested that two regular meals a day with only fluids in between will reduce reflux and lead to healing of inflammation caused by repeated refluxes. Initially, the suggested regimen eliminated symptoms of GERD in 4 cases in 10 days. Later, in a pilot study on 20 patients of endoscopically diagnosed GERD, it benefitted 15 cases; 100% of Los Angles grade ‘a’, 66% of grade ‘b’ and 33% of grade ‘c’. Long term studies are proposed to confirm usefulness of this dietary regimen for management of GERD, alone and in combination with drugs. PMID:25436353

  17. A case of advanced systemic sclerosis with severe GERD successfully treated with acotiamide.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ryo; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Makino, Tomoki; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Yamasaki, Makoto; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2016-12-01

    The majority of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients have gastrointestinal tract involvement, but therapies of prokinetic agents are usually unsatisfactory. Patients are often compromised by the use of steroid; therefore, a surgical indication including fundoplication has been controversial. There is no report that advanced SSc with severe gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is successfully treated with acotiamide, which is the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor designed for functional dyspepsia (FD). We report a 44-year-old woman of SSc with severe GERD successfully treated with acotiamide. She had received medical treatment in our hospital since 2003. She had been aware of the significant gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (e.g., heartburn, chest pain, and dysphagia) due to the development of esophageal hardening associated with SSc since 2014. As a result of upper gastrointestinal series, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and 24-h pH monitoring and frequency scale for the symptoms of the GERD (FSSG) scoring, she has been diagnosed with GERD associated with SSc. First of all, she started to take prokinetic agents Rikkunshito and mosapride and proton pump inhibitor; there was no change in reflux symptoms. So, we started to prescribe her the acotiamide.After oral administration started, reflux symptoms have been improved. Five months after oral administration, FSSG score, a questionnaire for evaluation of the symptoms of GERD, was improved. Since its introduction of acotiamide, the patient has kept free from symptoms for 6 months. PMID:27072944

  18. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors blockade rescues bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of cocaine self-administering rats.

    PubMed

    deBacker, Julian; Hawken, Emily R; Normandeau, Catherine P; Jones, Andrea A; Di Prospero, Cynthia; Mechefske, Elysia; Gardner Gregory, James; Hayton, Scott J; Dumont, Éric C

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse have detrimental effects on homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the motivational brain network. Bidirectional plasticity at excitatory synapses helps keep neural circuits within a functional range to allow for behavioral flexibility. Therefore, impaired bidirectional plasticity of excitatory synapses may contribute to the behavioral hallmarks of addiction, yet this relationship remains unclear. Here we tracked excitatory synaptic strength in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (ovBNST) using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in brain slices from rats self-administering sucrose or cocaine. In the cocaine group, we measured both a persistent increase in AMPA to NMDA ratio (A:N) and slow decay time of NMDA currents throughout the self-administration period and after withdrawal from cocaine. In contrast, the sucrose group exhibited an early increase in A:N ratios (acquisition) that returned toward baseline values with continued self-administration (maintenance) and after withdrawal. The sucrose rats also displayed a decrease in NMDA current decay time with continued self-administration (maintenance), which normalized after withdrawal. Cocaine self-administering rats exhibited impairment in NMDA-dependent long-term depression (LTD) that could be rescued by GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor blockade. Sucrose self-administering rats demonstrated no impairment in NMDA-dependent LTD. During the maintenance period of self-administration, in vivo (daily intraperitoneally for 5 days) pharmacologic blockade of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors did not reduce lever pressing for cocaine. However, in vivo GluN2B blockade did normalize A:N ratios in cocaine self-administrating rats, and dissociated the magnitude of ovBNST A:N ratios from drug-seeking behavior after protracted withdrawal. Altogether, our data demonstrate when and how bidirectional plasticity at ovBNST excitatory synapses becomes dysfunctional with cocaine self-administration and that NMDA

  19. GluN2B-Containing NMDA Receptors Blockade Rescues Bidirectional Synaptic Plasticity in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis of Cocaine Self-Administering Rats

    PubMed Central

    deBacker, Julian; Hawken, Emily R; Normandeau, Catherine P; Jones, Andrea A; Di Prospero, Cynthia; Mechefske, Elysia; Gardner Gregory, James; Hayton, Scott J; Dumont, Éric C

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse have detrimental effects on homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the motivational brain network. Bidirectional plasticity at excitatory synapses helps keep neural circuits within a functional range to allow for behavioral flexibility. Therefore, impaired bidirectional plasticity of excitatory synapses may contribute to the behavioral hallmarks of addiction, yet this relationship remains unclear. Here we tracked excitatory synaptic strength in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (ovBNST) using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in brain slices from rats self-administering sucrose or cocaine. In the cocaine group, we measured both a persistent increase in AMPA to NMDA ratio (A:N) and slow decay time of NMDA currents throughout the self-administration period and after withdrawal from cocaine. In contrast, the sucrose group exhibited an early increase in A:N ratios (acquisition) that returned toward baseline values with continued self-administration (maintenance) and after withdrawal. The sucrose rats also displayed a decrease in NMDA current decay time with continued self-administration (maintenance), which normalized after withdrawal. Cocaine self-administering rats exhibited impairment in NMDA-dependent long-term depression (LTD) that could be rescued by GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor blockade. Sucrose self-administering rats demonstrated no impairment in NMDA-dependent LTD. During the maintenance period of self-administration, in vivo (daily intraperitoneally for 5 days) pharmacologic blockade of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors did not reduce lever pressing for cocaine. However, in vivo GluN2B blockade did normalize A:N ratios in cocaine self-administrating rats, and dissociated the magnitude of ovBNST A:N ratios from drug-seeking behavior after protracted withdrawal. Altogether, our data demonstrate when and how bidirectional plasticity at ovBNST excitatory synapses becomes dysfunctional with cocaine self-administration and that NMDA

  20. Modified Directly Observed Antiretroviral Therapy Compared with Self-Administered Therapy in Treatment-Naïve HIV-1 Infected Patients: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Robert; Tierney, Camlin; Andrade, Adriana; Lalama, Christina; Rosenkranz, Susan; Eshleman, Susan H.; Flanigan, Timothy; Santana, Jorge; Salomon, Nadim; Reisler, Ronald; Wiggins, Ilene; Hogg, Evelyn; Flexner, Charles; Mildvan, Donna

    2009-01-01

    Context Success of antiretroviral therapy depends on high rates of adherence, but few interventions are effective. Objective Determine if modified directly observed therapy (mDOT) improves initial antiretroviral success. Design Open-label randomized trial comparing mDOT and self-administered therapy with lopinavir/ritonavir soft gel capsules 800 mg/200 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg, and either extended release stavudine 100 mg or tenofovir 300 mg, all once daily. Setting 23 U.S. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) sites and one in South Africa between October 2002 and January 2006. Participants Plasma HIV RNA ≥2000 copies/ml and antiretroviral-naïve. 82 participants received mDOT and 161 self-administration. Participants were predominantly male (79%), median age 38 years, with 84 Latinos (35%), 74 non-Latino blacks (30%), and 79 non-Latino whites (33%). Intervention mDOT Monday through Friday for 24 weeks. Main Outcome Measure(s) Primary outcome was week 24 virologic success and secondary outcomes were week 48 virologic success, clinical progression, and adherence. Results mDOT had greater virologic success over 24 weeks [0.91 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.95)] than self-administered therapy [0.84 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.89)], but the difference [0.07 (lower bound 95% CI: −0.01)] did not reach the pre-specified threshold of 0.075. Over 48 weeks, virologic success was not significantly different between mDOT [0.72 (95% CI: 0.61, 0.81)] and self-administered therapy [0.78 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.84)], [−0.06 (95% CI: −0.18, 0.07); p=0.19)]. Conclusions The potential benefit of mDOT was marginal and not sustained after mDOT was discontinued. mDOT should not be incorporated routinely for care of treatment naïve HIV-1 infected patients. PMID:19597072

  1. Self-administered food frequency questionnaire used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC Study: questionnaire structure, computation algorithms, and area-based mean intake.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Ishihara, Junko; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2003-01-01

    In this section we described the structure of the self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC study, the computation algorithms, and the area-based mean intakes of nutrients and food groups in the subjects of the validation study. The FFQ consists of five sections: 1) semiquantitative frequency questions for rice and miso (fermented soybean paste)-soup, 2) those for alcoholic beverages, 3) those for vitamin supplements, 4) those for foods and beverages, and 5) questions on dietary and cooking behaviors. From the questions, intakes of nutrients and foods by food groups were computed. Although most of them were computed from the frequency and relative portion size indicated in the replies, together with the fixed portion size, a seasonal coefficient was added in the computation of vegetables and fruits. Only frequency of intake and fixed portion size were used for computation of beverages. Sugar and cream added in coffee and tea were computed from the frequency of coffee and tea intake. The intakes of cooking oil, cooking salt (sodium), and salt in noodle-soup were estimated from the questions of relative preference of oil, salt, and noodle-soup. PMID:12701629

  2. Accuracy of audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) and self-administered questionnaires for the assessment of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Carey, Michael P; Tu, Xin

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the accuracy of two retrospective methods and assessment intervals for recall of sexual behavior and assessed predictors of recall accuracy. Using a 2 [mode: audio-computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) vs. self-administered questionnaire (SAQ)] by 2 (frequency: monthly vs. quarterly) design, young women (N =102) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. Participants completed baseline measures, monitored their behavior with a daily diary, and returned monthly (or quarterly) for assessments. A mixed pattern of accuracy between the four assessment methods was identified. Monthly assessments yielded more accurate recall for protected and unprotected vaginal sex but quarterly assessments yielded more accurate recall for unprotected oral sex. Mode differences were not strong, and hypothesized predictors of accuracy tended not to be associated with recall accuracy. Choice of assessment mode and frequency should be based upon the research question(s), population, resources, and context in which data collection will occur. PMID:16721506

  3. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Self-Administered Questionnaire to Assess Parental Attitudes Toward Firearms and Related Parenting Decisions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Amy B; White, Marney A

    2016-01-01

    The study sought to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Parental Attitudes Toward Firearms Survey (PATFS), a self-report measure of parental attitudes about firearms and parenting behavior. The initial item pool was generated based on a literature review and discussion with experts in violence reduction, psychometrics, and public health. Data were collected online from 362 volunteers and subjected to exploratory factor analysis which revealed a 13-item, 3-factor solution accounting for 59.7% of the variance. The 3 conceptual factors (subscales) were interpreted as Firearms Exposure, Parental Control, and Violent Play. The PATFS demonstrated good internal consistency and content and construct validity. The PATFS can be used to investigate parenting attitudes and behaviors specific to firearms and violent play. PMID:27075751

  4. Screening for early detection of parkinsonism using a self-administered questionnaire: a cross-sectional epidemiologic study

    PubMed Central

    Lundin, Jessica I.; Checkoway, Harvey; Criswell, Susan R.; Hobson, Angela; Harris, Rachel C.; Swisher, Laura M.; Evanoff, Bradley A.; Racette, Brad A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Manganese (Mn) is a common component of welding fume. Exposure to Mn fume has been associated with parkinsonism. A simple and reliable screening tool to evaluate Mn exposed workers for neurotoxic injury would have broad occupational health application. Methods This study investigated 490 occupational welders recruited from a trade union list. Subjects were examined by a movement disorders specialist using the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection 3 (UPDRS3). Parkinsonism, intermediate, and normal groups were defined as UPDRS3 score ≥15, 6–15, and <6, respectively. Workers completed a health status questionnaire (PDQ39) and a Parkinson’s disease (PD) Symptoms Questionnaire. Areas under receiver operator curve (AUC) were analyzed based on these scores, adjusted for age, smoking, race, gender, and neurologist, using normal as the reference. Results The AUC was 0.79 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.73–0.84) for PDQ39 and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.72–0.85) for PD Symptoms Questionnaire score. At 70% sensitivity, the specificity for PDQ39 score and PD Symptoms Questionnaire score for the prediction of parkinsonism was 73.1% and 80.1%, respectively. Conclusions These results suggest the questionnaires have reasonably good sensitivity and specificity to predict parkinsonism in Mn exposed workers. These questionnaires could be a valuable first step in a tiered screening approach for Mn exposed workers. PMID:24035927

  5. Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER), and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... priorities, and trends Funding Process Tips for applicants; human subjects research information; grant review and management resources; and commonly used funding mechanisms, including diversity and ...

  6. Self-Administered Outpatient Antimicrobial Infusion by Uninsured Patients Discharged from a Safety-Net Hospital: A Propensity-Score-Balanced Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhavan, Kavita P.; Brown, L. Steven; Haley, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is accepted as safe and effective for medically stable patients to complete intravenous (IV) antibiotics in an outpatient setting. Since, however, uninsured patients in the United States generally cannot afford OPAT, safety-net hospitals are often burdened with long hospitalizations purely to infuse antibiotics, occupying beds that could be used for patients requiring more intensive services. OPAT is generally delivered in one of four settings: infusion centers, nursing homes, at home with skilled nursing assistance, or at home with self-administered therapy. The first three—termed healthcare-administered OPAT (H-OPAT)—are most commonly used in the United States by patients with insurance funding. The fourth—self-administered OPAT (S-OPAT)—is relatively uncommon, with the few published studies having been conducted in the United Kingdom. With multidisciplinary planning, we established an S-OPAT clinic in 2009 to shift care of selected uninsured patients safely to self-administration of their IV antibiotics at home. We undertook this study to determine whether the low-income mostly non-English-speaking patients in our S-OPAT program could administer their own IV antimicrobials at home with outcomes as good as, or better than, those receiving H-OPAT. Methods and Findings Parkland Hospital is a safety-net hospital serving Dallas County, Texas. From 1 January 2009 to 14 October 2013, all uninsured patients meeting criteria were enrolled in S-OPAT, while insured patients were discharged to H-OPAT settings. The S-OPAT patients were trained through multilingual instruction to self-administer IV antimicrobials by gravity, tested for competency before discharge, and thereafter followed at designated intervals in the S-OPAT outpatient clinic for IV access care, laboratory monitoring, and physician follow-up. The primary outcome was 30-d all-cause readmission, and the secondary outcome was 1-y all

  7. Results of a Pilot Test of a Self-Administered Smartphone-Based Treatment System for Alcohol Use Disorders: Usability and Early Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dulin, Patrick L.; Gonzalez, Vivian M.; Campbell, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper provides results from a pilot study focused on assessing early-stage effectiveness and usability of a smartphone-based intervention system that provides a stand-alone, self-administered intervention option, the Location-Based Monitoring and Intervention for Alcohol Use Disorders (LBMI-A). The LBMI-A provided numerous features for intervening with ongoing drinking, craving, connection with supportive others, managing life problems, high risk location alerting and activity scheduling. Methods Twenty-eight participants, ranging in age from 22 to 45, who met criteria for an alcohol use disorder used an LBMI-A enabled smartphone for 6 weeks. Results Participants indicated the LBMI-A intervention modules were helpful in highlighting alcohol use patterns. Tools related to managing alcohol craving, monitoring consumption, and identifying triggers to drink were rated by participants as particularly helpful. Participants also demonstrated significant reductions in hazardous alcohol use while using the system (56% of days spent hazardously drinking at baseline vs. 25% while using the LBMI-A) and drinks per day diminished by 52%. Conclusions Implications for system improvement as well as suggestions for designing ecological momentary assessment and intervention systems for substance use disorders are discussed. PMID:24821354

  8. A brief patient self-administered substance use screening tool for primary care: two-site validation study of the Substance Use Brief Screen (SUBS)

    PubMed Central

    McNeely, Jennifer; Strauss, Shiela M; Saitz, Richard; Cleland, Charles M; Palamar, Joseph J; Rotrosen, John; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2015-01-01

    Background Substance use screening is widely encouraged in healthcare settings, but the lack of a screening approach that fits easily into clinical workflows has restricted its broad implementation. The Substance Use Brief Screen (SUBS) was developed as a brief, self-administered instrument to identify unhealthy use of tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. We evaluated the validity and test-retest reliability of the SUBS in adult primary care patients. Methods Adults age 18-65 were enrolled from urban safety net primary care clinics to self-administer the SUBS using touch-screen tablet computers for a test-retest reliability study (n=54) and a two-site validation study (n=586). In the test-retest reliability study, the SUBS was administered twice within a 2-week period. In the validation study, the SUBS was compared to reference standard measures, including self-reported measures and saliva drug tests. We measured test-retest reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the SUBS for detection of unhealthy use and substance use disorder for tobacco, alcohol, and drugs (illicit and prescription drug misuse). Results Test-retest reliability was good or excellent for each substance class. For detection of unhealthy use, the SUBS had sensitivity and specificity of 97.8% (95% CI 93.7 to 99.5) and 95.7% (95% CI 92.4 to 97.8), respectively, for tobacco; and 85.2% (95% CI 79.3 to 89.9) and 77.0% (95% CI 72.6 to 81.1) for alcohol. For unhealthy use of illicit or prescription drugs, sensitivity was 82.5% (95% CI 75.7 to 88.0) and specificity 91.1% (95% CI 87.9 to 93.6). With respect to identifying a substance use disorder, the SUBS had sensitivity and specificity of 100.0% (95% CI 92.7 to 100.0) and 72.1% (95% CI 67.1 to 76.8) for tobacco; 93.5% (95% CI 85.5 to 97.9) and 64.6% (95% CI 60.2 to 68.7) for alcohol; and 85.7% (95% CI 77.2 to 92.0) and 82.0% (95% CI 78.2 to 85.3) for drugs. Analyses of area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) indicated good

  9. Generation and Optimization of the Self-Administered Bleeding Assessment Tool (Self-BAT) and its Validation as a Screening Test for von Willebrand Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deforest, Meghan; Grabell, Julie; Albert, Shirren; Young, Jane; Tuttle, Angie; Hopman, Wilma M.; James, Paula D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction/Aim Our aim was to generate, optimize and validate a self-administered bleeding assessment tool (BAT) for von Willebrand disease (VWD). Methods In Phase 1, medical terminology in the expert-administered ISTH-BAT was converted to a grade 4 reading level to produce the first version of the Self-BAT which was then optimized to ensure agreement with the ISTH-BAT. In Phase 2, the normal range of bleeding scores was determined and test-retest reliability analyzed. In Phase 3, the optimized Self-BAT was tested as a screening tool for first time referrals to the Hematology clinic. Results BS from the final optimized version of the Self-BAT showed an excellent intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.87 with ISTH-BAT BS in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the normal range of bleeding scores for the optimized Self-BAT was determined to be 0 to +5 for females and 0 to +3 for males and excellent test-retest reliability was shown (ICC = 0.95). In Phase 3, we showed that a positive Self-BAT BS (≥ 6 for females, ≥ 4 for males) has a sensitivity of 78%, specificity of 23%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.15 and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.86 for VWD; these figures improved when just the females were analyzed; sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 21%, PPV=0.17 and NPV=1.0. Conclusion We show an optimized Self-BAT can generate comparable BS to the expert-administered ISTH-BAT and is a reliable, effective screening tool to incorporate into the assessment of individuals, particularly women, referred for a possible bleeding disorder. PMID:26179127

  10. Effect of directly observed antiretroviral therapy compared to self-administered antiretroviral therapy on adherence and virological outcomes among HIV-infected prisoners: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    White, Becky L; Golin, Carol E; Grodensky, Catherine A; Kiziah, C Nichole; Richardson, Amy; Hudgens, Michael G; Wohl, David A; Kaplan, Andrew H

    2015-01-01

    The effect of directly observed therapy (DOT) versus self-administered therapy (SAT) on antiretroviral (ART) adherence and virological outcomes in prison has never been assessed in a randomized, controlled trial. Prisoners were randomized to receive ART by DOT or SAT. The primary outcome was medication adherence [percent of ART doses measured by the medication event monitoring system (MEMS) and pill counts] at the end of 24 weeks. The changes in the plasma viral loads from baseline and proportion of participants virological suppressed (<400 copies/mL) at the end of 24 weeks were assessed. Sixty-six percent (90/136) of eligible prisoners declined participation. Participants in the DOT arm (n = 20) had higher viral loads than participants in the SAT (n = 23) arm (p = 0.23). Participants, with complete data at 24 weeks, were analyzed as randomized. There were no significant differences in median ART adherence between the DOT (n = 16, 99% MEMS [IQR 93.9, 100], 97.1 % pill count [IQR 95.1, 99.3]) and SAT (n = 21, 98.3 % MEMS [IQR 96.0, 100], 98.5 % pill count [95.8, 100]) arms (p = 0.82 MEMS, p = 0.40 Pill Count) at 24 weeks. Participants in the DOT arm had a greater reduction in viral load of approximately -1 log 10 copies/mL [IQR -1.75, -0.05] compared to -0.05 [IQR -0.45, 0.51] in the SAT arm (p value = 0.02) at 24 weeks. The proportion of participants achieving virological suppression in the DOT vs SAT arms was not statistically different at 24 weeks (53 % vs 32 %, p = 0.21). These findings suggest that DOT ART programs in prison settings may not offer any additional benefit on adherence than SAT programs. PMID:25055766

  11. Design and validation of a self-administered test to assess bullying (bull-M) in high school Mexicans: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bullying (Bull) is a public health problem worldwide, and Mexico is not exempt. However, its epidemiology and early detection in our country is limited, in part, by the lack of validated tests to ensure the respondents’ anonymity. The aim of this study was to validate a self-administered test (Bull-M) for assessing Bull among high-school Mexicans. Methods Experts and school teachers from highly violent areas of Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua, México), reported common Bull behaviors. Then, a 10-item test was developed based on twelve of these behaviors; the students’ and peers’ participation in Bull acts and in some somatic consequences in Bull victims with a 5-point Likert frequency scale. Validation criteria were: content (CV, judges); reliability [Cronbach’s alpha (CA), test-retest (spearman correlation, rs)]; construct [principal component (PCA), confirmatory factor (CFA), goodness-of-fit (GF) analysis]; and convergent (Bull-M vs. Bull-S test) validity. Results Bull-M showed good reliability (CA = 0.75, rs = 0.91; p < 0.001). Two factors were identified (PCA) and confirmed (CFA): “bullying me (victim)” and “bullying others (aggressor)”. GF indices were: Root mean square error of approximation (0.031), GF index (0.97), and normalized fit index (0.92). Bull-M was as good as Bull-S for measuring Bull prevalence. Conclusions Bull-M has a good reliability and convergent validity and a bi-modal factor structure for detecting Bull victims and aggressors; however, its external validity and sensitivity should be analyzed on a wider and different population. PMID:23577755

  12. Alcohol-preferring (P) rats are more sensitive than Wistar rats to the reinforcing effects of cocaine self-administered directly into the nucleus accumbens shell.

    PubMed

    Katner, Simon N; Oster, Scott M; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Deehan, Gerald A; Toalston, Jamie E; Hauser, Sheketha R; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2011-10-01

    Wistar rats will self-administer cocaine directly into the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), but not into the nucleus accumbens core. In human and animal literature, there is a genetic association between alcoholism and cocaine dependency. The current experiment examined whether selective breeding for high alcohol preference is also associated with greater sensitivity of the AcbSh to the reinforcing properties of cocaine. P and Wistar rats were given cocaine (0, 100, 200, 400, or 800 pmol/100 nl) to self-infuse into the AcbSh. Rats were given cocaine for the first 4 sessions (acquisition), artificial CSF for sessions 5 and 6 (extinction), and cocaine again in session 7 (reinstatement). During acquisition, P rats self-infused 200-800 pmol cocaine (59 infusions/session), whereas Wistar rats only reliably self-infused 800 pmol cocaine (38 infusions/session). Furthermore, P rats received a greater number of cocaine infusions in the 200, 400 and 800 pmol cocaine groups compared to respective Wistar groups during acquisition. Both P and Wistar rats reduced responding on the active lever when aCSF was substituted for cocaine, and reinstated responding in session 7 when cocaine was restored. However, P rats had significantly greater infusions during session 7 compared to session 4 at all concentrations of cocaine tested, whereas Wistar rats only displayed greater infusions during session 7 compared to session 4 at the 400 and 800 pmol cocaine concentrations. The present results suggest that, compared to Wistar rats, the AcbSh of P rats was more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of cocaine. The reinstatement data suggest that the AcbSh of P rats may have become sensitized to the reinforcing effects of cocaine. Overall, the findings from this study support a genetic association between high alcohol preference and greater sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of cocaine. PMID:21723879

  13. Proton pump inhibitor step-down therapy for GERD: A multi-center study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsuzuki, Takao; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Takenaka, Ryuta; Nasu, Junichiro; Ishioka, Hidehiko; Fujiwara, Akiko; Yoshinaga, Fumiya; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the predictors of success in step-down of proton pump inhibitor and to assess the quality of life (QOL). METHODS: Patients who had heartburn twice a week or more were treated with 20 mg omeprazole (OPZ) once daily for 8 wk as an initial therapy (study 1). Patients whose heartburn decreased to once a week or less at the end of the initial therapy were enrolled in study 2 and treated with 10 mg OPZ as maintenance therapy for an additional 6 mo (study 2). QOL was investigated using the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS) before initial therapy, after both 4 and 8 wk of initial therapy, and at 1, 2, 3, and 6 mo after starting maintenance therapy. RESULTS: In study 1, 108 patients were analyzed. Their characteristics were as follows; median age: 63 (range: 20-88) years, sex: 46 women and 62 men. The success rate of the initial therapy was 76%. In the patients with successful initial therapy, abdominal pain, indigestion and reflux GSRS scores were improved. In study 2, 83 patients were analyzed. Seventy of 83 patients completed the study 2 protocol. In the per-protocol analysis, 80% of 70 patients were successful for step-down. On multivariate analysis of baseline demographic data and clinical information, no previous treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) [odds ratio (OR) 0.255, 95% CI: 0.06-0.98] and a lower indigestion score in GSRS at the beginning of step-down therapy (OR 0.214, 95% CI: 0.06-0.73) were found to be the predictors of successful step-down therapy. The improved GSRS scores by initial therapy were maintained through the step-down therapy. CONCLUSION: OPZ was effective for most GERD patients. However, those who have had previous treatment for GERD and experience dyspepsia before step-down require particular monitoring for relapse. PMID:21472108

  14. Is the advanced age a contraindication to GERD laparoscopic surgery? Results of a long term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In this prospective non randomized observational cohort study we have evaluated the influence of age on outcome of laparoscopic total fundoplication for GERD. Methods Six hundred and twenty consecutive patients underwent total laparoscopic fundoplication for GERD. Five hundred and twenty-four patients were younger than 65 years (YG), and 96 patients were 65 years or older (EG). The following parameters were considered in the preoperative and postoperative evaluation: presence, duration, and severity of GERD symptoms, presence of a hiatal hernia, manometric and 24 hour pH-monitoring data, duration of operation, incidence of complications and length of hospital stay. Results Elderly patients more often had atypical symptoms of GERD and at manometric evaluation had a higher rate of impaired esophageal peristalsis in comparison with younger patients. The duration of the operation was similar between the two groups. The incidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications was low and the difference was not statistically significant between the two groups. An excellent outcome was observed in 93.0% of young patients and in 88.9% of elderly patients (p = NS). Conclusions Laparoscopic antireflux surgery is a safe and effective treatment for GERD even in elderly patients, warranting low morbidity and mortality rates and a significant improvement of symptoms comparable to younger patients. PMID:24267613

  15. [The experience of usage of alginate contain medication in complex therapy at children with GERD disease].

    PubMed

    Shcherbakov, P L; Lobanov, Iu F; Fugol, D S; Shilova, A V

    2009-01-01

    GERD Therapy at children is complicated task because of Physiological features of a children's body, which reflects on the processes of acid production, motility in upper gastro-intestinal tract and on the metabolism of pharmaceutical products. Some of these medications have age usage limitations due to lack of investigation of side effects in treatment of children. Usage of alginate contain medication in complex therapy of such pathological condition brings to not only fast and effective relief of such symptoms as heartburn, eructation and in positive endoscopy dynamics. PMID:20201310

  16. Understanding GERD

    MedlinePlus

    ... heartburn: chocolate, coffee, peppermint, greasy or spicy foods, tomato products and alcoholic beverages. * Stop smoking. Tobacco inhibits saliva, which is the body’s major buffer. Tobacco may also stimulate stomach acid production and relax the muscle between the esophagus ...

  17. Adult and paediatric GERD: diagnosis, phenotypes and avoidance of excess treatments.

    PubMed

    Nikaki, Kornilia; Woodland, Philip; Sifrim, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Detailed investigations and objective measurements in patients with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux should be performed with the intent of making the correct diagnosis, thus enabling choice of appropriate therapy. Establishing the most effective therapy is particularly important in adults who do not respond to standard treatment and in children. The use of PPIs for suspected GERD has increased substantially over the past decade, providing great relief in patients with acid-related symptoms, but also leading to adverse effects and a considerable economic burden. Adults with functional heartburn do not benefit from PPIs, while prolonged PPI use in patients with extraoesophageal symptoms remains a controversial area. Moreover, PPIs are not indicated in infants with GERD unless symptoms are proven to be acid-related. With regard to antireflux surgery, patients must be carefully selected to avoid the need for ongoing PPI treatment postoperatively. Correct diagnosis and phenotyping of patients with symptoms attributed to gastro-oesophageal reflux through detailed investigations is therefore imperative, leading to improved patient outcomes and rationalized use of available treatment options. In this Review, we outline currently available diagnostic tests and discuss approaches to limit any unnecessary medical or surgical interventions. PMID:27485786

  18. 314 GERD Screening by the Use of F-Scale and Allergy Screening for Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Cough

    PubMed Central

    Nishihira, Ryuichi; Komatsu, Shigeru; Shinohara, Takeshi; Tagawa, Akihiro; Ogura, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergy and gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD) are main causes of chronic cough, and simple, easy and rapid screening is desired for diagnosis of these symptoms. We used F-scale (Frequency Scale for Symptoms of GERD: FSSG) for GERD screening, developed by Japanese gastro-enterologist, did general allergy screenings, and investigated clinical outcome after treatment retrospectively. Methods GERD was screened by F-scale questionnaire, composed in twelve questions concerned with reflux symptoms, and scored 5 grades in each symptom. General allergy screening was defined as asking history of allergy, serum immnogloblin E (IgE) test (total, fourteen kinds of specific allergens) and measuring fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO),its positive range was greater than or equal to 20 ppb. Allergy positive was defined as at least one positive finding of allergy screening test. GERD was treated with proton pump inhibitor (PPI), and allergy was treated with inhaled corticosteroid or histamine H1 receptor blocker or leukotriene receptor antagonist. Results Fifty-four consecutive chronic cough patients were screened in GERD and general allergy screening. Thirty-seven patients (69%) were F-scale positive and 43 patients (80%) were positive in general allergy screening. Thirty patients (56%) were positive in both F-scale and general allergy screening. All patients were treated with allergy medicine or PPI, or both medicines. In all patients screened and treated with both GERD and allergy concurrently, cough improved within 2 weeks, and in patients whose positive finding was either GERD or allergy, cough improved by treatment with PPI or allergy drugs similarly. Delayed screening or treatment of either GERD or allergy was related to delayed improvement of cough. Cough finally improved in all patients in visit within 3 times. Conclusions In examination of chronic cough, adding GERD screening by use of F-scale to general allergy screening is beneficial to proper diagnosis

  19. Evaluation of anti-GERD activity of gastro retentive drug delivery system of itopride hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Satapathy, Trilochan; Panda, Prasana K; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2010-08-01

    The present work describes the formulation and evaluation of the gastroretentive system of Itopride hydrochloride. In this research, we have formulated floating hydrogel-based microspheres employing calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) as a gas forming agent dispersed in alginate matrix. In vitro characterizations such as drug content, particle size, and drug release were carried out. GI motility was determined by administration of charcoal meal to rats. Results demonstrated that prepared microspheres were spherical in shape with smooth surface, good loading efficiency, and excellent buoyancy. The gastro retentive dosage form of itiopride demonstrated significant antacid, anti-ulcer, and anti-GERD activity after 12 hours in comparison with the conventional dosage form. PMID:20515421

  20. In GERD patients, mucosal repair associated genes are upregulated in non-inflamed oesophageal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    De Vries, D R; Ter Linde, J J M; Van Herwaarden, M A; Schwartz, M P; Shephard, P; Geng, M M; Smout, A J P M; Samsom, M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies addressing the effects of acid reflux and PPI therapy on gene expression in oesophageal epithelium concentrated on inflamed tissue. We aimed to determine changes in gene expression in non-inflamed oesophageal epithelium of GERD patients. Therefore, we included 20 GERD patients with pathological total 24-hr acid exposure of 6–12% and SAP ≥ 95%. Ten patients discontinued PPI treatment (PPI-), 10 took pantoprazole 40 mg bid (PPI+). Ten age/sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Biopsies were taken from non-inflamed mucosa 6 cm and 16 cm proximal to the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ). Gene expression profiling of biopsies from 6 cm was performed on Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays (Affymetrix). Genes exhibiting a fold change >1.4 (t-test P-value < 1E– 4) were considered differentially expressed. Results were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. In PPI- patients, 92 microarray probesets were deregulated. The majority of the corresponding genes were associated with cell–cell contacts, cytoskeletal reorganization and cellular motility, suggesting facilitation of a migratory phenotype. Genes encoding proteins with anti-apoptotic or anti-proliferative functions or stress-protective functions were also deregulated. No probesets were deregulated in PPI+ patients. QPCR analysis of 20 selected genes confirmed most of the deregulations in PPI- patients, and showed several deregulated genes in PPI+ patients as well. In the biopsies taken at 16 cm QPCR revealed no deregulations of the selected genes. We conclude that upon acid exposure, oesophageal epithelial cells activate a process globally known as epithelial restitution: up-regulation of anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and migration associated genes. Possibly this process helps maintaining barrier function. PMID:19413890

  1. Surgical treatment of GERD. Comperative study of WTP vs. Toupet fundoplication – results of 151 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewski, Tadeusz; Nowosad, Małgorzata; Krawczyk, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is recognized as one of the most common disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The best choice of management for advanced GERD is laparoscopic surgery. Aim To compare and evaluate the results of surgical treatment of GERD patients operated on using two different techniques. Material and methods Between 2001 and 2012, 353 patients (211 female and 142 male), aged 17–76 years (mean 44), underwent laparoscopic antireflux surgery. The study included patients who underwent a Toupet fundoplication or Wroblewski Tadeusz procedure (WTP). Results The mean age of the group was 47.77 years (17–80 years). Forty-nine (32.45%) patients had severe symptoms, 93 (61.58%) had mild symptoms and 9 (5.96%) had a single mild but intolerable sign of GERD. Eighty-six (56.95%) patients had a Toupet fundoplication and 65 (43.04%) had a WTP. The follow-up period was 18–144 months. The average operating time for Toupet fundoplication and the WTP procedure was 164 min (90–300 min) and 147 min (90–210 min), respectively. The perioperative mortality rate was 0.66%. The average post-operative hospitalization period was 5.4 days (2–16 post-operative days (POD) = Toupet) vs. 4.7 days (2–9 POD = WTP). No reoperations were performed. No major surgical complications were identified. Conclusions Wroblewski Tadeusz procedure due to a low percentage of post-operative complications, good quality of life of patients and a zero recurrence rate of hiatal hernia should be a method of choice. PMID:27458484

  2. Potential mechanism of corpus-predominant gastritis after PPI therapy in Helicobacter pylori-positive patients with GERD

    PubMed Central

    Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Hagiwara, Tadashi; Nakayama, Takahisa; Hattori, Takanori; Sugihara, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) exacerbates corpus atrophic gastritis in patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. To identify a potential mechanism for this change, we discuss interactions between pH, bile acids, and H. pylori. Duodenogastric reflux, which includes bile, occurs in healthy individuals, and bile reflux is increased in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Diluted human plasma and bile acids have been found to be significant chemoattractants and chemorepellents, respectively, for the bacillus H. pylori. Although only taurine conjugates, with a pKa of 1.8-1.9, are soluble in an acidic environment, glycine conjugates, with a pKa of 4.3-5.2, as well as taurine-conjugated bile acids are soluble in the presence of PPI therapy. Thus, the soluble bile acid concentrations in the gastric contents of patients with GERD after continuous PPI therapy are considerably higher than that in those with intact acid production. In the distal stomach, the high concentration of soluble bile acids is likely to act as a bactericide or chemorepellent for H. pylori. In contrast, the mucous layer in the proximal stomach has an optimal bile concentration that forms chemotactic gradients with plasma components required to direct H. pylori to the epithelial surface. H. pylori may then colonize in the stomach body rather than in the pyloric antrum, which may explain the occurrence of corpus-predominant gastritis after PPI therapy in H. pylori-positive patients with GERD. PMID:25232231

  3. Partial versus Complete Fundoplication for the Correction of Pediatric GERD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Glen, Peter; Chassé, Michaël; Doyle, Mary-Anne; Nasr, Ahmed; Fergusson, Dean A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is no consensus as to what extent of “wrap” is required in a fundoplication for correction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Objective To evaluate if a complete (360 degree) or partial fundoplication gives better control of GERD. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE and Scopus identified interventional and observational studies of fundoplication in children. Screening identified those comparing techniques. The primary outcome was recurrence of GERD following surgery. Dysphagia and complications were secondary outcomes of interest. Meta-analysis was performed when appropriate. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Results 2289 abstracts were screened, yielding 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 12 retrospective cohort studies. The RCTs were pooled. There was no difference in surgical success between partial and complete fundoplication, OR 1.33 [0.67,2.66]. In the 12 cohort studies, 3 (25%) used an objective assessment of the surgery, one of which showed improved outcomes with complete fundoplication. Twenty-five different complications were reported; common were dysphagia and gas-bloat syndrome. Overall study quality was poor. Conclusions The comparison of partial fundoplication with complete fundoplication warrants further study. The evidence does not demonstrate superiority of one technique. The lack of high quality RCTs and the methodological heterogeneity of observational studies limits a powerful meta-analysis. PMID:25386679

  4. Tribute to: Self-administered nicotine activates the mesolimbic dopamine system through the ventral tegmental area [William Corrigall, Kathleen Coen and Laurel Adamson, Brain Res. 653 (1994) 278-284].

    PubMed

    Leri, Francesco; Vaccarino, Franco J

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, Dr. Corrigall and collaborators described elegant experiments designed to elucidate the neurobiology of nicotine reinforcement. The nicotinic receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) was infused in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or nucleus accumbens (NAC) of rats trained to self-administer nicotine intravenously. Additionally, DHβE was infused in the VTA of rats trained to self-administer food or cocaine, and nicotine self-administration was assessed in rats with lesions to the peduculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT). A number of key themes emerged from this fundamental study that remain relevant today. The primary finding was that infusions of DHβE in the VTA, but not in the NAC, lowered nicotine self-administration, suggesting that nicotinic receptors in VTA are involved in the reinforcing action of nicotine. This conclusion has been confirmed by subsequent findings, and the nature of the nicotinic receptors has also been elucidated. The authors also reported that DHβE in the VTA had no effect on food or cocaine self-administration, and that lesions to the PPT did not alter nicotine self-administration. Since this initial investigation, the question of whether nicotinic receptors in the VTA are necessary for the reinforcing action of other stimuli, and by which mechanisms, has been extensively explored. Similarly, many groups have further investigated the role of mesopontine cholinergic nuclei in reinforcement. This paper not only contributed in important ways to our understanding of the neurochemical basis of nicotine reinforcement, but was also a key catalyst that gave rise to several research themes central to the neuropharmacology of substance abuse. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:50th Anniversary Issue. PMID:26867702

  5. Effects of a Gentle, Self-Administered Stimulation of Perineal Skin for Nocturia in Elderly Women: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Iimura, Kaori; Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Masunaga, Koichi; Miyazaki, Shogo; Hotta, Harumi; Kim, Hunkyung; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kasuya, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Background Somatic afferent nerve stimuli are used for treating an overactive bladder (OAB), a major cause of nocturia in the elderly. Clinical evidence for this treatment is insufficient because of the lack of appropriate control stimuli. Recent studies on anesthetized animals show that gentle stimuli applied to perineal skin with a roller could inhibit micturition contractions depending on the roller’s surface material. We examined the efficacy of gentle skin stimuli for treating nocturia. Methods The study was a cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized clinical study using two rollers with different effects on micturition contractions. Participants were elderly women (79–89 years) with nocturia. Active (soft elastomer roller) or placebo (hard polystyrene roller) stimuli were applied to perineal skin by participants for 1 min at bedtime. A 3-day baseline assessment period was followed by 3-day stimulation and 4-day resting periods, after which the participants were subjected to other stimuli for another 3 days. The primary outcome was change in the frequency of nighttime urination, for which charts were maintained during each 3-day period. Results Twenty-four participants were randomized, of which 22 completed all study protocols. One participant discontinued treatment because of an adverse event (abdominal discomfort). In participants with OAB (n = 9), change from baseline in the mean frequency of urination per night during the active stimuli period (mean ± standard deviation, −0.74 ± 0.7 times) was significantly greater than that during placebo stimuli periods (−0.15 ± 0.8 times [p < 0.05]). In contrast, this difference was not observed in participants without OAB (n = 13). Conclusions These results suggest that gentle perineal stimulation with an elastomer roller is effective for treating OAB-associated nocturia in elderly women. Here the limitation was a study period too short to assess changes in the quality of sleep and life. Trial

  6. Prevalence of gallstones in 1,229 patients submitted to surgical laparoscopic treatment of GERD and esophageal achalasia: associated cholecystectomy was a safe procedure

    PubMed Central

    SALLUM, Rubens Antonio Aissar; PADRÃO, Eduardo Messias Hirano; SZACHNOWICZ, Sergio; SEGURO, Francisco C. B. C.; BIANCHI, Edno Tales; CECCONELLO, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Background Association between esophageal achalasia/ gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and cholelithiasis is not clear. Epidemiological data are controversial due to different methodologies applied, the regional differences and the number of patients involved. Results of concomitant cholecistectomy associated to surgical treatment of both diseases regarding safety is poorly understood. Aim To analyze the prevalence of cholelithiasis in patients with esophageal achalasia and gastroesophageal reflux submitted to cardiomyotomy or fundoplication. Also, to evaluate the safety of concomitant cholecistectomy. Methods Retrospective analysis of 1410 patients operated from 2000 to 2013. They were divided into two groups: patients with GERD submitted to laparocopic hiatoplasty plus Nissen fundoplication and patients with esophageal achalasia to laparoscopic cardiomyotomy plus partial fundoplication. It was collected epidemiological data, specific diagnosis and subgroups, the presence or absence of gallstones, surgical procedure, operative and clinical complications and mortality. All groups/subgroups were compared. Results From 1,229 patients with GERD or esophageal achalasia, submitted to laparoscopic cardiomyotomy or fundoplication, 138 (11.43%) had cholelitiasis, occurring more in females (2.38:1) with mean age of 50,27 years old. In 604 patients with GERD, 79 (13,08%) had cholelitiasis. Lower prevalence occurred in Barrett's esophagus patients 7/105 (6.67%) (p=0.037). In 625 with esophageal achalasia, 59 (9.44%) had cholelitiasis, with no difference between chagasic and idiopathic forms (p=0.677). Complications of patients with or without cholecystectomy were similar in fundoplication and cardiomyotomy (p=0.78 and p=1.00).There was no mortality or complications related to cholecystectomy in this series. Conclusions Prevalence of cholelithiasis was higher in patients submitted to fundoplication (GERD). Patients with chagasic or idiopatic forms of achalasia had the

  7. [Evaluation of action, efficacy, and onset dynamics of a single dose of alginates in patients with heartburn and GERD].

    PubMed

    Bordin, D S; Masharova, A A; Firsova, L D; Kozhurina, T S; Safonova, O V

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a crossover study, in which the efficacy and the onset of action of a single dose of Gaviscon (suspension) and Gaviscon forte (suspension) in 52 patients with heartburn of moderate intensity and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have been investigated. The average age of the patients was 44.0 +/- 17.3-years-old. The patients have undergone clinical evaluation of intensity of GERD symptoms and psychological assessment (questionnaires SF-36, SMOL, LOBI). Alginates' effects and qualities were evaluated using stopwatch technique, clinical examination, and organoleptic assessment. Primary sensation of a cooling (soothing) effect after use of a single dose of Gaviscon has been reported in 65.7 seconds (on average), and Gaviscon forte--in 66.1 seconds. Fourty three (82.7%) patients with heartburn have described the effects of both medications as "instant" cooling effects. Heartburn was relieved in 3.3 minutes in all patients after a single dose of Gaviscon, and in 3.6 minutes in 51 (98.1%) patients who have received a single dose of Gaviscon forte. Organoleptic qualities averaged at 3.6 points (on a scale of 1-5) for Gaviscon, and at 3.5 points for Gaviscon forte. Assessment of mental status of the patients suggested that a "delayed" effect of the medications in relieving heartburn in some patients may have occurred due to possible physical disadaptation. PMID:19960998

  8. Practice Pattern of Gastroenterologists for the Management of GERD Under the Minimal Influence of the Insurance Reimbursement Guideline: A Multicenter Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jin Il; Park, Ju Sang; Moon, Byung Sik; Kim, Sang-Gyun; Chun, Jae Hee; Jung, Hoon-Yong; Choi, Chang Hwan; Chun, Seong Woo; Song, Geun Am; Choi, Myung Gyu

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to document practice pattern of gastroenterologists for the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) under the minimal influence of the insurance reimbursement guideline. Data on management for 1,197 consecutive patients with typical GERD symptoms were prospectively collected during 16 weeks. In order to minimize the influence of reimbursement guideline on the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), rabeprazole was used for the PPI treatment. A total of 861 patients (72%) underwent endoscopy before the start of treatment. PPIs were most commonly prescribed (87%). At the start of treatment, rabeprazole 20 mg daily was prescribed to 94% of the patients who received PPI treatment and 10 mg daily to the remaining 6%. At the third visits, rabeprazole 20 mg daily was prescribed to 70% of those who were followed and 10 mg daily for the remaining 30%. Continuous PPI treatment during the 16-week period was performed in 63% of the study patients. In conclusion, a full-dose PPI is preferred for the initial and maintenance treatment of GERD under the minimal influence of the insurance reimbursement guideline, which may reflect a high proportion of GERD patients requiring a long-term treatment of a full-dose PPI. PMID:22147999

  9. Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Brief-Type Self-Administered Diet History Questionnaire for Japanese Children Aged 3–6 Years: Application of a Questionnaire Established for Adults in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Keiko; Haga, Megumi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary intake assessment and subsequent dietary education or intervention in young children is important in decreasing prevalence of various noncontagious diseases in adulthood. Validation of diet assessment questionnaires for preschool children has just started in Japan. In this study, we rearranged the brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ), a convenient diet assessment questionnaire that is widely used in a range of situations for adults, for use in children aged 3–6 years (BDHQ3y) and then validated the BDHQ3y in Japanese children. Methods The guardians of 61 children aged 3–4 years completed the BDHQ3y twice at an interval of 1 month, along with a 3-nonconsecutive-day diet record (DR) between the two administrations of the BDHQ3y. Dietary intakes for energy and 42 selected nutrients were estimated using both the DR and the BDHQ3y. Mean intakes estimated by the two methods were compared, and correlation coefficients were calculated. Reproducibility of the BDHQ3y estimates was investigated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Results No significant differences in mean intakes estimated by the DR and the BDHQ3y were observed for one- to two-thirds of energy and examined nutrients. The median of Pearson correlation coefficients between intakes energy-adjusted by the residual method was 0.31 (interquartile range, 0.24 to 0.38). The median ICC was 0.72 (interquartile range, 0.63 to 0.76) for the crude nutrient intakes. Conclusions Although the BDHQ3y might be a good candidate for dietary intake assessment in Japanese preschool children, its validity is currently moderate to low. Shortcomings should be overcome by obtaining and utilizing more information about children’s dietary habits. PMID:25843433

  10. Germination of Individual Bacillus subtilis Spores with Alterations in the GerD and SpoVA Proteins, Which Are Important in Spore Germination▿

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guiwen; Yi, Xuan; Li, Yong-qing; Setlow, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Release of Ca2+ with dipicolinic acid (CaDPA) was monitored by Raman spectroscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy during germination of individual spores of Bacillus subtilis strains with alterations in GerD and SpoVA proteins. Notable conclusions about germination after the addition of nutrient were as follows. (i) Following l-alanine addition, wild-type and gerD spores and spores with elevated SpoVA protein levels (↑SpoVA spores) slowly released ∼10% of their CaDPA during a variable (6- to 55-min) period ending at Tlag, the time when faster CaDPA release began. (ii) Tlag times were lower for ↑SpoVA spores than for wild-type spores and were higher for gerD spores. (iii) The long Tlag times of gerD spores were partially due to slow commitment to germinate. (iv) The intervals between the commitment to germinate and CaDPA release were similar for wild-type and ↑SpoVA spores but longer for gerD spores. (v) The times for rapid CaDPA release, ΔTrelease = Trelease − Tlag (with Trelease being the time at which CaDPA release was complete), were similar for wild-type, gerD, and ↑SpoVA spores. (vi) Spores with either one of two point mutations in the spoVA operon (spoVA1 and spoVA2 spores) exhibited a more rapid rate of CaDPA release beginning immediately after l-alanine addition leading to ∼65% CaDPA release prior to Tlag. (vii) Tlag times for spoVA1 and spoVA2 spores were longer than for wild-type spores. (viii) The intervals between spoVA1 and spoVA2 spores' commitment and CaDPA release were similar to those for wild-type spores, but commitment occurred later. In contrast to germination after the addition of nutrient, Tlag and ΔTrelease times were relatively similar during dodecylamine germination of spores of the five strains. These findings suggest the following. (i) GerD plays no role in CaDPA release during spore germination. (ii) SpoVA proteins are involved in CaDPA release during germination with nutrients, and probably with

  11. Transoral Incisionless Fundoplication Effective in Eliminating GERD Symptoms in Partial Responders to Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy at 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, William E.; Simoni, Gilbert; Shughoury, Ahmad B.; Mavrelis, Peter G.; Raza, Mamoon; Heise, Jeffrey A.; Turgeon, Daniel G.; Fox, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Incomplete control of troublesome regurgitation and extraesophageal manifestations of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a known limitation of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. This multicenter randomized study compared the efficacy of transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) against PPIs in controlling these symptoms in patients with small hiatal hernias. Methods. Between June and August 2012, 63 patients were randomized at 7 US community hospitals. Patients in the PPI group were placed on maximum standard dose (MSD). Patients in the TIF group underwent esophagogastric fundoplication using the EsophyX2 device. Primary outcome was elimination of daily troublesome regurgitation or extraesophageal symptoms. Secondary outcomes were normalization of esophageal acid exposure (EAE), PPI usage and healing of esophagitis. Results. Of 63 randomized patients (40 TIF and 23 PPI), 3 were lost to follow-up leaving 39 TIF and 21 PPI patients for analysis. At 6-month follow-up, troublesome regurgitation was eliminated in 97% of TIF patients versus 50% of PPI patients, relative risk (RR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-3.11 (P = .006). Globally, 62% of TIF patients experienced elimination of regurgitation and extraesophageal symptoms versus 5% of PPI patients, RR = 12.9, 95% CI = 1.9-88.9 (P = .009). EAE was normalized in 54% of TIF patients (off PPIs) versus 52% of PPI patients (on MSD), RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6-1.7 (P = .914). Ninety percent of TIF patients were off PPIs. Conclusion. At 6-month follow-up, TIF was more effective than MSD PPI therapy in eliminating troublesome regurgitation and extraesophageal symptoms of GERD. PMID:24756976

  12. Quality Of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) Questionnaire in Iranian Patients with GERD: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Tofangchiha, S; Razjouyan, H; Nasseri-Moghaddam, S

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL). When a questionnaire is translated into a new language, linguistic validation is necessary, yet insufficient, unless the psychometric characteristics have been verified. The aim of this study is to document the translation and psychometric validation of the Persian translation of the Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire. METHODS After translation and cultural adaptation of QOLRAD to Persian, fifty patients with clinical GERD from the Prospective Acid Reflux Study of Iran (PARSI) database who had at least one of the symptoms of acid regurgitation, heartburn, non-cardiac chest pain, or dysphagia for at least four weeks over the past three months completed the QOLRAD and Short Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36). After two weeks, QOLRAD was again completed by the patients. Cronbach alpha and Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) were used to test reliability and Pearson correlation was used to compare the dimensions of SF-36 and QOLRAD. RESULTS The translation was approved by MAPI Research Institute. Fifty patients completed the SF-36 and QOLRAD questionnaires at the first visit. Mean (SD) age of the participants was 38.4 (14.6) years and 68% were females. The internal consistency and reliability of QOLRAD ranged from 0.78–0.92. The test-retest reliability of QOLRAD was from 0.87–0.93. Relevant QOLRAD domains significantly correlated with the majority of SF-36 domains, with the exception of sleep disturbance. CONCLUSION The psychometric characteristics of the Persian translation of QOLRAD were found to be good, with satisfactory reliability and validity. PMID:25197518

  13. Diagnosis and Anti-Reflux Therapy for GERD with Respiratory Symptoms: A Study Using Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance-pH Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Jimin; Hu, Zhiwei; Yan, Chao; Gao, Xiang; Liang, Weitao; Liu, Diangang; Li, Fei; Wang, Zhonggao

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Respiratory symptoms are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Although the role of multichannel intraluminal impedance–pH (MII-pH) monitoring in GERD is clear, little is known regarding the characteristics of patients with respiratory symptoms based on MII-pH monitoring and anti-reflux therapy. We evaluated a cohort of GERD patients to identify the MII-pH parameters of GERD-related respiratory symptoms and to assess the anti-reflux therapy outcomes. Methods We undertook a prospective study of patients who were referred for GERD evaluation from January 2011 to January 2012. One hundred ninety-five patients underwent MII-pH monitoring and esophageal manometry, and one hundred sixty-five patients underwent invasive anti-reflux therapy that included laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF) and the Stretta procedure. The patient characteristics and MII-pH parameters were analyzed, and the symptom scores were assessed at baseline and at 1- and 3-year follow-up evaluations. Results Of the 195 patients, 96 (49.2%) exhibited respiratory symptoms and significantly more reflux episodes (70.7±29.3) than patients without respiratory symptoms (64.7±24.4, p = 0.044) based on the MII-pH monitoring results. Moreover, the group of patients with respiratory symptoms exhibited more proximal reflux episodes (35.2±21.3) than the non-respiratory symptomatic group (28.3±17.9, p = 0.013). One hundred twenty-five patients following the Stretta procedure (n = 60, 31 with respiratory symptoms) or LTF (n = 65, 35 with respiratory symptoms) completed the designated 3-year follow-up period and were included in the final analysis. The symptom scores after anti-reflux therapy all decreased relative to the corresponding baseline values (p<0.05), and there were no significant differences in the control of respiration between the Stretta procedure and LTF (p>0.05). However, LTF significantly reduced the recurrence (re-operation) rate compared with the

  14. Gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms in the Greek general population: prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Spantideas, Nikolaos; Drosou, Eirini; Bougea, Anastasia; Assimakopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Population-based data regarding the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Greece are very poor. This study estimated the prevalence of GERD symptoms and their risk factors in the Greek adult population. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was answered by a randomly selected population of 340 subjects. The question regarding “heartburn, chest pain, indigestion, or stomach acid coming up” as included in the Reflux Symptom Index was used for prevalence assessment. Results The monthly prevalence of GERD symptoms was found to be 52.0% in the Greek general population, with no statistically significant difference between the two sexes (P>0.05). The age group of 65–79 years showed a higher prevalence rate of GERD. Symptom severity was found to be mild (59.3%) or moderate (27.1%). The number of cigarettes smoked daily (but not smoking duration) as well as the number of alcoholic drinks consumed daily (but not the duration of alcohol drinking) were found to be related to GERD symptoms. No reported concomitant disease or medication was found to be related with GERD symptoms. Conclusion The prevalence of GERD symptoms in the Greek general population was found to be 52.0%. Tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking but not concomitant disease or medications were found to be related with GERD symptoms. PMID:27382324

  15. Value of the Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire (GerdQ) in predicting the proton pump inhibitor response in coronary artery disease patients with gastroesophageal reflux-related chest pain.

    PubMed

    He, S; Liu, Y; Chen, Y; Tang, Y; Xu, J; Tang, C

    2016-05-01

    Chest pain experienced by patients with coronary artery disease can be partly due to gastroesophageal reflux-induced chest pain (GERP). Empirical proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy has been recommended as an initial clinical approach for treating GERP. However, PPI use may lead to some health problems. The Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire (GerdQ) may represent a noninvasive and cost-effective approach for avoiding PPI misuse and for identifying the appropriate patients for the PPI trial test. The aim of this pilot study was to prospectively evaluate the association between GerdQ scores and PPI response in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and GERP to determine whether the GerdQ predicts the PPI response in patients with CAD and GERP and to further validate the clinical application value of the GerdQ. A total of 154 consecutive patients with potential GERP were recruited to complete a GerdQ with subsequent PPI therapy. Based on the PPI trial result, patients were divided into a PPI-positive response group and a PPI-negative response group. The difference in the GerdQ scores between the two groups was assessed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of GerdQ score was drawn according to the PPI response as the gold standard. The ability of GerdQ to predict the PPI response was assessed. A total of 96 patients completed the entire study; 62 patients (64.6%) were assigned to the PPI-positive response group, and 34 patients (35.4%) to the PPI-negative response group. The GerdQ score of the PPI-positive response group (8.11 ± 3.315) was significantly higher than that of the PPI-negative response group (4.41 ± 2.743), and the difference was statistically significant (t = 5.863, P = 0.000). The ROC curve was drawn according to a PPI response assessment result with a score above 2 as the gold standard. The area under curve was 0.806. When the critical value of GerdQ score was 7.5, Youden index was up to 0.514, the diagnostic sensitivity

  16. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods garlic and onions mint flavorings spicy foods tomato-based foods, like spaghetti sauce, chili, and pizza ... Regurgitation is when food and liquid containing stomach acid comes back up into the throat or mouth.) ...

  17. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind study comparing 20 and 40 mg of pantoprazole for symptom relief in adolescents (12 to 16 years of age) with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An age-appropriate questionnaire (GASP-Q) was used to assess the frequency and severity of the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms: abdominal/belly pain, chest pain/heartburn, pain after eating, nausea, burping/belching, vomiting/regurgitation, choking when eating, and difficulty swallow...

  18. Gaviscon Double Action Liquid (antacid & alginate) is more effective than antacid in controlling postprandial esophageal acid exposure in GERD patients; a double-blind crossover study

    PubMed Central

    De Ruigh, Annemijn; Roman, Sabine; Chen, Joan; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that Gaviscon Double Action Liquid (a combination alginate-antacid) administered postprandially co-localizes with the acid pocket, the ‘reservoir’ for postprandial acid reflux. Aim This study compared the effectiveness of Gaviscon Double Action Liquid to an equivalent strength antacid without alginate in controlling postprandial acid reflux in GERD patients. Methods 14 GERD patients undertook two 3.5-hour high-resolution manometry/pH-impedance studies during which they ate a standardized meal. In a double-blinded randomized crossover design they then took Gaviscon or CVS brand antacid, each with ~18 mmol/l acid neutralizing capacity. The primary outcome was distal esophageal acid exposure; secondary outcomes were number of reflux events, proximal extent of reflux, nadir pH of the refluxate, mechanism of reflux, and reflux symptoms scored with a validated instrument. Results 10 patients completed the study. Gaviscon studies had significantly less distal esophageal acid exposure and greater nadir refluxate pH in the 30–150 minute postprandial period than antacid studies. There were no differences in the number of reflux events (acid or weakly acidic) or the number of proximal reflux events (15–17 cm above the LES) with either study medication. Conclusions Gaviscon Double Action Liquid was more effective than an antacid without alginate in controlling postprandial esophageal acid exposure. However, the number and spatial distribution of reflux events within the esophagus were similar. This suggests that Gaviscon main effectiveness related to its co-localization with and displacement/neutralization of the post-prandial acid pocket, rather than preventing reflux. PMID:25041141

  19. Self-Administered Treatments of Public Speaking Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Reports on two do-it-yourself treatment programs for dealing with stage fright. One program followed a systematic desensitization paradigm; the other was a handout listing 16 strategies for understanding stage fright. Higher ratings were given to the handout strategy. A list of the 16 strategies is included. (Author/RC)

  20. Time esophageal pH < 4 overestimates the prevalence of pathologic esophageal reflux in subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease treated with proton pump inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gerson, Lauren B; Triadafilopoulos, George; Sahbaie, Peyman; Young, Winston; Sloan, Sheldon; Robinson, Malcolm; Miner, Philip B; Gardner, Jerry D

    2008-01-01

    Background A Stanford University study reported that in asymptomatic GERD patients who were being treated with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), 50% had pathologic esophageal acid exposure. Aim We considered the possibility that the high prevalence of pathologic esophageal reflux might simply have resulted from calculating acidity as time pH < 4. Methods We calculated integrated acidity and time pH < 4 from the 49 recordings of 24-hour gastric and esophageal pH from the Stanford study as well as from another study of 57 GERD subjects, 26 of whom were treated for 8 days with 20 mg omeprazole or 20 mg rabeprazole in a 2-way crossover fashion. Results The prevalence of pathologic 24-hour esophageal reflux in both studies was significantly higher when measured as time pH < 4 than when measured as integrated acidity. This difference was entirely attributable to a difference between the two measures during the nocturnal period. Nocturnal gastric acid breakthrough was not a useful predictor of pathologic nocturnal esophageal reflux. Conclusion In GERD subjects treated with a PPI, measuring time esophageal pH < 4 will significantly overestimate the prevalence of pathologic esophageal acid exposure over 24 hours and during the nocturnal period. PMID:18498663

  1. The otolaryngologic manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): a clinical investigation of 225 patients using ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring and an experimental investigation of the role of acid and pepsin in the development of laryngeal injury.

    PubMed

    Koufman, J A

    1991-04-01

    Occult (silent) gastroesophageal reflux disease (GER, GERD) is believed to be an important etiologic factor in the development of many inflammatory and neoplastic disorders of the upper aerodigestive tract. In order ot test this hypothesis, a human study and an animal study were performed. The human study consisted primarily of applying a new diagnostic technique (double-probe pH monitoring) to a population of otolaryngology patients with GERD to determine the incidence of overt and occult GERD. The animal study consisted of experiments to evaluate the potential damaging effects of intermittent GER on the larynx. Two hundred twenty-five consecutive patients with otolaryngologic disorders having suspected GERD evaluated from 1985 through 1988 are reported. Ambulatory 24-hour intraesophageal pH monitoring was performed in 197; of those, 81% underwent double-probe pH monitoring, with the second pH probe being placed in the hypopharynx at the laryngeal inlet. Seventy percent of the patients also underwent barium esophagography with videofluoroscopy. The patient population was divided into seven diagnostic subgroups: carcinoma of the larynx (n = 31), laryngeal and tracheal stenosis (n = 33), reflux laryngitis (n = 61), globus pharyngeus (n = 27), dysphagia (n = 25), chronic cough (n = 30), and a group with miscellaneous disorders (n = 18). The most common symptoms were hoarseness (71%), cough (51%), globus (47%), and throat clearing (42%). Only 43% of the patients had gastrointestinal symptoms (heartburn or acid regurgitation). Thus, by traditional symptomatology, GER was occult or silent in the majority of the study population. Twenty-eight patients (12%) refused or could not tolerate pH monitoring. Of the patients undergoing diagnostic pH monitoring, 62% had abnormal esophageal pH studies, and 30% demonstrated reflux into the pharynx. The results of diagnostic pH monitoring for each of the subgroups were as follows (percentage with abnormal studies): carcinoma (71

  2. Efficacy of Slim339 in reducing body weight of overweight and obese human subjects.

    PubMed

    Toromanyan, Edward; Aslanyan, Gayane; Amroyan, Elmira; Gabrielyan, Emil; Panossian, Alexander

    2007-12-01

    A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study has been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of orally self-administered Slim339, a proprietary fixed combination of Garcinia cambogia extract with calcium pantothenate (standardized for the content of hydroxycitric acid and pantothenic acid) and extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Rosa damascena, Lavandula officinalis and Cananga odorata, on body weight in overweight and obese volunteers. During a 60-day treatment period, the average reduction in body weight for the group receiving Slim339 (n = 30) was 4.67% compared with 0.63% for the placebo group (n = 28) (p < 0.0001). Weight losses of >or=3 kg were recorded for 23 subjects in the treatment group and only one in the placebo group. It is concluded that Slim339 represents a potential therapy for obesity. PMID:17639559

  3. Subjective musculoskeletal symptoms in winter and summer among indoor working construction electricians.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Mirbod, Seyed Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cold exposure on the musculoskeletal system, two surveys on the subjective musculoskeletal symptoms among male electricians working in the buildings under construction were performed in winter (N=74) and summer seasons (N=83). A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on age, occupational career, working habit, present illness, and subjective musculoskeletal symptoms. Mean age, occupational career and daily smoking of the supervisors were significantly higher than those of the other subjects. In general, prevalence rates of stiffness, numbness, pain and Raynaud's phenomenon in the fingers, finger cold sensation, dull movement of the fingers, pain in the wrist, knee joint pain, pain and numbness in the foot and foot cold sensation in winter were significantly higher than those in summer. These results were marked especially in the workers except supervisors. In winter, there were no significant differences in the prevalence rates of subjective musculoskeletal complaints between the supervisors and the other workers. On the other hand, in summer, prevalence of stiffness and pain in the shoulder, stiffness and pain in the neck, dullness and pain in the arm, finger cold sensation, low back dullness and low back pain in the supervisors were significantly higher than those in the other workers. These results suggest that effects of cold on the musculoskeletal symptoms markedly appeared in the workers except supervisors. PMID:20160405

  4. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction in a cohort of Italian hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Artom, Nathan; Pinna, Giuliano; Musso, Natale R; Orlandini, Francesco; Malasoma, Paolo; Uccelli, Massimiliano; Artom, Alberto; Rabbia, Franco; Pascale, Claudio; Lantieri, Francesca; Pende, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in a cohort of Italian hypertensive men and the association with clinical and biochemical data. The study involved 270 consecutive hypertensive subjects aged 40-70 years evaluated in Italian Hypertension Centers of six hospitals from Liguria and Piedmont. ED was assessed through the self-administered questionnaire of the International Index of Erectile Function. Clinical history with ongoing drug treatment, various clinical parameters, biochemical data and evidence about the presence of subclinical target organ damage was collected. Twenty-seven subjects refused to answer the questionnaire (10%). Among the 243 remained subjects, 123 presented ED (50.6%). ED was highly related to age, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, smoking status, statin therapy and kidney function. The addition of a thiazide diuretic to an inhibitor of the renin-angiotensin system significantly increased the prevalence of ED. The prevalence of ED increased in relation with the number of hypotensive drug classes taken by the patients. ED was highly prevalent in this cohort of Italian hypertensive subjects and was associated with other cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, smoking status and kidney function. The role of ED as an early marker of cardiovascular disease is discussed. PMID:26418513

  5. Sex differences in the subjective and reinforcing effects of visual and olfactory cigarette smoke stimuli.

    PubMed

    Perkins, K A; Gerlach, D; Vender, J; Grobe, J; Meeker, J; Hutchison, S

    2001-05-01

    Although nicotine intake clearly reinforces cigarette smoking behavior, non-nicotine smoke stimuli may become conditioned reinforcers of smoking. In Study 1, we compared the acute subjective and reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking in men and women under two conditions: blockade of visual and olfactory/taste smoke stimuli vs. no blockade. Subjective hedonic ratings of 'like puffs' and 'satisfying', but not 'strength', 'high in nicotine', or CO boost, were significantly reduced under the blockade vs. no blockade conditions. During subsequent ad lib puffing, significantly fewer puffs were self-administered under the blockade condition, particularly among women. In Study 2, we examined the influences of these stimuli separately and found that olfactory/taste stimuli, but not visual stimuli, reduced hedonic ratings and puff self-administration in women but not in men. In Study 3, procedures similar to those in Study 1 were used to examine whether this sex difference in responses to conditioned stimuli generalizes to a non-drug consummatory behavior, eating (pizza). However, hedonic ratings and ad lib consumption of pizza were substantially reduced in both men and women following blockade of visual and olfactory/taste food stimuli. These results indicate that the presumably conditioned stimuli of olfactory/taste from cigarette smoke may influence subjective hedonic ratings and reinforcement from smoking more in women than in men. However, this sex difference may not generalize beyond smoking or other drug reinforcement. PMID:11403728

  6. Differences in understanding and subjective effects of home-visit rehabilitation between user families and rehabilitation providers

    PubMed Central

    Ohura, Tomoko; Tsuyama, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify differences in understanding and subjective effects of home-visit rehabilitation between user families and rehabilitation providers. [Subjects] The subjects were home-visit rehabilitation providers and user families. [Methods] Home-visit rehabilitation providers and user families completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding the content and subjective effects of home-visit rehabilitation. For statistical analysis, the McNemar’s test was used. [Results] Fifty pairs of responses met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of user families was 65.0 ± 11.2 years, and 58.0% (29/50) were spouses of users (user mean age, 77.7 ± 10.2 years; 48.0% (24/50) female). With regard to home-visit rehabilitation content, user families thought that paralysis improvement exercise, massage, and self-care activities were implemented to a greater degree than did rehabilitation providers. With regard to the subjective effects of home-visit rehabilitation, a higher proportion of user families noticed “maintenance/improvement” effects on symptoms and sequelae, as well as pain and suffering, compared with providers. [Conclusion] User families believed that rehabilitation would also improve users’ symptoms and pain. Care providers should explain the aims of home-visit rehabilitation to users and their families, both of which require a strong understanding of home-visit rehabilitation in order to achieve rehabilitation goals. PMID:26834364

  7. Validity of Short and Long Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaires in Ranking Dietary Intake in Middle-Aged and Elderly Japanese in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) Protocol Area

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Yuta; Takachi, Ribeka; Ishihara, Junko; Ishii, Yuri; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Shinozawa, Yurie; Tanaka, Junta; Kato, Erika; Kitamura, Kaori; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies require both the periodic update of intake information via repeated dietary survey and the minimization of subject burden in responding to questionnaires. We developed a 66-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (short-FFQ) for the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) follow-up survey using major foods from the FFQ developed for the original JPHC Study. For the JPHC-NEXT baseline survey, we used a larger 172-item FFQ (long-FFQ), which was also derived from the JPHC-FFQ. We compared the validity of ranking individuals by levels of dietary consumption by these FFQs among residents of selected JPHC-NEXT study areas. Methods From 2012 to 2013, 240 men and women aged 40–74 years from five areas in the JPHC-NEXT protocol were asked to respond to the long-FFQ and provide 12-day weighed food records (WFR) as reference; 228 also completed the short-FFQ. Spearman’s correlation coefficients (CCs) between estimates from the FFQs and WFR were calculated and corrected for intra-individual variation of the WFR. Results Median CC values for energy and 53 nutrients for the short-FFQ for men and women were 0.46 and 0.44, respectively. Respective values for the long-FFQ were 0.50 and 0.43. Compared with the long-FFQ, cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quintiles with the short-FFQ ranged from 68% to 91% in men and 58% to 85% in women. Conclusions Similar to the long-FFQ, the short-FFQ provided reasonably valid measures for ranking middle-aged and elderly Japanese for many nutrients and food groups. The short-FFQ can be used in follow-up surveys in prospective cohort studies aimed at updating diet rank information. PMID:27064130

  8. Gendered Subjectivities of Spacetimematter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juelskjaer, Malou

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates enactments of human subjectivities with a focus on how subjectivities may be studied if spatiality and temporality are taken up as constituting forces in the production of subjectivities. By reading poststructuralist feminist theorising, agential realism and empirical material diffractively through each other I re-situate…

  9. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  10. Teaching of subject matter.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Richard E

    2004-01-01

    Psychology of subject matter refers to the scientific study of learning and instruction within school subjects. The growing research literature on teaching and learning of school subjects represents one of educational psychology's most productive accomplishments of the past two decades. The purpose of this chapter is to examine representative advances in the psychology of subject matter, including how people learn to read words, comprehend printed passages, write compositions, solve arithmetic word problems, and understand how scientific systems work. The introduction provides a historical overview of how to promote transfer and is followed by reviews of representative research in learning and teaching of reading fluency, reading comprehension, writing, mathematics, and science. PMID:14744232

  11. The COPD assessment test and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire: are they equivalent in subjects with COPD?

    PubMed Central

    Morishita-Katsu, Mariko; Nishimura, Koichi; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tomoki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Kensuke; Ogawa, Tomoya; Watanabe, Fumiko; Arizono, Shinichi; Nishiyama, Osamu; Nakayasu, Kazuhito; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Background The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) is a short questionnaire that has facilitated health status measurements in subjects with COPD. However, it remains controversial as to whether the CAT can be used as a suitable substitute for the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). This study investigated the reliability and score distributions of the CAT and SGRQ and evaluated which factors contributed to health status for each questionnaire. Methods A total of 109 consecutive subjects with stable COPD from a single center were enrolled in this study. Each subject completed pulmonary function tests, exercise tests, and the following self-administered questionnaires: the Baseline Dyspnea Index, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the CAT, and SGRQ. Results Internal consistencies of CAT and SGRQ total scores were both excellent (Cronbach’s α coefficients =0.890 and 0.933). Statistically significant correlations were observed between CAT and SGRQ total scores (R=0.668, P<0.001). Correlations of CAT scores with parameters related to pulmonary function, dyspnea, exercise performance, and psychological factors were inferior to correlations with those parameters with SGRQ total scores. Both multiple regression analyses and principal component analyses revealed that there were slight differences between SGRQ total scores and CAT scores. Conclusion The CAT is similar to SGRQ in terms of discriminating health status. However, we demonstrated that what is assessed by the CAT may differ slightly from what is measured by SGRQ. PMID:27462150

  12. Associations Between Subjective Symptoms and Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels During Asian Dust Events

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Shinji; Onishi, Kazunari; Mu, Haosheng; Hosoda, Takenobu; Kurozawa, Youichi; Ikeguchi, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Asian dust is a seasonal meteorological phenomenon caused by the displacement of atmospheric pollutants from the Mongolian and Chinese deserts. Although the frequency of Asian dust events and atmospheric dust levels have steadily increased in the eastern Asia region, the effects on human health remain poorly understood. In the present study, the impact of Asian dust on human health was determined in terms of allergic reactions. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were tested for a relationship between serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and subjective symptoms during a 3-day Asian dust event recorded in April 2012. They filled daily questionnaires on the severity of nasal, pharyngeal, ocular, respiratory, and skin symptoms by a self-administered visual analog scale. Serum levels of non-specific IgE and 33 allergen-specific IgE molecules were analyzed. Spearman rank-correlation analysis revealed significant positive associations between nasal symptom scores and 2 microbial-specific IgE levels (Penicillium and Cladosporium). Microbes migrate vast distances during Asian dust events by attaching themselves to dust particles. Therefore, some of these symptoms may be associated with type 1 allergic reactions to certain type of microbes. PMID:25075882

  13. The relationship between smartphone use and subjective musculoskeletal symptoms and university students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Jin-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of smartphones by university students in selected areas, their musculoskeletal symptoms, and the associated hazard ratio. [Subjects and Methods] This involved the completion of a self-administered questionnaire by dental hygiene students in Seoul, Gyeonggido, and Gyeongsangbukdo. The 292 completed copies of the questionnaire were then analyzed. [Results] The most painful body regions after the use of smartphones were found to be the shoulders and neck. In the musculoskeletal system, back pain was found to have a positive correlation with the size of the smartphone’s liquid crystal display (LCD) screen, and pain in legs and feet were found to have a negative correlation with the length of time that the smartphone was used. As a result, it was revealed that the use of a smartphone was correlated with musculoskeletal symptoms. [Conclusion] Therefore, in today’s environment, where the use of smartphones is on the rise, it is necessary to improve the ways that they are used and to develop a preventive program to alleviate the symptoms of musculoskeletal damage. PMID:25931684

  14. The relationship between smartphone use and subjective musculoskeletal symptoms and university students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Jin-Seop

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of smartphones by university students in selected areas, their musculoskeletal symptoms, and the associated hazard ratio. [Subjects and Methods] This involved the completion of a self-administered questionnaire by dental hygiene students in Seoul, Gyeonggido, and Gyeongsangbukdo. The 292 completed copies of the questionnaire were then analyzed. [Results] The most painful body regions after the use of smartphones were found to be the shoulders and neck. In the musculoskeletal system, back pain was found to have a positive correlation with the size of the smartphone's liquid crystal display (LCD) screen, and pain in legs and feet were found to have a negative correlation with the length of time that the smartphone was used. As a result, it was revealed that the use of a smartphone was correlated with musculoskeletal symptoms. [Conclusion] Therefore, in today's environment, where the use of smartphones is on the rise, it is necessary to improve the ways that they are used and to develop a preventive program to alleviate the symptoms of musculoskeletal damage. PMID:25931684

  15. Body as subject1

    PubMed Central

    MEIR, IRIT; PADDEN, CAROL A.; ARONOFF, MARK; SANDLER, WENDY

    2011-01-01

    The notion of subject in human language has a privileged status relative to other arguments. This special status is manifested in the behavior of subjects at the morphological, syntactic, semantic and discourse levels. Here we bring evidence that subjects have privileged status at the lexical level as well, by analyzing lexicalization patterns of verbs in three different sign languages. Our analysis shows that the sublexical structure of iconic signs denoting state of affairs in these languages manifests an inherent pattern of form–meaning correspondence: the signer’s body consistently represents one argument of the verb, the subject. The hands, moving in relation to the body, represent all other components of the event – including all other arguments. This analysis shows that sign languages provide novel evidence in support of the centrality of the notion of subject in human language. It also solves a typological puzzle about the apparent primacy of object in sign language verb agreement, a primacy not usually found in spoken languages, in which subject agreement ranks higher. Our analysis suggests that the subject argument is represented by the body and is part of the lexical structure of the verb. Because it is always inherently represented in the structure of the sign, the subject is more basic than the object, and tolerates the omission of agreement morphology. PMID:23066169

  16. The Eppelsheimer Subject Catalog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Gordon

    1971-01-01

    Since 1945, a method of catalog classification, originally devised by H.W. Eppelsheimer for the Mainz City Library, has found wide acceptance. It is a complex of catalogs which combines features of both subject classification and alphabetical subject indexing. (25 references) (Author/NH)

  17. Differential effects of naltrexone on cardiac, subjective and behavioural reactions to acute ethanol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jordan B.; Conrod, Patricia; Vassileva, Jasmin; Gianoulakis, Christina; Pihl, Robert O.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Alcohol may have psychomotor stimulant properties during the rising limb of the blood alcohol curve at commonly self-administered doses. Increased heart rate (HR) immediately after alcohol consumption may serve as an indicator or marker of such properties, which appear to be potentially opiate-mediated and dopamine-dependent. Naltrexone, an opiate antagonist, has been used successfully in the treatment of alcoholism and may produce its therapeutic effects through its effects on alcohol metabolism or by blocking alcohol's rewarding effects. We hypothesized that, if naltrexone blocks the psychomotor stimulant properties of ethanol, then it would decrease or eliminate the HR increase associated with acute alcohol intoxication and that this would be independent of any effect on alcohol metabolism. Methods Twenty male subjects were administered placebo and alcohol (1.0 mL 95% USP ethanol/kg body weight) in a laboratory setting on one day and naltrexone (50 mg) and alcohol on another (counterbalanced). We assessed all subjects for a change in HR and for a subjective and behavioural response from 35 to 170 minutes after drug or alcohol administration. Results The placebo and alcohol mix produced a significant mean HR increase from baseline (F1,95 = 46.01, p < 0.0001, Cohen's d = 0.62), while naltrexone and alcohol did not (nonsignificant). The significant effects of naltrexone on blood alcohol level did not account for the effect of naltrexone on alcohol-induced HR change but did account for alterations in subjective and behavioural response to alcohol. Conclusions Naltrexone appears to substantially reduce the HR increase that is characteristic of alcohol intoxication. This finding appears to lend moderate support to the notions that, first, naltrexone has differential effects on alcohol reactions and, second, that it specifically blocks the acute psychomotor stimulant properties of alcohol. PMID:17136216

  18. Oral Cannabidiol does not Alter the Subjective, Reinforcing or Cardiovascular Effects of Smoked Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Malcolm, Robert J; Babalonis, Shanna; Nuzzo, Paul A; Cooper, Ziva D; Bedi, Gillinder; Gray, Kevin M; McRae-Clark, Aimee; Lofwall, Michelle R; Sparenborg, Steven; Walsh, Sharon L

    2016-07-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a constituent of cannabis with few psychoactive effects, has been reported in some studies to attenuate certain aspects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intoxication. However, most studies have tested only one dose of CBD in combination with one dose of oral THC, making it difficult to assess the nature of this interaction. Further, the effect of oral CBD on smoked cannabis administration is unknown. The objective of this multi-site, randomized, double-blind, within-subject laboratory study was to assess the influence of CBD (0, 200, 400, 800 mg, p.o.) pretreatment on the reinforcing, subjective, cognitive, and physiological effects of smoked cannabis (0.01 (inactive), 5.30-5.80% THC). Non-treatment-seeking, healthy cannabis smokers (n=31; 17M, 14 F) completed eight outpatient sessions. CBD was administered 90 min prior to cannabis administration. The behavioral and cardiovascular effects of cannabis were measured at baseline and repeatedly throughout the session. A subset of participants (n=8) completed an additional session to measure plasma CBD concentrations after administration of the highest CBD dose (800 mg). Under placebo CBD conditions, active cannabis (1) was self-administered by significantly more participants than placebo cannabis and (2) produced significant, time-dependent increases in ratings of 'High', 'Good Effect', ratings of the cannabis cigarette (eg, strength, liking), and heart rate relative to inactive cannabis. CBD, which alone produced no significant psychoactive or cardiovascular effects, did not significantly alter any of these outcomes. Cannabis self-administration, subjective effects, and cannabis ratings did not vary as a function of CBD dose relative to placebo capsules. These findings suggest that oral CBD does not reduce the reinforcing, physiological, or positive subjective effects of smoked cannabis. PMID:26708108

  19. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) (and Asthma)

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  20. The role of hiatus hernia in GERD.

    PubMed Central

    Kahrilas, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    Increased esophageal acid exposure in gastroesophageal reflux disease has several potential causes, some related primarily to physiological dysfunction of the LES and others related to anatomic distortion of the gastroesophageal junction as occurs with hiatus hernia. One attractive feature of implicating hiatal hernias in the pathogenesis of reflux disease is that, like reflux disease, axial hernias become more common with age and obesity. However, the importance of hiatus hernia is obscured by imprecise definition and an all-or-none conceptualization that has led to wide variation in estimates of prevalence among normal or diseased populations. There are at least three potentially significant radiographic features of a hiatus hernia: axial length during distention, axial length at rest, and competence of the diaphragmatic hiatus. Although any or all of these features may be abnormal in a particular instance of hiatus hernia, each is of different functional significance. Grouping all abnormalities of the gastroesophageal junction as "hiatus hernia" without detailing the specifics of each case defies logic. Mechanistically, the gastroesophageal junction must protect against reflux both in static and dynamic conditions. During abrupt increases in intra-abdominal pressure, the crural diaphragm normally serves as a "second sphincter," and this mechanism is substantially impaired in individuals with a gaping hiatus. Large, non-reducing hernias also impair the process of esophageal emptying, thereby prolonging acid clearance time following a reflux event (especially while in the supine posture). These anatomically-determined functional impairments of the gastroesophageal junction lead to increased esophageal acid exposure. Thus, although hiatus hernia may or may not be an initiating factor at the inception of reflux disease, it clearly can act as a sustaining factor accounting for the frequently observed chronicity of the disease. PMID:10780571

  1. Self administered screening for hereditary cancers in conjunction with mammography and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Charles H; Seidenwurm, David J; McDonnell, Diana E; Bobolis, Kristie A

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of an automated tablet computer application providing a family and personal history based cancer risk assessment for hereditary breast, ovarian, endometrial and colorectal cancers. 1,002 women presenting for screening mammography and 1,000 presenting for ultrasound were offered screening. The application calculated the risk of BRCA mutations using BRCAPRO, Myriad and Tyrer-Cuzick risk assessment models. Lifetime risk of breast and ovarian cancer was assessed with the BRCAPRO, Claus and Tyrer-Cuzick models. Colorectal and endometrial cancer risk was calculated via the MMRpro model. Patients were identified as high-risk based on thresholds 10% or greater risk for carrying genetic mutations or 20% or greater lifetime risk of breast or ovarian cancer. The percent of women found to be high-risk by a single risk assessment tool ranged from 0.5 to 5.3%. Combining assessment tools found 9.3% of women to be high-risk. The risk assessments performed similarly for the mammography and ultrasound cohorts with yields (combining assessment tools) of 9.2 and 9.4% respectively. The average ages of all the high-risk women were 45.8 and 39.6 years for the mammography and ultrasound cohorts respectively. Difficulties encountered included a need for software upgrade, wireless network unreliability and hardware theft. Automated family history screening can identify women probably at high-risk for hereditary cancers efficiently. The number of women identified is increased by employing multiple risk assessment models simultaneously. Surveying women in conjunction with ultrasound identified women at increased risk as effectively and at a younger age than with screening mammography. PMID:23584879

  2. Wireless data collection of self-administered surveys using tablet computers.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Kyle W; Lan, Mars; Arnold, Corey; Vahidi, Mani; Arangua, Lisa; Gelberg, Lillian; Bui, Alex A T

    2011-01-01

    The accurate and expeditious collection of survey data by coordinators in the field is critical in the support of research studies. Early methods that used paper documentation have slowly evolved into electronic capture systems. Indeed, tools such as REDCap and others illustrate this transition. However, many current systems are tailored web-browsers running on desktop/laptop computers, requiring keyboard and mouse input. We present a system that utilizes a touch screen interface running on a tablet PC with consideration for portability, limited screen space, wireless connectivity, and potentially inexperienced and low literacy users. The system was developed using C#, ASP.net, and SQL Server by multiple programmers over the course of a year. The system was developed in coordination with UCLA Family Medicine and is currently deployed for the collection of data in a group of Los Angeles area clinics of community health centers for a study on drug addiction and intervention. PMID:22195187

  3. Using a Self-Administered Visual Basic Software Tool To Teach Psychological Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Harold R.; Sullivan, Amie K.; Schoeny, Zahrl G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces LearningLinks, a Visual Basic software tool that allows teachers to create individualized learning modules that use constructivist and behavioral learning principles. Describes field testing of undergraduates at the University of Virginia that tested a module designed to improve understanding of the psychological concepts of…

  4. Behavioral and Neural Substrates of Habit Formation in Rats Intravenously Self-Administering Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Kelly J; Castino, Matthew R; Cornish, Jennifer L; Goodchild, Ann K; Holmes, Nathan M

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco addiction involves a transition from occasional, voluntary smoking towards habitual behavior that becomes increasingly resistant to quitting. The development of smoking habits may reflect a loss of behavioral control that can be modeled in rats. This study investigated the behavioral and neural substrates of habit formation in rats exposed to either brief (10 days) or extended (47 days) intravenous (IV) nicotine self-administration training. Following training, the first cohort of rats were exposed to a nicotine devaluation treatment, which involved repeated pairings of IV nicotine with lithium injection. They were then tested for sensitivity of responding to nicotine devaluation under extinction and reinstatement conditions. The second cohort of rats received equivalent self-administration training followed by processing of brain tissue for c-Fos immunohistochemistry. After brief training, devaluation suppressed nicotine-seeking during tests of extinction and reinstatement, confirming that responding is initially sensitive to current nicotine value, and therefore, goal directed. In contrast, after extended training, devaluation had no effect on extinction or reinstatement of responding, indicating that responding had become habitual. Complementary neuroanalysis revealed that extended nicotine self-administration was associated with increased c-Fos expression in brain regions implicated in habitual control of reward seeking, including activation of the dorsolateral striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta. These findings provide evidence of direct devaluation of an IV drug reward, that nicotine self-administration is initially goal-directed but becomes habitual with extended training, and that this behavioral transition involves activation of brain areas associated with the nigrostriatal system. PMID:24823947

  5. Self-administered behavior modification to reduce nail biting: incorporating simple technology to ensure treatment integrity.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    Habitual behaviors, such as problematic nail biting, are a common target for self-managed behavior-modification programs. The current self-experiment used self-monitoring in conjunction with a self-managed differential-reinforcement procedure for the treatment of problematic nail biting. A simple picture-comparison procedure allowed an independent observer to assist in monitoring treatment progress and outcomes and to ensure treatment integrity. Results provide support that the overall treatment package was successful in decreasing the occurrence of nail biting. Moreover, the treatment-integrity procedure enabled full-day monitoring to take place with limited requirement of a secondary observer. PMID:22532892

  6. An Atypical Case of Methemoglobinemia due to Self-Administered Benzocaine

    PubMed Central

    Nappe, Thomas M.; Pacelli, Anthony M.; Katz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Acquired methemoglobinemia is an uncommon hemoglobinopathy that results from exposure to oxidizing agents, such as chemicals or medications. Although, as reported in the adult population, it happens most often due to prescribed medication or procedural anesthesia and not due to easily accessed over-the-counter medications, the authors will describe an otherwise healthy male adult with no known medical history and no prescribed medications, who presented to the emergency department reporting generalized weakness, shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, and pale gray skin. In addition, the patient reported that he also had a severe toothache for several days, which he had been self-treating with an over-the-counter oral benzocaine gel. Ultimately, the diagnosis of methemoglobinemia was made by clinical history, physical examination, and the appearance of chocolate-colored blood and arterial blood gas (ABG) with cooximetry. After 2 mg/kg of intravenous methylene blue was administered, the patient had complete resolution of all signs and symptoms. This case illustrates that emergency physicians should be keenly aware of the potential of toxic hemoglobinopathy secondary to over-the-counter, nonprescribed medications. Discussion with patients regarding the dangers of inappropriate use of these medicines is imperative, as such warnings are typically not evident on product labels. PMID:25874137

  7. An Atypical Case of Methemoglobinemia due to Self-Administered Benzocaine.

    PubMed

    Nappe, Thomas M; Pacelli, Anthony M; Katz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Acquired methemoglobinemia is an uncommon hemoglobinopathy that results from exposure to oxidizing agents, such as chemicals or medications. Although, as reported in the adult population, it happens most often due to prescribed medication or procedural anesthesia and not due to easily accessed over-the-counter medications, the authors will describe an otherwise healthy male adult with no known medical history and no prescribed medications, who presented to the emergency department reporting generalized weakness, shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, and pale gray skin. In addition, the patient reported that he also had a severe toothache for several days, which he had been self-treating with an over-the-counter oral benzocaine gel. Ultimately, the diagnosis of methemoglobinemia was made by clinical history, physical examination, and the appearance of chocolate-colored blood and arterial blood gas (ABG) with cooximetry. After 2 mg/kg of intravenous methylene blue was administered, the patient had complete resolution of all signs and symptoms. This case illustrates that emergency physicians should be keenly aware of the potential of toxic hemoglobinopathy secondary to over-the-counter, nonprescribed medications. Discussion with patients regarding the dangers of inappropriate use of these medicines is imperative, as such warnings are typically not evident on product labels. PMID:25874137

  8. The Impact of Schools Self-Administering Substance Abuse Surveys: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Valey, Thomas L.; Hartmann, David; Post, William

    2005-01-01

    The literature suggests that administering drug surveys to public school students is best done by persons outside of the school system (or at least unfamiliar to the students). This is the approach used by the long-time "Monitoring the Future" project. Because of the increased costs that administration by outside research associates requires (both…

  9. An Online Self-Administered Social Skills Training for Young Adults: Results from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehenbauer, Mario; Kothgassner, Oswald D.; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Stetina, Birgit U.

    2013-01-01

    Up to 95% of teens and young adults in western societies are online, and research shows striking evidence that users suffering from social fears use the Internet more frequently. Social phobia (SP) is one of the most common anxiety disorders, characterized by early onset and more frequent histories of childhood and adolescent shyness. SP is often…

  10. Self-administered hyaluronidase-facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy in complicated primary antibody deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Danieli, Maria Giovanna; Pulvirenti, Federica; Rocchi, Valeria; Morariu, Ramona; Quinti, Isabella

    2016-09-01

    Hyaluronidase-facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin (fSCIg) is a new immunoglobulin product for replacement therapy in patients with primary antibody deficiencies (PAD). The pre-administration of recombinant human hyaluronidase associated with 10% immunoglobulin allowed the infusion of larger (up to 600 ml) amounts of immunoglobulin at a single infusion site, enabling patients to receive the necessary treatment in a single monthly dose. Here, we report the effectiveness and the tolerability of fSCIg in patients with severe PAD-related comorbidities: refractory autoimmune thrombocytopenia; systemic granulomatous disease; severe enteropathy, and Type I diabetes. We conclude that fSCIg could be a feasible option to improve the adherence to replacement therapy also by patients with severe PAD. PMID:27485073

  11. Measuring individuals' response quality in self-administered psychological tests: an introduction to Gendre's functional method

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, Marc; Meier, Emanuele; Capel, Roland; Gendre, Francis

    2015-01-01

    The functional method is a new test theory using a new scoring method that assumes complexity in test structure, and thus takes into account every correlation between factors and items. The main specificity of the functional method is to model test scores by multiple regression instead of estimating them by using simplistic sums of points. In order to proceed, the functional method requires the creation of hyperspherical measurement space, in which item responses are expressed by their correlation with orthogonal factors. This method has three main qualities. First, measures are expressed in the absolute metric of correlations; therefore, items, scales and persons are expressed in the same measurement space using the same single metric. Second, factors are systematically orthogonal and without errors, which is optimal in order to predict other outcomes. Such predictions can be performed to estimate how one would answer to other tests, or even to model one's response strategy if it was perfectly coherent. Third, the functional method provides measures of individuals' response validity (i.e., control indices). Herein, we propose a standard procedure in order to identify whether test results are interpretable and to exclude invalid results caused by various response biases based on control indices. PMID:26136693

  12. Evaluation of web-based, self-administered, graphical food frequency questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Kristal, Alan R; Kolar, Ann S; Fisher, James L; Plascak, Jesse J; Stumbo, Phyllis J; Weiss, Rick; Paskett, Electra D

    2014-04-01

    Computer-administered food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) can address limitations inherent in paper questionnaires by allowing very complex skip patterns, portion size estimation based on food pictures, and real-time error checking. We evaluated a web-based FFQ, the Graphical Food Frequency System (GraFFS). Participants completed the GraFFS, six telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls over the next 12 weeks, followed by a second GraFFS. Participants were 40 men and 34 women, aged 18 to 69 years, living in the Columbus, OH, area. Intakes of energy, macronutrients, and 17 micronutrients/food components were estimated from the GraFFS and the mean of all recalls. Bias (second GraFFS minus recalls) was -9%, -5%, +4%, and -4% for energy and percentages of energy from fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively. De-attenuated, energy-adjusted correlations (intermethod reliability) between the recalls and the second GraFFS for fat, carbohydrate, protein, and alcohol were 0.82, 0.79, 0.67, and 0.90, respectively; for micronutrients/food components the median was 0.61 and ranged from 0.40 for zinc to 0.92 for beta carotene. The correlations between the two administrations of the GraFFS (test-retest reliability) for fat, carbohydrate, protein, and alcohol were 0.60, 0.63, 0.73, and 0.87, respectively; among micronutrients/food components the median was 0.67 and ranged from 0.49 for vitamin B-12 to 0.82 for fiber. The measurement characteristics of the GraFFS were at least as good as those reported for most paper FFQs, and its high intermethod reliability suggests that further development of computer-administered FFQs is warranted. PMID:24462267

  13. Diet Measurement in Vietnamese Youth: Concurrent Reliability of a Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, John M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Vietnamese high school students completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and completed daily diet reports for seven weeks. Data from the FFQ were compared to the food reports. The results indicated a few simple FFQ items, particularly for indicator foods such as rice, were reliable for dietary assessment for that population. (SM)

  14. How to engage children in self-administered dietary assessment programmes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effectively assessing children's dietary intake is essential for understanding the complex relationships among dietary behaviors and obesity. Dietary assessment accuracy decreases when children are unable or unmotivated to complete accurate self-reports. Technology-based assessment instruments for c...

  15. Safety and efficacy of self-administered subcutaneous immunoglobulin in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Hans D; Gupta, Sudhir; Kiessling, Peter; Nicolay, Uwe; Berger, Melvin

    2006-05-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) infusions at 3-4 week intervals are currently standard therapy in the United States for patients with primary immune deficiency diseases (PIDD). To evaluate alternative modes of immunoglobulin administration we have designed an open-label study to investigate the efficacy and safety of a subcutaneously administered immunoglobulin preparation (16% IgG) in patients with PIDD. After their final IVIg infusion, 65 patients entered a 3-month, wash-in/wash-out phase, designed to bring patients to steady-state with subcutaneously administered immunoglobulin. This was followed by 12 months of weekly SCIg infusions, at a dose determined in a pharmacokinetic substudy to provide noninferior intravascular exposure. This resulted in a mean weekly dose of 158 mg/kg, calculated to equal 137% of the previous intravenous dose. Two patients (4%) each reported 1 serious bacterial infection (pneumonia), an annual rate of 0.04 per patient-year. There were 4.43 infections of any type per patient-year. Mean trough serum IgG levels increased from 786 to 1040 mg/dL during the study, a mean increase of 39%. The most frequent treatment-related adverse event was infusion-site reaction, reported by 91% of patients; this was predominantly mild or moderate, and the incidence decreased over time. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. We conclude that subcutaneous administration of 16% SCIg is a safe and effective alternative to IVIg for replacement therapy of PIDD. PMID:16783465

  16. Altered cerebellar and prefrontal cortex function in rhesus monkeys that previously self-administered cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Jessica N.; Minhas, Davneet; Lopresti, Brian J.; Price, Julie C.; Bradberry, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Differences in brain function in cocaine users can occur even when frank deficits are not apparent, indicating neuroadaptive consequences of use. Using monkeys to investigate altered metabolic activity following chronic cocaine self-administration allows an assessment of altered function due to cocaine use, without the confound of pre-existing differences or polysubstance use often present in clinical studies. Objectives To evaluate alterations in metabolic function during a working memory task in prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum following one year of chronic cocaine self-administration followed by a 20 month drug-free period. Methods [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose PET imaging was used to evaluate changes in relative regional metabolic activity associated with a delayed match to sample working memory task. Chronic cocaine animals were compared to a control group, and region of interest analyses focused on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and cerebellum. Results Despite no differences in task performance, in the cocaine group, the cerebellum showed greater metabolic activity during the working memory task (relative to the control task) compared to the control group. There was also a trend towards a significant difference between the groups in DLPFC activity (p=0.054), with the cocaine group exhibiting lower DLPFC metabolic activity during the delay task (relative to the control task) than the control group. Conclusion The results support clinical indications of increased cerebellar activity associated with chronic cocaine exposure. Consistent with evidence of functional interactions between cerebellum and prefrontal cortex, these changes may serve to compensate for potential impairments in functionality of DLPFC. PMID:24733237

  17. Test-Retest Reliability of Psychological and Neurobehavioral Tests Self-Administered by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Keith A.; Rohlman, Diane S.; Storzbach, Daniel; Binder, Laurence M.; Anger, W. Kent; Kovera, Craig A.; Davis, Kelly L.; Grossman, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    Administered 12 psychological and 7 neurobehavioral performance tests twice to nonclinical normative samples of 30 adults (computer format only) and 30 adults (computer and conventional administration) with one week between administrations. Results suggest that individual test-retest reliability is not affected when tests are administered as part…

  18. Formative research of a quick list for an automated self-administered 24-Hour dietary recall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls are used to collect high-quality dietary data. Because they require highly trained interviewers, recalls are expensive and impractical for large-scale nutrition research, leading to the use of food frequency questionnaires. We are developing a computer-based, self-ad...

  19. A Self-Administered Parent Training Program Based upon the Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    Parents often respond to challenging behavior exhibited by their children in such a way that unintentionally strengthens it. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a research-based science that has been proven effective in remediating challenging behavior in children. Although many parents could benefit from using strategies from the field of ABA with…

  20. Can Students Run Their Own Interventions?: A Self-Administered Math Fluency Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulac, David M.; Dejong, Kayla; Benson, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Manipulating the ratio of known to unknown items has been shown to improve student on-task behavior and increase the desirability of schoolwork. Although many intervention protocols manipulate ratios of known to unknown items, these frequently require extensive adult cuing. School psychologists recommending such interventions may face resistance…

  1. Deep Ecology and Subjectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Grover

    1988-01-01

    Describes Deep Ecology and criticizes its limitations. Discusses mysticism, the bomb, freedom, subjectivity and power as they are addressed by Deep Ecology. Stresses the need to teach ecological balance. (CW)

  2. Self-disclosure of HIV status: perception of malaysian HIV-positive subjects towards attitude of dental personnel in providing oral care.

    PubMed

    Sujak, S L; Abdul-Kadir, R; Omar, R

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of Malaysian HIV-positive subjects towards the attitude of dental personnel in providing oral care to them. The study design was cross-sectional with the sampling frame comprising of 27 Government Drug Rehabilitation Centres throughout Malaysia. A convenience sample was then taken from 20 centres with the highest enrolment of HIV-positive subjects. A self-administered questionnaire was used to elicit information on the perception of HIV-positive subjects towards the attitude of dental personnel in providing oral care to the patient with HIV-positive. The study sample consisted of 509 HIV-positive individuals with a mean age of 31.3+/-12.9 years old. Of these, only 15.1% attended a dental clinic after confirmation of HIV-positive status. The study demonstrated that 67.5% of the HIV-positive subjects disclosed their status voluntarily to the dentists and majority of the dentists (76.9%) did not show any negative reaction on knowing their HIV positive status. There was also no difference in the attitude of auxiliary staff toward the above disclosure. In conclusion, the study showed that oral health care personnel are more receptive to the HIV-positive subjects receiving dental care and treatment. PMID:16044826

  3. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-10-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4-6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects ('good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1-51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of 'good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. PMID:25881117

  4. Classical subjective expected utility

    PubMed Central

    Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375

  5. Classical subjective expected utility.

    PubMed

    Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi

    2013-04-23

    We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375

  6. Database Subject Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donald T.; Teitelbaum, Henry H.

    1978-01-01

    Broad subject headings which have been assigned to each of the 86 data bases available or announced on the five major on-line search systems--Lockheed, SDC, BRS, NIM, and New York Times Information Bank--are arranged alphabetically followed by the name(s) of the appropriate data base(s). (JPF)

  7. Native Americans: Subject Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanni, Mimmo; Etter, Patricia A.

    This annotated subject guide lists reference material that deals with Native Americans and is available in the Arizona State University Libraries. Entries were published 1933-98, but mostly in the 1980s-90s. The guide is not comprehensive, but rather a selective list of resources useful for researching a topic in a variety of fields. The guide…

  8. Curriculum Costs: Vocational Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, C. E.

    To establish a definition of costs in education, a "concept map" is established to which inevitable questions of inclusion and exclusion can be addressed. A specific case, namely the costs of practical/vocational subjects, is then presented. It also includes a profile of benefits, since with regard to vocational education, much more than with…

  9. Introducing Behavioral Subjectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Steven

    1976-01-01

    A true elaboration of educational goals will include a set of both more and less well-structured aims, corresponding to behavioral objectives and subjectives, which can be tested respectively by direct methods and by less direct methods such as the native speaker or Turing tests. (Author/LS)

  10. Differences between home-visit rehabilitation users and providers in their understanding of the content and subjective effects of rehabilitation practices

    PubMed Central

    Ohura, Tomoko; Tsuyama, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify differences between home-visit rehabilitation users and providers in their understanding of the content and subjective effects of this practice. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were home-visit rehabilitation users and providers. [Methods] Home-visit rehabilitation users and providers were given self-administered questionnaires regarding home-visit rehabilitation, such as the content and subjective effects. The McNemar’s test was used for statistical analysis. [Results] Responses of 34 pairs meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed. Mean user age was 75.2 ± 9.2 years, and 58.8% (20/34) of respondents were female. In terms of home-visit rehabilitation content, users believed that the following 3 items had been “implemented” to a greater extent than that estimated by providers: paralysis improvement exercise, floor sitting and standing, and self-care activities. No significant differences in awareness were identified between users and providers regarding the maintenance/improvement effects of home-visit rehabilitation. [Conclusion] Users tend to consider that programs aimed at relieving symptoms and pain and improving mobility are being implemented to a greater extent than that considered by providers. Providers need to explain the aims of home-visit rehabilitation programs in a way that can be understood by users. PMID:26180302

  11. Factors influencing subjects' comprehension of a set of medicine package inserts.

    PubMed

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2016-08-01

    Background Package inserts (PIs) should promote the safe and effective use of medicines. The comprehension of PIs is related to socio-demographic features, such as education. Objectives To evaluate the participants' comprehension of a sample of PIs and to build an explanatory model of subjects' understanding of the content of these documents. Setting The data were collected from municipalities, city halls, firefighters, the military, schools and charities from two Portuguese regions. Methods Cross-sectional descriptive survey: 503 participants, homogeneously distributed by education and gender. The self-administered tool comprised questions on socio-demographic data, literacy tasks and comprehension evaluation of 12 purposively selected PIs. A logistic regression analysis was used. Main outcome measures Scores of numeracy tasks and comprehension. Results The average comprehension score for the PIs was 63 % (±32 %), with 48 % (n = 239) of the participants scoring <75 %. The most important predictors in explaining a comprehension score ≥75 % were having >12 years of education and correctly performing a numeracy task [respectively, OR 49.6 (CI 95 %: 22.8-108) and OR 2.48 (CI 95 %: 1.5-4.2)]. Conclusion An explanatory model of subjects' knowledge about the content of the tested PIs was built. Given that a high level of education and literacy were found to be the most relevant predictors for acceptable comprehension rates, PIs should be clearly written to assure that they are understood by all potential users, including the less educated. The evaluated PIs may thus need to be simplified. PMID:27107582

  12. Similar cardiovascular risk factor profile in screen-detected and known type 2 diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Heldgaard, Poul Erik; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Sidelmann, Johannes J.; Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Siersma, Volkert D.; Gram, Jørgen B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile in subjects with screen-detected type 2 diabetes (SDM) and subjects with known type 2 diabetes (KDM). Design Population-based, cross-sectional survey. Setting and subjects In a single, semi-rural general practice 2082 subjects were between 20 and 69 years. Of those, 1970 subjects were invited, and a total of 1374 (69.7%) subjects were examined by blood tests, anthropometric measures, and self-administered questionnaires. Results Before the survey 19 persons were known to have type 2 diabetes. The screening revealed another 31 individuals with type 2 diabetes, diagnosed according to the 1999 World Health Organization criteria. Age, levels of blood pressure, BMI, and dyslipidaemia, and markers of haemostasis and inflammation were comparable in the two groups. Median age in the KDM group was 58 vs. 57 years in the SDM group, p = 0.82, 79% were male vs. 61%, p = 0.23. In both groups 74% had blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mmHg, p = 1.00. In both groups 90% had BMI ≥ 25, p = 1.00, and about half in both groups had BMI ≥ 30, p = 0.56. In the KDM group 63% had dyslipidaemia (low HDL cholesterol or elevated triglycerides) vs. 80% in the SDM group, p = 0.32. Median levels of plasminogen-activator-inhibitor (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), as well as fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) were without statistically significant differences in the two groups, p > 0.1. In contrast, in markers of glycaemic regulation statistically significant differences were found between groups. Median HbA1 was 8.0 vs. 6.5, p < 0.001. Median fasting whole blood glucose level was 8.8 mmol/L vs. 6.3 mmol/L, p < 0.001, and glucose at two hours during OGTT was 16.9 mmol/L vs. 11.2 mmol/L, p < 0.001. Median fasting serum insulin level was 52 pmol/L vs. 80 pmol/L, p = 0.039 and at two hours 127 pmol/L vs. 479 pmol/L, p < 0.001. Conclusions The CVD risk-factor profile of SDM patients was similar to the expected

  13. Depression in hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V; Parikh, G J; Srinivasan, V

    1983-10-01

    168 patients attending hypertension clinic were randomly selected for the study. They were thoroughly investigated using E.C.G., X-ray chest, Urine analysis, Blood sugar, Blood urea, Serum cholesterol, Serum K, Serum Na, Scrum creatinine and Uric acid level. Detailed psychiatric case history and mental examination was carried out. Beck Rating Scale was used to measure the depression. 25% of hypertensive subjects exhibited depressive features and their mean score in Beck Rating scale is 21.76. The mean score of non-depressives is 4.46. All patients were receiving methyl dopa.25 mg. twice or thrice daily with thiazide diuretic. No significant difference in the incidence of depression with the duration of medication was observed.The hypertension was classified into mild, moderate and severe depending on the diastolic pressure. Depression was more frequent in severe hypertensives but not to the statistically significant level.Further hypertensives were classified into:1. Hypertension without organ involvement2. Hypertension with LVH only3. Hypertension with additional organ involvement4. Malignant hypertensionDepression was significantly more frequent in hypertensives with complications and also hypertensives in whom the B.P. remained uncontrolled. As all the patients were on the same drug, the drug effect is common to all; hence, the higher incidence of depression in hypertensives with complications is due to the limitation and distress caused by the illness. PMID:21847301

  14. Is Piaget's Epistemic Subject Dead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    1991-01-01

    Argues that the Piaget's epistemic subject is not supported by evidence and contains weaknesses. Concludes that the epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive. (PR)

  15. Sneak in Some Core Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Even if students don't have an aversion to core subjects, they may not see the relationship between the core subjects and their career path. In this article, the author outlines a career path project that can be adapted to work in any career and technical education (CTE) class to highlight the relationship between core subjects and the real world.…

  16. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  17. Memory and subjective workload assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.

  18. Subjective and Objective Facial Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Mark A.; Frisina, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have not adequately compared subjective/objective ratings of female dermatology patients including patients presenting for cosmetic procedures. Objective: To examine objective versus subjective facial attractiveness ratings, demographic variables, and how men versus women judge female facial attractiveness. Methods: Sixty-five women (mean 42 years) presenting to a dermatology office. Subjects filled out a demographic and attractiveness questionnaire and were photographed. Four judges (2 male and 2 female) rated the photographs on a predefined 1 to 7 scale. Results: Mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) was 4.85 versus 3.61 for objective rating (judges rating subjects) (p<0.001). The mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 5 to 7 range was 39 years; the mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 3 to 4 range was 45 years (p=0.053). The mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 5 to 7 range was 33 years; the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 3 to 4 range was 43 years (p<0.001); and the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 1 to 2 range was 50 years (p<0.001). The mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) for married women was 4.55 versus 5.27 for unmarried women (p=0.007); the mean objective rating (judges rating subjects) was 3.22 versus 4.15 (p<0.001). The mean objective rating by male judges was 3.09 versus 4.12 for female judges (p<0.001) Conclusion: Female patients presenting to a dermatology office rated themselves more attractive than did judges who viewed photographs of the subjects. Age and marital status were significant factors, and male judges rated attractiveness lower than female judges. Limitations of the study, implications, and suggestions for future research directions are discussed. PMID:21203353

  19. Subjective experience and subjective response to neuroleptics in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A; Arduini, L; Stratta, P; Pallanti, S

    2000-01-01

    Although several studies have addressed the issue of the relationship between the subjective response to neuroleptics and drug compliance, very little attention has been given to the study of the subjective experience of psychosis and drug attitudes. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the relationship between the subjective experience of psychosis as assessed by the Frankfurter Beschwerde-Fragebogen (FBF) and subjective response (SR) to neuroleptics as assessed by the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI) in a group of schizophrenic patients. Significant correlations were found between the total scores on the FBF and DAI (r= .46, P< .01). The DAI total score also correlated with all four factors (central cognitive disturbances, perception and motility, depressivity, and internal and external overstimulation) on the FBF. This finding suggests that the SR neuroleptics is partly explained by a "positive" subjective experience of psychosis. PMID:11086150

  20. Sensory Information and Subjective Contour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brussell, Edward M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The possibility that subjective contours are an artifact of brightness contrast was explored. Concludes that subjective contour and brightness contrast are distinct perceptual phenomena but share a dependency on the processing of edge information transmitted through the achromatic channels of the visual system. (Editor/RK)

  1. Re-Energising Subject Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkin, John

    2012-01-01

    The value of knowledge and the role of subjects in the school curriculum have been widely questioned in recent years, often portrayed as old-fashioned and irrelevant, especially in the face of a fast-changing global economy. This article argues that this is both limited in its view of the potential of knowledge and subjects, and limiting for those…

  2. Agreement with Subjects in Lubukusu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diercks, Michael J. K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines three topics in the morphosyntax of Lubukusu (Bantu, Kenya), all of which are concerned with agreement with subjects: locative inversion, complementizer agreement, and alternative agreement effects in subject extraction. Each topic reports novel Lubukusu data which are both typologically interesting and theoretically…

  3. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  4. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  5. PERSONAL LEADERSHIP PROTECTS RESEARCH SUBJECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Personal leadership promotes the ethical conduct of human research activities. Leadership entails application of one’s cognitive abilities, technical skills, and emotional intelligence during the conduct of research activities, Personal leadership assures human research subject protection....

  6. Application of cognitive interviewing to improve self-administered questionnaires used in small scale social pharmacy research.

    PubMed

    Spark, M Joy; Willis, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Validating questionnaires for social pharmacy research with smaller sample sizes can be unnecessarily time-consuming and costly, a solution to this is cognitive interviewing with 2 interviews per iteration. This paper shows how cognitive interviewing with pairs of interviews per iteration of the questionnaire can be used to identify overt and covert issues with comprehension, retrieval, judgment and response experienced by respondents when attempting to answer a question or navigate around the questionnaire. When used during questionnaire development in small scale social pharmacy research studies cognitive interviewing can reduce both respondent burden and response error and should result in more reliable survey results. The process of cognitive interviewing is illustrated by a case study from the development of the Perspectives on Progesterone questionnaire. PMID:23871225

  7. Neuronal metabolomics by ion mobility mass spectrometry in cocaine self-administering rats after early and late withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing; Chiu, Veronica M; Todd, Ryan P; Sorg, Barbara A; Hill, Herbert H

    2016-06-01

    The neuronal metabolomes in rat striatum (STR), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and nucleus accumbens (NAC) were analyzed by Hadamard transform ion mobility mass spectrometry (HT-IMMS) in order to reveal global and specific metabolic changes induced by cocaine self-administration after 1-day or 3-week withdrawal. Metabolite features were comprehensively separated and detected using HPLC-IMMS within minutes. Global metabolic differences were observed by PCA for comparisons between cocaine and saline treatments at 1-day withdrawal time. Metabolite features that were significantly changed were selected using PCA loadings' plot and unpaired LLL test and then tentatively identified by accurate m/z, yielding a complete profile of metabolic changes induced by cocaine self-administration. The majority of these changes were found at the 1-day withdrawal time, but several of them endured even after 3-week withdrawal from cocaine, and these changes were generally brain region specific. Putatively identified metabolites associated with oxidative stress and energy metabolism were also specifically investigated. We discovered that the dysregulation of creatine/creatinine was different between the STR and NAC, demonstrating that metabolic alterations are brain region specific. Glutathione and adenosine were also changed in their abundance, and the results agreed with previous studies. In general, this study provided a high-throughput analytical platform to perform metabolomics analyses with putative identifications for altered metabolite features induced by cocaine treatment, therefore revealing additional metabolic targets of cocaine-induced changes after early and extended withdrawal times. PMID:27108279

  8. Individual differences in discount rate are associated with demand for self-administered cocaine, but not sucrose.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Woods, James H

    2013-01-01

    Substance abusers, including cocaine abusers, discount delayed rewards to a greater extent than do matched controls. In the current experiment, individual differences in discounting of delayed rewards in rats (choice of one immediate over three delayed sucrose pellets) were assessed for associations with demand for either sucrose pellets or an intravenous dose of 0.1 mg/kg/infusion cocaine. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were split into three groups based on sensitivity to delay to reinforcement. Then, demand for sucrose pellets and cocaine was determined across a range of fixed-ratio values. Delay discounting was then reassessed to determine the stability of this measure over the course of the experiment. Individual differences in impulsive choice were positively associated with elasticity of demand for cocaine, a measure of reinforcer value, indicating that rats having higher discount rates also valued cocaine more. Impulsive choice was not associated with the level of cocaine consumption as price approached 0 or with any parameter associated with demand for sucrose. Individual sensitivity to delay was correlated with the initial assessment when reassessed at the end of the experiment, although impulsive choice increased for this cohort of rats as a whole. These findings suggest that impulsive choice in rats is positively associated with valuation of cocaine, but not sucrose. PMID:21812874

  9. A Computerized, Self-Administered Questionnaire to Evaluate Posttraumatic Stress Among Firefighters After the World Trade Center Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Malachy; McWilliams, Rita; Kelly, Kerry J.; Niles, Justin; Cammarata, Claire; Jones, Kristina; Wartenberg, Daniel; Hallman, William K.; Kipen, Howard M.; Glass, Lara; Schorr, John K.; Feirstein, Ira

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the frequency of psychological symptoms and elevated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk among New York City firefighters after the World Trade Center (WTC) attack and whether these measures were associated with Counseling Services Unit (CSU) use or mental health–related medical leave over the first 2.5 years after the attack. Methods. Shortly after the WTC attack, a computerized, binary-response screening questionnaire was administered. Exposure assessment included WTC arrival time and “loss of a co-worker while working at the collapse.” We determined elevated PTSD risk using thresholds derived from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, and a sensitivity-specificity analysis. Results. Of 8487 participants, 76% reported at least 1 symptom, 1016 (12%) met criteria for elevated PTSD risk, and 2389 (28%) self-referred to the CSU, a 5-fold increase from before the attack. Higher scores were associated with CSU use, functional job impairment, and mental health–related medical leave. Exposure–response gradients were significant for all outcomes. Conclusions. This screening tool effectively identified elevated PTSD risk, higher CSU use, and functional impairment among firefighters and therefore may be useful in allocating scarce postdisaster mental health resources. PMID:19890176

  10. Efficacy of a Self-Administered Home-Based Parent Intervention on Parenting Behaviors for Preventing Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Samuolis, Jessica; Williams, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that parenting practices characterized by careful monitoring, firm and consistent limit setting, and nurturing communication patterns with children are protective against adolescent substance use and other problem behaviors. Family-based prevention programs that promote these behaviors can be an effective way…

  11. Assessing Developmental Trajectories of Sexual Minority Youth: Discrepant Findings from a Life History Calendar and a Self-Administered Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impact myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of…

  12. Investigating Parental Acceptability of the Incredible Years Self-Administered Parent Training Program for Children Presenting Externalizing Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Latoya S.; Carlson, John S.

    2010-01-01

    This study takes an in-depth look at parental acceptability (i.e., the ability to meet parent needs) of an intervention that has shown strong empirical support for treating and preventing childhood conduct disorder. The authors obtained acceptability data from 30 parents of children ages 5 to 12 years presenting externalizing behavior problems…

  13. Therapist-Assisted, Self-Administered Bibliotherapy to Enhance Parental Competence: Short- and Long-Term Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahlweg, Kurt; Heinrichs, Nina; Kuschel, Annett; Feldmann, Marit

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of bibliotherapy has primarily been investigated in anxiety disorders, depression, or substance dependence. The efficacy of self-help books to increase parenting competence was only investigated in a few studies despite their broad dissemination in public. The aims of the study were to investigate the short- and long-term efficacy of…

  14. Catalog Use Studies--Since the Introduction of Online Interactive Catalogs: Impact on Design for Subject Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Pauline A.; Markey, Karen

    1983-01-01

    This review of the transition from library card catalogs to online public access catalogs (OPAC) (1981-1982) discusses methods employed by online catalog use studies (self-administered questionnaires, OPAC transaction logs, focused-group interviews, feature analysis, online search and retrieval experiments) and new directions for OPAC research…

  15. Subjectivity and Severe Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the “art” of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field. PMID:20961994

  16. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  17. Do Subjective Measures Improve the Ability to Identify Limited Health Literacy in a Clinical Setting?

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Melody S.; Griffey, Richard T.; Carpenter, Christopher R.; Blanchard, Melvin; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Existing health literacy assessments developed for research purposes have constraints that limit their utility for clinical practice, including time requirements and administration protocols. The Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS) consists of 3 self-administered Single-Item Literacy Screener (SILS) questions and obviates these clinical barriers. We assessed whether the addition of SILS items or the BHLS to patient demographics readily available in ambulatory clinical settings reaching underserved patients improves the ability to identify limited health literacy. Methods We analyzed data from 2 cross-sectional convenience samples of patients from an urban academic emergency department (n = 425) and a primary care clinic (n = 486) in St. Louis, Missouri. Across samples, health literacy was assessed using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised (REALM-R), Newest Vital Sign (NVS), and the BHLS. Our analytic sample consisted of 911 adult patients, who were primarily female (62%), black (66%), and had at least a high school education (82%); 456 were randomly assigned to the estimation sample and 455 to the validation sample. Results The analysis showed that the best REALM-R estimation model contained age, sex, education, race, and 1 SILS item (difficulty understanding written information). In validation analysis this model had a sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 81%, a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 3.26, and a negative likelihood ratio (LR−) of 0.47; there was a 28% misclassification rate. The best NVS estimation model contained the BHLS, age, sex, education and race; this model had a sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 72%, LR+ of 2.75, LR− of 0.32, and a misclassification rate of 25%. Conclusions Findings suggest that the BHLS and SILS items improve the ability to identify patients with limited health literacy compared with demographic predictors alone. However, despite being easier to administer in clinical settings, subjective

  18. Psychoanalysis and politics: historicising subjectivity.

    PubMed

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  19. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  20. Sexuality: Still a Taboo Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duguay, Lucille

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that we are all bombarded with sexual messages every day, the subject of relationship and sexuality education for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities continues to be a taboo one. Generally speaking, the author has found it is not the parents of those young people who are reluctant to have the discussion,…

  1. On the Subject of Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbrook, David, Ed.

    This book begins by pointing out that although much has been written on how the drama elements of the English curriculum might be taught in schools, not much guidance is available for teachers who regard drama not as an adjunct of English but as an arts subject in its own right. The book (a collection of articles by drama experts) shows how the…

  2. Involvement in Subject Learning Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bujold, Neree; Saint-Pierre, Henri; Bhushan, Vidya

    1997-01-01

    The Involvement in Subject Learning Scale (ISLS) was developed and validated as an educational outcome measure to be used in assessing higher education quality. The origins and development of the scale, its factor analysis, potential applications, limitations, and pilot use in France and Quebec (Canada) are described. The instrument is appended.…

  3. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  4. Subjectivity, Lifeworld, and Work Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithaeuser, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The bases of the article are the results of an empirical study about traditional work places in industry. There were made group discussions and special qualitative interviews with workers and employees of a German factory. The article tries to interpret and to integrate these subjective concepts in the actual discussion of theoretical perspectives…

  5. Teacher Negotiations of Sexual Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferfolja, Tania

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination often silences and marginalizes those who do not conform to the dominant gender and (hetero)sexual discourses that operate in broader society. This discussion addresses the ways that seventeen self-identified lesbian teachers working in New South Wales (NSW) Australia negotiate their sexual subjectivities at work in order to pass or…

  6. Native American Languages: Subject Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce, Comp.

    This document is an eleven-page supplemental subject guide listing reference material that focuses on Native American languages that is not available in the Labriola National American Indian Data Center in the Arizona State University, Tempe (ASU) libraries. The guide is not comprehensive but offers a selective list of resources useful for…

  7. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high school students in a wealthy…

  8. Why Are School Subjects Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to the contemporary debate by supporting school subjects. The article explores the technicist manner in which teachers' work is now configured and highlights ways in which competitive, output-led models and tick-list approaches have reified schools as qualification factories. Arguing for a deeper…

  9. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  10. Experimental subjects are not different.

    PubMed

    Exadaktylos, Filippos; Espín, Antonio M; Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using economic games are becoming a major source for the study of human social behavior. These experiments are usually conducted with university students who voluntarily choose to participate. Across the natural and social sciences, there is some concern about how this "particular" subject pool may systematically produce biased results. Focusing on social preferences, this study employs data from a survey-experiment conducted with a representative sample of a city's population (N = 765). We report behavioral data from five experimental decisions in three canonical games: dictator, ultimatum and trust games. The dataset includes students and non-students as well as volunteers and non-volunteers. We separately examine the effects of being a student and being a volunteer on behavior, which allows a ceteris paribus comparison between self-selected students (students*volunteers) and the representative population. Our results suggest that self-selected students are an appropriate subject pool for the study of social behavior. PMID:23429162

  11. Backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects

    PubMed Central

    Manckoundia, Patrick; Mourey, France; Pérennou, Dominic; Pfitzenmeyer, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Backward disequilibrium is observed frequently in daily clinical practice. However, there are no epidemiological data concerning this postural disorder. Defined by a posterior position of the centre of mass with respect to the base of support, backward disequilibrium is abnormal postural behavior, usually characterized by a posterior trunk tilt in standing and sitting positions, which predisposes subjects to backward falls. Many afflictions whether they are somatic (degenerative, ischemic and traumatic brain lesions), psychosomatic (psychomotor disadaptation syndrome, confinement to bed, nonuse situations) or psychological (depression) can cause backward disequilibrium. A vicious circle of falls, and loss of autonomy can arise and this is the main consequence of backward disequilibrium. Thus, in this paper, we review backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects with regard to the causes, consequences, assessment, and management. PMID:19281059

  12. Experimental subjects are not different

    PubMed Central

    Exadaktylos, Filippos; Espín, Antonio M.; Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using economic games are becoming a major source for the study of human social behavior. These experiments are usually conducted with university students who voluntarily choose to participate. Across the natural and social sciences, there is some concern about how this “particular” subject pool may systematically produce biased results. Focusing on social preferences, this study employs data from a survey-experiment conducted with a representative sample of a city's population (N = 765). We report behavioral data from five experimental decisions in three canonical games: dictator, ultimatum and trust games. The dataset includes students and non-students as well as volunteers and non-volunteers. We separately examine the effects of being a student and being a volunteer on behavior, which allows a ceteris paribus comparison between self-selected students (students*volunteers) and the representative population. Our results suggest that self-selected students are an appropriate subject pool for the study of social behavior. PMID:23429162

  13. [Subjective assessment of olfactory function].

    PubMed

    Evren, Cenk; Yiğit, Volkan Bilge; Çınar, Fikret

    2015-01-01

    Of the five senses, the sense of smell is the most complex and unique in structure and organization. As diagnostic and therapeutic modalities are often underdeveloped, the sense of smell has been inadequately studied. Olfactory disorders may result from benign pathologies such as sinusitis as well as several diseases including Parkinson's disease, temporal lobe epilepsy, schizophrenia and Alzheimer disease. In this article, we aim to instruct the otorhinolaryngology specialists and residents regarding the tests which measure odor subjectively. PMID:25934410

  14. The investigator as volunteer subject.

    PubMed

    Burchell, Howard B

    1982-07-01

    It is particularly within the past three decades that increased attention has been focused on human experimentation, both in regard to the scientific design that ensures the greatest chance of success and to conformity to ethical principles that are most likely to receive public approbation. The story of man's experimentation on man dates back to prehistoric times. In the past two centuries, these investigations have been carried out at an increasing level of sophistication. In this saga, the narratives of the auto-experimenters define a special group of investigators, to many of whom the term "heroic" can be applied. When investigators involve themselves as subjects of their research, a situation of informed consent is often assumed to exist. Discussions concerning voluntarism and ethical propriety have been much less voluminous when the investigators have themselves been subjects that when this is not so. It is within the past half century that physiologists particularly have often been auto-experimenters, and Dr. Earl Wood belongs to the best of this illustrious group. PMID:11650742

  15. [Child's subjectivity in postmodern times].

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio

    2012-08-01

    From mid ´50s onwards, we witness a change of paradigm in the Western world: the expression of a historical shift from modernity to postmodernity. This new era includes a strong influence of the media on the population, a change from a lineal sense of time to a virtual, punctual one, and a flooding of overwhelming amount of information, mostly irrelevant, broadcasted in a de-contextualized, synchronic, fragmented and senseless fashion. This new age is characterized, above all, by the destitution of the State, the meta- institution source of legitimacy of all modern institutions: citizenship, factory, and mainly, School, an essential determinant this last one in the construction process of child subjectivity. Having lost its modeling power, the School loses its modern meaning, becoming thus a mere physical space in which pupils meet, but where general, transcendent rules, norms and values cannot be built, as in fact happened in modern times. According to Corea and Lewkowicz, school becomes an empty shed in which rules have to be built all the time, and become valid only for a particular occasion. These changes necessarily influence child subjectivity, the way they feel, they behave, and they "live" in contemporary society. Pediatricians have to be aware and try to understand these changes, so that we can help children, and, in doing so, to build a better world for them. PMID:22859325

  16. Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER), and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... planning an outreach effort or community event Health Communication Programs Information, tools, and partnership opportunities to improve ... Care Professionals Community Outreach and Health Fairs Health Communication Programs FAQs About NIDDK Meet the Director Offices & ...

  17. Physician practicing preferences for conventional or homeopathic medicines in elderly subjects with musculoskeletal disorders in the EPI3-MSD cohort

    PubMed Central

    Danno, Karine; Joubert, Clementine; Duru, Gerard; Vetel, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain is common in elderly persons. Analgesic use is high in the elderly and may involve unacceptable risk in individuals with chronic pain. Our aim was to compare the socio-demographic characteristics of elderly subjects with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and to assess medication use and clinical evolution of musculoskeletal pain according to physician prescribing preference: homeopathy (Ho) group, conventional medicine (CM) group, or mixed prescription (MX) group. Methods The EPI3 study was a 1 year observational survey carried out among general practitioners in France between March 2007 and July 2008. This sub-analysis was carried out on elderly subjects aged ≥70 years from the original EPI3 cohort. Socio-demographic data were collected at inclusion using a self-administered patient questionnaire and medical data were recorded for each patient. Quality of life was measured using the Short Form-12 questionnaire. Patients completed a structured telephone interview on their functional status (evaluated with the QuickDash questionnaire, EIFEL scale or Lequesne index) within 72 hours of inclusion. This telephone interview was repeated at 1, 3, and 12 months. Drug exposure was also assessed during these interviews. Results 146 patients (mean age ± standard deviation: 75.8±4.8 years) were analyzed (80.1% female, 74.7% MSD of the spine or lower limbs, 64.4% chronic MSD). Patients in the CM and MX groups were 3.7 times or 2.5 times more likely (odds ratio [OR] =3.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–12.30; OR =2.52, 95% CI: 1.05–6.05; respectively) to have used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) than those in the Ho group. In contrast, analgesic use was comparable in the three groups (OR =1.06 [CM versus Ho], 95% CI: 0.09–12.11; OR =0.34 [MX versus Ho], 95% CI: 0.07–1.57). Overall functional score evolution was similar in the three groups over time (P=0.16). Conclusion NSAID use was significantly higher in elderly MSD

  18. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  19. Subjectivity NOT Statement and NOT APA!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihelkova, Dana

    2013-01-01

    I inspect in a brief theoretical-philosophical essay the roots of subjectivity and suggest many possible directions for examining the phenomenon of subjectivity so that multiple different meanings can be revealed. For instance, a researcher can explore her or his own subjectivity or he/she can attempt to define subjectivity per se or the…

  20. [On the subject of tradition].

    PubMed

    Zuurmont, I

    1996-04-01

    HIV/STD prevention programs can stimulate debate over behavior change at the community level. In 1993, Yayasan Haumeni, a local nongovernmental organization (NGO) in Timor, southeastern Asia, launched an HIV/STD prevention program when voluntary health agents announced an increased level of STDs in the community. The NGO first conducted a study in 12 villages to identify the main modes of HIV transmission. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and group discussions with traditional healers, religious leaders, and youth. A ritual linked to puberty was found to be a practice potentially fostering the transmission of HIV/STDs in the community. Once circumcised by traditional practitioners, pubescent boys in the community are expected to have sexual relations with 2-4 different women. Study participants also discussed the subjects of multiple sex partners, abortion, adolescent pregnancy, family planning, and the exodus of young people. Study results were presented to district decision-makers, who decided to implement an education program on HIV and STDs designed to foment debate upon the circumcision ritual, the sex roles of men and women, and perceptions of male sexual power. Even though it remains too early to assess sexual behavior changes in the community, some young people and their families have begun to question the traditional circumcision practice and its associated rituals. PMID:12322626

  1. Prisoner subjects and drug testing.

    PubMed

    Lasagna, L

    1977-09-01

    Objections to prison research are based more often on opposition to the evils of prison life than to unethical practices and to the memories of atrocities committed in the name of science in Nazi prison camps during World War II. The National Commission's pronouncements on prison research specifically illustrate this general phenomenon. Having decided that research on prisoners can be performed ethically, and having learned that most prisoner volunteers bitterly resent being deprived of the opportunity to participate in research, the Commission has nevertheless stipulated prison conditions that cannot realistically be met and thus has de facto eliminated such research. The most serious potential loss is the elimination of the unique facility in Lexington, Kentucky--the Addiction Research Center. Predicting the addiction liability of drugs is not likely to be feasible in any nonprison setting, so that the addiction potential of new marketed drugs will be established in the future as it was in the past--by trial-and-error in patients, who will become the unwilling, uninformed research subjects in this area. PMID:892002

  2. [The present situation and subject].

    PubMed

    Mori, Hisazumi; Sakamoto, Kazunori; Tokonami, Norihito; Natsuaki, Toshikatsu; Takashima, Tsuneo; Shigenobu, Mitsunori

    2002-12-01

    Terumo Corporation has been supporting the regional medical network, developing new products for home health care and providing service through the Home-Joint system in the fields of HPN, HEN, and HOT. In the chain of servicing, we are carrying out call center operations that can receive inquiries regarding machine operation and machine trouble from the patients, for 24 hours a day, all year round. Most inquiries are settled then and there, but some cases need further treatment. The principal cases are, Lowness mastery degree of patients or tenders, wants of knowledge of the person in charge of answering inquiries, and coming under the medical treatment. It is indispensable to connect closely with Hospitals, the visiting nurse, and agencies. Today's Subject: Pursuit of simplicity and safety of equipment based on On-Call experience. Thorough, careful confirmation for several days from the start. Standardization of On-call information and sharing with the agency and hospital. Advancement of knowledge for answering inquiries. Making a system to cope with medical facilities. PMID:12536853

  3. Payment expectations for research participation among subjects who tell the truth, subjects who conceal information, and subjects who fabricate information.

    PubMed

    Devine, Eric G; Knapp, Clifford M; Sarid-Segal, Ofra; O'Keefe, Sean M; Wardell, Cale; Baskett, Morgan; Pecchia, Ashley; Ferrell, Katie; Ciraulo, Domenic A

    2015-03-01

    Multiple models guide researchers' payment practices but few studies have assessed subjects' expectations for payment. Payments in excess of subjects' expectations may result in undue inducement, while payments below these expectations may be associated with exploitation. Data on subjects' payment expectations will help inform practices to avoid undue inducement and exploitation. This study examined subjects' expectations for payment for common research procedures and explored the relationship between subjects' honesty and payment expectations. One-hundred subjects who participated in two or more studies in the last year reported the minimum payment they expect for completing study procedures. They were also asked about their use of deception while screening for studies. Subjects expected $20 on average to complete the least risky and least burdensome procedure. Subjects' expectations for payment consistently increased with greater procedure risks. Subjects who denied using deception to enroll in studies refused more procedures than subjects who reported using deception. Among subjects who used deception, the rate of procedure refusal increased with procedure risks, suggesting that these subjects have some risk aversion and may act to protect themselves from undue inducement. Although subjects expect greater payments for more risky procedures, ethical considerations for limiting undue inducement may prevent researchers from meeting subjects' expectations. Subjects who use deceptive practices appear to be more risk-tolerant than subjects who deny using deception; nonetheless, these deceptive subjects also exercise some risk aversion when they refuse higher-risk procedures. These subjects may be able to protect themselves from undue inducement by refusing procedures that exceed their risk tolerance. PMID:25530307

  4. Comparison of Modes of Administration and Response Options in the Assessment of Subjective Health Using the First Question of SF-36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Salome; Severo, Milton; Lopes, Carla

    2012-01-01

    To compare two modes of administration (self-administered; by interviewer) and two response options format (using words; images of "facial-expressions") of the first question of SF-36 (Q1SF-36), and to test its validity. We included 825 participants (20-90 years). Q1SF-36, using words or images, was included in a global questionnaire interview and…

  5. Subjects of Choice and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the discursive practices of neoliberal government through which the subject is constituted as a subject of choice--subjects whose life trajectory is shaped by the imperatives of a labour market in which they will become mobile and flexible workers with multiple careers and jobs. Mobility among these multiple careers…

  6. The Subject and the World: Educational Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straume, Ingerid S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the notion of "the subject" in the context of education as an alternative to more limited concepts such as the student or learner. Drawing on the thought of Cornelius Castoriadis, the subject under consideration is a conscious, self-reflective subject that organizes and modifies itself in relation to a world of…

  7. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  8. Testing subject comprehension of utility questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Dobrez, Deborah G; Calhoun, Elizabeth A

    2004-03-01

    Utility questionnaires are often considered difficult for subjects to understand. Our study reports pilot testing of two subject comprehension tests to determine whether comprehension can be directly measured. Current health utilities were assessed using the standard gamble (SG), time trade-off (TTO), and visual analog scale. Subjects were randomized to one of two tests: (1) Logical consistency was tested by comparing rankings of two health states with an investigator-assigned a priori ranking; (2) Utility responses for two hypothetical respondents were presented; the subject was asked who had the better health. Thirty-one subjects completed the SG and TTO for two health states: being blind and wearing glasses. No subjects had inconsistent rankings. Post hoc analyses found that subjects reporting utilities below the first decile for the state, wearing glasses, had significantly lower current health utility than remaining subjects. Of the thirty subjects who evaluated the hypothetical respondents' utilities, five incorrectly judged the respondent with worse utility to have better health. Those subjects also reported current health utilities significantly lower than the remaining subjects. Our study findings suggest that a minority should be expected to have difficulty completing utility questionnaires. Comprehension checks may improve the reliability of utility data by enhancing training and by identifying subjects who may have misunderstood the utility questions. PMID:15085909

  9. The Transition from Optional to Required Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Proposes that the optional subject phenomenon in early child language arises because children have not yet acquired the morphological elements (primarily modal and tense) necessary to distinguish subject-taking verbs (e.g., finite verbs) from their non-subject-taking counterparts (e.g., infinitives). (Author/CB)

  10. Subject Access Points in Electronic Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjorland, Birger; Nielsen, Lykke Kyllesbech

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of subject access points in databases concentrates on the broader theoretical perspective. Topics include technology-driven stages in the development of subject access points; a taxonomy of subject access points; document titles; abstracts; references and citations; full text; and descriptors, identifiers, classification codes, and…