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Sample records for self-gravitating gaseous discs

  1. A viscosity prescription for a self-gravitating accretion disc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, D. N. C.; Pringle, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    A model for treating the transfer of angular momentum within a gaseous differentially rotating disc subject to gravitational instability is discussed in terms of an effective kinematic viscosity. It is assumed that even when matter in the disc is subject to self-gravitation, the instability does not necessarily lead directly to condensation of parts of the disc into self-gravitating bodies. Conditions under which the present model permits a similarity solution are discussed, and it is shown that the general solution tends to the similarity solution at large times.

  2. Planetesimal formation in self-gravitating discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, P. G.; Rice, W. K. M.; Mamatsashvili, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    We study particle dynamics in local two-dimensional simulations of self-gravitating accretion discs with a simple cooling law. It is well known that the structure which arises in the gaseous component of the disc due to a gravitational instability can have a significant effect on the evolution of dust particles. Previous results using global simulations indicate that spiral density waves are highly efficient at collecting dust particles, creating significant local overdensities which may be able to undergo gravitational collapse. We expand on these findings using a range of cooling times to mimic the conditions at a large range of radii within the disc. Here we use the PENCIL code to solve the 2D local shearing sheet equations for gas on a fixed grid together with the equations of motion for solids coupled to the gas solely through aerodynamic drag force. We find that spiral density waves can create significant enhancements in the surface density of solids, equivalent to 1-10 cm sized particles in a disc following the profiles of Clarke around an ˜1 M⊙ star, causing it to reach concentrations several orders of magnitude larger than the particles mean surface density. We also study the velocity dispersion of the particles, finding that the spiral structure can result in the particle velocities becoming highly ordered, having a narrow velocity dispersion. This implies low relative velocities between particles, which in turn suggest that collisions are typically low energy, lessening the likelihood of grain destruction. Both these findings suggest that the density waves that arise due to gravitational instabilities in the early stages of star formation provide excellent sites for the formation of large, planetesimal-sized objects.

  3. A revised condition for self-gravitational fragmentation of protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, S. Z.; Tsukamoto, Y.; Inutsuka, S.

    2016-06-01

    Fragmentation of protoplanetary discs due to gravitational instabilities is a candidate of a formation mechanism of binary stars, brown dwarfs, and gaseous giant planets. The condition for the fragmentation has been thought that the disc cooling time-scale is comparable to its dynamical time-scale. However, some numerical simulations suggest that the fragmentation does not occur even if the cooling time is small enough, or the fragmentation can occur even when the cooling is inefficient. To reveal a realistic condition for fragmentation of self-gravitating discs, we perform two-dimensional numerical simulations that take into account the effect of the irradiation of the central star and radiation cooling of the disc, and precisely investigate the structure of the spiral arms formed in the protoplanetary discs. We show that the Toomre Q parameter in the spiral arms is an essential parameter for fragmentation. The spiral arms fragment only when Q < 0.6 in the spiral arms. We have further confirmed that this fragmentation condition observed in the numerical simulations can be obtained from the linear stability analysis for the self-gravitating spiral arms. These results indicate that the process of fragmentation of protoplanetary discs is divided into two stages: formation of the spiral arms in the discs; and fragmentation of the spiral arm. Our work reduces the condition for the fragmentation of the protoplanetary discs to the condition of the formation of the spiral arm that satisfies Q < 0.6.

  4. Planetesimal formation in self-gravitating discs - dust trapping by vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, P. G.; Mamatsashvili, G. R.; Rice, W. K. M.

    2015-11-01

    The mechanism through which metre-sized boulders grow to km-sized planetesimals in protoplanetary discs is a subject of active research, since it is critical for planet formation. To avoid spiralling into the protostar due to aerodynamic drag, objects must rapidly grow from cm-sized pebbles, which are tightly coupled to the gas, to large boulders of 1-100 m in diameter. It is already well known that overdensities in the gaseous component of the disc provide potential sites for the collection of solids, and that significant density structures in the gaseous component of the disc (e.g. spiral density waves) can trap solids efficiently enough for the solid component of the disc to undergo further gravitational collapse due to their own self-gravity. In this work, we employ the PENCIL CODE to conduct local shearing sheet simulations of massive self-gravitating protoplanetary discs, to study the effect of anticyclonic transient vortices, or eddies, on the evolution of solids in these discs. We find that these types of structures are extremely efficient at concentrating small and intermediate-sized dust particles with friction times comparable to, or less than, the local orbital period of the disc. This can lead to significant over-densities in the solid component of the disc, with density enhancements comparable to, and even higher, than those within spiral density waves; increasing the rate of gravitational collapse of solids into bound structures.

  5. Numerical requirements for simulations of self-gravitating and non-self-gravitating discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Andrew F.

    2006-12-01

    We define three requirements for accurate simulations that attempt to model circumstellar discs and the formation of collapsed objects (e.g. planets) within them. First, we define a resolution requirement based on the wavelength for neutral stability of self-gravitating waves in the disc, where a Jeans analysis does not apply. For particle-based or grid-based simulations, this criterion takes the form, respectively, of a minimum number of particles per critical (`Toomre') mass or maximum value of a `Toomre number', T = δx/λT, where the wavelength, λT, is the wavelength for neutral stability for waves in discs. The requirements are analogues of the conditions for cloud collapse simulations as discussed in Bate & Burkert and Truelove et al., where the required minimum resolution was shown to be twice the number of neighbours per Jeans mass or four-five times the local Jeans wavelength, λJ, for particle or grid simulations, respectively. We apply our criterion to particle simulations of disc evolution and find that in order to prevent numerically induced fragmentation of the disc, the Toomre mass must be resolved by a minimum of six times the average number of neighbour particles used. We investigate the origin of the apparent discrepancy between the number of particles required by the cloud and disc fragmentation criteria and find that it is due largely to ambiguities in the definition of the Jeans mass, as used by different authors. We reconcile the various definitions, and when an identical definition of the Jeans mass is used, the condition that J <~ 1/4 in the Truelove condition is equivalent to requiring about 10-12 times the average number of neighbour particles per Jeans mass in a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation, reducing the difference between simulations of discs and clouds to about two. While the numbers of particles per critical mass are similar for both the Jeans and Toomre formalisms, the Toomre requirement is more restrictive than

  6. Interlaced dynamics of density waves and vortices in self-gravitating Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamatsashvili, G. R.

    2013-04-01

    Latest developments in the dynamics of density waves and vortices in selfgravitating protoplanetary discs is reviewed. It is well established by now that in discs, vortices are dynamically coupled with density waves due to the disc's differential rotation, or shear. On the other hand, density waves play a central role in the theory of self-gravitating discs and recently revealed their coupling with vortices implies that the latter can also be subject to self-gravity effects, thus taking active part in defining overall dynamics of self-gravitating discs. We describe the specific features of vortex dynamics and evolution in self-gravitating discs with and without driving by baroclinic or Rossby wave instabilities and point out differences between these two case.

  7. Self-gravitational Force Calculation of Infinitesimally Thin Gaseous Disks on Nested Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Hsu; Taam, Ronald E.; Yen, David C. C.

    2016-06-01

    We extend the work of Yen et al. and develop second-order formulae to accommodate a nested grid discretization for the direct self-gravitational force calculation for infinitesimally thin gaseous disks. This approach uses a two-dimensional kernel that is derived for infinitesimally thin disks and is free of artificial boundary conditions. The self-gravitational force calculation is presented in generalized convolution forms for a nested grid configuration. A numerical technique derived from a fast Fourier transform is employed to reduce the computational complexity to be nearly linear. By comparing with analytic potential–density pairs associated with the generalized Maclaurin disks, the extended approach is verified to be of second-order accuracy when using numerical simulations. The proposed method is accurate, computationally fast, and has the potential to be applied to studies of planetary migration and the gaseous morphology of disk galaxies.

  8. Self-similar evolution of self-gravitating viscous accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illenseer, Tobias F.; Duschl, Wolfgang J.

    2015-06-01

    A new one-dimensional, dynamical model is proposed for geometrically thin, self-gravitating viscous accretion discs. The vertically integrated equations are simplified using the slow accretion limit and the monopole approximation with a time-dependent central point mass to account for self-gravity and accretion. It is shown that the system of partial differential equations can be reduced to a single non-linear advection diffusion equation which describes the time evolution of angular velocity. In order to solve the equation, three different turbulent viscosity prescriptions are considered. It is shown that for these parametrizations the differential equation allows for similarity transformations depending only on a single non-dimensional parameter. A detailed analysis of the similarity solutions reveals that this parameter is the initial power-law exponent of the angular velocity distribution at large radii. The radial dependence of the self-similar solutions is in most cases given by broken power laws. At small radii, the rotation law always becomes Keplerian with respect to the current central point mass. In the outer regions, the power-law exponent of the rotation law deviates from the Keplerian value and approaches asymptotically the value determined by the initial condition. It is shown that accretion discs with flatter rotation laws at large radii yield higher accretion rates. The methods are applied to self-gravitating accretion discs in active galactic nuclei. Fully self-gravitating discs are found to evolve faster than nearly Keplerian discs. The implications on supermassive black hole formation and Quasar evolution are discussed.

  9. Limits on the location of planetesimal formation in self-gravitating protostellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, C. J.; Lodato, G.

    2009-09-01

    In this Letter, we show that if planetesimals form in spiral features in self-gravitating discs, as previously suggested by the idealized simulations of Rice et al., then in realistic protostellar discs, this process will be restricted to the outer regions of the disc (i.e. at radii in excess of several tens of au). This restriction relates to the requirement that dust has to be concentrated in spiral features on a time-scale that is less than the (roughly dynamical) lifetime of such features, and that such rapid accumulation requires spiral features whose fractional amplitude is not much less than unity. This in turn requires that the cooling time-scale of the gas is relatively short, which restricts the process to the outer disc. We point out that the efficient conversion of a large fraction of the primordial dust in the disc into planetesimals could rescue this material from the well-known problem of rapid inward migration at an approximate metre-size scale and that in principle the collisional evolution of these objects could help to resupply small dust to the protostellar disc. We also point out the possible implications of this scenario for the location of planetesimal belts inferred in debris discs around main sequence stars, but stress that further dynamical studies are required in order to establish whether the disc retains a memory of the initial site of planetesimal creation.

  10. A modified WKB formulation for linear eigenmodes of a collisionless self-gravitating disc in the epicyclic approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, Mamta; Saini, Tarun Deep

    2016-04-01

    The short-wave asymptotics (WKB) of spiral density waves in self-gravitating stellar discs is well suited for the study of the dynamics of tightly-wound wavepackets. But the textbook WKB theory is not well adapted to the study of the linear eigenmodes in a collisionless self-gravitating disc because of the transcendental nature of the dispersion relation. We present a modified WKB theory of spiral density waves, for collisionless discs in the epicyclic limit, in which the perturbed gravitational potential is related to the perturbed surface density by the Poisson integral in Kalnaj's logarithmic spiral form. An integral equation is obtained for the surface density perturbation, which is seen to also reduce to the standard WKB dispersion relation. Although our formulation is general and applies to all discs, we present our analysis only for nearly Keplerian, low-mass, self-gravitating discs revolving around massive central objects, and derive an integral equation governing the slow precessional modes of such discs. For a prograde disc, the integral kernel turns out be real and symmetric, implying that all slow modes are stable. We apply the slow mode integral equation to two unperturbed disc profiles, the Jalali-Tremaine annular discs, and the Kuzmin disc. We determine eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for both m = 1 and m = 2 slow modes for these profiles and discuss their properties. Our results compare well with those of Jalali-Tremaine.

  11. A modified WKB formulation for linear eigenmodes of a collisionless self-gravitating disc in the epicyclic approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, Mamta; Saini, Tarun Deep

    2016-07-01

    The short-wave asymptotics (WKB) of spiral density waves in self-gravitating stellar discs is well suited for the study of the dynamics of tightly-wound wavepackets. But the textbook WKB theory is not well adapted to the study of the linear eigenmodes in a collisionless self-gravitating disc because of the transcendental nature of the dispersion relation. We present a modified WKB theory of spiral density waves, for collisionless discs in the epicyclic limit, in which the perturbed gravitational potential is related to the perturbed surface density by the Poisson integral in Kalnaj's logarithmic spiral form. An integral equation is obtained for the surface density perturbation, which is seen to also reduce to the standard WKB dispersion relation. Although our formulation is general and applies to all discs, we present our analysis only for nearly Keplerian, low-mass, self-gravitating discs revolving around massive central objects, and derive an integral equation governing the slow precessional modes of such discs. For a prograde disc, the integral kernel turns out be real and symmetric, implying that all slow modes are stable. We apply the slow mode integral equation to two unperturbed disc profiles, the Jalali-Tremaine annular discs, and the Kuzmin disc. We determine eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for both m = 1 and m = 2 slow modes for these profiles and discuss their properties. Our results compare well with those of Jalali-Tremaine.

  12. Evolution of binary black holes in self gravitating discs. Dissecting the torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roedig, C.; Sesana, A.; Dotti, M.; Cuadra, J.; Amaro-Seoane, P.; Haardt, F.

    2012-09-01

    Context. Massive black hole binaries, formed in galaxy mergers, are expected to evolve in dense circumbinary discs. Understanding of the disc-binary coupled dynamics is vital to assess both the final fate of the system and its potentially observable features. Aims: Aimed at understanding the physical roots of the secular evolution of the binary, we study the interplay between gas accretion and gravity torques in changing the binary elements (semi-major axis and eccentricity) and its total angular momentum budget. We pay special attention to the gravity torques, by analysing their physical origin and location within the disc. Methods: We analysed three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of the evolution of initially quasi-circular massive black hole binaries (BHBs) residing in the central hollow (cavity) of massive self-gravitating circumbinary discs. We performed a set of simulations adopting different thermodynamics for the gas within the cavity and for the "numerical size" of the black holes. Results: We show that (i) the BHB eccentricity growth found in our previous work is a general result, independent of the accretion and the adopted thermodynamics; (ii) the semi-major axis decay depends not only on the gravity torques but also on their subtle interplay with the disc-binary angular momentum transfer due to accretion; (iii) the spectral structure of the gravity torques is predominately caused by disc edge overdensities and spiral arms developing in the body of the disc and, in general, does not reflect directly the period of the binary; (iv) the net gravity torque changes sign across the BHB corotation radius (positive inside vs negative outside) We quantify the relative importance of the two, which appear to depend on the thermodynamical properties of the instreaming gas, and which is crucial in assessing the disc-binary angular momentum transfer; (v) the net torque manifests as a purely kinematic (non-resonant) effect as it stems from the

  13. Collision velocity of dust grains in self-gravitating protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Richard A.; Clarke, Cathie J.

    2016-05-01

    We have conducted the first comprehensive numerical investigation of the relative velocity distribution of dust particles in self-gravitating protoplanetary discs with a view to assessing the viability of planetesimal formation via direct collapse in such environments. The viability depends crucially on the large sizes that are preferentially collected in pressure maxima produced by transient spiral features (Stokes numbers, St ˜ 1); growth to these size scales requires that collision velocities remain low enough that grain growth is not reversed by fragmentation. We show that, for a single-sized dust population, velocity driving by the disc's gravitational perturbations is only effective for St > 3, while coupling to the gas velocity dominates otherwise. We develop a criterion for understanding this result in terms of the stopping distance being of the order of the disc scaleheight. Nevertheless, the relative velocities induced by differential radial drift in multi-sized dust populations are too high to allow the growth of silicate dust particles beyond St ˜ 10- 2 or 10-1 (10 cm to m sizes at 30 au), such Stokes numbers being insufficient to allow concentration of solids in spiral features. However, for icy solids (which may survive collisions up to several 10 m s-1), growth to St ˜ 1 (10 m size) may be possible beyond 30 au from the star. Such objects would be concentrated in spiral features and could potentially produce larger icy planetesimals/comets by gravitational collapse. These planetesimals would acquire moderate eccentricities and remain unmodified over the remaining lifetime of the disc.

  14. Collision velocity of dust grains in self-gravitating protoplanetary discs

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Richard A.; Clarke, Cathie J.

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted the first comprehensive numerical investigation of the relative velocity distribution of dust particles in self-gravitating protoplanetary discs with a view to assessing the viability of planetesimal formation via direct collapse in such environments. The viability depends crucially on the large sizes that are preferentially collected in pressure maxima produced by transient spiral features (Stokes numbers, St ∼ 1); growth to these size scales requires that collision velocities remain low enough that grain growth is not reversed by fragmentation. We show that, for a single-sized dust population, velocity driving by the disc's gravitational perturbations is only effective for St > 3, while coupling to the gas velocity dominates otherwise. We develop a criterion for understanding this result in terms of the stopping distance being of the order of the disc scaleheight. Nevertheless, the relative velocities induced by differential radial drift in multi-sized dust populations are too high to allow the growth of silicate dust particles beyond St ∼ 10− 2 or 10−1 (10 cm to m sizes at 30 au), such Stokes numbers being insufficient to allow concentration of solids in spiral features. However, for icy solids (which may survive collisions up to several 10 m s−1), growth to St ∼ 1 (10 m size) may be possible beyond 30 au from the star. Such objects would be concentrated in spiral features and could potentially produce larger icy planetesimals/comets by gravitational collapse. These planetesimals would acquire moderate eccentricities and remain unmodified over the remaining lifetime of the disc. PMID:27346980

  15. Secular diffusion in discrete self-gravitating tepid discs. I. Analytic solution in the tightly wound limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouvry, J. B.; Pichon, C.; Chavanis, P. H.

    2015-09-01

    The secular evolution of an infinitely thin tepid isolated galactic disc made of a finite number of particles is described using the inhomogeneous Balescu-Lenard equation. Assuming that only tightly wound transient spirals are present in the disc, a WKB approximation provides a simple and tractable quadrature for the corresponding drift and diffusion coefficients. It provides insight into the physical processes at work during the secular diffusion of a self-gravitating discrete disc and makes quantitative predictions on the initial variations of the distribution function in action space. When applied to the secular evolution of an isolated stationary self-gravitating Mestel disc, this formalism predicts the initial importance of the corotation resonance in the inner regions of the disc leading to a regime involving radial migration and heating. It predicts in particular the formation of a ridge-like feature in action space, in agreement with simulations, but over-estimates the timescale involved in its appearance. Swing amplification is likely needed to resolve this discrepancy. In astrophysics, the inhomogeneous Balescu-Lenard equation and its WKB limit may also describe the secular diffusion of giant molecular clouds in galactic discs, the secular migration and segregation of planetesimals in proto-planetary discs, or even the long-term evolution of population of stars within the Galactic centre. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Convergence of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of self-gravitating accretion discs: sensitivity to the implementation of radiative cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, W. K. M.; Forgan, D. H.; Armitage, P. J.

    2012-02-01

    Recent simulations of self-gravitating accretion discs, carried out using a three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code by Meru & Bate, have been interpreted as implying that three-dimensional global discs fragment much more easily than would be expected from a two-dimensional local model. Subsequently, global and local two-dimensional models have been shown to display similar fragmentation properties, leaving it unclear whether the three-dimensional results reflect a physical effect or a numerical problem associated with the treatment of cooling or artificial viscosity in SPH. Here, we study how fragmentation of self-gravitating disc flows in SPH depends upon the implementation of cooling. We run disc simulations that compare a simple cooling scheme, in which each particle loses energy based upon its internal energy per unit mass, with a method in which the cooling is derived from a smoothed internal energy density field. For the simple per particle cooling scheme, we find a significant increase in the minimum cooling time-scale for fragmentation with increasing resolution, matching previous results. Switching to smoothed cooling, however, results in lower critical cooling time-scales, and tentative evidence for convergence at the highest spatial resolution tested. We conclude that precision studies of fragmentation using SPH require careful consideration of how cooling (and, probably, artificial viscosity) is implemented, and that the apparent non-convergence of the fragmentation boundary seen in prior simulations is likely a numerical effect. In real discs, where cooling is physically smoothed by radiative transfer effects, the fragmentation boundary is probably displaced from the two-dimensional value by a factor that is only of the order of unity.

  17. On the mechanism of self gravitating Rossby interfacial waves in proto-stellar accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellin-Bergovoy, Ron; Heifetz, Eyal; Umurhan, Orkan M.

    2016-05-01

    The dynamical response of edge waves under the influence of self-gravity is examined in an idealized two-dimensional model of a proto-stellar disc, characterized in steady state as a rotating vertically infinite cylinder of fluid with constant density except for a single density interface at some radius r0. The fluid in basic state is prescribed to rotate with a Keplerian profile $\\Omega_k(r)\\sim r^{-3/2}$ modified by some additional azimuthal sheared flow. A linear analysis shows that there are two azimuthally propagating edge waves, kin to the familiar Rossby waves and surface gravity waves in terrestrial studies, which move opposite to one another with respect to the local basic state rotation rate at the interface. Instability only occurs if the radial pressure gradient is opposite to that of the density jump (unstably stratified) where self-gravity acts as a wave stabilizer irrespective of the stratification of the system. The propagation properties of the waves are discussed in detail in the language of vorticity edge waves. The roles of both Boussinesq and non-Boussinesq effects upon the stability and propagation of these waves with and without the inclusion of self-gravity are then quantified. The dynamics involved with self-gravity non- Boussinesq effect is shown to be a source of vorticity production where there is a jump in the basic state density, in addition, self-gravity also alters the dynamics via the radial main pressure gradient, which is a Boussinesq effect . Further applications of these mechanical insights are presented in the conclusion including the ways in which multiple density jumps or gaps may or may not be stable.

  18. Self-gravitational Force Calculation of Second-order Accuracy for Infinitesimally Thin Gaseous Disks in Polar Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Hsu; Yen, David C. C.; Taam, Ronald E.

    2015-11-01

    Investigating the evolution of disk galaxies and the dynamics of proto-stellar disks can involve the use of both a hydrodynamical and a Poisson solver. These systems are usually approximated as infinitesimally thin disks using two-dimensional Cartesian or polar coordinates. In Cartesian coordinates, the calculations of the hydrodynamics and self-gravitational forces are relatively straightforward for attaining second-order accuracy. However, in polar coordinates, a second-order calculation of self-gravitational forces is required for matching the second-order accuracy of hydrodynamical schemes. We present a direct algorithm for calculating self-gravitational forces with second-order accuracy without artificial boundary conditions. The Poisson integral in polar coordinates is expressed in a convolution form and the corresponding numerical complexity is nearly linear using a fast Fourier transform. Examples with analytic solutions are used to verify that the truncated error of this algorithm is of second order. The kernel integral around the singularity is applied to modify the particle method. The use of a softening length is avoided and the accuracy of the particle method is significantly improved.

  19. Secular diffusion in discrete self-gravitating tepid discs II. Accounting for swing amplification via the matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouvry, J. B.; Pichon, C.; Magorrian, J.; Chavanis, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    The secular evolution of an infinitely thin tepid isolated galactic disc made of a finite number of particles is investigated using the inhomogeneous Balescu-Lenard equation expressed in terms of angle-action variables. The matrix method is implemented numerically in order to model the induced gravitational polarisation. Special care is taken to account for the amplification of potential fluctuations of mutually resonant orbits and the unwinding of the induced swing amplified transients. Quantitative comparisons with N-body simulations yield consistent scalings with the number of particles and with the self-gravity of the disc: the fewer the particles and the colder the disc, the faster the secular evolution. Secular evolution is driven by resonances, but does not depend on the initial phases of the disc. For a Mestel disc with Q ~ 1.5, the polarisation cloud around each star boosts its secular effect by a factor of a thousand or more, accordingly promoting the dynamical relevance of self-induced collisional secular evolution. The position and shape of the induced resonant ridge are found to be in very good agreement with the prediction of the Balescu-Lenard equation, which scales with the square of the susceptibility of the disc. In astrophysics, the inhomogeneous Balescu-Lenard equation may describe the secular diffusion of giant molecular clouds in galactic discs, the secular migration and segregation of planetesimals in proto-planetary discs, or even the long-term evolution of population of stars within the Galactic centre. It could be used as a valuable check of the accuracy of N-body integrators on secular timescales. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgA copy of the linear matrix response code is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/584/A129

  20. Stellar and gaseous disc structures in cosmological galaxy equilibrium models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathaus, Ben; Sternberg, Amiel

    2016-05-01

    We present `radially resolved equilibrium models' for the growth of stellar and gaseous discs in cosmologically accreting massive haloes. Our focus is on objects that evolve to redshifts z ˜ 2. We solve the time-dependent equations that govern the radially dependent star formation rates, inflows and outflows from and to the inter- and circumgalactic medium, and inward radial gas flows within the discs. The stellar and gaseous discs reach equilibrium configurations on dynamical time-scales much shorter than variations in the cosmological dark matter halo growth and baryonic accretions rates. We show analytically that mass and global angular momentum conservation naturally give rise to exponential gas and stellar discs over many radial length-scales. As expected, the gaseous discs are more extended as set by the condition Toomre Q < 1 for star formation. The discs rapidly become baryon dominated. For massive, 5 × 1012 M⊙ haloes at redshift z = 2, we reproduced the typical observed star formation rates of ˜100 M⊙ yr-1, stellar masses ˜9 × 1010 M⊙, gas contents ˜1011 M⊙, half-mass sizes of 4.5 and 5.8 kpc for the stars and gas, and characteristic surface densities of 500 and 400 M⊙ pc-2 for the stars and gas.

  1. On the Global Warping of a Thin Self-gravitating Near-Keplerian Gaseous Disk with Application to the Disk in NGC 4258

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaloizou, John C. B.; Terquem, Caroline; Lin, Doug N. C.

    1998-04-01

    We derive the tilt equation governing the inclination of a thin self-gravitating gaseous disk subject to low-frequency global m = 1 bending perturbations. The disk orbits under the influence of a dominant central mass. However, self-gravity can be important enough that the disk approaches marginal stability to local axisymmetric perturbations (Q ~ 1). The vertical restoring forces due to self-gravity and pressure are evaluated correct to the first order in the aspect ratio H/r. Thus the effects of bending waves are included correct to lowest order in the wave-crossing rate (H/r)Ω, Ω being a characteristic disk rotation frequency. Both free and forced disturbances are considered. The disk response and precession frequency induced by the presence of a binary companion in an orbit with general inclination to the unperturbed disk plane are derived. When the degree of warping and the inclination are small, it is shown that identical results are obtained if, alternatively, perturbation of the disk out of an equilibrium plane coinciding with that of the companion is considered, the time-averaged potential due to the latter being incorporated into the equilibrium potential. The condition for the disk to precess approximately like a rigid body with a small degree of warping is found to be that the density-wave crossing time is significantly shorter than the precession period. We consider the effects of the presence of a viscosity that can be characterized with the standard α parameterization and find that, to the order we work, the precession frequency is unaffected, with any change to the inclination of the slightly warped disk occurring at a slower rate. For α << H/r, effects due to both pressure and self-gravity are important in the response, while for α >> H/r, the response becomes dominated by self-gravity with pressure effects becoming negligible. As an application of these results, we explore the possibility that the recently observed warped disk in the active

  2. Directly observing continuum emission from self-gravitating spiral waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Cassandra; Forgan, Duncan; Rice, Ken; Harries, Tim J.; Klaassen, Pamela D.; Biller, Beth

    2016-05-01

    We use a simple, self-consistent, self-gravitating semi-analytic disc model to conduct an examination of the parameter space in which self-gravitating discs may exist. We then use Monte Carlo radiative transfer to generate synthetic Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) images of these self-gravitating discs to determine the subset of this parameter space in which they generate non-axisymmetric structure that is potentially detectable by ALMA. Recently, several transition discs have been observed to have non-axisymmetric structure that extends out to large radii. It has been suggested that one possible origin of these asymmetries could be spiral density waves induced by disc self-gravity. We use our simple model to see if these discs exist in the region of parameter space where self-gravity could feasibly explain these spiral features. We find that for self-gravity to play a role in these systems typically requires a disc mass around an order of magnitude higher than the observed disc masses for the systems. The spiral amplitudes produced by self-gravity in the local approximation are relatively weak when compared to amplitudes produced by tidal interactions, or spirals launched at Lindblad resonances due to embedded planets in the disc. As such, we ultimately caution against diagnosing spiral features as being due to self-gravity, unless the disc exists in the very narrow region of parameter space where the spiral wave amplitudes are large enough to produce detectable features, but not so large as to cause the disc to fragment.

  3. Protostellar collapse in a self-gravitating sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee; Boss, Alan; Calvet, Nuria; Whitney, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    We present preliminary calculations of protostellar cloud collapse starting from an isothermal, self-gravitating gaseous layer in hydrostatic equilibrium. This gravitationally unstable layer collapses into a flattened or toroidal density distribution, even in the absence of rotation or magnetic fields. We suggest that the flat infalling envelope recently observed in HL Tau by Hayashi et al.is the result of collapse from an initially nonspherical layer. We also speculate that the later evolution of such a flattened, collapsing envelope can produce a structure similar to the 'flared disk' invoked by Kenyon and Hartmann to explain the infrared excesses of many T Tauri stars.

  4. Planetesimals embedded in a gaseous disc vs mean-motion resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrenko, Ondrej; Broz, Miroslav

    2015-11-01

    We study orbital evolution of km-sized planetesimals in a gaseous disc with one or more embedded giant protoplanets. Especially, we focus on the regions intersected by the inner mean-motion resonances with the innermost ("Jovian") protoplanet, e.g. 2:1, 5:2, 8:3, 3:1. The planetesimals orbiting in these regions are subject to combined effects of aerodynamic and resonant perturbations. We aim to numerically investigate two possible outcomes of this interplay. First, stable resonant islands can exist (as in Chrenko et al. 2015) and may slow down or capture planetesimals as they spiral sunward. In such a case, the resonances might serve as natural barriers for the flux of planetesimals and locally accelerate the accumulation of the solid material.Second, the resonances can overcome the damping effects of the gas and pump the eccentricities of the crossing planetesimals (Marzari & Weidenschilling 2002). This process might generate eccentric orbits which lead to increased relative velocities with respect to the nebular gas and crossing of non-resonant (circular) orbits. The environment of the gaseous disc is simulated with the FARGO code (Masset 2000), which is a 2D Eulerian solver of the fluid equations with fast azimuthal advection. We modified the code so it can treat small planetesimals as test particles affected by the respective aerodynamic drag.Acknowledgements: The work of OC and MB has been supported by Charles University in Prague, project GA UK No. 1062214.

  5. Laser Interferometer Space Antenna double black holes: dynamics in gaseous nuclear discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica; Haardt, Francesco

    2006-03-01

    We study the inspiral of double black holes, with masses in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) window of detectability, orbiting inside a massive circumnuclear, rotationally supported gaseous disc. Using high-resolution smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, we follow the black hole dynamics in the early phase when gas-dynamical friction acts on the black holes individually, and continue our simulation until they form a close binary. We find that in the early sinking the black holes lose memory of their initial orbital eccentricity if they corotate with the gaseous disc. As a consequence, the massive black holes bind forming a binary with a low eccentricity, consistent with zero within our numerical resolution limit. The cause of circularization resides in the rotation present in the gaseous background where dynamical friction operates. Circularization may hinder gravitational waves from taking over and leading the binary to coalescence. In the case of counter-rotating orbits, the initial eccentricity (if present) does not decrease, and the black holes may bind forming an eccentric binary. When dynamical friction has subsided, for equal mass black holes and regardless their initial eccentricity, angular momentum loss, driven by the gravitational torque exerted on the binary by surrounding gas, is nevertheless observable down to the smallest scale probed (~=1 pc). In the case of unequal masses, dynamical friction remains efficient down to our resolution limit, and there is no sign of formation of any ellipsoidal gas distribution that may further harden the binary. During inspiral, gravitational capture of gas by the black holes occurs mainly along circular orbits; eccentric orbits imply high relative velocities and weak gravitational focusing. Thus, the active galactic nucleus activity may be excited during the black hole pairing process and double active nuclei may form when circularization is completed, on distance scales of tens of parsecs.

  6. Self-gravitating system made of axions

    SciTech Connect

    Barranco, J.; Bernal, A.

    2011-02-15

    We show that the inclusion of an axionlike effective potential in the construction of a self-gravitating system of scalar fields decreases its compactness when the value of the self-interaction coupling constant is increased. By including the current values for the axion mass m and decay constant f{sub a}, we have computed the mass and the radius for self-gravitating systems made of axion particles. It is found that such objects will have asteroid size masses and radii of a few meters, thus a self-gravitating system made of axions could play the role of scalar mini-MACHOs and mimic a cold dark matter model for the galactic halo.

  7. Evolution of self-gravitating accretion disks in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlosman, Isaac; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of self-gravitating gaseous disks in active galactic nuclei on scales of about 10-1000 pc is investigated. Star formation is a plausible outcome of the Jeans instability operating in a disk which violates the criterion for local stability. Even a low efficiency of star formation would deplete the gaseous disk on a short time scale and create a flat stellar system. These systems can evolve (sphericalize) secularly by means of stellar encounters but this process appears to be too slow to be important. Such flattened stellar systems may be common in the circumnuclear regions of disk galaxies. Conventional viscosities are inefficient in building anew the accretion process even in a cosmological time. Strongly self-gravitating disks are unstable to global nonaxisymmetric modes, which can induce radial inflow of gas in a short dynamical time. The latter effect is studied in a separate paper.

  8. Dynamical evolution of unstable self-gravitating scalar solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Alcubierre, Miguel; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Salgado, Marcelo

    2004-09-15

    Recently, static and spherically symmetric configurations of globally regular self-gravitating scalar solitons were found. These configurations are unstable with respect to radial-linear perturbations. In this paper we study the dynamical evolution of such configurations and show that, depending on the sign of the initial perturbation, the solitons either collapse to a Schwarzschild black hole or else 'explode' into an outward moving domain wall.

  9. VISCOSITY IN PLANETARY RINGS WITH SPINNING SELF-GRAVITATING PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Yuki; Ohtsuki, Keiji; Daisaka, Hiroshi

    2012-05-15

    Using local N-body simulation, we examine viscosity in self-gravitating planetary rings. We investigate the dependence of viscosity on various parameters in detail, including the effects of particle surface friction. In the case of self-gravitating rings with low optical depth, viscosity is determined by particle random velocity. Inclusion of surface friction slightly reduces both random velocity and viscosity when particle random velocity is determined by inelastic collisions, while surface friction slightly increases viscosity when gravitational encounters play a major role in particle velocity evolution, so that viscous heating balances with increased energy dissipation at collisions due to surface friction. We find that including surface friction changes viscosity in dilute rings up to a factor of about two. In the case of self-gravitating dense rings, viscosity is significantly increased due to the effects of gravitational wakes, and we find that varying restitution coefficients also change viscosity in such dense rings by a factor of about two. We confirm that our numerical results for viscosity in dense rings with gravitational wakes can be well approximated by a semianalytic expression that is consistent with a previously obtained formula. However, we find that this formula seems to overestimate viscosity in dense rings far from the central planet, where temporary gravitational aggregates form. We derive semianalytic expressions that reproduce our numerical results well for the entire range of examined parameters.

  10. Trapping effects in a self-gravitating quantum dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayub, M.; Shah, H. A.; Qureshi, M. N. S.

    2011-10-01

    The effects of trapping on the nonlinear properties of dust-acoustic waves in an unmagnitized collisionless self-gravitating plasma were studied by treating the ions to be Maxwellian, the dust to be cold and the electrons to be degenerate. The effect of trapping and the gravitational potential on the nonlinear structures was investigated by employing the Sagdeev potential approach, which shows that the features of solitary wave structures are affected by changes in Mach number as well as ion temperature and other physical parameters of the system. Modulational stability analysis is also presented, and the regions of stability and instability are discussed.

  11. Scaling behavior in a stochastic self-gravitating system.

    PubMed

    Antonov, N V

    2004-04-23

    A system of stochastic differential equations for the velocity and density of classical self-gravitating matter is investigated by means of the field theoretic renormalization group. The existence of two types of large-scale scaling behavior, associated with physically admissible fixed points of the renormalization-group equations, is established. Their regions of stability are identified and the corresponding scaling dimensions are calculated in the one-loop approximation (first order of the epsilon expansion). The velocity and density fields have independent scaling dimensions. Our analysis supports the importance of the rotational (nonpotential) components of the velocity field in the formation of those scaling laws. PMID:15169213

  12. Dynamics of self-gravitating dust clouds in astrophysical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Eliasson, B.; Avinash, K.; Shukla, P. K.

    2008-09-07

    Due to the gravitational force, clouds of dust and gas in the interstellar medium can contract and form stars and planet systems. We here show that if the dust grains are electrically charged then the self-gravitation can be balanced by the ion pressure, and the collapse can be halted. In this case, the dust cloud may form soft dust planets, having the weight of a small moon or satellite, but a radius larger than of our Sun. There exist a critical mass beyond which the dust cloud collapses and forms a solid planet.

  13. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional self-gravitating flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1993-01-01

    The three-dimensional flow of a self-gravitating fluid is numerically simulated using a Fourier pseudospectral method with a logarithmic variable formulation. Two cases with zero total angular momentum are studied in detail, a 323 simulation (Run B). Other than the grid size, the primary difference between the two cases are that Run A modeled atomic hydrogen and had considerably more compressible motion initially than Run B, which modeled molecular hydrogen. The numerical results indicate that gravitational collapse can proceed in a variety of ways. In the Run A, collapse led to an elongated tube-like structure, while in the Run B, collapse led to a flatter, disklike structure.

  14. Jeans self gravitational instability of strongly coupled quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.

    2014-07-15

    The Jeans self-gravitational instability is studied for quantum plasma composed of weakly coupled degenerate electron fluid and non-degenerate strongly coupled ion fluid. The formulation for such system is done on the basis of two fluid theory. The dynamics of weakly coupled degenerate electron fluid is governed by inertialess momentum equation. The quantum forces associated with the quantum diffraction effects and the quantum statistical effects act on the degenerate electron fluid. The strong correlation effects of ion are embedded in generalized viscoelastic momentum equation including the viscoelasticity and shear viscosities of ion fluid. The general dispersion relation is obtained using the normal mode analysis technique for the two regimes of propagation, i.e., hydrodynamic and kinetic regimes. The Jeans condition of self-gravitational instability is also obtained for both regimes, in the hydrodynamic regime it is observed to be affected by the ion plasma oscillations and quantum parameter while in the kinetic regime in addition to ion plasma oscillations and quantum parameter, it is also affected by the ion velocity which is modified by the viscosity generated compressional effects. The Jeans critical wave number and corresponding critical mass are also obtained for strongly coupled quantum plasma for both regimes.

  15. Dark-matter decays and self-gravitating halos

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, Annika H. G.; Moody, Christopher E.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2010-05-15

    We consider models in which a dark-matter particle decays to a slightly less massive daughter particle and a noninteracting massless particle. The decay gives the daughter particle a small velocity kick. Self-gravitating dark-matter halos that have a virial velocity smaller than this velocity kick may be disrupted by these particle decays, while those with larger virial velocities will be heated. We use numerical simulations to follow the detailed evolution of the total mass and density profile of self-gravitating systems composed of particles that undergo such velocity kicks as a function of the kick speed (relative to the virial velocity) and the decay time (relative to the dynamical time). We show how these decays will affect the halo mass-concentration relation and mass function. Using measurements of the halo mass-concentration relation and galaxy-cluster mass function to constrain the lifetime-kick-velocity parameter space for decaying dark matter, we find roughly that the observations rule out the combination of kick velocities greater than 100 km s{sup -1} and decay times less than a few times the age of the Universe.

  16. Self-gravitating strings in 2+1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Menahem, Shahar

    1993-05-01

    We present a family of classical spacetimes in 2+1 dimensions. Such a spacetime is produced by a Nambu-Goto self-gravitating string. Because of the special properties of three-dimensional gravity, the metric is completely described as a Minkowski space with two identified world sheets. In the flat limit, the standard string is recovered. The formalism is developed for an open string with massive end points, but applies to other boundary conditions as well. We consider another limit, where the string tension vanishes in geometrical units but the end masses produce finite deficit angles. In this limit, our open string reduces to the free-masses solution of Gott, which possesses closed timelike curves when the relative motion of the two masses is sufficiently rapid. It is shown that the induced world sheet Liouville mode obeys (-classically)- a sinh- or cosh-Gordon differential equation, which reduces to the Liouville equation in the flat limit. A quadratic-action formulation of this system is presented. The possibility and significance of quantizing the self-gravitating string is discussed.

  17. Dynamics of a self-gravitating neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Paret, D. Manreza; Martínez, A. Pérez; Rey, A. Ulacia; Sussman, Roberto A. E-mail: aurora@icmf.inf.cu E-mail: sussman@nucleares.unam.mx

    2010-03-01

    We examine the dynamics of a self-gravitating magnetized neutron gas as a source of a Bianchi I spacetime described by the Kasner metric. The set of Einstein-Maxwell field equations can be expressed as a dynamical system in a 4-dimensional phase space. Numerical solutions of this system reveal the emergence of a point-like singularity as the final evolution state for a large class of physically motivated initial conditions. Besides the theoretical interest of studying this source in a fully general relativistic context, the resulting idealized model could be helpful in understanding the collapse of local volume elements of a neutron gas in the critical conditions that would prevail in the center of a compact object.

  18. Hedgehog ansatz and its generalization for self-gravitating Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Maeda, Hideki

    2013-04-01

    The hedgehog ansatz for spherically symmetric spacetimes in self-gravitating nonlinear sigma models and Skyrme models is revisited and its generalization for nonspherically symmetric spacetimes is proposed. The key idea behind our construction is that, even if the matter fields depend on the Killing coordinates in a nontrivial way, the corresponding energy-momentum tensor can still be compatible with spacetime symmetries. Our generalized hedgehog ansatz reduces the Skyrme equations to coupled differential equations for two scalar fields together with several constraint equations between them. Some particular field configurations satisfying those constraints are presented in several physically important spacetimes, including stationary and axisymmetric spacetimes. Incidentally, new exact solutions are obtained under the standard hedgehog ansatz, one of which represents a global monopole inside a black hole with the Skyrme effect.

  19. Stability against phase mixing of collisionless self-gravitating matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjorth, Jens

    1994-03-01

    It is suggested how to define a macroscopic steady state of a collisionless self-gravitating system with Newtonian interactions in terms of H-functions. A new condition for stability is formulated as a consequence thereof: Any single-variable distribution function, f = f(Q), which is a stationary point of some entropy-like functional, must have df/dQ less than or equal to 0 to be stable against phase mixing. For the special class of Osipkov-Merritt models, Q = E + L2/2r2a, this is found to agree with results of published numerical experiments. The stability criterion may have important implications for the equilibria of galaxies and dark-matter halos. One consequence is that stable spherical galaxies apparently have an anisotropy radius, ra, greater than approximately 40% of the half-mass radius. This finding is consistent with dissipationless-collapse simulations.

  20. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional self-gravitating flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, J. V.

    1994-01-01

    The three-dimensional flow of a self-gravitating fluid is numerically simulated using a Fourier pseudospectral method with a logarithmic variable formulation. Two cases with zero total angular momentum are studied in detail, a 32(exp 3) simulation (Run A) and a 64(exp 3) simulation (Run B). Other than the grid size, the primary differences between the two cases are that Run A modeled atomic hydrogen and had considerably more compressible motion initially than Run B, which modeled molecular hydrogen. ('Compressible motion' is that part of the velocity which has zero curl, but non-zero divergence). The numerical results indicate that gravitational collapse can proceed in a variety of ways. In Run A, collapse led to an elongated tube-like structure, while in Run B, collapse led to a flatter, disk-like structure.

  1. Self-gravitational instability in magnetized finitely conducting viscoelastic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, R. P.; Chhajlani, R. K.

    2013-04-01

    The linear self-gravitational instability of finitely conducting, magnetized viscoelastic fluid is investigated using the modified generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model. A general dispersion relation is obtained with the help of linearized perturbation equations using the normal mode analysis and it is discussed for longitudinal and transverse modes of propagation. In longitudinal propagation, we find that Alfven mode is uncoupled with the gravitating mode. The Jeans criterion of instability is determined which depends upon shear viscosity and bulk viscosity while it is independent of magnetic field. The viscoelastic effects modify the fundamental Jeans criterion of gravitational instability. In transverse mode of propagation, the Alfven mode couples with the acoustic mode, compressional viscoelastic mode and gravitating mode. The growth rate of Jeans instability is compared in weakly coupled plasma (WCP) and strongly coupled plasma (SCP) which is larger for SCP in both the modes of propagations. The presence of finite electrical resistivity removes the effect of magnetic field in the condition of Jeans instability and expression of critical Jeans wavenumber. It is found that Mach number and shear viscosity has stabilizing while finite electrical resistivity has destabilizing influence on the growth rate of Jeans instability.

  2. The chemical evolution of self-gravitating primordial disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Bovino, Stefano; Latif, Muhammad A.; Ferrara, Andrea; Grassi, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations show the formation of self-gravitating primordial disks during the assembly of the first structures in the Universe, in particular, during the formation of Population III and supermassive stars. Their subsequent evolution is expected to be crucial in determining the mass scale of the first cosmological objects, which depends on the temperature of the gas and dominant cooling mechanism. Here, we derive a one-zone framework to explore the chemical evolution of these disks and show that viscous heating leads to the collisional dissociation of an initially molecular gas. The effect is relevant on scales of 10 AU (1000 AU) for a central mass of 10 M⊙ (104 M⊙) at an accretion rate of 10-1 M⊙ yr-1, and provides a substantial heat input to stabilize the disk. If the gas is initially atomic, it remains atomic during the further evolution and the effect of viscous heating is less significant. The additional thermal support is particularly relevant for the formation of very massive objects, such as the progenitors of the first supermassive black holes. The stabilizing impact of viscous heating thus alleviates the need for strong radiation background as a means of keeping the gas atomic.

  3. Dynamics of an isolated, viscoelastic, self-gravitating body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragazzo, C.; Ruiz, L. S.

    2015-08-01

    This paper is devoted to an alternative model for a rotating, isolated, self-gravitating, viscoelastic body. The initial approach is quite similar to the classical one, present in the works of Dirichlet, Riemann, Chandrasekhar, among others. Our main contribution is to present a simplified model for the motion of an almost spherical body. The Lagrangian function and the dissipation function of the simplified model are: and where is the angular velocity vector, is the quadrupole moment tensor, is the usual moment of inertia tensor with equal to the moment of inertia of the spherical body at rest, is an elastic constant, and is a damping coefficient. The angular momentum transformed to an inertial reference frame is conserved. The constants and must be determined experimentally. We believe this to be the simplest model one can get without loosing the symmetries and the conserved quantities of the original problem. This model can be used as a building block for the study of many-body planetary systems.

  4. Collisional relaxation of two-dimensional self-gravitating systems.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Bruno

    2013-09-01

    Systems with long range interactions present generically the formation of quasistationary long-lived nonequilibrium states. These states relax to Boltzmann equilibrium following a dynamics which is not well understood. In this paper we study this process in two-dimensional inhomogeneous self-gravitating systems. Using the Chandrasekhar-or local-approximation we write a simple approximate kinetic equation for the relaxation process, obtaining a Fokker-Planck equation for the velocity distribution with explicit analytical diffusion coefficients. Performing molecular dynamics simulations and comparing them with the evolution predicted by the Fokker-Planck equation, we observe a good agreement with the model for all the duration of the relaxation, from the formation of the quasistationary state to thermal equilibrium. We observe however an overestimate or underestimate of the relaxation rate of the particles with the slower or larger velocities, respectively. It is due to systematic errors in estimating the velocities of the particles at the moment of the collisions, inherent to the Chandrasekhar approximation when applied to inhomogeneous systems. Theory and simulations give a scaling of the relaxation time proportional to the number of particles in the system. PMID:24125219

  5. Solitary waves in a self-gravitating opposite polarity dust-plasma medium

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, A. A.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2015-10-15

    A more general and realistic dusty plasma model, namely, self-gravitating opposite polarity dust-plasma system (containing inertial positive and negative dust, and inertialess ions and electrons following Maxwellian distribution) is considered. The possibility for the formation of solitary electrostatic and self-gravitational potential structures in such a dust-plasma system is thoroughly examined. The standard reductive perturbation method, which is valid for small but finite amplitude solitary structures, is employed. The parametric regimes for the existence of solitary electrostatic and self-gravitational potential structures, and their basic properties (viz., polarity, amplitude, width, and speed) are found to be significantly modified by the combined effects of positively charged dust component and self-gravitational field. The applications of the present investigation in different space dusty plasma environments and laboratory dusty plasma devices are briefly discussed.

  6. How the presence of a gas giant affects the formation of mean-motion resonances between two low-mass planets in a locally isothermal gaseous disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlewska-Gaca, E.; Szuszkiewicz, E.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the possibility of a migration-induced resonance locking in systems containing three planets, namely an Earth analogue (1 M⊕), a super-Earth (4 M⊕) and a gas giant (one Jupiter mass). The planets have been listed in order of increasing orbital periods. All three bodies are embedded in a locally isothermal gaseous disc and orbit around a solar mass star. We are interested in answering the following questions: will the low-mass planets form the same resonant structures with each other in the vicinity of the gas giant as in the case when the gas giant is absent? More in general, how will the presence of the gas giant affect the evolution of the two low-mass planets? When there is no gas giant in the system, it has been already shown that if the two low-mass planets undergo a convergent differential migration, they will capture each other in a mean-motion resonance. For the choices of disc parameters and planet masses made in this paper, the formation of the 5:4 resonance in the absence of the Jupiter has been observed in a previous investigation and confirmed here. In this work we add a gas giant on the most external orbit of the system in such a way that its differential migration is convergent with the low-mass planets. We show that the result of this set-up is the speeding up of the migration of the super-Earth and, after that, all three planets become locked in a triple mean-motion resonance. However, this resonance is not maintained due to the low-mass planet eccentricity excitation, a fact that leads to close encounters between planets and eventually to the ejection from the internal orbits of one or both low-mass planets. We have observed that the ejected low-mass planets can leave the system, fall into a star or become the external planet relative to the gas giant. In our simulations the latter situation has been observed for the super-Earth. It follows from the results presented here that the presence of a Jupiter-like planet

  7. Star Formation in Self-gravitating Turbulent Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Norman; Chang, Philip

    2015-05-01

    We present a model of star formation in self-gravitating turbulent gas in which the turbulent velocity, vT, is a dynamical variable and is adiabatically heated by the collapse. The theory predicts the run of density, infall, and turbulent velocity and the rate of star formation in compact massive clouds. The adiabatic heating ensures that the turbulent pressure is dynamically important at all radii. The system evolves toward a coherent spatial structure with a fixed run of density, ρ ≤ft( r,t \\right)\\to ρ ≤ft( r \\right); mass flows through this structure onto the central star or star cluster. We define the sphere of influence of the accreted matter by {{m}*}={{M}g}≤ft( {{r}*} \\right), where m* is the stellar plus disk mass in the nascent star cluster and Mg(r) is the gas mass inside radius r. Both vT and the infall velocity, |{{u}r}|, decrease with decreasing r for r\\gt {{r}*}; {{v}T}≤ft( r \\right)˜ {{r}p}, the size-line-width relation, with p≈ 0.2-0.3, explaining the observation that Larson’s Law is altered in massive star-forming regions. The infall velocity is generally smaller than the turbulent velocity at r\\gt {{r}*}. For r\\lt {{r}*}, the infall and turbulent velocities are again similar, and both increase with decreasing r as {{r}-1/2}, with a magnitude about half of the free-fall velocity. The accreted (stellar) mass grows superlinearly with time, {{\\dot{M}}*}=φ {{M}cl}{{≤ft( t/{{τ }ff} \\right)}2}, with ϕ a dimensionless number somewhat less than unity, {{M}cl} the clump mass, and {{τ }ff} the free-fall time of the clump. We suggest that small values of p can be used as a tracer of convergent collapsing flows.

  8. Gravitational asymmetries in gaseous disks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junqueira, S.; Combes, F.

    1997-12-01

    The authors report preliminary results of self-gravitating simulations of spiral galaxies modeled by two components, stellar and gaseous disks. One of the objectives of this work is to study asymmetries in the distribution of the gas, features observed for a number of spiral galaxies. The gas disk is simulated by the Beam-Scheme method, where the gas is considered as a fluid. The results suggest that very concentrated galactic disks can be unstable to the one-armed (m = 1) spiral perturbation, which may explain the asymmetric patterns observed in isolated galaxies.

  9. Simulations of the Galactic Centre Stellar Discs In a Warped Disc Origin Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulubay-Siddiki, A.; Bartko, H.

    2012-07-01

    The Galactic Center (GC) hosts a population of young stars some of which seem to form a system of mutually inclined warped discs. While the presence of young stars in the close vicinity of the massive black hole is already problematic, their orbital configuration makes the situation even more puzzling. We present a possible warped disc origin scenario for these stars, which assumes an initially flat accretion disc which develops a warp through Pringle instability, or Bardeen-Petterson Effect. By working out the critical radii and the time scales involved, we argue that disc warping is plausible for GC parameters. We construct time evolution models for such discs considering the discs' self-gravity, and the torques exerted by the surrounding old star cluster. Our simulations suggest that the best agreement for a purely self-gravitating model is obtained for a disc-to-black hole mass ratio of Md/Mbh ~ 0.001.

  10. Bose and Fermi gases in the early Universe with self-gravitational effect

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Yuezhen; Huang Junwu; Ma Boqiang

    2011-03-15

    We study the self-gravitational effect on the equation of state (EoS) of Bose and Fermi gases in thermal equilibrium at the end of reheating, the period after quark-hadron transition and before big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). After introducing new grand canonical partition functions based on the work of Uhlenbeck and Gropper, we notice some interesting features of the newly developed EoSs with distinct behaviors of relativistic and nonrelativistic gases under self-gravity. The usual negligence of the self-gravitational effect when solving the background expansion of the early Universe is justified with numerical results, showing the magnitude of the self-gravitational modification of the state constant to be less than O(10{sup -78}). This helps us to clarify the background thermal evolution of the primordial patch. Such clarification is crucial in testing gravity theories, evaluating inflation models and determining element abundances in BBN.

  11. Universal structure of two- and three-dimensional self-gravitating systems in the quasiequilibrium state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2016-02-01

    We study a universal structure of two- and three-dimensional self-gravitating systems in the quasiequilibrium state. It is shown numerically that the two-dimensional self-gravitating system in the quasiequilibrium state has the same kind of density profile as the three-dimensional one, especially when null virial conditions are fulfilled. It is unveiled why the conditions are necessary for the universal structure by the envelope equation. We develop a phenomenological model to describe this universal structure by using a special Langevin equation with a distinctive random noise to self-gravitating systems. We find that the density profile derived theoretically is very consistent with results of observations and simulations.

  12. Bose and Fermi gases in the early Universe with self-gravitational effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yuezhen; Huang, Junwu; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2011-03-01

    We study the self-gravitational effect on the equation of state (EoS) of Bose and Fermi gases in thermal equilibrium at the end of reheating, the period after quark-hadron transition and before big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). After introducing new grand canonical partition functions based on the work of Uhlenbeck and Gropper, we notice some interesting features of the newly developed EoSs with distinct behaviors of relativistic and nonrelativistic gases under self-gravity. The usual negligence of the self-gravitational effect when solving the background expansion of the early Universe is justified with numerical results, showing the magnitude of the self-gravitational modification of the state constant to be less than O(10-78). This helps us to clarify the background thermal evolution of the primordial patch. Such clarification is crucial in testing gravity theories, evaluating inflation models and determining element abundances in BBN.

  13. The Structure and Evolution of Self-Gravitating Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliman, John Herbert, II

    1995-01-01

    We present a theoretical formalism to evaluate the structure of molecular clouds and to determine precollapse conditions in star-forming regions. Models consist of pressure-bounded, self-gravitating spheres of a single -fluid ideal gas. We treat the case without rotation. The analysis is generalized to consider states in hydrostatic equilibrium maintained by multiple pressure components. Individual pressures vary with density as P_i(r) ~ rho^{gamma {rm p},i}(r), where gamma_{rm p},i is the polytropic index. Evolution depends additionally on whether conduction occurs on a dynamical time scale and on the adiabatic index gammai of each component, which is modified to account for the effects of any thermal coupling to the environment of the cloud. Special attention is given to properly representing the major contributors to dynamical support in molecular clouds: the pressures due to static magnetic fields, Alfven waves, and thermal motions. Straightforward adjustments to the model allow us to treat the intrinsically anisotropic support provided by the static fields. We derive structure equations, as well as perturbation equations for performing a linear stability analysis. The analysis provides insight on the nature of dynamical motions due to collapse from an equilibrium state and estimates the mass of condensed objects that form in such a process. After presenting a set of general results, we describe models of star-forming regions that include the major pressure components. We parameterize the extent of ambipolar diffusion. The analysis contributes to the physical understanding of several key results from observations of these regions. Commonly observed quantities are explicitly cross-referenced with model results. We theoretically determine density and linewidth profiles on scales ranging from that of molecular cloud cores to that of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). The model offers an explanation of the mean pressures in GMCs, which are observed to be high relative

  14. Wake potential in a nonuniform self-gravitating dusty magnetoplasma in the presence of ion streaming

    SciTech Connect

    Salimullah, M.; Ehsan, Z.; Zubia, K.; Shah, H. A.; Murtaza, G.

    2007-10-15

    A detailed investigation of the electrostatic asymmetric shielding potential and consequent generation of the dynamical oscillatory wake potential has been examined analytically in an inhomogeneous self-gravitating dusty magnetoplasma in the presence of uniform ion streaming. It is found that the wake potential depends significantly on the test particle speed, ambient magnetic field, ion streaming velocity, and the plasma inhomogeneity. The periodic oscillatory potential might lead to an alternative approach to the Jeans instability for the formation of dust agglomeration leading to gravitational collapse of the self-gravitating systems.

  15. Stability of self-gravitating homogeneous spheroid with azimuthal magnetic field. I

    SciTech Connect

    Antonov, V.A.; Zheleznyak, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of a frozen magnetic field on the stability of a self-gravitating homogeneous spheroid with respect to a deformation that transforms it into a triaxial ellipsoid is investigated. It is shown that an azimuthal magnetic field is a stabilizing factor, allowing the spheroid to be stable at e > e/sub cr/ = 0.95285.

  16. Implication of Tsallis entropy in the Thomas–Fermi model for self-gravitating fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Ourabah, Kamel; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2014-03-15

    The Thomas–Fermi approach for self-gravitating fermions is revisited within the theoretical framework of the q-statistics. Starting from the q-deformation of the Fermi–Dirac distribution function, a generalized Thomas–Fermi equation is derived. It is shown that the Tsallis entropy preserves a scaling property of this equation. The q-statistical approach to Jeans’ instability in a system of self-gravitating fermions is also addressed. The dependence of the Jeans’ wavenumber (or the Jeans length) on the parameter q is traced. It is found that the q-statistics makes the Fermionic system unstable at scales shorter than the standard Jeans length. -- Highlights: •Thomas–Fermi approach for self-gravitating fermions. •A generalized Thomas–Fermi equation is derived. •Nonextensivity preserves a scaling property of this equation. •Nonextensive approach to Jeans’ instability of self-gravitating fermions. •It is found that nonextensivity makes the Fermionic system unstable at shorter scales.

  17. Characteristics of the surface plasma wave in a self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasma slab

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2015-11-15

    The dispersion properties of surface dust ion-acoustic waves in a self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasma slab are investigated. The dispersion relation is derived by using the low-frequency magnetized dusty dielectric function and the surface wave dispersion integral for the slab geometry. We find that the self-gravitating effect suppresses the frequency of surface dust ion-acoustic wave for the symmetric mode in the long wavelength regime, whereas it hardly changes the frequency for the anti-symmetric mode. As the slab thickness and the wave number increase, the surface wave frequency slowly decreases for the symmetric mode but increases significantly for the anti-symmetric mode. The influence of external magnetic field is also investigated in the case of symmetric mode. We find that the strength of the magnetic field enhances the frequency of the symmetric-mode of the surface plasma wave. The increase of magnetic field reduces the self-gravitational effect and thus the self-gravitating collapse may be suppressed and the stability of dusty objects in space is enhanced.

  18. Accretion disk dynamics. α-viscosity in self-similar self-gravitating models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubsch, Marcus; Illenseer, Tobias F.; Duschl, Wolfgang J.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We investigate the suitability of α-viscosity in self-similar models for self-gravitating disks with a focus on active galactic nuclei (AGN) disks. Methods: We use a self-similar approach to simplify the partial differential equations arising from the evolution equation, which are then solved using numerical standard procedures. Results: We find a self-similar solution for the dynamical evolution of self-gravitating α-disks and derive the significant quantities. In the Keplerian part of the disk our model is consistent with standard stationary α-disk theory, and self-consistent throughout the self-gravitating regime. Positive accretion rates throughout the disk demand a high degree of self-gravitation. Combined with the temporal decline of the accretion rate and its low amount, the model prohibits the growth of large central masses. Conclusions: α-viscosity cannot account for the evolution of the whole mass spectrum of super-massive black holes (SMBH) in AGN. However, considering the involved scales it seems suitable for modelling protoplanetary disks.

  19. Ergodicity in a two-dimensional self-gravitating many-body system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestre, C. H.; Rocha Filho, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    We study the ergodic properties of a two-dimensional self-gravitating system using molecular dynamics simulations. We apply three different tests for ergodicity: a direct method comparing the time average of a particle momentum and position to the respective ensemble average, sojourn times statistics and the dynamical functional method. For comparison purposes they are also applied to a short-range interacting system and to the Hamiltonian mean-field model. Our results show that a two-dimensional self-gravitating system takes a very long time to establish ergodicity. If a Kac factor is used in the potential energy, such that the total energy is extensive, then this time is independent of particle number, and diverges with √{ N} without a Kac factor.

  20. Modified Jeans instability in Lorentzian dusty self-gravitating plasmas with Lennard-Jones potential

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Y. Z. Chen, H. Liu, S. Q.

    2014-11-15

    The Jeans instability in self-gravitating plasma with Kappa distributed dust grains is investigated basing on assumption that the mutual interaction among dust grains is governed by Lennard-Jones potential. It is shown that the presence of additional suprathermal particles has significant effects on the range of unstable modes and growth rate of Jeans instability. Compared with Maxwellian scenario, suprathermality stabilized the Jeans instability.

  1. Effective geometry of the n=1 uniformly rotating self-gravitating polytrope

    SciTech Connect

    Bini, D.; Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.; Geralico, A.

    2010-08-15

    The ''effective geometry'' formalism is used to study the perturbations of a perfect barotropic Newtonian self-gravitating rotating and compressible fluid coupled with gravitational backreaction. The case of a uniformly rotating polytrope with index n=1 is investigated, due to its analytical tractability. Special attention is devoted to the geometrical properties of the underlying background acoustic metric, focusing, in particular, on null geodesics as well as on the analog light cone structure.

  2. On the lifetime of metastable states in self-gravitating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, P. H.

    2005-03-01

    We discuss the physical basis of the statistical mechanics of self-gravitating systems. We show the correspondance between statistical mechanics methods based on the evaluation of the density of states and partition function and thermodynamical methods based on the optimization of a thermodynamical potential (entropy or free energy). We address the question of the thermodynamic limit of self-gravitating systems, the justification of the mean-field approximation, the validity of the saddle point approximation near the transition point, the lifetime of metastable states and the fluctuations in isothermal spheres. In particular, we emphasize the tremendously long lifetime of metastable states of self-gravitating systems which increases exponentially with the number of particles N except in the vicinity of the critical point. More specifically, using an adaptation of the Kramers formula justified by a kinetic theory, we show that the lifetime of a metastable state scales as eNΔ s in microcanonical ensemble and eNΔ j in canonical ensemble, where Δ s and Δ j are the barriers of entropy and free energy j=s-β ɛ per particle respectively. The physical caloric curve must take these metastable states (local entropy maxima) into account. As a result, it becomes multi-valued and leads to microcanonical phase transitions and “dinosaur's necks” (Chavanis [CITE], [arXiv:astroph/0205426]; Chavanis & Rieutord [CITE], A&A, 412, 1). The consideration of metastable states answers the critics raised by D.H.E. Gross [cond-mat/0307535/0403582].

  3. Particle linear theory on a self-gravitating perturbed cubic Bravais lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Marcos, B.

    2008-08-15

    Discreteness effects are a source of uncontrolled systematic errors of N-body simulations, which are used to compute the evolution of a self-gravitating fluid. We have already developed the so-called ''particle linear theory''(PLT), which describes the evolution of the position of self-gravitating particles located on a perturbed simple cubic lattice. It is the discrete analogue of the well-known (Lagrangian) linear theory of a self-gravitating fluid. Comparing both theories permits us to quantify precisely discreteness effects in the linear regime. It is useful to develop the PLT also for other perturbed lattices because they represent different discretizations of the same continuous system. In this paper we detail how to implement the PLT for perturbed cubic Bravais lattices (simple, body, and face-centered) in a cubic simulation box. As an application, we will study the discreteness effects--in the linear regime--of N-body simulations for which initial conditions have been set up using these different lattices.

  4. Vertical oscillations of fluid and stellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widrow, Lawrence M.; Bonner, Gage

    2015-06-01

    A satellite galaxy or dark matter subhalo that passes through a stellar disc may excite coherent oscillations in the disc perpendicular to its plane. We determine the properties of these modes for various self-gravitating plane symmetric systems (Spitzer sheets) using the matrix method of Kalnajs. In particular, we find an infinite series of modes for the case of a barotropic fluid. In general, for a collisionless system, there is a double series of modes, which include normal modes and/or Landau-damped oscillations depending on the phase space distribution function of the stars. Even Landau-damped oscillations may decay slowly enough to persist for several hundred Myr. We discuss the implications of these results for the recently discovered vertical perturbations in the kinematics of solar neighbourhood stars and for broader questions surrounding secular phenomena such as spiral structure in disc galaxies.

  5. Dust acoustic double layers in a magnetized dusty self-gravitating plasma with superthermal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabetkar, Akbar; Dorranian, Davoud

    2016-08-01

    Our prime objective of this paper is to examine the parametric regimes for the existence and polarity of dust acoustic double layers (DADLs) and its solitary structures arising from a magnetized self-gravitating opposite polarity dust-plasma (OPDP) model. The constituents of the OPDP model are two species of positively and negatively charged dust grains, Maxwellian electrons and kappa distributed ions. Contributions of gravitational force only on dust grains are taken into account. For weakly nonlinear analysis, the multiple time scale technique has been used to construct the extended Korteweg-de Vries (E-KdV) and modified Korteweg-de Vries (M-KdV) equations. They pinpoint the evolution of DADLs and solitary structures associated with dust acoustic (DA) mode, respectively. The relevant configurational parameters in our study include the superthermality of ions (κ), obliqueness of propagation (θ), ion concentration (δi), static magnetic field B0 (via ω c p , ω c n ), and self-gravitational field (via γ), as well as the density (μ0), charge (α), and mass (β) ratio of positive to negative dust species. The proposed OPDP model permits positive and negative double layer polarities, while higher order nonlinear equation dictates us only positive polarity solitary structures. The main modification due to an increase in self-gravitational field (via γ) is an enhancement in the spatial width of double layers, yet leaving their amplitude, phase speed, and polarity practically unaffected. With enhanced superthermality and other intrinsic parameters in OPDP model, there is an opposite trend in both amplitude and width of double layers, while the amplitude and the width of solitary waves (via M-KdV equation) undergo the identical behaviors. In particular, the amplitude of solitary waves manifests monotonic behavior for permissible range of obliqueness θ, whereas this scenario is acceptable to only width of double layers. The results are discussed in the context of

  6. Global gravito-electrostatic fluctuations in self-gravitating spherical non-uniform charged dust clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, P. K.; Borah, B.

    2016-04-01

    We formulate exact non-local linear analysis for identification and characterization of the global collective gravito-electrostatic eigenmodes, discrete oscillations and associated instabilities in interstellar charged dust molecular cloud (DMC) sphere with mass-radius above the stability critical values on the astrophysical fluid scales of space and time. The realistic relevant zeroth-order effects, hitherto remaining unaccounted for, are concurrently included. It avoids using any kind of the Jeansian swindles against usual viewpoint. Armed with the modified Fourier plane-wave method, the dispersion relations (eigenvalues) and amplitude-variations (eigenfunctions) of the relevant perturbations about the inhomogenous equilibrium are procedurally derived and analyzed together with numerical illustrations. It is seen that the entire cloud supports spectrally heterogeneous mixture of the Jeans ( gravitational) and electrostatic ( acoustic) modes, coupled via quasi-linear discrete oscillations of mixed pattern. The lowest-order non-rigid diffused cloud surface boundary (CSB), sourced by active gravito-electrostatic interplay, is the most unstable interfacial plasma layer. Three distinct and spatio-spectrally isolated classes of global eigenmodes—dispersive, non-dispersive and hybrid types—are keyed together with idiosyncratic prolific features. Dispersive features are prominent in the ultra-high k-regime (acoustic) with modified form due to self-gravitational condensation of the Jeans modes; whereas, non-dispersive characteristics in the ultra-low k-regime (gravitational) dominated by the Jeans waves; where, k = 2π/ λ is the angular wave number of the fluctuations on the Jeans scale. We further demonstrate that the grain-charge (grain-mass) plays destabilizing (stabilizing) influential role for the electrostatic fluctuations, but stabilizing (destabilizing) role for the self-gravitational counterparts. The results can be useful to realize diverse complex global

  7. Thomas-Fermi model for a bulk self-gravitating stellar object in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Sanchari; Chakrabarty, Somenath

    2015-09-01

    In this article we have solved a hypothetical problem related to the stability and gross properties of two-dimensional self-gravitating stellar objects using the Thomas-Fermi model. The formalism presented here is an extension of the standard three-dimensional problem discussed in the book on statistical physics, Part I by Landau and Lifshitz. Further, the formalism presented in this article may be considered a class problem for post-graduate-level students of physics or may be assigned as a part of their dissertation project.

  8. Effects of f(G) gravity on the dynamics of self-gravitating fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Fatima, H. Ismat

    2016-08-01

    We study the dynamics of self-gravitating fluids bounded by spherically symmetric surface in the background of f ( G) gravity. The link between physical and geometrical variables, such as anisotropy, density inhomogeneity, dissipation, the Weyl tensor, expansion scalar, shear tensor and modified (Gauss-Bonnet) curvature terms, is given. We also investigate some particular fluid models according to various dynamical conditions. It is found that our results are consistent with general relativity for constant f ( G) model (regular distribution of dark energy in the universe). Any other choice of the model leads to irregular distribution of dark energy and deviates from general relativity.

  9. Quasistationary solutions of self-gravitating scalar fields around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Montero, Pedro J.; Font, José A.

    2015-02-01

    Recent perturbative studies have shown the existence of long-lived, quasistationary configurations of scalar fields around black holes. In particular, such configurations have been found to survive for cosmological time scales, which is a requirement for viable dark matter halo models in galaxies based on such types of structures. In this paper we perform a series of numerical relativity simulations of dynamical nonrotating black holes surrounded by self-gravitating scalar fields. We solve numerically the coupled system of equations formed by the Einstein and the Klein-Gordon equations under the assumption of spherical symmetry using spherical coordinates. Our results confirm the existence of oscillating, long-lived, self-gravitating scalar field configurations around nonrotating black holes in highly dynamical spacetimes with a rich scalar field environment. Our numerical simulations are long-term stable and allow for the extraction of the resonant frequencies to make a direct comparison with results obtained in the linearized regime. A by-product of our simulations is the existence of a degeneracy in plausible long-lived solutions of Einstein equations that would induce the same motion of test particles, either with or without the existence of quasibound states.

  10. Approximations for the free evolution of self-gravitating quantum particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Großardt, André

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of the center-of-mass wave function for a mesoscopic particle according to the Schrödinger-Newton equation can be approximated by a harmonic potential if the wave function is narrow compared to the size of the mesoscopic particle. It was noticed by Colin et al. [Phys. Rev. A 93, 062102 (2016).], 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.062102 that, in the regime where self-gravitational effects are weak, intermediate and wider wave functions may be approximated by a harmonic potential as well but with a width-dependent coupling, leading to a time evolution that is determined only by a differential equation for the width of a Gaussian wave function as a single parameter. Such an approximation results in considerably less computational effort in order to predict the self-gravitational effects on the wave-function dynamics. Here, we provide an alternative approach to this kind of approximation, including a rigorous derivation of the equations of motion for an initially Gaussian wave packet under the assumption that its shape is conserved. Our result deviates to some degree from the result by Colin et al. [Phys. Rev. A 93, 062102 (2016).], 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.062102, specifically in the limit of wide wave functions.

  11. Shock structures in a strongly coupled self-gravitating opposite-polarity dust plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, A. A.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2016-03-01

    A strongly coupled, self-gravitating, opposite-polarity dust plasma (containing strongly coupled inertial positive and negative dust fluids, and inertialess weakly coupled ions) is considered. The generalized hydrodynamic model and the reductive perturbation method are employed to examine the possibility for the formation of the dust-acoustic (DA) shock structures in such an opposite-polarity dust plasma. It has been shown that the strong correlation among charged dust is a source of dissipation and is responsible for the formation of the DA shock structures in such the opposite-polarity dust plasma medium. The parametric regimes for the existence of the DA shock structures (associated with electrostatic and gravitational potentials) and their basic properties (viz., polarity, amplitude, width, and speed) are found to be significantly modified by the combined effects of positively charged dust component, self-gravitational field, and strong correlation among charged dust. The implications of our results in different space plasma environments and laboratory plasma devices are briefly discussed.

  12. Quasistationary solutions of self-gravitating scalar fields around collapsing stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Montero, Pedro J.; Font, José A.; Mewes, Vassilios

    2015-10-01

    Recent work has shown that scalar fields around black holes can form long-lived, quasistationary configurations surviving for cosmological time scales. Scalar fields thus cannot be discarded as viable candidates for dark matter halo models in galaxies around central supermassive black holes (SMBHs). One hypothesized formation scenario of most SMBHs at high redshift is the gravitational collapse of supermassive stars (SMSs) with masses of ˜105 M⊙ . Any such scalar field configurations must survive the gravitational collapse of a SMS in order to be a viable model of physical reality. To check for the postcollapse survival of these configurations and to follow the dynamics of the black hole-scalar field system we present in this paper the results of a series of numerical relativity simulations of gravitationally collapsing, spherically symmetric stars surrounded by self-gravitating scalar fields. We use an ideal fluid equation of state with adiabatic index Γ =4 /3 which is adequate to simulate radiation-dominated isentropic SMSs. Our results confirm the existence of oscillating, long-lived, self-gravitating scalar field configurations around nonrotating black holes after the collapse of the stars.

  13. Analytic self-gravitating Skyrmions, cosmological bounces and AdS wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Canfora, Fabrizio; Zanelli, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We present a self-gravitating, analytic and globally regular Skyrmion solution of the Einstein-Skyrme system with winding number w = ± 1, in presence of a cosmological constant. The static spacetime metric is the direct product R ×S3 and the Skyrmion is the self-gravitating generalization of the static hedgehog solution of Manton and Ruback with unit topological charge. This solution can be promoted to a dynamical one in which the spacetime is a cosmology of the Bianchi type-IX with time-dependent scale and squashing coefficients. Remarkably, the Skyrme equations are still identically satisfied for all values of these parameters. Thus, the complete set of field equations for the Einstein-Skyrme-Λ system in the topological sector reduces to a pair of coupled, autonomous, nonlinear differential equations for the scale factor and a squashing coefficient. These equations admit analytic bouncing cosmological solutions in which the universe contracts to a minimum non-vanishing size, and then expands. A non-trivial byproduct of this solution is that a minor modification of the construction gives rise to a family of stationary, regular configurations in General Relativity with negative cosmological constant supported by an SU (2) nonlinear sigma model. These solutions represent traversable AdS wormholes with NUT parameter in which the only "exotic matter" required for their construction is a negative cosmological constant.

  14. A computer software system for the generation of global ocean tides including self-gravitation and crustal loading effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer software system is described which computes global numerical solutions of the integro-differential Laplace tidal equations, including dissipation terms and ocean loading and self-gravitation effects, for arbitrary diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents. The integration algorithm features a successive approximation scheme for the integro-differential system, with time stepping forward differences in the time variable and central differences in spatial variables. Solutions for M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1 tidal constituents neglecting the effects of ocean loading and self-gravitation and a converged M2, solution including ocean loading and self-gravitation effects are presented in the form of cotidal and corange maps.

  15. Secular resonant dressed orbital diffusion - I. Method and WKB limit for tepid discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouvry, Jean-Baptiste; Pichon, Christophe; Prunet, Simon

    2015-05-01

    The equation describing the secular diffusion of a self-gravitating collisionless system induced by an exterior perturbation is derived while assuming that the time-scale corresponding to secular evolution is much larger than that corresponding to the natural frequencies of the system. Its two-dimensional formulation for a tepid galactic disc is also derived using the epicyclic approximation. Its Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) limit is found while assuming that only tightly wound transient spirals are sustained by the disc. It yields a simple quadrature for the diffusion coefficients which provides a straightforward understanding of the loci of maximal diffusion within the disc.

  16. On the possibility of a warped disc origin of the inclined stellar discs at the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulubay-Siddiki, A.; Bartko, H.; Gerhard, O.

    2013-01-01

    The central parsec of our Galaxy hosts a population of young stars. At distances of r ˜ 0.03-0.5 pc, most of these stars seem to form a system of mutually inclined discs of clockwise and counterclockwise rotating stars. We present a possible warped disc origin scenario for these stars assuming that an initially flat accretion disc becomes warped due to a central radiation source via the Pringle instability or due to a spinning black hole via the Bardeen-Petterson effect before it cools, fragments and forms stars. From simple arguments, we show that this is plausible if the star formation efficiency is high, ɛSF ≲ 1, and the viscosity parameter α ˜ 0.1. After fragmentation, we model the disc as a collection of concentric, circular rings tilted with respect to each other, and construct time evolution models of warped discs for mass ratios and other parameters relevant to the Galactic Centre environment, but also for more massive discs. We take into account the disc's self-gravity in the non-linear regime and the torques exerted by a slightly flattened surrounding star cluster. Our simulations show that a self-gravitating low-mass disc (Md/Mbh ˜ 0.001) precesses with its integrity maintained in the lifetime of the stars, but precesses essentially freely when the torques from a non-spherical cluster are included. An intermediate-mass disc (Md/Mbh ˜ 0.01) breaks into pieces, which precess as independent discs in the self-gravity-only case, and become disrupted in the presence of the star cluster torques. Finally, for a high-mass disc (Md/Mbh ˜ 0.1), the evolution is dominated by self-gravity and the disc is broken but not dissolved. The time-scale after which the disc breaks into pieces scales almost linearly with Md/Mbh for self-gravitating models. Typical values are longer than the age of the stars for Md/Mbh ˜ 0.001, and are in the range ˜8 × 104-105 yr for Md/Mbh ˜ 0.1-0.01, respectively. None of these discs explains the two Galactic Centre discs with

  17. Self-similar motions of self-gravitating gas in stars

    SciTech Connect

    Bogoyavlenskii, O.I.

    1986-05-10

    In this work the stellar explosion model is studied on the basis of a complete investigation of the three-dimensional dynamic system describing the self-similar solutions in classical gas dynamics with gravitation taken into account by the methods of the qualitative theory of dynamic systems. The problem of the self-similar centripetal accretion of a self-gravitating gas and the problem of the motion of a converging shock wave are also solved on the basis of this investigation. The methods of this work are a further development of the methods used before in the study of uniform cosmological models and self-similar solutions in the general theory of relativity, in the study of the motion of gravitating gas ellipsoids, and in the investigation of the dynamics of perturbations of some completely integrable systems and hydrodynamic systems.

  18. Applicability problem of Jeans criterion to a stationary self-gravitating cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadez, V. M.

    1990-08-01

    The applicability of standard normal mode analysis with the resulting gravitational instability criterion is discussed for some typical configurations. It is shown that the small-perturbation method, generally used in the literature, has to be applied locally only, the reason being that the medium of a self-gravitating cloud cannot be considered homogeneous throughout the whole space. Consequently, there is an upper limit to the geometrical size of a perturbation, defined by the typical inhomogeneity scale length L. On the other hand, according to the Jeans criterion, the gravitational instability sets in for perturbations having their linear dimensions larger than some critical length, L(J), the Jeans length. It is therefore of some importance to estimate the value of the ratio L/L(J) in order to be sure that the local-analysis conclusions are meaningful.

  19. Statistical thermodynamics for a self-gravitating fluid of rotating particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escamilla, L.; Torres-Arenas, J.; Benavides, A. L.

    2013-07-01

    Systems with long-range interactions (those which decay at large distances as r-l, with l >= d, where d is the dimensionality of the considered space), like gravitational or charged ones, present difficulties when treated by conventional statistical mechanics perturbation methods. In this work a self-gravitating fluid of rotating spherical particles is considered. The corresponding inter-particle potential model is a long-ranged one and was obtained from the application of the Newtonian limit to the Kerr metric. This potential has been expressed as a finite sum of hard-core Yukawa potentials. This new potential mimics the original long-ranged one and can be treated with conventional statistical mechanics methods. The first-order mean spherical approximation is applied to this potential to obtain the thermodynamic response functions.

  20. General exact solution for homogeneous time-dependent self-gravitating perfect fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaete, Patricio; Hojman, Roberto

    1990-01-01

    A procedure to obtain the general exact solution of Einstein equations for a self-gravitating spherically symmetric static perfect fluid obeying an arbitrary equation of state is applied to time-dependent Kantowski-Sachs line elements (with spherical, planar, and hyperbolic symmetry). As in the static case, the solution is generated by an arbitrary function of the independent variable and its first derivative. To illustrate the results, the whole family of (plane-symmetric) solutions with a ``gamma-law'' equation of state is explicitly obtained in terms of simple known functions. It is also shown that, while in the static plane-symmetric line element, every metric is in one to one correspondence with a ``partner metric'' (both originated from the same generatrix function); in this case every generatrix function uniquely determines one metric.

  1. General exact solution for homogeneous time-dependent self-gravitating perfect fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaete, Patricio; Hojman, Roberto

    1988-06-01

    A procedure to obtain the general exact solution of Einstein equations for a self-gravitating spherically symmetric static perfect fluid obeying an arbitrary equation of state, is applied to time dependent Kantowsky-Sachs line elements (with spherical, planar and hyperbolic symmetry). As in the static case, the solution is generated by an arbitrary function of the independent variable and its first derivative. To illustrate the results, the whole family of (plane-symmetric) solutions with a gamma-law equation of state is explicity obtained in terms of simple known functions. It is also shown that, while in the static plane-symmetric line elements, every metric is in one to one correspondence with a partner-metric (both originated from the same generatrix function), in this case every generatrix function univocally determines one metric.

  2. On the equilibrium structures of self-gravitating masses of gas containing axisymmetric magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerche, I.; Low, B. C.

    1980-01-01

    The general equations describing the equilibrium shapes of self-gravitating gas clouds containing axisymmetric magnetic fields are presented. The general equations admit of a large class of solutions. It is shown that if one additional (ad hoc) asumption is made that the mass be spherically symmetrically distributed, then the gas pressure and the boundary conditions are sufficiently constraining that the general topological structure of the solution is effectively determined. The further assumption of isothermal conditions for this case demands that all solutions possess force-free axisymmetric magnetic fields. It is also shown how the construction of aspherical (but axisymmetric) configurations can be achieved in some special cases, and it is demonstrated that the detailed form of the possible equilibrium shapes depends upon the arbitrary choice of the functional form of the variation of the gas pressure along the field lines.

  3. On the numerical solution of the cylindrical Poisson equation for isolated self-gravitating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohl, Howard Saul

    This dissertation addresses the need for an accurate and efficient technique which solves the Poisson equation for arbitrarily complex, isolated, self-gravitating fluid systems. Generally speaking, a potential solver is composed of two distinct pieces: a boundary solver and an interior solver. The boundary solver computes the potential, Φ(xB) on a surface which bounds some finite volume of space, V, and contains an isolated mass-density distribution, ρ(x). Given ρ(x) and Φ(xB), the interior solver computes the potential Φ(x) everywhere within V. Herein, we describe the development of a numerical technique which efficiently solves Poisson's equation in cylindrical coordinates on massively parallel computing architectures. First, we report the discovery of a compact cylindrical Green's function (CCGF) expansion and show how the CCGF can be used to efficiently compute the exact numerical representation of Φ(xB). As an analytical representation, the CCGF should prove to be extremely useful wherever one requires the isolated azimuthal modes of a self-gravitating system. We then discuss some mathematical consequences of the CCGF expansion, such as it's applicability to all nine axisymmetric coordinate systems which are R -separable for Laplace's equation. The CCGF expansion, as applied to the spherical coordinate system, leads to a second addition theorem for spherical harmonics. Finally, we present a massively parallel implementation of an interior solver which is based on a data-transpose technique applied to a Fourier-ADI (Alternating Direction Implicit) scheme. The data-transpose technique is a parallelization strategy in which all communication is restricted to global 3D data-transposition operations and all computations are subsequently performed with perfect load balance and zero communication. The potential solver, as implemented here in conjunction with the CCGF expansion, should prove to be an extremely useful tool in a wide variety of astrophysical

  4. Nada: A new code for studying self-gravitating tori around black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Montero, Pedro J.; Font, Jose A.; Shibata, Masaru

    2008-09-15

    We present a new two-dimensional numerical code called Nada designed to solve the full Einstein equations coupled to the general relativistic hydrodynamics equations. The code is mainly intended for studies of self-gravitating accretion disks (or tori) around black holes, although it is also suitable for regular spacetimes. Concerning technical aspects the Einstein equations are formulated and solved in the code using a formulation of the standard 3+1 Arnowitt-Deser-Misner canonical formalism system, the so-called Baumgarte-Shapiro Shibata-Nakamura approach. A key feature of the code is that derivative terms in the spacetime evolution equations are computed using a fourth-order centered finite difference approximation in conjunction with the Cartoon method to impose the axisymmetry condition under Cartesian coordinates (the choice in Nada), and the puncture/moving puncture approach to carry out black hole evolutions. Correspondingly, the general relativistic hydrodynamics equations are written in flux-conservative form and solved with high-resolution, shock-capturing schemes. We perform and discuss a number of tests to assess the accuracy and expected convergence of the code, namely, (single) black hole evolutions, shock tubes, and evolutions of both spherical and rotating relativistic stars in equilibrium, the gravitational collapse of a spherical relativistic star leading to the formation of a black hole. In addition, paving the way for specific applications of the code, we also present results from fully general relativistic numerical simulations of a system formed by a black hole surrounded by a self-gravitating torus in equilibrium.

  5. On the evolution of the Snow Line in Protoplanetary Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rebecca G.; Livio, Mario

    2014-01-01

    We examine the evolution of the snow line in a protoplanetary disc. If the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) drives turbulence throughout the disc, there is a unique snow line outside of which the disc is icy. The snow line moves closer to the star as the infall accretion rate drops. Because the snow line moves inside the radius of the Earth's orbit, the formation of our water-devoid planet is difficult with this model. However, protoplanetary discs are not likely to be sufficiently ionised to be fully turbulent. A dead zone at the mid-plane slows the flow of material through the disc and a global steady state cannot be achieved. We model the evolution of the snow line also in a disc with a dead zone. As the mass is accumulating, the outer parts of the dead zone become self gravitating, heat the massive disc and thus the outer snow line does not come inside the radius of the Earth's orbit. With this model there is sufficient time and mass in the disc for the Earth to form from water-devoid planetesimals at a radius of 1AU. Furthermore, the additional inner icy region within the dead zone predicted by this model may allow for the formation of giant planets close to their host star without the need for much migration.

  6. Stability of rotating self-gravitating filaments: effects of magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadhukhan, Shubhadeep; Mondal, Surajit; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2016-07-01

    We have performed systematic local linear stability analysis on a radially stratified infinite self-gravitating cylinder of rotating plasma under the influence of magnetic field. In order to render the system analytically tractable, we have focused solely on the axisymmetric modes of perturbations. Using cylindrical coordinate system, we have derived the critical linear mass density of a non-rotating filament required for gravitational collapse to ensue in the presence of azimuthal magnetic field. Moreover, for such filaments threaded by axial magnetic field, we show that the growth rates of the modes having non-zero radial wavenumber are reduced more strongly by the magnetic field than that of the modes having zero radial wavenumber. More importantly, our study contributes to the understanding of the stability property of rotating astrophysical filaments that are more often than not influenced by magnetic fields. In addition to complementing many relevant numerical studies reported the literature, our results on filaments under the influence of magnetic field generalize some of the very recent analytical works. For example, here we prove that even a weak magnetic field can play a dominant role in determining stability of the filament when the rotation time-scale is larger than the free-fall time-scale. A filamentary structure with faster rotation is, however, comparatively more stable for the same magnetic field. The results reported herein, due to strong locality assumption, are strictly valid for the modes for which one can ignore the radial variations in the density and the magnetic field profiles.

  7. Binaries and core-ring structures in self-gravitating systems.

    PubMed

    Ispolatov, I

    2005-08-01

    Low-energy states of self-gravitating systems with finite angular momentum are considered. A constraint is introduced to confine cores and other condensed objects within the system boundaries by gravity alone. This excludes previously observed astrophysically irrelevant asymmetric configurations with a single core. We show that, for an intermediate range of a short-distance cutoff and small angular momentum, the equilibrium configuration is an asymmetric binary. For larger angular momentum or for a smaller range of the short-distance cutoff, the equilibrium configuration consists of a central core and an equatorial ring. The mass of the ring varies between zero for vanishing rotation and the full system mass for the maximum angular momentum L(max) a localized gravitationally bound system can have. The value of L(max) scales as square root of ((ln(1/x0)), where x0 is a ratio of a short-distance cutoff range to the system size. An example of the soft gravitational potential is considered; the conclusions are shown to be valid for other forms of short-distance regularization. PMID:16196652

  8. Transition of velocity distributions in collapsing self-gravitating N-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Nobuyoshi; Kiwata, Takahiro; Kimura, Shigeo

    2012-02-01

    By means of N-body simulations, we study the evolution of gravity-dominated systems from an early relaxation to a collapse, focusing on the velocity distributions and thermodynamic properties. To simulate the dynamical evolution, we consider self-gravitating small N-body systems enclosed in a spherical container with adiabatic or semipermeable walls. It is demonstrated that in the early relaxation process, the velocity distribution is non-Gaussian and q-Gaussian, since the system is in quasiequilibrium states (here q is the Tsallis entropic parameter). Thereafter, the velocity distribution undergoes higher non-Gaussian distributions, especially when the core forms rapidly in the collapse process; i.e., q tends to be larger than that for the quasiequilibrium state, since the velocity distribution further deviates from Gaussian. However, after the core forms sufficiently, the velocity distribution gradually relaxes toward a Gaussian-like distribution. Accordingly, the velocity distribution evolves from a non-Gaussian distribution through a higher non-Gaussian distribution to a Gaussian-like distribution; i.e., the velocity distribution does not monotonically relax toward a Gaussian-like distribution in our collapse simulations. We clearly show such a transition of the velocity distribution, based not only on the Tsallis entropic parameter but also on the ratio of velocity moments. We also find that a negative specific heat occurs in a collapse process with mass and energy loss (such as the escape of stars from globular clusters), even if the velocity distribution is Gaussian-like.

  9. On the quasihydrostatic flows of radiatively cooling self-gravitating gas clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Meerson, B.; Megged, E.; Tajima, T.

    1995-03-01

    Two model problems are considered, illustrating the dynamics of quasihydrostatic flows of radiatively cooling, optically thin self-gravitating gas clouds. In the first problem, spherically symmetric flows in an unmagnetized plasma are considered. For a power-law dependence of the radiative loss function on the temperature, a one-parameter family of self-similar solutions is found. The authors concentrate on a constant-mass cloud, one of the cases, when the self-similarity indices are uniquely selected. In this case, the self-similar flow problem can be formally reduced to the classical Lane-Emden equation and therefore solved analytically. The cloud is shown to undergo radiative condensation, if the gas specific heat ratio {gamma} > 4/3. The condensation proceeds either gradually, or in the form of (quasihydrostatic) collapse. For {gamma} < 4/3, the cloud is shown to expand. The second problem addresses a magnetized plasma slab that undergoes quasihydrostatic radiative cooling and condensation. The problem is solved analytically, employing the Lagrangian mass coordinate.

  10. Stable and Unstable Equilibria of Uniformly Rotating Self-Gravitating Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolucci, Daniele

    2012-12-01

    The equilibrium configurations of self-gravitating uniformly rotating isothermal cylinders in contact with a heat bath and their stability is studied by recently derived analytical techniques. The known critical temperature Tc obtained by Katz and Lynden-Bell is found to be a stability threshold with respect to axially symmetric perturbations. We provide the almost explicit expression of negative specific heat solutions whose densities are sharply concentrated either near the symmetry axis or near some off-axis filaments as T-> Tc-. The critical angular frequency observed numerically in literature is found to be the threshold value for the existence of these off-axis filaments. This is in striking contrast with the static case analyzed by Katz and Lynden-Bell where equilibrium configurations are found only if T > Tc and no negative specific heat equilibria exists at all. Metastability of the free energy's relative maximizers for T ≤ Tc is also discussed. Those off-axis configurations were predicted in the study of negative temperature states for guiding-centre plasmas and vortex systems.

  11. QUIPS: Time-dependent properties of quasi-invariant self-gravitating polytropes

    SciTech Connect

    Munier, A.; Feix, M.R.

    1983-04-01

    Quasi-invariance, a method based on group tranformations, is used to obtain time-dependent solutions for the expansion and/or contraction of a self-gravitating sphere of perfect gas with polytopic index n. Quasi-invariance transforms the equations of hydrodynamics into ''dual equations'' exhibiting extra terms such as a friction, a mass source or sink term, and a centripetal/centrifugal force. The search for stationary solutions in this ''dual space'' leads to a new class of time-dependent solutions, the QUIP (for Quasi-invariant polytrope), which generalizes Emden's static model and introduces a characteristic frequency a related to Jean's frequency. The second order differential equation describing the solution is integrated numerically. A critical point is seen always to exist for nnot =3. Solutions corresponding in the ''dual space'' to a time-dependent generalization of Eddington's standard model (n = 3) are discussed. These solutions conserve both the total mass and the energy. A transition between closed and open structures is seen to take place at a particular frequency a/sub c/. For n = 3, no critical point arises in the ''dual space'' due to the self-similar motion of the fluid. A new time-dependent mass-radius relation and a generalized Betti-Ritter relation are obtained. Conclusions about the existence of a minimum Q-factor are presented.

  12. Fokker Planck Rosenbluth-type equations for self-gravitating systems in the 1PN approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Caro, Javier; González, Guillermo A.

    2008-02-01

    We present two formulations of Fokker Planck Rosenbluth-type (FPR) equations for many-particle self-gravitating systems, with first-order relativistic corrections in the post-Newtonian approach (1PN). The first starts from a covariant Fokker Planck equation for a simple gas, introduced recently by Chacón-Acosta and Kremer (2007 Phys. Rev. E 76 021201). The second derivation is based on the establishment of an 1PN-BBGKY hierarchy, developed systematically from the 1PN microscopic law of force and using the Klimontovich Dupree (KD) method. We close the hierarchy by the introduction of a two-point correlation function that describes adequately the relaxation process. This picture reveals an aspect that is not considered in the first formulation: the contribution of ternary correlation patterns to the diffusion coefficients, as a consequence of the nature of 1PN interaction. Both formulations can be considered as a generalization of the equation derived by Rezania and Sobouti (2000 Astron. Astrophys. 354 1110), to stellar systems where the relativistic effects of gravitation play a significant role.

  13. A mixed method Poisson solver for three-dimensional self-gravitating astrophysical fluid dynamical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Comer; Jones, Jim

    1993-01-01

    A key ingredient in the simulation of self-gravitating astrophysical fluid dynamical systems is the gravitational potential and its gradient. This paper focuses on the development of a mixed method multigrid solver of the Poisson equation formulated so that both the potential and the Cartesian components of its gradient are self-consistently and accurately generated. The method achieves this goal by formulating the problem as a system of four equations for the gravitational potential and the three Cartesian components of the gradient and solves them using a distributed relaxation technique combined with conventional full multigrid V-cycles. The method is described, some tests are presented, and the accuracy of the method is assessed. We also describe how the method has been incorporated into our three-dimensional hydrodynamics code and give an example of an application to the collision of two stars. We end with some remarks about the future developments of the method and some of the applications in which it will be used in astrophysics.

  14. Aggregation dynamics in a self-gravitating one-dimensional gas

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.A.; Piasecki, J.

    1996-08-01

    Aggregation of mass by perfectly inelastic collisions in a one-dimensional self-gravitating gas is studied. The binary collisions are subject to the laws of mass and momentum conservation. A method to obtain an exact probabilistic description of aggregation is presented. Since the one-dimensional gravitational attraction is confining, all particles will eventually form a single body. The detailed analysis of the probability P{sub n}(t) of such a complete merging before time t is performed for initial states of n equidistant identical particles with uncorrelated velocities. It is found that for a macroscopic amount of matter (n {r_arrow} {infinity}), this probability vanishes before a characteristic time t*. In the limit of a continuous initial mass distribution the exact analytic form of P{sub n}(t) is derived. The analysis of collisions leading to the time-variation of P{sub n}(t) reveals that in fact the merging into macroscopic bodies always occurs in the immediate vicinity of t*. For t>t*, and n large, P{sub n}(t) describes events corresponding to the final aggregation of remaining microscopic fragments.

  15. Self-Gravitating Eccentric Disk Models for the Double Nucleus of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salow, Robert M.; Statler, Thomas S.

    2004-08-01

    We present new dynamical models of weakly self-gravitating, finite dispersion eccentric stellar disks around central black holes for the double nucleus of M31. The disk is fixed in a frame rotating at constant precession speed and is populated by stars on quasi-periodic orbits whose parents are numerically integrated periodic orbits in the total potential. A distribution of quasi-periodic orbits about a given parent is approximated by a distribution of Kepler orbits dispersed in eccentricity and orientation, using an approximate phase-space distribution function written in terms of the integrals of motion in the Kepler problem. We use these models, along with an optimization routine, to fit available published kinematics and photometry in the inner 2" of the nucleus. A grid of 24 best-fit models is computed to accurately constrain the mass of the central black hole and nuclear disk parameters. We find that the supermassive black hole in M31 has mass MBH=5.62+/-0.66×107 Msolar, which is consistent with the observed correlation between the central black hole mass and the velocity dispersion of its host spheroid. Our models precess rapidly, at Ω=36.5+/-4.2 km s-1 pc-1, and possess a characteristic radial eccentricity distribution, which gives rise to multimodal line-of-sight velocity distributions along lines of sight near the black hole. These features can be used as sensitive discriminants of disk structure.

  16. Statistical mechanics of self-gravitating systems: Mixing as a criterion for indistinguishability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldo e Silva, Leandro; Lima, Marcos; Sodré, Laerte; Perez, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    We propose an association between the phase-space mixing level of a self-gravitating system and the indistinguishability of its constituents (stars or dark matter particles). This represents a refinement in the study of systems exhibiting incomplete violent relaxation. Within a combinatorial analysis similar to that of Lynden-Bell, we make use of this association to obtain a distribution function that deviates from the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, increasing its slope for high energies. Considering the smallness of the occupation numbers for large distances from the center of the system, we apply a correction to Stirling's approximation which increases the distribution slope also for low energies. The distribution function thus obtained presents some resemblance to the "S" shape of distributions associated with cuspy density profiles (as compared to the distribution function obtained from the Einasto profile), although it is not quite able to produce sharp cusps. We also argue how the association between mixing level and indistinguishability can provide a physical meaning to the assumption of particle-permutation symmetry in the N-particle distribution function, when it is used to derive the one-particle Vlasov equation, which raises doubts about the validity of this equation during violent relaxation.

  17. A computer software system for the generation of global ocean tides including self-gravitation and crustal loading effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer software system is described which computes global numerical solutions of the integro-differential Laplace tidal equations, including dissipation terms and ocean loading and self-gravitation effects, for arbitrary diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents. The integration algorithm features a successive approximation scheme for the integro-differential system, with time stepping forward differences in the time variable and central differences in spatial variables.

  18. Virial theorem and dynamical evolution of self-gravitating Brownian particles in an unbounded domain. II. Inertial models.

    PubMed

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri; Sire, Clément

    2006-06-01

    We propose a general kinetic and hydrodynamic description of self-gravitating Brownian particles in d dimensions. We go beyond the usual approximations by considering inertial effects and finite-N effects while previous works use a mean-field approximation valid in a proper thermodynamic limit (N --> +infinity) and consider an overdamped regime (xi --> +infinity). We recover known models in some particular cases of our general description. We derive the expression of the virial theorem for self-gravitating Brownian particles and study the linear dynamical stability of isolated clusters of particles and uniform systems by using techniques introduced in astrophysics. We investigate the influence of the equation of state, of the dimension of space, and of the friction coefficient on the dynamical stability of the system. We obtain the exact expression of the critical temperature Tc for a multicomponents self-gravitating Brownian gas in d = 2. We also consider the limit of weak frictions, xi --> 0, and derive the orbit-averaged Kramers equation. PMID:16906911

  19. Critical dynamics of self-gravitating Langevin particles and bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    Sire, Clément; Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2008-12-01

    We study the critical dynamics of the generalized Smoluchowski-Poisson system (for self-gravitating Langevin particles) or generalized Keller-Segel model (for the chemotaxis of bacterial populations). These models [P. H. Chavanis and C. Sire, Phys. Rev. E 69, 016116 (2004)] are based on generalized stochastic processes leading to the Tsallis statistics. The equilibrium states correspond to polytropic configurations with index n similar to polytropic stars in astrophysics. At the critical index n_{3}=d(d-2) (where d>or=2 is the dimension of space), there exists a critical temperature Theta_{c} (for a given mass) or a critical mass M_{c} (for a given temperature). For Theta>Theta_{c} or MM_{c} the system collapses and forms, in a finite time, a Dirac peak containing a finite fraction M_{c} of the total mass surrounded by a halo. We study these regimes numerically and, when possible, analytically by looking for self-similar or pseudo-self-similar solutions. This study extends the critical dynamics of the ordinary Smoluchowski-Poisson system and Keller-Segel model in d=2 corresponding to isothermal configurations with n_{3}-->+infinity . We also stress the analogy between the limiting mass of white dwarf stars (Chandrasekhar's limit) and the critical mass of bacterial populations in the generalized Keller-Segel model of chemotaxis. PMID:19256806

  20. Core and filament formation in magnetized, self-gravitating isothermal layers

    SciTech Connect

    Van Loo, Sven; Keto, Eric; Zhang, Qizhou

    2014-07-01

    We examine the role of the gravitational instability in an isothermal, self-gravitating layer threaded by magnetic fields on the formation of filaments and dense cores. Using a numerical simulation, we follow the non-linear evolution of a perturbed equilibrium layer. The linear evolution of such a layer is described in the analytic work of Nagai et al. We find that filaments and dense cores form simultaneously. Depending on the initial magnetic field, the resulting filaments form either a spiderweb-like network (for weak magnetic fields) or a network of parallel filaments aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field lines (for strong magnetic fields). Although the filaments are radially collapsing, the density profile of their central region (up to the thermal scale height) can be approximated by a hydrodynamical equilibrium density structure. Thus, the magnetic field does not play a significant role in setting the density distribution of the filaments. The density distribution outside of the central region deviates from the equilibrium. The radial column density distribution is then flatter than the expected power law of r {sup –4} and similar to filament profiles observed with Herschel. Our results do not explain the near constant filament width of ∼0.1pc. However, our model does not include turbulent motions. It is expected that the accretion-driven amplification of these turbulent motions provides additional support within the filaments against gravitational collapse. Finally, we interpret the filamentary network of the massive star forming complex G14.225-0.506 in terms of the gravitational instability model and find that the properties of the complex are consistent with being formed out of an unstable layer threaded by a strong, parallel magnetic field.

  1. Critical dynamics of self-gravitating Langevin particles and bacterial populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sire, Clément; Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2008-12-01

    We study the critical dynamics of the generalized Smoluchowski-Poisson system (for self-gravitating Langevin particles) or generalized Keller-Segel model (for the chemotaxis of bacterial populations). These models [P. H. Chavanis and C. Sire, Phys. Rev. E 69, 016116 (2004)] are based on generalized stochastic processes leading to the Tsallis statistics. The equilibrium states correspond to polytropic configurations with index n similar to polytropic stars in astrophysics. At the critical index n3=d/(d-2) (where d⩾2 is the dimension of space), there exists a critical temperature Θc (for a given mass) or a critical mass Mc (for a given temperature). For Θ>Θc or MMc the system collapses and forms, in a finite time, a Dirac peak containing a finite fraction Mc of the total mass surrounded by a halo. We study these regimes numerically and, when possible, analytically by looking for self-similar or pseudo-self-similar solutions. This study extends the critical dynamics of the ordinary Smoluchowski-Poisson system and Keller-Segel model in d=2 corresponding to isothermal configurations with n3→+∞ . We also stress the analogy between the limiting mass of white dwarf stars (Chandrasekhar’s limit) and the critical mass of bacterial populations in the generalized Keller-Segel model of chemotaxis.

  2. Transition of velocity distributions in collapsing self-gravitating N-body systems.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Nobuyoshi; Kiwata, Takahiro; Kimura, Shigeo

    2012-02-01

    By means of N-body simulations, we study the evolution of gravity-dominated systems from an early relaxation to a collapse, focusing on the velocity distributions and thermodynamic properties. To simulate the dynamical evolution, we consider self-gravitating small N-body systems enclosed in a spherical container with adiabatic or semipermeable walls. It is demonstrated that in the early relaxation process, the velocity distribution is non-Gaussian and q-Gaussian, since the system is in quasiequilibrium states (here q is the Tsallis entropic parameter). Thereafter, the velocity distribution undergoes higher non-Gaussian distributions, especially when the core forms rapidly in the collapse process; i.e., q tends to be larger than that for the quasiequilibrium state, since the velocity distribution further deviates from Gaussian. However, after the core forms sufficiently, the velocity distribution gradually relaxes toward a Gaussian-like distribution. Accordingly, the velocity distribution evolves from a non-Gaussian distribution through a higher non-Gaussian distribution to a Gaussian-like distribution; i.e., the velocity distribution does not monotonically relax toward a Gaussian-like distribution in our collapse simulations. We clearly show such a transition of the velocity distribution, based not only on the Tsallis entropic parameter but also on the ratio of velocity moments. We also find that a negative specific heat occurs in a collapse process with mass and energy loss (such as the escape of stars from globular clusters), even if the velocity distribution is Gaussian-like. PMID:22463177

  3. VISCOUS ACCRETION OF A POLYTROPIC SELF-GRAVITATING DISK IN THE PRESENCE OF WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Abbassi, Shahram; Nourbakhsh, Erfan; Shadmehri, Mohsen E-mail: e.nourbakhsh@mail.sbu.ac.ir

    2013-03-10

    Self-similar and semi-analytical solutions are found for the height-averaged equations governing the dynamical behavior of a polytropic, self-gravitating disk under the effects of winds around the nascent object. In order to describe the time evolution of the system, we adopt a radius-dependent mass loss rate, then highlight its importance on both the traditional {alpha} and innovative {beta} models of viscosity prescription. In agreement with some other studies, our solutions represent that the Toomre parameter is less than one in most regions on the {beta}-disk, which indicates that in such disks gravitational instabilities can occur at various distances from the central accretor. So, the {beta}-disk model might provide a good explanation of how the planetary systems form. The purpose of the present work is twofold: examining the structure of a disk with wind in comparison to a no-wind solution and seeing whether the adopted viscosity prescription significantly affects the dynamical behavior of the disk-wind system. We also considered the temperature distribution in our disk by a polytropic condition. The solutions imply that, under our boundary conditions, the radial velocity is larger for {alpha}-disks and increases as wind becomes stronger in both viscosity models. Also, we noticed that the disk thickness increases by amplifying the wind or adopting larger values for the polytropic exponent {gamma}. It also may globally decrease if one prescribes a {beta}-model for the viscosity. Moreover, in both viscosity models, the surface density and mass accretion rate diminish as the wind gets stronger or {gamma} increases.

  4. Field equation of the correlation function of mass-density fluctuations for self-gravitating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Qing

    2015-09-01

    We study the mass-density distribution of Newtonian self-gravitating systems. Modeling the system as a fluid in hydrostatical equilibrium, we obtain from first principles the field equation and its solution of the correlation function ξ(r) of the mass-density fluctuation itself. We apply this to studies of the large-scale structure of the Universe within a small redshift range. The equation shows that ξ(r) depends on the point mass m and the Jeans wavelength scale λ0, which are different for galaxies and clusters. It explains several long-standing prominent features of the observed clustering: that the profile of ξcc(r) of clusters is similar to ξgg(r) of galaxies, but with a higher amplitude and a longer correlation length, and that the correlation length increases with the mean separation between clusters as a universal scaling r0 ≃ 0.4d. Our solution ξ(r) also shows that the observed power-law correlation function of galaxies ξgg(r) ≃ (r0/r)1.7 is only valid in a range 1

  5. Double-disc gate valve

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, Seth J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to an improvement in a conventional double-disc gate valve having a vertically movable gate assembly including a wedge, spreaders slidably engaged therewtih, a valve disc carried by the spreaders. When the gate assembly is lowered to a selected point in the valve casing, the valve discs are moved transversely outward to close inlet and outlet ports in the casing. The valve includes hold-down means for guiding the disc-and-spreader assemblies as they are moved transversely outward and inward. If such valves are operated at relatively high differential pressures, they sometimes jam during opening. Such jamming has been a problem for many years in gate valves used in gaseous diffusion plants for the separtion of uranium isotopes. The invention is based on the finding that the above-mentioned jamming results when the outlet disc tilts about its horizontal axis in a certain way during opening of the valve. In accordance with the invention, tilting of the outlet disc is maintained at a tolerable value by providing the disc with a rigid downwardly extending member and by providing the casing with a stop for limiting inward arcuate movement of the member to a preselected value during opening of the valve.

  6. Magnetorotational instability in a collisionless plasma with heat flux vector and an isotropic plasma with self-gravitational effect

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Haijun; Wu Zhengwei; Cao Jintao; Chu, Paul K.

    2011-09-15

    The linear stability of a differential rotating magnetized plasma is analyzed in the collisionless approximation along with heat flux vector. The dispersion relation is derived and simplified cases are discussed with instability criteria presented. Anisotropic pressures are shown to not only alter the classical instability criterion but also induce new unstable regions. The shear rotating instability in a collisional magnetized plasma with a scalar kinetic pressure in the presence of self-gravitational effect is then considered. Three cases are discussed specifically according to the general dispersion relation. The effects of Jeans term and compressibility on the local shear instability induced by differential rotation are examined and the analytic instability criteria are presented.

  7. Magnetorotational instability in a collisionless plasma with heat flux vector and an isotropic plasma with self-gravitational effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haijun; Cao, Jintao; Wu, Zhengwei; Chu, Paul K.

    2011-09-01

    The linear stability of a differential rotating magnetized plasma is analyzed in the collisionless approximation along with heat flux vector. The dispersion relation is derived and simplified cases are discussed with instability criteria presented. Anisotropic pressures are shown to not only alter the classical instability criterion but also induce new unstable regions. The shear rotating instability in a collisional magnetized plasma with a scalar kinetic pressure in the presence of self-gravitational effect is then considered. Three cases are discussed specifically according to the general dispersion relation. The effects of Jeans term and compressibility on the local shear instability induced by differential rotation are examined and the analytic instability criteria are presented.

  8. Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

  9. DIRECT INTEGRATION OF THE COLLISIONLESS BOLTZMANN EQUATION IN SIX-DIMENSIONAL PHASE SPACE: SELF-GRAVITATING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kohji; Umemura, Masayuki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2013-01-10

    We present a scheme for numerical simulations of collisionless self-gravitating systems which directly integrates the Vlasov-Poisson equations in six-dimensional phase space. Using the results from a suite of large-scale numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the present scheme can simulate collisionless self-gravitating systems properly. The integration scheme is based on the positive flux conservation method recently developed in plasma physics. We test the accuracy of our code by performing several test calculations, including the stability of King spheres, the gravitational instability, and the Landau damping. We show that the mass and the energy are accurately conserved for all the test cases we study. The results are in good agreement with linear theory predictions and/or analytic solutions. The distribution function keeps the property of positivity and remains non-oscillatory. The largest simulations are run on 64{sup 6} grids. The computation speed scales well with the number of processors, and thus our code performs efficiently on massively parallel supercomputers.

  10. Jeans instability of partially-ionized self-gravitating viscous plasma with Hall effect FLR corrections and porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaothekar, Sachin; Soni, Ghanshyam D.; Prajapati, R. P.; Chhajlani, Rajendra K.

    2016-06-01

    The problem of Jeans gravitational instability and radiative instability is investigated for partially ionized self-gravitating plasma which has connection in astrophysical condensations and formation of objects. A general dispersion relation has been derived with the help of relevant linearized perturbation equations, using the normal mode analysis method. Effects of FLR corrections, radiative heat-loss function and collisions with neutrals on the Jeans criterion of self-gravitational instability of the system are discussed. The conditions of instability are derived for a temperature-dependent and density-dependent heat-loss function with thermal conductivity and FLR corrections for some special case. The stability of the system is discussed by using Routh-Hurwitz's criterion. Numerical calculations have been performed to discuss the dependence of the growth rate of the Jeans gravitational instability on the various physical parameters. The FLR corrections, viscosity, porosity, magnetic field, and neutral collision have stabilizing influence while finite electrical resistivity and permeability have a destabilizing influence on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. Our results are helpful for understanding the formation of dense molecular clouds.

  11. Self-Gravitating Relativistic Fluids: The Formation of a Free Phase Boundary in the Phase Transition from Hard to Soft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, Demetrios; Lisibach, André

    2016-06-01

    In the 1990s Christodoulou introduced an idealized fluid model intended to capture some of the features of the gravitational collapse of a massive star to form a neutron star or a black hole. This was the two-phase model introduced in `Self-gravitating relativistic fluids: a two phase model' (Demeterios, Arch Ration Mech Anal 130:343-400, 1995). The present work deals with the formation of a free phase boundary in the phase transition from hard to soft in this model. In this case the phase boundary has corners at the null points; the points which separate the timelike and spacelike components of the interface between the two phases. We prove the existence and uniqueness of a free phase boundary. Also the local form of the shock near the null point is established.

  12. Self-gravitation interaction of IR deformed Hořava-Lifshitz gravity via new Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Molin; Xu, Yin; Lu, Junwang; Yang, Yuling; Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Yabo

    2014-06-01

    The apparent discovery of logarithmic entropies has a significant impact on IR deformed Hořava-Lifshitz (IRDHL) gravity in which the original infrared (IR) property is improved by introducing three-geometry's Ricci scalar term "μ4 R" in action. Here, we reevaluate the Hawking radiation in IRDHL by using recent new Hamilton-Jacobi method (NHJM). In particular, a thorough analysis is considered both in asymptotically flat Kehagias-Sfetsos and asymptotically non-flat Park models in IRDHL. We find the NHJM offers simplifications on the technical side. The modification in the entropy expression is given by the physical interpretation of self-gravitation of the Hawking radiation in this new Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) perspectives.

  13. Strong cylindrical shock wave in a self-gravitating rotational axisymmetric dusty gas with density varying exponentially

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Gorakh

    2016-07-01

    The propagation of a strong cylindrical shock wave in a self-gravitating and rotational axisymmetric dusty gas, having variable azimuthal and axial fluid velocities is investigated. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of small solid particles and perfect gas. The equilibrium flow conditions are assumed to be maintained. The density of the mixture and the fluid velocities in the ambient medium are assumed to be varying and obeying an exponential law. The shock wave moves with variable velocity and the total energy of the wave is non-constant. Non-similarity solutions are obtained and the effects of variation of the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture, the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas, and the gravitational parameter on the flow variables in the region behind the shock are investigated at a given time. Also, a comparison between the isothermal and adiabatic flow is made.

  14. Gaseous Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Maxim

    Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high-energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photolithography and microprocessing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell-size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolution make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the next generation of colliders. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel structures where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout represent an exciting field allowing timing and charge measurements as well as precise spatial information in 3D. Originally developed for the high-energy physics, MPGD applications have expanded to nuclear physics, photon detection, astroparticle and neutrino physics, neutron detection, and medical imaging.

  15. Spiral-driven accretion in protoplanetary discs. II. Self-similar solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennebelle, Patrick; Lesur, Geoffroy; Fromang, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    Context. Accretion discs are ubiquitous in the Universe, and it is crucial to understand how angular momentum and mass are radially transported in these objects. Aims: Here, we study the role played by non-linear spiral patterns within hydrodynamical and non-self-gravitating accretion discs assuming that external disturbances such as infall onto the disc may trigger them. Methods: To do so, we computed self-similar solutions that describe discs in which a spiral wave propagates. These solutions present shocks and critical sonic points that were analyzed. Results: We calculated the wave structure for all allowed temperatures and for several spiral shocks. In particular, we inferred the angle of the spiral pattern, the stress it exerts on the disc, and the associated flux of mass and angular momentum as a function of temperature. We quantified the rate of angular momentum transport by means of the dimensionless α parameter. For the thickest disc we considered (corresponding to h/r values of about one-third), we found values of α as high as 0.1 that scaled with the temperature T such that α ∝ T3 / 2 ∝ (h/r)3. The spiral angle scales with the temperature as arctan(r/h). Conclusions: These solutions suggests that perturbations occurring at disc outer boundaries, such as perturbations due to infall motions, can propagate deep inside the disc and therefore should not be ignored, even when considering small radii.

  16. MASSIVE BLACK HOLE PAIRS IN CLUMPY, SELF-GRAVITATING CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISKS: STOCHASTIC ORBITAL DECAY

    SciTech Connect

    Fiacconi, Davide; Mayer, Lucio; Roškar, Rok; Colpi, Monica

    2013-11-01

    We study the dynamics of massive black hole pairs in clumpy gaseous circumnuclear disks. We track the orbital decay of the light, secondary black hole M {sub .2} orbiting around the more massive primary at the center of the disk, using N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations. We find that the gravitational interaction of M {sub .2} with massive clumps M {sub cl} erratically perturbs the otherwise smooth orbital decay. In close encounters with massive clumps, gravitational slingshots can kick the secondary black hole out of the disk plane. The black hole moving on an inclined orbit then experiences the weaker dynamical friction of the stellar background, resulting in a longer orbital decay timescale. Interactions between clumps can also favor orbital decay when the black hole is captured by a massive clump that is segregating toward the center of the disk. The stochastic behavior of the black hole orbit emerges mainly when the ratio M {sub .2}/M {sub cl} falls below unity, with decay timescales ranging from ∼1 to ∼50 Myr. This suggests that describing the cold clumpy phase of the interstellar medium in self-consistent simulations of galaxy mergers, albeit so far neglected, is important to predict the black hole dynamics in galaxy merger remnants.

  17. THE STRUCTURE OF A SELF-GRAVITATING PROTOPLANETARY DISK AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR DIRECT IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, Takayuki

    2011-09-20

    We consider the effects of self-gravity on the hydrostatic balance in the vertical direction of a gaseous disk and discuss the possible signature of the self-gravity that may be captured by direct imaging observations of protoplanetary disks in the future. In this paper, we consider a vertically isothermal disk in order to isolate the effects of self-gravity. The specific disk model we consider in this paper is the one with a radial surface density gap, at which the Toomre's Q-parameter of the disk varies rapidly in the radial direction. We calculate the vertical structure of the disk including the effects of self-gravity. We then calculate the scattered light and the dust thermal emission. We find that if the disk is massive enough and the effects of self-gravity come into play, a weak bump-like structure at the gap edge appears in the near-infrared (NIR) scattered light, while no such bump-like structure is seen in the submillimeter (sub-mm) dust continuum image. The appearance of the bump is caused by the variation of the height of the surface in the NIR wavelength. If such a bump-like feature is detected in future direct imaging observations, combined with sub-mm observations, it will give us useful information about the physical states of the disk.

  18. Janus discs.

    PubMed

    Walther, Andreas; André, Xavier; Drechsler, Markus; Abetz, Volker; Müller, Axel H E

    2007-05-16

    We describe the synthesis and the solution properties of sheet- and disclike Janus particles, containing an inner crosslinked polybutadiene (PB) layer and two different outer sides of polystyrene (PS) and poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (PtBMA). The structures formed upon adsorption of the flat Janus particles onto solid substrates as well as in THF solution are investigated. The Janus discs are obtained in a template-assisted synthetic pathway followed by sonication. Selectively crosslinking the lamellar PB domains in a well-ordered lamellar microphase-separated bulk morphology of PS-block-PB-block-PtBMA (SBT) block terpolymers leads to the conservation of the compartmentalization of the two outer blocks. Sonication of the crosslinked block terpolymer templates renders soluble sheet- and disclike Janus particles, the size of which can be tuned from the micrometer range down to the nanometer scale. Small-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, scanning force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy are used to characterize the template-assisted synthetic process and the solution properties. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy in THF and TEM of particles, embedded into a photo-crosslinkable silicon oil, indicate a supramolecular aggregation behavior of the Janus discs in concentrated solutions. Pendant drop tensiometry demonstrates that Janus sheets and discs can be used to stabilize liquid-liquid interfaces, rendering these materials interesting for future applications. PMID:17441717

  19. Scattered light images of spiral arms in marginally gravitationally unstable discs with an embedded planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, A.; Pinilla, P.; Benisty, M.; Ataiee, S.; Juhász, A.; Dullemond, C. P.; Van Boekel, R.; Henning, T.

    2015-10-01

    Scattered light images of transition discs in the near-infrared often show non-axisymmetric structures in the form of wide-open spiral arms in addition to their characteristic low-opacity inner gap region. We study self-gravitating discs and investigate the influence of gravitational instability on the shape and contrast of spiral arms induced by planet-disc interactions. Two-dimensional non-isothermal hydrodynamical simulations including viscous heating and a cooling prescription are combined with three-dimensional dust continuum radiative transfer models for direct comparison to observations. We find that the resulting contrast between the spirals and the surrounding disc in scattered light is by far higher for pressure scaleheight variations, i.e. thermal perturbations, than for pure surface density variations. Self-gravity effects suppress any vortex modes and tend to reduce the opening angle of planet-induced spirals, making them more tightly wound. If the disc is only marginally gravitationally stable with a Toomre parameter around unity, an embedded massive planet (planet-to-star mass ratio of 10-2) can trigger gravitational instability in the outer disc. The spirals created by this instability and the density waves launched by the planet can overlap resulting in large-scale, more open spiral arms in the outer disc. The contrast of these spirals is well above the detection limit of current telescopes.

  20. Substellar fragmentation in self-gravitating fluids with a major phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füglistaler, A.; Pfenniger, D.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The observation of various ices in cold molecular clouds, the existence of ubiquitous substellar, cold H2 globules in planetary nebulae and supernova remnants, or the mere existence of comets suggest that the physics of very cold interstellar gas might be much richer than usually envisioned. At the extreme of low temperatures (≲10 K), H2 itself is subject to a phase transition crossing the entire cosmic gas density scale. Aims: This well-known, laboratory-based fact motivates us to study the ideal case of a cold neutral gaseous medium in interstellar conditions for which the bulk of the mass, instead of trace elements, is subject to a gas-liquid or gas-solid phase transition. Methods: On the one hand, the equilibrium of general non-ideal fluids is studied using the virial theorem and linear stability analysis. On the other hand, the non-linear dynamics is studied using computer simulations to characterize the expected formation of solid bodies analogous to comets. The simulations are run with a state-of-the-art molecular dynamics code (LAMMPS) using the Lennard-Jones inter-molecular potential. The long-range gravitational forces can be taken into account together with short-range molecular forces with finite limited computational resources, using super-molecules, provided the right scaling is followed. Results: The concept of super-molecule, where the phase transition conditions are preserved by the proper choice of the particle parameters, is tested with computer simulations, allowing us to correctly satisfy the Jeans instability criterion for one-phase fluids. The simulations show that fluids presenting a phase transition are gravitationally unstable as well, independent of the strength of the gravitational potential, producing two distinct kinds of substellar bodies, those dominated by gravity (planetoids) and those dominated by molecular attractive force (comets). Conclusions: Observations, formal analysis, and computer simulations suggest the

  1. Gravitational instabilities in a protosolar-like disc - I. Dynamics and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. G.; Ilee, J. D.; Boley, A. C.; Caselli, P.; Durisen, R. H.; Hartquist, T. W.; Rawlings, J. M. C.

    2015-10-01

    To date, most simulations of the chemistry in protoplanetary discs have used 1 + 1D or 2D axisymmetric α-disc models to determine chemical compositions within young systems. This assumption is inappropriate for non-axisymmetric, gravitationally unstable discs, which may be a significant stage in early protoplanetary disc evolution. Using 3D radiative hydrodynamics, we have modelled the physical and chemical evolution of a 0.17 M⊙ self-gravitating disc over a period of 2000 yr. The 0.8 M⊙ central protostar is likely to evolve into a solar-like star, and hence this Class 0 or early Class I young stellar object may be analogous to our early Solar system. Shocks driven by gravitational instabilities enhance the desorption rates, which dominate the changes in gas-phase fractional abundances for most species. We find that at the end of the simulation, a number of species distinctly trace the spiral structure of our relatively low-mass disc, particularly CN. We compare our simulation to that of a more massive disc, and conclude that mass differences between gravitationally unstable discs may not have a strong impact on the chemical composition. We find that over the duration of our simulation, successive shock heating has a permanent effect on the abundances of HNO, CN and NH3, which may have significant implications for both simulations and observations. We also find that HCO+ may be a useful tracer of disc mass. We conclude that gravitational instabilities induced in lower mass discs can significantly, and permanently, affect the chemical evolution, and that observations with high-resolution instruments such as Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) offer a promising means of characterizing gravitational instabilities in protosolar discs.

  2. Exact analytical solution of the collapse of self-gravitating Brownian particles and bacterial populations at zero temperature.

    PubMed

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri; Sire, Clément

    2011-03-01

    We provide an exact analytical solution of the collapse dynamics of self-gravitating Brownian particles and bacterial populations at zero temperature. These systems are described by the Smoluchowski-Poisson system or Keller-Segel model in which the diffusion term is neglected. As a result, the dynamics is purely deterministic. A cold system undergoes a gravitational collapse, leading to a finite-time singularity: The central density increases and becomes infinite in a finite time t{coll}. The evolution continues in the postcollapse regime. A Dirac peak emerges, grows, and finally captures all the mass in a finite time t{end}, while the central density excluding the Dirac peak progressively decreases. Close to the collapse time, the pre- and postcollapse evolutions are self-similar. Interestingly, if one starts from a parabolic density profile, one obtains an exact analytical solution that describes the whole collapse dynamics, from the initial time to the end, and accounts for non-self-similar corrections that were neglected in previous works. Our results have possible application in different areas including astrophysics, chemotaxis, colloids, and nanoscience. PMID:21517478

  3. Post-seismic relaxation following the great 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on a compressible self-gravitating Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Burgmann, R.; Banerjee, P.

    2006-01-01

    he Mw ??? 9.0 2004 December 26 Sumatra-Andaman and Mw =8.7 2005 March 28 Nias earthquakes, which collectively ruptured approximately 1800 km of the Andaman and Sunda subduction zones, are expected to be followed by vigorous viscoelastic relaxation involving both the upper and lower mantle. Because of these large spatial dimensions it is desirable to fully account for gravitational coupling effects in the relaxation process. We present a stable method of computing relaxation of a spherically-stratified, compressible and self-gravitating viscoelastic Earth following an impulsive moment release event. The solution is cast in terms of a spherical harmonic expansion of viscoelastic normal modes. For simple layered viscoelastic models, which include a low-viscosity oceanic asthenosphere, we predict substantial post-seismic effects over a region several 100s of km wide surrounding the eastern Indian Ocean. We compare observed GPS time-series from ten regional sites (mostly in Thailand and Indonesia), beginning in 2004 December, with synthetic time-series that include the coseismic and post-seismic effects of the 2004 December 26 and 2005 March 28 earthquakes. A viscosity structure involving a biviscous (Burgers body) rheology in the asthenosphere explains the pattern and amplitude of post-seismic offsets remarkably well. ?? 2006 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2006 RAS.

  4. Disruption patterns of rotating self-gravitating aggregates: A survey on angle of friction and tensile strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Paul; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a study, through the use of a SSDEM simulation code, of the possible disruption patterns and mechanisms of self-gravitating aggregates that are spun-up to the point of disruption. We do this survey by systematically changing the angle of friction and tensile stress of the aggregates. It is observed that the amount of deformation that takes place before disruption, as well as its onset, is directly related to the angle of friction. On the other hand, the change in tensile strength allows us to clearly observe a continuous transition from losing surface material to larger scale fission at higher spin rates before disruption, but in no case do we observe surface flow. These results are also compared to other simulation results and the observations of asteroids P/2013 R3, P/2013 P5, 1950 DA, 1999 KW4 and Geographos. Additionally, we propose modifications to previously discussed mechanisms for the formation of binary asteroids and asteroid pairs.

  5. ON THE MINIMAL ACCURACY REQUIRED FOR SIMULATING SELF-GRAVITATING SYSTEMS BY MEANS OF DIRECT N-BODY METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Portegies Zwart, Simon; Boekholt, Tjarda

    2014-04-10

    The conservation of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum are important drivers of our physical understanding of the evolution of the universe. These quantities are also conserved in Newton's laws of motion under gravity. Numerical integration of the associated equations of motion is extremely challenging, in particular due to the steady growth of numerical errors (by round-off and discrete time-stepping and the exponential divergence between two nearby solutions. As a result, numerical solutions to the general N-body problem are intrinsically questionable. Using brute force integrations to arbitrary numerical precision we demonstrate empirically that ensembles of different realizations of resonant three-body interactions produce statistically indistinguishable results. Although individual solutions using common integration methods are notoriously unreliable, we conjecture that an ensemble of approximate three-body solutions accurately represents an ensemble of true solutions, so long as the energy during integration is conserved to better than 1/10. We therefore provide an independent confirmation that previous work on self-gravitating systems can actually be trusted, irrespective of the intrinsically chaotic nature of the N-body problem.

  6. Virial theorem and dynamical evolution of self-gravitating Brownian particles in an unbounded domain. I. Overdamped models.

    PubMed

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri; Sire, Clément

    2006-06-01

    We derive the virial theorem appropriate to the generalized Smoluchowski-Poisson (GSP) system describing self-gravitating Brownian particles in an overdamped limit. We extend previous works by considering the case of an unbounded domain and an arbitrary equation of state. We use the virial theorem to study the diffusion (evaporation) of an isothermal Brownian gas above the critical temperature Tc in dimension d = 2 and show how the effective diffusion coefficient and the Einstein relation are modified by self-gravity. We also study the collapse at T = Tc and show that the central density increases logarithmically with time instead of exponentially in a bounded domain. Finally, for d > 2, we show that the evaporation of the system is essentially a pure diffusion slightly slowed down by self-gravity. We also study the linear dynamical stability of stationary solutions of the GSP system representing isolated clusters of particles and investigate the influence of the equation of state and of the dimension of space on the dynamical stability of the system. PMID:16906910

  7. Artificial Disc Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat this condition, alternatives to disc replacement include fusion, nonoperative care or no treatment. Typically, surgery is ... operative treatment for disc pain has been spinal fusion. This is a surgical procedure in which disc ...

  8. Growth of eccentric modes in disc-planet interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssandier, Jean; Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-05-01

    We formulate a set of linear equations that describe the behaviour of small eccentricities in a protoplanetary system consisting of a gaseous disc and a planet. Eccentricity propagates through the disc by means of pressure and self-gravity, and is exchanged with the planet via secular interactions. Excitation and damping of eccentricity can occur through Lindblad and corotation resonances, as well as viscosity. We compute normal modes of the coupled disc-planet system in the case of short-period giant planets orbiting inside an inner cavity, possibly carved by the stellar magnetosphere. Three-dimensional effects allow for a mode to be trapped in the inner parts of the disc. This mode can easily grow within the disc's lifetime. An eccentric mode dominated by the planet can also grow, although less rapidly. We compute the structure and growth rates of these modes and their dependence on the assumed properties of the disc.

  9. Redundant disc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barack, W. N.; Domas, P. A.; Beekman, S. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A rotatable disc is described that consists of parallel plates tightly joined together for rotation about a hub. Each plate is provided with several angularly projecting spaced lands. The lands of each plate are interposed in alternating relationship between the lands of the next adjacent plate. In this manner, circumferential displacement of adjacent sectors in any one plate is prevented in the event that a crack develops. Each plate is redundantly sized so that, in event of structural failure of one plate, the remaining plates support a proportionate share of the load of the failed plate. The plates are prevented from separating laterally through the inclusion of generally radially extending splines which are inserted to interlock cooperating, circumferentially adjacent lands.

  10. Secular resonant dressed orbital diffusion - II. Application to an isolated self-similar tepid galactic disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouvry, Jean-Baptiste; Pichon, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    The main orbital signatures of the secular evolution of an isolated self-gravitating stellar Mestel disc are recovered using a dressed Fokker-Planck formalism in angle-action variables. The shot-noise-driven formation of narrow ridges of resonant orbits is recovered in the WKB limit of tightly wound transient spirals, for a tepid Toomre-stable tapered disc. The relative effect of the bulge, the halo, the disc temperature and the spectral properties of the shot noise are investigated in turn. For such galactic discs all elements seem to impact the locus and direction of the ridge. For instance, when the halo mass is decreased, we observe a transition between a regime of heating in the inner regions of the disc through the inner Lindblad resonance to a regime of radial migration of quasi-circular orbits via the corotation resonance in the outer part of the disc. The dressed secular formalism captures both the nature of collisionless systems (via their natural frequencies and susceptibility), and their nurture via the structure of the external perturbing power spectrum. Hence it provides the ideal framework in which to study their long-term evolution.

  11. Kinetic and Structural Evolution of Self-gravitating, Magnetized Clouds: 2.5-dimensional Simulations of Decaying Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostriker, Eve C.; Gammie, Charles F.; Stone, James M.

    1999-03-01

    The molecular component of the Galaxy is comprised of turbulent, magnetized clouds, many of which are self-gravitating and form stars. To develop an understanding of how these clouds' kinetic and structural evolution may depend on their level of turbulence, mean magnetization, and degree of self-gravity, we perform a survey of direct numerical MHD simulations in which three parameters are independently varied. Our simulations consist of solutions to the time-dependent MHD equations on a two-dimensional grid with periodic boundary conditions; an additional ``half'' dimension is also incorporated as dependent variables in the third Cartesian direction. Two of our survey parameters, the mean magnetization parameter β≡c2sound/v2Alfven and the Jeans number nJ≡Lcloud/LJeans, allow us to model clouds that either meet or fail conditions for magneto-Jeans stability and magnetic criticality. Our third survey parameter, the sonic Mach number M≡σvelocity/csound, allows us to initiate turbulence of either sub- or super-Alfvénic amplitude; we employ an isothermal equation of state throughout. We evaluate the times for each cloud model to become gravitationally bound and measure each model's kinetic energy loss over the fluid-flow crossing time. We compare the evolution of density and magnetic field structural morphology and quantify the differences in the density contrast generated by internal stresses for models of differing mean magnetization. We find that the values of β and nJ, but not the initial Mach number M, determine the time for cloud gravitational binding and collapse: for mean cloud density nH2=100 cm-3, unmagnetized models collapse after ~5 Myr, and magnetically supercritical models generally collapse after 5-10 Myr (although the smallest magneto-Jeans stable clouds survive gravitational collapse until t~15 Myr), while magnetically subcritical clouds remain uncollapsed over the entire simulations; these cloud collapse times scale with the mean density as

  12. The Global Nonlinear Stability of Minkowski Space for Self-gravitating Massive Fields - The Wave-Klein-Gordon Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeFloch, Philippe G.; Ma, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The Hyperboloidal Foliation Method (introduced by the authors in 2014) is extended here and applied to the Einstein equations of general relativity. Specifically, we establish the nonlinear stability of Minkowski spacetime for self-gravitating massive scalar fields, while existing methods only apply to massless scalar fields. First of all, by analyzing the structure of the Einstein equations in wave coordinates, we exhibit a nonlinear wave-Klein-Gordon model defined on a curved background, which is the focus of the present paper. For this model, we prove here the existence of global-in-time solutions to the Cauchy problem, when the initial data have sufficiently small Sobolev norms. A major difficulty comes from the fact that the class of conformal Killing fields of Minkowski space is significantly reduced in the presence of a massive scalar field, since the scaling vector field is not conformal Killing for the Klein-Gordon operator. Our method relies on the foliation (of the interior of the light cone) of Minkowski spacetime by hyperboloidal hypersurfaces and uses Lorentz-invariant energy norms. We introduce a frame of vector fields adapted to the hyperboloidal foliation and we establish several key properties: Sobolev and Hardy-type inequalities on hyperboloids, as well as sup-norm estimates, which correspond to the sharp time decay for the wave and the Klein-Gordon equations. These estimates allow us to control interaction terms associated with the curved geometry and the massive field by distinguishing between two levels of regularity and energy growth and by a successive use of our key estimates in order to close a bootstrap argument.

  13. Gap formation in a self-gravitating disk and the associated migration of the embedded giant planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Hui-Gen; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Wittenmyer, Robert A.

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of our recent study on the interactions between a giant planet and a self-gravitating gas disk. We investigate how the disk's self-gravity affects the gap formation process and the migration of the giant planet. Two series of 1-D and 2-D hydrodynamic simulations are performed. We select several surface densities and focus on the gravitationally stable region. To obtain more reliable gravity torques exerted on the planet, a refined treatment of the disk's gravity is adopted in the vicinity of the planet. Our results indicate that the net effect of the disk's self-gravity on the gap formation process depends on the surface density of the disk. We notice that there are two critical values, ΣI and ΣII. When the surface density of the disk is lower than the first one, Σ0 < ΣI, the effect of self-gravity suppresses the formation of a gap. When Σ0 > ΣI, the self-gravity of the gas tends to benefit the gap formation process and enlarges the width/depth of the gap. According to our 1-D and 2-D simulations, we estimate the first critical surface density to be ΣI ≈ 0.8 MMSN. This effect increases until the surface density reaches the second critical value ΣII. When Σ0 > ΣII, the gravitational turbulence in the disk becomes dominant and the gap formation process is suppressed again. Our 2-D simulations show that this critical surface density is around 3.5 MMSN. We also study the associated orbital evolution of a giant planet. Under the effect of the disk's self-gravity, the migration rate of the giant planet increases when the disk is dominated by gravitational turbulence. We show that the migration timescale correlates with the effective viscosity and can be up to 104 yr.

  14. Self-gravitating rotating anisotropic pressure plasma in presence of Hall current and electrical resistivity using generalized polytrope laws

    SciTech Connect

    Prajapati, R. P.; Chhajlani, R. K.; Soni, G. D.

    2008-06-15

    The effects of uniform rotation, finite electrical resistivity, electron inertia, and Hall current on the self-gravitational instability of anisotropic pressure plasma with generalized polytrope laws have been studied. A general dispersion relation is obtained with the help of the relevant linearized perturbed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations incorporating the relevant contributions of various effects of the problem using the method of normal mode analysis. The general dispersion relation is further reduced for the special cases of rotation; i.e., parallel and perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. The longitudinal and transverse modes of propagation are discussed separately for investigation of condition of instability. The effects of rotation, Hall current, finite electron inertia, and polytropic indices are discussed on the gravitational, ''firehose,'' and ''mirror'' instabilities. The numerical calculations have been performed to obtain the dependence of the growth rate of the gravitational unstable mode on the various physical parameters involved. The finite electrical resistivity, rotation, and Hall current have a stabilizing influence on the growth rate of the unstable mode of wave propagation. The finite electrical resistivity removes the effect of magnetic field and polytropic index from the condition of instability in the transverse mode of propagation for both the cases of rotation. It is also found that the Jeans criterion of gravitational instability depends upon rotation, electron inertia, and polytropic indices. In the case of transverse mode of propagation with the axis of rotation parallel to the magnetic field, it is observed that the region of instability and the value of the critical Jeans wavenumber are larger for the Chew-Goldberger-Low set of equations in comparison with the MHD set of equations. The stability of the system is discussed by applying Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The inclusion of rotation or Hall current or both

  15. Intervertebral disc disease.

    PubMed

    Simpson, S T

    1992-07-01

    This article describes the functional anatomy of intervertebral discs and their relationship to the vertebrae and spinal cord. The pathologic events and clinical complications of intervertebral disc disease are described. A discussion of proper staging of disc disease and appropriate conservative management of degenerative disc disease is included. PMID:1641922

  16. Broken discs: warp propagation in accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Christopher J.; King, Andrew R.

    2012-04-01

    We simulate the viscous evolution of an accretion disc around a spinning black hole. In general, any such disc is misaligned, and warped by the Lense-Thirring effect. Unlike previous studies, we use effective viscosities constrained to be consistent with the internal fluid dynamics of the disc. We find that non-linear fluid effects, which reduce the effective viscosities in warped regions, can promote breaking of the disc into two distinct planes. This occurs when the Shakura & Sunyaev dimensionless viscosity parameter α is ≲0.3 and the initial angle of misalignment between the disc and hole is ≳45°. The break can be a long-lived feature, propagating outwards in the disc on the usual alignment time-scale, after which the disc is fully co-aligned or counter-aligned with the hole. Such a break in the disc may be significant in systems where we know the inclination of the outer accretion disc to the line of sight, such as some X-ray binaries: the inner disc, and so any jets, may be noticeably misaligned with respect to the orbital plane.

  17. Disc-planet interactions in subkeplerian discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paardekooper, S.-J.

    2009-11-01

    Context: One class of protoplanetary disc models, the X-wind model, predicts strongly subkeplerian orbital gas velocities, a configuration that can be sustained by magnetic tension. Aims: We investigate disc-planet interactions in these subkeplerian discs, focusing on orbital migration for low-mass planets and gap formation for high-mass planets. Methods: We use linear calculations and nonlinear hydrodynamical simulations to measure the torque and look at gap formation. In both cases, the subkeplerian nature of the disc is treated as a fixed external constraint. Results: We show that, depending on the degree to which the disc is subkeplerian, the torque on low-mass planets varies between the usual type I torque and the one-sided outer Lindblad torque, which is also negative but an order of magnitude stronger. In strongly subkeplerian discs, corotation effects can be ignored, making migration fast and inward. Gap formation near the planet's orbit is more difficult in such discs, since there are no resonances close to the planet accommodating angular momentum transport. The location of the gap is shifted inwards with respect to the planet, leaving the planet on the outside of a surface density depression. Conclusions: Depending on the degree to which a protoplanetary disc is subkeplerian, disc-planet interactions can be very different from the usual Keplerian picture, making these discs in general more hazardous for young planets.

  18. On the evolution of the snow line in protoplanetary discs - II. Analytic approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rebecca G.; Livio, Mario

    2013-09-01

    We examine the evolution of the snow line in a protoplanetary disc that contains a dead zone (a region of zero or low turbulence). The snow line is within a self-gravitating part of the dead zone, and we obtain a fully analytic solution for its radius. Our formula could prove useful for future observational attempts to characterize the demographics of planets outside the snow line. External sources such as cosmic rays or X-rays from the central star can ionize the disc surface layers and allow the magnetorotational instability to drive turbulence there. We show that provided that the surface density in this layer is less than about 50 g cm-2, the dead zone solution exists, after an initial outbursting phase, until the disc is dispersed by photoevaporation. We demonstrate that the snow line radius is significantly larger than that predicted by a fully turbulent disc model, and that in our own Solar system it remains outside of the orbital radius of the Earth. Thus, the inclusion of a dead zone into a protoplanetary disc model explains how our Earth formed with very little water.

  19. Gaseous dielectrics V

    SciTech Connect

    Christophorou, L.G.; Bouldin, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    This symposium represents a transdisciplinary and comprehensive approach to the study of gaseous dielectrics. The goal of the symposium was to demonstrate the effective coupling between basic and applied research and modern technology achieved in this area, and to guide future research and development and industrial use of gaseous dielectrics. Separate abstracts were prepared for 85 papers in these proceedings. (DWL)

  20. Protostellar disc formation enabled by removal of small dust grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bo; Caselli, Paola; Li, Zhi-Yun; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien; Nakamura, Fumitaka

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown that a realistic level of magnetization of dense molecular cloud cores can suppress the formation of a rotationally supported disc (RSD) through catastrophic magnetic braking in the axisymmetric ideal MHD limit. In this study, we present conditions for the formation of RSDs through non-ideal MHD effects computed self-consistently from an equilibrium chemical network. We find that removing from the standard MRN distribution the large population of very small grains (VSGs) of ˜ 10 Å to few 100 Å that dominate the coupling of the bulk neutral matter to the magnetic field increases the ambipolar diffusivity by ˜ 1-2 orders of magnitude at densities below 1010/cm-3. The enhanced ambipolar diffusion (AD) in the envelope reduces the amount of magnetic flux dragged by the collapse into the circumstellar disc-forming region. Therefore, magnetic braking is weakened and more angular momentum can be retained. With continuous high angular momentum inflow, RSDs of tens of au are able to form, survive, and even grow in size, depending on other parameters including cosmic ray ionization rate, magnetic field strength, and rotation speed. Some discs become self-gravitating and evolve into rings in our 2D (axisymmetric) simulations, which have the potential to fragment into (close) multiple systems in 3D. We conclude that disc formation in magnetized cores is highly sensitive to chemistry, especially to grain sizes. A moderate grain coagulation/growth to remove the large population of VSGs, either in the prestellar phase or during free-fall collapse, can greatly promote AD and help formation of tens of au RSDs.

  1. Gaseous Structures and Mass Drift in Spiral Galaxies: Effects of Arm Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Kim, W.-T.

    2015-10-01

    Stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies play an important role in the formation of gaseous substructures such as gaseous feathers as well as mass inflows/outflows in the radial direction. We study nonlinear responses of self-gravitating gas to an imposed stellar spiral potential in galactic disks with differing arm strength and pattern speed. We find that the extent and shapes of gaseous arms as well as the radial mass drift rate depend rather sensitively on the arm pattern speed. Quasi-steady spiral shocks can exist only when the normal Mach number is small. The pitch angle of gaseous arms is usually smaller than that of stellar arms. The mass drift rate to the central region is in the range of ˜0.05-3.0M⊙yr-1 , with larger values corresponding to stronger and/or slower-rotating arms. Using a normal-mode linear stability analysis together with nonlinear simulations, we show that wiggle instability of spiral shocks is due to the accumulation of potential vorticity at a perturbed shock front, rather than Kelvin-Helmholtz instability as previously suggested.

  2. On claims that general relativity differs from Newtonian physics for self-gravitating dusts in the low velocity, weak field limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, David R.

    2015-06-01

    Galaxy rotation curves are generally analyzed theoretically using Newtonian physics; however, two groups of authors have claimed that for self-gravitating dusts, general relativity (GR) makes significantly different predictions to Newtonian physics, even in the weak field, low velocity limit. One group has even gone so far as to claim that nonlinear general relativistic effects can explain flat galactic rotation curves without the need for cold dark matter. These claims seem to contradict the well-known fact that the weak field, low velocity, low pressure correspondence limit of GR is Newtonian gravity, as evidenced by solar system tests. Both groups of authors claim that their conclusions do not contradict this fact, with Cooperstock and Tieu arguing that the reason is that for the solar system, we have test particles orbiting a central gravitating body, whereas for a galaxy, each star is both an orbiting body and a contributor to the net gravitational field, and this supposedly makes a difference due to nonlinear general relativistic effects. Given the significance of these claims for analyses of the flat galactic rotation curve problem, this article compares the predictions of GR and Newtonian gravity for three cases of self-gravitating dusts for which the exact general relativistic solutions are known. These investigations reveal that GR and Newtonian gravity are in excellent agreement in the appropriate limits, thus supporting the conventional use of Newtonian physics to analyze galactic rotation curves. These analyses also reveal some sources of error in the referred to works.

  3. Video Discs in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip

    1986-01-01

    This discussion of the use of images in learning processes focuses on recent developments in optical storage disc technology, particularly compact disc read-only (CD-ROM) and optical video discs. Interactive video systems and user interfaces are described, and applications in education and industry in the United Kingdom are reviewed. (Author/LRW)

  4. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  5. Scale-dependent response from the invariant rescaling of stress in a self-gravitating thermomechanical Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkinson, John; Patton, Regan

    2014-05-01

    It is widely known that gravitation can be accounted for via general relativity in a four-dimensional manifold called spacetime. A direct corollary of this is that the observable characteristics of any self-gravitating body in space are closely tied to its 'rheology' - how stress and deformation are related to one another. The large-scale/long-term response of terrestrial planets to loading is arguably dissipative, which can be modeled using purely viscous rheology. Evidence for this includes Earth's flattened ellipsoidal configuration, the likely result of self-gravity and rotation. On the other hand, the small scale, short-term response of solid earth materials is arguably conservative, which can be modeled using purely elastic rheology. Evidence for this includes the propagation of shear waves throughout the crust and mantle. These general observations, combined with long-term creep and attenuation of seismic signals at the longest wavelengths, seems to suggest that networks of springs, dash pots, and sliding masses, although vogue, comprise only one possible family of an otherwise infinite number of rheological models. The response of solid earth materials to loading is a scale-dependent process and involves both elasticity (strain-energy storage) and viscosity (energy dissipation). Tectonic processes are controlled by regional stratification, lithology, thermal structure, fluid content, metamorphic reactions, and deformation rates, many aspects of which are inherited through geological time. Clearly, topography and igneous activity on terrestrial planets are closely allied phenomena, consistent with global and regional isostatic balance demonstrated through gravity-topography analysis. It is reasonable to conclude that crustal stratification and igneous activity are inherent features of the Earth system, which must be predicted by any self-consistent model. We have assumed that solid earth rheology can be modeled using the differential grade-2 (DG-2) material

  6. STAR FORMATION IN SELF-GRAVITATING DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. EPISODIC FORMATION OF BROAD-LINE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    WangJianmin; Du Pu; Ge Junqiang; Hu Chen; Baldwin, Jack A.; Ferland, Gary J.

    2012-02-20

    This is the second in a series of papers discussing the process and effects of star formation in the self-gravitating disk around the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have previously suggested that warm skins are formed above the star-forming (SF) disk through the diffusion of warm gas driven by supernova explosions. Here we study the evolution of the warm skins when they are exposed to the powerful radiation from the inner part of the accretion disk. The skins initially are heated to the Compton temperature, forming a Compton atmosphere (CAS) whose subsequent evolution is divided into four phases. Phase I is the duration of pure accumulation supplied by the SF disk. During phase II clouds begin to form due to line cooling and sink to the SF disk. Phase III is a period of preventing clouds from sinking to the SF disk through dynamic interaction between clouds and the CAS because of the CAS overdensity driven by continuous injection of warm gas from the SF disk. Finally, phase IV is an inevitable collapse of the entire CAS through line cooling. This CAS evolution drives the episodic appearance of broad-line regions (BLRs). We follow the formation of cold clouds through the thermal instability of the CAS during phases II and III, using linear analysis. Since the clouds are produced inside the CAS, the initial spatial distribution of newly formed clouds and angular momentum naturally follow the CAS dynamics, producing a flattened disk of clouds. The number of clouds in phases II and III can be estimated, as well as the filling factor of clouds in the BLR. Since the cooling function depends on the metallicity, the metallicity gradients that originate in the SF disk give rise to different properties of clouds in different radial regions. We find from the instability analysis that clouds have column density N{sub H} {approx}< 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} in the metal-rich regions whereas they have N{sub H} {approx}> 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} in the

  7. The equilibrium and stability of the gaseous component of the galaxy, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellman, S. A.

    1971-01-01

    A time-independent, linear, plane and axially-symmetric stability analysis was performed on a self-gravitating, plane-parallel, isothermal layer of nonmagnetic, nonrotating gas. The gas layer was immersed in a plane-stratified field isothermal layer of stars which supply a self-consistent gravitational field. Only the gaseous component was perturbed. Expressions were derived for the perturbed gas potential and perturbed gas density that satisfied both the Poisson and hydrostatic equilibrium equations. The equation governing the size of the perturbations in the mid-plane was found to be analogous to the one-dimensional time-independent Schrodinger equation for a particle bound by a potential well, and with similar boundary conditions. The radius of the neutral state was computed numerically and compared with the Jeans' and Ledoux radius. The inclusion of a rigid stellar component increased the Ledoux radius, though only slightly. Isodensity contours of the neutrual or marginally unstable state were constructed.

  8. Solid and Gaseous Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Hyman; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review covers methods of sampling, analyzing, and testing coal, coke, and coal-derived solids and methods for the chemical, physical, and instrumental analyses of gaseous fuels. The review covers from October 1986, to September 1988. (MVL)

  9. Modelling and observations of molecules in discs around young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilee, John David

    2013-04-01

    This thesis contains a study of molecules within circumstellar discs around young stars. Firstly, the chemistry of a disc around a young, Class 0 protostar is modelled. Such discs are thought to be massive, and thus experience gravitational instabilities, which produce spiral density waves. These affect the chemistry in three ways; by desorbing molecules from dust grains, by providing extra energy for new reactions to take place, and by mixing the internal structure of the disc to provide a rich chemistry near the midplane. Secondly, high resolution near-infrared spectra of 20 massive young stellar objects are presented. The objects display CO first overtone bandhead emission, which is excited in the conditions expected within circumstellar discs. The emission is modelled using a simple analytic model of a Keplerian disc, and good fits are found to all spectra. On average, the discs correspond to being geometrically thin, spread across a wide range of inclinations. The discs are located within the dust sublimation radius, providing strong evidence that the CO emission originates in small gaseous discs, supporting the scenario in which massive stars form via disc accretion. Finally, medium resolution near-infrared spectra of 5 Herbig Ae/Be stars are presented. The spectra cover both CO bandhead and Br gamma emission. Accretion rates are derived from the measuring the Br gamma emission and through modelling the CO emission, however these accretion rates are found to be inconsistent. High resolution archival data of one of the targets is presented, and it is shown that this CO disc model is unable to fit the high resolution data. Therefore, it is concluded that to properly fit CO spectra, high resolution data are needed, and that previously published information determined from low resolution spectra should be treated with caution.

  10. A truly Newtonian softening length for disc simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huré, J.-M.; Trova, A.

    2015-02-01

    The softened point mass model is commonly used in simulations of gaseous discs including self-gravity while the value of associated length λ remains, to some degree, controversial. This `parameter' is however fully constrained when, in a discretized disc, all fluid cells are demanded to obey Newton's law. We examine the topology of solutions in this context, focusing on cylindrical cells more or less vertically elongated. We find that not only the nominal length depends critically on the cell's shape (curvature, radial extension, height), but it is either a real or an imaginary number. Setting λ as a fraction of the local disc thickness - as usually done - is indeed not the optimal choice. We then propose a novel prescription valid irrespective of the disc properties and grid spacings. The benefit, which amounts to 2-3 more digits typically, is illustrated in a few concrete cases. A detailed mathematical analysis is in progress.

  11. Well-Posedness for the Motion of Physical Vacuum of the Three-dimensional Compressible Euler Equations with or without Self-Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tao; Xin, Zhouping; Zeng, Huihui

    2014-09-01

    This paper concerns the well-posedness theory of the motion of a physical vacuum for the compressible Euler equations with or without self-gravitation. First, a general uniqueness theorem of classical solutions is proved for the three dimensional general motion. Second, for the spherically symmetric motions, without imposing the compatibility condition of the first derivative being zero at the center of symmetry, a new local-in-time existence theory is established in a functional space involving less derivatives than those constructed for three-dimensional motions in (Coutand et al., Commun Math Phys 296:559-587, 2010; Coutand and Shkoller, Arch Ration Mech Anal 206:515-616, 2012; Jang and Masmoudi, Well-posedness of compressible Euler equations in a physical vacuum, 2008) by constructing suitable weights and cutoff functions featuring the behavior of solutions near both the center of the symmetry and the moving vacuum boundary.

  12. Bell's theorem, the measurement problem, Newton's self-gravitation and its connections to violations of the discrete symmetries C, P, T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.

    2015-07-01

    About 50 years ago John St. Bell published his famous Bell theorem that initiated a new field in physics. This contribution discusses how discrete symmetries relate to the big open questions of quantum mechanics, in particular: (i) how correlations stronger than those predicted by theories sharing randomness (Bell's theorem) relate to the violation of the CP symmetry and the P symmetry; and its relation to the security of quantum cryptography, (ii) how the measurement problem (“why do we observe no tables in superposition?”) can be polled in weakly decaying systems, (iii) how strongly and weakly interacting quantum systems are affected by Newton's self gravitation. These presented preliminary results show that the meson-antimeson systems and the hyperon- antihyperon systems are a unique laboratory to tackle deep fundamental questions and to contribute to the understand what impact the violation of discrete symmetries has.

  13. N-body simulation for self-gravitating collisional systems with a new SIMD instruction set extension to the x86 architecture, Advanced Vector eXtensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Ataru; Yoshikawa, Kohji; Okamoto, Takashi; Nitadori, Keigo

    2012-02-01

    We present a high-performance N-body code for self-gravitating collisional systems accelerated with the aid of a new SIMD instruction set extension of the x86 architecture: Advanced Vector eXtensions (AVX), an enhanced version of the Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE). With one processor core of Intel Core i7-2600 processor (8 MB cache and 3.40 GHz) based on Sandy Bridge micro-architecture, we implemented a fourth-order Hermite scheme with individual timestep scheme ( Makino and Aarseth, 1992), and achieved the performance of ˜20 giga floating point number operations per second (GFLOPS) for double-precision accuracy, which is two times and five times higher than that of the previously developed code implemented with the SSE instructions ( Nitadori et al., 2006b), and that of a code implemented without any explicit use of SIMD instructions with the same processor core, respectively. We have parallelized the code by using so-called NINJA scheme ( Nitadori et al., 2006a), and achieved ˜90 GFLOPS for a system containing more than N = 8192 particles with 8 MPI processes on four cores. We expect to achieve about 10 tera FLOPS (TFLOPS) for a self-gravitating collisional system with N ˜ 10 5 on massively parallel systems with at most 800 cores with Sandy Bridge micro-architecture. This performance will be comparable to that of Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) cluster systems, such as the one with about 200 Tesla C1070 GPUs ( Spurzem et al., 2010). This paper offers an alternative to collisional N-body simulations with GRAPEs and GPUs.

  14. Moving-mesh cosmology: properties of gas discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Sijacki, Debora; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars

    2012-12-01

    We compare the structural properties of galaxies formed in cosmological simulations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET with those using the moving-mesh code AREPO. Both codes employ identical gravity solvers and the same subresolution physics but use very different methods to track the hydrodynamic evolution of gas. This permits us to isolate the effects of the hydro solver on the formation and evolution of galactic gas discs in GADGET and AREPO haloes with comparable numerical resolution. In a matching sample of GADGET and AREPO haloes, we fit simulated gas discs with exponential profiles. We find that the cold gas discs formed using the moving-mesh approach have systematically larger disc scale lengths and higher specific angular momenta than their GADGET counterparts across a wide range in halo masses. For low-mass galaxies, differences between the properties of the simulated galaxy discs are caused by an insufficient number of resolution elements which lead to the artificial angular momentum transfer in our SPH calculation. We however find that galactic discs formed in massive haloes, resolved with ≥106 particles/cells, are still systematically smaller in the GADGET run by a factor of ˜2. The reason for this is twofold: (i) the excessive heating of haloes close to the cooling radius due to spurious dissipation of the subsonic turbulence in GADGET reduces the supply of gas which can cool and settle on to the central disc; (ii) the efficient delivery of low angular momentum gaseous blobs to the bottom of the potential well results in the centrally concentrated gas discs in GADGET simulation. While this large population of gaseous blobs in GADGET originates from the filaments which are pressure confined and fragment due to the SPH surface tension while infalling into hot halo atmospheres, it is essentially absent in the moving-mesh calculation, clearly indicating numerical rather than physical origin of the blob material.

  15. The structure of protoplanetary discs around evolving young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsch, Bertram; Johansen, Anders; Lambrechts, Michiel; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2015-03-01

    The formation of planets with gaseous envelopes takes place in protoplanetary accretion discs on time scales of several million years. Small dust particles stick to each other to form pebbles, pebbles concentrate in the turbulent flow to form planetesimals and planetary embryos and grow to planets, which undergo substantial radial migration. All these processes are influenced by the underlying structure of the protoplanetary disc, specifically the profiles of temperature, gas scale height, and density. The commonly used disc structure of the minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN) is a simple power law in all these quantities. However, protoplanetary disc models with both viscous and stellar heating show several bumps and dips in temperature, scale height, and density caused by transitions in opacity, which are missing in the MMSN model. These play an important role in the formation of planets, since they can act as sweet spots for forming planetesimals via the streaming instability and affect the direction and magnitude of type-I migration. We present 2D simulations of accretion discs that feature radiative cooling and viscous and stellar heating, and they are linked to the observed evolutionary stages of protoplanetary discs and their host stars. These models allow us to identify preferred planetesimal and planet formation regions in the protoplanetary disc as a function of the disc's metallicity, accretion rate, and lifetime. We derive simple fitting formulae that feature all structural characteristics of protoplanetary discs during the evolution of several Myr. These fits are straightforward for applying to modelling any growth stage of planets where detailed knowledge of the underlying disc structure is required. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. General polytropic self-gravitating cylinder free-fall and accreting mass string with a chain of collapsed objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Yu-Qing; Hu, Xu-Yao

    2016-06-01

    We present a theoretical model framework for general polytropic (GP) hydrodynamic cylinder under self-gravity of infinite length with axial uniformity and axisymmetry. For self-similar dynamic solutions, we derive valuable integrals, analytic asymptotic solutions, sonic critical curves, shock conditions, and global numerical solutions with or without expansion shocks. Among others, we investigate various dynamic solutions featured with central free-fall asymptotic behaviours, corresponding to a collapsed mass string with a sustained dynamic accretion from a surrounding mass reservoir. Depending on the allowed ranges of a scaling index a < -1, such cylindrical dynamic mass accretion rate could be steady, increasing with time and decreasing with time. Physically, such a collapsed mass string or filament would break up into a sequence of sub-clumps and segments as induced by gravitational Jeans instabilities. Depending on the scales involved, such sub-clumps would evolve into collapsed objects or gravitationally bound systems. In diverse astrophysical and cosmological contexts, such a scenario can be adapted on various temporal, spatial and mass scales to form a chain of collapsed clumps and/or compact objects. Examples include the formation of chains of proto-stars, brown dwarfs and gaseous planets along molecular filaments; the formation of luminous massive stars along magnetized spiral arms and circum-nuclear starburst rings in barred spiral galaxies; the formation of chains of compact stellar objects such as white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes along a highly condensed mass string. On cosmological scales, one can perceive the formation of chains of galaxies, chains of galaxy clusters or even chains of supermassive and hypermassive black holes in the Universe including the early Universe. All these chains referred to above include possible binaries.

  17. GCN: a gaseous Galactic halo stream?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shoko

    2010-10-01

    We show that a string of HI clouds that form part of the high-velocity cloud complex known as GCN is a probable gaseous stream extending over more than 50° in the Galactic halo. The radial velocity gradient along the stream is used to deduce transverse velocities as a function of distance, enabling a family of orbits to be computed. We find that a direction of motion towards the Galactic disc coupled with a mid-stream distance of ~20kpc provides a good match to the observed sky positions and radial velocities of the HI clouds comprising the stream. With an estimated mass of 105Msolar, its progenitor is likely to be a dwarf galaxy. However, no stellar counterpart has been found amongst the currently known Galactic dwarf spheroidal galaxies or stellar streams and the exact origin of the stream is therefore currently unknown.

  18. Precision diagnostic disc injections.

    PubMed

    Fortin, J D

    2000-07-01

    Spinal pain is an important public health problem affecting the population indiscriminately. The structures responsible for pain in the spine include the vertebrae, intervertebral discs, spinal cord, nerve roots, facet joints, ligaments, muscles, atlanto-occipital joints, atlanto-axial joints, and sacroiliac joints. Even though disc herniation, facet joints, strained muscles, and torn ligaments have been attributed to be the cause of most spinal pain, either in the neck and upper extremities, upper and mid back, or low back and lower extremities, disorders of the disc other than disc herniation have been implicated more frequently than any other disorders. Once stifled by misinformation, discography now has applications in a number of clinical settings. While cervical and lumbar discography is well studied and well known, thoracic discography is in its nascent stages of clinical application. The value of discography lies in its ability to produce pain and thereby identify a "pain generator." This allows treatment to be based on the specific cause of pain. The three primary components of diagnostic disc injection are: provocation/analgesia, discometry, and nucleography. Despite the recent exponential growth of noninvasive spinal technology, diagnostic disc injection remains the sole direct method for definitively determining whether a disc is a physiological pain generator. It is clear that discography is a safe and powerful complement to the overall clinical context. PMID:16906185

  19. Percutaneous laser disc decompression.

    PubMed

    Choy, D S

    1995-06-01

    Herniated disc disease has an incidence of 1.7% in the U.S. Heretofore, open operative procedures were the rule for this condition when conservative measures were ineffective. Choy and Ascher introduced this new technique in February 1986 using a Nd:YAG laser introduced into the disc through an optical fiber in a needle. Percutaneous laser disc decompression is based on the principle that in an enclosed hydraulic space, such as an intact disc, a small reduction in volume is associated with a disproportionate fall in pressure. In the disc, this partial vacuum causes the herniated portion to move away from the nerve root back toward the center of the disc. This technique has been taught worldwide and is being performed in most of Europe, Japan, the United States, and Korea. In this special issue devoted to percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD), we will set forth the basic science of PLDD, patient selection, use of the holmium:YAG, and the Nd:YAG lasers, operative technique, and results. PMID:10150634

  20. The effect of self-gravity on vortex instabilities in disc-planet interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Min-Kai; Papaloizou, John C. B.

    2011-08-01

    We study the effect of disc self-gravity on instabilities associated with gaps opened by a giant Saturn mass planet in a protoplanetary disc that lead to the formation of vortices. We also study the non-linear evolution of the vortices when this kind of instability occurs in a self-gravitating disc as well as the potential effect on type III planetary migration due to angular momentum exchange via co-orbital flows. It is shown analytically and is confirmed through linear calculations that vortex-forming modes with low azimuthal mode number, m, are stabilized by the effect of self-gravity if the background structure is assumed fixed. However, the disc’s self-gravity also affects the background gap surface density profile in a way that destabilizes modes with high m. Linear calculations show that the combined effect of self-gravity through its effect on the background structure and its direct effect on the linear modes shifts the most rapidly growing vortex mode to higher m. Hydrodynamic simulations of gaps opened by a Saturn mass planet show more vortices develop with increasing disc mass and therefore importance of self-gravity. For sufficiently large disc mass the vortex instability is suppressed, consistent with analytical expectations. In this case a new global instability develops instead. In the non-linear regime, we found that vortex merging is in general increasingly delayed as the disc mass increases and in some cases multiple vortices persist until the end of simulations. For massive discs in which the vortices merge, the post-merger vortex is localized in azimuth and has similar structure to a Kida-like vortex. This is unlike the case without self-gravity where vortices merge to form a larger vortex extended in azimuth. In order to study the properties of the vortex systems without the influence of the planet, we also performed a series of supplementary simulations of co-orbital Kida-like vortices. We found that self-gravity enables Kida-like vortices

  1. Isothermal Gaseous Detonation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, E. S.

    2015-05-01

    We propose an isothermal gaseous detonation model taking into account the initial pressure of the explosive mixture that permits describing in a simplified form both the self-sustaining and the supercompressed and undercompressed detonation regimes. The exactness of this model has been estimated on the basis of a comparative analysis with the results of equilibrium calculations of the gas-dynamic parameters at the front of detonation waves.

  2. Gaseous fuel reactor research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, K.; Schneider, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews studies dealing with the concept of a gaseous fuel reactor and describes the structure and plans of the current NASA research program of experiments on uranium hexafluoride systems and uranium plasma systems. Results of research into the basic properties of uranium plasmas and fissioning gases are reported. The nuclear pumped laser is described, and the main results of experiments with these devices are summarized.

  3. GASEOUS DISPOSAL PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, R.F.; Thomasson, F.R.; Hicks, J.H.

    1963-01-22

    A method is described of removing gaseous radioactive Xe and Kr from water containing O. The method consists in stripping the gases from the water stream by means of H flowing countercurrently to the stream. The gases are then heated in a deoxo bed to remove O. The carrier gas is next cooled and passed over a charcoal adsorbent bed maintained at a temperature of about --280 deg F to remove the Xe and Kr. (AEC)

  4. Gaseous diffusion system

    DOEpatents

    Garrett, George A.; Shacter, John

    1978-01-01

    1. A gaseous diffusion system comprising a plurality of diffusers connected in cascade to form a series of stages, each of said diffusers having a porous partition dividing it into a high pressure chamber and a low pressure chamber, and means for combining a portion of the enriched gas from a succeeding stage with a portion of the enriched gas from the low pressure chamber of each stage and feeding it into one extremity of the high pressure chamber thereof.

  5. Evolution of gas in debris discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kral, Quentin; Wyatt, Mark; Pringle, Jim

    2015-12-01

    A non negligible quantity of gas has been discovered in an increasing number of debris disc systems. ALMA high sensitivity and high resolution is changing our perception of the gaseous component of debris discs as CO is discovered in systems where it should be rapidly photodissociated. It implies that there is a replenishment mechanism and that the observed gas is secondary. Past missions such as Herschel probed the atomic part of the gas through O I and C II emission lines. Gas science in debris discs is still in its infancy, and these new observations raise a handful of questions concerning the mechanisms to create the gas and about its evolution in the planetary system when it is released. The latter question will be addressed in this talk as a self-consistent gas evolution scenario is proposed and is compared to observations for the peculiar case of β Pictoris.Our model proposes that carbon and oxygen within debris discs are created due to photodissociation of CO which is itself created from the debris disc dust (due to grain-grain collisions or photodesorption). The evolution of the carbon atoms is modelled as viscous spreading, with viscosity parameterised using an α model. The temperature, ionisation fraction and population levels of carbon are followed with a PDR model called Cloudy, which is coupled to the dynamical viscous α model. Only carbon gets ionised due to its lower ionisation potential than oxygen. The carbon gas disc can end up with a high ionisation fraction due to strong FUV radiation field. A high ionisation fraction means that the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is very active, so that α is very high. Gas density profiles can be worked out for different input parameters such as the α value, the CO input rate, the location of the input and the incoming radiation field. Observability predictions can be made for future observations, and our model is tested on β Pictoris observations. This new gas evolution model fits the carbon and CO

  6. Herniated Lumbar Disc

    MedlinePlus

    ... 50. A herniated lumbar disc may also cause back pain, although back pain alone (without leg pain) can have many causes ... 90% success); surgery is less effective in relieving back pain. Nonsurgical treatment Your doctor may prescribe nonsurgical treatments ...

  7. Herniated lumbar disc

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Herniated lumbar disc is a displacement of disc material (nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosis) beyond the intervertebral disc space. The highest prevalence is among people aged 30 to 50 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:1. There is little evidence to suggest that drug treatments are effective in treating herniated disc. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments, non-drug treatments, and surgery for herniated lumbar disc? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 37 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, advice to stay active, analgesics, antidepressants, bed rest, corticosteroids (epidural injections), cytokine inhibitors (infliximab), discectomy (automated percutaneous, laser, microdiscectomy, standard), exercise therapy, heat, ice, massage, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), percutaneous disc decompression, spinal manipulation, and traction. PMID:21711958

  8. Effect of neutral collision and radiative heat-loss function on self-gravitational instability of viscous thermally conducting partially-ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kaothekar, Sachin; Soni, Ghanshyam D.; Chhajlani, Rajendra K.

    2012-12-15

    The problem of thermal instability and gravitational instability is investigated for a partially ionized self-gravitating plasma which has connection in astrophysical condensations. We use normal mode analysis method in this problem. The general dispersion relation is derived using linearized perturbation equations of the problem. Effects of collisions with neutrals, radiative heat-loss function, viscosity, thermal conductivity and magnetic field strength, on the instability of the system are discussed. The conditions of instability are derived for a temperature-dependent and density-dependent heat-loss function with thermal conductivity. Numerical calculations have been performed to discuss the effect of various physical parameters on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. The temperature-dependent heat-loss function, thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field and neutral collision have stabilizing effect, while density-dependent heat-loss function has a destabilizing effect on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. With the help of Routh-Hurwitz's criterion, the stability of the system is discussed.

  9. An analytical solution for the elastic response to surface loads imposed on a layered, transversely isotropic and self-gravitating Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, E.; Chen, J. Y.; Bevis, M.; Bordoni, A.; Barletta, V. R.; Molavi Tabrizi, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present an analytical solution for the elastic deformation of an elastic, transversely isotropic, layered and self-gravitating Earth by surface loads. We first introduce the vector spherical harmonics to express the physical quantities in the layered Earth. This reduces the governing equations to a linear system of equations for the expansion coefficients. We then solve for the expansion coefficients analytically under the assumption (i.e. approximation) that in the mantle, the density in each layer varies as 1/r (where r is the radial coordinate) while the gravity is constant and that in the core the gravity in each layer varies linearly in r with constant density. These approximations dramatically simplify the subsequent mathematical analysis and render closed-form expressions for the expansion coefficients. We implement our solution in a MATLAB code and perform a benchmark which shows both the correctness of our solution and the implementation. We also calculate the load Love numbers (LLNs) of the PREM Earth for different degrees of the Legendre function for both isotropic and transversely isotropic, layered mantles with different core models, demonstrating for the first time the effect of Earth anisotropy on the LLNs.

  10. FIRST INVESTIGATION OF THE COMBINED IMPACT OF IONIZING RADIATION AND MOMENTUM WINDS FROM A MASSIVE STAR ON A SELF-GRAVITATING CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Ngoumou, Judith; Hubber, David; Dale, James E.; Burkert, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars shape the surrounding interstellar matter (ISM) by emitting ionizing photons and ejecting material through stellar winds. To study the impact of the momentum from the wind of a massive star on the surrounding neutral or ionized material, we implemented a new HEALPix-based momentum-conserving wind scheme in the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code SEREN. A qualitative study of the impact of the feedback from an O7.5-like star on a self-gravitating sphere shows that on its own, the transfer of momentum from a wind onto cold surrounding gas has both a compressing and dispersing effect. It mostly affects gas at low and intermediate densities. When combined with a stellar source's ionizing ultraviolet (UV) radiation, we find the momentum-driven wind to have little direct effect on the gas. We conclude that during a massive star's main sequence, the UV ionizing radiation is the main feedback mechanism shaping and compressing the cold gas. Overall, the wind's effects on the dense gas dynamics and on the triggering of star formation are very modest. The structures formed in the ionization-only simulation and in the combined feedback simulation are remarkably similar. However, in the combined feedback case, different SPH particles end up being compressed. This indicates that the microphysics of gas mixing differ between the two feedback simulations and that the winds can contribute to the localized redistribution and reshuffling of gas.

  11. Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, R P; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

    2006-03-06

    The growing interest in gaseous fuels (hydrogen and natural gas) for internal combustion engines calls for the development of computer models for simulation of gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. The model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet in injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.

  12. GASEOUS SCINTILLATION COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Eggler, C.; Huddleston, C.M.

    1959-04-28

    A gaseous excitation counter for detecting the presence amd measuring the energy of subatomic particles and electromagnetic radiation is described. The counter includes a gas-tight chamber filled with an elemental gas capable of producing ultra-violet excitation quanta when irradiated with subatomic particles and electromagnetic radiation. The gas has less than one in a thousand parts ultra-violet absorbing contamination. When nuclear radiation ps present the ultra-violet light produced by the gas strikes a fluorescent material within the counter, responsive to produce visible excitation quanta, and photo-sensitive counting means detect the visible emission.

  13. The ProDisc artificial disc: insertion technique.

    PubMed

    Aryan, Henry E; Acosta, Frank L; Ames, Christopher P

    2005-10-01

    The ProDisc artificial lumbar disc was designed for use in treatment of degenerative lumbar disease. The disc is implanted using an anterior approach to the lumbar spine with the assistance of intraoperative fluoroscopy. A variety of insertion instruments guide the surgeon through this process. The disc is implanted via an anterior approach, generally retroperitoneally but on occasion transperitoneally. The different approaches and insertion technique are described in this article. PMID:16326288

  14. Implicit solution of Stokes flow equation with material transport: toward thermal convection simulation under the self-gravitating field with free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuichi, M.; Nakagawa, T.; May, D.

    2013-12-01

    Stabilizing a numerical oscillation in free surface treatment is chagrining topic for a geodynamics simulation [e.g. Kaus et al. 2010, Duretz et al., 2011]. It is especially important for the Stokes flow simulation under the self-gravitating field based on 'Spherical Cartesian' method [Gerya et al., 2007], which is useful for simulating a long time scale dynamics of sinking metal rich materials to construct planetary core. The conventional explicit time stepping algorithm, which solves Stokes flow equation for a given material distribution at a previous time step, however has a difficulty for simulating dynamics such as a thermal convection, after the construction of layered structure in the planetary interior because of numerical oscillation. One effective approach for such numerically problematic behavior is an implicit treatment of advection term. In this study, three types of implicit strategy are discussed. First is the full implicit treatment with iterative non-linear solver which uses transported density by maker-in-cell method as nonlinear update. The maker-in-cell method is commonly used as low diffusive advection method, but is computationally expensive with makers to mesh interpolation. Second approach uses semi-Lagrangian method for nonlinear update instead of the maker-in-cell method to reduce computational cost. Third approach is to solve the Stokes flow equation combined with the linearized advection term in central-difference discretization to avoid the nonlinear update by the transport. In the second and third algorithms, physical value at the next time step is still transported by low diffusive maker-in-cell method. These three types of implicit method are examined by numerical experiment.

  15. Thick discs, and an outflow, of dense gas in the nuclei of nearby Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Davies, R. I.; Burtscher, L.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; González-Alfonso, E.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Janssen, A.; Lutz, D.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Rosario, D.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L.

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the dense molecular gas in central regions of nearby Seyfert galaxies, and report new arcsec resolution observations of HCN (1-0) and HCO+ (1-0) for three objects. In NGC 3079, the lines show complex profiles as a result of self-absorption and saturated continuum absorption. H13CN reveals the continuum absorption profile, with a peak close to the galaxy's systemic velocity that traces disc rotation, and a second feature with a blue wing extending to -350 km s-1 that most likely traces a nuclear outflow. The morphological and spectral properties of the emission lines allow us to constrain the dense gas dynamics. We combine our kinematic analysis for these three objects, as well as another with archival data, with a previous comparable analysis of four other objects, to create a sample of eight Seyferts. In seven of these, the emission line kinematics imply thick disc structures on radial scales of ˜100 pc, suggesting such structures are a common occurrence. We find a relation between the circum-nuclear LHCN and Mdyn that can be explained by a gas fraction of 10 per cent and a conversion factor αHCN ˜ 10 between gas mass and HCN luminosity. Finally, adopting a different perspective to probe the physical properties of the gas around active galactic nuclei, we report on an analysis of molecular line ratios which indicates that the clouds in this region are not self-gravitating.

  16. The Chemistry of Optical Discs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkett, David

    2002-01-01

    Explains the chemistry used in compact discs (CD), digital versatile discs (DVD), and magneto-optical (MO) discs focusing on the steps of initial creation of the mold, the molding of the polycarbonate, the deposition of the reflective layers, the lacquering of the CDs, and the bonding of DVDs. (Contains 15 references.) (YDS)

  17. How do accretion discs break?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  18. Revival of the Jumping Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucke, C.; Schlichting, H-J.

    2009-01-01

    Snap discs made of bimetal have many technical applications as thermostats. Jumping discs are a toy version of such snap discs. Besides giving technical information, we describe physical investigations. We show especially how, through simple measurements and calculations, you can determine the initial speed ([approximately equal to]3.5 m…

  19. Japan's research on gaseous flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niioka, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    Although research studies on gaseous flames in microgravity in Japan have not been one-sided, they have been limited, for the most part, to comparatively fundamental studies. At present it is only possible to achieve a microgravity field by the use of drop towers, as far as gaseous flames are concerned. Compared with experiments on droplets, including droplet arrays, which have been vigorously performed in Japan, studies on gaseous flames have just begun. Experiments on ignition of gaseous fuel, flammability limits, flame stability, effect of magnetic field on flames, and carbon formation from gaseous flames are currently being carried out in microgravity. Seven subjects related to these topics are introduced and discussed herein.

  20. Learning Language on Disc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Norman

    1995-01-01

    Presents a comparison of two types of compact disc (CD-ROM) foreign language tutorials: (1) those made by publishers who favor an immersion approach; and (2) those made by publishers who use grammar-based approaches. Both types of CD-ROMs address various age groups, skill levels, and learning styles. (JMV)

  1. The DISC Quotient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John R.; Baxter, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    D.I.S.C: Decipherment Impact of a Signal's Content. The authors present a numerical method to characterise the significance of the receipt of a complex and potentially decipherable signal from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). The purpose of the scale is to facilitate the public communication of work on any such claimed signal, as such work proceeds, and to assist in its discussion and interpretation. Building on a "position" paper rationale, this paper looks at the DISC quotient proposed and develops the algorithmic steps and comprising measures that form this post detection strategy for information dissemination, based on prior work on message detection, decipherment. As argued, we require a robust and incremental strategy, to disseminate timely, accurate and meaningful information, to the scientific community and the general public, in the event we receive an "alien" signal that displays decipherable information. This post-detection strategy is to serve as a stepwise algorithm for a logical approach to information extraction and a vehicle for sequential information dissemination, to manage societal impact. The "DISC Quotient", which is based on signal analysis processing stages, includes factors based on the signal's data quantity, structure, affinity to known human languages, and likely decipherment times. Comparisons with human and other phenomena are included as a guide to assessing likely societal impact. It is submitted that the development, refinement and implementation of DISC as an integral strategy, during the complex processes involved in post detection and decipherment, is essential if we wish to minimize disruption and optimize dissemination.

  2. The Teddy Bears' Disc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurillard, Diana

    1985-01-01

    Reports an evaluation of the Teddy Bear disc, an interactive videodisc developed at the Open University for a second-level course in metallurgy and materials technology. Findings from observation of students utilizing the videodisc are reviewed; successful design features and design problems are considered; and development costs are outlined. (MBR)

  3. Planetary migration in protoplanetary discs and outer Solar System architecture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crida, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Tsiganis, K.

    2007-08-01

    Planets form around stars in gaseous protoplanetary discs. Due to tidal effects, they perturb the gas distribution, which in turn affects their motion. If the planet is massive enough (see for instance Crida et al. 2006 for a criterion), it repels the gas efficiently and opens a gap around its orbit ; then, locked into its gap, the planet follows the disc viscous evolution, which generally consists in accretion onto the central star. This process is called type II migration and leads to the orbital decay of the planet on a timescale shorter than the disc lifetime. After a review of these processes, we will focus on the Solar System giant planets. Strong constraints suggest that they did not migrate significantly. Masset and Snellgrove (2001) have shown that the evolution of 2 giants planets in mean motion resonance in a common gap differs from the evolution of a single planet. For what concerns Jupiter and Saturn, we found that in some conditions on the disc parameter, they can avoid significant migration (Morbidelli and Crida 2007). Adding Uranus and Neptune to the system, six stable fully resonant configurations for the four giants in the gas disc appear. Of course, none of them correspond to the present configuration. However, after the gas disc phase, the system was surrounded by a planetesimal disk. Interactions with this debris disk make the planets slowly evolve, until an instability in reached. This destabilises the planetesimal disc and triggers the Late Heavy Bombardment, while the planets reach their actual position, like in the model by Tsiganis et al (2005) and Gomes et al (2005). Our simulations show a very satisfying case, opening the possibility for a dynamically consistent scenario of the outer Solar System evolution, starting from the gas phase.

  4. The first velocity space image of a planetary debris disc orbiting a white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manser, Christopher James

    2015-12-01

    Since the first ESS meeting, dusty debris discs at white dwarfs have been firmly established as signposts of evolved planetary systems. We have identified a small number of systems where the circumstellar dust is accompanied by gas. The emission lines from these gaseous components are tracers of dynamic activity in these remnant planetary environments, and provide unparalleled insight into the formation and evolution of the debris discs, and into the properties of the parent planetesimals.Here we present the twelve years of spectroscopy of the prototypical gas disc at SDSS J1228+1040, revealing a spectacular long-term evolution in the morphology of the emission line profiles. Using Doppler tomography, we constructed an image of the gaseous disc in velocity space, and show that the observations are consistent with the precession of a fixed intensity pattern on a period of 27 ± 3 years. We speculate that the underlying cause of this dynamical activity is either a young, not fully circularised disc, or a perturbation of a previously stable and quiescent disc.

  5. Nonlinear hydrodynamical evolution of eccentric Keplerian discs in two dimensions: validation of secular theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, A. J.; Ogilvie, G. I.

    2016-06-01

    We perform global two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of Keplerian discs with free eccentricity over thousands of orbital periods. Our aim is to determine the validity of secular theory in describing the evolution of eccentric discs, and to explore their nonlinear evolution for moderate eccentricities. Linear secular theory is found to correctly predict the structure and precession rates of discs with small eccentricities. However, discs with larger eccentricities (and eccentricity gradients) are observed to precess faster (retrograde relative to the orbital motion), at a rate that depends on their eccentricities (and eccentricity gradients). We derive analytically a nonlinear secular theory for eccentric gas discs, which explains this result as a modification of the pressure forces whenever eccentric orbits in a disc nearly intersect. This effect could be particularly important for highly eccentric discs produced in tidal disruption events, or for narrow gaseous rings; it might also play a role in causing some of the variability in superhump binary systems. In two dimensions, the eccentricity of a moderately eccentric disc is long-lived and persists throughout the duration of our simulations. Eccentric modes are however weakly damped by their interaction with non-axisymmetric spiral density waves (driven by the Papaloizou-Pringle instability, which occurs in our idealized setup with solid walls), as well as numerical diffusion.

  6. Boundary Element Method in a Self-Gravitating Elastic Half-Space and Its Application to Deformation Induced by Magma Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, M.; Hager, B. H.

    2014-12-01

    In geophysical applications the boundary element method (BEM) often carries the essential physics in addition to being an efficient numerical scheme. For use of the BEM in a self-gravitating uniform half-space, we made extra effort and succeeded in deriving the fundamental solution analytically in closed-form. A problem that goes deep into the heart of the classic BEM is encountered when we try to apply the new fundamental solution in BEM for deformation field induced by a magma chamber or a fluid-filled reservoir. The central issue of the BEM is the singular integral arising from determination of the boundary values. A widely employed technique is to rescale the singular boundary point into a small finite volume and then shrink it to extract the limits. This operation boils down to the calculation of the so-called C-matrix. Authors in the past take the liberty of either adding or subtracting a small volume. By subtracting a small volume, the C-matrix is (1/2)I on a smooth surface, where I is the identity matrix; by adding a small volume, we arrive at the same C-matrix in the form of I - (1/2)I. This evenness is a result of the spherical symmetry of Kelvin's fundamental solution employed. When the spherical symmetry is broken by gravity, the C-matrix is polarized. And we face the choice between right and wrong, for adding and subtracting a small volume yield different C-matrices. Close examination reveals that both derivations, addition and subtraction of a small volume, are ad hoc. To resolve the issue we revisit the Somigliana identity with a new derivation and careful step-by-step anatomy. The result proves that even though both adding and subtracting a small volume appear to twist the original boundary, only addition essentially modifies the original boundary and consequently modifies the physics of the original problem in a subtle way. The correct procedure is subtraction. We complete a new BEM theory by introducing in full analytical form what we call the

  7. Counter-rotating stellar discs around a massive black hole: self-consistent, time-dependent dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touma, J. R.; Sridhar, S.

    2012-07-01

    We formulate the collisionless Boltzmann equation for dense star clusters that lie within the radius of influence of a massive black hole in galactic nuclei. Our approach to these nearly Keplerian systems follows that of Sridhar & Touma: Delaunay canonical variables are used to describe stellar orbits and we average over the fast Keplerian orbital phases. The stellar distribution function (DF) evolves on the longer time-scale of precessional motions, whose dynamics is governed by a Hamiltonian, given by the orbit-averaged self-gravitational potential of the cluster. We specialize to razor-thin, planar discs and consider two counter-rotating ('±') populations of stars. To describe discs of small eccentricities, we expand the ± Hamiltonian to fourth order in the eccentricities, with coefficients that depend self-consistently on the ± DFs. We construct approximate ± dynamical invariants and use Jeans' theorem to construct time-dependent ± DFs, which are completely described by their centroid coordinates and shape matrices. When the centroid eccentricities are larger than the dispersion in eccentricities, the ± centroids obey a set of four autonomous equations ordinary differential equations. We show that these can be cast as a two-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian system which is non-linear, yet integrable. We study the linear instability of initially circular discs and derive a criterion for the counter-rotating instability. We then explore the rich non-linear dynamics of counter-rotating discs, with focus on the variety of steadily precessing eccentric configurations that are allowed. The stability and properties of these configurations are studied as functions of parameters such as the disc mass ratios and angular momentum.

  8. Mechanotransduction in intervertebral discs

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Cheng, Chao-Min; Chen, Chien-Fu; Lai, Po-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Mechanotransduction plays a critical role in intracellular functioning—it allows cells to translate external physical forces into internal biochemical activities, thereby affecting processes ranging from proliferation and apoptosis to gene expression and protein synthesis in a complex web of interactions and reactions. Accordingly, aberrant mechanotransduction can either lead to, or be a result of, a variety of diseases or degenerative states. In this review, we provide an overview of mechanotransduction in the context of intervertebral discs, with a focus on the latest methods of investigating mechanotransduction and the most recent findings regarding the means and effects of mechanotransduction in healthy and degenerative discs. We also provide some discussion of potential directions for future research and treatments. PMID:25267492

  9. Biomechanics of Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Palepu, V.; Kodigudla, M.; Goel, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Disc degeneration and associated disorders are among the most debated topics in the orthopedic literature over the past few decades. These may be attributed to interrelated mechanical, biochemical, and environmental factors. The treatment options vary from conservative approaches to surgery, depending on the severity of degeneration and response to conservative therapies. Spinal fusion is considered to be the “gold standard” in surgical methods till date. However, the association of adjacent level degeneration has led to the evolution of motion preservation technologies like spinal arthroplasty and posterior dynamic stabilization systems. These new technologies are aimed to address pain and preserve motion while maintaining a proper load sharing among various spinal elements. This paper provides an elaborative biomechanical review of the technologies aimed to address the disc degeneration and reiterates the point that biomechanical efficacy followed by long-term clinical success will allow these nonfusion technologies as alternatives to fusion, at least in certain patient population. PMID:22745914

  10. LUMBAR DISC HERNIATION

    PubMed Central

    Vialle, Luis Roberto; Vialle, Emiliano Neves; Suárez Henao, Juan Esteban; Giraldo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is the most common diagnosis among the degenerative abnormalities of the lumbar spine (affecting 2 to 3% of the population), and is the principal cause of spinal surgery among the adult population. The typical clinical picture includes initial lumbalgia, followed by progressive sciatica. The natural history of disc herniation is one of rapid resolution of the symptoms (four to six weeks). The initial treatment should be conservative, managed through medication and physiotherapy, sometimes associated with percutaneous nerve root block. Surgical treatment is indicated if pain control is unsuccessful, if there is a motor deficit greater than grade 3, if there is radicular pain associated with foraminal stenosis, or if cauda equina syndrome is present. The latter represents a medical emergency. A refined surgical technique, with removal of the extruded fragment and preservation of the ligamentum flavum, resolves the sciatic symptoms and reduces the risk of recurrence over the long term. PMID:27019834

  11. [Cervical disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Schnake, K J; Hoffmann, C-H; Kandziora, F

    2012-12-01

    The cervical disc herniation is characterized by prolapsed nucleus pulposus material through the annulus into the spinal canal. The local mechanical or chemical irritation of neural structures typically leads to symptoms of radiculopathy, cervicocephalgia or myelopathy. Pronounced sensorimotor deficits or intractable pain constitute surgical treatment. In all other cases conservative treatment is indicated, including pain medication, active and passive physiotherapy, and local injections, respectively. Anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion (ACDF) is still the surgical treatment of choice. Predominantly, cages with or without plates are in use to obtain solid fusion. The implantation of a total disc replacement is a viable alternative, if no contraindications exist. Other surgical techniques may be performed in proper selected cases. The overall clinical and radiological results of both surgical and conservative treatment are good. PMID:23296562

  12. Total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. PMID:24412045

  13. Counter-rotating accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyda, S.; Lovelace, R. V. E.; Ustyugova, G. V.; Romanova, M. M.; Koldoba, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud on to the surface of an existing corotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inwards to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc centre. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of viscous counter-rotating discs for the cases where the two components are vertically separated and radially separated. The viscosity is described by an isotropic α-viscosity including all terms in the viscous stress tensor. For the vertically separated components, a shear layer forms between them and the middle part of this layer free-falls to the disc centre. The accretion rates are increased by factors of ˜102-104 over that for a conventional disc rotating in one direction with the same viscosity. The vertical width of the shear layer and the accretion rate are strongly dependent on the viscosity and the mass fraction of the counter-rotating gas. In the case of radially separated components where the inner disc corotates and the outer disc rotates in the opposite direction, a gap between the two components opens and closes quasi-periodically. The accretion rates are ≳25 times larger than those for a disc rotating in one direction with the same viscosity.

  14. Have protoplanetary discs formed planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, J. S.; Rice, W. K. M.

    2010-09-01

    It has recently been noted that many discs around T Tauri stars appear to comprise only a few Jupiter masses of gas and dust. Using millimetre surveys of discs within six local star formation regions, we confirm this result, and find that only a few per cent of young stars have enough circumstellar material to build gas giant planets, in standard core accretion models. Since the frequency of observed exoplanets is greater than this, there is a `missing-mass' problem. As alternatives to simply adjusting the conversion of dust flux to disc mass, we investigate three other classes of solution. Migration of planets could hypothetically sweep up the disc mass reservoir more efficiently, but trends in multiplanet systems do not support such a model, and theoretical models suggest that the gas accretion time-scale is too short for migration to sweep the disc. Enhanced inner-disc mass reservoirs are possible, agreeing with predictions of disc evolution through self-gravity, but not adding to millimetre dust flux as the inner disc is optically thick. Finally, the incidence of massive discs is shown to be higher at the protostellar stages, Classes 0 and I, where discs substantial enough to form planets via core accretion are abundant enough to match the frequency of exoplanets. Gravitational instability may also operate in the Class 0 epoch, where half the objects have potentially unstable discs of >~30 per cent of the stellar mass. However, recent calculations indicate that forming gas giants inside 50 au by instability is unlikely, even in such massive discs. Overall, the results presented suggest that the canonically `protoplanetary' discs of Class II T Tauri stars have globally low masses in dust observable at millimetre wavelengths, and conversion to larger bodies (anywhere from small rocks up to planetary cores) must already have occurred.

  15. Gaseous Emissions from Wastewater Facilities.

    PubMed

    Koh, Sock-Hoon; Shaw, Andrew R

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to gaseous emissions from wastewater facilities is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: odorant emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs); greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from WWTPs; gaseous emissions from wastewater collection systems; physiochemical odor/emissions control methods; biological odor/emissions control methods; odor characterization/monitoring; and odor impacts/ risk assessments. PMID:27620089

  16. Disc edge veins of Kraupa associated with optic disc drusen

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Andrea; Almela, Miguel Angel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Disc edge veins of Kraupa are a rare anomaly of the retinal venous system in which the main trunk of the retinal vein disappeared into the margin of the optic disc instead of its centre. Methods: A 40-year-old woman was detected to have an anomaly in her left optic disc in a routine eye examination. The eyes had an anomaly of the retinal venous system in which all branches of the retinal vein joined in a common trunk that entered the disc margin inferonasally. The central retinal artery issued from the centre of the disc separately of the venous system. B-scan ultrasonografhy revealed the presence of hyperechoic imaging at the optic nerve head in both eyes. Results: We describe the association of disc edge veins of Kraupa with optic disc drusen. Conclusion: Vascular complications of optic disc drusen hav been described. We don’t know the implication of disc edge veins in the pathogenesis of these complications.

  17. Growth of Gas-giant Cores in Protoplanetary Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, Michiel

    2011-09-01

    The core accretion scenario is the most successful theoretical model for gas-giant formation. However, the initial growth of the core depends on arbitrary assumptions on planetesimal sizes. Growing the solid core before gas dissipation is problematic due to the long time-scale for run-away accretion, especially in the outer distant regions of a protoplanetary disc. We have studied the dynamics of gas-coupled cm-sized pebbles, gravitationally interacting with larger than km-sized cores. The Pencil Code is used to correctly model the gas drag hydrodynamics. Interestingly, the presence of pebbles in the gaseous disc influences both the dynamics (through dynamical friction) and growth rate of the gas-giant core. Under favourable conditions, i.e. unity mid-plane dust-to-gas ratio and particle growth to mm and cm sizes, pebble accretion turns out to be significantly faster than run-away accretion of planetesimals.

  18. Enclosed rotary disc air pulser

    DOEpatents

    Olson, A. L.; Batcheller, Tom A.; Rindfleisch, J. A.; Morgan, John M.

    1989-01-01

    An enclosed rotary disc air pulser for use with a solvent extraction pulse olumn includes a housing having inlet, exhaust and pulse leg ports, a shaft mounted in the housing and adapted for axial rotation therein, first and second disc members secured to the shaft within the housing in spaced relation to each other to define a chamber therebetween, the chamber being in communication with the pulse leg port, the first disc member located adjacent the inlet port, the second disc member being located adjacent the exhaust port, each disc member having a milled out portion, the disc members positioned on the shaft so that as the shaft rotates, the milled out portions permit alternative cyclical communication between the inlet port and the chamber and the exhaust port and the chamber.

  19. Edge-on thick discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasparova, A.; Katkov, I.; Chilingarian, I.; Silchenko, O.; Moiseev, A.; Borisov, S.

    2016-06-01

    Although thick stellar discs are detected in nearly all edge-on disc galaxies, their formation scenarios still remain a matter of debate. Due to observational difficulties, there is a lack of information about their stellar populations. Using the Russian 6-m telescope BTA we collected deep spectra of thick discs in three edge-on early-type disc galaxies located in different environments: NGC4111 in a dense group, NGC4710 in the Virgo cluster, and NGC5422 in a sparse group. We see intermediate age (4 ‑ 5 Gyr) metal rich ([Fe/H] ~ ‑0.2 ‑ 0.0 dex) stellar populations in NGC4111 and NGC4710. On the other hand, NGC5422 does not harbour young stars, its only disc is thick and old (10 Gyr) and its α-element abundance suggests a long formation epoch implying its formation at high redshift. Our results prove the diversity of thick disc formation scenarios.

  20. Gas and stellar spiral structures in tidally perturbed disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettitt, Alex R.; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Wadsley, James W.

    2016-06-01

    Tidal interactions between disc galaxies and low-mass companions are an established method for generating galactic spiral features. In this work, we present a study of the structure and dynamics of spiral arms driven in interactions between disc galaxies and perturbing companions in 3D N-body/smoothed hydrodynamical numerical simulations. Our specific aims are to characterize any differences between structures formed in the gas and stars from a purely hydrodynamical and gravitational perspective, and to find a limiting case for spiral structure generation. Through analysis of a number of different interacting cases, we find that there is very little difference between arm morphology, pitch angles and pattern speeds between the two media. The main differences are a minor offset between gas and stellar arms, clear spurring features in gaseous arms, and different radial migration of material in the stronger interacting cases. We investigate the minimum mass of a companion required to drive spiral structure in a galactic disc, finding the limiting spiral generation cases with companion masses of the order of 1 × 109 M⊙, equivalent to only 4 per cent of the stellar disc mass, or 0.5 per cent of the total galactic mass of a Milky Way analogue.

  1. Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.; Dane, C.W.

    1964-01-01

    Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.

  2. Preparation of ormetoprim sulfadimethoxine medicated discs for disc diffusion assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Romet (a blend of ormetoprim and sulfadimethoxine) is a typeA medicated article for the manufacture of medicated feed in the catfish industry. Recently, the commercial manufacture of ormetoprim–sulfadimethoxine susceptibility discs was discontinued. Ormetoprim–sulfadimethoxine discs were prepared at...

  3. Estimating the fossil disc mass during supermassive black hole mergers: the importance of torque implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazzari, M.; Lodato, G.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we revisit the issue of estimating the `fossil' disc mass in the circumprimary disc, during the merger of a supermassive black hole binary. As the binary orbital decay speeds up due to the emission of gravitational waves, the gas in the circumprimary disc might be forced to accrete rapidly and could in principle provide a significant electromagnetic counterpart to the gravitational wave emission. Since the luminosity of such flare is proportional to the gaseous mass in the circumprimary disc, estimating such mass accurately is important. Previous investigations of this issue have produced contradictory results, with some authors estimating super-Eddington flares and large disc mass, while others suggesting that the `fossil' disc mass is very low, even less than a Jupiter mass. Here, we perform simple 1D calculations to show that such very low estimates of the disc mass are an artefact of the specific implementation of the tidal torque in 1D models. In particular, for moderate mass ratios of the binary, the usual formula for the torque used in 1D models significantly overestimates the width of the gap induced by the secondary and this artificially leads to a very small leftover circumprimary disc. Using a modified torque, calibrated to reproduce the correct gap width as estimated by 3D models, leads to fossil disc masses of the order of one solar mass. The rapid accretion of the whole circumprimary disc would produce peak luminosities of the order of 1-20 times the Eddington luminosity. Even if a significant fraction of the gas escapes accretion by flowing out the secondary orbit during the merger (an effect not included in our calculations), we would still predict close to Eddington luminosities that might be easily detected.

  4. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc arthroplasty devices have come onto the market and completed Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trials. Though some of the early results demonstrate equivalency of arthroplasty to fusion, compelling evidence of benefits in terms of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration are lacking. In addition, non-industry-sponsored studies indicate that these devices are equivalent to fusion in terms of adjacent segment degeneration. Longer-term studies will eventually provide the definitive answer. PMID:24353955

  5. Stabilizing a gaseous optical laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauan, A.; Shimoda, K.

    1974-01-01

    Frequency of gaseous optical laser can be stabilized by sinusoidally modulating the geometry of the cavity. Fabry-Perot dielectric mirrors are mounted in two Invar blocks that are connected by four magnetorestrictive bars. Each bar has three coils to sinusoidally modulate system. Ac establishes frequency, and dc the average value; both are supplied to coil from control system.

  6. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Hubber, David A.; Goodwin, Simon P.

    2016-08-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-alignment processes, which tend to misalign the components. The alignment process dominates in systems with misalignment angle near 90°, while the anti-alignment process dominates in systems with the misalignment angle near 0° or 180°. This means that highly misaligned systems will become more aligned but slightly misaligned systems will become more misaligned.

  7. Medical Information on Optical Disc*

    PubMed Central

    Schipma, Peter B.; Cichocki, Edward M.; Ziemer, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    Optical discs may permit a revolutionary change in the distribution and use of medical information. A single compact disc, similar in size to that used for digital audio recording, can contain over 500 million characters of information that is accessible by a Personal Computer. These discs can be manufactured at a cost lower than that of print on paper, at reasonable volumes. Software can provide the health care professional with nearly instantaneous access to the information. Thus, for the first time, the opportunity exists to have large local medical information collections. This paper describes an application of this technology in the field of Oncology.

  8. On total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Berg, Svante

    2011-02-01

    Low back pain consumes a large part of the community's resources dedicated to health care and sick leave. Back disorders also negatively affect the individual leading to pain suffering, decreased quality-of-life and disability. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) due to degenerative disc disease (DDD) is today often treated with fusion when conservative treatment has failed and symptoms are severe. This treatment is as successful as arthroplasty is for hip arthritis in restoring the patient's quality of life and reducing disability. Even so, there are some problems with this treatment, one of these being recurrent CLBP from an adjacent segment (ASD) after primarily successful surgery. This has led to the development of alternative surgical treatments and devices that maintain or restore mobility, in order to reduce the risk for ASD. Of these new devices, the most frequently used are the disc prostheses used in Total Disc Replacement (TDR). This thesis is based on four studies comparing total disc replacement with posterior fusion. The studies are all based on a material of 152 patients with DDD in one or two segments, aged 20-55 years that were randomly treated with either posterior fusion or TDR. The first study concerned clinical outcome and complications. Follow-up was 100% at both one and two years. It revealed that both treatment groups had a clear benefit from treatment and that patients with TDR were better in almost all outcome scores at one-year follow-up. Fusion patients continued to improve during the second year. At two-year follow-up there was a remaining difference in favour of TDR for back pain. 73% in the TDR group and 63% in the fusion group were much better or totally pain-free (n.s.), while twice as many patients in the TDR group were totally pain free (30%) compared to the fusion group (15%). Time of surgery and total time in hospital were shorter in the TDR group. There was no difference in complications and reoperations, except that seventeen of the

  9. Decellularized allogeneic intervertebral disc: natural biomaterials for regenerating disc degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhijun; Chen, Kai; Shan, Zhi; Chen, Shuai; Wang, Jiying; Mo, Jian; Ma, Jianjun; Xu, Wenbing; Qin, An; Fan, Shunwu

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration is associated with back pain and disc herniation. This study established a modified protocol for intervertebral disc (IVD) decellularization and prepared its extracellular matrix (ECM). By culturing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)(3, 7, 14 and 21 days) and human degenerative IVD cells (7 days) in the ECM, implanting it subcutaneously in rabbit and injecting ECM microparticles into degenerative disc, the biological safety and efficacy of decellularized IVD was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrated that cellular components can be removed completely after decellularization and maximally retain the structure and biomechanics of native IVD. We revealed that allogeneic ECM did not evoke any apparent inflammatory reaction in vivo and no cytotoxicity was found in vitro. Moreover, IVD ECM can induce differentiation of MSCs into IVD-like cells in vitro. Furthermore, allogeneic ECM microparticles are effective on the treatment of rabbit disc degeneration in vivo. In conclusion, our study developed an optimized method for IVD decellularization and we proved decellularized IVD is safe and effective for the treatment of degenerated disc diseases. PMID:26933821

  10. Enlivening Physics, a Local Video Disc Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes how to make and use an inexpensive video disc of physics demonstrations. Discusses the background, production of the disc, subject of the disc including angular momentum, "monkey and the hunter" experiment, Doppler shift, pressure of a constant volume of gas thermometer, and wave effects, and using the disc in classroom. (YP)

  11. Disc Golf: Teaching a Lifetime Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastham, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Disc golf is a lifetime activity that can be enjoyed by students of varying skill levels and abilities. Disc golf follows the principles of ball golf but is generally easier for students to play and enjoy success. The object of disc golf is similar to ball golf and involves throwing a disc from the teeing area to the target in as few throws as…

  12. Tissue engineering: A live disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hukins, David W. L.

    2005-12-01

    A material-cell hybrid device that mimics the anatomic shape of the intervertebral disc has been made and successfully implanted into mice to show that tissue engineering may, in the future, benefit sufferers from back pain.

  13. Disc Golf, a Growing Sport

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Joseph T.; Jones, Richard E.; Runstrom, Michael; Hardy, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    Background Disc golf is a sport played much like traditional golf, but rather than using a ball and club, players throw flying discs with various throwing motions. It has been played by an estimated 8 to 12 million people in the United States. Like all sports, injuries sustained while playing disc golf are not uncommon. Although formalized in the 1970s, it has grown at a rapid pace; however, disc golf–related injuries have yet to be described in the medical literature. Purpose To describe the most common injuries incurred by disc golf players while comparing the different types of throwing styles. Study Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods The data in this study were collected from 883 disc golf players who responded to an online survey collected over a 1-month period. Respondents answered 49 questions related to demographics, experience, style of play, and injury details. Using a chi-square analysis, common injuries sustained in players using backhand and forehand throwing styles were compared. Results More than 81% of respondents stated that they had sustained an injury playing disc golf, including injuries to the elbow (n = 325), shoulder (n = 305), back (n = 218), and knee (n = 199). The injuries were most commonly described as a muscle strain (n = 241), sprain (n = 162), and tendinitis (n = 145). The type of throw primarily used by players varied, with 86.2% using backhand, 12.7% using forehand, and 1.1% using an overhead throw. Players using a forehand throw were more likely to sustain an elbow injury (P = .014). Many players (n = 115) stated they had undergone surgery due to a disc golf–related injury, with the most common surgeries including meniscal, shoulder, spine, and foot/ankle surgeries. Conclusion The majority of surveyed disc golfers sustained at least 1 injury while playing disc golf, with many requiring surgery. The types of injuries sustained by players varied by the types of throw primarily used. As the sport of disc golf continues

  14. Percutaneous diode laser disc nucleoplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menchetti, P. P.; Longo, Leonardo

    2004-09-01

    The treatment of herniated disc disease (HNP) over the years involved different miniinvasive surgical options. The classical microsurgical approach has been substituted over the years both by endoscopic approach in which is possible to practice via endoscopy a laser thermo-discoplasty, both by percutaneous laser disc nucleoplasty. In the last ten years, the percutaneous laser disc nucleoplasty have been done worldwide in more than 40000 cases of HNP. Because water is the major component of the intervertebral disc, and in HNP pain is caused by the disc protrusion pressing against the nerve root, a 980 nm Diode laser introduced via a 22G needle under X-ray guidance and local anesthesia, vaporizes a small amount of nucleous polposus with a disc shrinkage and a relief of pressure on nerve root. Most patients get off the table pain free and are back to work in 5 to 7 days. Material and method: to date, 130 patients (155 cases) suffering for relevant symptoms therapy-resistant 6 months on average before consulting our department, have been treated. Eightyfour (72%) males and 46 (28%) females had a percutaneous laser disc nucleoplasty. The average age of patients operated was 48 years (22 - 69). The level of disc removal was L3/L4 in 12 cases, L4/L5 in 87 cases and L5/S1 in 56 cases. Two different levels were treated at the same time in 25 patients. Results: the success rate at a minimum follow-up of 6 months was 88% with a complication rate of 0.5%.

  15. Photon detectors with gaseous amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1996-08-01

    Gaseous photon detectors, including very large 4{pi}-devices such as those incorporated in SLD and DELPHI, are finally delivering physics after many years of hard work. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photoelectrons. Among detector builders, there is hardly anybody who did not make mistakes in this area, and who does not have a healthy respect for the problems involved. This point is stressed in this paper, and it is suggested that only a very small operating phase space is available for running gaseous photon detectors in a very large system with good efficiency and few problems. In this paper the authors discuss what was done correctly or incorrectly in first generation photon detectors, and what would be their recommendations for second generation detectors. 56 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Gaseous fuel nuclear reactor research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Thom, K.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors are described; their distinguishing feature is the use of fissile fuels in a gaseous or plasma state, thereby breaking the barrier of temperature imposed by solid-fuel elements. This property creates a reactor heat source that may be able to heat the propellant of a rocket engine to 10,000 or 20,000 K. At this temperature level, gas-core reactors would provide the breakthrough in propulsion needed to open the entire solar system to manned and unmanned spacecraft. The possibility of fuel recycling makes possible efficiencies of up to 65% and nuclear safety at reduced cost, as well as high-thrust propulsion capabilities with specific impulse up to 5000 sec.

  17. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power. PMID:25004532

  18. Planar Reflection of Gaseous Detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damazo, Jason Scott

    Pipes containing flammable gaseous mixtures may be subjected to internal detonation. When the detonation normally impinges on a closed end, a reflected shock wave is created to bring the flow back to rest. This study built on the work of Karnesky (2010) and examined deformation of thin-walled stainless steel tubes subjected to internal reflected gaseous detonations. A ripple pattern was observed in the tube wall for certain fill pressures, and a criterion was developed that predicted when the ripple pattern would form. A two-dimensional finite element analysis was performed using Johnson-Cook material properties; the pressure loading created by reflected gaseous detonations was accounted for with a previously developed pressure model. The residual plastic strain between experiments and computations was in good agreement. During the examination of detonation-driven deformation, discrepancies were discovered in our understanding of reflected gaseous detonation behavior. Previous models did not accurately describe the nature of the reflected shock wave, which motivated further experiments in a detonation tube with optical access. Pressure sensors and schlieren images were used to examine reflected shock behavior, and it was determined that the discrepancies were related to the reaction zone thickness extant behind the detonation front. During these experiments reflected shock bifurcation did not appear to occur, but the unfocused visualization system made certainty impossible. This prompted construction of a focused schlieren system that investigated possible shock wave-boundary layer interaction, and heat-flux gauges analyzed the boundary layer behind the detonation front. Using these data with an analytical boundary layer solution, it was determined that the strong thermal boundary layer present behind the detonation front inhibits the development of reflected shock wave bifurcation.

  19. Recent work on gaseous detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettleton, M. A.

    The paper reviews recent progress in the field of gaseous detonations, with sections on shock diffraction and reflection, the transition to detonation, hybrid, spherically-imploding, and galloping and stuttering fronts, their structure, their transmission and quenching by additives, the critical energy for initiation and detonation of more unusual fuels. The final section points out areas where our understanding is still far from being complete and contains some suggestions of ways in which progress might be made.

  20. MRI Evaluation of Lumbar Disc Degenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rupal; Mehta, Chetan; Patel, Narrotam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lower back pain secondary to degenerative disc disease is a condition that affects young to middle-aged persons with peak incidence at approximately 40 y. MRI is the standard imaging modality for detecting disc pathology due to its advantage of lack of radiation, multiplanar imaging capability, excellent spinal soft-tissue contrast and precise localization of intervertebral discs changes. Aims and Objective: To evaluate the characterization, extent, and changes associated with the degenerative lumbar disc disease by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Study Design: Cross-sectional and observational study. Materials and Methods: A total 109 patients of the lumbar disc degeneration with age group between 17 to 80 y were diagnosed & studied on 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging machine. MRI findings like lumbar lordosis, Schmorl’s nodes, decreased disc height, disc annular tear, disc herniation, disc bulge, disc protrusion and disc extrusion were observed. Narrowing of the spinal canal, lateral recess and neural foramen with compression of nerve roots observed. Ligamentum flavum thickening and facetal arthropathy was observed. Result: Males were more commonly affected in Degenerative Spinal Disease & most of the patients show loss of lumbar lordosis. Decreased disc height was common at L5-S1 level. More than one disc involvement was seen per person. L4 – L5 disc was the most commonly involved. Annular disc tear, disc herniation, disc extrusion, narrowing of spinal canal, narrowing of lateral recess, compression of neural foramen, ligamentum flavum thickening and facetal arthropathy was common at the L4 –L5 disc level. Disc buldge was common at L3 – L4 & L4 – L5 disc level. Posterior osteophytes are common at L3 - L4 & L5 –S1 disc level. L1- L2 disc involvement and spondylolisthesis are less common. Conclusion: Lumbar disc degeneration is the most common cause of low back pain. Plain radiograph can be helpful in visualizing gross anatomic changes in

  1. IRAS 19135+3937: an SRd variable as interacting binary surrounded by a circumbinary disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlova, N.; Van Winckel, H.; Ikonnikova, N. P.; Burlak, M. A.; Komissarova, G. V.; Jorissen, A.; Gielen, C.; Debosscher, J.; Degroote, P.

    2015-08-01

    Semi-regular (SR) variables are not a homogeneous class and their variability is often explained due to pulsations and/or binarity. This study focuses on IRAS 19135+3937, an SRd variable with an infrared excess indicative of a dusty disc. A time series of high-resolution spectra, UBV photometry as well as a very accurate light curve obtained by the Kepler satellite, allowed us to study the object in unprecedented detail. We discovered it to be a binary with a period of 127 d. The primary has a low surface gravity and an atmosphere depleted in refractory elements. This combination of properties unambiguously places IRAS 19135+3937 in the subclass of post-asymptotic giant branch stars with dusty discs. We show that the light variations in this object cannot be due to pulsations, but are likely caused by the obscuration of the primary by the circumbinary disc during orbital motion. Furthermore, we argue that the double-peaked Fe emission lines provide evidence for the existence of a gaseous circumbinary Keplerian disc inside the dusty disc. A secondary set of absorption lines has been detected near light minimum, which we attribute to the reflected spectrum of the primary on the disc wall, which segregates due to the different Doppler shift. This corroborates the recent finding that reflection in the optical by this type of discs is very efficient. The system also shows a variable H α profile indicating a collimated outflow originating around the companion. IRAS 19135+3937 thus encompasses all the major emergent trends about evolved disc systems, that will eventually help to place these objects in the evolutionary context.

  2. Prosthetic lumbar disc replacement for degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Arvind G; Diwan, Ashish D

    2005-12-01

    Mechanical articulated device to replace intervertebral disc as a treatment for low back pain secondary to disc degeneration has emerged as a promising tool for selected patients. The potential advantages are prevention of adjacent segment degeneration, maintenance of mobility as well as avoidance of all the complications associated with fusion. The short-term results have been comparable to that of fusion, a few mid-term results have shown mixed outcome, but information on long-term results and performance are not available at present. The rationale for lumbar disc arthroplasty, indications, contraindications, the various artificial devices in the market and the concepts intrinsic to each of them, basic technique of insertion, complications are discussed and a brief summary of our experience with one of the devices is presented. PMID:16565543

  3. Chondrule transport in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Aaron Z.; Owen, James E.; Jacquet, Emmanuel

    2015-10-01

    Chondrule formation remains one of the most elusive early Solar system events. Here, we take the novel approach of employing numerical simulations to investigate chondrule origin beyond purely cosmochemical methods. We model the transport of generically produced chondrules and dust in a 1D viscous protoplanetary disc model in order to constrain the chondrule formation events. For a single formation event we are able to match analytical predictions of the memory they retain of each other (complementarity), finding that a large mass accretion rate (≳10-7 M⊙ yr-1) allows for delays on the order of the disc's viscous time-scale between chondrule formation and chondrite accretion. Further, we find older discs to be severely diminished of chondrules, with accretion rates ≲10-9 M⊙ yr-1 for nominal parameters. We then characterize the distribution of chondrule origins in both space and time, as functions of disc parameters and chondrule formation rates, in runs with continuous chondrule formation and both static and evolving discs. Our data suggest that these can account for the observed diversity between distinct chondrite classes, if some diversity in accretion time is allowed for.

  4. Gravitoturbulence in magnetized protostellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riols, A.; Latter, H.

    2016-08-01

    Gravitational instability (GI) features in several aspects of protostellar disc evolution, most notably in angular momentum transport, fragmentation, and the outbursts exemplified by FU Ori and EX Lupi systems. The outer regions of protostellar discs may also be coupled to magnetic fields, which could then modify the development of GI. To understand the basic elements of their interaction, we perform local 2D ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulations with an imposed toroidal field. In the regime of moderate plasma beta, we find that the system supports a hot gravitoturbulent state, characterized by considerable magnetic energy and stress and a surprisingly large Toomre parameter Q ≳ 10. This result has potential implications for disc structure, vertical thickness, ionization, etc. Our simulations also reveal the existence of long-lived and dense `magnetic islands' or plasmoids. Lastly, we find that the presence of a magnetic field has little impact on the fragmentation criterion of the disc. Though our focus is on protostellar discs, some of our results may be relevant for the outer radii of AGN.

  5. 21 cm absorption by compact hydrogen discs around black holes in radio-loud nuclei of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, Abraham

    2008-05-15

    The clumpy maser discs observed in some galactic nuclei mark the outskirts of the accretion disc that fuels the central black hole and provide a potential site of nuclear star formation. Unfortunately, most of the gas in maser discs is currently not being probed; large maser gains favor paths that are characterized by a small velocity gradient and require rare edge-on orientations of the disc. Here we propose a method for mapping the atomic hydrogen distribution in nuclear discs through its 21 cm absorption against the radio continuum glow around the central black hole. In NGC 4258, the 21 cm optical depth may approach unity for high angular resolution (VLBI) imaging of coherent clumps which are dominated by thermal broadening and have the column density inferred from x-ray absorption data, {approx}10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}. Spreading the 21 cm absorption over the full rotation velocity width of the material in front of the narrow radio jets gives a mean optical depth of {approx}0.1. Spectroscopic searches for the 21 cm absorption feature in other galaxies can be used to identify the large population of inclined gaseous discs which are not masing in our direction. Follow-up imaging of 21 cm silhouettes of accelerating clumps within these discs can in turn be used to measure cosmological distances.

  6. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihajoki, P.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength λ = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  7. Laser engineering of spine discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobol, E.; Zakharkina, O.; Baskov, A.; Shekhter, A.; Borschenko, I.; Guller, A.; Baskov, V.; Omelchenko, A.; Sviridov, A.

    2009-04-01

    The laser engineering of intervertebral discs is one of the branch of medical physics aimed at the development of minimally invasive laser medical techniques based on the effect of the controlled (time- and space-modulated) laser radiation on the structure and the field of mechanical stress of biological tissues. A new method for the laser engineering of the intervertebral discs and the differences of this approach from the existing physical methods of medical treatment are considered. The newly formed tissues of animals and humans are hystologically studied. Possible regeneration processes are discussed. A control system that provides for the treatment efficiency and safety is developed. The new laser medical equipment that is designed for the laser engineering of intervertebral discs is described, and the corresponding results of the clinical application are presented.

  8. Debris disc formation induced by planetary growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Löhne, T.

    2014-08-01

    Several hundred stars older than 10 million years have been observed to have infrared excesses. These observations are explained by dust grains formed by the collisional fragmentation of hidden planetesimals. Such dusty planetesimal discs are known as debris discs. In a dynamically cold planetesimal disc, collisional coagulation of planetesimals produces planetary embryos which then stir the surrounding leftover planetesimals. Thus, the collisional fragmentation of planetesimals that results from planet formation forms a debris disc. We aim to determine the properties of the underlying planetesimals in debris discs by numerically modelling the coagulation and fragmentation of planetesimal populations. The brightness and temporal evolution of debris discs depend on the radial distribution of planetesimal discs, the location of their inner and outer edges, their total mass, and the size of planetesimals in the disc. We find that a radially narrow planetesimal disc is most likely to result in a debris disc that can explain the trend of observed infrared excesses of debris discsvvv around G-type stars, for which planet formation occurs only before 100 million years. Early debris disc formation is induced by planet formation, while the later evolution is explained by the collisional decay of leftover planetesimals around planets that have already formed. Planetesimal discs with underlying planetesimals of radii ˜100 km at ≈30 au most readily explain the Spitzer Space Telescope 24 and 70 μm fluxes from debris discs around G-type stars.

  9. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  10. Gaseous protein cations are amphoteric

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, J.L. Jr.; McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-02-19

    Singly- and multiply-protonated ubiquitin molecules are found to react with iodide anions, and certain other anions, by attachment of the anion, in competition with proton transfer to the anion. The resulting adduct ions are relatively weakly bound and dissociate upon collisional activation by loss of the neutral acid derived from the anion. Adduct ions that behave similarly can also be formed via ion/molecule reactions involving the neutral acid. The ion/molecule reaction phenomenology, however, stands in contrast with that expected based on the reaction site(s) being charged. Reaction rates increase inversely with charge state and the total number of neutral molecules that add to the protein cations increases inversely with cation charge. These observations are inconsistent with the formation of proton-bound clusters but are fully consistent with the formation of ion pairs or dipole/dipole bonding involving the neutral acid and neutral basic sites in the protein. The ion/ion reactions can be interpreted on the basis of conjugate acid/base chemistry in which the anion, which is a strong gaseous base, reacts with a protonated site, which is a strong gaseous acid. Adduct ions can also be formed via ion/molecule reaction which, on the basis of microscopic reversibility, implies that the neutral acid interacts with neutral basic sites on the protein cation. 26 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Wet disc contraction to galactic blue nuggets and quenching to red nuggets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekel, A.; Burkert, A.

    2014-02-01

    We study the origin of high-redshift, compact, quenched spheroids (red nuggets) through the dissipative shrinkage of gaseous discs into compact star-forming systems (blue nuggets). The discs, fed by cold streams, undergo violent disc instability that drives gas into the centre (along with mergers). The inflow is dissipative when its time-scale is shorter than the star formation time-scale. This implies a threshold of ˜0.28 in the cold-to-total mass ratio within the disc radius. For the typical gas fraction ˜0.5 at z ˜ 2, this threshold is traced back to a maximum spin parameter of ˜0.05, implying that ˜half the star-forming galaxies contract to blue nuggets, while the rest form extended stellar discs. Thus, the surface density of blue galaxies is expected to be bimodal about ˜109 M⊙ kpc-2, slightly increasing with mass. The blue nuggets are expected to be rare at low z when the gas fraction is low. The blue nuggets quench to red nuggets by complementary internal and external mechanisms. Internal quenching by a compact bulge, in a fast mode and especially at high z, may involve starbursts, stellar and active galactic nucleus feedback, or Q-quenching. Quenching due to hot-medium haloes above 1012 M⊙ provides maintenance and a slower mode at low redshift. These predictions are confirmed in simulations and are consistent with observations at z = 0-3.

  12. Infalling clouds on to supermassive black hole binaries - I. Formation of discs, accretion and gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicovic, F. G.; Cuadra, J.; Sesana, A.; Stasyszyn, F.; Amaro-Seoane, P.; Tanaka, T. L.

    2016-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that most - if not all - galaxies harbour a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at their nucleus; hence binaries of these massive objects are an inevitable product of the hierarchical evolution of structures in the Universe, and represent an important but thus-far elusive phase of galaxy evolution. Gas accretion via a circumbinary disc is thought to be important for the dynamical evolution of SMBH binaries, as well as in producing luminous emission that can be used to infer their properties. One plausible source of the gaseous fuel is clumps of gas formed due to turbulence and gravitational instabilities in the interstellar medium, that later fall towards and interact with the binary. In this context, we model numerically the evolution of turbulent clouds in near-radial infall on to equal-mass SMBH binaries, using a modified version of the SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) code GADGET-3. We present a total of 12 simulations that explore different possible pericentre distances and relative inclinations, and show that the formation of circumbinary discs and discs around each SMBH (`mini-discs') depend on those parameters. We also study the dynamics of the formed discs, and the variability of the feeding rate on to the SMBHs in the different configurations.

  13. Optical Discs: New Storage Media for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgerson, Linda W.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses three new advances in the use of optical disc technology in education. Describes the storage formats and capabilities of the videodisc, the compact disc, and the optical write-once disc. Contrasts the three technologies in terms of their production requirements, the hardware involved, and some projected applications in education. (TW)

  14. Electromagnetic Levitation of a Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, R.; Neves, F.; de Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching experiment that explores the levitation of a disc of ferromagnetic material in the presence of the magnetic field produced by a single electromagnet. In comparison to the classical experiment of the levitation of a sphere, the main advantage of the proposed laboratory bench is that the uniform magnetic field…

  15. Optical Disc Applications in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Pamela Q. J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a variety of library applications of optical disc storage technology, including CD-ROM, digital videodisc, and WORM. Research and development projects at the Library of Congress, National Library of Medicine, and National Agricultural Library are described, products offered by library networks are reviewed, and activities in academic and…

  16. HD 172555: Detection of 63 micrometers [OI] Emission in a Debris Disc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Barrado, D.; Augereau, J. -C.; Thi, W. F.; Roberge, A.; Eiroa, C.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Howard, C.; Sandell, G.; Duchene, G.; Dent, W. R. F.; Lebreton, J.; Mendigutia, I.; Huelamo, N.; Menard, F.; Pinte, C.

    2012-01-01

    Context. HD 172555 is a young A7 star belonging to the Beta Pictoris Moving Group that harbours a debris disc. The Spitzer IRS spectrum of the source showed mid-IR features such as silicates and glassy silica species, indicating the presence of a warm dust component with small grains, which places HD 172555 among the small group of debris discs with such properties. The IRS spectrum also shows a possible emission of SiO gas. Aims. We aim to study the dust distribution in the circumstellar disc of HD 172555 and to asses the presence of gas in the debris disc. Methods. As part of the GASPS Open Time Key Programme, we obtained Herschel-PACS photometric and spectroscopic observations of the source. We analysed PACS observations of HD 172555 and modelled the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) with a modified blackbody and the gas emission with a two-level population model with no collisional de-excitation. Results. We report for the first time the detection of [OI] atomic gas emission at 63.18 micrometers in the HD 172555 circumstellar disc.We detect excesses due to circumstellar dust toward HD 172555 in the three photometric bands of PACS (70, 100, and 160 m). We derive a large dust particle mass of (4.8 plus-minus 0.6)x10(exp -4) Mass compared to Earth and an atomic oxygen mass of 2.5x10(exp -2)R(exp 2) Mass compared to Earth, where R in AU is the separation between the star and the inner disc. Thus, most of the detected mass of the disc is in the gaseous phase.

  17. Stability of galactic discs: finite arm-inclination and finite-thickness effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griv, Evgeny; Gedalin, Michael

    2012-05-01

    A modified theory of the Lin-Shu density waves, studied in connection with the problem of spiral pattern of rapidly and differentially rotating disc galaxies, is presented for both the axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric structures in highly flattened galaxies resulted from the classical Jeans instability of small gravity perturbations (e.g. those produced by a spontaneous disturbance). A new method is provided for the analytical solution of the self-consistent system of the gas-dynamic equations and the Poisson equation describing the stability of a three-dimensional galactic disc composed of stars or gaseous clouds. In order to apply the method, the modifications introduced for the properties of the gravitationally unstable, that is to say, amplitude-growing density waves are considered by removing the often used assumptions that the gravity perturbations are axisymmetric and the disc is infinitesimally thin. In contrast to previous studies, in this paper these two effects - the non-axial symmetry effect and the finite thickness effect - are simultaneously taken into account. We show that non-axisymmetric perturbations developing in a differentially rotating disc are more unstable than the axisymmetric ones. We also show that destabilizing self-gravity is far more 'dangerous' in thin discs than in thick discs. The primary effect of small but finite thickness is a reduction of the growth rate of the gravitational Jeans instability and a shift in the threshold of instability towards a longer wavelength (and larger wavelength will include more mass). The results of this paper are in qualitative agreement with previous analytical and numerical estimations of the effects. The extent to which our results on the disc's stability can have a bearing on observable spiral galaxies, including the Milky Way, is also discussed.

  18. Did Jupiter's core form in the innermost parts of the Sun's protoplanetary disc?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Sean N.; Izidoro, Andre; Bitsch, Bertram; Jacobson, Seth A.

    2016-05-01

    Jupiter's core is generally assumed to have formed beyond the snow line. Here we consider an alternative scenario that Jupiter's core may have accumulated in the innermost part of the protoplanetary disc. A growing body of research suggests that small particles (`pebbles') continually drift inward through the disc. If a fraction of drifting pebbles is trapped at the inner edge of the disc, several Earth-mass cores can quickly grow. Subsequently, the core may migrate outward beyond the snow line via planet-disc interactions. Of course, to reach the outer Solar system Jupiter's core must traverse the terrestrial planet-forming region. We use N-body simulations including synthetic forces from an underlying gaseous disc to study how the outward migration of Jupiter's core sculpts the terrestrial zone. If the outward migration is fast (τmig ˜ 104 yr), the core simply migrates past resident planetesimals and planetary embryos. However, if its migration is slower (τmig ˜ 105 yr) the core clears out solids in the inner disc by shepherding objects in mean motion resonances. In many cases, the disc interior to 0.5-1 AU is cleared of embryos and most planetesimals. By generating a mass deficit close to the Sun, the outward migration of Jupiter's core may thus explain the absence of terrestrial planets closer than Mercury. Jupiter's migrating core often stimulates the growth of another large (˜Earth-mass) core - that may provide a seed for Saturn's core - trapped in an exterior resonance. The migrating core also may transport a fraction of terrestrial planetesimals, such as the putative parent bodies of iron meteorites, to the asteroid belt.

  19. Butanol formation from gaseous substrates.

    PubMed

    Dürre, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Mostly, butanol is formed as a product by saccharolytic anaerobes, employing the so-called ABE fermentation (for acetone-butanol-ethanol). However, this alcohol can also be produced from gaseous substrates such as syn(thesis) gas (major components are carbon monoxide and hydrogen) by autotrophic acetogens. In view of economic considerations, a biotechnological process based on cheap and abundant gases such as CO and CO2 as a carbon source is preferable to more expensive sugar or starch fermentation. In addition, any conflict for use of substrates that can also serve as human nutrition is avoided. Natural formation of butanol has been found with, e.g. Clostridium carboxidivorans, while metabolic engineering for butanol production was successful using, e.g. C. ljungdahlii. Production of butanol from CO2 under photoautotrophic conditions was also possible by recombinant DNA construction of a respective cyanobacterial Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 strain. PMID:26903012

  20. Gaseous emissions from waste combustion.

    PubMed

    Werther, Joachim

    2007-06-18

    An overview is given on methods and technologies for limiting the gaseous emissions from waste combustion. With the guideline 2000/76/EC recent European legislation has set stringent limits not only for the mono-combustion of waste in specialized incineration plants but also for co-combustion in coal-fired power plants. With increased awareness of environmental issues and stepwise decrease of emission limits and inclusion of more and more substances into the network of regulations a multitude of emission abatement methods and technologies have been developed over the last decades. The result is the state-of-the-art waste incinerator with a number of specialized process steps for the individual components in the flue gas. The present work highlights some new developments which can be summarized under the common goal of reducing the costs of flue gas treatment by applying systems which combine the treatment of several noxious substances in one reactor or by taking new, simpler routes instead of the previously used complicated ones or - in the case of flue gas desulphurisation - by reducing the amount of limestone consumption. Cost reduction is also the driving force for new processes of conditioning of nonhomogenous waste before combustion. Pyrolysis or gasification is used for chemical conditioning whereas physical conditioning means comminution, classification and sorting processes. Conditioning yields a fuel which can be used in power plants either as a co-fuel or a mono-fuel and which will burn there under much better controlled conditions and therefore with less emissions than the nonhomogeneous waste in a conventional waste incinerator. Also for cost reasons, co-combustion of wastes in coal-fired power stations is strongly pressing into the market. Recent investigations reveal that the co-firing of waste can also have beneficial effects on the operating behavior of the boiler and on the gaseous emissions. PMID:17339077

  1. Status and perspectives of gaseous photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    This article aims at reviewing the state of the art of gaseous photon detectors for RICH applications. Emphasis will be put on THGEM based devices which represent the most advanced development among the various micro-pattern gaseous photon sensors proposed for Cherenkov imaging in very high rate environments.

  2. Peripheral disc margin shape and internal disc derangement: imaging correlation in significantly painful discs identified at provocation lumbar discography.

    PubMed

    Bartynski, W S; Rothfus, W E

    2012-06-01

    Annular margin shape is used to characterize lumbar disc abnormality on CT/MR imaging studies. Abnormal discs also have internal derangement including annular degeneration and radial defects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential correlation between disc-margin shape and annular internal derangement on post-discogram CT in significantly painful discs encountered at provocation lumbar discography (PLD). Significantly painful discs were encountered at 126 levels in 86 patients (47 male, 39 female) studied by PLD where no prior surgery had been performed and response to intradiscal lidocaine after provocation resulted in either substantial/total relief or no improvement after lidocaine administration. Post-discogram CT and discogram imaging was evaluated for disc-margin characteristics (bulge/protrusion), features of disc internal derangement (radial annular defect [RD: radial tear/fissure/annular gap], annular degeneration) and presence/absence of discographic contrast leakage. In discs with focal protrusion, 50 of 63 (79%) demonstrated Grade 3 RD with 13 (21%) demonstrating severe degenerative change only. In discs with generalized-bulge-only, 48 of 63 (76%) demonstrated degenerative change only (primarily Dallas Grade 3) with 15 of 63 (24%) demonstrating a RD (Dallas Grade 3). Differences were highly statistically significant (p<0.001). Pain elimination with intra-discal lidocaine correlated with discographic contrast leakage (p<0.001). Disc-margin shape correlates with features of internal derangement in significantly painful discs encountered at PLD. Discs with focal protrusion typically demonstrate RD while generalized bulging discs typically demonstrated degenerative changes only (p<0.001). Disc-margin shape may provide an important imaging clue to the cause of chronic discogenic low back pain. PMID:22681741

  3. Peripheral Disc Margin Shape and Internal Disc Derangement: Imaging Correlation in Significantly Painful Discs Identified at Provocation Lumbar Discography

    PubMed Central

    Bartynski, W.S.; Rothfus, W.E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Annular margin shape is used to characterize lumbar disc abnormality on CT/MR imaging studies. Abnormal discs also have internal derangement including annular degeneration and radial defects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential correlation between disc-margin shape and annular internal derangement on post-discogram CT in significantly painful discs encountered at provocation lumbar discography (PLD). Significantly painful discs were encountered at 126 levels in 86 patients (47 male, 39 female) studied by PLD where no prior surgery had been performed and response to intradiscal lidocaine after provocation resulted in either substantial/total relief or no improvement after lidocaine administration. Post-discogram CT and discogram imaging was evaluated for disc-margin characteristics (bulge/protrusion), features of disc internal derangement (radial annular defect [RD: radial tear/fissure/annular gap], annular degeneration) and presence/absence of discographic contrast leakage. In discs with focal protrusion, 50 of 63 (79%) demonstrated Grade 3 RD with 13 (21%) demonstrating severe degenerative change only. In discs with generalized-bulge-only, 48 of 63 (76%) demonstrated degenerative change only (primarily Dallas Grade 3) with 15 of 63 (24%) demonstrating a RD (Dallas Grade 3). Differences were highly statistically significant (p<0.001). Pain elimination with intra-discal lidocaine correlated with discographic contrast leakage (p<0.001). Disc-margin shape correlates with features of internal derangement in significantly painful discs encountered at PLD. Discs with focal protrusion typically demonstrate RD while generalized bulging discs typically demonstrated degenerative changes only (p<0.001). Disc-margin shape may provide an important imaging clue to the cause of chronic discogenic low back pain. PMID:22681741

  4. Sealing arrangement with annular flexible disc

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Honigsberg, Charles A.

    1983-01-01

    Fluid sealing arrangements including an annular shaped flexible disc having enlarged edges disposed within channel-shaped annular receptacles which are spaced from one another. The receptacles form an annular region for contacting and containing the enlarged edges of the disc, and the disc is preloaded to a conical configuration. The disc is flexibly and movably supported within the receptacles so that unevenly distributed relative motion between the components containing the receptacles is accommodated without loss of sealing contact between the edges of the disc and the walls of the receptacles.

  5. In vitro biomechanics of cervical disc arthroplasty with the ProDisc-C total disc implant.

    PubMed

    DiAngelo, Denis J; Foley, Kevin T; Morrow, Brian R; Schwab, John S; Song, Jung; German, John W; Blair, Eve

    2004-09-15

    An in vitro biomechanical study was conducted to compare the effects of disc arthroplasty and anterior cervical fusion on cervical spine biomechanics in a multilevel human cadaveric model. Three spine conditions were studied: harvested, single-level cervical disc arthroplasty, and single-level fusion. A programmable testing apparatus was used that replicated physiological flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Measurements included vertebral motion, applied load, and bending moments. Relative rotations at the superior, treated, and inferior motion segment units (MSUs) were normalized with respect to the overall rotation of those three MSUs and compared using a one-way analysis of variance with Student-Newman-Keuls test (p < 0.05). Simulated fusion decreased motion across the treated site relative to the harvested and disc arthroplasty conditions. The reduced motion at the treated site was compensated at the adjacent segments by an increase in motion. For all modes of testing, use of an artificial disc prosthesis did not alter the motion patterns at either the instrumented level or adjacent segments compared with the harvested condition, except in extension. PMID:15636563

  6. From the Solar Neighbourhood to the Galactic Disc(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, L.

    2012-08-01

    We present a re-analysis of the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS), based on improved effective temperature and metallicity scales, which also provide a better match to theoretical isochrones. The latter are used for a Bayesian investigation on stellar ages. With respect to previous analyses, our stars are on average 100 K hotter and 0.1 dex more metal rich, which shifts the peak of the metallicity distribution function (MDF) around the solar value. From Strömgren photometry we are able to derive for the first time a proxy for alpha elements, which enables us to perform a tentative dissection of the chemical thin and thick disc. We find evidence for the latter being composed of an old, mildly but systematically alpha-enhanced population that extends to super solar metallicities. These findings help to constrain different processes potentially relevant in the build-up of the Milky Way disc.

  7. Self-consistent internal structure of a rotating gaseous planet and its comparison with an approximation by oblate spheroidal equidensity surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    In an important paper, Roberts (1963b) studied the hydrostatic equilibrium of an isolated, self-gravitating, rapidly rotating polytropic gaseous body based on a controversial assumption/approximation that all (outer and internal) equidensity surfaces are in the shape of oblate spheroids whose eccentricities are a function of the equatorial radius and whose axes of symmetry are parallel to the rotation axis. We compute the three-dimensional, finite-element, fully self-consistent, continuous solution for a rapidly rotating polytropic gaseous body with Jupiter-like parameters without making any prior assumptions about its outer shape and internal structure. Upon partially relaxing the Roberts' approximation by assuming that only the outer equidensity surface is in the shape of an oblate spheroid, we also compute a finite-element solution with the same parameters without making any prior assumptions about its internal structure. It is found that all equidensity surfaces of the fully self-consistent solution differ only slightly from the oblate spheroidal shape. It is also found that the characteristic difference between the fully self-consistent solution and the outer-spheroidal-shape solution is insignificantly small. Our results suggest that the Roberts' assumption of spheroidal equidensity surfaces represents a reasonably accurate approximation for rotating polytropic gaseous bodies with Jupiter-like parameters. The numerical accuracy of our finite-element solution is checked by an exact analytic solution based on the Green's function using the spheroidal wave function. The three different solutions in non-spherical geometries - the fully self-consistent numerical solution, the numerical solution with the outer spheroidal shape and the exact analytical solution - can also serve as a useful benchmark for other solutions based on different numerical methods.

  8. Intradural herniation of lumbar intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Hodge, C J; Binet, E F; Kieffer, S A

    1978-12-01

    A case of intradural rupture of a lumbar intervertebral disc is reported, and the literature is reviewed. The majority of intradural disc herniations occur at the L4--5 level. These patients usually have neurologic deficits more severe than those found in the much more common extradural disc herniations. The myelographic picture varies from an irregularly marginated intradural lesion overlying the disc space to a complete block. The common factor allowing intradural disc herniation is probably dense adhesions between the dura and the posterior longitudinal ligament, preventing the more common lateral extradural disc herniation. Intradural disc herniation should be included in the differential diagnosis of lumbar intradural lesions causing nerve root or cauda equina compression. PMID:741242

  9. The star formation history in the far outer disc of M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Michael K.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Cole, A. A.; Ibata, R.; Irwin, M.; Lewis, G. F.; Smecker-Hane, T. A.; Tanvir, N. R.

    2011-01-01

    The outer regions of disc galaxies are becoming increasingly recognized as key testing sites for models of disc assembly and evolution. Important issues are the epoch at which the bulk of the stars in these regions formed and how discs grow radially over time. To address these issues, we use Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging to study the star formation history (SFH) of two fields at 9.1 and 11.6 kpc along M33's northern major axis. These fields lie at ˜ 4 and 5 V-band disc scalelengths and straddle the break in M33's surface brightness profile. The colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) reach the ancient main-sequence turn-off with a signal-to-noise ratio of ˜ 5. From detailed modelling of the CMDs, we find that the majority of stars in both fields combined formed at z < 1. The mean age in the inner field, S1, is ˜ 3 ± 1 Gyr and the mean metallicity is [M/H]˜- 0.5 ± 0.2 dex. The SFH of S1 unambiguously reveals how the inside-out growth previously measured for M33's inner disc out to ? extends out to the disc edge at ?. In comparison, the outer field, S2, is older (mean age ˜ 7 ± 2 Gyr), more metal-poor (mean [M/H]˜- 0.8 ± 0.3 dex), and contains ˜ 30 times less stellar mass. These results provide the most compelling evidence yet that M33's age gradient reverses at large radii near the disc break and that this reversal is accompanied by a break in stellar mass surface density. We discuss several possible interpretations of this behaviour including radial stellar mixing, warping of the gaseous disc, a change in star formation efficiency and a transition to another structural component. These results offer one of the most detailed views yet of the peripheral regions of any disc galaxy and provide a much needed observational constraint on the last major epoch of star formation in the outer disc.

  10. Rotational support of giant clumps in high-z disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceverino, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Mandelker, Nir; Bournaud, Frederic; Burkert, Andreas; Genzel, Reinhard; Primack, Joel

    2012-03-01

    We address the internal support against total free-fall collapse of the giant clumps that form by violent gravitational instability in high-z disc galaxies. Guidance is provided by an analytic model, where the protoclumps are cut from a rotating disc and collapse to equilibrium while preserving angular momentum. This model predicts prograde clump rotation, which dominates the support if the clump has contracted to a surface density contrast ≳10. This is confirmed in hydro adaptive mesh refinement zoom-in simulations of galaxies in a cosmological context. In most high-z clumps, the centrifugal force dominates the support, ?, where Vrot is the rotation velocity and the circular velocity Vcirc measures the potential well. The clump spin indeed tends to be in the sense of the global disc angular momentum, but substantial tilts are frequent, reflecting the highly warped nature of the high-z discs. Most clumps are in Jeans equilibrium, with the rest of the support provided by turbulence, partly driven by the gravitational instability itself. The general agreement between model and simulations indicates that angular momentum loss or gain in most clumps is limited to a factor of 2. Simulations of isolated gas-rich discs that resolve the clump substructure reveal that the cosmological simulations may overestimate ? by ˜30 per cent, but the dominance of rotational support at high z is not a resolution artefact. In turn, isolated gas-poor disc simulations produce at z= 0 smaller gaseous non-rotating transient clouds, indicating that the difference in rotational support is associated with the fraction of cold baryons in the disc. In our current cosmological simulations, the clump rotation velocity is typically more than twice the disc dispersion, Vrot˜ 100 km s-1, but when beam smearing of ≥0.1 arcsec is imposed, the rotation signal is reduced to a small gradient of ≤30 km s-1 kpc-1 across the clump. The velocity dispersion in the simulated clumps is comparable to the

  11. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    DOEpatents

    Hindin, Saul G.; Roberts, George W.

    1980-08-12

    A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  12. [Innervation of the intervertebral disc].

    PubMed

    García-Cosamalón, José; Fernández-Fernández, Javier; González-Martínez, Emilio; Ibáñez-Plágaro, Javier; Robla Costales, Javier; Martínez-Madrigal, Milton; López Muñíz, Alfonso; del Valle, Miguel Enrique; Vega, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Until very recently, intervertebral disc innervation was a subject of considerable debate. Nowadays, the introduction of inmunohistochemical techniques associated to specific antibodies and studies with retrograde tracers in nerves have allowed greater understanding of disc innervation in physiological and pathological conditions and also endings characteristics and their patterns of distribution in both situations. The existing controversies regarding structural basis of discogenic pain, have raised the interest of knowing the influence of innervation in back pain from discal origin and its characteristics. Today, we know that pathologic neoinnervation accompanying radial fissures is an important factor in the genesis of discogenic pain; within a complex mechanism in which other neurobiomechemical, inflammatory and biomechanical factors are involved. PMID:23582224

  13. Combination free-electron and gaseous laser

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, C.A.; Rockwood, S.D.; Stein, W.E.

    1981-06-08

    A multiple laser having one or more gaseous laser stages and one or more free electron stages is described. Each of the free electron laser stages is sequentially pumped by a microwave linear accelerator. Subsequently, the electron beam is directed through a gaseous laser, in the preferred embodiment, and in an alternative embodiment, through a microwave accelerator to lower the energy level of the electron beam to pump one or more gaseous lasers. The combination laser provides high pulse repetition frequencies, on the order of 1 kHz or greater, high power capability, high efficiency, and tunability in the synchronous production of multiple beams of coherent optical radiation.

  14. Combination free electron and gaseous laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, Charles A.; Rockwood, Stephen D.; Stein, William E.

    1980-01-01

    A multiple laser having one or more gaseous laser stages and one or more free electron stages. Each of the free electron laser stages is sequentially pumped by a microwave linear accelerator. Subsequently, the electron beam is directed through a gaseous laser, in the preferred embodiment, and in an alternative embodiment, through a microwave accelerator to lower the energy level of the electron beam to pump one or more gaseous lasers. The combination laser provides high pulse repetition frequencies, on the order of 1 kHz or greater, high power capability, high efficiency, and tunability in the synchronous production of multiple beams of coherent optical radiation.

  15. Gaseous phase coal surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Okoh, J.M.; Pinion, J.; Thiensatit, S.

    1992-05-07

    In this report, we present an improved, feasible and potentially cost effective method of cleaning and beneficiating ultrafine coal. Increased mechanization of mining methods and the need towards depyritization, and demineralization have led to an increase in the quantity of coal fines generated in recent times. For example, the amount of {minus}100 mesh coal occurring in coal preparation plant feeds now typically varies from 5 to 25% of the total feed. Environmental constraints coupled with the greatly increased cost of coal have made it increasingly important to recover more of these fines. Our method chemically modifies the surface of such coals by a series of gaseous phase treatments employing Friedel-Crafts reactions. By using olefins (ethene, propene and butene) and hydrogen chloride catalyst at elevated temperature, the surface hydrophobicity of coal is enhanced. This increased hydrophobicity is manifest in surface phenomena which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid interphase (zeta potential) and those which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid/gas interphases (contact angle, wettability and floatability).

  16. Hydrodynamic instability in eccentric astrophysical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, A. J.; Ogilvie, G. I.

    2014-12-01

    Eccentric Keplerian discs are believed to be unstable to three-dimensional hydrodynamical instabilities driven by the time-dependence of fluid properties around an orbit. These instabilities could lead to small-scale turbulence, and ultimately modify the global disc properties. We use a local model of an eccentric disc, derived in a companion paper, to compute the non-linear vertical (`breathing mode') oscillations of the disc. We then analyse their linear stability to locally axisymmetric disturbances for any disc eccentricity and eccentricity gradient using a numerical Floquet method. In the limit of small departures from a circular reference orbit, the instability of an isothermal disc is explained analytically. We also study analytically the small-scale instability of an eccentric neutrally stratified polytropic disc with any polytropic index using a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. We find that eccentric discs are generically unstable to the parametric excitation of small-scale inertial waves. The non-linear evolution of these instabilities should be studied in numerical simulations, where we expect them to lead to a decay of the disc eccentricity and eccentricity gradient as well as to induce additional transport and mixing. Our results highlight that it is essential to consider the three-dimensional structure of eccentric discs, and their resulting vertical oscillatory flows, in order to correctly capture their evolution.

  17. Synthesis of Organic Matter of Prebiotic Chemistry at the Protoplanetary Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snytnikov, Valeriy; Stoynovskaya, Olga; Rudina, Nina

    pressure inside the disc from tens to hundred atmospheres. We simulated unsteady processes in massive circumstellar discs around YSO class O and I. In the computational experiments, we have shown that at a certain stage of its evolution the circumstellar discs of gas and solids produces local areas of high pressure. According to the classical heterogeneous catalysis, a wide range of organic and prebiotic compounds could have been synthesized in these areas. Can we capture these areas of high pressure synthesis in observation of circumstellar discs? Due to the small sizes of such areas they can be hardly ever resolved even with the modern telescopes such as ALMA. However, we can try to detect their signatures in the disc, since the gas of the disc keep the set of organic synthesis products. The idea is to define the signature of the process using laboratory experiments. Varying gas temperature and pressure in laboratory setup we can carry out the catalytic high pressure syntheses and specify the set of gaseous products. These sets of organic compounds observed in the discs may serve as indicators of the emergence of high-pressure areas of prebiotic chemistry. Thus, there is a special interest to the study of YSO class 0 and I by means of observational astronomy. For these objects, first data on the presence of individual organic compounds in massive hydrogen-helium component of the discs appear. The origin of the organic compounds that are associated with chemical reactions in the discs should be separated from the set of organic compounds of the initial molecular cloud.

  18. Proto-planetary disc evolution and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosotti, Giovanni Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Planets form from gas and dust discs in orbit around young stars. The timescale for planet formation is constrained by the lifetime of these discs. The properties of the formed planetary systems depend thus on the evolution and final dispersal of the discs, which is the main topic of this thesis. Observations reveal the existence of a class of discs called "transitional", which lack dust in their inner regions. They are thought to be the last stage before the complete disc dispersal, and hence they may provide the key to understanding the mechanisms behind disc evolution. X-ray photoevaporation and planet formation have been studied as possible physical mechanisms responsible for the final dispersal of discs. However up to now, these two phenomena have been studied separately, neglecting any possible feedback or interaction. In this thesis we have investigated what is the interplay between these two processes. We show that the presence of a giant planet in a photo-evaporating disc can significantly shorten its lifetime, by cutting the inner regions from the mass reservoir in the exterior of the disc. This mechanism produces transition discs that for a given mass accretion rate have larger holes than in models considering only X-ray photo-evaporation, constituting a possible route to the formation of accreting transition discs with large holes. These discs are found in observations and still constitute a puzzle for the theory. Inclusion of the phenomenon called "thermal sweeping", a violent instability that can destroy a whole disc in as little as 10 4 years, shows that the outer disc left can be very short-lived (depending on the X-ray luminosity of the star), possibly explaining why very few non accreting transition discs are observed. However the mechanism does not seem to be efficient enough to reconcile with observations. In this thesis we also show that X-ray photo-evaporation naturally explains the observed correlation between stellar masses and accretion

  19. Factors regulating viable cell density in the intervertebral disc: blood supply in relation to disc height

    PubMed Central

    Boubriak, Olga A; Watson, Natasha; Sivan, Sarit S; Stubbens, Naomi; Urban, Jill P G

    2013-01-01

    The intervertebral disc is an avascular tissue, maintained by a small population of cells that obtain nutrients mainly by diffusion from capillaries at the disc–vertebral body interface. Loss of this nutrient supply is thought to lead to disc degeneration, but how nutrient supply influences viable cell density is unclear. We investigated two factors that influence nutrient delivery to disc cells and hence cell viability: disc height and blood supply. We used bovine caudal discs as our model as these show a gradation in disc height. We found that although disc height varied twofold from the largest to the smallest disc studied, it had no significant effect on cell density, unlike the situation found in articular cartilage. The density of blood vessels supplying the discs was markedly greater for the largest disc than the smallest disc, as was the density of pores allowing capillary penetration through the bony endplate. Results indicate that changes in blood vessels in the vertebral bodies supplying the disc, as well as changes in endplate architecture appear to influence density of cells in intervertebral discs. PMID:23311982

  20. Effects of lateral variations in lithospheric thickness and mantle viscosity on glacially induced relative sea levels and long wavelength gravity field in a spherical, self-gravitating Maxwell Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hansheng; Wu, Patrick

    2006-09-01

    The effects of lateral variations in lithospheric thickness and mantle viscosity on glacially induced relative sea level (RSL) changes and the secular rate of change of the Earth's long wavelength gravity field in a spherical, self-gravitating, incompressible visco-elastic earth are investigated using the Coupled-Laplace-Finite-Element method. The ICE-4G deglaciation model is used with gravitationally self-consistent sea levels in realistic oceans to describe the load. Lateral variations in mantle viscosity and lithospheric thickness are inferred from seismic tomography model S20A. The full 3-D earth model, which includes all the lateral heterogeneities in the lithosphere and mantle, gives a better fit to the global RSL data than the related laterally homogeneous model. However, the situation is less clear for the observed secular drift of the low degree geopotential coefficients J˙l because of the uncertain contribution of recent melting. But, the full 3-D model can fit the J˙2 observation if recent melting contributes about 1.0 mm/a of equivalent sea level rise. It predicts that the GIA induced secular gravity rate of change to be detected by the GRACE mission in the southern part of Hudson Bay is about 1.2 to 1.6 μgal/a. Moreover, the contributions of lateral heterogeneities from individual layers in the mantle or in the lithosphere are studied. The contribution from the transition zone (420-670 km) is generally opposite to that from its neighboring layers and thus can mask their effects. As a consequence, the effects from the deep lower mantle become dominant for RSL and secular rate of change of gravity over Laurentide. For the secular rates of change for degrees 2-4 geopotential coefficients, the contribution is mostly from lateral heterogeneities in the deeper mantle. The effects of background viscosity profiles are also investigated and are found to be significant for all these observables.

  1. The growth of discs and bulges during hierarchical galaxy formation - I. Fast evolution versus secular processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, C.; Mutch, S. J.; Croton, D. J.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-07-01

    We present a theoretical model for the evolution of mass, angular momentum and size of galaxy discs and bulges, and we implement it into the semi-analytic galaxy formation code, Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution. The model follows both secular and violent evolutionary channels, including smooth accretion, disc instabilities, minor and major mergers. We find that the combination of our recipe with hierarchical clustering produces two distinct populations of bulges: merger-driven bulges, akin to classical bulges and ellipticals, and instability-driven bulges, akin to secular (or pseudo-)bulges. The model mostly reproduces the mass-size relation of gaseous and stellar discs, the evolution of the mass-size relation of ellipticals, the Faber-Jackson relation, and the magnitude-colour diagram of classical and secular bulges. The model predicts only a small overlap of merger-driven and instability-driven components in the same galaxy, and predicts different bulge types as a function of galaxy mass and disc fraction. Bulge type also affects the star formation rate and colour at a given luminosity. The model predicts a population of merger-driven red ellipticals that dominate both the low-mass and high-mass ends of the galaxy population, and span all dynamical ages; merger-driven bulges in disc galaxies are dynamically old and do not interfere with subsequent evolution of the star-forming component. Instability-driven bulges dominate the population at intermediate galaxy masses, especially thriving in massive discs. The model green valley is exclusively populated by instability-driven bulge hosts. Through the present implementation, the mass accretion history is perceivable in the galaxy structure, morphology and colours.

  2. Production of gaseous radiotracers for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Pant, H J; Goswami, Sunil; Jagadeesan, K C; Anand, S; Chitra, S; Rana, Y S; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Tej; Gujar, H G; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes prerequisite tests, analysis and the procedure for irradiation of gaseous targets and production of gaseous radioisotopes i.e. argon-41 ((41)Ar) and krypton-79 ((79)Kr) in a 100MWTh DHRUVA reactor located at Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC), Trombay, Mumbai, India. The produced radioisotopes will be used as radiotracers for tracing gas phase in industrial process systems. Various details and prequalification tests required for irradiation of gaseous targets are discussed. The procedure for regular production of (41)Ar and (79)Kr, and assay of their activity were standardized. Theoretically estimated and experimentally produced amounts of activities of the two radioisotopes, irradiated at identical conditions, were compared and found to be in good agreement. Based on the various tests, radiological safety analysis and standardization of the irradiation procedure, necessary approval was obtained from the competent reactor operating and safety authorities for regular production of gaseous radiotracers in DHRUVA reactor. PMID:27518216

  3. Intervertebral disc extrusion in six cats.

    PubMed

    Knipe, M F; Vernau, K M; Hornof, W J; LeCouteur, R A

    2001-09-01

    Existing reports concerning intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) have focused almost exclusively on dogs, although a small number of individual case reports of IVDD of cats has been published. The medical records of six cats with IVDD were reviewed. Radiographic studies confirmed narrowed intervertebral disc spaces, mineralised intervertebral discs, and one or more extradural compressive lesions of the spinal cord in each cat. All disc extrusions were located in the thoracolumbar region. Surgical decompression of the spinal cord was achieved in all cats by means of hemilaminectomy and removal of compressive extradural material confirmed to be degenerative disc material. Good to excellent neurological recovery was noted in five of the six cats included in this report. Based on this review, it appears that IVDD of cats has many similarities to IVDD of dogs, and that healthy cats with acute intervertebral disc extrusion(s) respond favourably to surgical decompression of the spinal cord. PMID:11876633

  4. Curveballs in protoplanetary discs - the effect of the Magnus force on planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, John C.

    2015-10-01

    Spinning planetesimals in a gaseous protoplanetary disc may experience a hydrodynamical force perpendicular to their relative velocities. We examine the effect this force has on the dynamics of these objects using analytical arguments based on a simple laminar disc model and numerical integrations of the equations of motion for individual grains. We focus in particular on metre-sized boulders traditionally expected to spiral in to the central star in as little as 100 years from 1 au We find that there are plausible scenarios in which this force extends the lifetime of these solids in the disc by a factor of several. More importantly the velocities induced by the Magnus force can prevent the formation of planetesimals via gravitational instability in the inner disc if the size of the dust particles is larger than of the order of 10 cm. We find that the fastest growing linear modes of the streaming instability may still grow despite the diffusive effect of the Magnus force, but it remains to be seen how the Magnus force will alter the non-linear evolution of these instabilities.

  5. External photoevaporation of protoplanetary discs in sparse stellar groups: the impact of dust growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, Stefano; Clarke, Cathie J.; Bisbas, Thomas G.

    2016-04-01

    We estimate the mass-loss rates of photoevaporative winds launched from the outer edge of protoplanetary discs impinged by an ambient radiation field. We focus on mild/moderate environments (the number of stars in the group/cluster is N ≳ 50), and explore disc sizes ranging between 20 and 250 au. We evaluate the steady-state structures of the photoevaporative winds by coupling temperature estimates obtained with a photodissociation region code with 1D radial hydrodynamical equations. We also consider the impact of dust dragging and grain growth on the final mass-loss rates. We find that these winds are much more significant than have been appreciated hitherto when grain growth is included in the modelling: in particular, mass-loss rates ≳10-8 M⊙ yr-1 are predicted even for modest background field strengths (≳30 G0) in the case of discs that extend to R > 150 au. Grain growth significantly affects the final mass-loss rates by reducing the average cross-section at far-ultraviolet wavelengths, and thus allowing a much more vigorous flow. The radial profiles of observable quantities (in particular surface density, temperature and velocity patterns) indicate that these winds have characteristic features that are now potentially observable with ALMA. In particular, such discs should have extended gaseous emission that is dust depleted in the outer regions, characterized by a non-Keplerian rotation curve, and with a radially increasing temperature gradient.

  6. Disc repositioning: does it really work?

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, João Roberto; Cassano, Daniel Serra; Rezende, Luciano; Wolford, Larry M

    2015-02-01

    Although limited, there is evidence to support the assumption that temporomandibular joint (TMJ) articular disc repositioning indeed works; to date, there is no evidence that TMJ articular disc repositioning does not work. Despite the controversy among professionals in private practice and academia, TMJ articular disc repositioning is a procedure based on (still limited) evidence; the opposition is based solely on clinical preference and influenced by the ability to perform it or not. PMID:25483446

  7. Accretion Discs Show Their True Colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    Quasars are the brilliant cores of remote galaxies, at the hearts of which lie supermassive black holes that can generate enough power to outshine the Sun a trillion times. These mighty power sources are fuelled by interstellar gas, thought to be sucked into the hole from a surrounding 'accretion disc'. A paper in this week's issue of the journal Nature, partly based on observations collected with ESO's Very Large Telescope, verifies a long-standing prediction about the intensely luminous radiation emitted by these accretion discs. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 21/08 Uncovering the inner disc "Astronomers were puzzled by the fact that the best models of these discs couldn't quite be reconciled with some of the observations, in particular, with the fact that these discs did not appear as blue as they should be," explains lead-author Makoto Kishimoto. Such a discrepancy could be the signal that there was something very wrong with the models. With his colleagues, he investigated this discrepancy by studying the polarised light from six quasars. This enabled them to demonstrate that the disc spectrum is as blue as predicted. "The crucial observational difficulty here has been that the disc is surrounded by a much larger torus containing hot dust, whose light partly outshines that of the disc," says Kishimoto. "Because the light coming from the disc is scattered in the disc vicinity and thus polarised, by observing only polarised light from the quasars, one can uncover the buried light from the disc." In a similar way that a fisherman would wear polarised sunglasses to help get rid of the glare from the water surface and allow him to see more clearly under the water, the filter on the telescope allowed the astronomers to see beyond surrounding clouds of dust and gas to the blue colour of the disc in infrared light. The observations were done with the FORS and ISAAC instruments on one of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope, located in the Atacama

  8. On the evolution of the protolunar disc.

    PubMed

    Ward, William R

    2014-09-13

    The structure and viscous evolution of a post-impact, protolunar disc is examined. The equations for a silicate disc in two-phase (vapour-liquid) equilibrium are employed to derive an analytical solution to vertical structure. Both a vertically mixed phase disc and a stratified disc, where a magma layer exists in the mid-plane surrounded by a vapour reservoir, are considered. The former largely reproduces the low gas mass fraction, x≪1, profiles of the disc described in earlier literature that proposed that the disc would hover on the brink of gravitational instability. In the latter, the vapour layer has x∼1 and is generally gravitationally stable, while the magma layer is vigorously unstable. The viscous evolution of the stratified model is then explored. Initially, the disc quickly settles to a quasi-steady state with a vapour reservoir containing the majority of the disc mass. The magma layer viscously spreads on a time scale of approximately 3-4 years, during which vapour continuously condenses into droplets that settle to the mid-plane, maintaining the magma surface density in spite of disc spreading. Material flowing inwards is accreted by the Earth; material flowing outwards past the Roche boundary can become incorporated into accreting moonlets. This evolution persists until the vapour reservoir is depleted in approximately 50-100 years, depending on its initial mass. PMID:25114314

  9. The quiescent phase of galactic disc growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumer, Michael; Binney, James; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    We perform a series of controlled N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies within non-growing, live dark matter haloes of varying mass and concentration. Our initial conditions include either a low-mass disc or a compact bulge. New stellar particles are continuously added on near-circular orbits to the existing disc, so spiral structure is continuously excited. To study the effect of combined spiral and giant molecular cloud (GMC) heating on the discs, we introduce massive, short-lived particles that sample a GMC mass function. An isothermal gas component is introduced for a subset of the models. We perform a resolution study and vary parameters governing the GMC population, the histories of star formation and radial scale growth. Models with GMCs and standard values for the disc mass and halo density provide the right level of self-gravity to explain the age-velocity dispersion relation of the solar neighbourhood (Snhd). GMC heating generates remarkably exponential vertical profiles with scaleheights that are radially constant and agree with observations of galactic thin discs. GMCs are also capable of significantly delaying bar formation. The amount of spiral-induced radial migration agrees with what is required for the metallicity distribution of the Snhd. However, in our standard models, the outward-migrating populations are not hot enough vertically to create thick discs. Thick discs can form in models with high baryon fractions, but the corresponding bars are too long, the young stellar populations too hot and the discs flare considerably.

  10. The quiescent phase of galactic disc growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumer, Michael; Binney, James; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    We perform a series of controlled N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies within non-growing, live dark matter haloes of varying mass and concentration. Our initial conditions include either a low-mass disc or a compact bulge. New stellar particles are continuously added on near-circular orbits to the existing disc, so spiral structure is continuously excited. To study the effect of combined spiral and giant molecular cloud (GMC) heating on the discs we introduce massive, short-lived particles that sample a GMC mass function. An isothermal gas component is introduced for a subset of the models. We perform a resolution study and vary parameters governing the GMC population, the histories of star formation and radial scale growth. Models with GMCs and standard values for the disc mass and halo density provide the right level of self-gravity to explain the age velocity dispersion relation of the Solar neighbourhood (Snhd). GMC heating generates remarkably exponential vertical profiles with scaleheights that are radially constant and agree with observations of galactic thin discs. GMCs are also capable of significantly delaying bar formation. The amount of spiral induced radial migration agrees with what is required for the metallicity distribution of the Snhd. However, in our standard models the outward migrating populations are not hot enough vertically to create thick discs. Thick discs can form in models with high baryon fractions, but the corresponding bars are too long, the young stellar populations too hot and the discs flare considerably.

  11. Use of adipose stem cells and polylactide discs for tissue engineering of the temporomandibular joint disc

    PubMed Central

    Mäenpää, Katja; Ellä, Ville; Mauno, Jari; Kellomäki, Minna; Suuronen, Riitta; Ylikomi, Timo; Miettinen, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    There is currently no suitable replacement for damaged temporomandibular joint (TMJ) discs after discectomy. In the present study, we fabricated bilayer biodegradable polylactide (PLA) discs comprising a non-woven mat of poly(L/D)lactide (P(L/D)LA) 96/4 and a P(L/DL)LA 70/30 membrane plate. The PLA disc was examined in combination with adipose stem cells (ASCs) for tissue engineering of the fibrocartilaginous TMJ disc in vitro. ASCs were cultured in parallel in control and chondrogenic medium for a maximum of six weeks. Relative expression of the genes, aggrecan, type I collagen and type II collagen present in the TMJ disc extracellular matrix increased in the ASC-seeded PLA discs in the chondrogenic medium. The hypertrophic marker, type X collagen, was moderately induced. Alcian blue staining showed accumulation of sulphated glycosaminoglycans. ASC differentiation in the PLA discs was close to that observed in pellet cultures. Comparison of the mRNA levels revealed that the degree of ASC differentiation was lower than that in TMJ disc-derived cells and tissue. The pellet format supported the phenotype of the TMJ disc-derived cells under chondrogenic conditions and also enhanced their hyalinization potential, which is considered part of the TMJ disc degeneration process. Accordingly, the combination of ASCs and PLA discs has potential for the development of a tissue-engineered TMJ disc replacement. PMID:19474082

  12. Total Disc Arthroplasty for Treating Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Lumber disc arthroplasty is a technological advancement that has occurred in the last decade to treat lumbar degenerative disk diseases. Purpose The aim of this retrospective study was to establish the impact and outcomes of managing patients with lumbar degenerative disk disease who have been treated with lumbar total disc arthroplasty (TDA). Overview of Literature Several studies have shown promising results following this surgery. Methods We reviewed the files of 104 patients at the Department of Neurosurgery in Colmar (France) who had been operated on by lumbar spine arthroplasty (Prodisc) between April 2002 and October 2008. Results Among the 104 patients, 67 were female and 37 were male with an average age of 33.1 years. We followed the cases for a mean of 20 months. The most frequent level of discopathy was L4-L5 with 62 patients (59.6%) followed by L5-S1 level with 52 patients (50%). Eighty-three patients suffered from low back pain, 21 of which were associated with radiculopathy. The status of 82 patients improved after surgery according to the Oswestry Disability Index score, and 92 patients returned to work. Conclusions The results indicate that TDA is a good alternative treatment for lumbar spine disk disease, particularly for patients with disabling and chronic low back pain. This technique contributes to improve living conditions with correct patient selection for surgery. PMID:25705336

  13. Total Disc Replacement in Lumbar Degenerative Disc Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    More than 10 years have passed since lumbar total disc replacement (LTDR) was introduced for the first time to the world market for the surgical management of lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). It seems like the right time to sum up the relevant results in order to understand where LTDR stands on now, and is heading forward to. The pathogenesis of DDD has been currently settled, but diagnosis and managements are still controversial. Fusion is recognized as golden standard of surgical managements but has various kinds of shortcomings. Lately, LTDR has been expected to replace fusion surgery. A great deal of LTDR reports has come out. Among them, more than 5-year follow-up prospective randomized controlled studies including USA IDE trials were expected to elucidate whether for LTDR to have therapeutic benefit compared to fusion. The results of these studies revealed that LTDR was not inferior to fusion. Most of clinical studies dealing with LTDR revealed that there was no strong evidence for preventive effect of LTDR against symptomatic degenerative changes of adjacent segment disease. LTDR does not have shortcomings associated with fusion. However, it has a potentiality of the new complications to occur, which surgeons have never experienced in fusion surgeries. Consequently, longer follow-up should be necessary as yet to confirm the maintenance of improved surgical outcome and to observe any very late complications. LTDR still may get a chance to establish itself as a substitute of fusion both nominally and virtually if it eases the concerns listed above. PMID:26713139

  14. Pharmacological mydriasis and optic disc examination

    PubMed Central

    Kirwan, J.; Gouws, P.; Linnell, A.; Crowston, J.; Bunce, C.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To determine whether pharmacological mydriasis leads to a significant difference in interobserver agreement of optic disc measurement compared with examination without mydriasis.
METHOD—A cross sectional study was performed with a pair of observers examining the optic disc of two randomised groups of patients, one group before diagnostic mydriasis, and the other afterwards. Horizontal and vertical disc diameters and cup/disc ratios were measured with a 78 dioptre lens. The study was repeated with another observer pair and two further groups of patients.
RESULTS—In study A 86 subjects were examined in total (52 without and 34 with mydriasis). In study B 87 subjects were examined (45 without and 42 with mydriasis). The 95% limits of agreement of the cup/disc ratio measurement differences were significantly larger without mydriasis (p<0.001 for all studies (F test)). For both studies examination after mydriasis gave significantly greater agreement for vertical and horizontal cup/disc ratios. The cases with good agreement (0.1 difference or better) for vertical cup/disc ratios were 37/52 (72%) and 34 /45 (76%) without mydriasis and 33/34 (97%) and 40/42 (95%) respectively with mydriasis. Similar differences were recorded for horizontal cup/disc ratios. Disc diameter measurement results showed similar differences in study A but were not affected by mydriasis in study B.
CONCLUSIONS—Examination of the optic disc without pharmacological mydriasis gives significantly poorer interobserver agreement. In this study, the mean 95% limits of agreement values for all cup/disc ratio values were 0.27 for examination without mydriasis and 0.13 for examination with mydriasis. A measure outside these limits would suggest a real difference. This study indicates that mydriasis is important for reproducible clinical examination in glaucoma.

 PMID:10906099

  15. Quantitative Pfirrmann Disc Degeneration Grading System to Overcome the Limitation of Pfirrmann Disc Degeneration Grade

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade is one of morphologic disc degeneration grading system and it was reliable on routine T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement of Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade, and check the alternative technique of disc degeneration grading system. Methods Fifteen volunteers (4 medical doctors related to spinal disease, 2 medical doctors not related to spinal disease, 6 nurses in spinal hospital, and 3 para-medicines) were included in this study. Three different digitalized MR images were provided all volunteers, and they checked Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade of each disc levels after careful listening to explanation. Indeed, all volunteers checked the signal intensity of disc degeneration at the points of nucleus pulposus (NP), disc membrane, ligaments, fat, and air to modify the quantitative Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade. Results Total 225 grade results of Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade and 405 signal intensity results of quantitative Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade were analyzed. Average interobserver agreement was "moderate (mean±standard deviation, 0.575±0.251)" from poor to excellent. Completely agreed levels of Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade were only 4 levels (26.67%), and the disagreement levels were observed in 11 levels; two different grades in 8 levels (53.33%) and three different grades in 3 levels (20%). Quantitative Pfirrmann disc degeneration showed relatively cluster distribution with the interobserver deviations of 0.41-1.56 at the ratio of NP and disc membrane, and it showed relatively good cluster and distribution indicating that the proposed grading system has good discrimination ability. Conclusion Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade showed the limitation of different interobserver results, but this limitation could be overcome by using quantitative techniques of MR signal intensity. Further evaluation is needed to access its advantage

  16. Use NASA GES DISC Data in ArcGIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Wenli; Pham, Long B.; Kempler, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes GIS relevant data at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), GES DISC Services and Support for GIS Users, and use cases of GES DISC data in ArcGIS.

  17. Changes in disc herniation after CT-guided Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression (PLDD): MR findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brat, Hugues G.; Bouziane, Tarik; Lambert, Jean; Divano, Luisa

    2004-09-01

    The aim of Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression (PLDD) is to vaporize a small portion of the nucleus pulposus. Clinical efficacy of this technique is largely proven. However, time-evolution of intervertebral disc and its hernia after PLDD is not known. This study analyses changes in disc herniation and its native intervertebral disc at a mean follow-up of 7.5 months after PLDD in asymptomatic patients. Main observations at MRI are appearance of a high signal on T2WI in the hernia in 59%, shrinking of the hernia in 66% and overall stability of disc height.

  18. Cervical arthroplasty using ProDisc-C case report.

    PubMed

    Nica, D A; Copaciu, R

    2013-03-15

    Cervical disc replacement is an emerging motion-preserving technology in the surgical treatment of the cervical degenerative disc disorders used as an alternative to the classic interbody fusion. We present a case report of a patient diagnosed with C6-7 right disc herniation who underwent anterior discectomy and received a total disc replacement using ProDisc C artificial disc prosthesis. PMID:23599830

  19. Rapid radiative clearing of protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Thomas J.; Clarke, Cathie J.; Owen, James E.

    2016-04-01

    The lack of observed transition discs with inner gas holes of radii greater than ˜50 au implies that protoplanetary discs dispersed from the inside out must remove gas from the outer regions rapidly. We investigate the role of photoevaporation in the final clearing of gas from low mass discs with inner holes. In particular, we study the so-called `thermal sweeping' mechanism which results in rapid clearing of the disc. Thermal sweeping was originally thought to arise when the radial and vertical pressure scalelengths at the X-ray heated inner edge of the disc match. We demonstrate that this criterion is not fundamental. Rather, thermal sweeping occurs when the pressure maximum at the inner edge of the dust heated disc falls below the maximum possible pressure of X-ray heated gas (which depends on the local X-ray flux). We derive new critical peak volume and surface density estimates for rapid radiative clearing which, in general, result in rapid dispersal happening less readily than in previous estimates. This less efficient clearing of discs by X-ray driven thermal sweeping leaves open the issue of what mechanism (e.g. far-ultraviolet heating) can clear gas from the outer disc sufficiently quickly to explain the non-detection of cold gas around weak line T Tauri stars.

  20. The inner cavity of the circumnuclear disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, M.; Morris, M. R.; Frank, A.; Carroll-Nellenback, J. J.; Duschl, W. J.

    2016-06-01

    The circumnuclear disc (CND) orbiting the Galaxy's central black hole is a reservoir of material that can ultimately provide energy through accretion, or form stars in the presence of the black hole, as evidenced by the stellar cluster that is presently located at the CND's centre. In this paper, we report the results of a computational study of the dynamics of the CND. The results lead us to question two paradigms that are prevalent in previous research on the Galactic Centre. The first is that the disc's inner cavity is maintained by the interaction of the central stellar cluster's strong winds with the disc's inner rim, and secondly, that the presence of unstable clumps in the disc implies that the CND is a transient feature. Our simulations show that, in the absence of a magnetic field, the interaction of the wind with the inner disc rim actually leads to a filling of the inner cavity within a few orbital time-scales, contrary to previous expectations. However, including the effects of magnetic fields stabilizes the inner disc rim against rapid inward migration. Furthermore, this interaction causes instabilities that continuously create clumps that are individually unstable against tidal shearing. Thus the occurrence of such unstable clumps does not necessarily mean that the disc is itself a transient phenomenon. The next steps in this investigation are to explore the effect of the magnetorotational instability on the disc evolution and to test whether the results presented here persist for longer time-scales than those considered here.

  1. D-Zero Cryostat Supplemental Rupture Disc

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab

    1987-08-03

    The common relief and rupture disc vent line requires a double disc assembly with vented interspace for accurate disc burst pressures. The first disc must take pump and purge vacuum loading, but be set to operate at 110% of the MAWP, 18.3 psig (ASME code). The available solution is 18.3 psig with a burst tolerance of +/- psig. The interspace should be locally vented by a flow limiting vent valve to decouple the vent line backpressure from the vessel rupture disc. The second disc must take the worst case vent line backpressure, the steady state value found in D-Zero engineering note 3740.000-EN-63 with all three cryostats simultaneously venting at the fire condition into the 4-inch x 6-inch and 6-inch x 8-inch sections. This value is less than 2 psid. The maximum rupture value for the second disc must be less than the minimum rupture value for the first disc less 2 psid i.e. < 16.3.

  2. Floquet analysis in accretion disc dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburini, F.; Bianchini, A.

    2002-01-01

    Floquet analysis is proposed to analyze the evolution of exponentially growing modes of the local instabilities in accretion discs of CVs induced by perturbations in the velocity field. Both the stability of the disc and the deviation of the Reynolds number are described by the Floquet exponents μj of the perturbations, which represent Landau's modes of the fluid.

  3. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  4. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  5. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  6. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  7. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  8. Disc cell senescence in intervertebral disc degeneration: Causes and molecular pathways

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chencheng; Liu, Huan; Yang, Minghui; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Bo; Zhou, Yue

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The accumulation of senescent disc cells in degenerative intervertebral disc (IVD) suggests the detrimental roles of cell senescence in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Disc cell senescence decreased the number of functional cells in IVD. Moreover, the senescent disc cells were supposed to accelerate the process of IDD via their aberrant paracrine effects by which senescent cells cause the senescence of neighboring cells and enhance the matrix catabolism and inflammation in IVD. Thus, anti-senescence has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for IDD. However, the development of anti-senescence therapy is based on our understanding of the molecular mechanism of disc cell senescence. In this review, we focused on the molecular mechanism of disc cell senescence, including the causes and various molecular pathways. We found that, during the process of IDD, age-related damages together with degenerative external stimuli activated both p53-p21-Rb and p16-Rb pathways to induce disc cell senescence. Meanwhile, disc cell senescence was regulated by multiple signaling pathways, suggesting the complex regulating network of disc cell senescence. To understand the mechanism of disc cell senescence better contributes to developing the anti-senescence-based therapies for IDD. PMID:27192096

  9. Stability of self-gravitating bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Jetzer, P.

    1988-05-01

    The problem of the dynamical stability of the equilibrium solutions for the bosonic stellar configurations in the framework of general relativity is studied. Following the method developed by Chandrasekhar, a variational principle for determining the eigenfrequencies of the oscillations is found. Using the variational principle, one can find an upper bound for the central densities where dynamical instability occurs. For the non-interacting massive complex scalar fields the equilibrium configurations are dynamically unstable for central densities bigger than /rho/ = 1.04 x 10/sup 98/m/sup 2/ g/cm/sup 3/ (m is the boson mass in grams) whereas for the quartic self-interacting case the bound is given by /rho/ = 0.53 x 10/sup 98/m/sup 2/ g/cm/sup 3/ (for a value of the quartic coupling constant: 3.8 x 10/sup 12/m/sup 2/). 5 refs.

  10. Tides on Self-gravitating, Compressible Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, T. A.; Greenberg, R.

    2001-11-01

    Most modern derivations of tidal amplitude follow the approach presented by Love [1]. Love's analysis for a homogeneous sphere assumed an incompressible material, which required introduction of a non-rigorously justified pressure term. We have solved the more general case of arbitrary compressibility, which allows for a more straightforward derivation [2,3]. We find the h2 love number of a body of radius R, density ρ , by solving the deformation equation [4], μ ∇ 2 u = ρ ∇U - (λ + μ ) ∇ (∇ ṡ u) where μ is the rigidity of the body and λ the Lamé constant. The potential U is the sum of (a) the tide raising potential, (b) the potential of surface mass shifted above or below the spherical surface, (c) potential due to the internal density changes and (d) the change in potential of each bit of volume due to its displacement u. A self-consistent solution can be obtained with U = \\sum_{q=0}^{\\infty} b_{(2+2q)} r^{(2+2q)} ( {3}/{2} \\cos2 \\theta - {1}/{2} ). In [1] and [3] only the r2 term was considered, which was valid only if compressibility is small or elasticity governs deformation (i.e. ρ g R << (λ + 2 μ )). The solution with only the r2 term reduces to Love's [1] solution in the limit of zero compressibility (λ = ∞ ). However, for rock μ ~ λ [4], in which case h2 is enhanced by ~ 3 %, and solutions for greater compressibility give up to 8 % enhancement of tidal amplitude. If ρ g R is significant, higher order r(2q+2) terms are important and even greater corrections are required to the classical tidal amplitude. [1] Love, A.E.H., New York Dover Publications, 1944 [2] Hurford, T.A. and R. Greenberg, Lunar Plan. Sci. XXXII 1741, 2001 [3] Hurford, T.A. and R. Greenberg, 2001 DDA meeting, Bull. Amer. Astron. Soc. in press [4] Kaula, W.M., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1968

  11. Chiral Self-Gravitating Cosmic Vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Rybakov, Yu.P.

    2005-06-01

    In the framework of general relativity, an exact axisymmetric (vortex) solution of the equations of motion is obtained for the SU(2) symmetric sigma model. This solution is characterized by the topological charge (winding number) and angular deficit. In the linearized approximation, the Lyapunov stability of vortices is proved and the deflection angle of a light ray in the gravitational field of the vortex (gravitational lens effect) is calculated.

  12. Freely evolving self gravitating granular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Shikha; Ahmad, Syed Rashid

    2016-05-01

    Granular Materials are composed of large number of discrete solid particles. They can be considered solid, liquid or gas depending on movement of the constituting particles and are characterized by loss of energy whenever grains come in contact. We are studying the dynamics of such materials using computer simulations. In particular, we are studying systems that interact with long-range gravitational force in addition to dissipative contact forces. Our focus is on evolution morphology and clustering of particles in this system.

  13. Dependence of optic disc parameters on disc area according to Heidelberg Retina Tomograph: Part II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machekhin, V.; Manaenkova, G.; Bondarenko, O.

    2007-05-01

    With the help of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT-II) optic disc parameters in 211 eyes of 115 healthy patients with refraction Em +/- 3,0 D and 96 eyes of 72 patients with myopia 3,5-14,0 D without any signs of glaucoma were studied. Analysis of optic disc parameters were carried out in 5 groups of patients according to disc area: less than 1,5 mm2, 1,5- 2,5 mm2, 2,5-3,0 mm2, 3,0-3,5 mm2 and more than 3,5 mm2. An accurate depending on disc area was revealed for all optic disc parameters in all sectors, which was manifested by increasing cup disc and rim disc (area and volume) and other parameters. We consider it is necessary to use the proper tables for right interpretation of received data for early diagnosis of glaucoma.

  14. About detection of precessing circumpulsar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimani, Catia

    2016-08-01

    Detections of circumpulsar discs and planetary systems through electromagnetic observations appear quite rare. In the case of PSR 1931+24 and B0656+14, the hypothesis of a precessing disc penetrating the pulsar light cylinder is found consistent with radio and gamma observations from these stars. Disc self-occultation and precession may affect electromagnetic measurements. We investigate here under which conditions gravitational waves generated by circumpulsar disc precession may be detected by the proposed second-generation space interferometers DECI-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory and Big Bang Observer. The characteristics of circumpulsar detectable precessing discs are estimated as a function of distance from the Solar system. Speculations on detection rates are presented.

  15. Hydrodynamic instability in warped astrophysical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.; Latter, Henrik N.

    2013-08-01

    Warped astrophysical discs are usually treated as laminar viscous flows, which have anomalous properties when the disc is nearly Keplerian and the viscosity is small: fast horizontal shearing motions and large torques are generated, which cause the warp to evolve rapidly, in some cases at a rate that is inversely proportional to the viscosity. However, these flows are often subject to a linear hydrodynamic instability, which may produce small-scale turbulence and modify the large-scale dynamics of the disc. We use a warped shearing sheet to compute the oscillatory laminar flows in a warped disc and to analyse their linear stability by the Floquet method. We find widespread hydrodynamic instability deriving from the parametric resonance of inertial waves. Even very small, unobservable warps in nearly Keplerian discs of low viscosity can be expected to generate hydrodynamic turbulence, or at least wave activity, by this mechanism.

  16. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  17. Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Bursalı, Adem; Guvenal, Ahmet Burak; Yaman, Onur

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is generally caused by such well-recognized entity as lumbar disc herniation in neurosurgical practice; however rare pathologies such as thrombosed epidural varix may mimic them by causing radicular symptoms. In this case report, we present a 26-year-old man with the complaint of back and right leg pain who was operated for right L4–5 disc herniation. The lesion interpreted as an extruded disc herniation preoperatively was found to be a thrombosed epidural varix compressing the nerve root preoperatively. The nerve root was decompressed by shrinking the lesion with bipolar thermocoagulation and excision. The patient's complaints disappeared in the postoperative period. Thrombosed lumbar epidural varices may mimic lumbar disc herniations both radiologically and clinically. Therefore, must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniations. Microsurgical techniques are mandatory for the treatment of these pathologies and decompression with thermocoagulation and excision is an efficient method. PMID:27446525

  18. Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Bursalı, Adem; Akyoldas, Goktug; Guvenal, Ahmet Burak; Yaman, Onur

    2016-07-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is generally caused by such well-recognized entity as lumbar disc herniation in neurosurgical practice; however rare pathologies such as thrombosed epidural varix may mimic them by causing radicular symptoms. In this case report, we present a 26-year-old man with the complaint of back and right leg pain who was operated for right L4-5 disc herniation. The lesion interpreted as an extruded disc herniation preoperatively was found to be a thrombosed epidural varix compressing the nerve root preoperatively. The nerve root was decompressed by shrinking the lesion with bipolar thermocoagulation and excision. The patient's complaints disappeared in the postoperative period. Thrombosed lumbar epidural varices may mimic lumbar disc herniations both radiologically and clinically. Therefore, must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniations. Microsurgical techniques are mandatory for the treatment of these pathologies and decompression with thermocoagulation and excision is an efficient method. PMID:27446525

  19. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  20. Structure and evolutionary history of DISC1.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Ponting, Chris P

    2011-10-15

    Evolutionary and protein structural analyses can provide functional insights into genes implicated in human psychiatric diseases. Even eukaryotic organisms lacking nervous systems contain homologues of many key signalling molecules of animal neurons implying that human cognition derives, in part, from modifications of ancestral molecules and complexes. One protein whose evolutionary origin is obscure is DISC1 (disrupted in schizophrenia 1) whose gene locus has been associated with many psychiatric conditions including schizophrenia, clinical depression and bipolar disorder. This protein's rapid evolution and its unusual amino acid and α-helix composition have hindered searches for DISC1 homologues in species other than vertebrates. Here, we review the evolution and structure of the DISC1 protein in the light of in-depth sequence analyses. These predict DISC1 orthologues in diverse eukaryotic organisms, including early-branching animals such as amphioxus, sea anemone, amoebas and Trichoplax, and in plants and algae. DISC1 thus is widespread among eukaryotes, although it remains absent from fungi, nematodes and Diptera, including fruit flies. These observations now permit studies of DISC1 function in simple non-vertebrate model organisms. Surprisingly, these analyses also identify between two and four sequence repeats in DISC1 orthologues. The first two of these repeats show significant sequence similarity to the UVR family of globular domains. These UVR-like repeats are predicted to contain, not coiled coil structures, but rather two closely associated antiparallel α-helices. One common missense variant in DISC1 (L607F) lies within the second DISC1 UVR-like domain. These observations should assist in delineating the functional regions of the DISC1 protein. PMID:21852244

  1. Gaseous insulators for high voltage electrical equipment

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; James, David R.; Pace, Marshall O.; Pai, Robert Y.

    1979-01-01

    Gaseous insulators comprise compounds having high attachment cross sections for electrons having energies in the 0-1.3 electron volt range. Multi-component gaseous insulators comprise compounds and mixtures having overall high electron attachment cross sections in the 0-1.3 electron volt range and moderating gases having high cross sections for inelastic interactions with electrons of energies 1-4 electron volts. Suitable electron attachment components include hexafluorobutyne, perfluorobutene-2, perfluorocyclobutane, perfluorodimethylcyclobutane, perfluorocyclohexene, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, hexafluorobutadiene, perfluoroheptene-1 and hexafluoroazomethane. Suitable moderating gases include N.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The gaseous insulating mixture can also contain SF.sub.6, perfluoropropane and perfluorobenzene.

  2. Gaseous insulators for high voltage electrical equipment

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; James, David R.; Pace, Marshall O.; Pai, Robert Y.

    1981-01-01

    Gaseous insulators comprise compounds having high attachment cross sections for electrons having energies in the 0-1.3 electron volt range. Multi-component gaseous insulators comprise compounds and mixtures having overall high electron attachment cross sections in the 0-1.3 electron volt range and moderating gases having high cross sections for inelastic interactions with electrons of energies 1-4 electron volts. Suitable electron attachment components include hexafluorobutyne, perfluorobutene-2, perfluorocyclobutane, perfluorodimethylcyclobutane, perfluorocyclohexene, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, hexafluorobutadiene, perfluoroheptene-1 and hexafluoroazomethane. Suitable moderating gases include N.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The gaseous insulating mixture can also contain SF.sub.6, perfluoropropane and perfluorobenzene.

  3. Gaseous fuel reactors for power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. S.; Rodgers, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors have significant advantages as energy sources for closed-cycle power systems. The advantages arise from the removal of temperature limits associated with conventional reactor fuel elements, the wide variety of methods of extracting energy from fissioning gases, and inherent low fissile and fission product in-core inventory due to continuous fuel reprocessing. Example power cycles and their general performance characteristics are discussed. Efficiencies of gaseous fuel reactor systems are shown to be high with resulting minimal environmental effects. A technical overview of the NASA-funded research program in gaseous fuel reactors is described and results of recent tests of uranium hexafluoride (UF6)-fueled critical assemblies are presented.

  4. Composition of early planetary atmospheres - I. Connecting disc astrochemistry to the formation of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cridland, A. J.; Pudritz, R. E.; Alessi, M.

    2016-09-01

    We present a model of the early chemical composition and elemental abundances of planetary atmospheres based on the cumulative gaseous chemical species that are accreted on to planets forming by core accretion from evolving protoplanetary discs. The astrochemistry of the host disc is computed using an ionization-driven, non-equilibrium chemistry network within viscously evolving disc models. We accrete gas giant planets whose orbital evolution is controlled by planet traps using the standard core accretion model and track the chemical composition of the material that is accreted on to the protoplanet. We choose a fiducial disc model and evolve planets in three traps - water ice line, dead zone and heat transition. For a disc with a lifetime of 4.1 Myr, we produce two hot Jupiters (M = 1.43, 2.67 MJupiter, r = 0.15, 0.11 au) in the heat transition and ice line trap and one failed core (M = 0.003 MJupiter, r = 3.7 au) in the dead zone. These planets are found with mixing ratios for CO and H2O of 1.99 × 10-4 and 5.0 × 10-4, respectively, for both hot Jupiters. Additionally, for these planets we find CO2 and CH4, with mixing ratios of 1.8 × 10-6 → 9.8 × 10-10 and 1.1 × 10-8 → 2.3 × 10-10, respectively. These ranges correspond well with the mixing ratio ranges that have been inferred through the detection of emission spectra from hot Jupiters by multiple authors. We compute a carbon-to-oxygen ratio of 0.227 for the ice line planet and 0.279 for the heat transition planet. These planets accreted their gas inside the ice line, hence the sub-solar C/O.

  5. Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement of high strength steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, R. P.; Wei, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of temperature, hydrogen pressure, stress intensity, and yield strength on the kinetics of gaseous hydrogen assisted crack propagation in 18Ni maraging steels were investigated experimentally. It was found that crack growth rate as a function of stress intensity was characterized by an apparent threshold for crack growth, a stage where the growth rate increased sharply, and a stage where the growth rate was unchanged over a significant range of stress intensity. Cracking proceeded on load application with little or no detectable incubation period. Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility increased with increasing yield strength.

  6. Spontaneous Regression of Herniated Lumbar Disc with New Disc Protrusion in the Adjacent Level.

    PubMed

    Hakan, Tayfun; Gürcan, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs was reported occasionally. The mechanisms proposed for regression of disc herniation are still incomplete. This paper describes and discusses a case of spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs with a new disc protrusion in the adjacent level. A 41-year-old man was admitted with radiating pain and numbness in the left lower extremity with a left posterolateral disc extrusion at L5-S1 level. He was admitted to hospital with low back pain due to disc herniation caudally immigrating at L4-5 level three years ago. He refused the surgical intervention that was offered and was treated conservatively at that time. He had no neurological deficit and a history of spontaneous regression of the extruded lumbar disc; so, a conservative therapy, including bed rest, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and analgesics, was advised. In conclusion, herniated lumbar disc fragments may regress spontaneously. Reports are prone to advise conservative treatment for extruded or sequestrated lumbar disc herniations. However, these patients should be followed up closely; new herniation at adjacent/different level may occur. Furthermore, it is important to know which herniated disk should be removed and which should be treated conservatively, because disc herniation may cause serious complications as muscle weakness and cauda equine syndrome. PMID:27429818

  7. Spontaneous Regression of Herniated Lumbar Disc with New Disc Protrusion in the Adjacent Level

    PubMed Central

    Gürcan, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs was reported occasionally. The mechanisms proposed for regression of disc herniation are still incomplete. This paper describes and discusses a case of spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs with a new disc protrusion in the adjacent level. A 41-year-old man was admitted with radiating pain and numbness in the left lower extremity with a left posterolateral disc extrusion at L5-S1 level. He was admitted to hospital with low back pain due to disc herniation caudally immigrating at L4-5 level three years ago. He refused the surgical intervention that was offered and was treated conservatively at that time. He had no neurological deficit and a history of spontaneous regression of the extruded lumbar disc; so, a conservative therapy, including bed rest, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and analgesics, was advised. In conclusion, herniated lumbar disc fragments may regress spontaneously. Reports are prone to advise conservative treatment for extruded or sequestrated lumbar disc herniations. However, these patients should be followed up closely; new herniation at adjacent/different level may occur. Furthermore, it is important to know which herniated disk should be removed and which should be treated conservatively, because disc herniation may cause serious complications as muscle weakness and cauda equine syndrome. PMID:27429818

  8. Stem cells sources for intervertebral disc regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vadalà, Gianluca; Russo, Fabrizio; Ambrosio, Luca; Loppini, Mattia; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc regeneration field is rapidly growing since disc disorders represent a major health problem in industrialized countries with very few possible treatments. Indeed, current available therapies are symptomatic, and surgical procedures consist in disc removal and spinal fusion, which is not immune to regardable concerns about possible comorbidities, cost-effectiveness, secondary risks and long-lasting outcomes. This review paper aims to share recent advances in stem cell therapy for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration. In literature the potential use of different adult stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration has already been reported. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, adipose tissue derived stem cells, synovial stem cells, muscle-derived stem cells, olfactory neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, disc stem cells, and embryonic stem cells have been studied for this purpose either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, several engineered carriers (e.g., hydrogels), characterized by full biocompatibility and prompt biodegradation, have been designed and combined with different stem cell types in order to optimize the local and controlled delivery of cellular substrates in situ. The paper overviews the literature discussing the current status of our knowledge of the different stem cells types used as a cell-based therapy for disc regeneration. PMID:27247704

  9. Stem cells sources for intervertebral disc regeneration.

    PubMed

    Vadalà, Gianluca; Russo, Fabrizio; Ambrosio, Luca; Loppini, Mattia; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2016-05-26

    Intervertebral disc regeneration field is rapidly growing since disc disorders represent a major health problem in industrialized countries with very few possible treatments. Indeed, current available therapies are symptomatic, and surgical procedures consist in disc removal and spinal fusion, which is not immune to regardable concerns about possible comorbidities, cost-effectiveness, secondary risks and long-lasting outcomes. This review paper aims to share recent advances in stem cell therapy for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration. In literature the potential use of different adult stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration has already been reported. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, adipose tissue derived stem cells, synovial stem cells, muscle-derived stem cells, olfactory neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, disc stem cells, and embryonic stem cells have been studied for this purpose either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, several engineered carriers (e.g., hydrogels), characterized by full biocompatibility and prompt biodegradation, have been designed and combined with different stem cell types in order to optimize the local and controlled delivery of cellular substrates in situ. The paper overviews the literature discussing the current status of our knowledge of the different stem cells types used as a cell-based therapy for disc regeneration. PMID:27247704

  10. Shear Mechanics of the TMJ Disc

    PubMed Central

    Juran, C.M.; Dolwick, M.F.; McFetridge, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a complex hinge and gliding joint that induces significant shear loads onto the fibrocartilage TMJ disc during jaw motion. The purpose of this study was to assess regional variation in the disc’s shear loading characteristics under physiologically relevant loads and to associate those mechanical findings with common clinical observations of disc fatigue and damage. Porcine TMJ discs were compressed between an axially translating bottom platen and a 2.5-cm-diameter indenter within a hydrated testing chamber. Discs were cyclically sheared at 0.5, 1, or 5 Hz to 1, 3, or 5% shear strain. Within the anterior and intermediate regions of the disc when sheared in the anteroposterior direction, both shear and compressive moduli experienced a significant decrease from instantaneous to steady state, while the posterior region’s compressive modulus decreased approximately 5%, and no significant loss of shear modulus was noted. All regions retained their shear modulus within 0.5% of instantaneous values when shear was applied in the mediolateral direction. The results of the disc’s regional shear mechanics suggest an observable and predictable link with the common clinical observation that the posterior region of the disc is most often the zone in which fatigue occurs, which may lead to disc damage and perforation. PMID:23166043

  11. Electron beam recording of optical disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Giles; Reynolds, Gerald; Baylis, Chris; Pearce, Adrian; Dix, Colin; Ogilvie, Nick

    2002-09-01

    The Nimbus Technology & Engineering e -Beam Mastering System was developed to gain a large improvement in optical disc and structured hard disc recording capacity, significantly more than is possible from deep UV and SIL mastering. The current electron beam recorder is essentially a production machine capable of making full-length exposures at capacities of up to 50 GB with a simple low-cost upgrade path to disc capacities of several hundred gigabytes and beyond and hard disk drives (HDD) with capacities of up to 1 tera bit per square inch.

  12. [Lumbar disc herniation and andrological diseases].

    PubMed

    Jin, Bao-fang

    2015-10-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is a common male disease. In the past, More academic attention was directed to its relationship with lumbago and leg pain than to its association with andrological diseases. Studies show that central lumber intervertebral disc herniation may cause cauda equina injury and result in premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, priapism, and emission. This article presents an overview on the correlation between central lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and andrological diseases, focusing on the aspects of etiology, pathology, and clinical progress, hoping to invite more attention from andrological and osteological clinicians. PMID:26665671

  13. Spectroscopic Parameters of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terbetas, G.; Kozlovskaja, A.; Varanius, D.; Graziene, V.; Vaitkus, J.; Vaitkuviene, A.

    2009-06-01

    There are numerous methods of investigating intervertebral disc. Visualization methods are widely used in clinical practice. Histological, imunohistochemical and biochemical methods are more used in scientific research. We propose that a new spectroscopic investigation would be useful in determining intervertebral disc material, especially when no histological specimens are available. Purpose: to determine spectroscopic parameters of intervertebral disc material; to determine emission spectra common for all intervertebral discs; to create a background for further spectroscopic investigation where no histological specimen will be available. Material and Methods: 20 patients, 68 frozen sections of 20 μm thickness from operatively removed intervertebral disc hernia were excited by Nd:YAG microlaser STA-01-TH third harmonic 355 nm light throw 0, 1 mm fiber. Spectrophotometer OceanOptics USB2000 was used for spectra collection. Mathematical analysis of spectra was performed by ORIGIN multiple Gaussian peaks analysis. Results: In each specimen of disc hernia were found distinct maximal spectral peaks of 4 types supporting the histological evaluation of mixture content of the hernia. Fluorescence in the spectral regions 370-700 nm was detected in the disc hernias. The main spectral component was at 494 nm and the contribution of the components with the peak wavelength values at 388 nm, 412 nm and 435±5 nm were varying in the different groups of samples. In comparison to average spectrum of all cases, there are 4 groups of different spectral signatures in the region 400-500 nm in the patient groups, supporting a clinical data on different clinical features of the patients. Discussion and Conclusion: besides the classical open discectomy, new minimally invasive techniques of treating intervertebral disc emerge (PLDD). Intervertebral disc in these techniques is assessed by needle, no histological specimen is taken. Spectroscopic investigation via fiber optics through the

  14. How Does Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease Affect the Disc Deformation at the Cephalic Levels In Vivo?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaobai; Xia, Qun; Passias, Peter; Li, Weishi; Wood, Kirkham; Li, Guoan

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Case-control study. Objective . To evaluate the effect of lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) on the disc deformation at the adjacent level and at the level one above the adjacent level during end ranges of lumbar motion. Summary of Background Data It has been reported that in patients with DDD, the intervertebral discs adjacent to the diseased levels have a greater tendency to degenerate. Although altered biomechanics have been suggested to be the causative factors, few data have been reported on the deformation characteristics of the adjacent discs in patients with DDD. Methods Ten symptomatic patients with discogenic low back pain between L4 and S1 and with healthy discs at the cephalic segments were involved. Eight healthy subjects recruited in our previous studies were used as a reference comparison. The in vivo kinematics of L3–L4 (the cephalic adjacent level to the degenerated discs) and L2–L3 (the level one above the adjacent level) lumbar discs of both groups were obtained using a combined magnetic resonance imaging and dual fluoroscopic imaging technique at functional postures. Deformation characteristics, in terms of areas of minimal deformation (defined as less than 5%), deformations at the center of the discs, and maximum tensile and shear deformations, were compared between the two groups at the two disc levels. Results In the patients with DDD, there were significantly smaller areas of minimal disc deformation at L3–L4 and L2–L3 than the healthy subjects (18% compared with 45% of the total disc area, on average). Both L2–L3 and L3–L4 discs underwent larger tensile and shear deformations in all postures than the healthy subjects. The maximum tensile deformations were higher by up to 23% (of the local disc height in standing) and the maximum shear deformations were higher by approximately 25% to 40% (of the local disc height in standing) compared with those of the healthy subjects. Conclusion Both the discs of the adjacent

  15. Methods and systems for deacidizing gaseous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Liang

    2010-05-18

    An improved process for deacidizing a gaseous mixture using phase enhanced gas-liquid absorption is described. The process utilizes a multiphasic absorbent that absorbs an acid gas at increased rate and leads to reduced overall energy costs for the deacidizing operation.

  16. THE LIQUID AND GASEOUS FUEL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the national liquid and gaseous fuel distribution system. he study leading to the report was performed as part of an effort to better understand emissions of volatile organic compounds from the fuel distribution system. he primary, secondary, and tertiary seg...

  17. LIQUID AND GASEOUS FUEL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the national liquid and gaseous fuel distribution system. he study leading to the report was performed as part of an effort to better understand emissions of volatile organic compounds from the fuel distribution system. he primary, secondary, and tertiary seg...

  18. Experimental Evaluation of a Subscale Gaseous Hydrogen/gaseous Oxygen Coaxial Rocket Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Farhangi, Shahram; Sutton, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The next generation reusable launch vehicle may utilize a Full-Flow Stage Combustion (FFSC) rocket engine cycle. One of the key technologies required is the development of an injector that uses gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen as propellants. Gas-gas propellant injection provides an engine with increased stability margin over a range of throttle set points. This paper summarizes an injector design and testing effort that evaluated a coaxial rocket injector for use with gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. A total of 19 hot-fire tests were conducted up to a chamber pressure of 1030 psia, over a range of 3.3 to 6.7 for injector element mixture ratio. Post-test condition of the hardware was also used to assess injector face cooling. Results show that high combustion performance levels could be achieved with gas-gas propellants and there were no problems with excessive face heating for the conditions tested.

  19. Annulo-nucleoplasty using Disc-FX in the management of lumbar disc pathology: Early results

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Aravind; Siddharth M, Shah; Sambhav P, Shah; Tan, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Background Back pain due to Lumbar Disc Disease is a major clinical problem. The treatment options range from physiotherapy to fusion surgery. A number of minimally invasive procedures have also been developed in the recent past for its management. Disc-FX is a new minimally invasive technique that combines percutaneous discectomy, nuclear ablation and annular modification. Literature on its role in the management of lumbar disc pathology is scarce. Methods We included 24 consecutive patients who underwent the Disc-FX for back pain due to lumbar disc pathology non-responsive to non-operative treatment for a period of at least 6 months. Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) these patients fell into 2 groups – those with degenerative disc disease (DDD) (n = 12) and those with a contained lumbar disc herniation (CLDH)(n = 12). They were evaluated using the Visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) scores preoperatively and postoperatively. Results The mean age was 37.9 years (21-53 years). There were 17 males and 7 females. One patient in each subgroup was excluded from the final evaluation. Significant improvement was seen in all outcome measures. The overall rate of reintervention for persistent symptoms was 18.18% (4/22); in the CLDH subgroup, it was 36.36% (4/11). Conclusions and level of evidence Early results after the Disc-FX procedure suggest that it s a reasonable treatment option for patients with back pain due to lumbar disc disease, especially for those with DDD who fail conservative treatment. It could be an alternative to procedures like fusion or disc replacement. This study presents Level IV evidence. Clinical relevance We feel that our study establishes Disc-FX as a modality of treating symptomatic lumbar disc disease due to DDD. However, longer term prospective studies are needed to prove this and to evaluate its role in the treatment of patients with CLDH. PMID:25694914

  20. Archival-grade optical disc design and international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Toru; Kojyo, Shinichi; Endo, Akihisa; Kodaira, Takuo; Mori, Fumi; Shimizu, Atsuo

    2015-09-01

    Optical discs currently on the market exhibit large variations in life span among discs, making them unsuitable for certain business applications. To assess and potentially mitigate this problem, we performed accelerated degradation testing under standard ISO conditions, determined the probable disc failure mechanisms, and identified the essential criteria necessary for a stable disc composition. With these criteria as necessary conditions, we analyzed the physical and chemical changes that occur in the disc components, on the basis of which we determined technological measures to reduce these degradation processes. By applying these measures to disc fabrication, we were able to develop highly stable optical discs.

  1. Effects of photophoresis on the dust distribution in a 3D protoplanetary disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuello, N.; Gonzalez, J.-F.; Pignatale, F. C.

    2016-05-01

    Photophoresis is a physical process based on momentum exchange between an illuminated dust particle and its gaseous environment. Its net effect in protoplanetary discs (PPD) is the outward transport of solid bodies from hot to cold regions. This process naturally leads to the formation of ring-shaped features where dust piles up. In this work, we study the dynamical effects of photophoresis in PPD by including the photophoretic force in the two-fluid (gas+dust) smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code developed by Barrière-Fouchet et al. (2005). We find that the conditions of pressure and temperature encountered in the inner regions of PPD result in important photophoretic forces, which dramatically affect the radial motion of solid bodies. Moreover, dust particles have different equilibrium locations in the disc depending on their size and their intrinsic density. The radial transport towards the outer parts of the disc is more efficient for silicates than for iron particles, which has important implications for meteoritic composition. Our results indicate that photophoresis must be taken into account in the inner regions of PPD to fully understand the dynamics and the evolution of the dust composition.

  2. Treatment of lumbar disc herniation by percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) and modified PLDD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xiao fei; Li, Hong zhi; Wu, Ru zhou; Sui, Yun xian

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To study the micro-invasive operative method and to compare the effect of treatment of PLDD and modified PLDD for Lumbar Disc Herniation. Method: Vaporized part of the nucleus pulposus in single or multiple point after acupuncture into lumbar disc, to reach the purpose of the decompression of the lumbar disc. Result: Among the 19 cases of the regular PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 63.2%, and among the 40 cases of the modified PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 82.5%. Conclusion: The modified PLDD has good effect on the treatment for lumbar disc herniation.

  3. [Spontaneous resolution of a lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Gelabert-González, M; Serramito-García, R; Aran-Echabe, E; García-Allut, A

    2007-04-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is a common cause of lower leg radiculopathy and the most effective methods of treatment remain in question. Both surgical and nonsurgical treatments may provide a successful outcome in appropriately selected patients. The spontaneous resolution of herniated lumbar discs is a well-established phenomenon. The authors present a case of spontaneous regression of a herniated lumbar nucleus pulpous in a patient with radiculopathy. PMID:17497061

  4. Disc valve for sampling erosive process streams

    DOEpatents

    Mrochek, John E.; Dinsmore, Stanley R.; Chandler, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    A four-port disc valve for sampling erosive, high temperature process streams. A rotatable disc defining opposed first and second sampling cavities rotates between fired faceplates defining flow passageways positioned to be alternatively in axial alignment with the first and second cavities. Silicon carbide inserts and liners composed of .alpha. silicon carbide are provided in the faceplates and in the sampling cavities to limit erosion while providing lubricity for a smooth and precise operation when used under harsh process conditions.

  5. Activ C cervical disc replacement for myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, L.; Cadman, S.; Chitgopkar, S. D.; Canavan, L.; O’Malley, M.; Shackleford, I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cervical disc replacement is becoming an increasingly popular treatment option for cervical myelopathy. It retains motion at the affected segment, unlike anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. The aim of this study is to assess the outcomes of a series of patients who underwent Activ C disc replacement for cervical myelopathy. Materials and Methods: A series of patients at the above Trust with clinical and radiological evidence of cervical myelopathy who were suitable for cervical disc replacement from 2007 to 2009 were included. Implants were inserted by one of two consultant surgeons {IMS, MO’M}. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at six, 12 and 24 months, postoperatively, with a visual analogue score (VAS) for neck and arm pain severity and frequency, the Neck Disability Index questionnaire (NDI) and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression questionnaire (CES-D). Results: Ten patients underwent surgery between May 2007 and July 2009, 6 women, and 4 men. Average age was 54 years (40-64). Disc levels replaced were: four at C4-5; eight at C5-6; seven at C6-7. Three patients had one disc replaced, five patients had two discs replaced, and two patients had three discs replaced. The VAS for neck pain improved from 5.9 pre-operatively to 1.4-24 months postoperatively and the VAS arm pain improved from 5.4 to 2.6. The NDI improved from 51% preoperatively to 26.8% at 24 months postoperatively. The CES-D showed a slight increase from 19.5 preoperatively to 21.7 at 24 months, postoperatively. Conclusion: Cervical decompression and disc replacement improves pain and function in patients with cervical myelopathy. This benefit is maintained at 24 months post op, with no cases requiring revision. PMID:23125494

  6. Mach disc formation in cylindrical recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.E.; McQueen, R.G.; Marsh, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Cylindrical recovery systems have been used to shock-load polymers to pressures exceeding 50 GPa. In order to determine the pressures generated in these recovery systems the formation of the Mach disc on axis and its approach to steady state was monitored. The relation of the Mach disc diameter to the lateral dimension of the high explosive used to compress the polymer samples was also investigated.

  7. 40 CFR 87.71 - Compliance with gaseous emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.71 Compliance with gaseous emission standards. Compliance with each gaseous emission standard by an aircraft engine shall...

  8. 40 CFR 87.71 - Compliance with gaseous emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.71 Compliance with gaseous emission standards. Compliance with each gaseous emission standard by an aircraft engine shall...

  9. Gaseous modification of MCrAlY coatings

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes methods for modifying MCrAlY coatings by using gaseous carburization, gaseous nitriding or gaseous carbonitriding. The modified MCrAlY coatings are useful in thermal barrier coating systems, which may be used in gas turbine engines.

  10. Discovery of the Fomalhaut C debris disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, G. M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Kalas, P.; Duchêne, G.; Sibthorpe, B.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Matthews, B. C.; Greaves, J.

    2014-02-01

    Fomalhaut is one of the most interesting and well-studied nearby stars, hosting at least one planet, a spectacular debris ring and two distant low-mass stellar companions (TW PsA and LP 876-10, a.k.a. Fomalhaut B and C). We observed both companions with Herschel, and while no disc was detected around the secondary, TW PsA, we have discovered the second debris disc in the Fomalhaut system, around LP 876-10. This detection is only the second case of two debris discs seen in a multiple system, both of which are relatively wide (≳3000 au for HD 223352/40 and 158 kau [0.77 pc] for Fomalhaut/LP 876-10). The disc is cool (24 K) and relatively bright, with a fractional luminosity Ldisc/L⋆ = 1.2 × 10-4, and represents the rare observation of a debris disc around an M dwarf. Further work should attempt to find if the presence of two discs in the Fomalhaut system is coincidental, perhaps simply due to the relatively young system age of 440 Myr, or if the stellar components have dynamically interacted and the system is even more complex than it currently appears.

  11. Proteomic Signature of the Murine Intervertebral Disc

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Matthew R.; Patel, Priya; Frimpong, Agya; Xiao, Yizhi; Siqueira, Walter L.; Séguin, Cheryle A.

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is the most common musculoskeletal problem and the single most common cause of disability, often attributed to degeneration of the intervertebral disc. Lack of effective treatment is directly related to our limited understanding of the pathways responsible for maintaining disc health. While transcriptional analysis has permitted initial insights into the biology of the intervertebral disc, complete proteomic characterization is required. We therefore employed liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) protein/peptide separation and mass spectrometric analyses to characterize the protein content of intervertebral discs from skeletally mature wild-type mice. A total of 1360 proteins were identified and categorized using PANTHER. Identified proteins were primarily intracellular/plasma membrane (35%), organelle (30%), macromolecular complex (10%), extracellular region (9%). Molecular function categorization resulted in three distinct categories: catalytic activity (33%), binding (molecule interactions) (29%), and structural activity (13%). To validate our list, we confirmed the presence of 14 of 20 previously identified IVD-associated markers, including matrix proteins, transcriptional regulators, and secreted proteins. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed distinct localization patterns of select protein with the intervertebral disc. Characterization of the protein composition of healthy intervertebral disc tissue is an important first step in identifying cellular processes and pathways disrupted during aging or disease progression. PMID:25689066

  12. Modeling Jupiter's current disc: Pioneer 10 outbound

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.E.; Melville, J.G. II; Blake, M.L.

    1980-07-01

    The magnetic field of the Jovian current disc has been modeled by using Euler functions and the Biot-Savart law applied to a series of concentric, but not necessarily coplanar, current rings. We find that a best fit to the Pioneer 10 outbound perturbation magnetic field data (B/sub total/-B/sub dipole/) is obtained if the current disc is twisted (outer edges increasingly lag behind inner edges with radial distance) and also bent so as to tend toward parallelism with the Jovigraphic equator. The inner and outer radii of the disc appear to be about 7 R/sub J/ and 150 R/sub J/, respectively, although some indication of a changing magnetopause location is apparent in the data. Because of the observed current disc penetrations, the bent disc also requires a deformation in the form of a bump or wrinkle whose axis tends also to exhibit spiraling. The radial dependence of the azimuthal current in the disc is not described by a simple power law, the outer region showing a smaller power law dependence. Modeling of the azimuthal field shows it to be due to a thin radial current sheet, but there is some evidence that this may, in fact, be due in large part to penetration of a tail current sheet as suggested by the Voyager observations.

  13. Optic disc anomalies and frontonasal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkins, P; Lees, M; Lawson, J; Reardon, W; Leitch, J; Thorogood, P; Winter, R; Taylor, D

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To document the optic disc abnormalities in patients with frontonasal dysplasia in association with basal encephalocele.
METHODS—Names and hospital numbers of patients with midline clefts were obtained from the ophthalmology and genetics database. Six patients were identified who had the following common findings: midline facial cleft with midline cleft lip and palate; hypertelorism; absent corpus callosum; basal (sphenoethmoidal) encephalocele; and pituitary deficiency (five out of six cases). Ophthalmic examination was performed with fundal photography where possible.
RESULTS—Two patients had unilateral and one a bilateral peripapillary staphyloma. Two patients had bilateral optic disc hypoplasia and one appeared to have a peripapillary staphyloma in one eye and a morning glory disc in the other.
CONCLUSION—Optic disc abnormalities were found in all patients with this constellation of clinical findings. This association appears to represent a distinct subgroup within the spectrum of frontonasal dysplasia. The presence of midline facial anomalies and any dysplastic disc should alert the physician as to the presence of an encephalocele.

 Keywords: frontonasal dysplasia; optic disc; encephalocele PMID:9602627

  14. The diversity of thick galactic discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasparova, Anastasia V.; Katkov, Ivan Yu.; Chilingarian, Igor V.; Silchenko, Olga K.; Moiseev, Alexey V.; Borisov, Svyatoslav B.

    2016-07-01

    Although thick stellar discs are detected in nearly all edge-on disc galaxies, their formation scenarios still remain a matter of debate. Due to observational difficulties, there is a lack of information about their stellar populations. Using the Russian 6-m telescope BTA we collected deep spectra of thick discs in three edge-on S0-a disc galaxies located in different environments: NGC 4111 in a dense group, NGC 4710 in the Virgo cluster, and NGC 5422 in a sparse group. We see intermediate age (4-5 Gyr) metal rich ([Fe/H] ˜- 0.2…0.0 dex) stellar populations in NGC 4111 and NGC 4710. On the other hand, NGC 5422 does not harbour young stars, its disc is thick and old (10 Gyr), without evidence for a second component, and its α-element abundance suggests a 1.5-2 Gyr long formation epoch implying its formation at high redshift. Our results suggest the diversity of thick disc formation scenarios.

  15. Circumplanetary disc or circumplanetary envelope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulágyi, J.; Masset, F.; Lega, E.; Crida, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Guillot, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present three-dimensional simulations with nested meshes of the dynamics of the gas around a Jupiter mass planet with the JUPITER and FARGOCA codes. We implemented a radiative transfer module into the JUPITER code to account for realistic heating and cooling of the gas. We focus on the circumplanetary gas flow, determining its characteristics at very high resolution (80 per cent of Jupiter's diameter). In our nominal simulation where the temperature evolves freely by the radiative module and reaches 13000 K at the planet, a circumplanetary envelope was formed filling the entire Roche lobe. Because of our equation of state is simplified and probably overestimates the temperature, we also performed simulations with limited maximal temperatures in the planet region (1000, 1500, and 2000 K). In these fixed temperature cases circumplanetary discs (CPDs) were formed. This suggests that the capability to form a CPD is not simply linked to the mass of the planet and its ability to open a gap. Instead, the gas temperature at the planet's location, which depends on its accretion history, plays also fundamental role. The CPDs in the simulations are hot and cooling very slowly, they have very steep temperature and density profiles, and are strongly sub-Keplerian. Moreover, the CPDs are fed by a strong vertical influx, which shocks on the CPD surfaces creating a hot and luminous shock-front. In contrast, the pressure supported circumplanetary envelope is characterized by internal convection and almost stalled rotation.

  16. Probing the gaseous halo of galaxies through non-thermal emission from AGN-driven outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-10-01

    Feedback from outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) can affect the distribution and properties of the gaseous haloes of galaxies. We study the hydrodynamics and non-thermal emission from the forward outflow shock produced by an AGN-driven outflow. We consider a few possible profiles for the halo gas density, self-consistently constrained by the halo mass, redshift and the disc baryonic concentration of the galaxy. We show that the outflow velocity levels off at ˜ 103 km s- 1 within the scale of the galaxy disc. Typically, the outflow can reach the virial radius around the time when the AGN shuts off. We show that the outflows are energy-driven, consistent with observations and recent theoretical findings. The outflow shock lights up the haloes of massive galaxies across a broad wavelength range. For Milky Way mass haloes, radio observations by the Jansky Very Large Array and the Square Kilometre Array and infrared/optical observations by the James Webb Space Telescope and Hubble Space Telescope can detect the emission signal of angular size ˜8 arcsec from galaxies out to redshift z ˜ 5. Millimetre observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array are sensitive to non-thermal emission of angular size ˜18 arcsec from galaxies at redshift z ≲ 1, while X-ray observations by Chandra, XMM-Newton and the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics are limited to local galaxies (z ≲ 0.1) with an emission angular size of ˜2 arcmin. Overall, the extended non-thermal emission provides a new way of probing the gaseous haloes of galaxies at high redshifts.

  17. Tracing Planets in Circumstellar Discs. Observability of Large-scale Disc Structures with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruge, Jan Philipp; Wolf, Sebastian; Uribe, Ana L.; Klahr, Hubert H.

    2013-04-01

    Planets are assumed to form in circumstellar discs around young stellar objects. The additional gravitational potential of a planet perturbs the disc and leads to characteristic structures, i.e. spiral waves and gaps, in the disc density profile. We perform a large-scale parameter study on the observability of these planet-induced structures in circumstellar discs in the (sub)mm wavelength range for the Atacama Large (Sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). On the basis of hydrodynamical and magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of star-disc-planet models we calculate the disc temperature structure and (sub)mm images of these systems. These are used to derive simulated ALMA maps. Because appropriate objects are frequent in the Taurus-Auriga region, we focus on a distance of 140 pc and a declination of ≈ 20°. The explored range of star-disc-planet configurations consists of six hydrodynamical simulations (including magnetic fields and different planet masses), nine disc sizes with outer radii ranging from 9 AU to 225 AU, 15 total disc masses in the range between 2.67·10-7 M⊙ and 4.10·10-2 M⊙, six different central stars and two different grain size distributions, resulting in 10 000 disc models. At almost all scales and in particular down to a scale of a few AU, ALMA is able to trace disc structures induced by planet-disc interaction or the influence of magnetic fields in the wavelength range between 0.4...2.0 mm. In most cases, the optimum angular resolution is limited by the sensitivity of ALMA. However, within the range of typical masses of protoplane tary discs (0.1 M⊙...0.001 M⊙) the disc mass has a minor impact on the observability. At the distance of 140 pc it is possible to resolve discs down to 2.67·10-6 M⊙ and trace gaps in discs with 2.67·10-4 M⊙ with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than three. In general, it is more likely to trace planet-induced gaps in magneto-hydrodynamical disc models, because gaps are wider in the presence of magnetic fields [1

  18. Gaseous fuel reactor systems for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, K.; Schwenk, F. C.

    1977-01-01

    Research on the gaseous fuel nuclear rocket concept continues under the programs of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office for Aeronautics and Space Technology and now includes work related to power applications in space and on earth. In a cavity reactor test series, initial experiments confirmed the low critical mass determined from reactor physics calculations. Recent work with flowing UF6 fuel indicates stable operation at increased power levels. Preliminary design and experimental verification of test hardware for high-temperature experiments have been accomplished. Research on energy extraction from fissioning gases has resulted in lasers energized by fission fragments. Combined experimental results and studies indicate that gaseous-fuel reactor systems have significant potential for providing nuclear fission power in space and on earth.

  19. Effect of gaseous ammonia on nicotine sorption

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, A.M.; Singer, B.C.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    2002-06-01

    Nicotine is a major constituent of environmental tobacco smoke. Sorptive interactions of nicotine with indoor surfaces can substantially alter indoor concentrations. The phenomenon is poorly understood, including whether sorption is fully reversible or partially irreversible. They hypothesize that acid-base chemistry on indoor surfaces might contribute to the apparent irreversibility of nicotine sorption under some circumstances. Specifically, they suggest that nicotine may become protonated on surfaces, markedly reducing its vapor pressure. If so, subsequent exposure of the surface to gaseous ammonia, a common base, could raise the surface pH, causing deprotonation and desorption of nicotine from surfaces. A series of experiments was conducted to explore the effect of ammonia on nicotine sorption to and reemission from surfaces. The results indicate that, under some conditions, exposure to gaseous ammonia can substantially increase the rate of desorption of previously sorbed nicotine from common indoor surface materials.

  20. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  1. Dry-Enzyme Test For Gaseous Chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barzana, Eduardo; Karel, Marcus; Klibanov, Alexander

    1990-01-01

    Simple, dry-chemical test detects ethanol in human breath. Method of test also adapted to detection of such toxic chemicals as formaldehyde in airstreams. Used qualitatively to detect chemical compounds above present level; for example, ethanol above legal level for driving. Also used to indicate quantitatively concentrations of compounds. Involves dry enzyme and color indicator. Adapted to detect any gaseous compound transformed by enzymes to produce change evident to human eye or to instrument.

  2. Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.

  3. Trace organic impurities in gaseous helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schehl, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    A program to determine trace organic impurities present in helium has been initiated. The impurities were concentrated in a cryogenic trap to permit detection and identification by a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique. Gaseous helium (GHe) exhibited 63 GC flame ionization response peaks. Relative GC peak heights and identifications of 25 major impurities by their mass spectra are given. As an aid to further investigation, identities are proposed for 16 other components, and their mass spectra are given.

  4. Diffusion method of seperating gaseous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Pontius, Rex B.

    1976-01-01

    A method of effecting a relatively large change in the relative concentrations of the components of a gaseous mixture by diffusion which comprises separating the mixture into heavier and lighter portions according to major fraction mass recycle procedure, further separating the heavier portions into still heavier subportions according to a major fraction mass recycle procedure, and further separating the lighter portions into still lighter subportions according to a major fraction equilibrium recycle procedure.

  5. Modeling and optimization of an elastic arthroplastic disc for a degenerated disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghouchani, Azadeh; Ravari, Mohammad; Mahmoudi, Farid

    2011-10-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the L3-L4 motion segment using ABAQUS v 6.9 has been developed. The model took into account the material nonlinearities and is imposed different loading conditions. In this study, we validated the model by comparison of its predictions with several sets of experimental data. Disc deformation under compression and segmental rotational motions under moment loads for the normal disc model agreed well with the corresponding in vivo studies. By linking ABAQUS with MATLAB 2010.a, we determined the optimal Young s modulus as well as the Poisson's ratio for the artificial disc under different physiologic loading conditions. The results of the present study confirmed that a well-designed elastic arthroplastic disc preferably has an annulus modulus of 19.1 MPa and 1.24 MPa for nucleus section and Poisson ratio of 0.41 and 0.47 respectively. Elastic artificial disc with such properties can then achieve the goal of restoring the disc height and mechanical function of intact disc under different loading conditions and so can reduce low back pain which is mostly caused due to disc degeneration.

  6. Preparation of ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine-medicated discs for disc diffusion assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Romet ( a blend of ormetoprim and sulfadimethoxine) is a type A medicated article for the manufacture of medicated feed in the catfish industry. Recently, the commercial manufacture of ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine susceptibility discs was discontinued. Ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine discs were prepare...

  7. Reoperations Following Cervical Disc Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Lee, Dong-Ho; Caridi, John Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cervical disc replacement (CDR) has emerged as an alternative surgical option to cervical arthrodesis. With increasing numbers of patients and longer follow-ups, complications related to the device and/or aging spine are growing, leaving us with a new challenge in the management and surgical revision of CDR. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature regarding reoperations following CDR and to discuss about the approaches and solutions for the current and future potential complications associated with CDR. The published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.0%; range, 0%-3.1%), revision (mean, 0.2%; range, 0%-0.5%), and removal (mean, 1.2%; range, 0%-1.9%) following CDR are low and comparable to the published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.7%; range; 0%-3.4%), revision (mean, 1.5%; range, 0%-4.7%), and removal (mean, 2.0%; range, 0%-3.4%) following cervical arthrodesis. The surgical interventions following CDR range from the repositioning to explantation followed by fusion or the reimplantation to posterior foraminotomy or fusion. Strict patient selection, careful preoperative radiographic review and surgical planning, as well as surgical technique may reduce adverse events and the need for future intervention. Minimal literature and no guidelines exist for the approaches and techniques in revision and for the removal of implants following CDR. Adherence to strict indications and precise surgical technique may reduce the number of reoperations, revisions, and removals following CDR. Long-term follow-up studies are needed, assessing the implant survivorship and its effect on the revision and removal rates. PMID:26097667

  8. Doppler imaging of the planetary debris disc at the white dwarf SDSS J122859.93+104032.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manser, Christopher J.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Marsh, Thomas R.; Veras, Dimitri; Koester, Detlev; Breedt, Elmé; Pala, Anna F.; Parsons, Steven G.; Southworth, John

    2016-02-01

    Debris discs which orbit white dwarfs are signatures of remnant planetary systems. We present 12 yr of optical spectroscopy of the metal-polluted white dwarf SDSS J1228+1040, which shows a steady variation in the morphology of the 8600 Å Ca II triplet line profiles from the gaseous component of its debris disc. We identify additional emission lines of O I, Mg I, Mg II, Fe II and Ca II in the deep co-added spectra. These emission features (including Ca H & K) exhibit a wide range in strength and morphology with respect to each other and to the Ca II triplet, indicating different intensity distributions of these ionic species within the disc. Using Doppler tomography, we show that the evolution of the Ca II triplet profile can be interpreted as the precession of a fixed emission pattern with a period in the range 24-30 yr. The Ca II line profiles vary on time-scales that are broadly consistent with general relativistic precession of the debris disc.

  9. Structures induced by companions in galactic discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyziropoulos, P. E.; Efthymiopoulos, C.; Gravvanis, G. A.; Patsis, P. A.

    2016-09-01

    Using N-body simulations we study the structures induced on a galactic disc by repeated flybys of a companion in decaying eccentric orbit around the disc. Our system is composed by a stellar disc, bulge and live dark matter halo, and we study the system's dynamical response to a sequence of a companion's flybys, when we vary i) the disc's temperature (parameterized by Toomre's Q-parameter) and ii) the companion's mass and initial orbit. We use a new 3D Cartesian grid code: MAIN (Mesh-adaptive Approximate Inverse N-body solver). The main features of MAIN are reviewed, with emphasis on the use of a new Symmetric Factored Approximate Sparse Inverse (SFASI) matrix in conjunction with the multigrid method that allows the efficient solution of Poisson's equation in three space variables. We find that: i) companions need to be assigned initial masses in a rather narrow window of values in order to produce significant and more long-standing non-axisymmetric structures (bars and spirals) in the main galaxy's disc by the repeated flyby mechanism. ii) a crucial phenomenon is the antagonism between companion-excited and self-excited modes on the disc. Values of Q > 1.5 are needed in order to allow for the growth of the companion-excited modes to prevail over the the growth of the disc's self-excited modes. iii) We give evidence that the companion-induced spiral structure is best represented by a density wave with pattern speed nearly constant in a region extending from the ILR to a radius close to, but inside, corotation.

  10. Cervical disc hernia operations through posterior laminoforaminotomy

    PubMed Central

    Yolas, Coskun; Ozdemir, Nuriye Guzin; Okay, Hilmi Onder; Kanat, Ayhan; Senol, Mehmet; Atci, Ibrahim Burak; Yilmaz, Hakan; Coban, Mustafa Kemal; Yuksel, Mehmet Onur; Kahraman, Umit

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients diagnosed with posterolateral cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis with foraminal stenosis causing radiculopathy operated by the posterior cervical keyhole laminoforaminotomy between the years 2010 and 2015. Results: The file records and the radiographic images of the 35 patients were assessed retrospectively. The mean age was 46.4 years (range: 34-66 years). Of the patients, 19 were males and 16 were females. In all of the patients, the neurologic deficit observed was radiculopathy. The posterolaterally localized disc herniations and the osteophytic structures were on the left side in 18 cases and on the right in 17 cases. In 10 of the patients, the disc level was at C5-6, in 18 at C6-7, in 2 at C3-4, in 2 at C4-5, in 1 at C7-T1, in 1 patient at both C5-6 and C6-7, and in 1 at both C4-5 and C5-6. In 14 of these 35 patients, both osteophytic structures and protruded disc herniation were present. Intervertebral foramen stenosis was present in all of the patients with osteophytes. Postoperatively, in 31 patients the complaints were relieved completely and four patients had complaints of neck pain and paresthesia radiating to the arm (the success of operation was 88.5%). On control examinations, there was no finding of instability or cervical kyphosis. Conclusion: Posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy is an alternative appropriate choice in both cervical soft disc herniations and cervical stenosis. PMID:27217655

  11. Reconstructing the star formation history of the Milky Way disc(s) from chemical abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snaith, O.; Haywood, M.; Di Matteo, P.; Lehnert, M. D.; Combes, F.; Katz, D.; Gómez, A.

    2015-06-01

    We develop a chemical evolution model to study the star formation history of the Milky Way. Our model assumes that the Milky Way has formed from a closed-box-like system in the inner regions, while the outer parts of the disc have experienced some accretion. Unlike the usual procedure, we do not fix the star formation prescription (e.g. Kennicutt law) to reproduce the chemical abundance trends. Instead, we fit the abundance trends with age to recover the star formation history of the Galaxy. Our method enables us to recover the star formation history of the Milky Way in the first Gyrs with unprecedented accuracy in the inner (R < 7-8 kpc) and outer (R > 9-10 kpc) discs, as sampled in the solar vicinity. We show that half the stellar mass formed during the thick-disc phase in the inner galaxy during the first 4-5 Gyr. This phase was followed by a significant dip in star formation activity (at 8-9 Gyr) and a period of roughly constant lower-level star formation for the remaining 8 Gyr. The thick-disc phase has produced as many metals in 4 Gyr as the thin-disc phase in the remaining 8 Gyr. Our results suggest that a closed-box model is able to fit all the available constraints in the inner disc. A closed-box system is qualitatively equivalent to a regime where the accretion rate maintains a high gas fraction in the inner disc at high redshift. In these conditions the SFR is mainly governed by the high turbulence of the interstellar medium. By z ~ 1 it is possible that most of the accretion takes place in the outer disc, while the star formation activity in the inner disc is mostly sustained by the gas that is not consumed during the thick-disc phase and the continuous ejecta from earlier generations of stars. The outer disc follows a star formation history very similar to that of the inner disc, although initiated at z ~ 2, about 2 Gyr before the onset of the thin-disc formation in the inner disc.

  12. Tearing up the disc: misaligned accretion on to a binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Chris; King, Andrew; Price, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    In a recent paper, we have shown that the evolution of a misaligned disc around a spinning black hole can result in tearing the disc into many distinct planes. Tearing discs with random orientations produce direct dynamical accretion on to the hole in ≈70 per cent of all cases. Here, we examine the evolution of a misaligned disc around a binary system. We show that these discs are susceptible to tearing for almost all inclinations. We also show that tearing of the disc can result in a significant acceleration of the disc evolution and subsequent accretion on to the binary - by factors up to 104 times that of a coplanar prograde disc with otherwise identical parameters. This provides a promising mechanism for driving mergers of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries on time-scales much shorter than a Hubble time. Disc tearing also suggests new observational signatures of accreting SMBH binaries and other systems such as protostellar binaries.

  13. Disc-shaped colloids interacting in a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipova, Alena; Denniston, Colin

    2014-11-01

    We studied the behavior of pairs of disc-shaped colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal using Lattice Boltzmann algorithm. Without any external forces the position of the disc with respect to the liquid crystal director minimizes the free energy of the system and no distortion of the director field is observed. When the rotating magnetic field is present, the torque on the disc with homeotropic surface anchoring should change with analogy to electrostatic energy, which implies the disc continues turning following the field. However, when the disc reaches some critical position and the director field around it is highly distorted, the disc suddenly flips to minimize the free energy. Position and motion of pairs of such discs under similar conditions can be controlled by the angular velocity of magnetic field, it's magnitude and initial configuration of the system. As a result of analysis of discs' dynamics, a new way to control self-organization of disc particles was produced.

  14. GMOS IFU observations of the stellar and gaseous kinematics in the centre of NGC 1068

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerssen, Joris; Allington-Smith, Jeremy; Miller, Bryan W.; Turner, James E. H.; Walker, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    We present a data cube covering the central 10 arcsec of the archetypal active galaxy NGC 1068 over a wavelength range 4200-5400 Åobtained during the commissioning of the integral field unit (IFU) of the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph (GMOS) installed on the Gemini-North telescope. The data cube shows a complex emission line morphology in the [OIII] doublet and Hβ line. To describe this structure phenomenologically we construct an atlas of velocity components derived from multiple Gaussian component fits to the emission lines. The atlas contains many features which cannot be readily associated with distinct physical structures. While some components are likely to be associated with the expected biconical outflow, others are suggestive of high velocity flows or disc-like structures. As a first step towards interpretation, we seek to identify the stellar disc using kinematical maps derived from the Mgb absorption line feature at 5170 Åand make associations between this and gaseous components in the atlas of emission line components.

  15. Method for reacting nongaseous material with a gaseous reactant

    DOEpatents

    Lumpkin, Robert E.; Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy

    1979-03-27

    This invention relates to a new and novel method and apparatus for reacting nongaseous material with a gaseous reactant comprising introducing a first stream containing a nongaseous material into a reaction zone; simultaneously introducing a second stream containing a gaseous reactant into the reaction zone such that the gaseous reactant immediately contacts and reacts with the first stream thereby producing a gaseous product; forming a spiralling vortex within the reaction zone to cause substantial separation of gases, including the gaseous product, from the nongaseous material; forming and removing a third stream from the reaction zone containing the gaseous product which is substantially free of the nongaseous material before a major portion of the gaseous product can react with the nongaseous material; and forming and removing a fourth stream containing the nongaseous material from the reaction zone.

  16. Adjacent segment disc pressures following two-level cervical disc replacement versus simulated anterior cervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Laxer, Eric B; Darden, Bruce V; Murrey, Daniel B; Milam, R Alden; Rhyne, Alfred L; Claytor, Brian; Nussman, Donna S; Powers, Timothy W; Davies, Matthew A; Bryant, S Chad; Larsen, Scott P; Bhatt, Meghal; Brodziak, John; Polic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion (ACF) has been shown to alter the biomechanics of adjacent segments of the cervical spine. The goal of total disc replacement is to address pathology at a given disc with minimal disruption of the operated or adjacent segments. This study compares the pressure within discs adjacent to either a two-level simulated ACDF or a two-level total disc replacement with the ProDisc-C. A special automated motion testing apparatus was constructed. Four fresh cadaveric cervical spine specimens were affixed to the test stand and tested in flexion and extension under specific loads. Intradiscal, miniature strain-gauge-based transducers were placed in the discs above and below the "treated" levels. The specimens were then tested in flexion and extension. Pressure and overall angular displacement were measured. In the most extreme and highest quality specimen the difference at C3/C4 registered 800 kPa and the difference at C6/C7 registered 50 kPa. This same quality specimen treated with the ProDisc reached a flexion angle at much lower moments, 24.3 degrees at 5 N-m, when compared to the the SACF 12.2 degrees at 8.6 N-m. Therefore, the moment needed to achieve 15 degrees of flexion with the SACF treatment was 5.5 N-m and the ProDisc treatment was only 2.9 N-m. This initial data would indicate that adjacent level discs experience substantially lower pressure after two-level disc replacement when compared to two-level SACF. Additional testing to further support these observations is ongoing. PMID:17108473

  17. Design concepts in lumbar total disc arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Chiara M.; Zweig, Thomas; Ferguson, Stephen; Raimondi, Manuela T.; Lamartina, Claudio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Fornari, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The implantation of lumbar disc prostheses based on different design concepts is widely accepted. This paper reviews currently available literature studies on the biomechanics of TDA in the lumbar spine, and is targeted at the evaluation of possible relationships between the aims of TDA and the geometrical, mechanical and material properties of the various available disc prostheses. Both theoretical and experimental studies were analyzed, by a PUBMED search (performed in February 2007, revised in January 2008), focusing on single level TDA. Both semi-constrained and unconstrained lumbar discs seem to be able to restore nearly physiological IAR locations and ROM values. However, both increased and decreased ROM was stated in some papers, unrelated to the clinical outcome. Segmental lordosis alterations after TDA were reported in most cases, for both constrained and unconstrained disc prostheses. An increase in the load through the facet joints was documented, for both semi-constrained and unconstrained artificial discs, but with some contrasting results. Semi-constrained devices may be able to share a greater part of the load, thus protecting the surrounding biological structure from overloading and possible early degeneration, but may be more susceptible to wear. The next level of development will be the biomechanical integration of compression across the motion segment. All these findings need to be supported by long-term clinical outcome studies. PMID:18946684

  18. Crystallization of Self-Propelled Hard Discs.

    PubMed

    Briand, G; Dauchot, O

    2016-08-26

    We experimentally study the crystallization of a monolayer of vibrated discs with a built-in polar asymmetry, a model system of active liquids, and contrast it with that of vibrated isotropic discs. Increasing the packing fraction ϕ, the quasicontinuous crystallization reported for isotropic discs is replaced by a transition, or a crossover, towards a "self-melting" crystal. Starting from the liquid phase and increasing the packing fraction, clusters of dense hexagonal-ordered packed discs spontaneously form, melt, split, and merge, leading to a highly intermittent and heterogeneous dynamics. For a packing fraction larger than ϕ^{*}, a few large clusters span the system size. The cluster size distribution is monotonically decreasing for ϕ<ϕ^{*}, nonmonotonic for ϕ>ϕ^{*}, and is a power law at the transition. The system is, however, never dynamically arrested. The clusters permanently melt from place to place, forming droplets of an active liquid which rapidly propagate across the system. This self-melting crystalline state subsists up to the highest possible packing fraction, questioning the stability of the crystal for active discs unless it is at ordered close packing. PMID:27610889

  19. Footprint mismatch in lumbar total disc arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gstoettner, Michaela; Michaela, Gstoettner; Heider, Denise; Denise, Heider; Liebensteiner, Michael; Bach, Christian Michael; Michael, Bach Christian

    2008-11-01

    Lumbar disc arthroplasty has become a popular modality for the treatment of degenerative disc disease. The dimensions of the implants are based on early published geometrical measurements of vertebrae; the majority of these were cadaver studies. The fit of the prosthesis in the intervertebral space is of utmost importance. An undersized implant may lead to subsidence, loosening and biomechanical failure due to an incorrect center of rotation. The aim of the present study was to measure the dimensions of lumbar vertebrae based on CT scans and assess the accuracy of match in currently available lumbar disc prostheses. A total of 240 endplates of 120 vertebrae were included in the study. The sagittal and mediolateral diameter of the upper and lower endplates were measured using a digital measuring system. For the levels L4/L5 and L5/S1, an inappropriate size match was noted in 98.8% (Prodisc L) and 97.6% (Charite) with regard to the anteroposterior diameter. Mismatch in the anterior mediolateral diameter was noted in 79.3% (Prodisc L) and 51.2% (Charite) while mismatch in the posterior mediolateral diameter was observed in 91.5% (Prodisc L) and 78% (Charite) of the endplates. Surgeons and manufacturers should be aware of the size mismatch of currently available lumbar disc prostheses, which may endanger the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Larger footprints of currently available total disc arthroplasties are required. PMID:18791748

  20. Footprint mismatch in lumbar total disc arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Michaela, Gstoettner; Denise, Heider; Liebensteiner, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Lumbar disc arthroplasty has become a popular modality for the treatment of degenerative disc disease. The dimensions of the implants are based on early published geometrical measurements of vertebrae; the majority of these were cadaver studies. The fit of the prosthesis in the intervertebral space is of utmost importance. An undersized implant may lead to subsidence, loosening and biomechanical failure due to an incorrect center of rotation. The aim of the present study was to measure the dimensions of lumbar vertebrae based on CT scans and assess the accuracy of match in currently available lumbar disc prostheses. A total of 240 endplates of 120 vertebrae were included in the study. The sagittal and mediolateral diameter of the upper and lower endplates were measured using a digital measuring system. For the levels L4/L5 and L5/S1, an inappropriate size match was noted in 98.8% (Prodisc L) and 97.6% (Charite) with regard to the anteroposterior diameter. Mismatch in the anterior mediolateral diameter was noted in 79.3% (Prodisc L) and 51.2% (Charite) while mismatch in the posterior mediolateral diameter was observed in 91.5% (Prodisc L) and 78% (Charite) of the endplates. Surgeons and manufacturers should be aware of the size mismatch of currently available lumbar disc prostheses, which may endanger the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Larger footprints of currently available total disc arthroplasties are required. PMID:18791748

  1. Experimental and simulation study of a Gaseous oxygen/Gaseous hydrogen vortex cooling thrust chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Nanjia; Zhao, Bo; Li, Gongnan; Wang, Jue

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, RNG k-ε turbulence model and PDF non-premixed combustion model are used to simulate the influence of the diameter of the ring of hydrogen injectors and oxidizer-to-fuel ratio on the specific impulse of the vortex cooling thrust chamber. The simulation results and the experimental tests of a 2000 N Gaseous oxygen/Gaseous hydrogen vortex cooling thrust chamber reveal that the efficiency of the specific impulse improves significantly with increasing of the diameter of the ring of hydrogen injectors. Moreover, the optimum efficiency of the specific impulse is obtained when the oxidizer-to-fuel ratio is near the stoichiometric ratio.

  2. Generation of highly inclined protoplanetary discs through single stellar flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang-Gruess, M.

    2016-01-01

    We study the three-dimensional evolution of a viscous protoplanetary disc which is perturbed by a passing star on a parabolic orbit. The aim is to test whether a single stellar flyby is capable to excite significant disc inclinations which would favour the formation of so-called misaligned planets. We use smoothed particle hydrodynamics to study inclination, disc mass and angular momentum changes of the disc for passing stars with different masses. We explore different orbital configurations for the perturber's orbit to find the parameter spaces which allow significant disc inclination generation. Prograde inclined parabolic orbits are most destructive leading to significant disc mass and angular momentum loss. In the remaining disc, the final disc inclination is only below 20°. This is due to the removal of disc particles which have experienced the strongest perturbing effects. Retrograde inclined parabolic orbits are less destructive and can generate disc inclinations up to 60°. The final disc orientation is determined by the precession of the disc angular momentum vector about the perturber's orbital angular momentum vector and by disc orbital inclination changes. We propose a sequence of stellar flybys for the generation of misalignment angles above 60°. The results taken together show that stellar flybys are promising and realistic for the explanation of misaligned Hot Jupiters with misalignment angles up to 60°.

  3. Disc in Flames: Roles of TNF-α and IL-1β in Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Zariel I.; Schoepflin, Zachary R.; Choi, Hyowon; Shapiro, Irving M.; Risbud, Makarand V.

    2016-01-01

    The intervertebral disc is an important mechanical structure that allows range of motion of the spinal column. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc, incited by aging, traumatic insult, genetic predisposition, or other factors, is often defined by functional and structural changes in the tissue, including excessive breakdown of the extracellular matrix, increased disc cell senescence and death, and compromised biomechanical function of the tissue. Intervertebral disc degeneration is strongly correlated with low back pain, which is a highly prevalent and costly condition, significantly contributing to loss in productivity and health care costs. Disc degeneration is a chronic, progressive condition, and current therapies are limited and often focused on symptomatic pain relief rather than curtailing the progression of the disease. Inflammatory processes, exacerbated by cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β are believed to be key mediators of disc degeneration and low back pain. In this review, we describe the contributions of TNF-α and IL-1β to changes seen during disc degeneration at the cellular and tissue level, new evidence suggesting a link between infection of the spine and low back pain, and the emerging therapeutic modalities aimed at combating these processes. PMID:26388614

  4. Effect of intervertebral disc degeneration on disc cell viability: a numerical investigation.

    PubMed

    Galbusera, Fabio; Mietsch, Antje; Schmidt, Hendrik; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Neidlinger-Wilke, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disc may be initiated and supported by impairment of the nutrition processes of the disc cells. The effects of degenerative changes on cell nutrition are, however, only partially understood. In this work, a finite volume model was used to investigate the effect of endplate calcification, water loss, reduction of disc height and cyclic mechanical loading on the sustainability of the disc cell population. Oxygen, lactate and glucose diffusion, production and consumption were modelled with non-linear coupled partial differential equations. Oxygen and glucose consumption and lactate production were expressed as a function of local oxygen concentration, pH and cell density. The cell viability criteria were based on local glucose concentration and pH. Considering a disc with normal water content, cell death was initiated in the centre of the nucleus for oxygen, glucose, and lactate diffusivities in the cartilaginous endplate below 20% of the physiological values. The initial cell population could not be sustained even in the non-calcified endplates when a reduction of diffusion inside the disc due to water loss was modelled. Alterations in the disc shape such as height loss, which shortens the transport route between the nutrient sources and the cells, and cyclic mechanical loads, could enhance cell nutrition processes. PMID:21970697

  5. Magnetically driven accretion in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Jacob B.; Lesur, Geoffroy; Kunz, Matthew W.; Armitage, Philip J.

    2015-11-01

    We characterize magnetically driven accretion at radii between 1 and 100 au in protoplanetary discs, using a series of local non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The simulations assume a minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN) disc that is threaded by a net vertical magnetic field of specified strength. Confirming previous results, we find that the Hall effect has only a modest impact on accretion at 30 au, and essentially none at 100 au. At 1-10 au the Hall effect introduces a pronounced bimodality in the accretion process, with vertical magnetic fields aligned to the disc rotation supporting a strong laminar Maxwell stress that is absent if the field is anti-aligned. In the anti-aligned case, we instead find evidence for bursts of turbulent stress at 5-10 au, which we tentatively identify with the non-axisymmetric Hall-shear instability. The presence or absence of these bursts depends upon the details of the adopted chemical model, which suggests that appreciable regions of actual protoplanetary discs might lie close to the borderline between laminar and turbulent behaviour. Given the number of important control parameters that have already been identified in MHD models, quantitative predictions for disc structure in terms of only radius and accretion rate appear to be difficult. Instead, we identify robust qualitative tests of magnetically driven accretion. These include the presence of turbulence in the outer disc, independent of the orientation of the vertical magnetic fields, and a Hall-mediated bimodality in turbulent properties extending from the region of thermal ionization to 10 au.

  6. Optic disc morphology in pigmentary glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, J.; Dichtl, A.; Budde, W.; Lang, P.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate the morphology of the optic nerve head in eyes with pigmentary glaucoma.
METHODS—Colour stereo optic disc photographs of 62 patients with pigmentary glaucoma and 566 patients with primary open angle glaucoma were morphometrically evaluated. By prestudy selection, mean visual field defect and neuroretinal rim area were not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.89 and p=0.45).
RESULTS—The pigmentary glaucoma group did not vary significantly (p >0.10) from the primary open angle glaucoma group in size and shape of the optic disc, configuration of neuroretinal rim, depth of optic cup, area of alpha zone of parapapillary atrophy, diameter of retinal vessels at the disc border, and frequency of disc haemorrhages and localised retinal nerve fibre layer defects. The beta zone of parapapillary atrophy was slightly, but not statistically significantly (p=0.06), smaller in the pigmentary glaucoma group. The mean maximal intraocular pressure and mean intraocular pressure amplitude were significantly (p<0.001) higher in the pigmentary glaucoma group.
CONCLUSIONS—In contrast with the characteristic morphology of the anterior segment and despite significantly higher intraocular pressure peaks and a larger pressure amplitude, eyes with pigmentary glaucoma compared with eyes with primary open angle glaucoma do not show a pathognomonic morphology of the optic disc and retinal nerve fibre layer. The slightly smaller beta zone of parapapillary atrophy may correspond to higher intraocular pressure in pigmentary glaucoma.

 Keywords: optic disc morphology; pigmentary glaucoma; secondary open angle glaucoma PMID:9828769

  7. Appearance of Keplerian discs orbiting Kerr superspinars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan

    2010-11-01

    We study optical phenomena related to the appearance of Keplerian accretion discs orbiting Kerr superspinars predicted by string theory. The superspinar exterior is described by standard Kerr naked singularity geometry breaking the black hole limit on the internal angular momentum (spin). We construct local photon escape cones for a variety of orbiting sources that enable us to determine the superspinars silhouette in the case of distant observers. We show that the superspinar silhouette depends strongly on the assumed edge where the external Kerr spacetime is joined to the internal spacetime governed by string theory and significantly differs from the black hole silhouette. The appearance of the accretion disc is strongly dependent on the value of the superspinar spin in both their shape and frequency shift profile. Apparent extension of the disc grows significantly with the growing spin, while the frequency shift grows with the descending spin. This behaviour differs substantially from the appearance of discs orbiting black holes enabling thus, at least in principle, to distinguish clearly the Kerr superspinars and black holes. In vicinity of a Kerr superspinar the non-escaped photons have to be separated to those captured by the superspinar and those being trapped in its strong gravitational field leading to self-illumination of the disc that could even influence its structure and cause self-reflection effect of radiation of the disc. The amount of trapped photons grows with descending superspinar spin. We thus can expect significant self-illumination effects in the field of Kerr superspinars with near-extreme spin a ~ 1.

  8. Null generation using discs on a reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudisill, M. D.

    1984-12-01

    It has been shown possible experimentally to produce nulls in the pattern of a prime focus reflector antenna using discs mounted on the dish. A model of this antenna system is developed to evaluate optimal configurations and ideal performance. Aperture integration is the method of analysis used. Discs' effects are modeled as a phase shift on the aperture. No secondary effects, such as diffraction, are considered. Based on the model developed, guidelines are presented for antenna design. A computer code was written to implement the model and a prediction of antenna the system's performance is presented.

  9. Disc valve for sampling erosive process streams

    DOEpatents

    Mrochek, J.E.; Dinsmore, S.R.; Chandler, E.W.

    1986-01-07

    A four-port disc valve is described for sampling erosive, high temperature process streams. A rotatable disc defining opposed first and second sampling cavities rotates between fired faceplates defining flow passageways positioned to be alternatively in axial alignment with the first and second cavities. Silicon carbide inserts and liners composed of [alpha] silicon carbide are provided in the faceplates and in the sampling cavities to limit erosion while providing lubricity for a smooth and precise operation when used under harsh process conditions. 1 fig.

  10. Two-level total lumbar disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Bakaloudis, Georgios; Lolli, Francesco; Vommaro, Francesco; Parisini, Patrizio

    2009-01-01

    Total lumbar disc replacement (TDR) has been widely used as a treatment option for 2-level symptomatic degenerative disc disease. However, recent studies have presented conflicting results and some authors concluded that outcome deteriorated when disc replacement was performed bisegmentally, with an increase of complications for bisegmental replacements in comparison with monosegmental disc arthroplasty. The goal of the present retrospective study is to investigate results in a group of patients who have received bisegmental TDR with SB Charitè III artificial disc for degenerative disc disease with a minimum follow-up of 3 years, and to compare the results of 2-level disc replacement versus 1-level patients treated with the same prosthesis. A total of 32 patients had at least 3-years follow-up and were reviewed. The average age of the patients was 38.5 years. There were 11 males and 21 females. About 16 patients received 2-level TDR (SB Charitè III) and 16 received 1-level TDR (SB Charitè III). Both radiographic and functional outcome analysis, including patient’s satisfaction, was performed. There were no signs of degenerative changes of the adjacent segments in any case of the 2- or 1-level TDR. There was no statistically significant difference between 2- and 1-level TDR both at 12 months and at 3-years follow-up on functional outcome scores. There was a statistically insignificant difference concerning the patients satisfaction between 1- and 2-level surgeries at the last follow-up (P = 0.46). In the 2-level TDR patients, there were 5 minor complications (31.25%), whereas major complications occurred in 4 more patients (25%) and required a new surgery in 2 cases (12.5%). In the 1-level cases there were 2 minor complications (12.5%) and 2 major complications (12.5%) and a new revision surgery was required in 1 patient (6.25%). In conclusion, the use of 2-level disc replacement at last follow-up presented a higher incidence of complications than in cases

  11. Progression of a lumbar disc extrusion.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Michael S; Alitz, Curtis

    2014-11-01

    The patient was a 34-year-old woman who was referred to a physical therapist for a chief complaint of progressively worsening right buttock pain with paresthesias of the right posterior thigh and calf. Prior magnetic resonance imaging of the patient's lumbar spine revealed a large left paracentral disc extrusion at L5-S1. Following physical therapist intervention, the patient reported a new onset of left posterior thigh pain, with paresthesias of the dorsolateral aspect of the left foot. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging of the patient's lumbar spine revealed an increase in the size of the disc extrusion at L5-S1. PMID:25361862

  12. Turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures.

    PubMed

    Elperin, T; Kleeorin, N; Liberman, M; Rogachevskii, I

    2014-11-01

    We study turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures in a developed turbulence. In our previous study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 69 (1998)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.80.69] using a path-integral approach for a delta-correlated in a time random velocity field, we demonstrated a strong modification of turbulent transport in fluid flows with chemical reactions or phase transitions. In the present study we use the spectral τ approximation that is valid for large Reynolds and Peclet numbers and show that turbulent diffusion of the reacting species can be strongly depleted by a large factor that is the ratio of turbulent and chemical times (turbulent Damköhler number). We have demonstrated that the derived theoretical dependence of a turbulent diffusion coefficient versus the turbulent Damköhler number is in good agreement with that obtained previously in the numerical modeling of a reactive front propagating in a turbulent flow and described by the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov-Fisher equation. We have found that turbulent cross-effects, e.g., turbulent mutual diffusion of gaseous admixtures and turbulent Dufour effect of the chemically reacting gaseous admixtures, are less sensitive to the values of stoichiometric coefficients. The mechanisms of the turbulent cross-effects differ from the molecular cross-effects known in irreversible thermodynamics. In a fully developed turbulence and at large Peclet numbers the turbulent cross-effects are much larger than the molecular ones. The obtained results are applicable also to heterogeneous phase transitions. PMID:25493875

  13. Tidal Decay and Disruption of Gaseous Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Brian K.; Arras, Phil; Jensen, Emily; Peacock, Sarah; Marchant, Pablo; Penev, Kaloyan

    2015-11-01

    Many gaseous exoplanets in short-period orbits are on the verge of Roche-lobe overflow, and observations, along with orbital stability analysis, show tides probably drive significant orbital decay. Thus, the coupled processes of orbital evolution and tidal disruption likely shape the observed distribution of close-in exoplanets and may even be responsible for producing the shortest-period solid planets. However, the exact outcome for an overflowing planet depends on its internal response to mass loss and variable stellar insolation, and the accompanying orbital evolution can act to enhance or inhibit the disruption process. The final orbits of the denuded remnants of gas giants may be predictable from their mass-radius relationship, and so a distinctive mass-period relationship for some short-period solid planets may provide evidence for their origins as gaseous planets. In this presentation, we will discuss our work on tidal decay and disruption of close-in gaseous planets using a new model that accounts for the fact that short-period planets have hot, distended atmospheres, which can result in overflow even for planets that are not officially in Roche lobe contact. We will also point out that the orbital expansion that can accompany mass transfer may be less effective than previously realized because the resulting accretion disk may not return all of its angular momentum to the donor, as is usually assumed. Both of these effects have bee incorporated into the fully-featured and robust Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) suite.

  14. The effectiveness of percutaneous laser disc decompression for the prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Ming Wei; Liu, Wei; Feng, Wei; Ma, Nan

    2009-07-01

    Objective: to investigate the role of associated factors in the effectiveness of laser treatment for prolapsed lumber intervertebral disc. Method: 302 prolapsed lumber intervertebral discs in 212 patients were treated with percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD). Patients were followed up by 12month, the associated factors which affecting the effectiveness of treatment, ie age, duration of illness were analyzed. Results: Punctual Success rate was 100%. After 12 month's follow up, 86% successful outcomes were obtained, in which 93% successful outcomes were obtained in patients less than 50 years old, 92% successful outcomes was obtained in the patients whose duration of illness less than 1 year.

  15. The Gaia-ESO Survey: characterisation of the [α/Fe] sequences in the Milky Way discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordopatis, G.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Gilmore, G.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Hill, V.; Adibekyan, V.; Heiter, U.; Minchev, I.; Famaey, B.; Bensby, T.; Feltzing, S.; Guiglion, G.; Korn, A. J.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Schultheis, M.; Vallenari, A.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Flaccomio, E.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Koposov, S. E.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Pancino, E.; Randich, S.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2015-10-01

    -resolution spectroscopic surveys. Conclusions: The small variations in the spatial [α/ Fe] - [Fe/H] paths of the thin disc do not allow us to distinguish between formation models of this structure. On the other hand, the lack of radial gradients and [α/ Fe] - [Fe/H] variations for the thick disc indicate that the mechanism responsible for the mixing of metals in the young Galaxy (e.g. radial stellar migration or turbulent gaseous disc) was more efficient before the (present) thin disc started forming. Based on observations collected with the FLAMES spectrograph at the VLT/UT2 telescope (Paranal Observatory, ESO, Chile), for the Gaia-ESO Large Public Survey, programme 188.B-3002.

  16. Electrostatic Precipitation in Nearly Pure Gaseous Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhler, Charles; Calle, Carlos; Clements, Sid; Cox, Bobby; Ritz, Mindy

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatic precipitation was performed in a nearly pure gaseous nitrogen system as a possible remedy for black dust contaminant from high pressure 6000 psi lines at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. The results of a prototype electrostatic precipitator that was built and tested using nitrogen gas at standard atmospheric pressures is presented. High voltage pulsed waveforms are generated using a rotating spark gap system at 30 Hz. A unique dust delivery system utilizing the Venturi effect was devised that supplies a given amount of dust per unit time for testing purposes.

  17. Studies of Gaseous Multiplication Coefficient in Isobutane

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Iara B.; Vivaldini, Tulio C.; Goncalves, Josemary A. C.; Botelho, Suzana; Bueno Tobias, Carmen C.; Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R.; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio

    2010-05-21

    This work presents the studies of gaseous multiplication coefficient behavior for isobutane, as function of the reduced electric field, by means of signal amplitude analysis. The experimental method used is based on the Pulsed Townsend technique, which follows from Townsend equation solution for a uniform electric field. In our configuration, the anode is made of a high resistivity (2.10{sup 12} OMEGA.cm) glass, while the cathode is of aluminium. In order to validate the technique and to analyze effects of non-uniformity, results for nitrogen, which has well-established data available in literature, are also presented.

  18. Detection of Gaseous Methane on Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Leslie; Tokunaga, Alan; Elliot, J.; deBergh, Catherine; Owen, Tobias; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We obtained Pluto's spectrum using the CSHELL echelle spectrograph at NASA's IRTF on Mauna Kea, on 25-26 May 1992, with a spectral resolution of 13,300. The spectral range (5998 - 6018 per centimeter, or 1661.8 - 1666.9 nm) includes the R(0) and the Q(1) - Q(9) lines of the 2v3 band of methane. The resulting spectrum shows the first detection of gaseous methane on Pluto, with a column height of 1.20 (sup +3.15) (sub -0.87) cm-A (3.22 (sup +8.46) (sub -2.34) x 10(exp 19) molecule per square centimeter)).

  19. Studies of Gaseous Multiplication Coefficient in Isobutane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Iara B.; Vivaldini, Túlio C.; Gonçalves, Josemary A. C.; Botelho, Suzana; Ridenti, Marco A.; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio; Pascholati, Paulo R.; Bueno Tobias, Carmen C.

    2010-05-01

    This work presents the studies of gaseous multiplication coefficient behavior for isobutane, as function of the reduced electric field, by means of signal amplitude analysis. The experimental method used is based on the Pulsed Townsend technique, which follows from Townsend equation solution for a uniform electric field. In our configuration, the anode is made of a high resistivity (2.1012 Ω.cm) glass, while the cathode is of aluminium. In order to validate the technique and to analyze effects of non-uniformity, results for nitrogen, which has well-established data available in literature, are also presented.

  20. Thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons in noble gaseous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Wei-Rong Xu, Zhi-Cheng; Zheng, Dong-Qin; Ai, Bao-Quan

    2014-02-24

    We investigate the thermal conductivity of suspended graphene nanoribbons in noble gaseous environments using molecular dynamics simulations. It is reported that the thermal conductivity of perfect graphene nanoribbons decreases with the gaseous pressure. The decreasing is more obvious for the noble gas with large atomic number. However, the gaseous pressure cannot change the thermal conductivity of defective graphene nanoribbons apparently. The phonon spectra of graphene nanoribbons are also provided to give corresponding supports.

  1. Compact Discs--A Revolution in the Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgway, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the theory behind the system of the compact disc (encoding process, decoding system), its potential for growth, and its possible impact on the way libraries handle sound recordings. Guidelines for purchase of compact disc equipment are given. A comparison of compact discs and long-playing records is appended. (37 references) (EJS)

  2. The Effects of Simulated Microgravity on Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Li; Feng, Gang; Reames, Davis L; Shimer, Adam L; Shen, Francis H; Li, Xudong

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT Astronauts experience back pain, particularly low back pain, during and after spaceflight. Recent studies have described histological and biochemical changes in rat intervertebral discs after space travel, but there is still no in vitro model to investigate the effects of microgravity on disc metabolism. PURPOSE To study the effects of microgravity on disc degeneration and to establish an in vitro simulated microgravity study model STUDY DESIGN Discs were cultured in static and rotating conditions in bioreactor, and the characteristics of disc degeneration were evaluated METHODS The mice discs were cultured in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor where the microgravity condition was simulated. Intervertebral discs were cultured in static and microgravity condition. Histology, biochemistry, and immunohistochemical assays were performed to evaluate the characteristics of the discs in microgravity condition. RESULTS Intervertebral discs cultured in rotating bioreactors were found to develop changes of disc degeneration manifested by reduced red Safranin-o staining within the annulus fibrosus, downregulated GAG content and GAG/Hypro ratio, increased MMP-3 expression, and upregulated apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that simulated microgravity induces the molecular changes of disc degeneration. The rotating bioreactor model will provide a foundation to investigate the effects of microgravity on disc metabolism. PMID:23537452

  3. Digital Video Disc Recorder Using Second Harmonic Generation Green Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Joong Eon; Park, In Sik; Oh, Young Nam; Lee, Seung Hoon; Seong, Pyong Yong; Jang, Yoon Ki; Shin, Dong Ho

    1993-11-01

    A prototype of a digital video disc recorder (D-VDR) with laser-disc-quality video and compact-disc-quality audio is developed and demonstrated using a second harmonic generation (SHG) green laser, narrow-track magneto-optical disk (MOD), mark edge recording and data compression.

  4. Interactive Optical Disc Systems: Part 1: Analog Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, David W.

    1984-01-01

    Details distinction between digital and analog data, advantages of analog storage, and optical disc use to store analog data. Configuration and potential of three levels of laser disc systems are explained. Selection of display devices for use with laser disc systems and accessing audio data are addressed. (Continued in next issue.) (EJS)

  5. Gaseous hydrogen leakage optical fibre detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouillet, Alain; Veillas, Colette; Sigronde, E.; Gagnaire, Henri; Clement, Michel

    2004-06-01

    Liquid hydrogen has been intensively used in aerospace applications during the past forty years and is of great interest for fuel cells technologies and future automotive applications. Following upon major explosive risks due to the use of hydrogen in air, previous studies were carried out in our laboratory in order to develop optical fiber sensors for the detection of hydrogen leakage. This communication is aimed towards a prototype optical fiber system designed for the detection of gaseous hydrogen leakage near the conecting flanges of the liquid hydrogen pipes on the test bench of the engine Vulcain of the rocket ARIANE V. Depending on the configuration, the prototype sensor provides a two-level alarm signal and the detection of gaseous hydrogen leakage is possible for concentrations lower than the lower explosive limit in air (between 0.1 and 4%) with alarm response times lower than 10 seconds in a wide range of temperatures between -35°C and 300°C. The sensing principle based on palladium-hydrogen interaction is presented as well as the detection system composed of an optical fiber probe and an optoelectronic device.

  6. Reappraisal of the ratio of disc to macula/disc diameter in optic nerve hypoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, S M; Dudgeon, J; Dutton, G N

    1991-01-01

    The ratio of disc to macula/disc diameter is characteristically increased in eyes with optic nerve hypoplasia. We present the largest reported series of patients with a definitive diagnosis of optic nerve hypoplasia for whom this ratio has been determined. All measurements were made by an independent masked observer. Our results are in accordance with previous reports. A ratio of 2.94 provides a one-tailed upper population limit of 95%. An attempt has been made to correlate optic disc size and visual acuity. In 75% of bilateral cases the eye with the relatively smaller optic disc was found to have a better Snellen visual acuity than the fellow eye. This suggests that additional pathogenic mechanism(s) may have determined the eventual visual outcome in such eyes. Such mechanisms include macular hypoplasia, high refractive error, refractive amblyopia, central scotoma, and optic atrophy. Images PMID:1911656

  7. Prognosis of intervertebral disc loss from diagnosis of degenerative disc disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Lin, A.; Tay, K.; Romano, W.; Osman, Said

    2015-03-01

    Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD) is one of the most common causes of low back pain, and is a major factor in limiting the quality of life of an individual usually as they enter older stages of life, the disc degeneration reduces the shock absorption available which in turn causes pain. Disc loss is one of the central processes in the pathogenesis of DDD. In this study, we investigated whether the image texture features quantified from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be appropriate markers for diagnosis of DDD and prognosis of inter-vertebral disc loss. The main objective is to use simple image based biomarkers to perform prognosis of spinal diseases using non-invasive procedures. Our results from 65 subjects proved the higher success rates of the combination marker compared to the individual markers and in the future, we will extend the study to other spine regions to allow prognosis and diagnosis of DDD for a wider region.

  8. Gaseous detonation synthesis and characterization of nano-oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Honghao; Wu, Linsong; Li, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    Gaseous detonation is a new method of heating the precursor of nanomaterials into gas, and integrating it with combustible gas as mixture to be detonated for the synthesis of nanomaterials. In this paper, the mixed gas of oxygen and hydrogen is used as the source for detonation, to synthesize nano TiO2, nano SiO2 and nano SnO2 through gaseous detonation method, characterization and analysis of the products, it was found that the products from gaseous detonation method were of high purity, good dispersion, smaller particle size and even distribution. It also shows that for the synthesis of nano-oxides, gaseous detonation is universal.

  9. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  10. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  11. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  12. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  13. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  14. Analog disc recorder system: operator's reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, J.D.; Smith, E.L.

    1984-07-01

    The FM Analog Disc Recorder System is a cost-efficient means of capturing analog transient data from many channels; it has high-frequency response and long record time. It can digitize recorded signals, correct internal distortion, and present the data as plots either on a CRT, hardcopy plot, or both. The system is easy to use, self-contained, and compact.

  15. Compact Disc Cataloging Product User Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehair, David E.

    In late 1988, a compact disc cataloging product was introduced to the library market. In order to learn more about the needs of current users, a survey was developed to include questions concerning software features and operations, software enhancements, bibliographic and authority subsets, and hardware issues. This study was conducted among all…

  16. Periodic dynamics of pairs of sedimenting discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chajwa, Rahul; Menon, Narayanan; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2015-11-01

    We study the sedimentation in the Stokes regime of pairs of discs released with a variety of orientations relative to each other and to gravity. The orientation of a settling disk is coupled with the translational degree of freedom. Hydrodynamic interactions between settling disks produces richer dynamics than is possible with sedimenting spheres. We demonstrate the classes of dynamics that follow from a variety of initial conditions, but focus on the periodic oscillations in position and orientation that result when two discs are released parallel to each other with their normals coaxial and in the horizontal plane. We report experiments that study the frequency, wavelength, and amplitude of the periodic flutter as a function of initial separation between the discs. We analyze the motions within a model that combines the hydrodynamics of single discs with a simplified model of their interaction that includes low order terms of appropriate symmetry. This allows us to examine the initial conditions that demarcate periodic from non-periodic dynamics. Also at Dept of Physics and Astronomy, Univ of Massachusetts, Amherst MA 01003.

  17. DISC-BASED IMMUNOASSAY MICROARRAYS. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microarray technology as applied to areas that include genomics, diagnostics, environmental, and drug discovery, is an interesting research topic for which different chip-based devices have been developed. As an alternative, we have explored the principle of compact disc-based...

  18. Optical Disc Technology for Information Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumm, Eugenia K.

    1991-01-01

    This summary of the literature on document image processing from 1988-90 focuses on WORM (write once read many) technology and on rewritable (i.e., erasable) optical discs, and excludes CD-ROM. Highlights include vendors and products, standards, comparisons of storage media, software, legal issues, records management, indexing, and computer…

  19. [Laser ablation of intervertebral disc: animal experiment].

    PubMed

    Qi, Q; Dang, G D; Cai, Q L

    1994-03-01

    The lumbar intervertebral discs (L3-6) were ablated through a transperitoneal approach in 12 adult dogs by using Nd: YAG laser (1.06 microns) with a 600 microns quartz fiber. The status of limbs motion and sphincter (bladder, bowel) was observed for evaluating the safety of laser irradiation. After irradiation, the animals were sacrificed at prescribed intervals of up to 40 weeks (2, 4, 8, 12 and 40 weeks after operation). The lumbar intervertebral discs were harvested and subjected to light microscopic observation. No dog had suffered from neurogenic dysfunction of limb motion and sphincter. Histological findings immediately after the irradiation showed the disc was vaporized and a cavity was made. After 2 and 4 weeks, fibrous tissues began to proliferate, but cartilaginous tissues replaced the fibrous tissues 12 weeks after the laser irradiation. No new bone formation was found within 40 weeks after operation. On the basis of this study and our previous cadaveric study, percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) was applied in clinical practice in march of 1993. 10 patients underwent PLDD utilizing the same laser equipment. The average follow-up was 3 months. According to the Macnab's criteria, there was an excellent response in 7 patients and a good response in 3. PMID:7842915

  20. Disc valve for sampling erosive process streams

    DOEpatents

    Mrochek, J.E.; Dinsmore, S.R.; Chandler, E.W.

    1984-08-16

    This is a patent for a disc-type, four-port sampling valve for service with erosive high temperature process streams. Inserts and liners of ..cap alpha..-silicon carbide respectively, in the faceplates and in the sampling cavities, limit erosion while providing lubricity for a smooth and precise operation. 1 fig.

  1. Training Endusers on MathSci Disc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichel, Beatrice

    1991-01-01

    Describes how the physical sciences library at Western Michigan University introduced a mathematical database on CD-ROM and trained patrons to conduct their own searches. The "Mathematical Reviews" database (entitled MathSci Disc) is described, and three types of training are discussed: informal demonstrations, self-instructional guides, and…

  2. Frictional Torque on a Rotating Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to motion often includes a dry frictional term independent of the speed of an object and a fluid drag term varying linearly with speed in the viscous limit. (At higher speeds, quadratic drag can also occur.) Here, measurements are performed for an aluminium disc mounted on bearings that is given an initial twist and allowed to spin…

  3. On the convective overstability in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latter, Henrik N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the driving of low-level hydrodynamical activity in protoplanetary-disc dead zones. A small adverse radial entropy gradient, ordinarily stabilized by rotation, excites oscillatory convection (`convective overstability') when thermal diffusion, or cooling, is neither too strong nor too weak. I revisit the linear theory of the instability, discuss its prevalence in protoplanetary discs, and show that unstable modes are exact non-linear solutions in the local Boussinesq limit. Overstable modes cannot grow indefinitely, however, as they are subject to a secondary parametric instability that limits their amplitudes to relatively low levels. If parasites set the saturation level of the ensuing turbulence then the convective overstability is probably too weak to drive significant angular momentum transport or to generate vortices. But I also discuss an alternative, and far more vigorous, saturation route that generates radial `layers' or `zonal flows' (witnessed in semiconvection). Numerical simulations are required to determine which outcome is favoured in realistic discs, and consequently how important the instability is for disc dynamics.

  4. Grain size segregation in debris discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thebault, P.; Kral, Q.; Augereau, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    Context. In most debris discs, dust grain dynamics is strongly affected by stellar radiation pressure. Because this mechanism is size-dependent, we expect dust grains to be spatially segregated according to their sizes. However, because of the complex interplay between radiation pressure, grain processing by collisions, and dynamical perturbations, this spatial segregation of the particle size distribution (PSD) has proven difficult to investigate and quantify with numerical models. Aims: We propose to thoroughly investigate this problem by using a new-generation code that can handle some of the complex coupling between dynamical and collisional effects. We intend to explore how PSDs behave in both unperturbed discs at rest and in discs pertubed by planetary objects. Methods: We used the DyCoSS code to investigate the coupled effect of collisions, radiation pressure, and dynamical perturbations in systems that have reached a steady-state. We considered two setups: a narrow ring perturbed by an exterior planet, and an extended disc into which a planet is embedded. For both setups we considered an additional unperturbed case without a planet. We also investigated the effect of possible spatial size segregation on disc images at different wavelengths. Results: We find that PSDs are always spatially segregated. The only case for which the PSD follows a standard dn ∝ s-3.5ds law is for an unperturbed narrow ring, but only within the parent-body ring itself. For all other configurations, the size distributions can strongly depart from such power laws and have steep spatial gradients. As an example, the geometrical cross-section of the disc is very rarely dominated by the smallest grains on bound orbits, as it is expected to be in standard PSDs in sq with q ≤ -3. Although the exact profiles and spatial variations of PSDs are a complex function of the set-up that is considered, we are still able to derive some reliable results that will be useful for image or SED

  5. Clinical and Radiological Characteristics of Lumbosacral Lateral Disc Herniation in Comparison With Those of Medial Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lateral disc herniation (foraminal and extra foraminal) has clinical characteristics that are different from those of medial disc herniation (central and subarticular), including older age, more frequent radicular pain, and neurologic deficits. This is supposedly because lateral disc herniation mechanically irritates or compresses the exiting nerve root or dorsal root ganglion inside of a narrow canal more directly than medial disc herniation. The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and radiological characteristics of lateral disc herniation in comparison with medial disc herniation. The 352 subjects diagnosed with localized lumbosacral disc herniation and followed up for at least 12 months after completion of treatment were included and divided into medial and lateral disc herniation groups, according to the anatomical location of the herniated disc in axial plain of magnetic resonance image. Clinical and radiological data were obtained and compared between the two groups. The lateral group included 74 (21%) patients and the medial group included 278 (79%). Mean age of the lateral group was significantly higher than that in the medial group. The lateral group showed a significantly larger proportion of patients with radiating leg pain and multiple levels of disc herniations than the medial group. No significant differences were found in terms of gender, duration of pain, pretreatment numeric rating scale, severity of disc herniation (protrusion and extrusion), and presence of weakness in leg muscles. The proportion of patients who underwent surgery was not significantly different between the 2 groups. However, the proportion of patients who accomplished successful pain reduction after treatment was significantly smaller in the lateral than in the medial group. In conclusion, patients with lateral disc herniation were older and had larger proportion of radiating leg pain than those with medial disc herniation. Lateral disc herniation was more

  6. Clinical and Radiological Characteristics of Lumbosacral Lateral Disc Herniation in Comparison With Those of Medial Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Lateral disc herniation (foraminal and extra foraminal) has clinical characteristics that are different from those of medial disc herniation (central and subarticular), including older age, more frequent radicular pain, and neurologic deficits. This is supposedly because lateral disc herniation mechanically irritates or compresses the exiting nerve root or dorsal root ganglion inside of a narrow canal more directly than medial disc herniation. The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and radiological characteristics of lateral disc herniation in comparison with medial disc herniation. The 352 subjects diagnosed with localized lumbosacral disc herniation and followed up for at least 12 months after completion of treatment were included and divided into medial and lateral disc herniation groups, according to the anatomical location of the herniated disc in axial plain of magnetic resonance image. Clinical and radiological data were obtained and compared between the two groups. The lateral group included 74 (21%) patients and the medial group included 278 (79%). Mean age of the lateral group was significantly higher than that in the medial group. The lateral group showed a significantly larger proportion of patients with radiating leg pain and multiple levels of disc herniations than the medial group. No significant differences were found in terms of gender, duration of pain, pretreatment numeric rating scale, severity of disc herniation (protrusion and extrusion), and presence of weakness in leg muscles. The proportion of patients who underwent surgery was not significantly different between the 2 groups. However, the proportion of patients who accomplished successful pain reduction after treatment was significantly smaller in the lateral than in the medial group. In conclusion, patients with lateral disc herniation were older and had larger proportion of radiating leg pain than those with medial disc herniation. Lateral disc herniation was more

  7. Enhancement of Overgrowth by Gene Interactions in Lethal(2)giant Discs Imaginal Discs from Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Buratovich, M. A.; Bryant, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    Recessive lethal mutations of the lethal(2)giant discs (l(2)gd) and lethal(2)fat (l(2)ft) loci of Drosophila melanogaster cause imaginal disc hyperplasia during a prolonged larval stage. Imaginal discs from l(2)ft l(2)gd or Gl(2)gd double homozygotes show more extensive overgrowth than in either single homozygote, and double homozygous l(2)ft l(2)gd mitotic clones in adult flies show much more overgrowth than is seen in clones homozygous for either l(2)gd or l(2)ft alone. dachsous (ds) also acts as an enhancer of l(2)gd, producing dramatically overgrown discs and causing failure to pupariate in double homozygotes. The comb gap (cg) mutation, which also interacts with ds, greatly enhances the tendency of imaginal discs from l(2)gd larvae to duplicate as they overgrow. If l(2)gd homozygotes are made heterozygous for l(2)ft, then several discs duplicate, indicating that l(2)ft acts as a dominant enhancer of l(2)gd. l(2)ft also acts as a dominant enhancer of l(2)gd, and conversely l(2)gd acts as a dominant modifier of l(2)ft. The enhancement of overgrowth caused by various mutant combinations is accompanied by changes in expression of Decapentaplegic and Wingless. These results show that tumor suppressor genes act in combination to control cell proliferation, and that tissue hyperplasia can be associated with ectopic expression of genes involved in pattern formation. PMID:9335602

  8. Fusion versus Bryan Cervical Disc in two-level cervical disc disease: a prospective, randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Lin; Zhang, Li; Hou, Yong

    2008-01-01

    In this prospective study, our aim was to compare the functional results and radiographic outcomes of fusion and Bryan Cervical Disc replacement in the treatment of two-level cervical disc disease. A total of 65 patients with two-level cervical disc disease were randomly assigned to two groups, those operated on with Bryan Cervical Disc replacement (31) and those operated on with anterior cervical fusion with an iliac crest autograft and plate (34). Clinical evaluation was carried out using the visual analogue scale (VAS), the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and the neck disability index (NDI) during a two year follow-up. Radiological evaluation sought evidence of range of motion, stability and subsidence of the prosthesis. Substantial reduction in NDI scores occurred in both groups, with greater percent improvement in the Bryan group (P = 0.023). The arm pain VAS score improvement was substantial in both groups. Bryan artificial cervical disc replacement seems reliable and safe in the treatment of patients with two-level cervical disc disease. PMID:18956190

  9. Novel indication for posterior dynamic stabilization: Correction of disc tilt after lumbar total disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wayne K.; Palmer, Daniel Kyle; Jadhav, Vikram

    2011-01-01

    Background The increase in total disc replacement procedures performed over the last 5 years has increased the occurrence of patients presenting with postoperative iatrogenic deformity requiring revision surgery. Proposed salvage treatments include device retrieval followed by anterior lumbar interbody fusion or posterior fusion. We propose a novel approach for the correction of disc tilt after total disc replacement using a posterior dynamic stabilization system. Methods Pedicle screws can be inserted either in an open manner or percutaneously by standard techniques under fluoroscopy. The collapsed side is expanded, and the convex side is compressed. Universal spacers are placed bilaterally, with the spacer on the collapsed side being taller by 6 mm. Cords are threaded through the spacers and pulled into place with the tensioning instrument. Extra tension is applied to the convex side, and the wound is closed by standard techniques. Results Three patients presenting with tilted total disc replacement devices underwent corrective surgery with posterior dynamic stabilization. Radiographs confirmed correction of deformity in all cases. Conclusions/Level of Evidence This technical note presents a novel indication for posterior dynamic stabilization and describes its surgical application to the correction of disc tilt after total disc replacement. This is level V evidence. PMID:25802667

  10. Role of Cytokines in Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Pain and Disc-content

    PubMed Central

    Risbud, Makarand V.; Shapiro, Irving. M

    2014-01-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disc is the major contributor to back/neck and radicular pain. It is characterized by an elevation in levels of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1 α/β, IL-6 and IL-17 secreted by the disc cells themselves; these cytokines promote matrix degradation, chemokine production and changes in cell phenotype. The resulting imbalance between catabolic and anabolic responses leads to degeneration, as well as herniation and radicular pain. Release of chemokines from degenerating discs promote infiltration and activation of T and B cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and mast cells further amplifying the inflammatory cascade. Immunocyte migration into the disc is accompanied by the appearance of microvasculature and nerve fibers arising from the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). In this inflammatory milieu, neurogenic factors in particular nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derive neurotrophic factor (BDNF) generated by disc and immune cells induce expression of pain associated cation channels in DRGs. Depolarization of these channels is likely to promote discogenic and radicular pain and reinforce the cytokine-mediated degenerative cascade. Taken together, the enhanced understanding of the contribution of cytokines and immune cells to catabolic and nociceptive processes provide new targets for treating symptomatic disc disease. PMID:24166242

  11. The equilibrium and stability of the gaseous component of the galaxy, 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellman, S. A.

    1971-01-01

    The stability of a self-gravitating, nonrotating, plane-parallel, isothermal gas layer with equipartition magnetic and cosmic ray components, immersed in a rigid isothermal layer of stars, is considered with respect to waves with motions perpendicular to the equilibrium magnetic and gravitational field vectors. The magnetic field and cosmic ray gas hinder gravitational instability and increase the minimum length necessary to produce instability.

  12. Tearing up a misaligned accretion disc with a binary companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doğan, Suzan; Nixon, Chris; King, Andrew; Price, Daniel J.

    2015-05-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. We calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. We run hydrodynamical simulations to check these results, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and generally enhances accretion on to the central object. This applies in many cases of astrophysical accretion, e.g. supermassive black hole binaries and X-ray binaries.

  13. Counterrotating perfect fluid discs as sources of electrovacuum static spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Reyes, Gonzalo; González, Guillermo A.

    2004-11-01

    The interpretation of some electrovacuum spacetimes in terms of counterrotating perfect fluid discs is presented. The interpretation is made by means of an 'inverse problem' approach used to obtain disc sources of known static solutions of the Einstein Maxwell equations. In order to do such an interpretation, a detailed study is presented of the counterrotating model (CRM) for generic electrovacuum static axially symmetric relativistic thin discs with nonzero radial pressure. Four simple families of models of counterrotating charged discs based on Chazy Curzon-type, Zipoy Voorhees-type, Bonnor Sackfield-type and charged and magnetized Darmois electrovacuum metrics are considered, where we obtain some discs with a well-behaved CRM.

  14. Powerful quasar outflow in a massive disc galaxy at z ˜ 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Michael; Sijacki, Debora

    2016-03-01

    There is growing observational evidence of high-redshift quasars launching energetic, fast outflows, but the effects that these have on their host galaxies is poorly understood. We employ the moving-mesh code AREPO to study the feedback from a quasar that has grown to ˜109 M⊙ by z ˜ 5 and the impact that this has on its host galaxy. Our simulations use a super-Lagrangian refinement technique to increase the accuracy with which the interface of the quasar-driven wind and the surrounding gas is resolved. We find that the feedback injected in these simulations is less efficient at removing gas from the galaxy than in an identical simulation with no super-Lagrangian refinement. This leads to the growth of a massive, rotationally supported, star-forming disc, co-existing with a powerful quasar-driven outflow. The properties of our host galaxy, including the kinematical structure of the gaseous disc and of the outflow, are in good agreement with current observations. Upcoming ALMA and JWST observations will be an excellent test of our model and will provide further clues as to the variance in properties of high-redshift quasar hosts.

  15. Turbulence-induced disc formation in strongly magnetized cloud cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifried, D.; Banerjee, R.; Pudritz, R. E.; Klessen, R. S.

    2013-07-01

    We present collapse simulations of strongly magnetized, turbulent molecular cloud cores with masses ranging from 2.6 to 1000 M⊙ in order to study the influence of the initial conditions on the turbulence-induced disc formation mechanism proposed recently by Seifried et al. We find that Keplerian discs are formed in all cases independently of the core mass, the strength of turbulence or the presence of global rotation. The discs appear within a few kyr after the formation of the protostar, are 50-150 au in size, and have masses between 0.05 and a few 0.1 M⊙. During the formation of the discs the mass-to-flux ratio stays well below the critical value of 10 for Keplerian disc formation. Hence, flux-loss alone cannot explain the formation of Keplerian discs. The formation of rotationally supported discs at such early phases is rather due to the disordered magnetic field structure and due to turbulent motions in the surroundings of the discs, two effects lowering the classical magnetic braking efficiency. Binary systems occurring in the discs are mainly formed via the disc capturing mechanism rather than via disc fragmentation, which is largely suppressed by the presence of magnetic fields.

  16. Dynamics of a disc in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Antipova, Alena; Denniston, Colin

    2016-01-28

    We use lattice Boltzmann simulations to study the dynamics of a disc immersed in a nematic liquid crystal. In the absence of external torques, discs with homeotropic anchoring align with their surface normal parallel to the director of the nematic liquid crystal. In the presence of a weak magnetic field a ferromagnetic disc will rotate to equilibrate the elastic torque due to the distortion of the nematic director and the magnetic torque. When the magnetic field rotates the disc so that the angle θ between normal to the surface of the disc â and director of the liquid crystal n[combining circumflex] becomes greater than π/2, the disc flips around the axis perpendicular to the rotation axis so that â sweeps through π radians. An analysis of this behaviour was performed. In particular, we look at the impact of the disc thickness and edges on defect creation and the flipping transition. We also analyse the importance of backflow. PMID:26575160

  17. Examination of turbine discs from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Czajkowski, C.J.; Weeks, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Investigations were performed on a cracked turbine disc from the Cooper Nuclear Power Station, and on two failed turbine discs (governor and generator ends) from the Yankee-Rowe Nuclear Power Station. Cooper is a boiling water reactor (BWR) which went into commercial operation in July 1974, and Yankee-Rowe is a pressurized water reactor (PWR) which went into commercial operation in June 1961. Cracks were identified in the bore of the Cooper disc after 41,913 hours of operation, and the disc removed for repair. At Yankee-Rowe two discs failed after 100,000 hours of operation. Samples of the Cooper disc and both Yankee-Rowe disc (one from the governor and one from the generator end of the LP turbine) were sent to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for failure analysis.

  18. Infrared radiative energy transfer in gaseous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the radiative interactions in various energy transfer processes in gaseous systems. Both gray and non-gray radiative formulations for absorption and emission by molecular gases are presented. The gray gas formulations are based on the Planck mean absorption coefficient and the non-gray formulations are based on the wide band model correlations for molecular absorption. Various relations for the radiative flux and divergence of radiative flux are developed. These are useful for different flow conditions and physical problems. Specific plans for obtaining extensive results for different cases are presented. The procedure developed was applied to several realistic problems. Results of selected studies are presented.

  19. Background reduction of a spherical gaseous detector

    SciTech Connect

    Fard, Ali Dastgheibi; Loaiza, Pia; Piquemal, Fabrice; Giomataris, Ioannis; Gray, David; Gros, Michel; Magnier, Patrick; Navick, Xavier-François

    2015-08-17

    The Spherical gaseous detector (or Spherical Proportional Counter, SPC) is a novel type of detector. It consists of a large spherical volume filled with gas, using a single detection readout channel. The detector allows 100 % detection efficiency. SEDINE is a low background version of SPC installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) underground laboratory (4800 m.w.e) looking for rare events at very low energy threshold, below 100 eV. This work presents the details on the chemical cleaning to reduce internal {sup 210}Pb surface contamination on the copper vessel and the external radon reduction achieved via circulation of pure air inside anti-radon tent. It will be also show the radon measurement of pure gases (Ar, N, Ne, etc) which are used in the underground laboratory for the low background experiments.

  20. Gaseous hydrogen/oxygen injector performance characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroot, W. A.; Tsuei, H. H.

    1994-01-01

    Results are presented of spontaneous Raman scattering measurements in the combustion chamber of a 110 N thrust class gaseous hydrogen/oxygen rocket. Temperature, oxygen number density, and water number density profiles at the injector exit plane are presented. These measurements are used as input profiles to a full Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Predictions of this code while using the measured profiles are compared with predictions while using assumed uniform injector profiles. Axial and radial velocity profiles derived from both sets of predictions are compared with Rayleigh scattering measurements in the exit plane of a 33:1 area ratio nozzle. Temperature and number density Raman scattering measurements at the exit plane of a test rocket with a 1:1.36 area ratio nozzle are also compared with results from both sets of predictions.

  1. Simulating Isotope Enrichment by Gaseous Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Cameron

    2015-04-01

    A desktop-computer simulation of isotope enrichment by gaseous diffusion has been developed. The simulation incorporates two non-interacting point-mass species whose members pass through a cascade of cells containing porous membranes and retain constant speeds as they reflect off the walls of the cells and the spaces between holes in the membranes. A particular feature is periodic forward recycling of enriched material to cells further along the cascade along with simultaneous return of depleted material to preceding cells. The number of particles, the mass ratio, the initial fractional abundance of the lighter species, and the time between recycling operations can be chosen by the user. The simulation is simple enough to be understood on the basis of two-dimensional kinematics, and demonstrates that the fractional abundance of the lighter-isotope species increases along the cascade. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of some typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  2. Allis Prize Lecture: Gaseous Electronics Physics Inside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garscadden, Alan

    2002-10-01

    I was fortunate to enjoy the advice of K. G. Emeleus during my graduate studies and for many years afterwards. He introduced me to the papers of Will Allis and later I was privileged to correspond with Professor Allis. At this time I had moved from the Queens university environment to work at a large Air Force base. There I have worked with a lot of smart people, including several who also come to the GEC each year to be refreshed and calibrated. A personal overview is presented on a few of the many roles that atomic, molecular and optical physics, including gaseous electronics, play in programs of the Air Force Research Laboratory and subsequently on AF systems and operations. While there have been misses, overall there have been many successes with impacts that provide more effective systems, as recent experiences have demonstrated. Some example studies, involving primarily electron collision physics, successful and unsuccessful in being chosen for application, are discussed.

  3. Gaseous neurotransmitters and their role in anapyrexia

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Luiz G.S.; Carnio, Evelin C.; Pittman, Quentin J.

    2013-01-01

    Mammals keep their body temperature (Tb) relatively constant despite important changes in their metabolic rate. However, in some particular situations it may be beneficial to increase or to decrease Tb, in a relatively more significantly way. For instance, under hypoxic conditions, a regulated drop in Tb (anapyrexia) takes place which has been reported to be crucial for survival in a number of different species. This review highlights major advances in the research about nitric oxide and carbon monoxide (where data are relatively less abundant), before focusing on the role played by the gaseous neuromediators in thermoregulation, under the conditions of euthermia and anapyrexia. Available data are consistent with the notion that both NO and CO, acting in the CNS (intracerebroventricular approach), do participate in thermoregulation, NO decreasing Tb and CO increasing it. However further studies are required before definitive conclusions can be made, as to their physiological mechanisms of action. PMID:20515766

  4. Gaseous-fuel safety assessment. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M.C.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Bartlit, J.R.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory, in support of studies sponsored by the Office of Vehicle and Engine Research and Development in the US Department of Energy, has undertaken a safety assessment of selected gaseous fuels for use in light automotive transportation. The purpose is to put into perspective the hazards of these fuels relative to present day fuels and delineated criteria for their safe handling. Fuels include compressed and liquified natural gas (CNG and LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and for reference gasoline and diesel. This paper is a program status report. To date, physicochemical property data and general petroleum and transportation information were compiled; basic hazards defined; alternative fuels were safety-ranked based on technical properties alone; safety data and vehicle accident statistics reviewed; and accident scenarios selected for further analysis. Methodology for such analysis is presently under consideration.

  5. 2011 GASEOUS IONS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Anderson

    2011-03-04

    The Gaseous Ions: Structures, Energetics and Reactions Gordon Research Conference will focus on ions and their interactions with molecules, surfaces, electrons, and light. The conference will cover theory and experiments, and systems ranging from molecular to biological to clusters to materials. The meeting goal continues to be bringing together scientists interested in fundamentals, with those applying fundamental phenomena to a wide range of practical problems. Each of the ten conference sessions will focus on a topic within this spectrum, and there will also be poster sessions for contributed papers, with sufficient space and time to allow all participants to present their latest results. To encourage active participation by young investigators, about ten of the poster abstracts will be selected for 15 minute 'hot topic' talks during the conference sessions. Hot topic selection will be done about a month before the meeting. Funds should be available to offset the participation cost for young investigators.

  6. Background reduction of a spherical gaseous detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fard, Ali Dastgheibi; Loaiza, Pia; Piquemal, Fabrice; Giomataris, Ioannis; Gray, David; Gros, Michel; Magnier, Patrick; Navick, Xavier-François; Savvidis, Ilias

    2015-08-01

    The Spherical gaseous detector (or Spherical Proportional Counter, SPC) is a novel type of detector. It consists of a large spherical volume filled with gas, using a single detection readout channel. The detector allows 100 % detection efficiency. SEDINE is a low background version of SPC installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) underground laboratory (4800 m.w.e) looking for rare events at very low energy threshold, below 100 eV. This work presents the details on the chemical cleaning to reduce internal 210Pb surface contamination on the copper vessel and the external radon reduction achieved via circulation of pure air inside anti-radon tent. It will be also show the radon measurement of pure gases (Ar, N, Ne, etc) which are used in the underground laboratory for the low background experiments.

  7. Gaseous fuel reactors for power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmick, H. H.; Schwenk, F. C.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is participating in a NASA-sponsored program to demonstrate the feasibility of a gaseous uranium fueled reactor. The work is aimed at acquiring experimental and theoretical information for the design of a prototype plasma core reactor which will test heat removal by optical radiation. The basic goal of this work is for space applications, however, other NASA-sponsored work suggests several attractive applications to help meet earth-bound energy needs. Such potential benefits are: small critical mass, on-site fuel processing, high fuel burnup, low fission fragment inventory in reactor core, high temperature for process heat, optical radiation for photochemistry and space power transmission, and high temperature for advanced propulsion systems.

  8. Clinical experience in cell-based therapeutics: disc chondrocyte transplantation A treatment for degenerated or damaged intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Hans Jörg; Siodla, Vilma; Ganey, Timothy; Minkus, Yvonne; Hutton, William C; Alasevic, Olivera J

    2007-02-01

    Disc herniation treated by discectomy results in a significant loss of nucleus material and disc height. Biological restoration through the use of autologous disc chondrocyte transplantation offers a potential to achieve functional integration of disc metabolism and mechanics. Chondrocytes that have been removed from damaged cartilaginous tissues maintain a capacity to proliferate, produce and secrete matrix components and respond to physical stimuli such as dynamic loading. Nucleus regeneration using autologous cultured disc-derived chondrocytes (ADCT) has been demonstrated in a canine model and in clinical pilot studies. In 2002 a prospective, controlled, randomised, multi-center study, EuroDISC, comparing safety and efficacy of autologous disc chondrocyte transplant, chondrotransplant DISC, plus discectomy (ADCT), with discectomy alone was initiated. A dog model was used to investigate the hypothesis that autologous disc chondrocytes can be used to repair damaged intervertebral disc. Disc chondrocytes were harvested and expanded in culture under controlled and defined conditions, returned to the same animals from which they had been sampled (autologous transplantation) via percutaneous delivery. The animals were analyzed at specific times after transplantation by several methods to examine whether disc chondrocytes integrated with the surrounding tissue, produced the appropriate intervertebral disc extracellular matrix, and might provide a formative solution to disc repair. The clinical goals of the EuroDISC study, were to provide long-term pain relief, maintain disc height and prevent adjacent segment disease. Interim analysis was performed after 2 years; Oswestry (low back pain/disability), Quebec Back-Pain Disability Scale, as well as Prolo and VAS score were used for the evaluation. Disc height was assessed by MRI. In the context of degenerative changes in an injury model: () autologous disc chondrocytes were expended in culture and returned to the disc by a

  9. Removing gaseous NH3 using biochar as an adsorbent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia is a major fugitive gas emitted from livestock operations and fertilization production. This study tested the potential of various biochars in removing gaseous ammonia via adsorption processes. Gaseous ammonia adsorption capacities of various biochars made from two different feedstocks (wood...

  10. 40 CFR 90.418 - Data evaluation for gaseous emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data evaluation for gaseous emissions. 90.418 Section 90.418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.418...

  11. 40 CFR 91.418 - Data evaluation for gaseous emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data evaluation for gaseous emissions. 91.418 Section 91.418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust...

  12. 40 CFR 90.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 90.415 Section 90.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous...

  13. 40 CFR 91.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 91.415 Section 91.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures §...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA SYSTEMS, USER GUIDE, GASEOUS EMISSIONS DATA SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a user guide to the Gaseous Emissions Data System (GEDS), a computerized data base on gaseous emissions from stationary point sources. GEDS is one of four waste stream data bases which are components of the Environmental Assessment Data Systems (EADS). The EADS conc...

  15. Structure formation in gas-rich galactic discs with finite thickness: from discs to rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, M.; Burkert, A.; Schartmann, M.

    2015-03-01

    Gravitational instabilities play an important role in structure formation of gas-rich high-redshift disc galaxies. In this paper, we revisit the axisymmetric perturbation theory and the resulting growth of structure by taking the realistic thickness of the disc into account. In the unstable regime, which corresponds for thick discs to a Toomre parameter below the critical value Q0, crit = 0.696, we find a fastest growing perturbation wavelength that is always a factor 1.93 times larger than in the classical razor-thin disc approximation. This result is independent of the adopted disc scaleheight and by this independent of temperature and surface density. In order to test the analytical theory, we compare it with a high-resolution hydrodynamical simulation of an isothermal gravitationally unstable gas disc with the typical vertical sech2 density profile and study its break up into rings that subsequently fragment into dense clumps. In the first phase, rings form, that organize themselves discretely, with distances corresponding to the local fastest growing perturbation wavelength. We find that the disc scaleheight has to be resolved initially with five or more grid cells in order to guarantee proper growth of the ring structures, which follow the analytical prediction. These rings later on contract to a thin and dense line, while at the same time accreting more gas from the inter-ring region. It is these dense, circular filaments, that subsequently fragment into a large number of clumps. Contrary to what is typically assumed, the clump sizes are therefore not directly determined by the fastest growing wavelength.

  16. Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. Methods: This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Results: Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Conclusion: Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing. PMID:22905327

  17. Inflammation in intervertebral disc degeneration and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Molinos, Maria; Almeida, Catarina R.; Caldeira, Joana; Cunha, Carla; Gonçalves, Raquel M.; Barbosa, Mário A.

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is one of the major causes of low back pain, a problem with a heavy economic burden, which has been increasing in prevalence as populations age. Deeper knowledge of the complex spatial and temporal orchestration of cellular interactions and extracellular matrix remodelling is critical to improve current IVD therapies, which have so far proved unsatisfactory. Inflammation has been correlated with degenerative disc disease but its role in discogenic pain and hernia regression remains controversial. The inflammatory response may be involved in the onset of disease, but it is also crucial in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Furthermore, if properly balanced it may contribute to tissue repair/regeneration as has already been demonstrated in other tissues. In this review, we focus on how inflammation has been associated with IVD degeneration by describing observational and in vitro studies as well as in vivo animal models. Finally, we provide an overview of IVD regenerative therapies that target key inflammatory players. PMID:25673296

  18. New Experiments with Spinning Metallic Discs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Grugel, Richard N.

    2003-01-01

    A number of recent advanced theories related to torsion properties of the space-time matrix predict the existence of an interaction between classically spinning objects. Indeed, some experimental data suggest that spinning magnetic bodies discernibly interact with Earth's natural fields. If there are interactions between rotating bodies then nuclear spins could be used for detection. Thus, assuming a spinning body induces a hypothetical torsion field, a sensor based on the giant magnetoresistance effect would detect local changes. Experimentally, spinning a brass wheel shielded from Earth's magnetic field showed no measurable change in signals; with no shielding a Faraday disc phenomenon was observed. Unexpected experimental measurements from the non-axial Faraday disc configuration were recorded and a theoretical model was derived to explain them.

  19. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Martin H.; Mehta, Vivek A.; Tuchman, Alexander; Hsieh, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR) designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti), and cobalt-chrome (CoCr). These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation. PMID:26523281

  20. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement.

    PubMed

    Pham, Martin H; Mehta, Vivek A; Tuchman, Alexander; Hsieh, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR) designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti), and cobalt-chrome (CoCr). These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation. PMID:26523281

  1. [Diagnostics and therapy of spinal disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Zimmer, A; Reith, W

    2014-11-01

    Degenerative processes in a movement segment of the vertebral column, which can potentially give rise to herniation of elements of the nucleus pulposus, are complex and of variable clinical and radiological dimensions; however the mere assumption that degenerative changes precede disc herniation remains a matter of debate. By definition, spinal disc herniation (SDH) refers to components of the gelatinous nucleus pulposus protruding beyond the dorsal level of the vertebral body margin through tears in the annulus fibrosus. Clinical presentation may include pain, paresis and sensory disturbances. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the gold standard in the diagnosis of SDH. In the majority of patients a conservative approach with physical therapy exercises and adequate analgesic and antiphlogistic medical treatment results in a substantial improvement of symptoms. PMID:25398570

  2. Thalamic Pain Misdiagnosed as Cervical Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Tae Ha; Choi, Soo Il; Yoo, Jee In; Choi, Young Soon; Lim, Young Su; Sang, Bo Hyun; Bang, Yun Sic

    2016-01-01

    Thalamic pain is a primary cause of central post-stroke pain (CPSP). Clinical symptoms vary depending on the location of the infarction and frequently accompany several pain symptoms. Therefore, correct diagnosis and proper examination are not easy. We report a case of CPSP due to a left acute thalamic infarction with central disc protrusion at C5-6. A 45-year-old-male patient experiencing a tingling sensation in his right arm was referred to our pain clinic under the diagnosis of cervical disc herniation. This patient also complained of right cramp-like abdominal pain. After further evaluations, he was diagnosed with an acute thalamic infarction. Therefore detailed history taking should be performed and examiners should always be aware of other symptoms that could suggest a more dangerous disease. PMID:27103967

  3. The Astral Curved Disc of Chevroches (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devevey, F. Rousseau, A.

    2009-08-01

    The excavation of the unexplored secondary agglomeration in Chevroches (Nièvre), from 2001 to 2002, directed by F. Devevey (INRAP), has led to the discovery of an astrological bronze curved disc of a type unknown in the ancient world; it is inscribed with three lines in Greek transcribing Egyptian an Roman months, and the twelve signs of the zodiac. This article presents the first observations.

  4. Development of fluorescent multilayer disc structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beliak, Ievgen; Butenko, Larisa

    2011-09-01

    The fluorescent multilayer disc (FMD) consists of a substrate and the sandwich-structure of information and intermediate layers. While all the structure of the disc is transparent and homogeneous the parasitic signal will be caused mostly by photoluminescence (PL) and absorption of pits areas where laser light is unfocused. At large number of layers (10 or more) the noise level will get significant value, so it was suggested to derive readout signal as a variable one. Also it was proposed to record information only by the lands, to decrease the absorbance level and thus uncontrolled changing of the noise level. Furthermore in the FMD information layer there are inner and outside peripheral areas which hold a stable level of parasitic signal during readout from the edges of the disc. While the PL readout signal is spatially isotropic the optical head of the FMD drive receives just a part of the probing beam energy. PL quantum yield, absorption factor, receiver systems exposure loss coefficients are other reasons of the low PL signal. Thus the problem of the low SNR in this case is a major one and the only way of its solving is synthesis of the dye with a high PL quantum yield. The PL relaxation time on the other hand is a main feature of the data reading rate and therefore selection of the appropriate recording material will allow to bring this parameter in accordance to parameters of modern optical discs. To achieve this goal the composite organic pyrazoline dyes where synthesized and investigated as effective medium with a PL quantum yield up to 60-70%, relaxation time less than 100 ns, PL wide spectrum and opportunity of two-photon absorption. These parameters were further improved by a method based on the performance of organic dye molecules in the zeolite matrix.

  5. Superresolution technology applied to optical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Changhe; Luo, Hongxin

    2005-09-01

    Smaller focal points are essential for the development of the next-generation optical disc. The size of focal point depends on the diffraction effect that is dependant on the numerical aperture of a lens and the wavelength of light. However, increase of the numerical aperture and decrease of the light wavelength will be ultimately limited due to the technical difficulty of fabricating a too-high NA lens and the too-short wavelength laser. In this paper, we report another approach of using the superresolution technology to compress the size of the so-called Airy spot for the next-generation optical disc, which is independent on the wavelength of laser. The superresolution phase plates are designed and fabricated with a microoptics technique. When such a phase plate is inserted into the optical system, the central spot at the focal plane of a lens is decreased to be 0.8 times of the Airy pattern, implying the possibility of reading higher storage density of optical discs. The most attractive feature is that the phase plate can be mass-produced at a very low cost, compared with the high cost of the high-numerical lens and/or the short wavelength laser. The disadvantages are that the inserted phase plate will induce the slight circular sidelobes around the central sport, so that it consumes a little more laser energy. The shortcoming could be overcome with suitable amendment. We have fabricated the phase plates with the surface-relief profile on a normal glass for phase modulation. Experimental results of superresolution effect with a low numerical aperture (NA=0.1) and a high-numerical lens (NA=0.8) are reported, which are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. Superresolution technique should be highly interesting as a novel technique of the next-generation pickup head for reading the high storage of the optical discs.

  6. Inner disc obscuration in GRS 1915+105 based on relativistic slim disc model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierdayanti, K.; Sadowski, A.; Mineshige, S.; Bursa, M.

    2013-11-01

    We study the observational signatures of the relativistic slim disc of 10 M⊙ black hole, in a wide range of mass accretion rate, dot{m}, dimensionless spin parameter, a*, and viewing angle, i. In general, the innermost temperature, Tin, increases with the increase of i for a fixed value of dot{m} and a*, due to the Doppler effect. However, for i > 50° and dot{m}>dot{m}_turn, Tin starts to decrease with the increase of dot{m}. This is a result of self-obscuration - the radiation from the innermost hot part of the disc is blocked by the surrounding cooler part. The value of dot{m}_turn and the corresponding luminosities depend on a* and i. Such obscuration effects cause an interesting behaviour on the disc luminosity (Ldisc)-Tin plane for high inclinations. In addition to the standard disc branch which appears below dot{m}_turn and which obeys L_disc ∝ T_in4 relation, another branch above dot{m}_turn, which is nearly horizontal, may be observed at luminosities close to the Eddington luminosity. We show that these features are likely observed in a Galactic X-ray source, GRS 1915+105. We support a high spin parameter (a* > 0.9) for GRS 1915+105 since otherwise the high value of Tin and small size of the emitting region (rin < 1rS) cannot be explained.

  7. Reactive thin film flows over spinning discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Wray, Alex; Yang, Junfeng; Matar, Omar

    2015-11-01

    We consider the dynamics of a thin film flowing over a spinning disc in the presence of a chemical reaction, and associated heat and mass transfer. We use a boundary-layer approximation in conjunction with the Karman-Polhausen approximation for the velocity distribution in the film to derive a set of coupled one-dimensional evolution equations for the film thickness, radial and azimuthal flow rates, concentration of the reagents and products, and temperature. These highly nonlinear partial differential equations are solved numerically to reveal the formation of large-amplitude waves that travel from the disc inlet to its periphery. The influence of these waves on the concentration and temperature profiles is analysed for a wide range of system parameters: the Damkohler and Schmidt numbers, the thermal Peclet numbers, and the dimensionless disc radius (a surrogate for the Eckman number). It is shown that these waves lead to significant enhancement of the rates of heat and mass transfer associated with the reactive flow; these are measured by tracking the temporal evolution of local and spatially-averaged Nusselt and Sherwood numbers, respectively. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  8. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weimin; Han, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiang; Yu, Lili; Yu, Xiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) is a common complication following primary discectomy. This systematic review aimed to investigate the current evidence on risk factors for rLDH. Cohort or case-control studies addressing risk factors for rLDH were identified by search in Pubmed (Medline), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library from inception to June 2015. Relevant results were pooled to give overall estimates if possible. Heterogeneity among studies was examined and publication bias was also assessed. A total of 17 studies were included in this systematic review. Risk factors that had significant relation with rLDH were smoking (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.53–2.58), disc protrusion (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.15–2.79), and diabetes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.32). Gender, BMI, occupational work, level, and side of herniation did not correlate with rLDH significantly. Based on current evidence, smoking, disc protrusion, and diabetes were predictors for rLDH. Patients with these risk factors should be paid more attention for prevention of recurrence after primary surgery. More evidence provided by high-quality observational studies is still needed to further investigate risk factors for rLDH. PMID:26765413

  9. Testing hydrodynamics schemes in galaxy disc simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Few, C. G.; Dobbs, C.; Pettitt, A.; Konstandin, L.

    2016-08-01

    We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. We compare an adaptive mesh refinement code (RAMSES), a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHNG), and a volume-discretized mesh-less code (GIZMO). Using standard refinement criteria, we find that RAMSES produces a disc that is less vertically concentrated and does not reach such high densities as the SPHNG or GIZMO runs. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes. There is also a greater degree of substructure in the SPHNG and GIZMO runs and secondary spiral arms are more pronounced. By resolving the Jeans length with a greater number of grid cells, we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. Other alterations to the refinement scheme (adding extra levels of refinement and refining based on local density gradients) are less successful in reducing the disparity between RAMSES and SPHNG/GIZMO. Although more similar, SPHNG displays different density distributions and vertical mass profiles to all modes of GIZMO (including the smoothed particle hydrodynamics version). This suggests differences also arise which are not intrinsic to the particular method but rather due to its implementation. The discrepancies between codes (in particular, the densities reached in the spiral arms) could potentially result in differences in the locations and time-scales for gravitational collapse, and therefore impact star formation activity in more complex galaxy disc simulations.

  10. Be discs in binary systems - I. Coplanar orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panoglou, Despina; Carciofi, Alex C.; Vieira, Rodrigo G.; Cyr, Isabelle H.; Jones, Carol E.; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Rivinius, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Be stars are surrounded by outflowing circumstellar matter structured in the form of decretion discs. They are often members of binary systems, where it is expected that the decretion disc interacts both radiatively and gravitationally with the companion. In this work we study how various orbital (period, mass ratio and eccentricity) and disc (viscosity) parameters affect the disc structure in coplanar binaries. The main effects of the secondary on the disc are its truncation and the accumulation of material inwards of truncation. We find two limiting cases with respect to the effects of eccentricity: in circular or nearly circular prograde orbits, the disc maintains a rotating, constant in shape, configuration, which is locked to the orbital phase. The disc structure appears smaller in size, more elongated and more massive for small viscosity parameter, small orbital separation and/or high mass ratio. In highly eccentric orbits, the effects are more complex, with the disc structure strongly dependent on the orbital phase. We also studied the effects of binarity in the disc continuum emission. Since the infrared and radio SED are sensitive to the disc size and density slope, the truncation and matter accumulation result in considerable modifications in the emergent spectrum. We conclude that binarity can serve as an explanation for the variability exhibited in observations of Be stars, and that our model can be used to detect invisible companions.

  11. Density waves in debris discs and galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Mir Abbas; Tremaine, Scott

    2012-04-01

    We study the linear perturbations of collisionless near-Keplerian discs. Such systems are models for debris discs around stars and the stellar discs surrounding supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. Using a finite-element method, we solve the linearized collisionless Boltzmann equation and Poisson's equation for a wide range of disc masses and rms orbital eccentricities to obtain the eigenfrequencies and shapes of normal modes. We find that these discs can support large-scale 'slow' modes, in which the frequency is proportional to the disc mass. Slow modes are present for arbitrarily small disc mass so long as the self-gravity of the disc is the dominant source of apsidal precession. We find that slow modes are of two general types: parent modes and hybrid child modes, the latter arising from resonant interactions between parent modes and singular van Kampen modes. The most prominent slow modes have azimuthal wavenumbers m= 1 and m= 2. We illustrate how slow modes in debris discs are excited during a fly-by of a neighbouring star. Many of the non-axisymmetric features seen in debris discs (clumps, eccentricity, spiral waves) that are commonly attributed to planets could instead arise from slow modes; the two hypotheses can be distinguished by long-term measurements of the pattern speed of the features.

  12. Construction Strategy and Progress of Whole Intervertebral Disc Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Xu, Hai-Wei; Hurday, Sookesh; Xu, Bao-Shan

    2016-02-01

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is the major cause of low back pain, which usually leads to work absenteeism, medical visits and hospitalization. Because the current conservative procedures and surgical approaches to treatment of DDD only aim to relieve the symptoms of disease but not to regenerate the diseased disc, their long-term efficiency is limited. With the rapid developments in medical science, tissue engineering techniques have progressed markedly in recent years, providing a novel regenerative strategy for managing intervertebral disc disease. However, there are as yet no ideal methods for constructing tissue-engineered intervertebral discs. This paper reviews published reports pertaining to intervertebral disc tissue engineering and summarizes data concerning the seed cells and scaffold materials for tissue-engineered intervertebral discs, construction of tissue-engineered whole intervertebral discs, relevant animal experiments and effects of mechanics on the construction of tissue-engineered intervertebral disc and outlines the existing problems and future directions. Although the perfect regenerative strategy for treating DDD has not yet been developed, great progress has been achieved in the construction of tissue-engineered intervertebral discs. It is believed that ongoing research on intervertebral disc tissue engineering will result in revolutionary progress in the treatment of DDD. PMID:27028376

  13. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yali; Wei, Eric; Wang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Xinbo; Morrison, John C.; Parikh, Mansi; Lombardi, Lori H.; Gattey, Devin M.; Armour, Rebecca L.; Edmunds, Beth; Kraus, Martin F.; Fujimoto, James G.; Huang, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare optic disc perfusion between normal and glaucoma subjects using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography and detect optic disc perfusion changes in glaucoma. Design Observational, cross-sectional study. Participants Twenty-four normal subjects and 11 glaucoma patients were included. Methods One eye of each subject was scanned by a high-speed 1050 nm wavelength swept-source OCT instrument. The split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm (SSADA) was used to compute three-dimensional optic disc angiography. A disc flow index was computed from four registered scans. Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) was used to measure disc rim area, and stereo photography was used to evaluate cup/disc ratios. Wide field OCT scans over the discs were used to measure retinal nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness. Main Outcome Measurements Variability was assessed by coefficient of variation (CV). Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by sensitivity and specificity. Comparisons between glaucoma and normal groups were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Correlations between disc flow index, structural assessments, and visual field (VF) parameters were assessed by linear regression. Results In normal discs, a dense microvascular network was visible on OCT angiography. This network was visibly attenuated in glaucoma subjects. The intra-visit repeatability, inter-visit reproducibility, and normal population variability of the optic disc flow index were 1.2%, 4.2%, and 5.0% CV respectively. The disc flow index was reduced by 25% in the glaucoma group (p = 0.003). Sensitivity and specificity were both 100% using an optimized cutoff. The flow index was highly correlated with VF pattern standard deviation (R2 = 0.752, p = 0.001). These correlations were significant even after accounting for age, cup/disc area ratio, NFL, and rim area. Conclusions OCT angiography, generated by the new SSADA algorithm, repeatably measures optic disc perfusion. OCT

  14. Radiant Extinction Of Gaseous Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berhan, S.; Chernovsky, M.; Atreya, A.; Baum, Howard R.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    2003-01-01

    The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity (mu:g) and the resulting increase in the reactant residence time significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal gravity (ng) and :g flames have been reported in experiments on candle flames [1, 2], flame spread over solids [3, 4], droplet combustion [5,6], and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence times and higher concentration of combustion products in the flame zone create a thermochemical environment that changes the flame chemistry and the heat and mass transfer processes. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored in ng, become very important and sometimes even controlling. Furthermore, microgravity conditions considerably enhance flame radiation by: (i) the build-up of combustion products in the high-temperature reaction zone which increases the gas radiation, and (ii) longer residence times make conditions appropriate for substantial amounts of soot to form which is also responsible for radiative heat loss. Thus, it is anticipated that radiative heat loss may eventually extinguish the Aweak@ (low burning rate per unit flame area) :g diffusion flame. Yet, space shuttle experiments on candle flames show that in an infinite ambient atmosphere, the hemispherical candle flame in :g will burn indefinitely [1]. This may be because of the coupling between the fuel production rate and the flame via the heat-feedback mechanism for candle flames, flames over solids and fuel droplet flames. Thus, to focus only on the gas-phase phenomena leading to radiative extinction, aerodynamically stabilized gaseous diffusion flames are examined. This enables independent control of the fuel flow rate to help identify conditions under which radiative extinction occurs. Also, spherical geometry is chosen for the :g experiments and modeling because: (i) It reduces the complexity by making the problem

  15. Method for supplying a uniform liquid and gaseous mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, A.W.; MacCallum, G.J.

    1987-11-24

    A method for thermally cracking a feed is described comprising at least one hydrocarbon selected from the group consisting of paraffins containing up to 10 carbon atoms, naphthas, gas oils and mixtures thereof to produce hydrogen, methane, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics, comprising: cracking the feed at high temperature in a reactor in the presence of steam; fractionating an effluent from the reactor; fractionating the resulting C/sub 3/ fraction in successive fractionating stages to obtain a fraction which substantially consists of molecules having a single carbon atom; separating the nonuniform liquid and gaseous mixture into a liquid component and a gaseous component; accelerating the flow rate of the gaseous component to a high velocity; dispersing the liquid component into the gaseous component by injecting fine droplets of the liquid component into the maximum flow region of the gaseous component to obtain a uniform liquid and gaseous component; supplying the uniform liquid and gaseous mixture to a heat exchanger; and partitioning the effluent from the heat exchanger into a hydrogen rich fraction and a methane rich fraction.

  16. Genetic and Functional Studies of the Intervertebral Disc: A Novel Murine Intervertebral Disc Model

    PubMed Central

    Pelle, Dominic W.; Peacock, Jacqueline D.; Schmidt, Courtney L.; Kampfschulte, Kevin; Scholten, Donald J.; Russo, Scott S.; Easton, Kenneth J.; Steensma, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) homeostasis is mediated through a combination of micro-environmental and biomechanical factors, all of which are subject to genetic influences. The aim of this study is to develop and characterize a genetically tractable, ex vivo organ culture model that can be used to further elucidate mechanisms of intervertebral disc disease. Specifically, we demonstrate that IVD disc explants (1) maintain their native phenotype in prolonged culture, (2) are responsive to exogenous stimuli, and (3) that relevant homeostatic regulatory mechanisms can be modulated through ex-vivo genetic recombination. We present a novel technique for isolation of murine IVD explants with demonstration of explant viability (CMFDA/propidium iodide staining), disc anatomy (H&E), maintenance of extracellular matrix (ECM) (Alcian Blue staining), and native expression profile (qRT-PCR) as well as ex vivo genetic recombination (mT/mG reporter mice; AdCre) following 14 days of culture in DMEM media containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 1% L-glutamine, and 1% penicillin/streptomycin. IVD explants maintained their micro-anatomic integrity, ECM proteoglycan content, viability, and gene expression profile consistent with a homeostatic drive in culture. Treatment of genetically engineered explants with cre-expressing adenovirus efficaciously induced ex vivo genetic recombination in a variety of genetically engineered mouse models. Exogenous administration of IL-1ß and TGF-ß3 resulted in predicted catabolic and anabolic responses, respectively. Genetic recombination of TGFBR1fl/fl explants resulted in constitutively active TGF-ß signaling that matched that of exogenously administered TGF-ß3. Our results illustrate the utility of the murine intervertebral disc explant to investigate mechanisms of intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:25474689

  17. Metallurgical evaluation of a failed LP turbine disc. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burghard, H.C. Jr.

    1982-12-01

    A metallurgical evaluation of a burst disc from the LP turbine at the Yankee Rowe nuclear generating station was performed. The turbine failure incident involves catastrophic rupture of both No. 1 discs during a start-up. The objectives of the evaluation were to characterize the disc materials and identify the cacking mechanism and other metallurgical factors involved in the failure. Metallographic and fractographic examinations of one segment of the No. generator-end disc were performed. The mechanical properties and composition of the disc segment were also determined. The investigation established that the radial fracture in the disc segment initiated at a service-induced crack and was of a generally brittle character. Also, numerous subcritical cracks were observed in the bore surface.

  18. Accretion disc viscosity: a limit on the anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Chris

    2015-07-01

    Observations of warped discs can give insight into the nature of angular momentum transport in accretion discs. Only a few objects are known to show strong periodicity on long time-scales, but when such periodicity is present it is often attributed to precession of the accretion disc. The X-ray binary Hercules X-1/HZ Herculis (Her X-1) is one of the best examples of such periodicity and has been linked to disc precession since it was first observed. By using the current best-fitting models to Her X-1, which invoke precession driven by radiation warping, I place a constraint on the effective viscosities that act in a warped disc. These effective viscosities almost certainly arise due to turbulence induced by the magnetorotational instability. The constraints derived here are in agreement with analytical and numerical investigations into the nature of magnetohydrodynamic disc turbulence, but at odds with some recent global simulations.

  19. Chemical derivatization of compact disc polycarbonate surfaces for SNPs detection.

    PubMed

    Bañuls, María-José; García-Piñón, Francisco; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Angel

    2008-03-01

    Compact discs have been proposed as an efficient analytical platform, with potential to develop high-throughput affinity assays for genomics, proteomics, clinics, and health monitoring. Chemical derivatization of CD surfaces is one of the keys to developing highly efficient microarraying-based assays on discs. Approaches for mild chemical modification of polycarbonate (PC) disc surface based on nitration, reduction, and chloromethylation reactions have been developed. Derivatized surfaces as amino and thiol are obtained for PC, maintaining unchanged the mechanical and optical properties of the discs. Studies of covalent attachment of oligonucleotide probes (5' Cy5-labeled, 3' NH 2-ended) on the modified surfaces have been performed to develop microarraying assays based on hybridization of cDNA strands and single nucleotide polymorphism discrimination (SNPs). A demonstration of the applicability to the compact disc audio/video technology for its use as analytical system is performed, including the employment of a commercial CD player to read the results on disc. PMID:18254580

  20. The Application of Fiber-Reinforced Materials in Disc Repair

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Bao-Qing; Li, Hui; Zhu, Gang; Li, De-Yu; Fan, Yu-Bo; Wu, Shu-Qin

    2013-01-01

    The intervertebral disc degeneration and injury are the most common spinal diseases with tremendous financial and social implications. Regenerative therapies for disc repair are promising treatments. Fiber-reinforced materials (FRMs) are a kind of composites by embedding the fibers into the matrix materials. FRMs can maintain the original properties of the matrix and enhance the mechanical properties. By now, there are still some problems for disc repair such as the unsatisfied static strength and dynamic properties for disc implants. The application of FRMs may resolve these problems to some extent. In this review, six parts such as background of FRMs in tissue repair, the comparison of mechanical properties between natural disc and some typical FRMs, the repair standard and FRMs applications in disc repair, and the possible research directions for FRMs' in the future are stated. PMID:24383057

  1. Directional field enhancement of dielectric nano optical disc antenna arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ivan; Du, Y.

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a discussion on the directive field enhancement of dielectric disc antenna arrays in optical band. The property of dielectric material is addressed, and field modes in a cylindrical resonator are discussed. It is identified that the fundamental mode of HE 11δ generates the far field with a higher directivity than other modes. More effective field enhancement in the radiation direction could be achieved by using multiple-disc antenna arrays. Simulation examples indicate that the directivity of a disc antenna array varies with the disc spacing. The maximum directivity is observed when the disc spacing is approximately equal to the half of the vacuum wavelength. The maximum directivity can be improved significantly when the disc number is increased.

  2. Growth of graphene films from non-gaseous carbon sources

    DOEpatents

    Tour, James; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Ruan, Gedeng; Peng, Zhiwei

    2015-08-04

    In various embodiments, the present disclosure provides methods of forming graphene films by: (1) depositing a non-gaseous carbon source onto a catalyst surface; (2) exposing the non-gaseous carbon source to at least one gas with a flow rate; and (3) initiating the conversion of the non-gaseous carbon source to the graphene film, where the thickness of the graphene film is controllable by the gas flow rate. Additional embodiments of the present disclosure pertain to graphene films made in accordance with the methods of the present disclosure.

  3. Detection of Gaseous Plumes using Basis Vectors.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Lawrence; Walsh, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal imaging data is complicated by many factors. There are several methods currently being used to detect plumes. They can be grouped into two categories: those that use a chemical spectral library and those that don't. The approaches that use chemical libraries include physics-based least squares methods (matched filter). They are "optimal" only if the plume chemical is actually in the search library but risk missing chemicals not in the library. The methods that don't use a chemical spectral library are based on a statistical or data analytical transformation applied to the data. These include principle components, independent components, entropy, Fourier transform, and others. These methods do not explicitly take advantage of the physics of the signal formulation process and therefore don't exploit all available information in the data. This paper describes generalized least squares detection using gas spectra, presents a new detection method using basis vectors, and compares detection images resulting from applying both methods to synthetic hyperspectral data. PMID:22412306

  4. Detection of Gaseous Plumes using Basis Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Chilton, Lawrence; Walsh, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal imaging data is complicated by many factors. There are several methods currently being used to detect plumes. They can be grouped into two categories: those that use a chemical spectral library and those that don't. The approaches that use chemical libraries include physics-based least squares methods (matched filter). They are “optimal” only if the plume chemical is actually in the search library but risk missing chemicals not in the library. The methods that don't use a chemical spectral library are based on a statistical or data analytical transformation applied to the data. These include principle components, independent components, entropy, Fourier transform, and others. These methods do not explicitly take advantage of the physics of the signal formulation process and therefore don't exploit all available information in the data. This paper describes generalized least squares detection using gas spectra, presents a new detection method using basis vectors, and compares detection images resulting from applying both methods to synthetic hyperspectral data. PMID:22412306

  5. Detection of Gaseous Plumes using Basis Vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, Lawrence; Walsh, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal imaging data is complicated by many factors. There are several methods currently being used to detect plumes. They can be grouped into two categories: those that use a chemical spectral library and those that don’t. The approaches that use chemical libraries include least squares methods and physics-based approaches. They are "optimal" only if the plume chemical is actually in the search set but risk missing chemicals not in the library. The methods that don’t use a chemical spectral library are based on a statistical or data analytical transformation applied to the data. These include principle components, independent components, entropy, Fourier transform, and others. These methods do not explicitly take advantage of the physics of the signal formulation process and therefore don’t exploit all available information in the data. This paper presents initial results of employing basis vectors as a tool for plume detection. It describes the standard generalized least squares approach using gas spectra, presents the detection approach using basis vectors, and compares detection images resulting from applying both methods to synthetic hyperspectral images.

  6. A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinping; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shizhong; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Hongru

    2016-01-01

    A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation was developed to address the disadvantages of the insufficient driving capability of high-pressure gas and the constraints of gunpowder. The performance of this gasdynamic gun was investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. Much more powerful launching capability was achieved by this gun relative to a conventional high-pressure gas gun, owing to the use of the chemical energy of the driver gas. To achieve the same launching condition, the initial pressure required for this gun was an order of magnitude lower than that for a gun driven by high-pressure H2. Because of the presence of the detonation, however, a more complex internal ballistic process of this gun was observed. Acceleration of projectiles for this gun was accompanied by a series of impulse loads, in contrast with the smooth acceleration for a conventional one, which indicates that this gun should be used conditionally. The practical feasibility of this gun was verified by experiments. The experiments demonstrated the convenience of taking advantage of the techniques developed for detonation-driven shock tubes and tunnels.

  7. A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinping; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shizhong; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Hongru

    2016-01-01

    A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation was developed to address the disadvantages of the insufficient driving capability of high-pressure gas and the constraints of gunpowder. The performance of this gasdynamic gun was investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. Much more powerful launching capability was achieved by this gun relative to a conventional high-pressure gas gun, owing to the use of the chemical energy of the driver gas. To achieve the same launching condition, the initial pressure required for this gun was an order of magnitude lower than that for a gun driven by high-pressure H2. Because of the presence of the detonation, however, a more complex internal ballistic process of this gun was observed. Acceleration of projectiles for this gun was accompanied by a series of impulse loads, in contrast with the smooth acceleration for a conventional one, which indicates that this gun should be used conditionally. The practical feasibility of this gun was verified by experiments. The experiments demonstrated the convenience of taking advantage of the techniques developed for detonation-driven shock tubes and tunnels. PMID:26827358

  8. Elements of radiative interactions in gaseous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1991-01-01

    Basic formulations, analyses, and numerical procedures are presented to study radiative interactions in gray as well as nongray gases under different physical and flow conditions. After preliminary fluid-dynamical considerations, essential governing equations for radiative transport are presented that are applicable under local and nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Auxiliary relations for relaxation times and spectral absorption model are also provided. For specific applications, several simple gaseous systems are analyzed. The first system considered consists of a gas bounded by two parallel plates having the same temperature. For this system, both vibrational nonequilibrium effects and radiation conduction interactions are studied. The second system consists of fully developed laminar flow and heat transfer in a parallel plate duct under the boundary condition of a uniform surface heat flux. For this system, effects of gray surface emittance are studied. With the single exception of a circular geometry, the third system is identical to the second system. Here, the influence of nongray walls is also studied, and a correlation between the parallel plates and circular tube results is presented. The particular gases selected are CO, CO2, H2O, CH4, N2O, NH3, OH, and NO. The temperature and pressure range considered are 300 to 2000 K, and 0.1 to 100 atmosphere, respectively. Illustrative results obtained for different cases are discussed and some specific conclusions are provided.

  9. Action-FRET of a Gaseous Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Steven; Knight, Geoffrey; Halim, Mohamed Abdul; Kulesza, Alexander; Choi, Chang Min; Chirot, Fabien; MacAleese, Luke; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Mass spectrometry is an extremely powerful technique for analysis of biological molecules, in particular proteins. One aspect that has been contentious is how much native solution-phase structure is preserved upon transposition to the gas phase by soft ionization methods such as electrospray ionization. To address this question—and thus further develop mass spectrometry as a tool for structural biology—structure-sensitive techniques must be developed to probe the gas-phase conformations of proteins. Here, we report Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements on a ubiquitin mutant using specific photofragmentation as a reporter of the FRET efficiency. The FRET data is interpreted in the context of circular dichroism, molecular dynamics simulation, and ion mobility data. Both the dependence of the FRET efficiency on the charge state—where a systematic decrease is observed—and on methanol concentration are considered. In the latter case, a decrease in FRET efficiency with methanol concentration is taken as evidence that the conformational ensemble of gaseous protein cations retains a memory of the solution phase conformational ensemble upon electrospray ionization.

  10. Measuring scattering lengths of gaseous samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, M. G.; Black, T. C.; Haun, R.; Pushin, D. A.; Shahi, C. B.; Weitfeldt, F. E.

    2016-03-01

    Neutron interferometry represents one of the most precise techniques for measuring the coherent scattering lengths (bc) of particular nuclear isotopes. Currently bc for helium-4 is known only to 1% relative uncertainty; a factor of ten higher than precision measurements of other light isotopes. Scattering lengths are measured using a neutron interferometer and by comparing the phase shift a neutron acquires as it passes through a gaseous sample relative to that of a neutron passing through vacuum. The density of the gas is determined by continuous monitoring of the sample's temperature and pressure. Challenges for these types of experiments include achieving the necessary long-term phase stability and accurate determination of the phase shift caused by the aluminum cell used to hold the gas; a phase shift many times greater than that of the sample. The present status on the effort to measure the n-4He scattering length at the NIST center for Neutron Research will be given. Financial support provided by the NSERC `Create' and `Discovery' programs, CERC, NIST and NSF Grant PHY-1205342.

  11. Gaseous Nitrogen Orifice Mass Flow Calculator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritrivi, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The Gaseous Nitrogen (GN2) Orifice Mass Flow Calculator was used to determine Space Shuttle Orbiter Water Spray Boiler (WSB) GN2 high-pressure tank source depletion rates for various leak scenarios, and the ability of the GN2 consumables to support cooling of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) lubrication during entry. The data was used to support flight rationale concerning loss of an orbiter APU/hydraulic system and mission work-arounds. The GN2 mass flow-rate calculator standardizes a method for rapid assessment of GN2 mass flow through various orifice sizes for various discharge coefficients, delta pressures, and temperatures. The calculator utilizes a 0.9-lb (0.4 kg) GN2 source regulated to 40 psia (.276 kPa). These parameters correspond to the Space Shuttle WSB GN2 Source and Water Tank Bellows, but can be changed in the spreadsheet to accommodate any system parameters. The calculator can be used to analyze a leak source, leak rate, gas consumables depletion time, and puncture diameter that simulates the measured GN2 system pressure drop.

  12. Glaucomatous-Type Optic Discs in High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Natsuko; Jonas, Jost B.; Morohoshi, Kei; Moriyama, Muka; Shimada, Noriaki; Yoshida, Takeshi; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the prevalence of glaucoma in patients with high myopia defined as myopic refractive error of >-8 diopters or axial length ≥26.5 mm. Methods The hospital-based observational study included 172 patients (336 eyes) with a mean age of 61.9±12.3 years and mean axial length of 30.1±2.3 mm (range: 24.7–39.1mm). Glaucomatous-type optic discs were defined by glaucomatous optic disc appearance. Glaucoma was defined by glaucomatous optic disc appearance and glaucomatous Goldmann visual field defects not corresponding with myopic macular changes. Results Larger disc area (mean: 3.18±1.94 mm2) was associated with longer axial length (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient: 0.45). Glaucoma was detected in 94 (28%; 95% Confidence intervals: 23%, 33%) eyes. In multivariate analysis, glaucoma prevalence was 3.2 times higher (P<0.001) in megalodiscs (>3.79 mm2) than in normal-sized discs or small discs (<1.51 mm2) after adjusting for older age. Axial length was not significantly (P = 0.38) associated with glaucoma prevalence in that model. Glaucoma prevalence increased by a factor of 1.39 for each increase in optic disc area by one mm2. Again, axial length was not significantly (P = 0.38) associated with glaucoma prevalence when added to this multivariate model. Conclusion Within highly myopic individuals, glaucoma prevalence increased with larger optic disc size beyond a disc area of 3.8 mm2. Highly myopic megalodiscs as compared to normal sized discs or small discs had a 3.2 times higher risk for glaucomatous optic nerve neuropathy. The increased glaucoma prevalence in axial high myopia was primarily associated with axial myopia associated disc enlargement and not with axial elongation itself. PMID:26425846

  13. New Brown Dwarf Discs in Upper Scorpius Observed with WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, P.; Scholz, A.; Ray, T. P.; Natta, A.; Marsh, K. A.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present a census of the disc population for UKIDSS selected brown dwarfs in the 5-10 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association. For 116 objects originally identified in UKIDSS, the majority of them not studied in previous publications, we obtain photometry from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer data base. The resulting colour magnitude and colour colour plots clearly show two separate populations of objects, interpreted as brown dwarfs with discs (class II) and without discs (class III). We identify 27 class II brown dwarfs, 14 of them not previously known. This disc fraction (27 out of 116, or 23%) among brown dwarfs was found to be similar to results for K/M stars in Upper Scorpius, suggesting that the lifetimes of discs are independent of the mass of the central object for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. 5 out of 27 discs (19 per cent) lack excess at 3.4 and 4.6 microns and are potential transition discs (i.e. are in transition from class II to class III). The transition disc fraction is comparable to low-mass stars.We estimate that the time-scale for a typical transition from class II to class III is less than 0.4 Myr for brown dwarfs. These results suggest that the evolution of brown dwarf discs mirrors the behaviour of discs around low-mass stars, with disc lifetimes of the order of 5 10 Myr and a disc clearing time-scale significantly shorter than 1 Myr.

  14. Drug resistance as influenced by inactivated sensitivity discs.

    PubMed

    Griffith, L J; Mullins, C G

    1968-04-01

    Reports of staphylococci resistant to the semisynthetic penicillins stimulated a study of the factors influencing the stability of the drugs in discs. The behavior of penicillin G, methicillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, and cephalothin discs under different humidity and temperature conditions is described. Humidity was found to be the most significant factor in drug inactivation. Storage of discs in a vacuum desiccator at -20 C provides maximal antibiotic stability. PMID:4869619

  15. Towards detecting methanol emission in low-mass protoplanetary discs with ALMA: the role of non-LTE excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfenov, S. Yu.; Semenov, D. A.; Sobolev, A. M.; Gray, M. D.

    2016-08-01

    The understanding of organic content of protoplanetary discs is one of the main goals of the planet formation studies. As an attempt to guide the observational searches for weak lines of complex species in discs, we modelled the (sub)millimetre spectrum of gaseous methanol (CH3OH), one of the simplest organic molecules, in the representative T Tauri system. We used 1+1D disc physical model coupled to the gas-grain ALCHEMIC chemical model with and without 2D-turbulent mixing. The computed CH3OH abundances along with the CH3OH scheme of energy levels of ground and excited torsional states were used to produce model spectra obtained with the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) 3D line radiative transfer code LIME. We found that the modelled non-LTE intensities of the CH3OH lines can be lower by factor of >10-100 than those calculated under assumption of LTE. Though population inversion occurs in the model calculations for many (sub)millimetre transitions, it does not lead to the strong maser amplification and noticeably high line intensities. We identify the strongest CH3OH (sub)millimetre lines that could be searched for with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in nearby discs. The two best candidates are the CH3OH 50 - 40A+ (241.791 GHz) and 5-1 - 4-1E (241.767 GHz) lines, which could possibly be detected with the ˜5σ signal-to-noise ratio after ˜3 h of integration with the full ALMA array.

  16. Gene expression profile analysis of human intervertebral disc degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Wu, Dajiang; Zhu, Xiaodong; Ni, Haijian; Wei, Xianzhao; Mao, Ningfang; Xie, Yang; Niu, Yunfei; Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate the biogenesis and progression of intervertebral disc degeneration. The gene expression profiles of 37 disc tissue samples obtained from patients with herniated discs and degenerative disc disease collected by the National Cancer Institute Cooperative Tissue Network were analyzed. Differentially expressed genes between more and less degenerated discs were identified by significant analysis of microarray. A total of 555 genes were significantly overexpressed in more degenerated discs with a false discovery rate of < 3%. Functional annotation showed that these genes were significantly associated with membrane-bound vesicles, calcium ion binding and extracellular matrix. Protein-protein interaction analysis showed that these genes, including previously reported genes such as fibronectin, COL2A1 and β-catenin, may play key roles in disc degeneration. Unsupervised clustering indicated that the widely used morphology-based Thompson grading system was only marginally associated with the molecular classification of intervertebral disc degeneration. These findings indicate that detailed, systematic gene analysis may be a useful way of studying the biology of intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:24130454

  17. Spiral shocks in a solar-size accretion disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlaftis, E. T.; Steeghs, D.

    Accretion discs are fundamental in understanding astrophysical phenomena such as AGNs, novae outbursts and star formation. In interacting binaries, a compact star accretes matter from a donor star through an accretion disc. The outburst origin (disc or secondary star) and the mechanism for the angular momentum transport of the disc material (`viscosity') are still controversial subjects. The rarely-observed rise to outburst may hold the key to a better understanding. Imaging of the Balmer and He{I} emission lines of the dwarf nova IP Peg, during such a rise to outburst, shows a two-arm spiral pattern on the accretion disc around the white dwarf and provides the first convincing observational evidence for spiral waves in a stellar accretion disc (Steeghs, Harlaftis, Horne, 1997, Nature, submitted). Recent observations during the recent November 1996 outburst (Harlaftis, Steeghs, Horne, Martin, ApJ, 1997, in preparation) also demonstrate spiral arms in high-ionization lines such as HeII and the Bowen fluorescence lines which suggests that the spiral pattern may provide an efficient mechanism for trasport of angular momentum out of the disc through spiral shocks. We discuss the origin and location of the spiral arms. The tidal interaction of the secondary star with the enlarged (0.6 Rodot) outburst disc can raise such spiral waves in the outer disc. Comparison and implications for theories of spiral galaxies and planet formation is briefly outlined.

  18. A quadrupolar complete model of the hot disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannot, Yves; Acem, Zoubir

    2007-05-01

    The hot disc method is a transient plane source method used for the estimation of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of solid materials. A complete model based on the thermal quadrupoles formalism has been developed to represent the hot disc temperature variation. This model takes into account both the thermal contact resistance between the solid to be characterized and the hot disc and the thermal inertia of the hot disc. It makes it possible to realize the parameters estimation on all the recorded temperature measurements. This model is used to highlight the estimation uncertainty due to approximations in the heat transfer model.

  19. Comparison of tablets and paper discs for antibiotic sensitivity testing.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D F; Kothari, D

    1975-01-01

    The value of tablets and paper discs as reservoirs of antimicrobial agents for use in sensitivity testing was compared. Antibiotics that were unstable in paper discs showed no demonstrable loss of activity in tablets over a period of 50 days under adverse storage conditions. The antibiotic content of commercially prepared tablets is very high in comparison with the accepted content of paper discs used in Britain, but not all of the agent is released from tablets during tests. Comparison of the size of zones of inhibition around tablets and standard paper discs indicated that the amount of the various agents released from the tablets varied between 2-6% and 69% of the stated content. In tests of the sensitivity of a range of common pathogenic organisms, the results obtained with the tablet method--when interpreted as recommended by the manufacturer--were generally similar to those obtained with a paper disc method commonly used in British laboratories. In 47% of tests with aminoglycoside antibiotics, however, strains sensitive by the disc method were 'intermediate' or resistant by the tablet method. As with paper discs, it was necessary to press the tablets on to the medium. With adjustment of the 'effective antibiotic content of tablets to bring it into line with the accepted content in paper discs, the stability of antibiotics in the tablets might make them an acceptable alternative to paper discs. PMID:1206124

  20. Notochord Cells in Intervertebral Disc Development and Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Matthew R.; Séguin, Cheryle A.

    2016-01-01

    The intervertebral disc is a complex structure responsible for flexibility, multi-axial motion, and load transmission throughout the spine. Importantly, degeneration of the intervertebral disc is thought to be an initiating factor for back pain. Due to a lack of understanding of the pathways that govern disc degeneration, there are currently no disease-modifying treatments to delay or prevent degenerative disc disease. This review presents an overview of our current understanding of the developmental processes that regulate intervertebral disc formation, with particular emphasis on the role of the notochord and notochord-derived cells in disc homeostasis and how their loss can result in degeneration. We then describe the role of small animal models in understanding the development of the disc and their use to interrogate disc degeneration and associated pathologies. Finally, we highlight essential development pathways that are associated with disc degeneration and/or implicated in the reparative response of the tissue that might serve as targets for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:27252900

  1. Analysis of rabbit intervertebral disc physiology based on water metabolism. II. Changes in normal intervertebral discs under axial vibratory load

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, N.; Tsuji, H.; Ohshima, H.; Kitano, S.; Itoh, T.; Sano, A.

    1988-11-01

    Metabolic changes induced by axial vibratory load to the spine were investigated based on water metabolism in normal intervertebral discs of rabbits with or without pentobarbital anesthesia. Tritiated water concentration in the intervertebral discs of unanesthetized rabbits was reduced remarkably by axial vibration for 30 minutes using the vibration machine developed for this study. Repeated vibratory load for 18 and 42 hours duration showed the recovery of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration of the intervertebral disc without anesthesia. Computer simulation suggested a reduction of blood flow surrounding the intervertebral disc following the vibration stress. However, no reduction of the /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration in the intervertebral disc was noted under anesthesia. Emotional stress cannot be excluded as a factor in water metabolism in the intervertebral disc.

  2. Testing hydrodynamics schemes in galaxy disc simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Few, C. G.; Dobbs, C.; Pettitt, A.; Konstandin, L.

    2016-08-01

    We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. We compare an adaptive mesh refinement code (RAMSES), a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (sphNG), and a volume-discretised meshless code (GIZMO). Using standard refinement criteria, we find that RAMSES produces a disc that is less vertically concentrated and does not reach such high densities as the sphNG or GIZMO runs. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes. There is also a greater degree of substructure in the sphNG and GIZMO runs and secondary spiral arms are more pronounced. By resolving the Jeans' length with a greater number of grid cells we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. Other alterations to the refinement scheme (adding extra levels of refinement and refining based on local density gradients) are less successful in reducing the disparity between RAMSES and sphNG/GIZMO. Although more similar, sphNG displays different density distributions and vertical mass profiles to all modes of GIZMO (including the smoothed particle hydrodynamics version). This suggests differences also arise which are not intrinsic to the particular method but rather due to its implementation. The discrepancies between codes (in particular, the densities reached in the spiral arms) could potentially result in differences in the locations and timescales for gravitational collapse, and therefore impact star formation activity in more complex galaxy disc simulations.

  3. Favorite Demonstrations: Gaseous Diffusion: A Demonstration of Graham's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.; Ebner, Ronald D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a demonstration in which gaseous ammonia and hydrochloric acid are used to illustrate rates of diffusion (Graham's Law). Simple equipment needed for the demonstration include a long tube, rubber stoppes, and cotton. Two related demonstrations are also explained. (DH)

  4. 91. VIEW OF OXYGEN AND GASEOUS NITROGEN TANKS AND OXIDIZER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. VIEW OF OXYGEN AND GASEOUS NITROGEN TANKS AND OXIDIZER APRON FROM NORTH - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. Trapping behavior of gaseous cesium by fly ash filters.

    PubMed

    Shin, J M; Park, J J; Song, K C; Kim, J H

    2009-01-01

    The high volatility of a gaseous form and its high chemical reactivity make a cesium emission control very difficult work. In this study, fly ash filters were tested for the removal of gaseous cesium from a hot flue gas under air and hydrogen conditions at 700-1000 degrees C. Tests were performed by using a simulated gaseous cesium volatilized from Cs(2)SiO(3) in a two-zone furnace. Fly ash filter was found to be the most promising filter for trapping the gaseous cesium. The results of the trapping tests are presented, along with the effects of the temperature, superficial gas velocity, and carrier gas on the cesium trapping quantity. PMID:19375925

  6. Experimental study of rocket engine model with gaseous polyethylene fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yemets, V. V.

    Experimental results for liquid rocket engine models with gaseous polyethylene fuel that is hard before its consumption are considered. The possibility of hard design element combustion in a liquid rocket engine is demonstrated.

  7. Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  8. Liquid and gaseous oxygen safety review, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapin, A.

    1972-01-01

    Materials used or contained in liquid and gaseous oxygen systems are analyzed for their compatibility; and areas of possible concern in oxygen systems are outlined. Design criteria, cleaning procedures, and quality control methods are covered in detail.

  9. 53. THRUST SECTION HEATER AND GASEOUS NITROGEN PURGE CONTROLS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. THRUST SECTION HEATER AND GASEOUS NITROGEN PURGE CONTROLS ON EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK. LAUNCHER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett; Zielke, Clyde W.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  11. Copy Number Variations in DISC1 and DISC1-Interacting Partners in Major Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Mandy; MacLean, Alan; Heyrman, Lien; Lenaerts, An-Sofie; Nordin, Annelie; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; De Rijk, Peter; Goossens, Dirk; Adolfsson, Rolf; Clair, David M. St.; Hall, Jeremy; Lawrie, Stephen M.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Blackwood, Douglas H.R.; Pickard, Benjamin S.

    2015-01-01

    Robust statistical, genetic and functional evidence supports a role for DISC1 in the aetiology of major mental illness. Furthermore, many of its protein-binding partners show evidence for involvement in the pathophysiology of a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Copy number variants (CNVs) are suspected to play an important causal role in these disorders. In this study, CNV analysis of DISC1 and its binding partners PAFAH1B1, NDE1, NDEL1, FEZ1, MAP1A, CIT and PDE4B in Scottish and Northern Swedish population-based samples was carried out using multiplex amplicon quantification. Here, we report the finding of rare CNVs in DISC1, NDE1 (together with adjacent genes within the 16p13.11 duplication), NDEL1 (including the overlapping MYH10 gene) and CIT. Our findings provide further evidence for involvement of DISC1 and its interaction partners in neuropsychiatric disorders and also for a role of structural variants in the aetiology of these devastating diseases. PMID:27239468

  12. Does condylar height decrease more in temporomandibular joint nonreducing disc displacement than reducing disc displacement?

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ying-Kai; Yang, Chi; Cai, Xie-Yi; Xie, Qian-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to compare condylar height changes of anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDwR) and anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDwoR) in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) quantitatively, to get a better understanding of the changes in condylar height of patients with anterior disc displacement who had received no treatment, and to provide useful information for treatment protocol. This longitudinal retrospective study enrolled 206 joints in 156 patients, which were divided into ADDWR group and ADDwoR group based on magnetic resonance imaging examination. The joints were assessed quantitatively for condylar height at initial and follow-up visits. Also, both groups were further divided into 3 subgroups according to age: <15 years group, 15 to 21 years group, and 22 to 35 years group. Paired t test and independent t test were used to assess intra- and intergroup differences. The average age of the ADDwR group was 19.65 years with a mean of 9.47 months’ follow-up. The follow-up interval of the patients with ADDwoR was 7.96 months, with a mean age of 18.51 years. Condylar height in ADDwoR tended to decrease more than those in ADDwR, especially during the pubertal growth spurt and with the presence of osteoarthrosis, meaning ADDwoR could cause a severe disturbance in mandibular development. Thus, an early disc repositioning was suggested to avoid decrease in condylar height. PMID:27583909

  13. Gaseous iodine monitoring in Europe after the Fukushima accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Olivier; de Vismes-Ott, Anne; Manificat, Guillaume; Gurriaran, Rodolfo; Debayle, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    After the Fukushima accident and following the worldwide dispersion of contaminated air masses, many monitoring networks have reported airborne levels of emitted radionuclides, namely and mainly cesium isotopes and iodine 131. Most of the values focused on the particulate fraction (i.e. radionuclide-labeled aerosols) and were dedicated to cesium 137, cesium 134 and iodine 131. Iodine-131 was also found under gaseous form that accounted for most part of the total (gaseous + particulate)I-131 throughout the world. This gaseous predominance was also noticed after the Chernobyl accident despite differences in the type of accident. This predominance is due to the high iodine volatility and also by a rather low transfer from the gaseous form to the particulate one by adsorption on ambient airborne particles. Paradoxically, the number of gaseous determinations was rather low compared to the magnitude of data related to the particulate form (around 10 percent). Routine monitoring of airborne radionuclides species have been extensively based on aerosol sampling for decades as this allows the long term characterization of trace levels of remnant anthropogenic radionuclides. Moreover the capability of gaseous sampler equipped with activated charcoal to allow the quantification of 131I gaseous at trace level is limited by the contact time required for the sorption of iodine on the sorbent and thus by the low acceptable flow rate (usually between 3 and 5 m3/h, exceptionally 12 m3/h). In this context and despite the fact that airborne level outside Japan were of no concern for public health, this contribute to the lack of information on the actual levels of gaseous iodine. Other incidents involving iodine determination in the air have been reported in Europe in 2011 and 2012 without any relation with the Fukushima accident. For the same reason as previously mentioned, mainly, if not only, the particulate form was reported whereas it can be supposed that the predominant form was

  14. AIRS Mission Support from GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Jennifer; Hearty, Thomas; Savtchenko, Audrey; Ding, Feng; Esfandiari, Ed; Theobald, Mike; Vollmer, Bruce; Kempler, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This talk will describe the support and distribution of AIRS (Atmospheric Infra Red Sounding) data products that are archived and distributed from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. Along with data stewardship, an important mission of GES DISC is to enhance the usability of data and broaden the user base. We will provide a brief summary of the current online archive and distribution metrics for the AIRS v5 and v6 products. We will also describe collaborative data sets and services (e.g., visualization and potential science applications) and solicit feedback for potential future services.

  15. An Analysis of Burst Disc Pressure Instability

    SciTech Connect

    S. L. Robinson; B. C. Odegard, Jr.; N. r. Moody; S. H. Goods

    2000-06-01

    During the development stage of the 1X Acorn burst disc, burst pressure test results exhibited an unexpected increase of 8 to 14% over times of 90--100 days from initial fabrication. This increase is a concern where design constraints require stability. The disc material, 316L stainless steel sheet, is formed to a dome-like geometry and scored to produce a thin-walled, high-strength ligament. The fracture events controlling burst occur in that ligament. Thus it has been characterized both for tensile properties and microstructure through nanoindentation, magnetic measurements, optical and transmission electron microscopy. These results compare favorably with finite element simulation of the properties of the ligament. The ligament exhibits a highly heterogeneous microstructure; its small volume and microstructural heterogeneity make it difficult to identify which microstructural feature controls fracture and hence burst pressure. Bulk mechanical test specimens were fabricated to emulate mid-ligament properties, and aged at both room and elevated temperatures to characterize and accelerate the temporal behavior of the burst disc. Property changes included yield and ultimate tensile strength increases, and fracture strain decreases with aging. Specimens were subjected to a reversion anneal identical to that given the burst disc to eliminate the martensite phase formed during rolling. Reversion-annealed samples exhibited no change in properties in room temperature or accelerated aging, showing that the reversion-anneal eliminated the aging phenomenon. Aging was analyzed in terms of diffusion controlled precipitate growth kinetics, showing that carbon migration to dislocations is consistent with the strength increases. A vacancy-assisted diffusion mechanism for carbon transport is proposed, giving rise to rapid aging, which replaces interstitial carbon diffusion until excess vacancies from deformation are consumed. Mechanical activation parameters in stress relaxation

  16. MR imaging of degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A; Farshad, Mazda; Winklehner, Anna; Andreisek, Gustav

    2015-09-01

    Magnet resonance imaging (MRI) is the most commonly used imaging modality for diagnosis of degenerative disc disease (DDD). Lack of precise observations and documentation of aspects within the complex entity of DDD might partially be the cause of poor correlation of radiographic findings to clinical symptoms. This literature review summarizes the current knowledge on MRI in DDD and outlines the diagnostic limitations. The review further sensitizes the reader toward awareness of potentially untended aspects of DDD and the interaction of DDD and endplate changes. A summary of the available classifications for DDD is provided. PMID:26094867

  17. ISASS Policy Statement – Cervical Artificial Disc

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Morgan Lorio, MD, FACS, Chair, ISASS Task Force on Coding & Reimbursement The ISASS Task Force reached out to Domagoj Coric, MD to provide a timely summation on cervical disc arthroplasty given his special interest and recent IASP championship of this innovative technology to insure enhanced spine patient access. The ISASS Task Force is pleased with this step towards published ISASS societal policy and applauds Dr. Coric's effort; if ISASS is to continue to succeed we must continually harness the voluntary talents and energies of our members with gratitude. PMID:25694944

  18. Radiological considerations: percutaneous laser disc decompression.

    PubMed

    Botsford, J A

    1993-10-01

    Diagnostic radiology is an integral part of percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD). All physicians involved in PLDD patient selection and treatment must be familiar with the imaging techniques unique to this procedure to ensure a successful outcome. The following review is based on the cumulative experience gained in performing over 150 PLDD procedures. It discusses the function of diagnostic radiology in all facets of PLDD including patient selection, intraoperative imaging, postoperative evaluation, and analysis of complications. Fundamental radiologic concepts that apply to PLDD are explained and protocols suggested to optimize results and avoid complications. PMID:10146513

  19. ISASS Policy Statement – Lumbar Artificial Disc

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The primary goal of this Policy Statement is to educate patients, physicians, medical providers, reviewers, adjustors, case managers, insurers, and all others involved or affected by insurance coverage decisions regarding lumbar disc replacement surgery. Procedures This Policy Statement was developed by a panel of physicians selected by the Board of Directors of ISASS for their expertise and experience with lumbar TDR. The panel's recommendation was entirely based on the best evidence-based scientific research available regarding the safety and effectiveness of lumbar TDR. PMID:25785243

  20. Feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of gaseous diffusion equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.

    1993-02-01

    The five buildings at the K-25 Site formerly involved in the gaseous diffusion process contain 5000 gaseous diffusion stages as well as support facilities that are internally contaminated with uranium deposits. The gaseous diffusion facilities located at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant also contain similar equipment and will eventually close. The decontamination of these facilities will require the most cost-effective technology consistent with the criticality, health physics, industrial hygiene, and environmental concerns; the technology must keep exposures to hazardous substances to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This report documents recent laboratory experiments that were conducted to determine the feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of the internal surfaces of the gaseous diffusion equipment that is contaminated with uranium deposits. A gaseous fluorinating agent is used to fluorinate the solid uranium deposits to gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The lab results regarding the feasibility of the gas-phase process are encouraging. These results especially showed promise for a novel decontamination approach called the long-term, low-temperature (LTLT) process. In the LTLT process: The equipment is rendered leak tight, evacuated, leak tested, and pretreated, charged with chlorine trifluoride (ClF{sub 3}) to subatmospheric pressure, left for an extended period, possibly > 4 months, while processing other items. Then the UF{sub 6} and other gases are evacuated. The UF{sub 6} is recovered by chemical trapping. The lab results demonstrated that ClF{sub 3} gas at subatmospheric pressure and at {approx} 75{degree}F is capable of volatilizing heavy deposits of uranyl fluoride from copper metal surfaces sufficiently that the remaining radioactive emissions are below limits.