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Sample records for self-healing polymer composite

  1. Self-healing polymers and composites based on thermal activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Bolanos, Ed; Wudl, Fred; Hahn, Thomas; Kwok, Nathan

    2007-04-01

    Structural polymer composites are susceptible to premature failure in the form of microcracks in the matrix. Although benign initially when they form, these matrix cracks tend to coalesce and lead in service to critical damage modes such as ply delamination. The matrix cracks are difficult to detect and almost impossible to repair because they form inside the composite laminate. Therefore, polymers with self-healing capability would provide a promising potential to minimize maintenance costs while extending the service lifetime of composite structures. In this paper we report on a group of polymers and their composites which exhibit mendable property upon heating. The failure and healing mechanisms of the polymers involve Diels-Alder (DA) and retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) reactions on the polymer back-bone chain, which are thermally reversible reactions requiring no catalyst. The polymers exhibited good healing property in bulk form. Composite panels were prepared by sandwiching the monomers between carbon fiber fabric layers and cured in autoclave. Microcracks were induced on the resin-rich surface of composite with Instron machine at room temperature by holding at 1% strain for 1 min. The healing ability of the composite was also demonstrated by the disappearance of microcracks after heating. In addition to the self-healing ability, the polymers and composites also exhibited shape memory property. These unique properties may provide the material multi-functional applications. Resistance heating of traditional composites and its applicability in self-healing composites is also studied to lay groundwork for a fully integrated self-healing composite.

  2. Self-healing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A three dimensional structure fabricated from a self-healing polymeric material, comprising poly(ester amides) obtained from ethylene glycol, azelaic acid and 1,1-aminoundecanoic acid, wherein polymeric material has a melt index above 2.5 g/10 min. as determined by ASTM D1238 at 190.degree. C. and 2.16kg, impact resistance and ductility sufficient to resist cracking and brittle fracture upon impact by a 9 mm bullet fired at a temperature of about 29.degree. C. at subsonic speed in a range from about 800 feet/sec to about 1000 feet/sec. It has been determined that the important factors necessary for self-healing behavior of polymers include sufficient impact strength, control of the degree of crystallinity, low melting point and the ability to instantly melt at impacted area.

  3. Self Healing Fibre-reinforced Polymer Composites: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Ian P.; Trask, Richard S.; Williams, Hugo R.; Williams, Gareth J.

    Lightweight, high-strength, high-stiffness fibre-reinforced polymer composite materials are leading contenders as component materials to improve the efficiency and sustainability of many forms of transport. For example, their widespread use is critical to the success of advanced engineering applications, such as the Boeing 787 and Airbus A380. Such materials typically comprise complex architectures of fine fibrous reinforcement e.g. carbon or glass, dispersed within a bulk polymer matrix, e.g. epoxy. This can provide exceptionally strong, stiff, and lightweight materials which are inherently anisotropic, as the fibres are usually arranged at a multitude of predetermined angles within discrete stacked 2D layers. The direction orthogonal to the 2D layers is usually without reinforcement to avoid compromising in-plane performance, which results in a vulnerability to damage in the polymer matrix caused by out-of-plane loading, i.e. impact. Their inability to plastically deform leaves only energy absorption via damage creation. This damage often manifests itself internally within the material as intra-ply matrix cracks and inter-ply delaminations, and can thus be difficult to detect visually. Since relatively minor damage can lead to a significant reduction in strength, stiffness and stability, there has been some reticence by designers for their use in safety critical applications, and the adoption of a `no growth' approach (i.e. damage propagation from a defect constitutes failure) is now the mindset of the composites industry. This has led to excessively heavy components, shackling of innovative design, and a need for frequent inspection during service (Richardson 1996; Abrate 1998).

  4. Repeated self-healing of microvascular carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coope, T. S.; Wass, D. F.; Trask, R. S.; Bond, I. P.

    2014-11-01

    A self-healing, high performance, carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite is demonstrated by embedding a Lewis-acid catalytic curing agent within a laminate, manufactured using out of autoclave (OOA) composite manufacturing methods. Two configurations of healing agent delivery, pre-mixed and autonomous mixing, are investigated via injection of a healing agent through bio-inspired microvascular channels exposed on Mode I fractured crack planes. Healing is effected when an epoxy resin-solvent healing agent mixture reaches the boundary of embedded solid-state scandium(III) triflate (Sc(OTf)3) catalyst, located on the crack plane, to initiate the ring-opening polymerisation (ROP) of epoxides. Tailored self-healing agents confer high healing efficiency values after multiple healing cycles (69-108%) to successfully mitigate against crack propagation within the composite microstructure.

  5. An Assessment of Self-Healing Fiber Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Several reviews and books have been written concerning self-healing polymers over the last few years. These have focused primarily on the types of self-healing materials being studied, with minor emphasis given to composite properties. The purpose of this review is to assess the self-healing ability of these materials when utilized in fiber reinforced composites

  6. Self-Healing Polymer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournilhac, Francois

    2012-02-01

    Supramolecular chemistry teaches us to control non-covalent interactions between organic molecules, particularly through the use of optimized building blocks able to establish several hydrogen bonds in parallel. This discipline has emerged as a powerful tool in the design of new materials through the concept of supramolecular polymers. One of the fascinating aspects of such materials is the possibility of controlling the structure, adding functionalities, adjusting the macroscopic properties of and taking profit of the non-trivial dynamics associated to the reversibility of H-bond links. Applications of these compounds may include adhesives, coatings, rheology additives, high performance materials, etc. However, the synthesis of such polymers at the industrial scale still remains a challenge. Our first ambition is to design supramolecular polymers with original properties, the second ambition is to devise simple and environmentally friendly methods for their industrial production. In our endeavours to create novel supramolecular networks with rubbery elasticity, self-healing ability and as little as possible creep, the strategy to prolongate the relaxation time and in the same time, keep the system flexible was to synthesize rather than a single molecule, an assembly of randomly branched H-bonding oligomers. We propose a strategy to obtain through a facile one-pot synthesis a large variety of supramolecular materials that can behave as differently as associating low-viscosity liquids, semi-crystalline or amorphous thermoplastics, viscoelastic melts or self-healing rubbers.

  7. Self-Healing Nanofiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites. 1. Tensile Testing and Recovery of Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Wook; An, Seongpil; Jo, Hong Seok; Yoon, Sam S; Yarin, Alexander L

    2015-09-01

    The present work aims at development of self-healing materials capable of partially restoring their mechanical properties under the conditions of prolonged periodic loading and unloading, which is characteristic, for example, of aerospace applications. Composite materials used in these and many other applications frequently reveal multiple defects stemming from their original inhomogeneity, which facilitates microcracking and delamination at ply interfaces. Self-healing nanofiber mats may effectively prevent such damage without compromising material integrity. Two types of core-shell nanofibers were simultaneously electrospun onto the same substrate in order to form a mutually entangled mat. The first type of core-shell fibers consisted of resin monomer (dimethylsiloxane) within the core and polyacrylonitrile within the shell. The second type of core-shell nanofibers consisted of cure (dimethyl-methyl hydrogen-siloxane) within the core and polyacrylonitrile within the shell. These mutually entangled nanofiber mats were used for tensile testing, and they were also encased in polydimethylsiloxane to form composites that were also subsequently subjected to tensile testing. During tensile tests, the nanofibers can be damaged in stretching up to the plastic regime of deformation. Then, the resin monomer and cure was released from the cores and the polydimethylsiloxane resin was polymerized, which might be expected to result in the self-healing properties of these materials. To reveal and evaluate the self-healing properties of the polyacrylonitrile-resin-cure nanofiber mats and their composites, the results were compared to the tensile test results of the monolithic polyacrylonitrile nanofiber mats or composites formed by encasing polyacrylonitrile nanofibers in a polydimethylsiloxane matrix. The latter do not possess self-healing properties, and indeed, do not recover their mechanical characteristics, in contrast to the polyacrylonitrile-resin-cure nanofiber mats and

  8. Polydimethylsiloxane-based self-healing composite and coating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Soo Hyoun

    This thesis describes the science and technology of a new class of autonomic polymeric materials which mimic some of the functionalities of biological materials. Specifically, we demonstrate an autonomic self-healing polymer system which can heal damage in both coatings and bulk materials. The new self-healing system we developed greatly extends the capability of self-healing polymers by introducing tin catalyzed polycondensation of hydroxyl end-functionalited polydimethylsiloxane and polydiethoxysiloxane based chemistries. The components in this system are widely available and comparatively low in cost, and the healing chemistry also remains stable in humid or wet environments. These achievements significantly increase the probability that self-healing could be extended not only to polymer composites but also to coatings and thin films in harsh environments. We demonstrate the bulk self-healing property of a polymer composite composed of a phase-separated PDMS healing agent and a microencapsulated organotin catalyst by chemical and mechanical testing. Another significant research focus is on self-healing polymer coatings which prevent corrosion of a metal substrate after deep scratch damage. The anti-corrosion properties of the self-healing polymer on metal substrates are investigated by corrosion resistance and electrochemical tests. Even after scratch damage into the substrate, the coating is able to heal, while control samples which do not include all the necessary healing components reveal rapid corrosion propagation. This self-healing coating solution can be easily applied to most substrate materials, and is compatible with most common polymer matrices. Self-healing has the potential to extend the lifetime and increase the reliability of thermosetting polymers used in a wide variety of applications ranging from microelectronics to aerospace.

  9. Chemistry of crosslinking processes for self-healing polymers.

    PubMed

    Billiet, Stijn; Hillewaere, Xander K D; Teixeira, Roberto F A; Du Prez, Filip E

    2013-02-25

    Recent developments in material design have seen an exponential increase of polymers and polymer composites that can repair themselves in response to damage. In this review, a distinction is made between extrinsic materials, where the self-healing property is obtained by adding healing agents to the material to be repaired, and intrinsic materials, where self-healing is achieved by the material itself through its chemical nature. An overview of the crosslinking chemistries used in self-healing materials will be given, discussing the advantages and drawbacks of each system. The review is not only aiming to enable researchers to compare their ongoing research with the state-of-the-art but also to serve as a guide for the newcomers, which allows for a selection of the most promising self-healing chemistries. PMID:23255325

  10. Self-Healing Composite of Thermoset Polymer and Programmed Super Contraction Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Guoqiang (Inventor); Meng, Harper (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A composition comprising thermoset polymer, shape memory polymer to facilitate macro scale damage closure, and a thermoplastic polymer for molecular scale healing is disclosed; the composition has the ability to resolve structural defects by a bio-mimetic close-then heal process. In use, the shape memory polymer serves to bring surfaces of a structural defect into approximation, whereafter use of the thermoplastic polymer for molecular scale healing allowed for movement of the thermoplastic polymer into the defect and thus obtain molecular scale healing. The thermoplastic can be fibers, particles or spheres which are used by heating to a level at or above the thermoplastic's melting point, then cooling of the composition below the melting temperature of the thermoplastic. Compositions of the invention have the ability to not only close macroscopic defects, but also to do so repeatedly even if another wound/damage occurs in a previously healed/repaired area.

  11. Developing Flexible, High Performance Polymers with Self-Healing Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolley, Scott T.; Williams, Martha K.; Gibson, Tracy L.; Caraccio, Anne J.

    2011-01-01

    Flexible, high performance polymers such as polyimides are often employed in aerospace applications. They typically find uses in areas where improved physical characteristics such as fire resistance, long term thermal stability, and solvent resistance are required. It is anticipated that such polymers could find uses in future long duration exploration missions as well. Their use would be even more advantageous if self-healing capability or mechanisms could be incorporated into these polymers. Such innovative approaches are currently being studied at the NASA Kennedy Space Center for use in high performance wiring systems or inflatable and habitation structures. Self-healing or self-sealing capability would significantly reduce maintenance requirements, and increase the safety and reliability performance of the systems into which these polymers would be incorporated. Many unique challenges need to be overcome in order to incorporate a self-healing mechanism into flexible, high performance polymers. Significant research into the incorporation of a self-healing mechanism into structural composites has been carried out over the past decade by a number of groups, notable among them being the University of I1linois [I]. Various mechanisms for the introduction of self-healing have been investigated. Examples of these are: 1) Microcapsule-based healant delivery. 2) Vascular network delivery. 3) Damage induced triggering of latent substrate properties. Successful self-healing has been demonstrated in structural epoxy systems with almost complete reestablishment of composite strength being achieved through the use of microcapsulation technology. However, the incorporation of a self-healing mechanism into a system in which the material is flexible, or a thin film, is much more challenging. In the case of using microencapsulation, healant core content must be small enough to reside in films less than 0.1 millimeters thick, and must overcome significant capillary and surface

  12. Self-healing graphene-based composites with sensing capabilities.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Eleonora; Barg, Suelen; Ni, Na; Rocha, Victoria G; Saiz, Eduardo

    2015-08-26

    A self-healing composite is fabricated by confining a supramolecular polymer in a graphene network. The network provides electrical conductivity. Upon damage, the polymer is released and flows to reform the material. Healing is repeatable and autonomous. The composite is sensitive to pressure and flexion and recovers its mechanical and electrical properties even when rejoining cut surfaces after long exposure times. PMID:26178801

  13. Self Healing Composite for Aircraft's Structural Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoh, S. H.; Chia, H. Y.; Lee, M. S.; Nasyitah, A. J. N.; Luqman, H. B. S. M.; Nurhidayah, S.; Tan, Willy. C. K.

    When one cuts himself, it is amazing to watch how quickly the body acts to mend the wound. Immediately, the body works to pull the skin around the cut back together. The concept of repair by bleeding of enclosed functional agents serves as the biomimetic inspiration of synthetic self repair systems. Such synthetic self repair systems are based on advancement in polymeric materials; the process of human thrombosis is the inspiration for the application of self healing fibres within the composite materials. Results based on flexural 3 point bend test on the prepared samples have shown that the doubled layer healed hollow fibre laminate subjected to a healing regime of 3 weeks has a healed strength increase of 27% compared to the damaged baseline laminate. These results gave us confidence that there is a great potential to adopt such self healing mechanism on actual composite parts like in aircraft's composite structures.

  14. Puncture Self-Healing Polymers for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Keith L.; Penner, Ronald K.; Bogert, Phil B.; Yost, W. T.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2011-01-01

    Space exploration launch costs on the order of $10K per pound provide ample incentive to seek innovative, cost-effective ways to reduce structural mass without sacrificing safety and reliability. Damage-tolerant structural systems can provide a route to avoiding weight penalty while enhancing vehicle safety and reliability. Self-healing polymers capable of spontaneous puncture repair show great promise to mitigate potentially catastrophic damage from events such as micrometeoroid penetration. Effective self-repair requires these materials to heal instantaneously following projectile penetration while retaining structural integrity. Poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (EMMA), also known as Surlyn is an ionomer-based copolymer that undergoes puncture reversal (self-healing) following high impact puncture at high velocities. However EMMA is not a structural engineering polymer, and will not meet the demands of aerospace applications requiring self-healing engineering materials. Current efforts to identify candidate self-healing polymer materials for structural engineering systems are reported. Rheology, high speed thermography, and high speed video for self-healing semi-crystalline and amorphous polymers will be reported.

  15. Impression Testing of Self-Healing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Huber, Amy

    2005-01-01

    As part of the BIOSANT program (biologically-inspired smart nanotechnology), scientists at NASA-Langley have identified a "self-healing" plastic that spontaneously closes the hole left by the passage of a bullet. To understand and generalize the phenomenon in question, the mechanical properties responsible for this ability are being explored. Low-rate impression testing was chosen to characterize post-yield material properties, and it turned out that materials that heal following ballistic puncture also show up to 80% healing of the low-rate impression. Preliminary results on the effects of temperature and rate of puncture are presented.

  16. Assessment of Composite Delamination Self-Healing Under Cyclic Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the promise of self-healing materials for enhanced autonomous durability has been introduced using a micro-encapsulation technique where a polymer based healing agent is encapsulated in thin walled spheres and embedded into a base polymer along with a catalyst phase. For this study, composite skin-stiffener flange debonding specimens were manufactured from composite prepreg containing interleaf layers with a polymer based healing agent encapsulated in thin-walled spheres. Constant amplitude fatigue tests in three-point bending showed the effect of self-healing on the fatigue response of the skin-stiffener flange coupons. After the cycling that created debonding, fatigue tests were held at the mean load for 24 hours. For roughly half the specimens tested, when the cyclic loading was resumed a decrease in compliance (increase in stiffness) was observed, indicating that some healing had occurred. However, with continued cycling, the specimen compliance eventually increased to the original level before the hold, indicating that the damage had returned to its original state. As was noted in a prevoius study conducted with specimens tested under monotonically increasing loads to failure, healing achieved via the micro-encapsulation technique may be limited to the volume of healing agent available relative to the crack volume.

  17. Self-healing nanocomposite using shape memory polymer and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingtao; Rajadas, Abhishek; Chattopadhyay, Aditi

    2013-04-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced composites are used in a wide range of applications in aerospace, mechanical, and civil structures. Due to the nature of material, most damage in composites, such as delaminations, are always barely visible to the naked eye, which makes it difficult to detect and repair. The investigation of biological systems has inspired the development and characterization of self-healing composites. This paper presents the development of a new type of self-healing material in order to impede damage progression and conduct in-situ damage repair in composite structures. Carbon nanotubes, which are highly conductive materials, are mixed with shape memory polymer to develop self-healing capability. The developed polymeric material is applied to carbon fiber reinforced composites to automatically heal the delamination between different layers. The carbon fiber reinforced composite laminates are manufactured using high pressure molding techniques. Tensile loading is applied to double cantilever beam specimens using an MTS hydraulic test frame. A direct current power source is used to generate heat within the damaged area. The application of thermal energy leads to re-crosslinking in shape memory polymers. Experimental results showed that the developed composite materials are capable of healing the matrix cracks and delaminations in the bonded areas of the test specimens. The developed self-healing material has the potential to be used as a novel structural material in mechanical, civil, aerospace applications.

  18. A polymer scaffold for self-healing perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yicheng; Wei, Jing; Li, Heng; Yan, Yin; Zhou, Wenke; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Advancing of the lead halide perovskite solar cells towards photovoltaic market demands large-scale devices of high-power conversion efficiency, high reproducibility and stability via low-cost fabrication technology, and in particular resistance to humid environment for long-time operation. Here we achieve uniform perovskite film based on a novel polymer-scaffold architecture via a mild-temperature process. These solar cells exhibit efficiency of up to ∼16% with small variation. The unencapsulated devices retain high output for up to 300 h in highly humid environment (70% relative humidity). Moreover, they show strong humidity resistant and self-healing behaviour, recovering rapidly after removing from water vapour. Not only the film can self-heal in this case, but the corresponding devices can present power conversion efficiency recovery after the water vapour is removed. Our work demonstrates the value of cheap, long chain and hygroscopic polymer scaffold in perovskite solar cells towards commercialization. PMID:26732479

  19. A polymer scaffold for self-healing perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yicheng; Wei, Jing; Li, Heng; Yan, Yin; Zhou, Wenke; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Advancing of the lead halide perovskite solar cells towards photovoltaic market demands large-scale devices of high-power conversion efficiency, high reproducibility and stability via low-cost fabrication technology, and in particular resistance to humid environment for long-time operation. Here we achieve uniform perovskite film based on a novel polymer-scaffold architecture via a mild-temperature process. These solar cells exhibit efficiency of up to ~16% with small variation. The unencapsulated devices retain high output for up to 300 h in highly humid environment (70% relative humidity). Moreover, they show strong humidity resistant and self-healing behaviour, recovering rapidly after removing from water vapour. Not only the film can self-heal in this case, but the corresponding devices can present power conversion efficiency recovery after the water vapour is removed. Our work demonstrates the value of cheap, long chain and hygroscopic polymer scaffold in perovskite solar cells towards commercialization.

  20. A polymer scaffold for self-healing perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yicheng; Wei, Jing; Li, Heng; Yan, Yin; Zhou, Wenke; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Advancing of the lead halide perovskite solar cells towards photovoltaic market demands large-scale devices of high-power conversion efficiency, high reproducibility and stability via low-cost fabrication technology, and in particular resistance to humid environment for long-time operation. Here we achieve uniform perovskite film based on a novel polymer-scaffold architecture via a mild-temperature process. These solar cells exhibit efficiency of up to ∼ 16% with small variation. The unencapsulated devices retain high output for up to 300 h in highly humid environment (70% relative humidity). Moreover, they show strong humidity resistant and self-healing behaviour, recovering rapidly after removing from water vapour. Not only the film can self-heal in this case, but the corresponding devices can present power conversion efficiency recovery after the water vapour is removed. Our work demonstrates the value of cheap, long chain and hygroscopic polymer scaffold in perovskite solar cells towards commercialization. PMID:26732479

  1. Self-Healing of Unentangled Polymer Networks with Reversible Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Stukalin, Evgeny B.; Cai, Li-Heng; Kumar, N. Arun; Leibler, Ludwik; Rubinstein, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Self-healing polymeric materials are systems that after damage can revert to their original state with full or partial recovery of mechanical strength. Using scaling theory we study a simple model of autonomic self-healing of unentangled polymer networks. In this model one of the two end monomers of each polymer chain is fixed in space mimicking dangling chains attachment to a polymer network, while the sticky monomer at the other end of each chain can form pairwise reversible bond with the sticky end of another chain. We study the reaction kinetics of reversible bonds in this simple model and analyze the different stages in the self-repair process. The formation of bridges and the recovery of the material strength across the fractured interface during the healing period occur appreciably faster after shorter waiting time, during which the fractured surfaces are kept apart. We observe the slowest formation of bridges for self-adhesion after bringing into contact two bare surfaces with equilibrium (very low) density of open stickers in comparison with self-healing. The primary role of anomalous diffusion in material self-repair for short waiting times is established, while at long waiting times the recovery of bonds across fractured interface is due to hopping diffusion of stickers between different bonded partners. Acceleration in bridge formation for self-healing compared to self-adhesion is due to excess non-equilibrium concentration of open stickers. Full recovery of reversible bonds across fractured interface (formation of bridges) occurs after appreciably longer time than the equilibration time of the concentration of reversible bonds in the bulk. PMID:24347684

  2. Self-Healing of Polymer Networks with Reversible Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Self-healing polymeric materials are systems that after damage can revert to their original state with full or partial recovery of mechanical strength. Using scaling theory we study a simple model of autonomic self-healing of polymer networks. In this model one of the two end monomers of each polymer chain is fixed in space mimicking dangling chains attachment to a polymer network, while the sticky monomer at the other end of each chain can form pairwise reversible bond with the sticky end of another chain. We study the reaction kinetics of reversible bonds in this simple model and analyze the different stages in the self-repair process. The formation of bridges and the recovery of the material strength across the fractured interface during the healing period occur appreciably faster after shorter waiting time, during which the fractured surfaces are kept apart. We observe the slowest formation of bridges for self-adhesion after bringing into contact two bare surfaces with equilibrium (very low) density of open stickers in comparison with self-healing. The primary role of anomalous diffusion in material self-repair for short waiting times is established, while at long waiting times the recovery of bonds across fractured interface is due to hopping diffusion of stickers between different bonded partners. Acceleration in bridge formation for self-healing compared to self-adhesion is due to excess nonequilibrium concentration of open stickers. Full recovery of reversible bonds across fractured interface (formation of bridges) occurs after appreciably longer time than the equilibration time of the concentration of reversible bonds in the bulk. The model is extended to describe enhanced toughness of dual networks with both permanent and reversible cross-links. This work was done in collaboration with Drs. Ludwik Leibler, Li-Heng Cai, Evgeny B. Stukalin, N. Arun Kumar and supported by the National Science Foundation.

  3. Nature's Mechanisms for Tough, Self-healing Polymers and Polymer Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Spider silk^2 and the natural polymer adhesives in abalone shells^3 and bone^4,5 can give us insights into nature's mechanisms for tough, self-healing polymers and polymer adhesives. The natural polymer adhesives in biomaterials have been optimized by evolution. An optimized polymer adhesive has five characteristics. 1) It holds together the strong elements of the composite. 2) It yields just before the strong elements would otherwise break. 3) It dissipates large amounts of energy as it yields. 4) It self heals after it yields. 5) It takes just a few percent by weight. Both natural polymer adhesives and silk rely on sacrificial bonds and hidden length for toughness and self-healing.^6 A relatively large energy, of order 100eV, is required to stretch a polymer molecule after a weak bond, a sacrificial bond, breaks and liberates hidden length, which was previously hidden, typically in a loop or folded domain, from whatever was stretching the polymer. The bond is called sacrificial if it breaks at forces well below the forces that could otherwise break the polymer backbone, typically greater than 1nN. In many biological cases, the breaking of sacrificial bonds has been found to be reversible, thereby also providing a ``self-healing'' property to the material.^2-4 Individual polymer adhesive molecules based on sacrificial bonds and hidden length can supply forces of order 300pN over distances of 100s of nanometers. Model calculations show that a few percent by weight of adhesives based on these principles could be optimized adhesives for high performance composite materials including nanotube and graphene sheet composites. ^2N. Becker, E. Oroudjev, S. Mutz et al., Nature Materials 2 (4), 278 (2003). ^3B. L. Smith, T. E. Schaffer, M. Viani et al., Nature 399 (6738), 761 (1999). ^4J. B. Thompson, J. H. Kindt, B. Drake et al., Nature 414 (6865), 773 (2001). ^5G. E. Fantner, T. Hassenkam, J. H. Kindt et al., Nature Materials 4, 612 (2005). ^6G. E. Fantner, E. Oroudjev, G

  4. Self-Healing Metals and Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J. B.; Schultz, Benjamin F.; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.

    2014-06-01

    Self-healing in inorganic materials is a relatively new area in materials science and engineering that draws inspiration from biological systems that can self-repair damage. This article reviews the preliminary attempts to impart self-healing behavior to metals. Several challenges yet exist in the development of metallic alloys that can self-repair damage, including surface bonding issues, such as liquid/solid contact angle (wetting) and oxidation, and practical issues, such as capillary pressure for delivery of a liquid metal to a damaged area or crack, and the overall mechanical properties of a composite system. Although the applied research approaches reviewed have obtained marginal success, the development of self-healing metallic systems has the potential to benefit a wide range of industrial applications and thus deserves greater investment in fundamental research.

  5. Photoinduced smart, self-healing polymer sealant for photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sanjib; Tripathy, Ranjan; Cozzens, David; Nagy, Tibor; Keki, Sandor; Zsuga, Miklos; Faust, Rudolf

    2015-01-28

    Polyisobutylene (PIB)-based polymer networks potentially useful as smart coatings for photovoltaic devices have been developed. Low molecular weight coumarin functional triarm star PIB was synthesized via a single step SN2 reaction of bromoallyl functional triarm star PIB with 4-methylumbelliferone or umbelliferone in the presence of sodium hydride. Quantitative end functionality was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. UVA (λmax = 365 nm) induced reversible photodimerization of the coumarin moieties resulted in cross-linked elastomeric films exhibiting self-healing behavior. The extent of photodimerization/photoscission was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy. The low oxygen (1.9 × 10(-16) mol m m(-2) s(-1) Pa(-1)) and moisture (46 × 10(-16) mol m m(-2) s(-1) Pa(-1)) permeability of the cross-linked polymer films suggest excellent barrier properties of the cross-linked polymer films. The self-healing process was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). For this, mechanical cuts were introduced in the cross-linked PIB films through micromachining with an AFM tip and the rate of healing induced by UV, sunlight, or both was followed by taking AFM images of the film at different time intervals during the repair process. PMID:25545670

  6. Self-Healing Nanocomposites for Reusable Composite Cryotanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberly, Daniel; Ou, Runqing; Karcz, Adam; Skandan, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Composite cryotanks, or composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), offer advantages over currently used aluminum-lithium cryotanks, particularly with respect to weight savings. Future NASA missions are expected to use COPVs in spaceflight propellant tanks to store fuels, oxidizers, and other liquids for launch and space exploration vehicles. However, reliability, reparability, and reusability of the COPVs are still being addressed, especially in cryogenic temperature applications; this has limited the adoption of COPVs in reusable vehicle designs. The major problem with composites is the inherent brittleness of the epoxy matrix, which is prone to microcrack formation, either from exposure to cryogenic conditions or from impact from different sources. If not prevented, the microcracks increase gas permeation and leakage. Accordingly, materials innovations are needed to mitigate microcrack damage, and prevent damage in the first place, in composite cryotanks. The self-healing technology being developed is capable of healing the microcracks through the use of a novel engineered nanocomposite, where a uniquely designed nanoparticle additive is incorporated into the epoxy matrix. In particular, this results in an enhancement in the burst pressure after cryogenic cycling of the nanocomposite COPVs, relative to the control COPVs. Incorporating a novel, self-healing, epoxy-based resin into the manufacture of COPVs allows repeatable self-healing of microcracks to be performed through the simple application of a low-temperature heat source. This permits COPVs to be reparable and reusable with a high degree of reliability, as microcracks will be remediated. The unique phase-separated morphology that was imparted during COPV manufacture allows for multiple self-healing cycles. Unlike single-target approaches where one material property is often improved at the expense of another, robustness has been introduced to a COPV by a combination of a modified resin and

  7. DYNAMERS: dynamic polymers as self-healing materials.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nabarun; Bruchmann, Bernd; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2015-06-01

    Importing self-repair or self-healing features into inert materials is of great relevance to material scientists, since it is expected to eliminate the necessity of replenishing a damaged material. Be it material chemistry or more specifically polymer chemistry, such materials have attracted the imagination of both material scientists and chemists. A stroll down the memory lane 70 years back, this might have sounded utopian. However with the current progress in supramolecular chemistry and the emergence of dynamic covalent and non-covalent chemistries, novel perspectives have been opened up to materials science towards the development of dynamic materials (DYNAMATS) and in particular dynamic polymers (DYNAMERS), with the ability to produce such species by custom made designs. Chemistry took giant strides to gain control over the structure and features of materials and, besides basic progress, to apply it for tailor-making matter for applications in our daily life. In that applied perspective, materials science plays a paramount role in shaping our present and in contributing to a sustainable future. The goal is to develop materials, which would be dynamic enough to carry out certain functions as effectively as in biological systems with, however, the freedom to recruit the powers of chemistry on a wider scale, without the limitation imposed by life. Material scientists and in particular polymer chemists may build on chemistry, physics and biology for bridging the gap to develop dynamic materials presenting a wide range of novel functionalities and to convert dreams into reality. In this current review we will focus on developments in the area of dynamic polymers, as a class of dynamic materials presenting self-healing features and, more generally, the ability to undergo adaptation under the effect of physical and/or chemical agents, and thus function as adaptive polymers or ADAPTAMERS. PMID:25940832

  8. Effects of self-healing microcapsules on bending performance in composite brake pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Dong, Xiu-ping; Wang, Hui

    2009-07-01

    For the purpose of reducing self-weight, friction noise and cost, improving shock absorption, enhancing corrosion and wear resistance, brake pads made of composite materials with self-healing function are prepared to substitute metal ones by designing ingredients and applying optimized production technology. As self-healing capsules are chosen, new method with technology of self-healing microcapsules, dicyclpentadiene (DCPD) microcapsules coated with poly (urea-formaldehyde), is put forward in this paper. In the crack's extending process, the stress is concentrated at the crack end, where the microcapsule is designed to be located. When the stress goes through the microcapsules and causes them to break, the self-healing liquid runs out to fill the crack by the capillary and it will poly-react with catalyst in the composite. As a result, the crack is healed. In this paper, polymer matrix composite brake pads with 6 prescriptions are prepared and studied. Three-point bending tests are carried out according to standards in GB/T 3356-1999 and the elastic constants of these polymer matrix composites are obtained by experiments. In accordance with the law of the continuous fiber composite, elastic constants of the short-fiber composite can be calculated by proportions of each ingredient. Results show that the theoretical expected results and the experimental values are consistent. 0.3-1.2 % mass proportion of microcapsules has little effects on the composite's bending intensity and modulus of elasticity. These studies also show that self-healing microcapsules used in composite brake pads is feasible.

  9. Autonomous self-healing structural composites with bio-inspired design

    PubMed Central

    D’Elia, Eleonora; Eslava, Salvador; Miranda, Miriam; Georgiou, Theoni K.; Saiz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Strong and tough natural composites such as bone, silk or nacre are often built from stiff blocks bound together using thin interfacial soft layers that can also provide sacrificial bonds for self-repair. Here we show that it is possible exploit this design in order to create self-healing structural composites by using thin supramolecular polymer interfaces between ceramic blocks. We have built model brick-and-mortar structures with ceramic contents above 95 vol% that exhibit strengths of the order of MPa (three orders of magnitude higher than the interfacial polymer) and fracture energies that are two orders of magnitude higher than those of the glass bricks. More importantly, these properties can be fully recovered after fracture without using external stimuli or delivering healing agents. This approach demonstrates a very promising route towards the design of strong, ideal self-healing materials able to self-repair repeatedly without degradation or external stimuli. PMID:27146382

  10. Autonomous self-healing structural composites with bio-inspired design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D’Elia, Eleonora; Eslava, Salvador; Miranda, Miriam; Georgiou, Theoni K.; Saiz, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Strong and tough natural composites such as bone, silk or nacre are often built from stiff blocks bound together using thin interfacial soft layers that can also provide sacrificial bonds for self-repair. Here we show that it is possible exploit this design in order to create self-healing structural composites by using thin supramolecular polymer interfaces between ceramic blocks. We have built model brick-and-mortar structures with ceramic contents above 95 vol% that exhibit strengths of the order of MPa (three orders of magnitude higher than the interfacial polymer) and fracture energies that are two orders of magnitude higher than those of the glass bricks. More importantly, these properties can be fully recovered after fracture without using external stimuli or delivering healing agents. This approach demonstrates a very promising route towards the design of strong, ideal self-healing materials able to self-repair repeatedly without degradation or external stimuli.

  11. Autonomous self-healing structural composites with bio-inspired design.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Eleonora; Eslava, Salvador; Miranda, Miriam; Georgiou, Theoni K; Saiz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Strong and tough natural composites such as bone, silk or nacre are often built from stiff blocks bound together using thin interfacial soft layers that can also provide sacrificial bonds for self-repair. Here we show that it is possible exploit this design in order to create self-healing structural composites by using thin supramolecular polymer interfaces between ceramic blocks. We have built model brick-and-mortar structures with ceramic contents above 95 vol% that exhibit strengths of the order of MPa (three orders of magnitude higher than the interfacial polymer) and fracture energies that are two orders of magnitude higher than those of the glass bricks. More importantly, these properties can be fully recovered after fracture without using external stimuli or delivering healing agents. This approach demonstrates a very promising route towards the design of strong, ideal self-healing materials able to self-repair repeatedly without degradation or external stimuli. PMID:27146382

  12. Thermally responsive polymer systems for self-healing, reversible adhesion and shape memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaofan

    Responsive polymers are "smart" materials that are capable of performing prescribed, dynamic functions under an applied stimulus. In this dissertation, we explore several novel design strategies to develop thermally responsive polymers and polymer composites for self-healing, reversible adhesion and shape memory applications. In the first case described in Chapters 2 and 3, a thermally triggered self-healing material was prepared by blending a high-temperature epoxy resin with a thermoplastic polymer, poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL). The initially miscible system undergoes polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) during the curing of epoxy and yields a variety of compositionally dependent morphologies. At a particular PCL loading, the cured blend displays a "bricks-and-mortar" morphology in which epoxy exists as interconnected spheres ("bricks") within a continuous PCL matrix ("mortar"). A heat induced "bleeding" phenomenon was observed in the form of spontaneous wetting of all free surfaces by the molten PCL, and is attributed to the volumetric thermal expansion of PCL above its melting point in excess of epoxy brick expansion, which we term differential expansive bleeding (DEB). This DEB is capable of healing damage such as cracks. In controlled self-healing experiments, heating of a cracked specimen led to PCL bleeding from the bulk that yields a liquid layer bridging the crack gap. Upon cooling, a "scar" composed of PCL crystals was formed at the site of the crack, restoring a significant portion of mechanical strength. We further utilized DEB to enable strong and thermally-reversible adhesion of the material to itself and to metallic substrates, without any requirement for macroscopic softening or flow. After that, Chapters 4--6 present a novel composite strategy for the design and fabrication of shape memory polymer composites. The basic approach involves physically combining two or more functional components into an interpenetrating fiber

  13. Characterization and performance of a self-healing composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Michael Richard

    The development of a self-healing polymer-matrix composite material that possesses the ability to heal cracks autonomically is described. The system uses a monomer repair agent, dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), which is stored in an epoxy matrix by dispersing microcapsules containing the liquid repair agent throughout the matrix. When the material is damaged, cracks propagate through the material and break open the microcapsules, releasing the repair agent into the crack plane. Finally, the DCPD repair agent solidifies by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) after coming in contact with a ruthenium-based catalyst (Grubbs' catalyst) dispersed in the matrix. The process by which the DCPD-filled microcapsules are prepared and the various techniques to characterize the microcapsules are discussed. The cure kinetics of poly dicyclopentadiene (pDCPD) prepared by ROMP with three different concentrations of Grubbs' catalyst are examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The experimental data are used to test several different phenomenological kinetic models. The data are best modeled with a "model-free" isoconversional method. This analysis reveals that the activation energy increases significantly for degree of cure greater than 60%. Catalyst concentration is shown to have a large effect on the cure kinetics. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements on the catalyzed healing agent are also used to study the stability of the system to environmental conditions. A study of the healing of delamination damage in woven reinforced epoxy composites is performed. Three types of healing process are studied. In the first, a catalyzed monomer is manually injected into the delamination. In the second, a self-activated material is created by embedding the catalyst directly into the matrix of the composite, then manually injecting the monomer. In the third, a fully integrated in situ system is described with embedded microcapsules and catalyst. Double

  14. Novel Diels-Alder based self-healing epoxies for aerospace composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coope, T. S.; Turkenburg, D. H.; Fischer, H. R.; Luterbacher, R.; van Bracht, H.; Bond, I. P.

    2016-08-01

    Epoxy resins containing Diels-Alder (DA) furan and maleimide moieties are presented with the capability to self-heal after exposure to an external heat source. A conventional epoxy amine system has been combined with furfuryl and maleimide functional groups in a two-step process, to avoid major side-reactions, and the concentration of a thermo-reversibly binding cross-linker was considered to balance thermoset and thermoplastic behaviours, and the subsequent self-healing performance. In the context of self-repair technologies an inbuilt ‘intrinsic’ self-healing system is deemed favourable as the healing agent can be placed in known ‘hot spot’ regions (i.e. skin-stringer run outs, ply drops and around drilled holes) where operational damage predominately occurs in load bearing aerospace structures. In this study, the mechanical and self-healing performance of furan functionalised epoxy resins containing varying amounts (10, 20, 30 or 40 pph) of bismaleimide were investigated using a bulk epoxy polymer tapered double cantilever beam test specimen geometry. Two forms, a thin film and a bulk material, were evaluated to account for future integration methods into fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. The highest healing efficiency, with respect to the obtained initial load value, was observed from the 20 pph bulk material derivative. The polymers were successful in achieving consistent multiple (three) healing cycles when heated at 150 °C for 5 min. This novel investigated DA material exhibits favourable processing characteristics for FRP composites as preliminary studies have shown successful coextrution with reinforcing fibres to form free standing films and dry fibre impregnation.

  15. Nature: Self-Healing Polymers and Other Improved Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinhorst, Sabine; Cannon, Gordon

    2002-01-01

    We have chosen articles from recent issues of Nature that explore ways to mimic and improve materials and processes found in nature. Some of the work has progressed toward industrial applications (e.g. using biocatalysts for selective organic syntheses), whereas other approaches (e.g. designing self-healing material) are still in their infancy but show remarkable promise for future success.

    Featured on the Cover

  16. Bioinspired engineering study of Plantae vascules for self-healing composite structures.

    PubMed

    Trask, R S; Bond, I P

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents the first conceptual study into creating a Plantae-inspired vascular network within a fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminate, which provides an ongoing self-healing functionality without incurring a mass penalty. Through the application of a 'lost-wax' technique, orthogonal hollow vascules, inspired by the 'ray cell' structures found in ring porous hardwoods, were successfully introduced within a carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy polymer composite laminate. The influence on fibre architecture and mechanical behaviour of single vascules (located on the laminate centreline) when aligned parallel and transverse to the local host ply was characterized experimentally using a compression-after-impact test methodology. Ultrasonic C-scanning and high-resolution micro-CT X-ray was undertaken to identify the influence of and interaction between the internal vasculature and impact damage. The results clearly show that damage morphology is influenced by vascule orientation and that a 10 J low-velocity impact damage event is sufficient to breach the vasculature; a prerequisite for any subsequent self-healing function. The residual compressive strength after a 10 J impact was found to be dependent upon vascule orientation. In general, residual compressive strength decreased to 70 per cent of undamaged strength when vasculature was aligned parallel to the local host ply and a value of 63 per cent when aligned transverse. This bioinspired engineering study has illustrated the potential that a vasculature concept has to offer in terms of providing a self-healing function with minimum mass penalty, without initiating premature failure within a composite structure. PMID:19955122

  17. Bioinspired engineering study of Plantae vascules for self-healing composite structures

    PubMed Central

    Trask, R. S.; Bond, I. P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first conceptual study into creating a Plantae-inspired vascular network within a fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminate, which provides an ongoing self-healing functionality without incurring a mass penalty. Through the application of a ‘lost-wax’ technique, orthogonal hollow vascules, inspired by the ‘ray cell’ structures found in ring porous hardwoods, were successfully introduced within a carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy polymer composite laminate. The influence on fibre architecture and mechanical behaviour of single vascules (located on the laminate centreline) when aligned parallel and transverse to the local host ply was characterized experimentally using a compression-after-impact test methodology. Ultrasonic C-scanning and high-resolution micro-CT X-ray was undertaken to identify the influence of and interaction between the internal vasculature and impact damage. The results clearly show that damage morphology is influenced by vascule orientation and that a 10 J low-velocity impact damage event is sufficient to breach the vasculature; a prerequisite for any subsequent self-healing function. The residual compressive strength after a 10 J impact was found to be dependent upon vascule orientation. In general, residual compressive strength decreased to 70 per cent of undamaged strength when vasculature was aligned parallel to the local host ply and a value of 63 per cent when aligned transverse. This bioinspired engineering study has illustrated the potential that a vasculature concept has to offer in terms of providing a self-healing function with minimum mass penalty, without initiating premature failure within a composite structure. PMID:19955122

  18. A Stretchable Graphitic Carbon/Si Anode Enabled by Conformal Coating of a Self-Healing Elastic Polymer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongming; Lopez, Jeffrey; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Liu, Nian; Zheng, Guangyuan; Wu, Chun-Lan; Sun, Jie; Liu, Wei; Chung, Jong Won; Bao, Zhenan; Cui, Yi

    2016-03-01

    A high-capacity stretchable graphitic carbon/Si foam electrode is enabled by a conformal self-healing elastic polymer coating. The composite electrode exhibits high stretchability (up to 88%) and endures 1000 stretching-releasing cycles at 25% strain with detrimental resistance increase. Meanwhile, the electrode delivers a high reversible specific capacity of 719 mA g(-1) and good cycling stability with 81% capacity retention after 100 cycles. PMID:26813780

  19. Autonomous stimulus triggered self-healing in smart structural composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, C. J.; White, J. A. P.; McCombe, G.; Chatterjee, P.; Bond, I. P.; Trask, R. S.

    2012-09-01

    Inspired by the ability of biological systems to sense and autonomously heal damage, this research has successfully demonstrated the first autonomous, stimulus triggered, self-healing system in a structural composite material. Both the sensing and healing mechanisms are reliant on microvascular channels incorporated within a laminated composite material. For the triggering mechanism, a single air filled vessel was pressurized, sealed and monitored. Upon drop weight impact (10 J), delamination and microcrack connectivity between the pressurized vessel and those open to ambient led to a pressure loss which, with the use of a suitable sensor, triggered a pump to deliver a healing agent to the damage zone. Using this autonomous healing approach, near full recovery of post-impact compression strength was achieved (94% on average). A simplified alternative system with healing agent continuously flowing through the vessels, akin to blood flow, was found to offer 100% recovery of the material’s virgin strength. Optical microscopy and ultrasonic C-scanning provided further evidence of large-scale infusion of matrix damage with the healing agent. The successful implementation of this bioinspired technology could substantially enhance the integrity and reliability of aerospace structures, whilst offering benefits through improved performance/weight ratios and extended lifetimes.

  20. Redox-responsive self-healing materials formed from host–guest polymers

    PubMed Central

    Nakahata, Masaki; Takashima, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Expanding the useful lifespan of materials is becoming highly desirable, and self-healing and self-repairing materials may become valuable commodities. The formation of supramolecular materials through host–guest interactions is a powerful method to create non-conventional materials. Here we report the formation of supramolecular hydrogels and their redox-responsive and self-healing properties due to host–guest interactions. We employ cyclodextrin (CD) as a host molecule because it is environmentally benign and has diverse applications. A transparent supramolecular hydrogel quickly forms upon mixing poly(acrylic acid) (pAA) possessing β-CD as a host polymer with pAA possessing ferrocene as a guest polymer. Redox stimuli induce a sol−gel phase transition in the supramolecular hydrogel and can control self-healing properties such as re-adhesion between cut surfaces. PMID:22027591

  1. Dynamic sulfur chemistry as a key tool in the design of self-healing polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Roberto; Rekondo, Alaitz; Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Alaitz; Casuso, Pablo; Dupin, Damien; Cabañero, Germán; Grande, Hans J.; Odriozola, Ibon

    2016-08-01

    The rich variety of reversible or dynamic covalent chemistries based on sulfur offers a unique opportunity for the design of self-healing polymer networks. The reversibility of such chemical bonds can be used to create soft systems which can self-mend at ambient conditions. Here we focus on the mechanism of three different dynamic sulfur chemistries which have been used for the development of self-healing elastomers and hydrogels: thiolate/nanoparticle exchange, aromatic disulfide exchange and gold(I)-thiolate/disulfide exchange.

  2. Self-healing multiphase polymers via dynamic metal-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Mozhdehi, Davoud; Ayala, Sergio; Cromwell, Olivia R; Guan, Zhibin

    2014-11-19

    A new self-healing multiphase polymer is developed in which a pervasive network of dynamic metal-ligand (zinc-imidazole) interactions are programmed in the soft matrix of a hard/soft two-phase brush copolymer system. The mechanical and dynamic properties of the materials can be tuned by varying a number of molecular parameters (e.g., backbone/brush degree of polymerization and brush density) as well as the ligand/metal ratio. Following mechanical damage, these thermoplastic elastomers show excellent self-healing ability under ambient conditions without any intervention. PMID:25348857

  3. An electrically and mechanically self-healing composite with pressure- and flexion-sensitive properties for electronic skin applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Wang, Chao; Allen, Ranulfo; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-12-01

    Pressure sensitivity and mechanical self-healing are two vital functions of the human skin. A flexible and electrically conducting material that can sense mechanical forces and yet be able to self-heal repeatably can be of use in emerging fields such as soft robotics and biomimetic prostheses, but combining all these properties together remains a challenging task. Here, we describe a composite material composed of a supramolecular organic polymer with embedded nickel nanostructured microparticles, which shows mechanical and electrical self-healing properties at ambient conditions. We also show that our material is pressure- and flexion-sensitive, and therefore suitable for electronic skin applications. The electrical conductivity can be tuned by varying the amount of nickel particles and can reach values as high as 40 S cm-1. On rupture, the initial conductivity is repeatably restored with ~90% efficiency after 15 s healing time, and the mechanical properties are completely restored after ~10 min. The composite resistance varies inversely with applied flexion and tactile forces. These results demonstrate that natural skin's repeatable self-healing capability can be mimicked in conductive and piezoresistive materials, thus potentially expanding the scope of applications of current electronic skin systems.

  4. A rapidly self-healing supramolecular polymer hydrogel with photostimulated room-temperature phosphorescence responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Ma, Xiang; Wu, Shuaifan; Tian, He

    2014-12-15

    Development of self-healing and photostimulated luminescent supramolecular polymeric materials is important for artificial soft materials. A supramolecular polymeric hydrogel is reported based on the host-guest recognition between a β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) host polymer (poly-β-CD) and an α-bromonaphthalene (α-BrNp) polymer (poly-BrNp) without any additional gelator, which can self-heal within only about one minute under ambient atmosphere without any additive. This supramolecular polymer system can be excited to engender room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) signals based on the fact that the inclusion of β-CD macrocycle with α-BrNp moiety is able to induce RTP emission (CD-RTP). The RTP signal can be adjusted reversibly by competitive complexation of β-CD with azobenzene moiety under specific irradiation by introducing another azobenzene guest polymer (poly-Azo). PMID:25323299

  5. Development of novel self-healing and antibacterial dental composite containing calcium phosphate nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junling; Weir, Michael D.; Melo, Mary Anne S.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Fracture and secondary caries are the primary reasons for dental restoration failure. The objective of this study was to develop a self-healing composite to heal cracks, while containing dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) for antibacterial function and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) for remineralization. Methods Microcapsules were synthesized with poly(urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) shells containing triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and N,N-dihydroxyethyl-p-toluidine (DHEPT) as healing liquid. Composite contained 20 mass% of NACP and 35% glass fillers. In addition, composite contained 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, or 10% of microcapsules. A single edge V-notched beam method measured fracture toughness (KIC) and self-healing efficiency. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model was used to test the antibacterial properties. Results Incorporation of microcapsules up to 7.5% into the composite did not adversely affect the mechanical properties (p > 0.1). Successful self-healing was achieved, with KIC recovery of 65–81% (mean ± sd; n = 6) to regain the load-bearing capability after composite fracture. The self-healing DMAHDM-NACP composite displayed a strong antibacterial potency, inhibiting biofilm viability and lactic acid production, and reducing colony-forming units by 3–4 orders of magnitude, compared to control composite without DMAHDM. Conclusions A dental composite was developed with triple benefits of self-healing after fracture, antibacterial activity, and remineralization capability for the first time. Clinical significance The self-healing, antibacterial and remineralizing composite may be promising for tooth cavity restorations to combat bulk fracture and secondary caries. The method of using triple agents (self-healing microcapsules, DMAHDM, and NACP) may have wide applicability to other dental composites, adhesives, sealants and cements. PMID:25625674

  6. Seawater-Assisted Self-Healing of Catechol Polymers via Hydrogen Bonding and Coordination Interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jincai; Ejima, Hirotaka; Yoshie, Naoko

    2016-07-27

    It is highly desirable to prevent crack formation in polymeric materials at an early stage and to extend their lifespan, particularly when repairs to these materials would be difficult for humans. Here, we designed and synthesized catechol-functionalized polymers that can self-heal in seawater through hydrogen bonding and coordination. These bioinspired acrylate polymers are originally viscous materials, but after coordination with environmentally safe, common metal cations in seawater, namely, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), the mechanical properties of the polymers were greatly enhanced from viscous to tough, hard materials. Reduced swelling in seawater compared with deionized water owing to the higher osmotic pressure resulted in greater toughness (∼5 MPa) and self-healing efficiencies (∼80%). PMID:27377859

  7. Processing and damage recovery of intrinsic self-healing glass fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordo, Federica; Michaud, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    Glass fiber reinforced composites with a self-healing, supramolecular hybrid network matrix were produced using a modified vacuum assisted resin infusion moulding process adapted to high temperature processing. The quality and fiber volume fraction (50%) of the obtained materials were assessed through microscopy and matrix burn-off methods. The thermo-mechanical properties were quantified by means of dynamic mechanical analysis, revealing very high damping properties compared to traditional epoxy-based glass fiber reinforced composites. Self-healing properties were assessed by three-point bending tests. A high recovery of the flexural properties, around 72% for the elastic modulus and 65% of the maximum flexural stress, was achieved after a resting period of 24 h at room temperature. Recovery after low velocity impact events was also visually observed. Applications for this intrinsic and autonomic self-healing highly reinforced composite material point towards semi-structural applications where high damping and/or integrity recovery after impact are required.

  8. Bioinspired self-healing of advanced composite structures using hollow glass fibres.

    PubMed

    Trask, R S; Williams, G J; Bond, I P

    2007-04-22

    Self-healing is receiving an increasing amount of worldwide interest as a method to autonomously address damage in materials. The incorporation of a self-healing capability within fibre-reinforced polymers has been investigated by a number of workers previously. The use of functional repair components stored inside hollow glass fibres (HGF) is one such bioinspired approach being considered. This paper considers the placement of self-healing HGF plies within both glass fibre/epoxy and carbon fibre/epoxy laminates to mitigate damage occurrence and restore mechanical strength. The study investigates the effect of embedded HGF on the host laminates mechanical properties and also the healing efficiency of the laminates after they were subjected to quasi-static impact damage. The results of flexural testing have shown that a significant fraction of flexural strength can be restored by the self-repairing effect of a healing resin stored within hollow fibres. PMID:17251131

  9. Solvent-based self-healing approaches for fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Amanda R.

    Damage in composite materials spans many length scales and is often difficult to detect or costly to repair. The incorporation of self-healing functionality in composite materials has the potential to greatly extend material lifetime and reliability. Although there has been remarkable progress in self-healing polymers over the past decade, self-repair in fiber-reinforced composite materials presents significant technical challenges due to stringent manufacturing and performance requirements. For high performance, fiber-reinforced composites, the self-healing components need to survive high temperature processing, reside in matrix interstitial regions to retain a high fiber volume fraction, and have minimal impact on the mechanical properties of the host material. This dissertation explores several microencapsulated solvent-based self-healing approaches for fiber-reinforced composites at the fiber/ matrix interface size scale as well as matrix cracking. Systems are initially developed for room temperature cured epoxies/ glass fiber interfaces and successfully transitioned to carbon fibers and high temperature-cured, thermoplastic-toughened matrices. Full recovery of interfacial bond strength after complete fiber/matrix debonding is achieved with a microencapsulated solvent-based healing chemistry. The surface of a glass fiber is functionalized with microcapsules containing varying concentrations of reactive epoxy resin and ethyl phenyl acetate (EPA) solvent. Microbond specimens consisting of a single fiber and a microdroplet of epoxy are cured at 35°C, tested, and the interfacial shear strengths (IFSS) during the initial (virgin) debonding and subsequent healing events are measured. Debonding of the fiber/matrix interface ruptures the capsules, releasing resin and solvent into the crack plane. The solvent swells the matrix, initiating transport of residual amine functionality for further curing with the epoxy resin delivered to the crack plane. Using a resin

  10. Polymer damage mitigation---predictive lifetime models of polymer insulation degradation and biorenewable thermosets through cationic polymerization for self-healing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondred, Peter Raymond

    Over the past 50 years, the industrial development and applications for polymers and polymer composites has become expansive. However, as with any young technology, the techniques for predicting material damage and resolving material failure are in need of continued development and refinement. This thesis work takes two approaches to polymer damage mitigation---material lifetime prediction and spontaneous damage repair through self-healing while incorporating bio-renewable feedstock. First, material lifetime prediction offers the benefit of identifying and isolating material failures before the effects of damage results in catastrophic failure. Second, self-healing provides a systematic approach to repairing damaged polymer composites, specifically in applications where a hands-on approach or removing the part from service are not feasible. With regard to lifetime prediction, we investigated three specific polymeric materials---polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE), and Kapton. All three have been utilized extensively in the aerospace field as a wire insulation coating. Because of the vast amount of electrical wiring used in aerospace constructions and the potential for electrical and thermal failure, this work develops mathematical models for both the thermal degradation kinetics as well as a lifetime prediction model for electrothermal breakdown. Isoconversional kinetic methods, which plot activation energy as a function of the extent of degradation, present insight into the development each kinetic model. The models for PTFE, ETFE, and Kapton are one step, consecutive three-step, and competitive and consecutive five-step respectively. Statistical analysis shows that an nth order autocatalytic reaction best defined the reaction kinetics for each polymer's degradation. Self-healing polymers arrest crack propagation through the use of an imbedded adhesive that reacts when cracks form. This form of damage mitigation focuses on

  11. Correlated aggregate model of self-healing in dye-doped polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyk, Mark G.; Ramini, Shiva

    2012-10-01

    Self healing of chromophores in a dye-doped polymer after photodegradation is a counterintuitive process based on the nearly universal observation that molecular damage is a thermodynamically irreversible process. We propose a new simple model of this phenomenon that takes into account all observations, including the effects of concentration, temperature, and bystander states. Critical to this model are correlations between chromophores, perhaps mediated by the polymer, which actively favors the undamaged species in analogy to Bose-Einstein condensation. We use this model to predict the behavior of decay and recovery experiments as measured with amplified spontaneous emission and absorption spectroscopy.

  12. Development of self-healing polymers via amine-epoxy chemistry: II. Systematic evaluation of self-healing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He; Yang, Jinglei

    2014-06-01

    Part I of this study (H Zhang and J Yang 2014 Smart Mater. Struct. 23 065003) reported the preparation and characterization of epoxy microcapsules (EP-capsules) and amine loaded hollow glass bubbles (AM-HGBs), and the modeling of a two-part self-healing system. In part II, the self-healing performance of this material system is systematically investigated. Various factors including the ratio, the total concentration and the size of the two carriers are studied as well as the healing temperature and the post heat treatment process. The best healing performance is obtained at a ratio of 1:3 of EP-capsules to AM-HGBs. It is observed that a higher concentration of larger carriers, together with a higher healing temperature, enables better healing behavior. Healing efficiency of up to 93% is obtained in these systems. In addition, post heat treatment decreases the healing efficiency due to stoichiometric mismatch of healing agents caused by leakage of amine in the HGBs at elevated temperature.

  13. A multiple-responsive self-healing supramolecular polymer gel network based on multiple orthogonal interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jiayi; Zhang, Mingming; Zhou, Mi; Liu, Bin; Chen, Dong; Liu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Qianqian; Qiu, Huayu; Yin, Shouchun

    2014-08-01

    Supramolecular polymer networks have attracted considerable attention not only due to their topological importance but also because they can show some fantastic properties such as stimuli-responsiveness and self-healing. Although various supramolecular networks are constructed by supramolecular chemists based on different non-covalent interactions, supramolecular polymer networks based on multiple orthogonal interactions are still rare. Here, a supramolecular polymer network is presented on the basis of the host-guest interactions between dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DB24C8) and dibenzylammonium salts (DBAS), the metal-ligand coordination interactions between terpyridine and Zn(OTf)2 , and between 1,2,3-triazole and PdCl2 (PhCN)2 . The topology of the networks can be easily tuned from monomer to main-chain supramolecular polymer and then to the supramolecular networks. This process is well studied by various characterization methods such as (1) H NMR, UV-vis, DOSY, viscosity, and rheological measurements. More importantly, a supramolecular gel is obtained at high concentrations of the supramolecular networks, which demonstrates both stimuli-responsiveness and self-healing properties. PMID:24943122

  14. Processing and Damage Tolerance of Continuous Carbon Fiber Composites Containing Puncture Self-Healing Thermoplastic Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Gordon, Keith L.; Czabaj, Michael W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    Research at NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) has identified several commercially available thermoplastic polymers that self-heal after ballistic impact and through-penetration. One of these resins, polybutadiene graft copolymer (PB(sub g)), was processed with unsized IM7 carbon fibers to fabricate reinforced composite material for further evaluation. Temperature dependent characteristics, such as the degradation point, glass transition (T(sub g)), and viscosity of the PBg polymer were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic parallel plate rheology. The PBg resin was processed into approximately equal to 22.0 cm wide unidirectional prepreg tape in the NASA LaRC Advanced Composites Processing Research Laboratory. Data from polymer thermal characterization guided the determination of a processing cycle used to fabricate quasi-isotropic 32-ply laminate panels in various dimensions up to 30.5cm x 30.5cm in a vacuum press. The consolidation quality of these panels was analyzed by optical microscopy and acid digestion. The process cycle was further optimized based on these results and quasi-isotropic, [45/0/-45/90]4S, 15.24cm x 15.24cm laminate panels were fabricated for mechanical property characterization. The compression strength after impact (CAI) of the IM7/pBG composites was measured both before and after an elevated temperature and pressure healing cycle. The results of the processing development effort of this composite material as well as the results of the mechanical property characterization are presented in this paper.

  15. Glass fibre polyester composite with in vivo vascular channel for use in self-healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fifo, Omosola; Ryan, Kevin; Basu, Biswajit

    2014-09-01

    The embedment of adhesive-filled hollow glass fibres (HGF) has been reported as a way of combating micro-crack development in fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) structures. However, hollow fibres can critically undermine the effectiveness of self-healing systems and have been reported to be a potential impediment to the healing agent flow path. On the other hand, attempting to use non-hollow vascular systems in higher dimensions has largely been restricted to bulk polymers that lack reinforcing fibres. This paper investigates an alternative technique where a simple two-dimensional (2D) network of hollow channels is created within a glass-fibre-reinforced polyester-composite structure. The network is created using a fugitive preforming material at the ply level of interest, similar to a direct ink writing procedure. The temporary structure is extracted as a part of the curing and post-curing processes. The channels formed are used to deliver cyanoacrylate adhesive (CA) to areas that have been damaged under a flexural three-point bending test. Subsequent post-repair mechanical testing, under the same mode, evaluates the success of the repair process. The results show good recovery of the stiffness, a paramount mechanical property, and indicate how the grade of the repairing agent used influences the recovered loading strength of the FRP samples.

  16. Self-healing antimicrobial polymer coating with efficacy in the presence of organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastarrachea, Luis J.; Goddard, Julie M.

    2016-08-01

    A method to prepare a self-healing, antimicrobial polymer coating that retains efficacy against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the presence of organic matter is reported. A coating composed of branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) and styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA) was applied to a maleic anhydride functionalized polypropylene support. The chemistry of the polymer coating was designed to impart hydrophobicity due to the styrene subunits, intrinsic antimicrobial character (>99.9% reduction) from the cationic primary amine groups, and enhanced antimicrobial character (> 99.99% reduction) after chlorination of N-halamine forming groups. Antimicrobial effectiveness was demonstrated under conditions of increasing organic load. Up to 500 ppm horse serum, chlorinated coatings retained full antimicrobial character (>99.99% reduction). Even at 50,000 ppm of horse serum, the coating provided ∼90% reduction as prepared, and between ∼75% and ∼80% reduction in the form of N-halamines. Microscopy confirmed no evidence of bacterial adhesion on the coating surface. Finally, the coating exhibited self-healing properties after exposure to acid and alkaline solutions and restoration by heat, as confirmed through spectroscopy from the rebuilding of characteristic chemical bonds. Such robust antimicrobial polymer coatings with efficacy under conditions of increasing organic load may support reducing microbial cross-contamination in food and biomedical industries.

  17. A self healing model based on polymer-mediated chromophore correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramini, Shiva K.; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2012-08-01

    Here we present a model of self healing in which correlations between chromophores, as mediated by the polymer, are key to the recovery process. Our model determines the size distribution of the correlation volume using a grand canonical ensemble through a free energy advantage parameter. Choosing a healing rate that is proportional to the number of undamaged molecules in a correlated region, and a decay rate proportional to the intensity normalized to the correlation volume, the ensemble average is shown to correctly predict decay and recovery of the population of disperse orange 11-DO11 (1-amino-2-methylanthraquinone) molecules doped in PMMA polymer as a function of time and concentration as measured with amplified spontaneous emission and linear absorption spectroscopy using only three parameters that apply to the full set of data. Our model also predicts the temperature dependence of the process. One set of parameters should be characteristic of a particular polymer and dopant chromophore combination. Thus, the use of the model in determining these parameters for various materials systems should provide the data needed to test fundamental models of the underlying mechanism responsible for self healing.

  18. Surface-initiated self-healing of polymers in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, B. Kollbe; Lee, Dong Woog; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2014-09-01

    Polymeric materials that intrinsically heal at damage sites under wet or moist conditions are urgently needed for biomedical and environmental applications. Although hydrogels with self-mending properties have been engineered by means of mussel-inspired metal-chelating catechol-functionalized polymer networks, biological self-healing in wet conditions, as occurs in self-assembled holdfast proteins in mussels and other marine organisms, is generally thought to involve more than reversible metal chelates. Here we demonstrate self-mending in metal-free water of synthetic polyacrylate and polymethacrylate materials that are surface-functionalized with mussel-inspired catechols. Wet self-mending of scission in these polymers is initiated and accelerated by hydrogen bonding between interfacial catechol moieties, and consolidated by the recruitment of other non-covalent interactions contributed by subsurface moieties. The repaired and pristine samples show similar mechanical properties, suggesting that the triggering of complete self-healing is enabled underwater by the formation of extensive catechol-mediated interfacial hydrogen bonds.

  19. Photothermal triggering of self-healing processes applied to the reparation of bio-based polymer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuna, F. I.; Antonacci, J.; Arenas, G. F.; Pettarin, V.; Hoppe, C. E.; Williams, R. J. J.

    2016-04-01

    Green laser irradiation successfully activated self-healing processes in epoxy-acid networks modified with low amounts of gold nanoparticles (NPs). A bio-based polymer matrix, obtained by crosslinking epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) with an aqueous citric acid (CA) solution, was self-healed through molecular rearrangements produced by transesterification reactions of β-hydroxyester groups generated in the polymerization reaction. The temperature increase required for the triggering of these thermally activated reactions was attained by green light irradiation of the damaged area. Compression force needed to assure a good contact between crack faces was achieved by volume dilatation generated by the same temperature rise. Gold NPs dispersed in the polymer efficiently generated heat in the presence of electromagnetic radiation under plasmon resonance, acting as nanometric heating sources and allowing remote activation of the self-healing in the crosslinked polymer.

  20. Assessment of Composite Delamination Self-Healing Via Micro-Encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin; White, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    Composite skin/stringer flange debond specimens manufactured from composite prepreg containing interleaf layers with a polymer based healing agent encapsulated in thin walled spheres were tested. As a crack develops and grows in the base polymer, the spheres fracture releasing the healing agent. The agent reacts with catalyst and polymerizes healing the crack. In addition, through-thickness reinforcement, in the form of pultruded carbon z-pins were included near the flange tips to improve the resistance to debonding. Specimens were manufactured with 14 plies in the skin and 10 plies in the stiffener flange. Three-point bend tests were performed to measure the skin/stiffener debonding strength and the recovered strength after healing. The first three tests performed indicated no healing following unloading and reloading. Micrographs showed that delaminations could migrate to the top of the interleaf layer due to the asymmetric loading, and hence, bypass most of the embedded capsules. For two subsequent tests, specimens were clamped in reverse bending before reloading. In one case, healing was observed as evidenced by healing agent that leaked to the specimen edge forming a visible "scar". The residual strength measured upon reloading was 96% of the original strength indicating healing had occurred. Hence, self-healing is possible in fiber reinforced composite material under controlled conditions, i.e., given enough time and contact with pressure on the crack surfaces. The micro-encapsulation technique may prove more robust when capsule sizes can be produced that are small enough to be embedded in the matrix resin without the need for using an interleaf layer. However, in either configuration, the amount of healing that can occur may be limited to the volume of healing agent available relative to the crack volume that must be filled.

  1. Dynamic urea bond for the design of reversible and self-healing polymers

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Hanze; Zhang, Yanfeng; Cheng, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Polymers bearing dynamic covalent bonds may exhibit dynamic properties, such as self-healing, shape memory and environmental adaptation. However, most dynamic covalent chemistries developed so far require either catalyst or change of environmental conditions to facilitate bond reversion and dynamic property change in bulk materials. Here we report the rational design of hindered urea bonds (urea with bulky substituent attached to its nitrogen) and the use of them to make polyureas and poly(urethane-ureas) capable of catalyst-free dynamic property change and autonomous repairing at low temperature. Given the simplicity of the hindered urea bond chemistry (reaction of a bulky amine with an isocyanate), incorporation of the catalyst-free dynamic covalent urea bonds to conventional polyurea or urea-containing polymers that typically have stable bulk properties may further broaden the scope of applications of these widely used materials. PMID:24492620

  2. The role of polymer-mediated dopant correlations in damage moderation and self healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyk, Mark G.; Ramini, Shiva

    2012-11-01

    The fact that chromophores doped into a polymer self heal after photodegradation seems to contradict the common understanding that molecular damage is a thermodynamically irreversible process. We have proposed a model that takes into account all observations, including the kinetics of photodegradation and recovery as a function of concentration, temperature, intensity, and sample thermal/intensity history. Correlations between chromophores, perhaps mediated through van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding with the polymer, appear to actively favor the undamaged species by inducing healing in analogy to Bose-Einstein condensation. This model is shown to predict the behavior of photo-induced decay and recovery experiments as measured with amplified spontaneous emission and absorption spectroscopy.

  3. Thermal breakage and self-healing of a polymer chain under tensile stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Dimitrov, D. I.; Rostiashvili, V. G.; Milchev, A.; Vilgis, T. A.

    2010-05-01

    We consider the thermal breakage of a tethered polymer chain of discrete segments coupled by Morse potentials under constant tensile stress. The chain dynamics at the onset of fracture is studied analytically by Kramers-Langer multidimensional theory and by extensive molecular dynamics simulations in one dimension (1D) and three dimension (3D) space. Comparison with simulation data in one and three dimensions demonstrates that the Kramers-Langer theory provides good qualitative description of the process of bond scission as caused by a collective unstable mode. We derive distributions of the probability for scission over the successive bonds along the chain which reveal the influence of chain ends on rupture in good agreement with theory. The breakage time distribution of an individual bond is found to follow an exponential law as predicted by theory. Special attention is focused on the recombination (self-healing) of broken bonds. Theoretically derived expressions for the recombination time and distance distributions comply with MD observations and indicate that the energy barrier position crossing is not a good criterion for true rupture. It is shown that the fraction of self-healing bonds increases with rising temperature and friction.

  4. X-ray computed microtomography of three-dimensional microcracks and self-healing in engineered cementitious composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shuai; Li, Mo

    2015-01-01

    Concrete cracking and deterioration can potentially be addressed by innovative self-healing cementitious materials, which can autogenously regain transport properties and mechanical characteristics after the damage self-healing process. For the development of such materials, it is crucial, but challenging, to precisely characterize the extent and quality of self-healing due to a variety of factors. This study adopted x-ray computed microtomography (μCT) to derive three-dimensional morphological data on microcracks before and after healing in engineered cementitious composite (ECC). Scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were also used to morphologically and chemically analyze the healing products. This work showed that the evolution of the microcrack 3D structure due to self-healing in cementitious materials can be directly and quantitatively characterized by μCT. A detailed description of the μCT image analysis method applied to ECC self-healing was presented. The results revealed that the self-healing extent and rate strongly depended on initial surface crack width, with smaller crack width favoring fast and robust self-healing. We also found that the self-healing mechanism in cementitious materials is dependent on crack depth. The region of a crack close to the surface (from 0 to around 50-150 μm below the surface) can be sealed quickly with crystalline precipitates. However, at greater depths the healing process inside the crack takes a significantly longer time to occur, with healing products more likely resulting from continued hydration and pozzolanic reactions. Finally, the μCT method was compared with other self-healing characterization methods, with discussions on its importance in generating new scientific knowledge for the development of robust self-healing cementitious materials.

  5. Self-healing materials.

    PubMed

    Hager, Martin D; Greil, Peter; Leyens, Christoph; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2010-12-14

    Self-healing materials are able to partially or completely heal damage inflicted on them, e.g., crack formation; it is anticipated that the original functionality can be restored. This article covers the design and generic principles of self-healing materials through a wide range of different material classes including metals, ceramics, concrete, and polymers. Recent key developments and future challenges in the field of self-healing materials are summarised, and generic, fundamental material-independent principles and mechanism are discussed and evaluated. PMID:20839257

  6. Functional Metal Matrix Composites: Self-lubricating, Self-healing, and Nanocomposites-An Outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorri Moghadam, Afsaneh; Schultz, Benjamin F.; Ferguson, J. B.; Omrani, Emad; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.; Gupta, Nikhil

    2014-06-01

    Many different types of advanced metal matrix composites are now available, some of which possess functional properties. Recent work on particle-reinforced, self-lubricating and self-healing metals and metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs) synthesized by solidification synthesis is reviewed. Particle-based MMNCs have been developed by several modern processing tools based on either solid- or liquid-phase synthesis techniques that are claimed to exhibit exciting mechanical properties including improvements of modulus, yield strength, and ultimate tensile strength. This article presents a brief and objective review of the work done over the last decade to identify the challenges and future opportunities in the area of functional nanocomposites. Increasing interest in lightweight materials has resulted in studies on hollow particle-filled metal matrix syntactic foams. Syntactic foams seem especially suitable for development with functional properties such as self-healing and self-lubrication. The metal matrix micro and nanocomposites, and syntactic foams having combinations of ultrahigh strength and wear resistance, self-lubricating, and/or self-healing properties can lead to increased energy efficiency, reliability, comfort of operation, reparability, and safety of vehicles. The focus of the present review is aluminum and magnesium matrix functional materials.

  7. Microfluidic encapsulation for self-healing material and investigation of its impacts on composite performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, Ryan J.

    Encapsulation is a key enabling technology of self-healing materials for which incorporation of reactive materials into a composite, without loss of functionality, is required for damage repair. The functionalized particles resulting from such processes must be readily incorporable into a composite and have minimal detrimental impact on its undamaged properties. At the same time, their morphology must preferentially promote the release of their content during a damage event. However, there is still a need for new techniques capable of fine tuning particle properties for the controlled design of composite performance. To introduce superior processing control, two microfluidics based encapsulation processes have been developed, one each for the individual components of a two-part chemical healing system, namely dicyclopentadiene and Grubb's catalyst. These processes have enabled significantly enhanced performance of self-healing epoxy composites by introducing unprecedented control over particle morphology. The microfluidics based encapsulation platform is first demonstrated by emulsification, using droplet microfluidics, and subsequent encapsulation of dicyclopentadiene. The reported approach allows for facile control of mean microcapsule diameter thru variation of fluid flow rates. The microcapsules exhibit coefficients of variation (CV) of diameter in the range 1-3 (i.e. monodisperse is typically defined as CV smaller than 5), an order of magnitude reduction when compared with conventional batch emulsification methods whose typical CV is 20-40. This control over microcapsule uniformity has led to significant improvement in self-healing composite performance as exemplified by ˜25% higher undamaged fracture toughness. A microfluidic solution spinning process is then developed to encapsulate Grubb's catalyst, the most expensive component of this particular material system, in a novel fibrous morphology. The continuous, on-chip fiber production allows for

  8. Fatigue of Self-Healing Nanofiber-based Composites: Static Test and Subcritical Crack Propagation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Wook; Sett, Soumyadip; Yoon, Sam S; Yarin, Alexander L

    2016-07-20

    Here, we studied the self-healing of composite materials filled with epoxy-containing nanofibers. An initial incision in the middle of a composite sample stretched in a static fatigue test can result in either crack propagation or healing. In this study, crack evolution was observed in real time. A binary epoxy, which acted as a self-healing agent, was encapsulated in two separate types of interwoven nano/microfibers formed by dual-solution blowing, with the core containing either epoxy or hardener and the shell being formed from poly(vinylidene fluoride)/ poly(ethylene oxide) mixture. The core-shell fibers were encased in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) matrix. When the fibers were damaged by a growing crack in this fiber-reinforced composite material because of static stretching in the fatigue test, they broke and released the healing agent into the crack area. The epoxy used in this study was cured and solidified for approximately an hour at room temperature, which then conglutinated and healed the damaged location. The observations were made for at least several hours and in some cases up to several days. It was revealed that the presence of the healing agent (the epoxy) in the fibers successfully prevented the propagation of cracks in stretched samples subjected to the fatigue test. A theoretical analysis of subcritical cracks was performed, and it revealed a jumplike growth of subcritical cracks, which was in qualitative agreement with the experimental results. PMID:27332924

  9. Ultra-thin Solid-State Li-Ion Electrolyte Membrane Facilitated by a Self-Healing Polymer Matrix.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Justin M; Taynton, Philip; Zhang, Wei; Lee, Se-Hee

    2015-11-18

    Thin solid membranes are formed by a new strategy, whereby an in situ derived self-healing polymer matrix that penetrates the void space of an inorganic solid is created. The concept is applied as a separator in an all-solid-state battery with an FeS2 -based cathode and achieves tremendous performance for over 200 cycles. Processing in dry conditions represents a paradigm shift for incorporating high active-material mass loadings into mixed-matrix membranes. PMID:26421754

  10. Use of composite materials, health monitoring and self-healing concepts to refurbish our civil and military infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Delong, Waylon Anthony; White, Scott; Yepez, Esteban; Rackow, Kirk A.; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.

    2007-09-01

    An unavoidable by-product of a metallic structure's use is the appearance of crack, corrosion, erosion and other flaws. Economic barriers to the replacement of these structures have created an aging civil and military infrastructure and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair and inspection methods. As a result of Homeland Security issues and these aging infrastructure concerns, increased attention has been focused on the rapid repair and preemptive reinforcement of structures such as buildings and bridges. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program established the viability of using bonded composite patches to repair metallic structures. High modulus fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) material may be used in lieu of mechanically fastened metallic patches or welds to reinforce or repair damaged structures. Their use produces a wide array of engineering and economic advantages. Current techniques for strengthening steel structures have several drawbacks including requiring heavy equipment for installation, poor fatigue performance, and the need for ongoing maintenance due to continued corrosion attack or crack growth. The use of bonded composite doublers has the potential to correct the difficulties associated with current repair techniques and the ability to be applied where there are currently no rehabilitation options. Applications include such diverse structures as: buildings, bridges, railroad cars, trucks and other heavy machinery, steel power and communication towers, pipelines, factories, mining equipment, ships, tanks and other military vehicles. This LDRD also proved the concept of a living infrastructure by developing custom sensors and self-healing chemistry and linking this technology with the application of advanced composite materials. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems and mountable, miniature sensors were designed to continuously or periodically assess structural integrity. Such systems are able to detect

  11. High Temperature Lightweight Self-Healing Ceramic Composites for Aircraft Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2014-01-01

    The present research effort was undertaken to develop a new generation of SiC fiber- reinforced engineered matrix composites (EMCs) with sufficient high temperature plasticity to reduce crack propagation and self-healing capabilities to fill surface-connected cracks to prevent the oxygen ingress to the fibers. A matrix engineered with these capabilities is expected to increase the load bearing capabilities of SiCSiC CMCs at high temperatures. Several matrix compositions were designed to match the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the SiC fibers using a rule of mixture (ROM) approach. The CTE values of these matrices were determined and it was demonstrated that they were generally in good agreement with that of monolithic SiC between room temperature and 1525 K. The parameters to hot press the powders were optimized, and specimens were fabricated for determining bend strength, CTE, oxidation and microstructural characteristics of the engineered matrices. The oxidation tests revealed that some of the matrices exhibited catastrophic oxidation, and therefore, these were eliminated from further consideration. Two promising compositions were down selected based on these results for further development. Four-point bend tests were conducted on these two promising matrices between room temperature and 1698 K. Although theses matrices were brittle and failed at low stresses at room temperature, they exhibited high temperature ductility and higher stresses at the higher temperatures. The effects of different additives on the self-healing capabilities of these matrices were investigated. The results of preliminary studies conducted to slurry and melt infiltration trials with CrSi2 are described.

  12. Self-Healing Laminate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beiermann, Brett A. (Inventor); Keller, Michael W. (Inventor); White, Scott R. (Inventor); Sottos, Nancy R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A laminate material may include a first flexible layer, and a self-healing composite layer in contact with the first flexible layer. The composite layer includes an elastomer matrix, a plurality of first capsules including a polymerizer, and a corresponding activator for the polymerizer. The laminate material may self-heal when subjected to a puncture or a tear.

  13. Unveiling the molecular mechanism of self-healing in a telechelic, supramolecular polymer network

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tingzi; Schröter, Klaus; Herbst, Florian; Binder, Wolfgang H.; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reversible polymeric networks can show self-healing properties due to their ability to reassemble after application of stress and fracture, but typically the relation between equilibrium molecular dynamics and self-healing kinetics has been difficult to disentangle. Here we present a well-characterized, self-assembled bulk network based on supramolecular assemblies, that allows a clear distinction between chain dynamics and network relaxation. Small angle x-ray scattering and rheological measurements provide evidence for a structurally well-defined, dense network of interconnected aggregates giving mechanical strength to the material. Different from a covalent network, the dynamic character of the supramolecular bonds enables macroscopic flow on a longer time scale and the establishment of an equilibrium structure. A combination of linear and nonlinear rheological measurements clearly identifies the terminal relaxation process as being responsible for the process of self-healing. PMID:27581380

  14. Unveiling the molecular mechanism of self-healing in a telechelic, supramolecular polymer network.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingzi; Schröter, Klaus; Herbst, Florian; Binder, Wolfgang H; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reversible polymeric networks can show self-healing properties due to their ability to reassemble after application of stress and fracture, but typically the relation between equilibrium molecular dynamics and self-healing kinetics has been difficult to disentangle. Here we present a well-characterized, self-assembled bulk network based on supramolecular assemblies, that allows a clear distinction between chain dynamics and network relaxation. Small angle x-ray scattering and rheological measurements provide evidence for a structurally well-defined, dense network of interconnected aggregates giving mechanical strength to the material. Different from a covalent network, the dynamic character of the supramolecular bonds enables macroscopic flow on a longer time scale and the establishment of an equilibrium structure. A combination of linear and nonlinear rheological measurements clearly identifies the terminal relaxation process as being responsible for the process of self-healing. PMID:27581380

  15. Synthesis of a Self-Healing Polymer Based on Reversible Diels-Alder Reaction: An Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory at the Interface of Organic Chemistry and Materials Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizman, Haim; Nielsen, Christian; Weizman, Or S.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory experiment exposes students to the chemistry of self-healing polymers based on a Diels-Alder reaction. Students accomplish a multistep synthesis of a monomer building block and then polymerize it to form a cross-linked polymer. The healing capability of the polymer is verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments.…

  16. Self-healing polymers---The importance of choosing an adequate healing monomer, and the olefin metathesis polymerization of agricultural oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldin, Timothy C.

    Modern society's immense and ill-fated reliance on petrochemical-based polymeric materials will likely necessitate a shift in polymer production paradigms in the near future. The work presented herein attempts to address this issue via a two-pronged approach. First, efforts to improve the duration of composite materials by incorporation of a self-healing function are discussed, the fruitful application of which can potentially reduce or eliminate the massive carbon footprints associated with the repair/replacement of damaged materials. And second, polymeric materials derived predominately from natural and renewable feedstock---namely vegetable oils---are developed. Early microcapsule-based self-healing materials utilized dicyclopentadiene-filled microcapsules and Grubbs' olefin metathesis catalyst to initiate the healing mechanism. However, the patent-protected catalyst, made from the precious metal ruthenium and sometimes costly ligands, will likely never be inexpensive and therefore limit large-scale applications. Hence, clever approaches to reduce the healing catalyst loading in self-healing polymers are of great interest. To this end, our efforts have revolved around solving the problem of the relatively inefficient use of Grubbs' catalyst during the healing mechanism. Given that the mismatch of the olefin metathesis polymerization and Grubbs' catalyst dissolution (in monomer) kinetics is a known cause of this inefficient use of the catalyst, we attempted to tune the "latency" (i.e. pot life) of the olefin metathesis polymerization to ensure more complete dissolution of catalyst in monomer. In an alternative approach to improving efficient catalyst dissolution, we developed a simple model to predict relative dissolution rates of Grubbs' catalyst in a small library of healing monomers. This model was shown experimentally to be able to aid in the selection of, for example, reactive monomer additives that can yield impressive improvements in catalyst dissolution

  17. High-Temperature, Lightweight, Self-Healing Ceramic Composites for Aircraft Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.; Bhatt, Ramkrishna

    2013-01-01

    The use of reliable, high-temperature, lightweight materials in the manufacture of aircraft engines is expected to result in lower fossil and biofuel consumption, thereby leading to cost savings and lower carbon emissions due to air travel. Although nickel-based superalloy blades and vanes have been successfully used in aircraft engines for several decades, there has been an increased effort to develop high-temperature, lightweight, creep-resistant substitute materials under various NASA programs over the last two decades. As a result, there has been a great deal of interest in developing SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) due to their higher damage tolerance compared to monolithic ceramics. Current-generation SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites rely almost entirely on the SiC fibers to carry the load, owing to the premature cracking of the matrix during loading. Thus, the high-temperature usefulness of these CMCs falls well below their theoretical capabilities. The objective of this work is to develop a new class of high-temperature, lightweight, self-healing, SiC fiber-reinforced, engineered matrix ceramic composites.

  18. Imaging studies of temperature dependent photodegradation and self-healing in disperse orange 11 dye-doped polymers.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Benjamin R; Hung, Sheng-Ting; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2016-07-14

    Using confocal transmission imaging microscopy, we measure the temperature dependence of photodegradation and self-healing in disperse orange 11 (DO11) dye-doped (poly)methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS). In both dye-doped polymers, an increase in sample temperature results in a greater photodegradation rate and degree of degradation, while also resulting in a slower recovery rate and larger recovery fraction. These results confirm the temperature dependence predictions of the modified correlated chromophore domain model (mCCDM) [B. R. Anderson and M. G. Kuzyk, Phys. Rev. E 89, 032601 (2014)]. Additionally, using quantitative fitting of the imaging data for DO11/PMMA, we determine the domain density parameter to be ρ = 1.19 (±0.25) × 10(-2) and the domain free energy advantage to be λ = 0.282 ± 0.015 eV, which are within the uncertainty of the values previously determined using amplified spontaneous emission as the probe method [S. K. Ramini et al., Polym. Chem. 4, 4948 (2013)]. Finally, while we find photodegradation and self-healing of DO11/PS to be qualitatively consistent with the mCCDM, we find that it is quantitatively incompatible with the mCCDM as recovery in DO11/PS is found to behave as a stretched (or double) exponential as a function of time. PMID:27421424

  19. Imaging studies of temperature dependent photodegradation and self-healing in disperse orange 11 dye-doped polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Benjamin R.; Hung, Sheng-Ting; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2016-07-01

    Using confocal transmission imaging microscopy, we measure the temperature dependence of photodegradation and self-healing in disperse orange 11 (DO11) dye-doped (poly)methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS). In both dye-doped polymers, an increase in sample temperature results in a greater photodegradation rate and degree of degradation, while also resulting in a slower recovery rate and larger recovery fraction. These results confirm the temperature dependence predictions of the modified correlated chromophore domain model (mCCDM) [B. R. Anderson and M. G. Kuzyk, Phys. Rev. E 89, 032601 (2014)]. Additionally, using quantitative fitting of the imaging data for DO11/PMMA, we determine the domain density parameter to be ρ = 1.19 (±0.25) × 10-2 and the domain free energy advantage to be λ = 0.282 ± 0.015 eV, which are within the uncertainty of the values previously determined using amplified spontaneous emission as the probe method [S. K. Ramini et al., Polym. Chem. 4, 4948 (2013)]. Finally, while we find photodegradation and self-healing of DO11/PS to be qualitatively consistent with the mCCDM, we find that it is quantitatively incompatible with the mCCDM as recovery in DO11/PS is found to behave as a stretched (or double) exponential as a function of time.

  20. Self-healing biomaterials(3)

    PubMed Central

    Brochu, Alice B. W.; Craig, Stephen L.; Reichert, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review is to introduce the biomaterials community to the emerging field of self-healing materials, and also to suggest how one could utilize and modify self-healing approaches to develop new classes of biomaterials. A brief discussion of the in vivo mechanical loading and resultant failures experienced by biomedical implants is followed by presentation of the self-healing methods for combating mechanical failure. If conventional composite materials that retard failure may be considered zeroth generation self-healing materials, then taxonomically-speaking, first generation self-healing materials describe approaches that “halt” and “fill” damage, whereas second generation self-healing materials strive to “fully restore” the pre-failed material structure. In spite of limited commercial use to date, primarily because the technical details have not been suitably optimized, it is likely from a practical standpoint that first generation approaches will be the first to be employed commercially, whereas second generation approaches may take longer to implement. For self-healing biomaterials the optimization of technical considerations is further compounded by the additional constraints of toxicity and biocompatibility, necessitating inclusion of separate discussions of design criteria for self-healing biomaterials. PMID:21171168

  1. Self-Healing Wire Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A self-healing system for an insulation material initiates a self-repair process by rupturing a plurality of microcapsules disposed on the insulation material. When the plurality of microcapsules are ruptured, reactants within the plurality of microcapsules react to form a replacement polymer in a break of the insulation material. This self-healing system has the ability to repair multiple breaks in a length of insulation material without exhausting the repair properties of the material.

  2. Self-healing multilayer polyelectrolyte composite film with chitosan and poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanxi; Xuan, Hongyun; Ren, Jiaoyu; Ge, Liqin

    2015-11-21

    If self-healing materials can be prepared via simple technology and methods using nontoxic materials, this would be a great step forward in the creation of environmentally friendly self-healing materials. In this paper, the specific structural parameters of the various hydrogen bonds between chitosan (CS) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) were calculated. Then, multilayer polyelectrolyte films were fabricated with CS and PAA based on layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technology at different pH values. The possible influence of pH on the (CS/PAA) × 30 multilayer polyelectrolyte film was investigated. The results show that the interactions between CS and PAA, swelling capacity, microstructure, wettability, and self-healing ability are all governed by the pH of the CS solution. When the pH value of the CS solution is 3.0, the prepared multilayer polyelectrolyte film (CS3.0/PAA2.8) × 30 has fine-tuned interactions, a network-like structure, good swelling ability, good hydrophilicity, and excellent self-healing ability. This promises to greatly widen the future applications of environmentally friendly materials and bio-materials. PMID:26364567

  3. A novel methodology for self-healing at the nanoscale in CNT/epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, E.; Datta, S.; Chattopadhyay, A.

    2016-04-01

    Self-healing materials have the potential to repair induced damage and extend the service life of aerospace or civil components as well as prevent catastrophic failure. A novel technique to provide self-healing capabilities at the nanoscale in carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposites is presented in this paper. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with the healing agent (dicyclopentadiene) were used to fabricate self-healing CNT/epoxy nanocomposite films. The structure of CNTs was considered suitable for this application since they are nanosized, hollow, and provide a more consistent size distribution than polymeric nanocapsules. Specimens with different weight fractions of the functionalized CNTs were fabricated to explore the effect of weight fraction of functionalized CNTs on the extent of healing. Optical micrographs with different fluorescent filters showed partial or complete healing of damage approximately two to three weeks after damage was induced. Results indicate that by using CNTs to encapsulate a healing agent, crack growth in self-healing CNT/epoxy nanocomposites can be retarded, leading to safer materials that can autonomously repair itself.

  4. Feasibility investigation of self-healing cementitious composite using oil core/silica gel shell passive smart microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhengxian; Hollar, John; He, Xiaodong; Shi, Xianming

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents our work in the concept exploration of a new family of self-healing materials that hold promise for "crack-free" cementitious composites. This innovative system features the design of passive smart microcapsules with oil core and silica gel shell, prepared through an interfacial self-assembly process and sol-gel reaction. Methylmethacrylate monomer and triethylborane were chosen as the healing agent and the catalyst, and were microencapsulated respectively. The microcapsules were dispersed in fresh cement mortar along with carbon microfibers. For the hardened mortar, self-healing can be triggered by crack propagation through the microcapsules, which then releases the healing agent and the catalyst into the microcracks. Polymerization of the healing agent is initiated by contact with the catalyst, bonding the crack faces. Surface analytical tools such as optical microscope and field emission scanning electron microscope were used to examine the localized morphology and encapsulation of the passive smart microcapsules. The self-healing effect was evaluated using gas permeability and electrochemical impedance measurements.

  5. Development and characterization of self-healing carbon fabric/ionomer composite through stitched polymeric artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Mark Joseph

    Typical cracks in composite materials are hard to detect, because they may be very small or occur inside the material. This study investigates the development and characterization of carbon fiber and an ionomer, self-healing, laminate composite, enhanced with stitched artificial muscle elements. Although the carbon fiber is used as a structural reinforcement, the carbon fiber can also act as a resistive heating element in order to activate the healing elements in a Close-Then-Heal (CTH) approach. However in this study, hot air in an oven was used to activate the, SurlynRTM 8940, self-healing matrix. Artificial muscle was prepared from commercial fishing line to stitch reinforce the carbon laminate composite in the Z plane. Holes were drilled into the final composite and the muscle was stitched into the composite for active reinforcement. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to characterize the matrix and fishing line properties. The resulting smart composite was subjected to low velocity impact tests and consequential damage before healing in an oven, followed by three point bending flexure tests. Cracks in the carbon fiber reinforcement formed more easily than expected after impact because the holes were drilled to facilitate the muscle stitching. The matrix material could heal, but the reinforcement carbon could not. Several equipment issues and failures limited the amount of samples that could be created to continue testing with new parameters.

  6. Digital Manufacturing of Gradient Meshed SOFC Sealing Composites with Self-Healing Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kathy Lu; Christopher Story; W.T. Reynolds

    2007-12-21

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) hold great promise for clean power generation. However, high temperature stability and long term durability of the SOFC components have presented serious problems in SOFC technological advancement and commercialization. The seals of the fuel cells are the most challenging area to address. A high temperature gas seal is highly needed which is durable against cracking and gas leakage during thermal cycling and extended operation. This project investigates a novel composite seal by integrating 3D printed shape memory alloy (SMA) wires into a glass matrix. The SMA we use is TiNiHf and the glass matrix we use is SrO-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} (SLABS). Dilatometry shows to be an extremely useful tool in providing the CTEs. It pinpoints regions of different CTEs under simulated SOFC thermal cycles for the same glass. For the studied SLABS glass system, the region with the greatest CTE mismatch between the glass seal and the adjacent components is 40-500 C, the typical heating and cooling regions for SOFCs. Even for low temperature SOFC development, this region is still present and needs to be addressed. We have demonstrated that the proposed SLABS glass has great potential in mitigating the thermal expansion mismatch issues that are limiting the operation life of SOFCs. TiNiHf alloy has been successfully synthesized with the desired particle size for the 3DP process. The TiNiHf SMA shape memory effect very desirably overlaps with the problematic low CTE region of the glass. This supports the design intent that the gradient structure transition, phase transformation toughening, and self-healing of the SMA can be utilized to mitigate/eliminate the seal problem. For the 3DP process, a new binder has been identified to match with the specific chemistry of the SMA particles. This enables us to directly print SMA particles. Neutron diffraction shows to be an extremely useful tool in providing information

  7. Synthetic Self-Healing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bello, Mollie

    2014-06-02

    Given enough time, pressure, temperature fluctuation, and stress any material will fail. Currently, synthesized materials make up a large part of our everyday lives, and are used in a number of important applications such as; space travel, under water devices, precise instrumentation, transportation, and infrastructure. Structural failure of these material scan lead to expensive and dangerous consequences. In an attempt to prolong the life spans of specific materials and reduce efforts put into repairing them, biologically inspired, self-healing systems have been extensively investigated. The current review explores recent advances in three methods of synthesized self-healing: capsule based, vascular, and intrinsic. Ideally, self-healing materials require no human intervention to promote healing, are capable of surviving all the steps of polymer processing, and heal the same location repeatedly. Only the vascular method holds up to all of these idealities.

  8. Advanced self-healing asphalt composites in the pavement performance field: mechanisms at the nano level and new repairing methodologies.

    PubMed

    Agzenai, Yahya; Pozuelo, Javier; Sanz, Javier; Perez, Ignacio; Baselga, Juan

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to give a global view of this field of research, in this mini-review we highlight the most recent publications and patents focusing on modified asphalt pavements that contain certain reinforcing nanoparticles which impart desirable thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. In response to the increasing cost of asphalt binder and road maintenance, there is a need to look for alternative technologies and new asphalt composites, able to self-repair, for preserving and renewing the existing pavements. First, we will focus on the self-healing property of asphalt, the evidences that support that healing takes place immediately after the contact between the faces of a crack, and how the amount of healing can be measured in both the laboratory and the field. Next we review the hypothetical mechanisms of healing to understand the material behaviour and establish models to quantify the damage-healing process. Thereafter, we outline different technologies, nanotechnologies and methodologies used for self-healing paying particular attention to embedded micro-capsules, new nano-materials like carbon nanotubes and nano-fibres, ionomers, and microwave and induction heating processes. PMID:25479339

  9. Correlation between molecular structure and self-healing in a series of Anthraquinone derivatives doped in PMMA polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, P.; Ramini, S. K.; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2012-10-01

    We observe that many different derivatives of anthraquinone chromophores doped in PMMA self heal after undergoing photodegradation. We are interested to know the mechanisms that are responsible for photodegradation and photorecovery, which are not yet fully understood. We used fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy as a probe of the photodegradation and recovery process while the temperature dependence is used to determine the energies of the species involved. We hypothesize that the host polymer mediates the formation of a quasi-stable state. In this scenario, once photo - damaged by intense pump laser, the molecules non radiatively decay into a tautomer state by intra molecule proton transfer, which subsequently leads to the formation of a damaged species - leading to decay of the fluorescence intensity. This hypothesis is consistent with our observation. The temperature dependent fluorescence decay and recovery studies give an insight about the different energy levels participating in optical excitation, decay and recovery. Comparing the experimental parameters such as decay and recovery rates of the fluorescence signal associated with the evolution of peaks in the fluorescence and absorbance spectrum helps us understand correlations between the efficiency of the recovery process and the structures of the dye molecules. Based on the temperature and the time-dependent observations of fluorescence and absorption, we validate qualitatively a new theoretical model which qualitatively takes into account the observed behavior and sheds light on the underlying mechanism. Preliminary measurements show good agreement with the theoretical model. More careful experiments and calculations are in process for further validation of the model.

  10. Application of a silver-olefin coordination polymer as a catalytic curing agent for self-healing epoxy polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everitt, D. T.; Coope, T. S.; Trask, R. S.; Wass, D. F.; Bond, I. P.

    2015-05-01

    A silver-olefin based coordination polymer was prepared in a simple, one step process to act as an initiator to facilitate the ring-opening polymerization of epoxides. Thermal analysis found the complex to be capable of curing a range of commercially available epoxy resins used in the manufacture of conventional composite materials. Curing of the oligomeric diglycidyl ether bisphenol A resin, Epon 828, in combination with a non-toxic solvent, ethyl phenylacetate, was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical characterization of the resultant cured polymers was conducted by single lap shear tests. Tapered double cantilever beam (TDCB) test specimens containing 2.5 pph of silver-olefin initiator, both with and without embedded microcapsules, were analyzed for their healing performance. Healing efficiency values were found to be strongly dependent on the applied healing temperature. A mean recovery of 74% fracture load was found in TDCB samples after being healed at 70 °C for 48 h.

  11. Self-healing of sandwich structures with a grid stiffened shape memory polymer syntactic foam core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Manu; Li, Guoqiang

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, a new sandwich with an orthogrid stiffened shape memory polymer (SMP) based syntactic foam core was proposed, fabricated, programmed, impacted, healed (sealed), and compression tested, for the purposes of healing impact damage repeatedly and almost autonomously. Two prestrain levels (3% and 20%), two impact energy levels (30.0 and 53.3 J), and two recovery (healing) conditions (2D confined and 3D confined) were employed in this paper. Up to seven impact-healing cycles were conducted. Macroscopic and microscopic damage-healing observation and analysis were implemented. Residual strength was evaluated using an anti-buckling compression test fixture. It was found that the healing efficiency was over 100% for almost all the impact-healing cycles; programming using 20% prestrain led to higher residual strength than that with 3% prestrain; 3D confined recovery resulted in higher residual strength than 2D confined recovery; and as the impact energy increased, the healing efficiency slightly decreased.

  12. Self-healing mortar with pH-sensitive superabsorbent polymers: testing of the sealing efficiency by water flow tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruyaert, Elke; Debbaut, Brenda; Snoeck, Didier; Díaz, Pilar; Arizo, Alejandro; Tziviloglou, Eirini; Schlangen, Erik; De Belie, Nele

    2016-08-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) have potential to be used as healing agent in self-healing concrete due to their property to attract moisture from the environment and their capacity to promote autogenous healing. A possible drawback, however, is their uptake of mixing water during concrete manufacturing, resulting in an increased volume of macro-pores in the hardened concrete. To limit this drawback, newly developed SAPs with a high swelling and pH-sensitiveness were developed and tested within the FP7 project HEALCON. Evaluation of their self-sealing performance occurred through a water permeability test via water flow, a test method also developed within HEALCON. Three different sizes of the newly developed SAP were compared with a commercial SAP. Swelling tests in cement filtrate solution indicated that the commercial and in-house synthesized SAPs performed quite similar, but the difference between the swelling capacity at pH 9 and pH 13 is more pronounced for the self-synthesized SAPs. Moreover, in comparison to the commercial SAPs, less macro-pores are formed in the cement matrix of mixes with self-synthesized SAPs and the effect on the mechanical properties is lower, but not negligible, when using high amounts of SAPs. Although the immediate sealing effect of cracks in mortar was the highest for the commercial SAPs, the in-house made SAPs with a particle size between 400 and 600 μm performed the best with regard to crack closure (mainly CaCO3 precipitation) and self-sealing efficiency, after exposing the specimens to 28 wet–dry cycles. Some specimens could even withstand a water pressure of 2 bar.

  13. Progress in the remote-controlled activation of self-healing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaaban, Ahmad; Schmidt, Annette M.

    2016-08-01

    Self-healing materials, able to heal themselves either spontaneously or after activation, and ultimately restore diverse properties such as mechanical, optical or electrical properties, are under intense investigation for various classes of material, including polymers, cementous materials, asphalts, metals, composites, and more. Among these, on-command self-healing systems can be classified as an approach towards a spatially resolved, externally controlled activation of self-healing behavior. Towards this goal, the last decade has experienced significant progress. Various methods, mainly based on indirect heating mechanisms, such as resistive, induction, or photo-induced heating, have been presented, depending on different antenna materials and energy sources, and tailored for different applications. This review discusses the up-to-date achievements in the field of on-command self-healing materials with a focus on electromagnetic and mechanochemical activation.

  14. Self Healing Percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scala, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    We introduce the concept of self-healing in the field of complex networks modelling; in particular, self-healing capabilities are implemented through distributed communication protocols that exploit redundant links to recover the connectivity of the system. Self-healing is a crucial in implementing the next generation of smart grids allowing to ensure a high quality of service to the users. We then map our self-healing procedure in a percolation problem and analyse the interplay between redundancies and topology in improving the resilience of networked infrastructures to multiple failures. We find exact results both for planar lattices and for random lattices, hinting the role of duality in the design of resilient networks. Finally, we introduce a cavity method approach to study the recovery of connectivity after damage in self-healing networks. CNR-PNR National Project ``Crisis-Lab,'' EU HOME/2013/CIPS/AG/4000005013 project CI2C and EU FET project MULTIPLEX nr.317532.

  15. Fracture Toughness of Carbon Fiber Composites Containing Various Fiber Sizings and a Puncture Self-Healing Thermoplastic Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Gordon, Keith L.; Smith, Joseph G.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing efforts at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have resulted in the identification of several commercially available thermoplastic resin systems which self-heal after ballistic impact and through penetration. One of these resins, polybutylene graft copolymer (PBg), was selected as a matrix for processing with unsized carbon fibers to fabricate reinforced composites for further evaluation. During process development, data from thermo-physical analyses was utilized to determine a processing cycle to fabricate laminate panels, which were analyzed by photo microscopy and acid digestion. The process cycle was further optimized based on these results to fabricate panels for mechanical property characterization. The results of the processing development effort of this composite material, as well as the results of the mechanical property characterization, indicated that bonding between the fiber and PBg was not adequate. Therefore, three sizings were investigated in this work to assess their potential to improve fiber/matrix bonding compared to previously tested unsized IM7 fiber. Unidirectional prepreg was made at NASA LaRC from three sized carbon fibers and utilized to fabricate test coupons that were tested in double cantilever beam configurations to determine GIc fracture toughness.

  16. Combining Through-Thickness Reinforcement and Self-Healing for Improved Damage Tolerance and Durability of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin; Czabaj, Michael W.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Tsampas, Spiros; Greenhalgh, Emile S.; McCombe, Gregory; Bond, Ian P.; Trask, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A study was undertaken to develop a prototype method for adding through-thickness hollow glass tubes infused with uncured resin and hardener in a carbon Z-pin through-thickness reinforcement field embedded in a composite laminate. Two types of tube insertion techniques were attempted in an effort to ensure the glass tubes survived the panel manufacturing process. A self-healing resin was chosen with a very low viscosity, two component, liquid epoxy resin system designed to be mixed at a 2-to-1 ratio of epoxy to hardener. IM7/8552 carbon epoxy double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens were cut from the hybrid Z-pin and glass tube reinforced panels and tested. In-situ injection of resin and hardener directly into glass tubes, in a staggered pattern to allow for 2-to-1 ratio mixing, resulted in partial healing of the fracture plane, but only if the injection was performed while the specimen was held at maximum load after initial fracture. Hence, there is some potential for healing delamination via resin and hardener delivered through a network of through-thickness glass tubes, but only if the tubes are connected to a reservoir where additional material may be injected as needed.

  17. Highly flexible transparent self-healing composite based on electrospun core-shell nanofibers produced by coaxial electrospinning for anti-corrosion and electrical insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Seongpil; Liou, Minho; Song, Kyo Yong; Jo, Hong Seok; Lee, Min Wook; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Yarin, Alexander L.; Yoon, Sam S.

    2015-10-01

    Coaxial electrospinning was used to fabricate two types of core-shell fibers: the first type with liquid resin monomer in the core and polyacrylonitrile in the shell, and the second type with liquid curing agent in the core and polyacrylonitrile in the shell. These two types of core-shell fibers were mutually entangled and embedded into two flexible transparent matrices thus forming transparent flexible self-healing composite materials. Such materials could be formed before only using emulsion electrospinning, rather than coaxial electrospinning. The self-healing properties of such materials are associated with release of healing agents (resin monomer and cure) from nanofiber cores in damaged locations with the subsequent polymerization reaction filing the micro-crack with polydimethylsiloxane. Transparency of these materials is measured and the anti-corrosive protection provided by them is demonstrated in electrochemical experiments.

  18. pH-induced metal-ligand cross-links inspired by mussel yield self-healing polymer networks with near-covalent elastic moduli.

    PubMed

    Holten-Andersen, Niels; Harrington, Matthew J; Birkedal, Henrik; Lee, Bruce P; Messersmith, Phillip B; Lee, Ka Yee C; Waite, J Herbert

    2011-02-15

    Growing evidence supports a critical role of metal-ligand coordination in many attributes of biological materials including adhesion, self-assembly, toughness, and hardness without mineralization [Rubin DJ, Miserez A, Waite JH (2010) Advances in Insect Physiology: Insect Integument and Color, eds Jérôme C, Stephen JS (Academic Press, London), pp 75-133]. Coordination between Fe and catechol ligands has recently been correlated to the hardness and high extensibility of the cuticle of mussel byssal threads and proposed to endow self-healing properties [Harrington MJ, Masic A, Holten-Andersen N, Waite JH, Fratzl P (2010) Science 328:216-220]. Inspired by the pH jump experienced by proteins during maturation of a mussel byssus secretion, we have developed a simple method to control catechol-Fe(3+) interpolymer cross-linking via pH. The resonance Raman signature of catechol-Fe(3+) cross-linked polymer gels at high pH was similar to that from native mussel thread cuticle and the gels displayed elastic moduli (G') that approach covalently cross-linked gels as well as self-healing properties. PMID:21278337

  19. Magnetic Field Triggered Multicycle Damage Sensing and Self Healing.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anansa S; Ramanujan, R V

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional materials inspired by biological structures have attracted great interest, e.g. for wearable/ flexible "skin" and smart coatings. A current challenge in this area is to develop an artificial material which mimics biological skin by simultaneously displaying color change on damage as well as self healing of the damaged region. Here we report, for the first time, the development of a damage sensing and self healing magnet-polymer composite (Magpol), which actively responds to an external magnetic field. We incorporated reversible sensing using mechanochromic molecules in a shape memory thermoplastic matrix. Exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) triggers shape recovery and facilitates damage repair. Magpol exhibited a linear strain response upto 150% strain and complete recovery after healing. We have demonstrated the use of this concept in a reusable biomedical device i.e., coated guidewires. Our findings offer a new synergistic method to bestow multifunctionality for applications ranging from medical device coatings to adaptive wing structures. PMID:26348284

  20. Magnetic Field Triggered Multicycle Damage Sensing and Self Healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Anansa S.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2015-09-01

    Multifunctional materials inspired by biological structures have attracted great interest, e.g. for wearable/ flexible “skin” and smart coatings. A current challenge in this area is to develop an artificial material which mimics biological skin by simultaneously displaying color change on damage as well as self healing of the damaged region. Here we report, for the first time, the development of a damage sensing and self healing magnet-polymer composite (Magpol), which actively responds to an external magnetic field. We incorporated reversible sensing using mechanochromic molecules in a shape memory thermoplastic matrix. Exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) triggers shape recovery and facilitates damage repair. Magpol exhibited a linear strain response upto 150% strain and complete recovery after healing. We have demonstrated the use of this concept in a reusable biomedical device i.e., coated guidewires. Our findings offer a new synergistic method to bestow multifunctionality for applications ranging from medical device coatings to adaptive wing structures.

  1. Multiphase design of autonomic self-healing thermoplastic elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yulin; Kushner, Aaron M.; Williams, Gregory A.; Guan, Zhibin

    2012-06-01

    The development of polymers that can spontaneously repair themselves after mechanical damage would significantly improve the safety, lifetime, energy efficiency and environmental impact of man-made materials. Most approaches to self-healing materials require the input of external energy, healing agents, solvent or plasticizer. Despite intense research in this area, the synthesis of a stiff material with intrinsic self-healing ability remains a key challenge. Here, we show a design of multiphase supramolecular thermoplastic elastomers that combine high modulus and toughness with spontaneous healing capability. The designed hydrogen-bonding brush polymers self-assemble into a hard-soft microphase-separated system, combining the enhanced stiffness and toughness of nanocomposites with the self-healing capability of dynamic supramolecular assemblies. In contrast to previous self-healing polymers, this new system spontaneously self-heals as a single-component solid material at ambient conditions, without the need for any external stimulus, healing agent, plasticizer or solvent.

  2. Development of self-healing polymers via amine-epoxy chemistry: I. Properties of healing agent carriers and the modelling of a two-part self-healing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He; Yang, Jinglei

    2014-06-01

    Two types of healing agent carriers (microcapsules containing epoxy solution, referred to as EP-capsules, and etched hollow glass bubbles (HGBs) loaded with amine solution, referred to as AM-HGBs) used in self-healing epoxy systems were prepared and characterized in this study. The core percentages were measured at about 80 wt% and 33 wt% for EP-capsules and AM-HGBs, respectively. The loaded amine in AM-HGB, after incorporation into the epoxy matrix, showed high stability at ambient temperature, but diffused out gradually during heat treatment at 80 °C. The amount and the mass ratio of the two released healants at the crack plane were correlated with the size, concentration, and core percentage of the healing agent carriers. A simplified cubic array model for randomly distributed healing agent carriers was adopted to depict the longest diffusion distance of the released healants, which is inversely proportional to the cubic root of the carrier concentration.

  3. Self-healing minefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolader, Glenn E.; Rogers, John; Batteh, Jad

    2004-07-01

    The Self Healing Minefield (SHM) is comprised of a networked system of mobile anti-tank landmines. When the mines detect a breach, each calculates an appropriate response, and some fire small rockets to "hop" into the breach path, healing the breach. The purpose of the SHM is to expand the capabilities of traditional obstacles and provide an effective anti-tank obstacle that does not require Anti-Personnel (AP) submunitions. The DARPA/ATO sponsored program started in June 2000 and culminated in a full 100-unit demonstration at Fort Leonard Wood, MO in April 2003. That program went from "a concept" to a prototype system demonstration in approximately 21 months and to a full tactically significant demonstration in approximately 33 months. Significant accomplishments included the following: (1) Demonstration of a working, scalable (order of a hundred nodes), ad hoc, self-healing RF network. (2) Demonstration of an innovative distributed time synchronization scheme that does not rely on GPS. (3) Demonstration of a non-GPS based, self-mapping, relative geolocation system. (4) Development of an innovative distributed safe, arm, and fire system that allows for independent firing of eight rockets within a single node. (5) Development of a small rocket design with a novel geometry that meets the propulsion requirements.

  4. Bioconcrete: next generation of self-healing concrete.

    PubMed

    Seifan, Mostafa; Samani, Ali Khajeh; Berenjian, Aydin

    2016-03-01

    Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials and has a high tendency to form cracks. These cracks lead to significant reduction in concrete service life and high replacement costs. Although it is not possible to prevent crack formation, various types of techniques are in place to heal the cracks. It has been shown that some of the current concrete treatment methods such as the application of chemicals and polymers are a source of health and environmental risks, and more importantly, they are effective only in the short term. Thus, treatment methods that are environmentally friendly and long-lasting are in high demand. A microbial self-healing approach is distinguished by its potential for long-lasting, rapid and active crack repair, while also being environmentally friendly. Furthermore, the microbial self-healing approach prevails the other treatment techniques due to the efficient bonding capacity and compatibility with concrete compositions. This study provides an overview of the microbial approaches to produce calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Prospective challenges in microbial crack treatment are discussed, and recommendations are also given for areas of future research. PMID:26825821

  5. Magnetic Field Triggered Multicycle Damage Sensing and Self Healing

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Anansa S.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional materials inspired by biological structures have attracted great interest, e.g. for wearable/ flexible “skin” and smart coatings. A current challenge in this area is to develop an artificial material which mimics biological skin by simultaneously displaying color change on damage as well as self healing of the damaged region. Here we report, for the first time, the development of a damage sensing and self healing magnet-polymer composite (Magpol), which actively responds to an external magnetic field. We incorporated reversible sensing using mechanochromic molecules in a shape memory thermoplastic matrix. Exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) triggers shape recovery and facilitates damage repair. Magpol exhibited a linear strain response upto 150% strain and complete recovery after healing. We have demonstrated the use of this concept in a reusable biomedical device i.e., coated guidewires. Our findings offer a new synergistic method to bestow multifunctionality for applications ranging from medical device coatings to adaptive wing structures. PMID:26348284

  6. Self-healing of low-velocity impact damage in glass fabric/epoxy composites using an epoxy-mercaptan healing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao Yuan, Yan; Ye, Yueping; Zhi Rong, Min; Chen, Haibin; Wu, Jingshen; Qiu Zhang, Ming; Qin, Shi Xiang; Yang, Gui Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Self-healing woven glass fabric-reinforced epoxy composite laminates were made by embedding epoxy- and mercaptan-loaded microcapsules. After being subjected to low-velocity impact, the laminates were able to heal the damage in an autonomic way at room temperature. The healing-induced reduction in the damaged areas was visualized using a scanning acoustic microscope. The rate of damage area reduction, which is closely related to the effect of crack rehabilitation and mechanical recovery, is a function of impact energy, content and size of the healing microcapsules. Minor damage, such as microcracks in the matrix, can be completely repaired by the healing system without manual intervention, including external pressure. Microcapsules with larger size and/or higher concentration are propitious for delivering more healing agent to cracked portions, while imposition of lateral pressure on damaged specimens forces the separated faces to approach each other. Both can improve the rate of damage area reduction in the case of severe damage.

  7. Self healing of defected graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jianhui; Shi, Tuwan; Cai, Tuocheng; Wu, Xiaosong; Yu, Dapeng; Xu, Tao; Sun, Litao

    2013-03-11

    For electronics applications, defects in graphene are usually undesirable because of their ability to scatter charge carriers, thereby reduce the carrier mobility. It would be extremely useful if the damage can be repaired. In this work, we employ Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electrical measurements to study defects in graphene introduced by argon plasma bombardment. We have found that majority of these defects can be cured by a simple thermal annealing process. The self-healing is attributed to recombination of mobile carbon adatoms with vacancies. With increasing level of plasma induced damage, the self-healing becomes less effective.

  8. Self Healing Coating/Film Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summerfield, Burton; Thompson, Karen; Zeitlin, Nancy; Mullenix, Pamela; Calle, Luz; Williams, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has been developing self healing materials and technologies. This project seeks to further develop self healing functionality in thin films for applications such as corrosion protective coatings, inflatable structures, space suit materials, and electrical wire insulation.

  9. Rapid self-healing hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Ameya; Zhang, Chao; Arman, Bedri; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Lele, Ashish K.; Tauber, Michael J.; Arya, Gaurav; Varghese, Shyni

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic materials that are capable of autonomous healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their many potential applications. Despite these advancements, achieving self-healing in permanently cross-linked hydrogels has remained elusive because of the presence of water and irreversible cross-links. Here, we demonstrate that permanently cross-linked hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing in an aqueous environment. We achieve this feature by arming the hydrogel network with flexible-pendant side chains carrying an optimal balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that allows the side chains to mediate hydrogen bonds across the hydrogel interfaces with minimal steric hindrance and hydrophobic collapse. The self-healing reported here is rapid, occurring within seconds of the insertion of a crack into the hydrogel or juxtaposition of two separate hydrogel pieces. The healing is reversible and can be switched on and off via changes in pH, allowing external control over the healing process. Moreover, the hydrogels can sustain multiple cycles of healing and separation without compromising their mechanical properties and healing kinetics. Beyond revealing how secondary interactions could be harnessed to introduce new functions to chemically cross-linked polymeric systems, we also demonstrate various potential applications of such easy-to-synthesize, smart, self-healing hydrogels. PMID:22392977

  10. Coordinated sensing and active repair for self-healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, D. A.; Huston, D. R.

    2011-02-01

    Self-repairing structural systems have the potential for improved performance ranges and lifetimes over conventional systems. Self-healing materials are not a new phenomenon and have been used in automotive and aeronautical applications for over a century. The bulk of these systems operate by using damage to directly initiate a repair response without any supervisory coordination. Integrating sensing and supervisory control technologies with self-healing may improve the safety and reliability of critical components and structures. This project illustrates the benefit of an integrated sensing, control, and self-healing system using laboratory scale test beds. A thermoplastic polymer embedded with resistive heating wires acts as the self-healing material. Damage is detected using an electro-optical sensing scheme based on photoresistors and a PC handling control duties. As damage occurs it is detected, located, and characterized. The key to this project is the integration of sensor feedback to control healing so that repairs are executed, monitored, and completed on the basis of continuous sensor data. This proof-of-concept prototype can likely be expanded and improved with alternative sensor options, self-healing materials, and system architecture.

  11. Self-healing fuse development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, N. D.; Kinsinger, R. E.; Harris, L. P.

    1973-01-01

    The mercury-filled self-healing fuses developed for this program afford very good protection from circuit faults with rapid reclosure. Fuse performance and design parameters have been characterized. Life tests indicate a capability of 500 fuse operations. Fuse ratings are 150 v at 5, 15, 25 and 50 circuit A. A series of sample fuses using alumina and beryllia insulation have been furnished to NASA for circuit evaluation.

  12. Development of Micro and Nanostructured Materials for Interfacial Self-Healing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaiszik, Benjamin James

    2009-01-01

    Damage in polymeric coatings, adhesives, microelectronic components, and composites spans many length scales. For small scale damage, autonomic self-healing can repair multiple damage modes without manual intervention. In autonomic self-healing materials, a healing response is triggered by damage to the material. Size scale considerations, such as…

  13. Self-healing fuse development.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, N. D.

    1972-01-01

    The self-healing fuse is a very fast acting current overload protective device which opens and recloses in a few milliseconds. The fuse confines a mercury column in an insulated channel and returns the mercury to the channel after firing. Ratings 5 to 50 A at 600 peak volts are possible with a life of hundreds of cycles. Compared to conventional fuses, much less fault current energy fires the fuse by heating the mercury to boiling temperature. Next an arc discharge develops while explosive forces expel the liquid mercury from the channel. Then the high impedance arc either extinguishes immediately, or operates for a few milliseconds, until a switch opens the circuit.

  14. Bioinspired Self-Healing Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksay, Ilhan

    2005-03-01

    Synthetic materials are designed to satisfy only one or two functions, but biologically produced ones are multifunctional and have properties (e.g., self-replicating, self-healing) that have yet to be introduced into man-made materials. The objective of this lecture will be to provide an understanding of the important processes for controlling materials properties through nano- and microstructural design and processing with the goal of attaining multifunctionality. A case study will be on the possibility of producing structural materials with self-healing characteristics. In an effort to mimic self-repair functions of living systems, we have been working with self-assembling complex fluids that respond to fields generated by the defects and deposit materials at the site of the defect. Presently, the techniques are limited to certain materials systems as coatings or thin films. We partially mimic the process of blood clotting as a process of colloidal aggregation at a defect site. We show that under the influence of an electrical field, colloidal particles detect a defect and aggregate at the defect site to form a protective layer. The basis of this process is the electrohdrodynamic flow generated by the inhomogeneities. We then make this a permanent protective layer through the electrodeposition of a metal binder in the interstitials of the colloidal aggregate.

  15. Self-healing hyperbranched poly(aroyltriazole)s

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qiang; Wang, Jian; Shen, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Xiao A.; Sun, Jing Zhi; Qin, Anjun; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2013-01-01

    The research on self-healing polymers has been a hot topic. The encapsulated-monomer/catalyst, supramolecular self-assembly, and reversible or dynamic covalent bond formation are the prevailingly adopted strategies. The alternative of irreversible covalent bond formation is, however, to be further developed. In this contribution, self-healing hyperbranched poly(aroyltriazole)s of PI and PII sharing such mechanism were developed. The polymers were synthesized by our developed metal-free click polymerizations of bis(aroylacetylene)s and triazide. They are processible and have excellent film-forming ability. High quality homogeneous films and sticks free from defects could be obtained by casting. The scratched films could be self-repaired upon general heating. The cut films and sticks could be healed by stacking or pressing the halves together at elevated temperature. Thus, these hyperbranched polymers could find broad applications in diverse areas, and our design concept for self-healing materials should be generally applicable to other hyperbranched polymers with reactive groups on their peripheries.

  16. Polymer composites containing nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bley, Richard A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to polymer composite materials containing carbon nanotubes, particularly to those containing singled-walled nanotubes. The invention provides a polymer composite comprising one or more base polymers, one or more functionalized m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers and carbon nanotubes. The invention also relates to functionalized m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers, particularly to m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers having side chain functionalization, and more particularly to m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers having olefin side chains and alkyl epoxy side chains. The invention further relates to methods of making polymer composites comprising carbon nanotubes.

  17. Self-healing cable for extreme environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Dryver R. (Inventor); Tolmie, Bernard R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods disclosed. The self-healing cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the self-healing cable or just one or more portions of the self-healing cable. The adaptive cover includes an axially and/or radially compressible-expandable (C/E) foam layer that maintains its properties over a wide range of environmental conditions. A tape layer surrounds the C/E layer and is applied so that it surrounds and axially and/or radially compresses the C/E layer. When the self-healing cable is subjected to a damaging force that causes a breach in the outer jacket and the tape layer, the corresponding localized axially and/or radially compressed portion of the C/E foam layer expands into the breach to form a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healing cable is manufacturable with present-day commercial self-healing cable manufacturing tools.

  18. Biomimetic, Self-Healing Nanocomposites for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, Daniel E.

    2003-01-01

    This final report contains a summary of significant findings, and bibliographies of publications and patents resulting from the research. The findings are grouped as follows: A) Lustrin-Mimetic Self-Healing Polymer Networks; B) Nanostructure-Directing Catalysis of Synthesis of Electronically and Optoelectronically Active Metallo-oxanes and Organometallics; C) New Discovery that Molecular Stencils Control Directional Growth to Form Light-Weight Mineral Foams.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of melamine-urea-formaldehyde microcapsules containing ENB-based self-healing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing; Sheng, Xia; Lee, Jong Keun; Kessler, Michael R.

    2007-07-01

    Microcapsules for self-healing applications were produced with a melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) polymer shell containing two different healing agent candidates, ENB (5-ethylidene-2-norbornene) and ENB with 10 wt.% of a norbornene based crosslinking agent (CL), by in-situ polymerization in an oil-in-water emulsion. Relatively neat outer surfaces with minor roughness were observed on the MUF microcapsules under optical and scanning electron microscopy. Shell thickness of the capsules ranged from 700 to 900 nm. Particle size analysis of the microcapsules showed narrow size distributions with a mean diameter of 113 μm for ENB-filled and 122 μm for ENB+CL-filled microcapsules at an agitation rate of 500 rpm. The microcapsules were found to be thermally stable up to 300°C and exhibited a 10 to 15 % weight loss when isothermally held at 150°C for 2 hr from thermogravimetric analysis. Overall, these MUF microcapsules exhibited superior properties compared to the urea-formaldehyde (UF) microcapsules used extensively for self-healing composites to date. In addition, the manufacturing process of MUF microcapsules is much simpler than those made from UF. Additional advantages of MUF microcapsules for self-healing composites are discussed.

  20. Rheokinetic evaluation of self-healing agents polymerized by Grubbs catalyst embedded in various thermosetting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing; Sheng, Xia; Lee, Jong Keun; Kessler, Michael R.

    2007-07-01

    In self-healing polymers and composites, the activity of the embedded chemical catalyst within the thermosetting matrix is critical to healing efficiency. Rheological behavior of ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP)-based healing agents, triggered by 1st or 2nd generation Grubbs catalysts that have been suspended in various thermosetting resins, was investigated using an oscillatory parallel plate rheometer. Gel times for various healing agents were determined from the crossover of storage and loss moduli vs. time curves to indicate the activity of the ROMP reaction. Gelation of healing agents initiated by 1st generation Grubbs catalyst occurred faster than those triggered by 2nd generation catalyst. It is suggested that the dissolution rate of the catalyst by the healing agent is an important factor in determining the overall ROMP reaction rate in situ. Optical and scanning electron microscopic observations showed that the finer, rod-like solid particles of the 1st generation catalyst were distributed more homogeneously throughout the cured matrix, which contributed to the faster reaction. Also discussed were effects of different healing agents and thermosetting matrix systems on the ROMP reaction. These results indicate that the self-healing methodology can be expanded to other high performance polymer matrices.

  1. Hydrogen-Bonding-Supported Self-Healing Antifogging Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojie; He, Junhui

    2015-03-01

    Inspired by the repair of DNA through efficient reformation of hydrogen bonds (H-bonds), herein we report a facile one-step approach to construction of self-healing antifogging thin films on the basis of partly cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) and poly(acrylic acid)(PAA). By designing the molar ratio of hydroxyl groups to carboxyl groups, the cross-linked polymer thin films maintain abundant free hydroxyl groups to present excellent antifogging property, which is derived from the hydrophilicity and hygroscopicity of the thin films. The thin films showed smart intrinsic self-healing characteristics towards wounds caused by external forces, which is attributed to sufficient free hydroxyl groups at the scratched interfaces to reform H-bonds across the interfaces and a sufficient chain mobility that is indispensable for chain diffusion across the interfaces and hydroxyl groups association to form H-bonds. No synthetic surfaces reported so far possess all the unique characteristics of the polymer thin films: intrinsic self-healing, long-term antifogging, excellent mechanical property, high transmittance and large-scale feasibility.

  2. Hydrogen-bonding-supported self-healing antifogging thin films.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojie; He, Junhui

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the repair of DNA through efficient reformation of hydrogen bonds (H-bonds), herein we report a facile one-step approach to construction of self-healing antifogging thin films on the basis of partly cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) and poly(acrylic acid)(PAA). By designing the molar ratio of hydroxyl groups to carboxyl groups, the cross-linked polymer thin films maintain abundant free hydroxyl groups to present excellent antifogging property, which is derived from the hydrophilicity and hygroscopicity of the thin films. The thin films showed smart intrinsic self-healing characteristics towards wounds caused by external forces, which is attributed to sufficient free hydroxyl groups at the scratched interfaces to reform H-bonds across the interfaces and a sufficient chain mobility that is indispensable for chain diffusion across the interfaces and hydroxyl groups association to form H-bonds. No synthetic surfaces reported so far possess all the unique characteristics of the polymer thin films: intrinsic self-healing, long-term antifogging, excellent mechanical property, high transmittance and large-scale feasibility. PMID:25784188

  3. Self-Healing Elastin-Bioglass Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiongyu; Desai, Malav S; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Lee, Ju Hun; Chang, Jiang; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2016-08-01

    Tailorable hydrogels that are mechanically robust, injectable, and self-healable, are useful for many biomedical applications including tissue repair and drug delivery. Here we use biological and chemical engineering approaches to develop a novel in situ forming organic/inorganic composite hydrogel with dynamic aldimine cross-links using elastin-like polypeptides (ELP) and bioglass (BG). The resulting ELP/BG biocomposites exhibit tunable gelling behavior and mechanical characteristics in a composition and concentration dependent manner. We also demonstrate self-healing in the ELP/BG hydrogels by successfully reattaching severed pieces as well as through rheology. In addition, we show the strength of genetic engineering to easily customize ELP by fusing cell-stimulating "RGD" peptide motifs. We showed that the resulting composite materials are cytocompatible as they support the cellular growth and attachment. Our robust in situ forming ELP/BG composite hydrogels will be useful as injectable scaffolds for delivering cell and drug molecules to promote soft tissue regeneration in the future. PMID:27380227

  4. Healable thermoset polymer composite embedded with stimuli-responsive fibres

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoqiang; Meng, Harper; Hu, Jinlian

    2012-01-01

    Severe wounds in biological systems such as human skin cannot heal themselves, unless they are first stitched together. Healing of macroscopic damage in thermoset polymer composites faces a similar challenge. Stimuli-responsive shape-changing polymeric fibres with outstanding mechanical properties embedded in polymers may be able to close macro-cracks automatically upon stimulation such as heating. Here, a stimuli-responsive fibre (SRF) with outstanding mechanical properties and supercontraction capability was fabricated for the purpose of healing macroscopic damage. The SRFs and thermoplastic particles (TPs) were incorporated into regular thermosetting epoxy for repeatedly healing macroscopic damages. The system works by mimicking self-healing of biological systems such as human skin, close (stitch) then heal, i.e. close the macroscopic crack through the thermal-induced supercontraction of the SRFs, and bond the closed crack through melting and diffusing of TPs at the crack interface. The healing efficiency determined using tapered double-cantilever beam specimens was 94 per cent. The self-healing process was reasonably repeatable. PMID:22896563

  5. Self-healing supramolecular bioelastomers with shape memory property as a multifunctional platform for biomedical applications via modular assembly.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaobin; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Xin; Hou, Sen; Guo, Baolin; Ma, Peter X

    2016-10-01

    Mimicking native functional dynamics for traditional biomaterials such as thermoset elastomers is limited due to their lack of responsiveness to biological stimuli and difficulties to incorporate biofunctionalities. Furthermore, the mechanical fracture of traditional thermoset elastomers caused by irreversible covalent bond rupture would lead to their permanent loss of properties. To overcome these challenges, degradable self-healed supramolecular bioelastomers are designed by an elastic poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) backbone and multiple hydrogen-bonding ureido-pyrimidinone (UPy) grafts. These supramolecular elastic polymers exhibit efficient self-healing, rapid shape-memory abilities and highly tunable mechanical properties due to the dynamic supramolecular interactions, and perform a good biocompatibility in vitro and a mild host response in vivo. By combining modular approaches, these supramolecular bioelastomers have been further assembled into a multifunctional platform to expand their applications in different biomedical fields. These include a complex 3D scaffold with shape-memory capacity and anisotropic mechanical properties, a controllable drug delivery model via a layer-by-layer technique, a surface antibacterial composite by physical modification, and a spatial oriented cell co-culture system via incorporating different cell-laden self-healing films, demonstrating their potential as building blocks in a wide range of biomedical applications where dynamic properties and biological functions are desired. PMID:27424213

  6. Self-healing cable apparatus and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Dryver (Inventor); Esser, Brian (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods are disclosed. The cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the cable or just one or more portions of the cable. The adaptive cover includes a protective layer having an initial damage resistance, and a reactive layer. When the cable is subjected to a localized damaging force, the reactive layer responds by creating a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healed region provides the cable with enhanced damage resistance as compared to the cable's initial damage resistance. Embodiments of the invention utilize conventional epoxies or foaming materials in the reactive layer that are released to form the self-healed region when the damaging force reaches the reactive layer.

  7. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOEpatents

    Garbe, James E.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Hamrock, Steven J.; Le, Dinh Ba

    2001-01-01

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  8. A highly stretchable autonomous self-healing elastomer.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Hui; Wang, Chao; Keplinger, Christoph; Zuo, Jing-Lin; Jin, Lihua; Sun, Yang; Zheng, Peng; Cao, Yi; Lissel, Franziska; Linder, Christian; You, Xiao-Zeng; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-06-01

    It is a challenge to synthesize materials that possess the properties of biological muscles-strong, elastic and capable of self-healing. Herein we report a network of poly(dimethylsiloxane) polymer chains crosslinked by coordination complexes that combines high stretchability, high dielectric strength, autonomous self-healing and mechanical actuation. The healing process can take place at a temperature as low as -20 °C and is not significantly affected by surface ageing and moisture. The crosslinking complexes used consist of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide ligands that coordinate to Fe(III) centres through three different interactions: a strong pyridyl-iron one, and two weaker carboxamido-iron ones through both the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of the carboxamide groups. As a result, the iron-ligand bonds can readily break and re-form while the iron centres still remain attached to the ligands through the stronger interaction with the pyridyl ring, which enables reversible unfolding and refolding of the chains. We hypothesize that this behaviour supports the high stretchability and self-healing capability of the material. PMID:27219708

  9. A highly stretchable autonomous self-healing elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Hui; Wang, Chao; Keplinger, Christoph; Zuo, Jing-Lin; Jin, Lihua; Sun, Yang; Zheng, Peng; Cao, Yi; Lissel, Franziska; Linder, Christian; You, Xiao-Zeng; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-06-01

    It is a challenge to synthesize materials that possess the properties of biological muscles—strong, elastic and capable of self-healing. Herein we report a network of poly(dimethylsiloxane) polymer chains crosslinked by coordination complexes that combines high stretchability, high dielectric strength, autonomous self-healing and mechanical actuation. The healing process can take place at a temperature as low as ‑20 °C and is not significantly affected by surface ageing and moisture. The crosslinking complexes used consist of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide ligands that coordinate to Fe(III) centres through three different interactions: a strong pyridyl–iron one, and two weaker carboxamido–iron ones through both the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of the carboxamide groups. As a result, the iron–ligand bonds can readily break and re-form while the iron centres still remain attached to the ligands through the stronger interaction with the pyridyl ring, which enables reversible unfolding and refolding of the chains. We hypothesize that this behaviour supports the high stretchability and self-healing capability of the material.

  10. Self-Healing Nanocomposite Hydrogel with Well-Controlled Dynamic Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiaochu; Mishra, Sumeet; Chen, Pangkuan; Tracy, Joseph; Holten-Andersen, Niels

    Network dynamics is a crucial factor that determines the macroscopic self-healing rate and efficiency in polymeric hydrogel materials, yet its controllability is seldom studied in most reported self-healing hydrogel systems. Inspired by mussel's adhesion chemistry, we developed a novel approach to assemble inorganic nanoparticles and catechol-decorated PEG polymer into a hydrogel network. When utilized as reversible polymer-particle crosslinks, catechol-metal coordination bonds yield a unique gel network with dynamic mechanics controlled directly by interfacial crosslink structure. Taking advantage of this structure-property relationship at polymer-particle interfaces, we next designed a hierarchically structured hybrid gel with two distinct relaxation timescales. By tuning the relative contribution of the two hierarchical relaxation modes, we are able to finely control the gel's dynamic mechanical behavior from a viscoelastic fluid to a stiff solid, yet preserving its fast self-healing property without the need for external stimuli.

  11. Self-healing networks: redundancy and structure.

    PubMed

    Quattrociocchi, Walter; Caldarelli, Guido; Scala, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the concept of self-healing in the field of complex networks modelling; in particular, self-healing capabilities are implemented through distributed communication protocols that exploit redundant links to recover the connectivity of the system. We then analyze the effect of the level of redundancy on the resilience to multiple failures; in particular, we measure the fraction of nodes still served for increasing levels of network damages. Finally, we study the effects of redundancy under different connectivity patterns-from planar grids, to small-world, up to scale-free networks-on healing performances. Small-world topologies show that introducing some long-range connections in planar grids greatly enhances the resilience to multiple failures with performances comparable to the case of the most resilient (and least realistic) scale-free structures. Obvious applications of self-healing are in the important field of infrastructural networks like gas, power, water, oil distribution systems. PMID:24533065

  12. Self healing nature of bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debroy, Sanghamitra; Pavan Kumar Miriyala, V.; Vijaya Sekhar, K.; Acharyya, Swati Ghosh; Acharyya, Amit

    2016-08-01

    The phenomenon of self healing of cracks in bilayer graphene sheet has been studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The bilayer graphene sheet was subjected to uniaxial tensile load resulting in initiation and propagation of cracks on exceeding the ultimate tensile strength. Subsequently, all forces acting on the sheet were removed and sheet was relaxed. The cracks formed in the graphene sheet healed without any external aid within 0.4 ps The phenomenon of self healing of the cracks in graphene sheet was found to be independent of the length of the crack, but occurred for critical crack opening distance less than 5 Å for AA stacked sheet and 13 Å for AB stacked bilayer graphene sheet. Self healing was observed for both AB (mixed stacking of armchair and zigzag graphene sheet) and AA (both sheets of similar orientation i.e. either armchair-armchair or zigzag-zigzag) stacking of bilayer graphene sheet.

  13. Robust synthesis of epoxy resin-filled microcapsules for application to self-healing materials.

    PubMed

    Bolimowski, Patryk A; Bond, Ian P; Wass, Duncan F

    2016-02-28

    Mechanically and thermally robust microcapsules containing diglycidyl ether bisphenol A-based epoxy resin and a high-boiling-point organic solvent were synthesized in high yield using in situ polymerization of urea and formaldehyde in an oil-in-water emulsion. Microcapsules were characterized in terms of their size and size distribution, shell surface morphology and thermal resistance to the curing cycles of commercially used epoxy polymers. The size distribution of the capsules and characteristics such as shell thickness can be controlled by the specific parameters of microencapsulation, including concentrations of reagents, stirrer speed and sonication. Selected microcapsules, and separated core and shell materials, were analysed using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. It is demonstrated that capsules lose minimal 2.5 wt% at temperatures no higher than 120°C. These microcapsules can be applied to self-healing carbon fibre composite structural materials, with preliminary results showing promising performance. PMID:26755765

  14. Development of self-healing coatings for corrosion protection on metallic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, Alicja; Barker, Michael B.

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by biological systems, artificial self-healing materials are designed for repairing local damage caused by external factors. The rapidly expanding field of self-healing systems contains, among others, materials with well-defined surface properties. Undoubtedly, enhancing surface functionalisation, by applying smart coatings, enjoys an extensive interest. The self-healing ability is particularly essential property for corrosion protection strategies, especially when the use of one of the most effective corrosion systems, based on chromium(VI) compounds, is now banned by the current registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals legislation. Self-healing protective coatings are produced using macromolecular compounds, ceramics, metals and composites. Considering the wide range of available materials, the number of potential combinations seems to be unlimited. The self-healing action of such coatings is activated by appropriate stimuli: temperature changes, radiation, pH changes, pressure changes and mechanical action. In this paper, the research and practical implications of the various approaches to achieving self-healing functionality of protective coatings, as well as potential developments in this area, are explored.

  15. Self-Healing Behavior of Ethylene-Based Ionomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalista, Stephen J., Jr.; Ward, Thomas C.; Oyetunji, Zainab

    2004-01-01

    The self-healing behavior of poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (EMAA)-based ionomers holds tremendous potential for use in a wide variety of unique applications. However, to effectively utilize this self-healing behavior and to design novel materials which possess this ability, the mechanism by which they heal must first be understood ionomers are a class of polymers that can be described as copolymers containing less than 15 mol% ionic content whereby the bulk properties are governed by ionic interactions within the polymer. These ionic groups aggregate into discrete regions known as multiplets which overlap forming clusters that act as physical cross-links profoundly influencing the bulk physical properties. These clusters possess an order-disorder transition (T(sub i)) where the clustered regions may rearrange themselves given time and stimuli. Recognizing the strong influence of these ionic regions on other well understood ionomer properties, their role in self-heating behavior will be assessed. The self-healing behavior is observed following projectile puncture. It has been suggested that during impact energy is passed to the ionomer material, heating it to the melt state. After penetration, it is proposed that the ionic regions maintain their attractions and flow together patching the hole. Thus, the importance of this ionic character and is unique interaction must be established. This will be accomplished through examination of materials with varying ionic content and through the analysis of the T(sub i). The specific ionomer systems examined include a number of ethylene-based materials. Materials of varying ionic content, including the non-ionic base copolymers, will be examined by peel tests, projectile impact and DSC analysis. The information will also be compared with some basic data on LDPE material.

  16. Microcapsule-Type Organogel-Based Self-Healing System Having Secondary Damage Preventing Capability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye-In; Kim, Dong-Min; Yu, Hwan-Chul; Chung, Chan-Moon

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a novel microcapsule-type organogel-based self-healing system in which secondary damage does not occur in the healed region. A mixture of an organogelator, poor and good solvents for the gelator is used as the healing agent; when the good solvent evaporates from this agent, a viscoelastic organogel forms. The healing agent is microencapsulated with urea-formaldehyde polymer, and the resultant microcapsules are integrated into a polymer coating to prepare self-healing coatings. When the coatings are scratched, they self-heal, as demonstrated by means of corrosion testing, electrochemical testing, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After the healed coatings are subjected to vigorous vibration, it is demonstrated that no secondary damage occurs in the healed region. The secondary damage preventing capability of the self-healing coating is attributable to the viscoelasticity of the organogel. The result can give insight into the development of a "permanent" self-healing system. PMID:27070306

  17. Tribology of polymer composites

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, K.

    1993-12-31

    Polymer composites are more and more used as structural components which are very often subjected to friction and wear loadings under use. This overview describes the following cases: (1) short fiber/thermoplastic matrix composites and their friction and wear properties as a function of both microstructural composition and external testing conditions. Special attention is focused on the effects of different polymer matrices, fiber reinforcements, and additional internal lubricants on the coefficient of friction and the specific wear rate of these materials when sliding against hard steel counterparts. Further effects on these tribological properties due to changes in testing temperature, sliding speed and contact pressure are outlined; (2) results of sliding wear experiments with continuous glass, carbon or aramid fiber/polymer matrix composites against steel counterparts. They were used to develop a hypothetical model composite with optimum wear resistance. This was achieved for hybrids with carbon fibers parallel and aramid fibers normal to the sliding direction of the counterpart; and (3) the friction and wear performance of thin layer composites strengthened with steel backeners to sustain very high pressure loadings during sliding wear.

  18. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    SciTech Connect

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  19. Bio-Inspired Composite Interfaces: Controlling Hydrogel Mechanics via Polymer-Nanoparticle Coordination Bond Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels

    2015-03-01

    In soft nanocomposite materials, the effective interaction between polymer molecules and inorganic nanoparticle surfaces plays a critical role in bulk mechanical properties. However, controlling these interfacial interactions remains a challenge. Inspired by the adhesive chemistry in mussel threads, we present a novel approach to control composite mechanics via polymer-particle interfacial dynamics; by incorporating iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) into a catechol-modified polymer network the resulting hydrogels are crosslinked via reversible coordination bonds at Fe3O4 NP surfaces thereby providing a dynamic gel network with robust self-healing properties. By studying the thermally activated composite network relaxation processes we have found that the polymer-NP binding energy can be controlled by engineering both the organic and inorganic side of the interface.

  20. Aerogel/polymer composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

  1. Self-healing elastomer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Michael W. (Inventor); Sottos, Nancy R. (Inventor); White, Scott R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A composite material includes an elastomer matrix, a set of first capsules containing a polymerizer, and a set of second capsules containing a corresponding activator for the polymerizer. The polymerizer may be a polymerizer for an elastomer. The composite material may be prepared by combining a first set of capsules containing a polymerizer, a second set of capsules containing a corresponding activator for the polymerizer, and a matrix precursor, and then solidifying the matrix precursor to form an elastomeric matrix.

  2. Morphing Metal and Elastomer Bicontinuous Foams for Reversible Stiffness, Shape Memory, and Self-Healing Soft Machines.

    PubMed

    Van Meerbeek, Ilse M; Mac Murray, Benjamin C; Kim, Jae Woo; Robinson, Sanlin S; Zou, Perry X; Silberstein, Meredith N; Shepherd, Robert F

    2016-04-13

    A metal-elastomer-foam composite that varies in stiffness, that can change shape and store shape memory, that self-heals, and that welds into monolithic structures from smaller components is presented. PMID:26872152

  3. Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  4. Self-Healing, Inflatable, Rigidizable Shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haight, Andrea; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Dixit, Anshu; Gleeson, Dan

    2012-01-01

    An inflatable, rigidizable shelter system was developed based on Rigi dization on Command (ROC) technology incorporating not only the requ ired low-stowage volume and lightweight character achieved from an i nflatable/rigidizable system, but also a self-healing foam system inc orporated between the rigidizable layers of the final structure to m inimize the damage caused by any punctures to the structure.

  5. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2006-05-30

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  6. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOEpatents

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2001-06-19

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  7. Self-healing coatings containing microcapsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Liao, Le-ping; Wang, Si-jie; Li, Wu-jun

    2012-01-01

    Effectiveness of epoxy resin filled microcapsules was investigated for healing of cracks generated in coatings. Microcapsules were prepared by in situ polymerization of urea-formaldehyde resin to form shell over epoxy resin droplets. Characteristics of these capsules were studied by 3D measuring laser microscope, particle size analyzer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to investigate their surface morphology, size distribution, chemical structure and thermal stability, respectively. The results indicate that microcapsules containing epoxy resins can be synthesized successfully. The size is around 100 μm. The rough outer surface of microcapsule is composed of agglomerated urea-formaldehyde nanoparticles. The size and surface morphology of microcapsule can be controlled by selecting different processing parameters. The microcapsules basically exhibit good storage stability at room temperature, and they are chemically stable before the heating temperature is up to approximately 200 °C. The model system of self-healing coating consists of epoxy resin matrix, 10 wt% microencapsulated healing agent, 2 wt% catalyst solution. The self-healing function of this coating system is evaluated through self-healing testing of damaged and healed coated steel samples.

  8. Processing and performance of self-healing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P. S.; Zhang, M. Q.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2009-08-01

    Two self-healing methods were implemented into composite materials with self-healing capabilities, using hollow glass fibres (HGF) and microencapsulated epoxy resin with mercaptan as the hardener. For the HGF approach, two perpendicular layers of HGF were put into an E-glass/epoxy composite, and were filled with coloured epoxy resin and hardener. The HGF samples had a novel ball indentation test method done on them. The samples were analysed using micro-CT scanning, confocal microscopy and penetrant dye. Micro-CT and confocal microscopy produced limited success, but their viability was established. Penetrant dye images showed resin obstructing flow of dye through damage regions, suggesting infiltration of resin into cracks. Three-point bend tests showed that overall performance could be affected by the flaws arising from embedding HGF in the material. For the microcapsule approach, samples were prepared for novel double-torsion tests used to generate large cracks. The samples were compared with pure resin samples by analysing them using photoelastic imaging and scanning electron microscope (SEM) on crack surfaces. Photoelastic imaging established the consolidation of cracks while SEM showed a wide spread of microcapsules with their distribution being affected by gravity. Further double-torsion testing showed that healing recovered approximately 24% of material strength.

  9. Self healing of high strength concrete after deterioration by freeze/thaw

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, S.; Sellevold, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    Some experiments have been performed to investigate the self healing of concretes deteriorated by internal cracking in the ASTM C666 procedure A rapid freeze/thaw test. Six different well cured concretes were deteriorated to various degrees. Then the specimens (concrete beams) were stored in water for 2--3 months. Resonance frequency, weight, volume and compressive strength were measured during deterioration and self healing. Concretes that lost as much as 50% of their initial relative dynamic modulus during freeze/thaw could recover almost completely during subsequent storage in water, somewhat varying with concrete composition and degree of deterioration. Compressive strength showed reductions of 22--29% on deterioration, but only 4--5% recovery on self healing. Freeze/thaw tests on deteriorated and self-healed specimens in partly sealed condition showed clearly that the deterioration was governed by the ability to take up water; the more water that leaked through the plastic foil during freeze/thaw, the larger the deterioration. Self healing may be an important factor giving concrete better frost durability in field than when submitting specimens to freeze/thaw cycles in water.

  10. Starch-filled polymer composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the development of degradable polymer composites that can be made at room temperature without special equipments. The developed composites are made from ethyl cyanoacrylate and starch. The polymer composites produced by this procedure contain 60 wt% of starch with compressive s...

  11. Sunlight-induced self-healing of a microcapsule-type protective coating.

    PubMed

    Song, Young-Kyu; Jo, Ye-Hyun; Lim, Ye-Ji; Cho, Sung-Youl; Yu, Hwan-Chul; Ryu, Byung-Cheol; Lee, Sang-In; Chung, Chan-Moon

    2013-02-01

    Photopolymerization behavior of a methacryloxypropyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (MAT-PDMS) healing agent was investigated in the presence of benzoin isobutyl ether (BIE) photoinitiator by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. MAT-PDMS and BIE were microencapsulated with urea-formaldehyde polymer. The surface and shell morphology of the microcapsules was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mean diameter and size distribution of the microcapsules could be controlled by agitation rate. A coating matrix formulation was prepared by sol-gel reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of a polysiloxane and by subsequent addition of an adhesion promoter. The formulation and microcapsules were mixed to give a self-healing coating formulation, which was then sprayed to surface of cellulose-fiber-reinforced-cement (CRC) board or mortar. Contact angle measurements showed that both the polymerized MAT-PDMS and the prepared coating matrix are hydrophobic, and the coating matrix has good wettability with MAT-PDMS. It was confirmed by optical microscopy and SEM that, when the self-healing coating is damaged, the healing agent is released from ruptured microcapsules and fills the damaged region. The self-healing coating was evaluated as protective coating for mortar, and it was demonstrated by water permeability and chloride ion penetration tests that our system has sunlight-induced self-healing capability. Our self-healing coating is the first example of capsule-type photoinduced self-healing system, and offers the advantages of catalyst-free, environmentally friendly, inexpensive, practical healing. PMID:23373694

  12. Self-Healing Supramolecular Self-Assembled Hydrogels Based on Poly(L-glutamic acid).

    PubMed

    Li, Guifei; Wu, Jie; Wang, Bo; Yan, Shifeng; Zhang, Kunxi; Ding, Jianxun; Yin, Jingbo

    2015-11-01

    Self-healing polymeric hydrogels have the capability to recover their structures and functionalities upon injury, which are extremely attractive in emerging biomedical applications. This research reports a new kind of self-healing polypeptide hydrogels based on self-assembly between cholesterol (Chol)-modified triblock poly(L-glutamic acid)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-glutamic acid) ((PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA)-g-Chol) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-modified poly(L-glutamic acid) (PLGA-g-β-CD). The hydrogel formation relied on the host and guest linkage between β-CD and Chol. This study demonstrates the influences of polymer concentration and β-CD/Chol molar ratio on viscoelastic behavior of the hydrogels. The results showed that storage modulus was highest at polymer concentration of 15% w/v and β-CD/Chol molar ratio of 1:1. The effect of the PLGA molecular weight in (PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA)-g-Chol on viscoelastic behavior, mechanical properties and in vitro degradation of the supramolecular hydrogels was also studied. The hydrogels showed outstanding self-healing capability and good cytocompatibility. The multilayer structure was constructed using hydrogels with self-healing ability. The developed hydrogels provide a fascinating glimpse for the applications in tissue engineering. PMID:26414083

  13. Electrospun N-Substituted Polyurethane Membranes with Self-Healing Ability for Self-Cleaning and Oil/Water Separation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wenyuan; Liu, Libin; Li, Ting; Dang, Zhao; Qiao, Congde; Xu, Jinku; Wang, Yanyan

    2016-01-18

    Membranes with special functionalities, such as self-cleaning, especially those for oil/water separation, have attracted much attention due to their wide applications. However, they are difficult to recycle and reuse after being damaged. Herein, we put forward a new N-substituted polyurethane membrane concept with self-healing ability to address this challenge. The membrane obtained by electrospinning has a self-cleaning surface with an excellent self-healing ability. Importantly, by tuning the membrane composition, the membrane exhibits different wettability for effective separation of oil/water mixtures and water-in-oil emulsions, whilst still displaying a self-healing ability and durability against damage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate a self-healing membrane for oil/water separation, which provides the fundamental research for the development of advanced oil/water separation materials. PMID:26603820

  14. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D.; Gross, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  15. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  16. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  17. Self-healing supramolecular gels formed by crown ether based host-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Xu, Donghua; Yan, Xuzhou; Chen, Jianzhuang; Dong, Shengyi; Zheng, Bo; Huang, Feihe

    2012-07-01

    Automatic repair: a polymer with pendent dibenzo[24]crown-8 units (purple in picture) was cross-linked by two bisammonium salts (green) to form two supramolecular gels based on host-guest interactions. These two gels are stimuli-responsive materials that respond to changes of the pH value and are also self-healing materials, as can be seen by eye and as evidenced by rheological data. PMID:22653895

  18. Segmented molecular design of self-healing proteinaceous materials

    PubMed Central

    Sariola, Veikko; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Jung, Huihun; Çetinkaya, Murat; Pacheco, Carlos; Sitti, Metin; Demirel, Melik C.

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical assembly of self-healing adhesive proteins creates strong and robust structural and interfacial materials, but understanding of the molecular design and structure–property relationships of structural proteins remains unclear. Elucidating this relationship would allow rational design of next generation genetically engineered self-healing structural proteins. Here we report a general self-healing and -assembly strategy based on a multiphase recombinant protein based material. Segmented structure of the protein shows soft glycine- and tyrosine-rich segments with self-healing capability and hard beta-sheet segments. The soft segments are strongly plasticized by water, lowering the self-healing temperature close to body temperature. The hard segments self-assemble into nanoconfined domains to reinforce the material. The healing strength scales sublinearly with contact time, which associates with diffusion and wetting of autohesion. The finding suggests that recombinant structural proteins from heterologous expression have potential as strong and repairable engineering materials. PMID:26323335

  19. Segmented molecular design of self-healing proteinaceous materials.

    PubMed

    Sariola, Veikko; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Jung, Huihun; Çetinkaya, Murat; Pacheco, Carlos; Sitti, Metin; Demirel, Melik C

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical assembly of self-healing adhesive proteins creates strong and robust structural and interfacial materials, but understanding of the molecular design and structure-property relationships of structural proteins remains unclear. Elucidating this relationship would allow rational design of next generation genetically engineered self-healing structural proteins. Here we report a general self-healing and -assembly strategy based on a multiphase recombinant protein based material. Segmented structure of the protein shows soft glycine- and tyrosine-rich segments with self-healing capability and hard beta-sheet segments. The soft segments are strongly plasticized by water, lowering the self-healing temperature close to body temperature. The hard segments self-assemble into nanoconfined domains to reinforce the material. The healing strength scales sublinearly with contact time, which associates with diffusion and wetting of autohesion. The finding suggests that recombinant structural proteins from heterologous expression have potential as strong and repairable engineering materials. PMID:26323335

  20. Segmented molecular design of self-healing proteinaceous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sariola, Veikko; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Jung, Huihun; Çetinkaya, Murat; Pacheco, Carlos; Sitti, Metin; Demirel, Melik C.

    2015-09-01

    Hierarchical assembly of self-healing adhesive proteins creates strong and robust structural and interfacial materials, but understanding of the molecular design and structure-property relationships of structural proteins remains unclear. Elucidating this relationship would allow rational design of next generation genetically engineered self-healing structural proteins. Here we report a general self-healing and -assembly strategy based on a multiphase recombinant protein based material. Segmented structure of the protein shows soft glycine- and tyrosine-rich segments with self-healing capability and hard beta-sheet segments. The soft segments are strongly plasticized by water, lowering the self-healing temperature close to body temperature. The hard segments self-assemble into nanoconfined domains to reinforce the material. The healing strength scales sublinearly with contact time, which associates with diffusion and wetting of autohesion. The finding suggests that recombinant structural proteins from heterologous expression have potential as strong and repairable engineering materials.

  1. Assisted self-healing in ripped graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Blaeckberg, L.; Sjoestrand, H.; Klintenberg, M.; Ringbom, A.

    2010-11-15

    A monolayer of sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon (graphene) is a material with great technological promise because of, for example, its transport, electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. In this work noble gas diffusion through ripped graphene sheets is explored. The motivation is improved detection systems used worldwide to verify compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. It is demonstrated that even ripped graphene sheets and/or nonoverlapping graphene flakes inhibit noble gas diffusion. The latter has been shown for He and Xe where an infinitely long rip was constructed to have Stone-Wales edges. It is also shown that the ripped graphene layer self-heal in an alternating pentagon, hexagon, heptagon (5-6-7) and 7-6-5 pattern perpendicular to the rip. Moreover, the noble gas (He and Xe) assists in the healing process of wider rips.

  2. Stretchable Self-Healing Polymeric Dielectrics Cross-Linked Through Metal-Ligand Coordination.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ying-Li; Chortos, Alex; Pfattner, Raphael; Lissel, Franziska; Chiu, Yu-Cheng; Feig, Vivian; Xu, Jie; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Gu, Xiaodan; Wang, Chao; He, Mingqian; Chung, Jong Won; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-05-11

    A self-healing dielectric elastomer is achieved by the incorporation of metal-ligand coordination as cross-linking sites in nonpolar polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers. The ligand is 2,2'-bipyridine-5,5'-dicarboxylic amide, while the metal salts investigated here are Fe(2+) and Zn(2+) with various counteranions. The kinetically labile coordination between Zn(2+) and bipyridine endows the polymer fast self-healing ability at ambient condition. When integrated into organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as gate dielectrics, transistors with FeCl2 and ZnCl2 salts cross-linked PDMS exhibited increased dielectric constants compared to PDMS and demonstrated hysteresis-free transfer characteristics, owing to the low ion conductivity in PDMS and the strong columbic interaction between metal cations and the small Cl(-) anions which can prevent mobile anions drifting under gate bias. Fully stretchable transistors with FeCl2-PDMS dielectrics were fabricated and exhibited ideal transfer characteristics. The gate leakage current remained low even after 1000 cycles at 100% strain. The mechanical robustness and stable electrical performance proved its suitability for applications in stretchable electronics. On the other hand, transistors with gate dielectrics containing large-sized anions (BF4(-), ClO4(-), CF3SO3(-)) displayed prominent hysteresis due to mobile anions drifting under gate bias voltage. This work provides insights on future design of self-healing stretchable dielectric materials based on metal-ligand cross-linked polymers. PMID:27099162

  3. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOEpatents

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  4. Active self-healing encapsulation of vaccine antigens in PLGA microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Kashappa-Goud H.; Schwendeman, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we describe the detailed development of a simple and effective method to microencapsulate vaccine antigens in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) by simple mixing of preformed active self-microencapsulating (SM) PLGA microspheres in a low concentration aqueous antigen solution at modest temperature (10-38 °C). Co-encapsulating protein-sorbing vaccine adjuvants and polymer plasticizers were used to “actively” load the protein in the polymer pores and facilitate polymer self-healing at temperature > hydrated polymer glass transition temperature, respectively. The microsphere formulation parameters and loading conditions to provide optimal active self-healing microencapsulation of vaccine antigen in PLGA was investigated. Active self-healing encapsulation of two vaccine antigens, ovalbumin and tetanus toxoid (TT), in PLGA microspheres was adjusted by preparing blank microspheres containing different vaccine adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) or calcium phosphate). Active loading of vaccine antigen in Al(OH)3-PLGA microspheres was found to: a) increase proportionally with an increasing loading of Al(OH)3 (0.88-3 wt%) and addition of porosigen, b) decrease when the inner Al(OH)3/trehalose phase to 1 mL outer oil phase and size of microspheres was respectively > 0.2 mL and 63 μm, and c) change negligibly by PLGA concentration and initial incubation (loading) temperature. Encapsulation of protein sorbing Al(OH)3 in PLGA microspheres resulted in suppression of self-healing of PLGA pores, which was then overcome by improving polymer chain mobility, which in turn was accomplished by coincorporating hydrophobic plasticizers in PLGA. Active self-healing microencapsulation of manufacturing process-labile TT in PLGA was found to: a) obviate micronization- and organic solvent-induced TT degradation, b) improve antigen loading (1.4-1.8 wt% TT) and encapsulation efficiency (~ 97%), c) provide nearly homogeneous distribution and stabilization of antigen in polymer

  5. Active self-healing encapsulation of vaccine antigens in PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Desai, Kashappa-Goud H; Schwendeman, Steven P

    2013-01-10

    Herein, we describe the detailed development of a simple and effective method to microencapsulate vaccine antigens in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) by simple mixing of preformed active self-microencapsulating (SM) PLGA microspheres in a low concentration aqueous antigen solution at modest temperature (10-38 °C). Co-encapsulating protein-sorbing vaccine adjuvants and polymer plasticizers were used to "actively" load the protein in the polymer pores and facilitate polymer self-healing at a temperature>the hydrated polymer glass transition temperature, respectively. The microsphere formulation parameters and loading conditions to provide optimal active self-healing microencapsulation of vaccine antigens in PLGA was investigated. Active self-healing encapsulation of two antigens, ovalbumin and tetanus toxoid (TT), in PLGA microspheres was adjusted by preparing blank microspheres containing different vaccine adjuvants (aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)₃) or calcium phosphate). Active loading of vaccine antigen in Al(OH)₃-PLGA microspheres was found to: a) increase with an increasing loading of Al(OH)₃ (0.88-3 wt.%) and addition of porosigen, b) decrease when the inner Al(OH)₃/trehalose phase to 1 mL outer oil phase and size of microspheres was respectively >0.2 mL and 63 μm, and c) change negligibly by PLGA concentration and initial incubation (loading) temperature. Encapsulation of protein sorbing Al(OH)₃ in PLGA microspheres resulted in suppression of self-healing of PLGA pores, which was then overcome by improving polymer chain mobility, which in turn was accomplished by coincorporating hydrophobic plasticizers in PLGA. Active self-healing microencapsulation of manufacturing process-labile TT in PLGA was found to: a) obviate micronization- and organic solvent-induced TT degradation, b) improve antigen loading (1.4-1.8 wt.% TT) and encapsulation efficiency (~97%), c) provide nearly homogeneous distribution and stabilization of antigen in polymer, and d

  6. Thermosetting epoxy resin/thermoplastic system with combined shape memory and self-healing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yongtao; Wang, Jingjie; Lu, Haibao; Xu, Ben; Fu, Yongqing; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    A novel and facile strategy was proposed to construct a thermosetting/thermoplastic system with both shape memory and self-healing properties based on commercial epoxy resin and poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-PCL. Thermoplastic material is capable of re-structuring and changing the stiffness/modulus when the temperature is above melting temperature. PCL microfiber was used as a plasticizer in epoxy resin-based blends, and served as a ‘hard segment’ to fix a temporary shape of the composites during shape memory cycles. In this study, the electrospun PCL membrane with a porous network structure enabled a homogenous PCL fibrous distribution and optimized interaction between fiber and epoxy resin. The self-healing capability is achieved by phase transition during curing of the composites. The mechanism of the shape memory effect of the thermosetting (rubber)/thermoplastic composite is attributed to the structural design of the thermoplastic network inside the thermosetting resin/rubber matrix.

  7. Virtual prototyping in polymer composites

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, J.K.; Lenz, T.J.; Hawley, M.C.; Sticklen, J.; Scanlon, J.F.; Weigell, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    Efficacious design is critical to the successful application of any device. For polymer composites this design activity is abstracted into three dimensions: material design, process design and assembly design. Rarely is a composite product made entirely of composites; in most cases the product is a mixture of both composite and non-composite segments. The term composite assembly is used to emphasize this hybrid nature. Much of the assembly design activity involves determining whether a given three dimensional description with the relevant material properties will adequately support the various loadings. Rigorous detailed design typically verifies this using finite element analysis studies. The design literature clearly shows that many of the critical cost drivers are determined prior to detailed design. Providing decision support for the earlier conceptual design phase can substantially impact downstream costs of composite assemblies. This conceptual design includes determining which segments of the assembly will be composites as well as determining the overall configuration and relationship(s) between these segments. At the conceptual design phase, beneficial design criticism and advice can aid in the realization of the composite assembly. This paper focuses on the knowledge representation and inference strategies needed in an intelligent decision support system for the conceptual design of polymer composite assemblies. The specific domain application involves redesigning an existing metal assembly using polymer composite materials.

  8. Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators

    DOEpatents

    Gennett, Thomas; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, Brian J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-04-22

    The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

  9. Development of a self-healing soft pneumatic actuator: a first concept.

    PubMed

    Terryn, Seppe; Mathijssen, Glenn; Brancart, Joost; Lefeber, Dirk; Assche, Guy Van; Vanderborght, Bram

    2015-08-01

    Inspired by the intrinsic softness and the corresponding embodied intelligence principles, soft pneumatic actuators (SPA) have been developed, which ensure safe interaction in unstructured, unknown environments. Due to their intrinsic softness, these actuators have the ability to resist large mechanical impacts. However, the soft materials used in these structures are in general susceptible to damage caused by sharp objects found in the unstructured environments. This paper proposes to integrate a self-healing (SH-) mechanism in SPAs, such that cuts, tears and perforations in the actuator can be self-healed. Diels-Alder (DA-) polymers, covalent polymer network systems based on the thermoreversible DA-reaction, were selected and their mechanical, as well as SH-properties, are described. To evaluate the feasibility of developing an SPA constructed out of SH-material, a single cell prototype, a SH-soft pneumatic cell (SH-SPC), was constructed entirely out of DA-polymers. Exploiting the SH-property of the DA-polymers, a completely new shaping process is presented in this paper, referred to as 'shaping through folding and self-healing'. 3D polygon structures, like the cubic SH-SPC, can be constructed by folding SH-polymer sheet. The sides of the structures can be sealed and made airtight using a SH-procedure at relatively low temperatures (<90 °C). Both the (thermo) mechanical and SH-properties of the SH-SPC prototype were experimentally validated and showed excellent performances. Macroscopic incisions in the prototype were completely healed using a SH-procedure (<70 °C). Starting from this single-cell prototype, it is straight-forward to develop a multi-cell prototype, the first SPA ever built completely out of SH-polymers. PMID:26151944

  10. Molecular self-healing mechanisms between C60-fullerene and anthracene unveiled by Raman and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Geitner, R; Kötteritzsch, J; Siegmann, M; Fritzsch, R; Bocklitz, T W; Hager, M D; Schubert, U S; Gräfe, S; Dietzek, B; Schmitt, M; Popp, J

    2016-07-21

    The self-healing polymer P(LMA-co-MeAMMA) crosslinked with C60-fullerene has been studied by FT-Raman spectroscopy in combination with two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis and density functional theory calculations. To unveil the molecular changes during the self-healing process mediated by the Diels-Alder equilibrium between 10-methyl-9-anthracenyl groups and C60-fullerene different anthracene-C60-fullerene adducts have been synthesized and characterized by time-, concentration- and temperature-dependent FT-Raman measurements. The self-healing process could be monitored via the C60-fullerene vibrations at 270, 432 and 1469 cm(-1). Furthermore, the detailed analysis of the concentration-dependent FT-Raman spectra point towards the formation of anthracene-C60-fullerene adducts with an unusual high amount of anthracene bound to C60-fullerene in the polymer film, while the 2D correlation analysis of the temperature-dependent Raman spectra suggests a stepwise dissociation of anthracene-C60-fullerene adducts, which are responsible for the self-healing of the polymer. PMID:27327116

  11. Polymer compositions based on PXE

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jin; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Singh, Mohit

    2015-09-15

    New polymer compositions based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and other high-softening-temperature polymers are disclosed. These materials have a microphase domain structure that has an ionically-conductive phase and a phase with good mechanical strength and a high softening temperature. In one arrangement, the structural block has a softening temperature of about 210.degree. C. These materials can be made with either homopolymers or with block copolymers.

  12. Self-healing, an intrinsic property of biomineralization processes.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Schröder, Heinz C

    2013-05-01

    The sponge siliceous spicules are formed enzymatically via silicatein, in contrast to other siliceous biominerals. Originally, silicatein had been described as a major structural protein of the spicules that has the property to allow a specific deposition of silica onto their surface. More recently, it had been unequivocally demonstrated that silicatein displays a genuine enzyme activity, initiating and maintaining silica biopolycondensation at low precursor concentrations (<2 mM). Even more, as silicatein becomes embedded into the biosilica polymer, formed by the enzyme, it retains its functionality to enable a controlled biosilica deposition. The protection of silicatein through the biosilica mantel is so strong that it conserves the functionality of the enzyme for thousands of years. The implication of this finding, the preservation of the enzyme function over such long time periods, is that the intrinsic property of silicatein to display its enzymatic activity remains in the biosilica deposits. This self-healing property of sponge biosilica can be utilized to engineer novel hybrid materials, with silicatein as a functional template, which are more resistant toward physical stress and fracture. Those hybrid materials can even be used for the fabrication of silica dielectrics coupled to optical nanowires. PMID:23509013

  13. Polymer precursors for ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1986-01-01

    The fiber composite approach to reinforced ceramics provides the possibility of achieving ceramics with high fracture toughness relative to monolithics. Fabrication of ceramic composites, however, demands low processing temperatures to avoid fiber degradation. Formation of complex shapes further requires small diameter fibers as well as techniques for infiltrating the matrix between fibers. Polymers offer low temperature processability, control of rheology not available with ceramic powders, and should serve as precursors to matrix fibers. In recent years, a number of polysilanes and polysilezanes were investigated as potential presursors. A review of candidate polymers is presented, including recent studies of silsesquioxanes.

  14. High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites Conference held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on March 16 to 18, 1983. The purpose of the conference is to provide scientists and engineers working in the field of high temperature polymer matrix composites an opportunity to review, exchange, and assess the latest developments in this rapidly expanding area of materials technology. Technical papers are presented in the following areas: (1) matrix development; (2) adhesive development; (3) characterization; (4) environmental effects; and (5) applications.

  15. Activation-deactivation of self-healing in supramolecular rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corte, Laurent; Maes, Florine; Montarnal, Damien; Cantournet, Sabine; Tournilhac, Francois; Leibler, Ludwik; Mines-Paristech Cnrs (Umr7633) Team; Espci-Paristech Cnrs (Umr7167) Team

    2011-03-01

    Self-healing materials have the ability to restore autonomously their structural integrity after damage. Such a remarkable property was obtained recently in supramolecular rubbers formed by a network of small molecules associated via hydrogen bonds. Here we explore this self-healing through an original tack experiment where two parts of supramolecular rubber are brought into contact and then separated. These experiments reveal that a strong self-healing ability is activated by damage even though the surfaces of a molded part are weakly self-adhesive. In our testing conditions, a five minute contact between crack faces is sufficient to recover most mechanical properties of the bulk while days are required to obtain such adhesion levels with melt-pressed surfaces. We show that the deactivation of this self-healing ability seems unexpectedly slow as compared to the predicted dynamics of supramolecular networks. Fracture faces stored apart at room temperature still self-heal after days but are fully deactivated within hours by annealing. Combining these results with microstructural observations gives us a deeper insight into the mechanisms involved in this self-healing process.

  16. Solution-Blown Core-Shell Self-Healing Nano- and Microfibers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Wook; Yoon, Sam S; Yarin, Alexander L

    2016-02-24

    Self-healing microfibers with core-shell geometry were studied. A commercial binary epoxy was encased in solution-blown polymer nano-/microfibers in the 0.2-2.6 μm diameter range. The core-shell microfibers were formed by coaxial nozzles, which encapsulated the epoxy resin and its hardener in separate cores. Solution blowing, the fiber-forming process used in this work, was at least 30 times faster than the electrospinning method used previously and has already been scaled up to the industrial level. These core-shell microfibers show self-healing capability, in which epoxy and hardener are released from the cores of damaged fibers, resulting in polymerization. The epoxy used had a higher strength and shorter solidification time than poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) used previously. Also, the larger fiber diameters in the present study facilitated faster release of the epoxy resin and its hardener from the fiber cores, shortening the solidification time in comparison to the previous studies. Blister tests were conducted, which measured the adhesion energy of microfiber mats to substrates and the cohesion energy between layers of microfiber mats before and after fatigue damage followed by self-healing. PMID:26836581

  17. Heat transfer and fluid flow analysis of self-healing in metallic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Lucci, J.; Amano, R. S.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    2016-06-01

    This paper explores imparting self-healing characteristics to metal matrices similar to what are observed in biological systems and are being developed for polymeric materials. To impart self-healing properties to metal matrices, a liquid healing method was investigated; the met hod consists of a container filled with low melting alloy acting as a healing agent, embedded into a high melting metal matrix. When the matrix is cracked; self-healing is achieved by melting the healing agent allowing the liquid metal to flow into the crack. Upon cooling, solidification of the healing agent occurs and seals the crack. The objective of this research is to investigate the fluid flow and heat transfer to impart self-healing property to metal matrices. In this study, a dimensionless healing factor, which may help predict the possibility of healing is proposed. The healing factor is defined as the ratio of the viscous forces and the contact area of liquid metal and solid which prevent flow, and volume expansion, density, and velocity of the liquid metal, gravity, crack size and orientation which promote flow. The factor incorporates the parameters that control self-healing mechanism. It was observed that for lower values of the healing factor, the liquid flows, and for higher values of healing factor, the liquid remains in the container and healing does not occur. To validate and identify the critical range of the healing factor, experiments and simulations were performed for selected combinations of healing agents and metal matrices. The simulations were performed for three-dimensional models and a commercial software 3D Ansys-Fluent was used. Three experimental methods of synthesis of self-healing composites were used. The first method consisted of creating a hole in the matrices, and liquid healing agent was poured into the hole. The second method consisted of micro tubes containing the healing agent, and the third method consisted of incorporating micro balloons containing

  18. Hybridized polymer matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, B. A.; Visser, T.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions of combined fire and impact, graphite fibers are released to the atmosphere by graphite fiber composites. The retention of graphite fibers in these situations is investigated. Hybrid combinations of graphite tape and cloth, glass cloth, and resin additives are studied with resin systems. Polyimide resins form the most resistant composites and resins based on simple novolac epoxies the least resistant of those tested. Great improvement in the containment of the fibers is obtained in using graphite/glass hybrids, and nearly complete prevention of individual fiber release is made possible by the use of resin additives.

  19. High temperature polymer concrete compositions

    DOEpatents

    Fontana, Jack J.; Reams, Walter

    1985-01-01

    This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system. A preferred formulation emphasizing the major necessary components is as follows: ______________________________________ Component A: Silica sand 60-77 wt. % Silica flour 5-10 wt. % Portland cement 15-25 wt. % Acrylamide 1-5 wt. % Component B: Styrene 50-60 wt. % Trimethylolpropane 35-40 wt. % trimethacrylate ______________________________________ and necessary initiators, accelerators, and surfactants.

  20. High-temperature polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    Polymers research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has produced high-temperature, easily processable resin systems, such as PMR-15. In addition, the Polymers Branch has investigated ways to improve the mechanical properties of polymers and the microcracking resistance of polymer matrix composites in response to industry need for new and improved aeropropulsion materials. Current and future research in the Polymers Branch is aimed at advancing the upper use temperature of polymer matrix composites to 700 F and beyond by developing new resins, by examining the use of fiber reinforcements other than graphite, and by developing coatings for polymer matrix composites to increase their oxidation resistance.

  1. Damage, self-healing, and hysteresis in spider silks.

    PubMed

    De Tommasi, D; Puglisi, G; Saccomandi, G

    2010-05-19

    In this article, we propose a microstructure-based continuum model to describe the material behavior of spider silks. We suppose that the material is composed of a soft fraction with entropic elasticity and a hard, damageable fraction. The hard fraction models the presence of stiffer, crystal-rich, oriented regions and accounts for the effect of softening induced by the breaking of hydrogen bonds. To describe the observed presence of crystals with different size, composition, and orientation, this hard fraction is modeled as a distribution of materials with variable properties. The soft fraction describes the remaining regions of amorphous material and is here modeled as a wormlike chain. During stretching, we consider the effect of bond-breaking as a transition from the hard- to the soft-material phase. As we demonstrate, a crucial effect of bond-breaking that accompanies the softening of the material is an increase in contour length associated with chains unraveling. The model describes also the self-healing properties of the material by assuming partial bond reconnection upon unloading. Despite its simplicity, the proposed mechanical system reproduces the main experimental effects observed in cyclic loading of spider silks. Moreover, our approach is amenable to two- or three-dimensional extensions and may prove to be a useful tool in the field of microstructure optimization for bioinspired materials. PMID:20441758

  2. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, A.

    1981-01-01

    Design approaches and materials are described from which are fabricated pyrostatic graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) laminates that show improved retention of graphite particulates when subjected to burning. Sixteen hybridized plus two standard Gr/Ep laminates were designed, fabricated, and tested in an effort to eliminate the release of carbon (graphite) fiber particles from burned/burning, mechanically disturbed samples. The term pyrostatic is defined as meaning mechanically intact in the presence of fire. Graphite particulate retentive laminates were constructed whose constituent materials, cost of fabrication, and physical and mechanical properties were not significantly different from existing Gr/Ep composites. All but one laminate (a Celion graphite/bis-maleimide polyimide) were based on an off-the-shelf Gr/Ep, the AS-1/3501-5A system. Of the 16 candidates studied, four thin (10-ply) and four thick (50-ply) hybridized composites are recommended.

  3. Polymer film composite transducer

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.

    2005-09-20

    A composite piezoelectric transducer, whose piezoeletric element is a "ribbon wound" film of piezolectric material. As the film is excited, it expands and contracts, which results in expansion and contraction of the diameter of the entire ribbon winding. This is accompanied by expansion and contraction of the thickness of the ribbon winding, such that the sound radiating plate may be placed on the side of the winding.

  4. Self-healing concrete by use of microencapsulated bacterial spores

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.Y.; Soens, H.; Verstraete, W.; De Belie, N.

    2014-02-15

    Microcapsules were applied to encapsulate bacterial spores for self-healing concrete. The viability of encapsulated spores and the influence of microcapsules on mortar specimens were investigated first. Breakage of the microcapsules upon cracking was verified by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Self-healing capacity was evaluated by crack healing ratio and the water permeability. The results indicated that the healing ratio in the specimens with bio-microcapsules was higher (48%–80%) than in those without bacteria (18%–50%). The maximum crack width healed in the specimens of the bacteria series was 970 μm, about 4 times that of the non-bacteria series (max 250 μm). The overall water permeability in the bacteria series was about 10 times lower than that in non-bacteria series. Wet–dry cycles were found to stimulate self-healing in mortar specimens with encapsulated bacteria. No self-healing was observed in all specimens stored at 95%RH, indicating that the presence of liquid water is an essential component for self-healing.

  5. Self-healing ATM network based on multilink principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanlandegem, Thierry; Vankwikelberge, Patrick; Vanderstreaten, Hans

    1994-01-01

    Self-healing is the ability of a network to reconfigure itself around failures such that calls in progress are not dropped and suffer of no almost no degradation in quality of service. Providing self-healing capabilities in all parts of the future ATM network in a cost effective way is therefore a key challenge. In this paper a new self-healing method based on the multilink concept is presented for dedicated parts of the ATM network, such as, for instance, feeder networks. In the multilink concept that is proposed here, the cells of an ATM connection carried by a multilink are distributed over several physical links. If a physical link supporting the multilink fails, the cells will be distributed among the remaining physical links thus providing self-healing capacity. In this way the quality of service can be maintained at the expense of a higher load on the remaining physical links. The speed of restoration only realize on the detection and signaling of the failure since spare capacity is available on the very multilink. The sharing of spare capacity in addition to the statistical multiplexing gain provides a cost effective self-healing method and leads to a simplified network resource management. The proposed multilink concept is based on extension of the multipath self-routing concept, which is currently applied by Alcatel in its ATM switching fabric.

  6. Polymer-composite ball lightning.

    PubMed

    Bychkov, V L

    2002-01-15

    Investigations into the state of ball lightning (BL) have been made, and both theory and experiments, related to so-called "polymer-composite" ball lightning, are presented. The properties of such a polymeric BL have been described and are that of a long-lived object capable of storing high energy. Results of experiments, starting with polymeric components in erosive gas discharge experiments, are described and discussed. The model of BL as a highly charged polymer-dielectric structure is described. According to this model BL appears as the result of the aggregation of natural polymers, such as lignin and cellulose, soot, polymeric silica and other natural dust particles. Its ability to glow is explained by the appearance over its perimeter of gas discharges near the highly charged BL surface, and electrical breakdown of some regions on the surface, consisting of polymerized and aggregated threads. PMID:16210170

  7. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The extent to which graphite fibers are released from resin matrix composites that are exposed to fire and impact conditions was determined. Laboratory simulations of those conditions that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation were evaluated. The effectiveness of various hybridizing concepts in preventing this release of graphite fibers were also evaluated. The baseline (i.e., unhybridized) laminates examined were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy, graphite/polyimide, and graphite/phenolic materials. Hybridizing concepts investigated included resin fillers, laminate coatings, resin blending, and mechanical interlocking of the graphite reinforcement. The baseline and hybridized laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, were also compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that several hybrid concepts eliminated this fiber release. Isothermal and humidity aging did not appear to alter the fiber release tendencies.

  8. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henshaw, J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of improving the fire resistance of graphite epoxy composite laminates were investigated with the objective of reducing the volume of loose graphite fibers disseminated into the airstream as the result of a high intensity aircraft fuel fire. Improvements were sought by modifying the standard graphite epoxy systems without significantly negating their structural effectiveness. The modifications consisted primarily of an addition of a third constituent material such as glass fibers, glass flakes, carbon black in a glassy resin. These additions were designed to encourage coalescense of the graphite fibers and thereby reduce their aerodynamic float characteristics. A total of 38 fire tests were conducted on thin (1.0 mm) and thick (6.0 mm) hybrid panels.

  9. Innovative Self-Healing Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)

    SciTech Connect

    Raj Singh

    2012-06-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is critical to several national initiatives. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) addresses the technology needs through its comprehensive programs on SOFC. A reliable and cost-effective seal that works at high temperatures is essential to the long-term performance of the SOFC for 40,000 hours at 800°C. Consequently, seals remain an area of highest priority for the SECA program and its industry teams. An innovative concept based on self-healing glasses was advanced and successfully demonstrated through seal tests for 3000 hours and 300 thermal cycles to minimize internal stresses under both steady state and thermal transients for making reliable seals for the SECA program. The self-healing concept requires glasses with low viscosity at the SOFC operating temperature of 800°C but this requirement may lead to excessive flow of the glass in areas forming the seal. To address this challenge, a modification to glass properties by addition of particulate fillers is pursued in the project. The underlying idea is that a non-reactive ceramic particulate filler is expected to form glass-ceramic composite and increase the seal viscosity thereby increasing the creep resistance of the glass-composite seals under load. The objectives of the program are to select appropriate filler materials for making glass-composite, fabricate glass-composites, measure thermal expansion behaviors, and determine stability of the glass-composites in air and fuel environments of a SOFC. Self-healing glass-YSZ composites are further developed and tested over a longer time periods under conditions typical of the SOFCs to validate the long-term stability up to 2000 hours. The new concepts of glass-composite seals, developed and nurtured in this program, are expected to be cost-effective as these are based on conventional processing approaches and use of the inexpensive materials.

  10. Impact of self-healing capability on network robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yilun

    2015-04-01

    A wide spectrum of real-life systems ranging from neurons to botnets display spontaneous recovery ability. Using the generating function formalism applied to static uncorrelated random networks with arbitrary degree distributions, the microscopic mechanism underlying the depreciation-recovery process is characterized and the effect of varying self-healing capability on network robustness is revealed. It is found that the self-healing capability of nodes has a profound impact on the phase transition in the emergence of percolating clusters, and that salient difference exists in upholding network integrity under random failures and intentional attacks. The results provide a theoretical framework for quantitatively understanding the self-healing phenomenon in varied complex systems.

  11. Impact of self-healing capability on network robustness.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yilun

    2015-04-01

    A wide spectrum of real-life systems ranging from neurons to botnets display spontaneous recovery ability. Using the generating function formalism applied to static uncorrelated random networks with arbitrary degree distributions, the microscopic mechanism underlying the depreciation-recovery process is characterized and the effect of varying self-healing capability on network robustness is revealed. It is found that the self-healing capability of nodes has a profound impact on the phase transition in the emergence of percolating clusters, and that salient difference exists in upholding network integrity under random failures and intentional attacks. The results provide a theoretical framework for quantitatively understanding the self-healing phenomenon in varied complex systems. PMID:25974544

  12. Electrical self-healing of mechanically damaged zinc oxide nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Zang, Jianfeng; Xu, Zhi-Hui; Webb, Richard A; Li, Xiaodong

    2011-01-12

    We report the observation of remarkable electrical self-healing in mechanically damaged ZnO nanobelts. Nanoindentation into intrinsically defect-free ZnO nanobelts induces deformation and crack damage, causing a dramatic electrical signal decrease. Two self-healing regimes in the nanoindented ZnO nanobelts are revealed. The physical mechanism for the observed phenomena is analyzed in terms of the nanoindentation-induced dislocations, the short-range atomic diffusion in nanostructures, and the local heating of the dislocation zone in the electrical measurement. PMID:21121680

  13. Fast-acting self-healing metallic fuse.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, F. C.; Renton, C. A.; Rabinovici, B.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a fast-acting nonmechanical self-healing mercury fuse capable of protecting a high current circuit or device from overcurrent fault damages. Basically the self-healing fuse consists of two enclosed mercury reservoirs connected by a fine capillary tube filled with mercury that serves as the fusing element. It is pointed out that a better understanding of the energy conversion process involved in the operation of the device could help explore other device configurations (such as a tapering geometry and use of magnetic field to drive the arc into the fuse wall on inductive loads, etc.) and thus extend the range of capabilities for this type of protective device.

  14. Olefin metathesis for effective polymer healing via dynamic exchange of strong carbon-carbon bonds

    DOEpatents

    Guan, Zhibin; Lu, Yixuan

    2015-09-15

    A method of preparing a malleable and/or self-healing polymeric or composite material is provided. The method includes providing a polymeric or composite material comprising at least one alkene-containing polymer, combining the polymer with at least one homogeneous or heterogeneous transition metal olefin metathesis catalyst to form a polymeric or composite material, and performing an olefin metathesis reaction on the polymer so as to form reversible carbon-carbon double bonds in the polymer. Also provided is a method of healing a fractured surface of a polymeric material. The method includes bringing a fractured surface of a first polymeric material into contact with a second polymeric material, and performing an olefin metathesis reaction in the presence of a transition metal olefin metathesis catalyst such that the first polymeric material forms reversible carbon-carbon double bonds with the second polymeric material. Compositions comprising malleable and/or self-healing polymeric or composite material are also provided.

  15. Microencapsulation of Self Healing Agents for Corrosion Control Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolley, S. T.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Calle, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion, the environmentally induced degradation of materials, is a very costly problem that has a major impact on the global economy. Results from a 2-year breakthrough study released in 2002 by the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) showed that the total annual estimated direct cost associated with metallic corrosion in nearly every U.S. industry sector was a staggering $276 billion, approximately 3.1% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GOP). Corrosion protective coatings are widely used to protect metallic structures from the detrimental effects of corrosion but their effectiveness can be seriously compromised by mechanical damage, such as a scratch, that exposes the metallic substrate. The incorporation of a self healing mechanism into a corrosion control coating would have the potential to significantly increase its effectiveness and useful lifetime. This paper describes work performed to incorporate a number of microcapsule-based self healing systems into corrosion control coatings. The work includes the preparation and evaluation of self-healing systems based on curable epoxy, acrylate, and siloxane resins, as well as, microencapsulated systems based on passive, solvent born, healing agent delivery. The synthesis and optimization of microcapsule-based self healing systems for thin coating (less than 100 micron) will be presented.

  16. Asphaltenes-based polymer nano-composites

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, III, Daniel E

    2013-12-17

    Inventive composite materials are provided. The composite is preferably a nano-composite, and comprises an asphaltene, or a mixture of asphaltenes, blended with a polymer. The polymer can be any polymer in need of altered properties, including those selected from the group consisting of epoxies, acrylics, urethanes, silicones, cyanoacrylates, vulcanized rubber, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, imides, esters, cyanate esters, allyl resins.

  17. Enhanced Access Polynomial Based Self-healing Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Ratna; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav; Dowling, Tom

    A fundamental concern of any secure group communication system is that of key management. Wireless environments create new key management problems and requirements to solve these problems. One such core requirement in these emerging networks is that of self-healing. In systems where users can be offline and miss updates self healing allows a user to recover lost keys and get back into the secure communication without putting extra burden on the group manager. Clearly self healing must be only available to authorized users and this creates more challenges in that we must ensure unauthorized or revoked users cannot, themselves or by means of collusion, avail of self healing. To this end we enhance the one-way key chain based self-healing key distribution of Dutta et al. by introducing a collusion resistance property between the revoked users and the newly joined users. Our scheme is based on the concept of access polynomials. These can be loosely thought of as white lists of authorized users as opposed to the more widely used revocation polynomials or black lists of revoked users. We also allow each user a pre-arranged life cycle distributed by the group manager. Our scheme provides better efficiency in terms of storage, and the communication and computation costs do not increase as the number of sessions grows as compared to most current schemes. We analyze our scheme in an appropriate security model and prove that the proposed scheme is computationally secure and not only achieving forward and backward secrecy, but also resisting collusion between the new joined users and the revoked users. Unlike most existing schemes the new scheme allows temporary revocation. Also unlike existing schemes, our construction does not collapse if the number of revoked users crosses a threshold value. This feature increases resilience against revocation based denial of service (DOS) attacks and thus improves availability of communication channel.

  18. Autonomic healing of polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sottos, N. R.; Geubelle, P. H.; Moore, J. S.; Kessler, M. R.; Sriram, S. R.; Brown, E. N.; Viswanathan, S.

    2001-02-01

    Structural polymers are susceptible to damage in the form of cracks, which form deep within the structure where detection is difficult and repair is almost impossible. Cracking leads to mechanical degradation of fibre-reinforced polymer composites; in microelectronic polymeric components it can also lead to electrical failure. Microcracking induced by thermal and mechanical fatigue is also a long-standing problem in polymer adhesives. Regardless of the application, once cracks have formed within polymeric materials, the integrity of the structure is significantly compromised. Experiments exploring the concept of self-repair have been previously reported, but the only successful crack-healing methods that have been reported so far require some form of manual intervention. Here we report a structural polymeric material with the ability to autonomically heal cracks. The material incorporates a microencapsulated healing agent that is released upon crack intrusion. Polymerization of the healing agent is then triggered by contact with an embedded catalyst, bonding the crack faces. Our fracture experiments yield as much as 75% recovery in toughness, and we expect that our approach will be applicable to other brittle materials systems (including ceramics and glasses).

  19. Solvent sensitive polymer composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, A.; Armellini, C.; Carpentiero, A.; Minati, L.; Righini, G. C.; Ferrari, M.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we describe a composite system based on polystyrene colloidal nanoparticles assembled and embedded in an elastomeric matrix (polymer colloidal crystal, PCC), in the specific we have designed a PCC structure which displays an iridescent green color that can be attributed to the photonic crystal effect. This effect has been exploited to create a chemical sensor, in fact optical measurements have evidenced that the composite structure presents a different optical response as a function of the solvent applied on the surface. In particular we have demonstrated that the PCC possess, for specific solvents: (i) high sensitivity, (ii) fast response (less than 1s), and (iii) reversibility of the signal change. Finally preliminary results on the PCC have shown that this system can be also used as optical writing substrate using a specific solvent as ink, moreover an erasing procedure is also reported and discussed.

  20. Polymer composites technology in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Karbhari, V.M.; Kukich, D.S. . Center for Composite Materials)

    1993-08-01

    In 1992, the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Army Research Office, and Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a panel to assess advanced manufacturing technology for polymer composite structures in Japan. The panel was charged with comparing the levels of the technology and the industry in both the United States and Japan. The Panel on Advanced Polymer Composites Manufacturing Technology of the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center visited approximately twenty Japanese organizations over a ten-day period in December 1992. Their findings cover seven areas: aerospace, sporting goods, automotive, civil engineering, materials, manufacturing science, and product and process development methods. This report reflects the views of the authors, not necessarily those of the entire panel. The panel observed five emerging techno-paradigm shifts in Japan, previously identified by Kodama: Manufacturing companies; Business dynamics; R and D activities; Technology development; and Technology diffusion. Thus, what the panel observed in the specific area of advanced materials really reflects the overall Japanese approach to technology development. Their primary focus is on finding innovative new applications for existing materials, processes, and technologies, and on using these market opportunities to drive new development.

  1. FT-IR Investigation of Hoveyda-Grubbs'2{sup nd} Generation Catalyst in Self-Healing Epoxy Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Guadagno, Liberata; Naddeo, Carlo; Vittoria, Vittoria; Longo, Pasquale; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Mariconda, Annaluisa; Iannuzzo, Generoso; Russo, Salvatore

    2010-06-02

    The development of smart composites capable of self-repair on aeronautical structures is still at the planning stage owing to complex issues to overcome. A very important issue to solve concerns the components' stability of the proposed composites which are compromised at the cure temperatures necessary for good performance of the composite. In this work we analyzed the possibility to apply Hoveyda Grubbs' second generation catalyst (HG2) to develop self-healing systems. Our experimental results have shown critical issues in the use of epoxy precursors in conjunction with Hoveyda-Grubbs II metathesis catalyst. However, an appropriate curing cycle of the self-healing mixture permits to overcome the critical issues making possible high temperatures for the curing process without deactivating self-repair activity.

  2. A strong and stretchable self-healing film with self-activated pressure sensitivity for potential artificial skin applications

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chengyi; Huang, Tao; Wang, Hongzhi; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2013-01-01

    Artificial skin, which mimics the functions of natural skin, will be very important in the future for robots used by humans in daily life. However, combining skin's pressure sensitivity and mechanical self-healing properties in a man-made material remains a challenging task. Here, we show that graphene and polymers can be integrated into a thin film which mimics both the mechanical self-healing and pressure sensitivity behavior of natural skin without any external power supply. Its ultimate strain and tensile strength are even two and ten times larger than the corresponding values of human skin, respectively. It also demonstrates highly stable sensitivity to a very light touch (0.02 kPa), even in bending or stretching states. PMID:24190511

  3. Polymer composites containing photochromic dye solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Mitsunori; Sakiyama, Kohei; Mochizuki, Ryosuke; Ohashi, Kenji

    2010-05-01

    Photochromic polymer composites were fabricated by encapsulating dye solution in a polycarbonate membrane. The membrane contained through holes of 50 nm diameter. These nanoholes provided a sufficient free volume for the dye molecules to change their structure in the photochromic isomerization process. A polymer composite containing a toluene solution of diarylethene exhibited red color when it was irradiated with violet laser, and returned to the transparent state by green laser irradiation. Another polymer composite containing spiropyran turned to blue by ultraviolet lamp irradiation and returned to the transparent state by green laser irradiation. A nonlinear input-output characteristic and a rewritable-grating function were demonstrated by using these photochromic polymers.

  4. Polymer/mesoporous metal oxide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ver Meer, Melissa Ann

    Understanding the nature of the interfacial region between an organic polymer matrix and an inorganic filler component is essential in determining how this region impacts the overall bulk properties of the organic/inorganic hybrid composite material. In this work, polystyrene was used as the model polymer matrix coupled with silica-based filler materials to investigate the nature of structure-property relationships in polymer composites. Initial work was conducted on synthesis and characterization of colloidal and mesoporous silica particles melt blended into the polystyrene matrix. Modification of the interface was accomplished by chemically bonding the silica particles with the polystyrene chains through polymerization from the particle surface via atom transfer radical polymerization. High molecular weight polystyrene chains were formed and bulk test samples were evaluated with increased thermal stability of the grafted polymer composite system versus equivalent melt blended polymer composites. Polymer grafting was also conducted from the internal pores of mesoporous silica, further improving the thermal stability of the composite system without degrading dynamic mechanical properties. Characterization of the polymer composites was conducted with gel permeation chromatography, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis. It was also discovered during the polystyrene-silica composite studies that amorphous polystyrene can possess a less mobile phase, evident in a second peak of the loss tangent (tan delta). The long annealing times necessitated by the mesoporous silica composites were replicated in as received polystyrene. This new, less mobile phase is of particular interest in determining the mobility of polymer chains in the interfacial region.

  5. Biomimetic bonelike polymer cementitious composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dry, Carolyn M.; Warner, Carrie

    1997-02-01

    This paper outlines the progress in the development of a biomimetic, prefabricated synthetic building material that is to have the superior properties of bone. The goal was to make polymer/ceramic composite which mimics bone in both process of fabrication and resultant properties and bond between phases, because bones and shells have been found to have greater toughness and strength than conventional ceramics alone due to the presence of organic bonding materials. The intimate connection between material phases is due to careful growth sequences, i.e. the fibers are made first and the matrix grown around them as opposed to conventional ceramics in which any fibers are added to the matrix. We followed the rules under which bone material naturally forms albeit at a macroscale, as spelled out by researchers in biological materials.

  6. Mussel-Inspired Materials: Self-Healing through Coordination Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Krogsgaard, Marie; Nue, Vicki; Birkedal, Henrik

    2016-01-18

    Improved understanding of the underwater attachment strategy of the blue mussels and other marine organisms has inspired researchers to find new routes to advanced materials. Mussels use polyphenols, such as the catechol-containing amino acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), to attach to surfaces. Catechols and their analogues can undergo both oxidative covalent cross-linking under alkaline conditions and take part in coordination chemistry. The former has resulted in the widespread use of polydopamine and related materials. The latter is emerging as a tool to make self-healing materials due to the reversible nature of coordination bonds. We review how mussel-inspired materials have been made with a focus on the less developed use of metal coordination and illustrate how this chemistry can be widely to make self-healing materials. PMID:26558881

  7. Crystallization analysis for fiber/polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimo, Maria

    2016-05-01

    The peculiar nucleation behavior of low thermal conductivity polymer matrixes and the particular morphologies around fibers found in several composites, invalidate some assumptions invoked in the general description of the solidification kinetics of polycrystalline substances. The model of solidification universally adopted for polycrystalline substances, originally developed for metals, needs to be adapted also to account for large differences between polymers and fibers in thermoplastic composites. The extension of the classical phase transitions theory to fiber/polymer composites, in view of their specific thermal properties, allows to achieve reliable information on crystallization behavior and microstructure inside composites.

  8. Self Healing Concrete: A Biological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkers, Henk M.

    Concrete can be considered as a kind of artificial rock with properties more or less similar to certain natural rocks. As it is strong, durable, and relatively cheap, concrete is, since almost two centuries, the most used construction material worldwide, which can easily be recognized as it has changed the physiognomy of rural areas. However, due to the heterogeneity of the composition of its principle components, cement, water, and a variety of aggregates, the properties of the final product can widely vary. The structural designer therefore must previously establish which properties are important for a specific application and must choose the correct composition of the concrete ingredients in order to ensure that the final product applies to the previously set standards. Concrete is typically characterized by a high-compressive strength, but unfortunately also by a rather low-tensile strength. However, through the application of steel or other material reinforcements, the latter can be compensated for as such reinforcements can take over tensile forces.

  9. Functionalized Agarose Self-Healing Ionogels Suitable for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Tushar J; Bhattacharjya, Dhrubajyoti; Yu, Jong-Sung; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-10-12

    Agarose has been functionalized (acetylated/carbanilated) in an ionic liquid (IL) medium of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate at ambient conditions. The acetylated agarose showed a highly hydrophobic nature, whereas the carbanilated agarose could be dissolved in water as well as in the IL medium. Thermoreversible ionogels were obtained by cooling the IL sols of carbanilated agarose at room temperature. The ionogel prepared from a protic-aprotic mixed-IL system (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium formate) demonstrated a superior self-healing property, as confirmed from rheological measurements. The superior self-healing property of such an ionogel has been attributed to the unique inter-intra hydrogen-bonding network of functional groups inserted in the agarose. The ionogel was tested as a flexible solid electrolyte for an activated-carbon-based supercapacitor cell. The measured specific capacitance was found to be comparable with that of a liquid electrolyte system at room temperature and was maintained for up to 1000 charge-discharge cycles. Such novel functionalized-biopolymer self-healing ionogels with flexibility and good conductivity are desirable for energy-storage devices and electronic skins with superior lifespans and robustness. PMID:26280813

  10. Control algorithms of SONET integrated self-healing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Okaoue, Yasuyo; Egawa, Takashi; Sakauchi, Hideki

    1994-01-01

    As the deployment of high-speed fiber transmission systems has been accelerated, they are widely recognized as a firm infrastructure of information society. Under this circumstance, the importance of network survivability has been increasing rapidly in these days. In SONET, the self-healing networks have been highlighted as one of the most advanced mechanisms to realize SONET survivable networks. Several schemes have been proposed and studied actively due to a rapid progress on the development of highly intelligent NE's. Among them in this paper, a DCS based distributed self-healing network is discussed from a viewpoint of its control algorithms. Specifically, our self-healing algorithm called TRANS is explained in detail, which possesses such desirable features as providing fast and flexible restoration with line and path level restoration applied to an individual STS-1 channel, capability to handle multiple and even node failures, and so on. Both software simulation and hardware experiment verify that TRANS works properly in a real distributed environment, the result of which is shown in the paper. In addition, the combined use of TRANS and the ring restoration control is proposed taking into account the use in a practical SONET.

  11. A Multiple-Action Self-Healing Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Alexander; van den Berg, Otto; Wielant, Jan; De Graeve, Iris; Terryn, Herman

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a self-healing coating for corrosion protection of metals which combines two different types of self-healing mechanisms in one coating with multiple-healing functionality. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) was loaded into layered double hydroxide (LDH) carriers which were mixed into an acrylated polycaprolactone polyurethane based shape recovery coating and applied on Hot Dip Galvanized steel (HDG). The effect of triggered release of MBT on the protection of HDG became visible when samples with manually applied defects in the coating were immersed in 0.05 M NaCl solution (first, autonomous healing mechanism). The shape recovery (second, non-autonomous healing mechanism) was triggered by heating the samples for 2 minutes to 60°C. SEM-EDX and Raman Spectroscopy proved the presence of MBT in the LDH, in the MBT-loaded LDH in the coating and the released MBT on the HDG surface in the damaged area after being in contact with a solution containing corrosive ions. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) demonstrate the corrosion protection effect of MBT in the coating with a defect and the restoration of the barrier properties of the coating after defect closure. This way, the independent mechanisms of this multi-action self-healing coating could be demonstrated.

  12. Self Healing in Coatings at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloof, Wim G.

    Alloys for high temperature applications in an oxidizing environment depend on the formation of a protective and slow growing oxide scale. The composition of these alloys is such that a continuous layer of a thermodynamically stable oxide is formed through selective oxidation of one of the constituting elements. Then, the oxide layer forms a barrier between the environment and the underlying alloy. The alloys for high temperature applications can be divided into alumina (Al2O3), silica (SiO2), or chromia (Cr2O3) formers, such as stainless steels, superalloys (Reed 2006), and intermetallics (MX, where M is Ti, Fe, Co or Ni, and X denotes Al, Si, or Cr). These materials are successfully applied in for example gas turbine engines (aero, marine, and industrial), heating equipment and automotive converters etc. In this chapter, the focus will be on alumina forming alloys encountered as coating material for blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. However, the principles addressed also apply to the other mentioned classes of high temperature alloys.

  13. Ultraviolet and thermally stable polymer compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinisch, R. F.; Gloria, H. R.; Goldsberry, R. E.; Adamson, M. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A class of polymers is provided, namely, poly(diarylsiloxy) arylazines. These polymers have a basic chemical composition which has the property of stabilizing the optical and physical properties of the polymer against the degradative effect of ultraviolet light and high temperatures. This stabilization occurs at wavelengths including those shorter than found on the surface of the earth and in the absence or presence of oxygen, making the polymers of the present invention useful for high performance coating applications in extraterrestrial space as well as similar applications in terrestrial service. The invention also provides aromatic azines which are useful in the preparation of polymers such as those of the present invention.

  14. Ultraviolet and thermally stable polymer compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinisch, R. F.; Gloria, H. R.; Goldsberry, R. E.; Adamson, M. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A new class of polymers is provided, namely, poly (diarylsiloxy) arylazines. These novel polymers have a basic chemical composition which has the property of stabilizing the optical and physical properties of the polymer against the degradative effect of ultraviolet light and high temperatures. This stabilization occurs at wavelengths including those shorter than found on the surface of the earth and in the absence or presence of oxygen, making the polymers useful for high performance coating applications in extraterrestrial space as well as similar applications in terrestrial service. The invention also provides novel aromatic azines which are useful in the preparation of polymers such as those described.

  15. Method of making molecularly doped composite polymer material

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D [Tucson, AZ; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA; Graff, Gordon L [West Richland, WA; Burrows, Paul E [Kennewick, WA; Gross, Mark E. , Sapochak, Linda S.

    2005-06-21

    A method of making a composite polymer of a molecularly doped polymer. The method includes mixing a liquid polymer precursor with molecular dopant forming a molecularly doped polymer precursor mixture. The molecularly doped polymer precursor mixture is flash evaporated forming a composite vapor. The composite vapor is cryocondensed on a cool substrate forming a composite molecularly doped polymer precursor layer, and the cryocondensed composite molecularly doped polymer precursor layer is cross linked thereby forming a layer of the composite polymer layer of the molecularly doped polymer.

  16. Polymer Composites for Intelligent Food Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiating; Yap, Ray Chin Chong; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 50 years, remarkable improvements in mechanical and barrier properties of polymer composites have been realized. Their improved properties have been widely studied and employed for food packaging to keep food fresh, clean and suitable for consumption over sufficiently long storage period. In this paper, the current progress of science and technology development of polymer composites for intelligent food packaging will be highlighted. Future directions and perspectives for exploring polymer composites for intelligent food packaging to reveal freshness and quality of food packaged will also be put forward.

  17. Complex Multifunctional Polymer/Carbon-Nanotube Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Pritesh; Balasubramaniyam, Gobinath; Chen, Jian

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for developing complex multifunctional materials that consist of or contain polymer/carbon-nanotube composites has been conceived. As used here, "multifunctional" signifies having additional and/or enhanced physical properties that polymers or polymer-matrix composites would not ordinarily be expected to have. Such properties include useful amounts of electrical conductivity, increased thermal conductivity, and/or increased strength. In the present methodology, these properties are imparted to a given composite through the choice and processing of its polymeric and CNT constituents.

  18. Electronically conductive polymer composites and microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, L.S.

    1993-01-01

    Composites of electronically conductive polymers with insulating host materials are investigated. A template synthesis method was developed for the production of electronically conductive polymer microstructures. In template synthesis the pores of a porous host membrane act as templates for the polymerization of a conductive polymer. The template synthetic method can be used to form either solid microfibrils or hollow microtubules. The electrochemical properties of conductive polymers produced via the template synthesis method are superior to those of conventionally synthesized conductive polymers. Electronically conductive polymers are used to impart conductivity to non-conductive materials. Two different approaches are used. First, thin film composites of conductive polymers with fluoropolymers are made by the polymerization of conductive polymers onto fluoropolymer films. Modification of the fluoropolymer surface prior to conductive polymer polymerization is necessary to obtain good adhesion between the two materials. The difference in adhesion of the conductive polymer to the modified and unmodified fluoropolymer surfaces can be used to pattern the conductive polymer coating. Patterning of the conductive polymer coating can alternatively be done via UV laser ablation of the conductive polymer. The second method by which conductive polymers were used to impart conductivity to an insulating polymer was via the formation of a graft copolymer. In this approach, heterocyclic monomers grafted to an insulating polyphosphazene backbone were polymerized to yield semiconductive materials. Finally the measurement of electrolyte concentration in polypyrrole and the effects of hydroxide anion on the electrochemical and electrical properties of polypyrrole are described. It is shown that treatment of polypyrrole with hydroxide anion increases the potential window over which polypyrrole is a good electronic conductor.

  19. Mechanics of biological polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomakin, Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Cartilage and cuticle are two natural materials capable of remarkable mechanical performance, especially considering the limitations on composition and processing conditions under which they are constructed. Their impressive properties are postulated to be a consequence of their complex multi-scale organization which has commonly been characterized by biochemical and microscopic methods. The objective of this dissertation is to overcome the limitations of such methods with mechanical analysis techniques generally reserved for the study of synthetic polymers. Methods for transient and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of porcine TMJ disc sections and Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor elytral (modified forewing) cuticle were developed to characterize the mechanical performance of these biomaterials. The TMJ disc dynamic elastic modulus (E') was determined to be a strong function of disc orientation and pretension ranging from 700+/-240 kPa at (1g pretension) in the mediolateral direction to 73+/-8.5 MPa (150g preload) in the anteroposterior direction. Analogous mechanical testing was used to understand the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of beetle elytral cuticle at variable stages of maturation (tanning). Untanned elytra of both beetle species were ductile with a Young's modulus (E) of 44+/-8 MPa, but became brittle with an E of 2400+/-1100 MPa when fully tanned. Significantly, the E' of the TMJ disc and elytral cuticle exhibited a weak power law increase as a function of oscillation frequency. The exponent of the power law fit ( n) was determined to be a sensitive measure of molecular structure within these biomaterials. With increasing cuticular tanning, more so than with drying, the frequency dependence of cuticle E' diminished, suggesting cuticular cross-linking was an important component of tanning, as postulated by the quinone tanning hypothesis. The natural Black phenotype as well as TcADC iRNA suppressed Tribolium cuticle

  20. Self-healing in segmented metallized film capacitors: Experimental and theoretical investigations for engineering design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belko, V. O.; Emelyanov, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in the efficiency of modern metallized film capacitors has been achieved by the application of special segmented nanometer-thick electrodes. The proper design of the electrode segmentation guarantees the best efficiency of the capacitor's self-healing (SH) ability. Meanwhile, the reported theoretical and experimental results have not led to the commonly accepted model of the SH process, since the experimental SH dissipated energy value is several times higher than the calculated one. In this paper, we show that the difference is caused by the heat outflow into polymer film. Based on this, a mathematical model of the metallized electrode destruction is developed. These insights in turn are leading to a better understanding of the SH development. The adequacy of the model is confirmed by both the experiments and the numerical calculations. A procedure of optimal segmented electrode design is offered.

  1. Self-healing phenomenon and dynamic hardness of C60-based nanocomposite coatings.

    PubMed

    Penkov, Oleksiy V; Pukha, Volodymyr E; Devizenko, Alexander Yu; Kim, Hae-Jin; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2014-05-14

    The phenomenon of surface self-healing in C60-based polymer coatings deposited by ion-beam assisted physical vapor deposition was investigated. Nanoindentation of the coatings led to the formation of a protrusion rather than an indent. This protrusion was accompanied by an abnormal shape of the force-distance curve, where the unloading curve lies above the loading curve due to an additional force applied in pulling the indenter out of the media. The coatings exhibited a nanocomposite structure that was strongly affected by the ratio of C60 ion and C60 molecular beam intensities during deposition. The coatings also demonstrated the dynamic hardness effect, where the effective value of the hardness depends significantly on the indentation speed. PMID:24697539

  2. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOEpatents

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2011-11-22

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  3. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOEpatents

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2010-12-07

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  4. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOEpatents

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2009-09-01

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  5. Anion-Conducting Polymer, Composition, and Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2008-10-21

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  6. Polymer Matrix Composite Material Oxygen Compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Tom

    2001-01-01

    Carbon fiber/polymer matrix composite materials look promising as a material to construct liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks. Based on mechanical impact tests the risk will be greater than aluminum, however, the risk can probably be managed to an acceptable level. Proper tank design and operation can minimize risk. A risk assessment (hazard analysis) will be used to determine the overall acceptability for using polymer matrix composite materials.

  7. An Easily Accessible Self-Healing Transparent Film Based on a 2D Supramolecular Network of Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions between Polymeric Chains.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nabarun; Tomović, Željko; Buhler, Eric; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2016-09-12

    Self-healing polymers hold great promise for the future, enhancing in particular the longevity of polymeric materials. We describe a self-healing covalent polymer, presenting an extensive array of hydrogen-bonding sites based on the combination of urea, urethane, and bis-acyl-hydrazine units. Solvent-cast thin-films prepared by polycondensation of a commercially available dihydrazide and a diisocyanate prepolymer exhibited excellent room temperature autonomous healing with almost full recovery of mechanical properties when two parts of a cut film were overlapped and gently pressed together. This autonomous healing upon damage may be attributed to the supramolecular dynamics of multiple lateral inter-chain hydrogen-bonding interactions between the polymer chains. The solid-state structure of a model compound incorporating the same structural backbone corroborates the existence of an extensive two-dimensional supramolecular hydrogen-bonding network. PMID:27226034

  8. Characterization and analysis of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminates with embedded circular vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C.-Y.; Trask, R. S.; Bond, I. P.

    2010-01-01

    A study of the influence of embedded circular hollow vascules on structural performance of a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite laminate is presented. Incorporating such vascules will lead to multi-functional composites by bestowing functions such as self-healing and active thermal management. However, the presence of off-axis vascules leads to localized disruption to the fibre architecture, i.e. resin-rich pockets, which are regarded as internal defects and may cause stress concentrations within the structure. Engineering approaches for creating these simple vascule geometries in conventional FRP laminates are proposed and demonstrated. This study includes development of a manufacturing method for forming vascules, microscopic characterization of their effect on the laminate, finite element (FE) analysis of crack initiation and failure under load, and validation of the FE results via mechanical testing observed using high-speed photography. The failure behaviour predicted by FE modelling is in good agreement with experimental results. The reduction in compressive strength owing to the embedding of circular vascules ranges from 13 to 70 per cent, which correlates with vascule dimension. PMID:20150337

  9. Self-healing of unitarity in Higgs inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmet, Xavier; Casadio, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    We reconsider perturbative unitarity violation in the standard model Higgs inflation model. We show that the Cutkosky cutting rule implied by perturbative unitarity is fulfilled at one-loop. This is a strong indication that unitarity is restored order by order in perturbation theory. We then resum certain one-loop diagrams and show that the relevant dressed amplitude fulfills the Cutkosky rule exactly. This is an example of the self-healing mechanism. The original Higgs inflation model is thus consistent and does not require any new physics beyond the standard model at least up to the Planck scale.

  10. Conductor-polymer composite electrode materials

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, D.S.; Kurtz, S.R.; Smyrl, W.H.; Zeigler, J.M.

    1984-06-13

    A conductive composite material useful as an electrode, comprises a conductor and an organic polymer which is reversibly electrochemically dopable to change its electrical conductivity. Said polymer continuously surrounds the conductor in intimate electrical contact therewith and is prepared by electrochemical growth on said conductor or by reaction of its corresponding monomer(s) on said conductor which has been pre-impregnated or pre-coated with an activator for said polymerization. Amount of the conductor is sufficient to render the resultant composite electrically conductive even when the polymer is in an undoped insulating state.

  11. Enzymetically regulating the self-healing of protein hydrogels with high healing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuzhou; Luo, Quan; Qiao, Shanpeng; Wang, Liang; Dong, Zeyuan; Xu, Jiayun; Liu, Junqiu

    2014-08-25

    Enzyme-mediated self-healing of dynamic covalent bond-driven protein hydrogels was realized by the synergy of two enzymes, glucose oxidase (GOX) and catalase (CAT). The reversible covalent attachment of glutaraldehyde to lysine residues of GOX, CAT, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) led to the formation and functionalization of the self-healing protein hydrogel system. The enzyme-mediated protein hydrogels exhibit excellent self-healing properties with 100% recovery. The self-healing process was reversible and effective with an external glucose stimulus at room temperature. PMID:25044612

  12. Self-healing Characteristics of Collagen Coatings with Respect to Surface Abrasion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-01-01

    A coating based on collagen with self-healing properties was developed for applications in mechanical components that are prone to abrasion due to contact with a counter surface. The inherent swelling behavior of collagen in water was exploited as the fundamental mechanism behind self-healing of a wear scar formed on the surface. The effects of freeze-drying process and water treatment of the collagen coatings on their mechanical and self-healing properties were analyzed. Water was also used as the medium to trigger the self-healing effect of the collagen coatings after the wear test. It was found that collagen coatings without freeze-drying did not demonstrate any self-healing effect whereas the coatings treated by freeze-drying process showed remarkable self-healing effect. Overall, collagen coatings that were freeze-dried and water treated showed the best friction and self-healing properties. Repeated self-healing ability of these coatings with respect to wear scar was also demonstrated. It was also confirmed that the self-healing property of the collagen coating was effective over a relatively wide range of temperature. PMID:27010967

  13. Self-healing Characteristics of Collagen Coatings with Respect to Surface Abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-03-01

    A coating based on collagen with self-healing properties was developed for applications in mechanical components that are prone to abrasion due to contact with a counter surface. The inherent swelling behavior of collagen in water was exploited as the fundamental mechanism behind self-healing of a wear scar formed on the surface. The effects of freeze-drying process and water treatment of the collagen coatings on their mechanical and self-healing properties were analyzed. Water was also used as the medium to trigger the self-healing effect of the collagen coatings after the wear test. It was found that collagen coatings without freeze-drying did not demonstrate any self-healing effect whereas the coatings treated by freeze-drying process showed remarkable self-healing effect. Overall, collagen coatings that were freeze-dried and water treated showed the best friction and self-healing properties. Repeated self-healing ability of these coatings with respect to wear scar was also demonstrated. It was also confirmed that the self-healing property of the collagen coating was effective over a relatively wide range of temperature.

  14. Electrically conductive PEDOT coating with self-healing superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dandan; Lu, Xuemin; Lu, Qinghua

    2014-04-29

    A self-healing electrically conductive superhydrophobic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coating has been prepared by chemical vapor deposition of a fluoroalkylsilane (POTS) onto a PEDOT film, which was obtained by electrochemical deposition. The coating not only maintained high conductivity with a low resistivity of 3.2 × 10(-4) Ω·m, but also displayed a water contact angle larger than 156° and a sliding angle smaller than 10°. After being etched with O2 plasma, the coating showed an excellent self-healing ability, spontaneously regaining its superhydrophobicity when left under ambient conditions for 20 h. This superhydrophobicity recovery process was found to be humidity-dependent, and could be accelerated and completed within 2 h under a high humidity of 84%. The coating also exhibited good superhydrophobicity recovering ability after being corroded by strong acid solution at pH 1 or strong base solution at pH 14 for 3 h. PMID:24702588

  15. Performance characteristics of a self-sealing/self-healing barrier

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, R.G. |; Stegemann, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    Environment Canada and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation are co-developers of a patented Self-Sealing/Self-Healing (SS/SH) Barrier system for containment of wastes which is licensed to Water Technology International Corporation. The SS/SH Barrier is intended for use as either a liner or cover for landfills, contaminated sites, secondary containment areas, etc., in the industrial, chemical, mining and municipal sectors, and also as a barrier to hydraulic flow for the transportation and construction industry. The SS/SH Barrier`s most significant feature is its capability for self-repair in the event of a breach. By contrast, conventional barrier systems, such as clay, geomembrane, or geosynthetic clay liners can not be repaired without laborious excavation and reconstruction. Laboratory investigations have shown that the SS/SH Barrier concept will function with a variety of reactive materials. Self-Sealing/Self-Healing Barriers are cost competitive and consistently exhibit hydraulic conductivities ranging from 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -13} m/s, which decrease with time. These measurements meet or exceed the recommended hydraulic conductivity required by EPA for clay liners (<1x10{sup -9} m/s) used in landfills and hazardous waste sites. Results of mineralogical examination of the seal, diffusion testing, hydraulic conductivity measurement, and durability testing, including wet/dry, freeze/thaw cycling and leachate compatibility are also presented.

  16. Self-healing of creep damage in heat resisting steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinya, Norio; Kyono, Junro

    2002-07-01

    In heat resisting steels, micro holes, called creep cavities, are formed at grain boundaries by long term use at high temperatures. These creep cavities grow along grain boundaries, form grain boundary cracks by linking up each other anc cause low ductility and premature fracture as shown in Fig. 1. Therefore long term creep rupture strength and ductilities chiefly depend upon the behavior of nucleation and growth of creep cavities. If the growth of creep cavities could be suppressed, creep rupture strength and ductilities should be improved remarkably. Present work is intended to propose a self-healing process for the cavitation, and improve the creep rupture properties by the self-healing. It is thought that chemical compound of BN precipitates at inside surface of creep cavity by addition of B and N to heat resisting steels. As the BN is very stable at high temperatures, the precipitation of BN at creep cavity surface is expected to suppress the creep cavity growth and bring about the healing effect on the cavitation.

  17. Networked Microgrids for Self-healing Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaoyu; Chen, Bokan; Wang, Jianhui; Chen, Chen

    2015-06-17

    This paper proposes a transformative architecture for the normal operation and self-healing of networked microgrids (MGs). MGs can support and interchange electricity with each other in the proposed infrastructure. The networked MGs are connected by a physical common bus and a designed two-layer cyber communication network. The lower layer is within each MG where the energy management system (EMS) schedules the MG operation; the upper layer links a number of EMSs for global optimization and communication. In the normal operation mode, the objective is to schedule dispatchable distributed generators (DGs), energy storage systems (ESs) and controllable loads to minimize the operation costs and maximize the supply adequacy of each MG. When a generation deficiency or fault happens in a MG, the model switches to the self-healing mode and the local generation capacities of other MGs can be used to support the on-emergency portion of the system. A consensus algorithm is used to distribute portions of the desired power support to each individual MG in a decentralized way. The allocated portion corresponds to each MG’s local power exchange target which is used by its EMS to perform the optimal schedule. The resultant aggregated power output of networked MGs will be used to provide the requested power support. Test cases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  18. Ferroelectric Polymer Composite with Enhanced Breakdown Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kuo; Gadinski, Matthew; Wang, Qing

    2013-03-01

    Numerous efforts have been made in the past decades to improve the energy storage capability of dielectric capacitors by incorporating ceramic addictives into polymers. Ferroelectric polymers have been particularly interesting as matrix for dielectric composites because of their highest dielectric permittivity and energy density. However, most polymer composites suffer from significantly reduced breakdown strength, which compromises the potential gain in energy density. In this work, various metallic alkoxide were introduced into the functionalized ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-co- chlorotrifluoroethylene), P(VDF-CTFE), via covalent bonding. The composite with the optimized composition exhibited the Weibull statistical breakdown strength of 504.8 MV/m, 67.6 % higher than the pristine polymer. The enhanced breakdown strength was mainly ascribed to the cross-linking and the formation of deep traps, which effectively reduced the conduction and further lowered the energy loss. Additionally, the homogeneous dispersion of the inorganic phase and the small contrast in permittivity between the polymer and amorphous oxides also contribute to the improved dielectric strength. The dielectric spectra of the composites have been recorded at varied temperatures and frequencies, which revealed the presence of the interfacial polarization layer in the composites.

  19. Fracture toughness testing of polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental techniques and associated data analysis methods used to measure the resistance to interlaminar fracture, or 'fracture toughness', of polymer matrix composite materials are described. A review in the use of energy techniques to characterize fracture behavior in elastic solids is given. An overview is presented of the types of approaches employed in the design of delamination-resistant composite materials.

  20. Aqueous vinylidene fluoride polymer coating composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszek, Edward J. (Inventor); Christofas, Alkis (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A water-based coating composition which may be air dried to form durable, fire resistant coatings includes dispersed vinylidene fluoride polymer particles, emulsified liquid epoxy resin and a dissolved emulsifying agent for said epoxy resin which agent is also capable of rapidly curing the epoxy resin upon removal of the water from the composition.

  1. Mechanically stiff, electrically conductive composites of polymers and carbon nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Hamza, Alex V.

    2015-07-21

    Using SWNT-CA as scaffolds to fabricate stiff, highly conductive polymer (PDMS) composites. The SWNT-CA is immersing in a polymer resin to produce a SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin. The SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin is cured to produce the stiff and electrically conductive composite of carbon nanotube aerogel and polymer.

  2. Polymer Composites Corrosive Degradation: A Computational Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2007-01-01

    A computational simulation of polymer composites corrosive durability is presented. The corrosive environment is assumed to manage the polymer composite degradation on a ply-by-ply basis. The degradation is correlated with a measured pH factor and is represented by voids, temperature and moisture which vary parabolically for voids and linearly for temperature and moisture through the laminate thickness. The simulation is performed by a computational composite mechanics computer code which includes micro, macro, combined stress failure and laminate theories. This accounts for starting the simulation from constitutive material properties and up to the laminate scale which exposes the laminate to the corrosive environment. Results obtained for one laminate indicate that the ply-by-ply degradation degrades the laminate to the last one or the last several plies. Results also demonstrate that the simulation is applicable to other polymer composite systems as well.

  3. Glass/polymer composites and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Samuels, W. D.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to new glass/polymer composites and methods for making them. More specifically, the invention is glass/polymer composites having phases that are at the molecular level and thereby practicably indistinguishable. The invention further discloses making molecular phase glass/polymer composites by mixing a glass and a polymer in a compatible solvent.

  4. Glass/polymer composites and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Samuels, W.D.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1995-06-06

    The present invention relates to new glass/polymer composites and methods for making them. More specifically, the invention is glass/polymer composites having phases that are at the molecular level and thereby practicably indistinguishable. The invention further discloses making molecular phase glass/polymer composites by mixing a glass and a polymer in a compatible solvent.

  5. Fabrication of self-healing super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminium alloy substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Wei Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Hai Feng Zhou, Zhi Ping

    2015-04-15

    We present a method to fabricate a super-hydrophobic surface with a self-healing ability on an aluminium alloy substrate. The coatings are obtained by combining a two-step process (first, the substrate is immersed in a solution of HCl, HF and H{sub 2}O, and then in boiling water) and succeeding surface fluorination with a solution of poly(vinylidene-fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and a fluoroalkyl silane. The morphological features and chemical composition were studied by scanning electron micrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The prepared super-hydrophobic aluminium surfaces showed hierarchical structures forming pores, petals and particles with a contact angle of 161° and a sliding angle of 3°.

  6. Ionic conduction in polymer composite electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Tapabrata; Tripathy, Satya N.; Paluch, M.; Jena, S.; Pradhan, D. K.

    2016-05-01

    Conductivity and structural relaxation has been explored from modulus and dielectric loss formalisms respectively for a series of polymer composite electrolytes with zirconia as filler. The temperature dependence of conductivity followed Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) behavior, which suggested a close correlation between conductivity and the segmental relaxation process in polymer electrolytes. Vogel temperature (T0) plays significant role in ion conduction process in these kind of materials.

  7. Puncture-Healing Thermoplastic Resin Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Czabaj, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A composite comprising a combination of a self-healing polymer matrix and a carbon fiber reinforcement is described. In one embodiment, the matrix is a polybutadiene graft copolymer matrix, such as polybutadiene graft copolymer comprising poly(butadiene)-graft-poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile). A method of fabricating the composite is also described, comprising the steps of manufacturing a pre-impregnated unidirectional carbon fiber preform by wetting a plurality of carbon fibers with a solution, the solution comprising a self-healing polymer and a solvent, and curing the preform. A method of repairing a structure made from the composite of the invention is described. A novel prepreg material used to manufacture the composite of the invention is described.

  8. Self-healing catalysts: Co(3)O(4) nanorods for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Cun; Dunbar, Darrius; Zhang, Xin; Lauterbach, Jochen; Hattrick-Simpers, Jason

    2014-05-01

    We combine kinetic and spectroscopic data to demonstrate the concept of a self-healing catalyst, which effectively eliminates the need for catalyst regeneration. The observed self-healing is triggered by controlling the crystallographic orientation at the catalyst surface. PMID:24668124

  9. A self-healing hydrogel formation strategy via exploiting endothermic interactions between polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ying; Lou, Ruyun; Liu, Xiaocen; Gao, Meng; Zheng, Huizhen; Yang, Ting; Xie, Hongguo; Yu, Weiting; Ma, Xiaojun

    2016-05-01

    We report a strategy to synthesize self-healing hydrogels via exploiting endothermic interactions between polyelectrolytes. Natural polysaccharides and their derivatives were used to form reversible polyelectrolyte complexes by selecting appropriately charged chemical groups and counterions. This simple and effective method to fabricate self-healing hydrogels will find applications in diverse fields such as surface coating and 3D printing. PMID:27078585

  10. Effect of blast furnace slag on self-healing of microcracks in cementitious materials

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Haoliang; Ye, Guang; Damidot, Denis

    2014-06-01

    The physico-chemical process of self-healing in blast furnace slag cement paste was investigated in this paper. With a high slag content i.e., 66% in cement paste and saturated Ca(OH)₂ solution as activator, it was found that the reaction products formed in cracks are composed of C-S-H, ettringite, hydrogarnet and OH–hydrotalcite. The fraction of C-S-H in the reaction products is much larger than the other minerals. Large amount of ettringite formed in cracks indicates the leaching of SO₄⁻² ions from the bulk paste and consequently the recrystallization. Self-healing proceeds fast within 50 h and then slows down. According to thermodynamic modeling, when the newly formed reaction products are carbonated, the filling fraction of crack increases first and then decreases. Low soluble minerals such as silica gel, gibbsite and calcite are formed. Compared to Portland cement paste, the potential of self-healing in slag cement paste is higher when the percentage of slag is high. Highlights: • Self-healing reaction products in slag cement paste were characterized. • Self-healing reaction products formed in time were quantified with image analysis. • Self-healing in slag cement paste was simulated with a reactive transport model. • Effect of carbonation on self-healing was investigated by thermodynamic modeling. • Effect of slag on self-healing was discussed based on experiments and simulation.

  11. A mimic of self-healing juvenile cutaneous mucinosis?

    PubMed

    Williams, Charles A; Merkel, Kimberly L

    2014-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with a chronic history of atypical papular mucinosis consisting of multiple subcutaneous nodules and confluent papular skin lesions. He initially presented at age 2 years with the rapid onset of numerous subcutaneous nodular lesions that completely resolved over a period of years. Clinical and histologic evidence, together with his clinical course, were suggestive of self-healing juvenile cutaneous mucinosis (SHJCM), but a few years later, during childhood, he experienced a recurrence of the subcutaneous nodules involving the limbs, trunk, and face, in addition to new findings of multiple flesh-colored papules coalescing into plaques on his neck and back. Although his early childhood course and histologic picture were suggestive of SHJCM, the progressive nature of his disorder is not like that seen in SHJCM and appears different from other reported disorders involving cutaneous mucinosis. PMID:25233809

  12. Self-healing ATM networks based on virtual path concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanura, Ryutaro; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Tokizawa, Ikuo

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes self-healing network techniques suitable for ATM networks in order to realize a high-reliable B-ISDN. First the characteristic of virtual paths (VP) and their influence on failure restoration are discussed. A high-speed restoration technique which exploits the benefits of VP's is then proposed and described. The technique simplifies the message transmission processes and reduces the number of generated messages by using preassigned backup virtual paths. Next, the scheme used to design the backup VP routes and spare resource distribution for each link is proposed in order to create a network that applies the proposed restoration scheme. Next, self-reconstruction techniques of backup virtual paths are proposed for the realization of a reversionless restoration cycle. Finally, the feasibility of distributed control operation is discussed.

  13. Congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytosis: an underreported entity.

    PubMed

    Kassardjian, Michael; Patel, Mayha; Shitabata, Paul; Horowitz, David

    2016-04-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), also known as histiocytosis X, is a group of rare disorders characterized by the continuous replication of a particular white blood cell called Langerhans cells. These cells are derived from the bone marrow and are found in the epidermis, playing a large role in immune surveillance and the elimination of foreign substances from the body. Additionally, Langerhans cells are capable of migrating from the skin to lymph nodes, and in LCH, these cells begin to congregate on the bone, particularly in the head and neck region, causing a multitude of problems. Langerhans cell histiocytosis is classified into 4 variants: congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytosis (CSHR)(also known as Hashimoto-Pritzker disease), Letterer-Siwe disease, Hand-Schüller-Christian disease, and eosinophilic granuloma. Despite various clinical presentations and severity, all subtypes are pathologically caused by the proliferation of the Langerhans cell. PMID:27163913

  14. Metal oxide-polymer composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellinghoff, Stephen T. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method of making metal oxide clusters in a single stage by reacting a metal oxide with a substoichiometric amount of an acid in the presence of an oxide particle growth terminator and solubilizer. A method of making a ceramer is also disclosed in which the metal oxide clusters are reacted with a functionalized polymer. The resultant metal oxide clusters and ceramers are also disclosed.

  15. Metal oxide-polymer composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellinghoff, Stephen T. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method of making metal oxide clusters in a single stage by reacting a metal oxide with a substoichiometric amount of an acid in the presence of an oxide particle growth terminator and solubilizer. A method of making a ceramer is also disclosed in which the metal oxide clusters are reacted with a functionalized polymer. The resultant metal oxide clusters and ceramers are also disclosed.

  16. Solid state self-healing system: Effects of using PDGEBA, PVC and PVA as linear healing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad, Noor Nabilah; Jamil, Mohd. Suzeren Md.; Abdullah, Shahrum

    2014-09-01

    The solid state self-healing system was obtained by employing a thermosetting epoxy resin, into which a thermoplastic is dissolved. In this study, the effect of healing efficiency was investigated by using different thermoplastic polymers which are poly(bisphenol-A-co-epichlorohydrin), polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl alcohol as healing agents. Healing was achieved by heating the fractured resins to a specific temperature i.e. above their glass transition temperature (Tg) which obtained from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) to mobilize the polymeric chains of the healing agent. The curing reaction in the epoxy resins were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Izod impact test was been performed to demonstrate self-healing of the different specimens. Under test, it was found that healable resin with PDGEBA has highest healing efficiency followed by PVC and PVA, with 63%, 35% and 18% of average percentage healing efficiencies respectively. These results are due to the different solubility parameters of the thermoset/network and thermoplastic polymer which led to the phase separation. Morphological studies prove the fracture-healing process and morphological properties of the resins.

  17. Comparison of self-healing ionomer to aluminium-alloy bumpers for protecting spacecraft equipment from space debris impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesconi, A.; Giacomuzzo, C.; Grande, A. M.; Mudric, T.; Zaccariotto, M.; Etemadi, E.; Di Landro, L.; Galvanetto, U.

    2013-03-01

    This paper discusses the impact behavior of a self-healing ionomeric polymer and compares its protection capability against space debris impacts to that of simple aluminium-alloy bumpers. To this end, 14 impact experiments on both ionomer and Al-7075-T6 thin plates with similar surface density were made with 1.5 mm aluminium spheres at velocity between 1 and 4 km/s.First, the perforation extent in both materials was evaluated vis-à-vis the prediction of well known hole-size equations; then, attention was given to the damage potential of the cloud of fragments ejected from the rear side of the target by analysing the craters pattern and the momentum transferred to witness plates mounted on a ballistic pendulum behind the bumpers.Self-healing was completely successful in all but one ionomer samples and the primary damage on ionomeric polymers was found to be significantly lower than that on aluminium. On the other hand, aluminium plates exhibited slightly better debris fragmentation abilities, even though the protecting performance of ionomers seemed to improve at increasing impact speed.

  18. Demonstrating the self-healing behaviour of some selected ceramics under combustion chamber conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farle, A.; Boatemaa, L.; Shen, L.; Gövert, S.; Kok, J. B. W.; Bosch, M.; Yoshioka, S.; van der Zwaag, S.; Sloof, W. G.

    2016-08-01

    Closure of surface cracks by self-healing of conventional and MAX phase ceramics under realistic turbulent combustion chamber conditions is presented. Three ceramics namely; Al2O3, Ti2AlC and Cr2AlC are investigated. Healing was achieved in Al2O3 by even dispersion of TiC particles throughout the matrix as the MAX phases, Ti2AlC and Cr2AlC exhibit intrinsic self-healing. Fully dense samples (>95%) were sintered by spark plasma sintering and damage was introduced by indentation, quenching and low perpendicular velocity impact methods. The samples were exposed to the oxidizing atmosphere in the post flame zone of a turbulent flame in a combustion chamber to heal at temperatures of approx. 1000 °C at low pO2 levels for 4 h. Full crack-gap closure was observed for cracks up to 20 mm in length and more than 10 μm in width. The reaction products (healing agents) were analysed by scanning electron microscope, x-ray microanalysis and XRD. A semi-quantification of the healing showed that cracks in Al2O3/TiC composite (width 1 μm and length 100 μm) were fully filled with TiO2. In Ti2AlC large cracks were fully filled with a mixture of TiO2 and Al2O3. And in the Cr2AlC, cracks of up to 1.0 μm in width and more than 100 μm in length were also completely filled with Al2O3.

  19. Multiwalled Carbon nanotube - Strength to polymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravin, Jagdale; Khan, Aamer. A.; Massimo, Rovere; Carlo, Rosso; Alberto, Tagliaferro

    2016-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a rather fascinating material, are among the pillars of nanotechnology. CNTs exhibit unique electrical, mechanical, adsorption, and thermal properties with high aspect ratio, exceptional stiffness, excellent strength, and low density, which can be exploited in the manufacturing of revolutionary smart nano composite materials. The demand for lighter and stronger polymer composite material in various applications is increasing every day. Among all the possibilities to research and exploit the exceptional properties of CNTs in polymer composites we focused on the reinforcement of epoxy resin with different types of multiwalled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs). We studied mechanical properties such as stress, strain, ultimate tensile strength, yield point, modulus and fracture toughness, and Young's modulus by plotting and calculating by means of the off-set method. The mechanical strength of epoxy composite is increased intensely with 1 and 3 wt.% of filler.

  20. Acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardenheier, R.

    1981-01-01

    The techniques of acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials is described. It is highly sensitive, quasi-nondestructive testing method that indicates the origin and behavior of flaws in such materials when submitted to different load exposures. With the use of sophisticated signal analysis methods it is possible the distinguish between different types of failure mechanisms, such as fiber fracture delamination or fiber pull-out. Imperfections can be detected while monitoring complex composite structures by acoustic emission measurements.

  1. Space environmental effects on polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Bor Z.

    1992-01-01

    The response of polymers and polymer-based composites to the space environment is being investigated. A wide range of materials are covered in this study, including elastometer seals for Space Station Freedom, polymer films for thermal control, and composites for space structural elements. Space environmental agents of concern include atomic oxygen, thermal cycling, space debris impacts, UV, charged particles and other forms of high-energy radiation. This ambitious project is potentially a multi-year research effort and the success of such a project could be expected to have a profound impact on the design of future space-based structures. The research goal of this first Summer is to identify the priority areas of research and to carry out the initial phase task so that a collaborative research can proceed smoothly and fruitfully in the near future.

  2. Aging Effects in Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Chistos C.; McManus, Hugh L.

    1999-01-01

    Simulation of composites degradation due to aging are described. Laminate geometry, material properties, and matrix degradation states are specified as functions of position and time. Matrix shrinkage and property changes are modeled as functions of the degradation states. Aging effects at the laminate, ply, and micro levels are evaluated, to determine failure of any kind. The results obtained show substantial ply stress built up as a result of aging accompanied by comparable laminate strength degradation in matrix dominated composite strengths.

  3. On the use of crystalline admixtures in cement based construction materials: from porosity reducers to promoters of self healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, Liberato; Krelani, Visar; Moretti, Fabio

    2016-08-01

    The project detailed in this paper aims at a thorough characterization of the effects of crystalline admixtures, currently employed as porosity reducing admixtures, on the self-healing capacity of the cementitious composites, i.e. their capacity to completely or partially re-seal cracks and, in case, also exhibit recovery of mechanical properties. The problem has been investigated with reference to both a normal strength concrete (NSC) and a high performance fibre reinforced cementitious composite (HPFRCC). In the latter case, the influence of flow-induced fibre alignment has also been considered in the experimental investigation. With reference to either 3-point (for NSC) or 4-point (for HPFRCC) bending tests performed up to controlled crack opening and up to failure, respectively before and after exposure/conditioning recovery of stiffness and stress bearing capacity has been evaluated to assess the self-healing capacity. In a durability-based design framework, self-healing indices to quantify the recovery of mechanical properties will also be defined. In NSC, crystalline admixtures are able to promote up to 60% of crack sealing even under exposure to open air. In the case of HPFRCCs, which would already feature autogenous healing capacity because of their peculiar mix compositions, the synergy between the dispersed fibre reinforcement and the action of the crystalline admixture has resulted in a likely ‘chemical pre-stressing’ of the same reinforcement, from which the recovery of mechanical performance of the material has greatly benefited, up to levels even higher than the performance of the virgin un-cracked material.

  4. Method of making metal-polymer composite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Zelena, Piotr; Bashyam, Rajesh

    2009-06-23

    A metal-polymer-carbon composite catalyst for use as a cathode electrocatalyst in fuel cells. The catalyst includes a heteroatomic polymer; a transition metal linked to the heteroatomic polymer by one of nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus, and a recast ionomer dispersed throughout the heteroatomic polymer-carbon composite. The method includes forming a heteroatomic polymer-carbon composite and loading the transition metal onto the composite. The invention also provides a method of making a membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell that includes the metal-polymer-carbon composite catalyst.

  5. Self-Healing and Thermoresponsive Dual-Cross-Linked Alginate Hydrogels Based on Supramolecular Inclusion Complexes.

    PubMed

    Miao, Tianxin; Fenn, Spencer L; Charron, Patrick N; Oldinski, Rachael A

    2015-12-14

    β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD), with a lipophilic inner cavity and hydrophilic outer surface, interacts with a large variety of nonpolar guest molecules to form noncovalent inclusion complexes. Conjugation of β-CD onto biomacromolecules can form physically cross-linked hydrogel networks upon mixing with a guest molecule. Herein, the development and characterization of self-healing, thermoresponsive hydrogels, based on host-guest inclusion complexes between alginate-graft-β-CD and Pluronic F108 (poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)), are described. The mechanics, flow characteristics, and thermal response were contingent on the polymer concentration and the host-guest molar ratio. Transient and reversible physical cross-linking between host and guest polymers governed self-assembly, allowing flow to occur under shear stress and facilitating complete recovery of the material's properties within a few seconds of unloading. The mechanical properties of the dual-cross-linked, multi-stimuli-responsive hydrogels were tuned as high as 30 kPa at body temperature and are advantageous for biomedical applications such as drug delivery and cell transplantation. PMID:26509214

  6. Joining of polymer composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Magness, F.H.

    1990-11-01

    Under ideal conditions load bearing structures would be designed without joints, thus eliminating a source of added weight, complexity and weakness. In reality the need for accessibility, repair, and inspectability, added to the size limitations imposed by the manufacturing process and transportation/assembly requirements mean that some minimum number of joints will be required in most structures. The designer generally has two methods for joining fiber composite materials, adhesive bonding and mechanical fastening. As the use of thermoplastic materials increases, a third joining technique -- welding -- will become more common. It is the purpose of this document to provide a review of the available sources pertinent to the design of joints in fiber composites. The primary emphasis is given to adhesive bonding and mechanical fastening with information coming from documentary sources as old as 1961 and as recent as 1989. A third, shorter section on composite welding is included in order to provide a relatively comprehensive treatment of the subject.

  7. Repetitive Biomimetic Self-healing of Ca(2+)-Induced Nanocomposite Protein Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Dong, Qiuchen; Ma, Xiaoyu; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Lei, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Self-healing is a capacity observed in most biological systems in which the healing processes are autonomously triggered after the damage. Inspired by this natural behavior, researchers believed that a synthetic material possessing similar self-recovery capability could also be developed. Albeit various intrinsic self-healing systems have been developed over the past few decades, restriction on the biocompatibility due to the required synthetic conditions under extreme pH and with poisonous cross-linker significantly limits their application in biomedical field. In this study, a highly biocompatible nanocomposite protein hydrogel with excellent biomimetic self-healing property is presented. The self-healing protein gel is made by inducing calcium ions into the mixture of heat-induced BSA nano-aggregates and pristine BSA molecules at room temperature and under physiological pH due to the ion-mediated protein-protein association and the bridging effect of divalent Ca(2+) ions. The as-prepared protein hydrogel shows excellent repetitive self-healing properties without using any external stimuli at ambient condition. Such outstanding self-recovery performance was quantitatively evaluated/validated by both dynamic and oscillatory rheological analysis. Moreover, with the presence of calcium ions, the self-healing behavior can be significantly facilitated/enhanced. Finally, the superior biocompatibility demonstrated by in vitro cytotoxicity analysis suggests that it is a promising self-healing material well-suited for biomedical applications. PMID:27545280

  8. Repetitive Biomimetic Self-healing of Ca2+-Induced Nanocomposite Protein Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Dong, Qiuchen; Ma, Xiaoyu; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Lei, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Self-healing is a capacity observed in most biological systems in which the healing processes are autonomously triggered after the damage. Inspired by this natural behavior, researchers believed that a synthetic material possessing similar self-recovery capability could also be developed. Albeit various intrinsic self-healing systems have been developed over the past few decades, restriction on the biocompatibility due to the required synthetic conditions under extreme pH and with poisonous cross-linker significantly limits their application in biomedical field. In this study, a highly biocompatible nanocomposite protein hydrogel with excellent biomimetic self-healing property is presented. The self-healing protein gel is made by inducing calcium ions into the mixture of heat-induced BSA nano-aggregates and pristine BSA molecules at room temperature and under physiological pH due to the ion-mediated protein-protein association and the bridging effect of divalent Ca2+ ions. The as-prepared protein hydrogel shows excellent repetitive self-healing properties without using any external stimuli at ambient condition. Such outstanding self-recovery performance was quantitatively evaluated/validated by both dynamic and oscillatory rheological analysis. Moreover, with the presence of calcium ions, the self-healing behavior can be significantly facilitated/enhanced. Finally, the superior biocompatibility demonstrated by in vitro cytotoxicity analysis suggests that it is a promising self-healing material well-suited for biomedical applications. PMID:27545280

  9. Piezoelectric Nanoparticle-Polymer Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, William Ray

    Herein we demonstrate that efficient piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials can be synthesized and fabricated into complex microstructures using sugar-templating methods or optical printing techniques. Stretchable foams with excellent tunable piezoelectric properties are created by incorporating sugar grains directly into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixtures containing barium titanate (BaTiO3 -- BTO) nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by removal of the sugar after polymer curing. Porosities and elasticity are tuned by simply adjusting the sugar/polymer mass ratio and the electrical performance of the foams showed a direct relationship between porosity and the piezoelectric outputs. User defined 2D and 3D optically printed piezoelectric microstructures are also fabricated by incorporating BTO nanoparticles into photoliable polymer solutions such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and exposing to digital optical masks that can be dynamically altered. Mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the optically printed composite is enhanced by chemically altering the surface of the BTO nanoparticles with acrylate groups which form direct covalent linkages with the polymer matrix under light exposure. Both of these novel materials should find exciting uses in a variety of applications including energy scavenging platforms, nano- and microelectromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS), sensors, and acoustic actuators.

  10. Self-lubricating polymer composites and polymer transfer film lubrication for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of self-lubricating polymers and polymer composites in space is somewhat limited today. In general, they are only used when other methods are inadequate. There is potential, however, for these materials to make a significant impact on future space missions if properly utilized. Some of the different polymers and fillers used to make self-lubricating composites are surveyed. The mechanisms of composite lubrication and wear, the theory behind transfer film lubricating mechanisms, and some factors which affect polymer composite wear and transfer are examined. In addition, some of the current space tribology application areas for self-lubricating polymer composites and polymer transfer are mentioned.

  11. Thermomechanical fatigue of polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, L.H.; Koudela, K.L.; Karasek, M.L.; Amateau, M.F.; Runt, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    The present research was undertaken to evaluate the effects of mechanical constraint on the response of polymer matrix composites during thermal cycling. Analytical and experimental techniques were used to characterize the response of carbon-fiber-reinforced cyanate ester and bismaleimide composites. Cross-ply laminates were subjected to thermal cycles from 24 to 177 C in the unconstrained, fully constrained, and overconstrained conditions. Laminate response, damage mechanisms, and residual compressive properties were characterized for each material and degree of constraint. The results of this research indicate that the level of constraint can have a significant effect on the response of polymer matrix composites during thermal cycling. However, longer-term testing is required to determine if the observed changes in response will ultimately affect the final failure mode and fatigue endurance of the materials.

  12. Chemical microsensors based on polymer fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessick, Royal F.; Levit, Natalia; Tepper, Gary C.

    2005-05-01

    There is an urgent need for new chemical sensors for defense and security applications. In particular, sensors are required that can provide higher sensitivity and faster response in the field than existing baseline technologies. We have been developing a new solid-state chemical sensor technology based on microscale polymer composite fiber arrays. The fibers consist of an insulating polymer doped with conducting particles and are electrospun directly onto the surface of an interdigitated microelectrode. The concentration of the conducting particles within the fiber is controlled and is near the percolation threshold. Thus, the electrical resistance of the polymer fiber composite is very sensitive to volumetric changes produced in the polymer by vapor absorption. Preliminary results are presented on the fabrication and testing of the new microsensor. The objective is to take advantage of the very high surface to volume ratio, low thermal mass and linear geometry of the composite fibers to produce sensors exhibiting an extremely high vapor sensitivity and rapid response. The simplicity and low cost of a resistance-based chemical microsensor makes this sensing approach an attractive alternative to devices requiring RF electronics or time-of-flight analysis. Potential applications of this technology include battlespace awareness, homeland security, environmental surveillance, medical diagnostics and food process monitoring.

  13. Nanotube reinforced thermoplastic polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shofner, Meisha Lei

    The inherent high strength, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity make nanotubes attractive reinforcements for polymer matrix composites. However, the structure that makes them desirable also causes highly anisotropic properties and limited reactivity with other materials. This thesis isolates these problems in two separate studies aimed at improving mechanical properties with single wall nanotube (SWNT) reinforced thermoplastic polymer composites. The two studies demonstrate the effect of solid freeform fabrication (SFF) and chemical functionalization on anisotropy and limited reactivity, respectively. Both studies showed mechanical property improvements. The alignment study demonstrates a maximum increase of 93% in tensile modulus with single wall nanotubes (SWNTs). The chemical functionalization study shows a larger increase in storage modulus for functionalized SWNTs as compared to purified SVWNTs with respective increases of 9% and 44% in storage modulus. Improved interfacial properties are also observed as a decrease in mechanical damping. Maximum property increases in composites are obtained when nanotubes are aligned, requiring additional processing consideration to the anisotropic structure. Melt spinning and extrusion processing effectively align nanotubes, but the end product of these techniques, composite fibers, requires further processing to be incorporated into finished parts. Extrusion-based SFF is a novel technique for processing nanotube reinforced composites because it allows for the direct fabrication of finished parts containing aligned nanotubes. SFF processing produces parts containing preferentially oriented nanotubes with improved mechanical properties when compared to isotropic composites. Functionalization of the nanotube surface disrupts the rope structure to obtain smaller ropes and promote further interfacial bonding. The chemically inert nature of nanotubes resulting from a structure containing few defects and the

  14. Characterizing SWCNT Dispersion in Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Gibbons, Luke; Park, Cheol

    2007-01-01

    The new wave of single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) infused composites will yield structurally sound multifunctional nanomaterials. The SWCNT network requires thorough dispersion within the polymer matrix in order to maximize the benefits of the nanomaterial. However, before any nanomaterials can be used in aerospace applications a means of quality assurance and quality control must be certified. Quality control certification requires a means of quantification, however, the measurement protocol mandates a method of seeing the dispersion first. We describe here the new tools that we have developed and implemented to first be able to see carbon nanotubes in polymers and second to measure or quantify the dispersion of the nanotubes.

  15. Nano polypeptide particles reinforced polymer composite fibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiashen; Li, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Li, Gang; Liu, Xuan; Li, Zhi; Liu, Xuqing; Han, Yanxia; Zhao, Zheng

    2015-02-25

    Because of the intensified competition of land resources for growing food and natural textile fibers, there is an urgent need to reuse and recycle the consumed/wasted natural fibers as regenerated green materials. Although polypeptide was extracted from wool by alkaline hydrolysis, the size of the polypeptide fragments could be reduced to nanoscale. The wool polypeptide particles were fragile and could be crushed down to nano size again and dispersed evenly among polymer matrix under melt extrusion condition. The nano polypeptide particles could reinforce antiultraviolet capability, moisture regain, and mechanical properties of the polymer-polypeptide composite fibers. PMID:25647481

  16. Adhesion and Long-Term Barrier Restoration of Intrinsic Self-Healing Hybrid Sol-Gel Coatings.

    PubMed

    Abdolah Zadeh, Mina; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Garcia, Santiago J

    2016-02-17

    Self-healing polymeric coatings aiming at smart and on-demand protection of metallic substrates have lately attracted considerable attention. In the present paper, the potential application of a dual network hybrid sol-gel polymer containing reversible tetrasulfide groups as a protective coating for the AA2024-T3 substrate is presented. Depending on the constituent ratio, the developed polymer exhibited a hydrophobic surface, high adhesion strength, and an effective long-term corrosion protection in 0.5 M NaCl solution. Upon thermal treatment, the healable hybrid sol-gel coating demonstrated full restoration of the barrier properties as well as recovery of the coating adhesion and surface properties (e.g., hydrophobicity and surface topology) necessary for lifetime extension of corrosion protective coatings. Excellent long-term barrier restoration of the coating was only obtained if the scratch width was less than the coating thickness. PMID:26780101

  17. Polymer compositions, polymer films and methods and precursors for forming same

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R; Peterson, Eric S; Orme, Christopher J

    2013-09-24

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  18. Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nano-composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Iti

    Thermoset polymer composites are increasingly important in high-performance engineering industries due to their light-weight and high specific strength, finding cutting-edge applications such as aircraft fuselage material and automobile parts. Epoxy is the most widely employed thermoset polymer, but is brittle due to extensive cross-linking and notch sensitivity, necessitating mechanical property studies especially fracture toughness and fatigue resistance, to ameliorate the low crack resistance. Towards this end, various nano and micro fillers have been used with epoxy to form composite materials. Particularly for nano-fillers, the 1-100 nm scale dimensions lead to fascinating mechanical properties, oftentimes proving superior to the epoxy matrix. The chemical nature, topology, mechanical properties and geometry of the nano-fillers have a profound influence on nano-composite behavior and hence are studied in the context of enhancing properties and understanding reinforcement mechanisms in polymer matrix nano-composites. Using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as polymer filler, uniquely results in both increased stiffness as well as toughness, leading to extensive research on their applications. Though CNTs-polymer nano-composites offer better mechanical properties, at high stress amplitude their fatigue resistance is lost. In this work covalent functionalization of CNTs has been found to have a profound impact on mechanical properties of the CNT-epoxy nano-composite. Amine treated CNTs were found to give rise to effective fatigue resistance throughout the whole range of stress intensity factor, in addition to significantly enhancing fracture toughness, ductility, Young's modulus and average hardness of the nano-composite by factors of 57%, 60%, 30% and 45% respectively over the matrix as a result of diminished localized cross-linking. Graphene, a one-atom-thick sheet of atoms is a carbon allotrope, which has garnered significant attention of the scientific community and is

  19. Piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite foams.

    PubMed

    McCall, William R; Kim, Kanguk; Heath, Cory; La Pierre, Gina; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2014-11-26

    Piezoelectric polymer composite foams are synthesized using different sugar-templating strategies. By incorporating sugar grains directly into polydimethylsiloxane mixtures containing barium titanate nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, followed by removal of the sugar after polymer curing, highly compliant materials with excellent piezoelectric properties can be fabricated. Porosities and elasticity are tuned by simply adjusting the sugar/polymer mass ratio which gave an upper bound on the porosity of 73% and a lower bound on the elastic coefficient of 32 kPa. The electrical performance of the foams showed a direct relationship between porosity and the piezoelectric outputs, giving piezoelectric coefficient values of ∼112 pC/N and a power output of ∼18 mW/cm3 under a load of 10 N for the highest porosity samples. These novel materials should find exciting use in a variety of applications including energy scavenging platforms, biosensors, and acoustic actuators. PMID:25353687

  20. Modeling the nanoscratching of self-healing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duki, Solomon F.; Kolmakov, German V.; Yashin, Victor V.; Kowalewski, Tomasz; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Balazs, Anna C.

    2011-02-01

    We use computational modeling to determine the mechanical response of crosslinked nanogels to an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip that is moved through the sample. We focus on two-dimensional systems where the nanogels are interconnected by both strong and labile bonds. To simulate this system, we modify the lattice spring model (LSM) to extend the applicability of this method to a broader range of elastic materials. Via this modified LSM, we model each nanogel as a deformable particle. We utilize the Bell model to describe the bonds between these nanogel particles, and subsequently, simulate the rupturing of bonds due to the force exerted by the moving indenter. The ruptured labile bonds can readily reform and thus can effectively mend the cavities formed by the moving AFM tip. We determine how the fraction of labile bonds, the nanogel stiffness, and the size and velocity of the moving tip affect the self-healing behavior of the material. We find that samples containing just 10% of labile bonds can heal to approximately 90% of their original, undeformed morphology. Our results provide guidelines for creating reconfigurable materials that can undergo self-repair and thereby withstand greater mechanical stress under everyday use.

  1. Modeling the Nano-indentation of Self-healing Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duki, Solomon F.; Kolmakov, German V.; Yashin, Victor V.; Kowalewski, Tomasz; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Balazs, Anna C.

    2011-03-01

    We use computational modeling to determine the mechanical response of crosslinked nanogels to an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip that is moved through the sample. We focus on two-dimensional systems where the nanogels are interconnected by both strong and labile bonds. We model each nanogel as a deformable particle using the modified lattice spring model that is applicable to a broad range of elastic materials.We utilize the Bell model to describe the bonds between these nanogel particles, and subsequently, simulate the rupturing of bonds due the force exerted by the moving indenter. The ruptured labile bonds can readily reform and thus, can effectively mend the cavities formed by the moving AFM tip. We determine how the fraction of labile bonds, the nanogel stiffness, and the size and velocity of the moving tip affect the self-healing behavior of the material. We find that samples containing just 10 % of labile bonds can heal to approximately 90 % of their original, undeformed morphology.

  2. Multiscale Modeling of Biomimetic Self-Healing Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmakov, German; Scarbrough, Amy; Gnegy, Chet; Salib, Isaac; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Balazs, Anna

    2011-03-01

    We use a hybrid computational approach to examine the self-healing behavior of polymeric materials composed of soft nanogel particles crosslinked by a network of both stable and labile bonds. The latter are highly reactive and therefore, can break and readily reform. To capture the multiscale structure of the material, we take advantage of the multi-level Hierarchical Bell Model (mHBM) where the labile crosslinks are organized into M levels of interconnected elements, each of them represents a number of bonds that lie in parallel and is described by a single-level HBM. We vary the number of hierarchical levels M and the number of labile bonds in each element to determine optimal conditions for improving strength and toughness of the material. We also compare the properties of the multiscale material with those for the gel, in which only single-level interconnections are presented. This study takes its inspiration from biological systems that show remarkable resilience in response to mechanical deformation.

  3. Polymer light harvesting composites for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Sam-Shajing; Wang, Dan

    2015-09-01

    Polymer based optoelectronic composites and thin film devices exhibit great potential in space applications due to their lightweight, flexible shape, high photon absorption coefficients, and robust radiation tolerance in space environment. Polymer/dye composites appear promising for optoelectronics applications due to potential enhancements in both light harvesting and charge separation. In this study, the optoelectronic properties of a series of molecular dyes paired with a conjugated polymer Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) were investigated. Specifically, the solution PL quenching coefficients (Ksv) of dye/polymer follows a descending order from dyes of Chloro(protoporphyrinato)iron(III) (Hemin), Protoporphyrin, to meso-Tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine (TCPP). In optoelectronic devices made of the P3HT/dye/PCBM composites, the short circuit current densities Jsc as well as the overall power conversion efficiencies (PCE) also follow a descending order from Hemin, Protoporphyrin, to TCPP, despite Hemin exhibits the intermediate polymer/dye LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) offset and lowest absorption coefficient as compared to the other two dyes, i.e., the cell optoelectronic efficiency did not follow the LUMO offsets which are the key driving forces for the photo induced charge separations. This study reveals that too large LUMO offset or electron transfer driving force may result in smaller PL quenching and optoelectronic conversion efficiency, this could be another experimental evidence for the Marcus electron transfer model, particularly for the Marcus `inverted region'. It appears an optimum electron transfer driving force or strong PL quenching appears more critical than absorption coefficient for optoelectronic conversion devices.

  4. Development of Carbon-Nanotube/Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Thomas A.

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a short discussion of one company's effort to develop composites of carbon nanotubes in epoxy and other polymer matrices. The focus of the discussion is on the desirability of chemically modifying carbon nanotubes to overcome their inherent chemical nonreactivity and thereby enable the formation of strong chemical bonds between nanotubes and epoxies (or other polymeric matrix materials or their monomeric precursors). The chemical modification is effected in a process in which discrete functional groups are covalently attached to the nanotube surfaces. The functionalization process was proposed by the company and demonstrated in practice for the first time during this development effort. The covalently attached functional groups are capable of reacting with the epoxy or other matrix resin to form covalent bonds. Furthermore, the company uses this process to chemically modify the nanotube surfaces, affording tunable adhesion to polymers and solubility in select solvents. Flat-sheet composites containing functionalized nanotubes demonstrate significantly improved mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties.

  5. Cytocompatible, Photoreversible, and Self-Healing Hydrogels for Regulating Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lianlian; Xu, Kaige; Ge, Liangpeng; Wan, Wenbing; Darabi, Ali; Xing, Malcolm; Zhong, Wen

    2016-09-01

    Photo-crosslinking and self-healing have received considerable attention for the design of intelligent materials. A novel photostimulated, self-healing, and cytocompatible hydrogel system is reported. A coumarin methacrylate crosslinker is synthesized to modify the polyacrylamide-based hydrogels. With the [2+2] cyclo-addition of coumarin moieties, the hydrogels exhibit excellent self-healing capacity when they are exposed to light with wavelengths at 280 and 365 nm, respectively. To enhance cell compatibility, a poly (amidoamine) crosslinker is also synthesized. Variations in light exposure times and irradiation wavelengths are found to alter the self-healing property of the hydrogels. The hydrogels are shown to induce a regular cellular pattern. The hydrogels are used to regulate bone marrow stromal cells differentiation. The relative mRNA expressions are recorded to monitor the osteogenic differentiation of the cells. PMID:27280860

  6. Robust, superamphiphobic fabric with multiple self-healing ability against both physical and chemical damages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxia; Zhou, Hua; Gestos, Adrian; Fang, Jian; Lin, Tong

    2013-10-23

    Superamphiphobic coatings with excellent repellency to low surface tension liquids and multiple self-healing abilities are very useful for practical applications, but remain challenging to realize. Previous papers on self-healing superamphiphobic coatings have demonstrated limited liquid repellency with single self-healing ability against either physical or chemical damage. Herein, we describe a superamphiphobic fabric that has remarkable multi-self-healing ability against both physical and chemical damages. The superamphiphobicity was prepared by a two-step surface coating technique. Fabric after coating treatment showed exceptional liquid-repellency to low surface tension liquids including ethanol. The fabric coating was also durable to withstand 200 cycles of laundries and 5000 cycles of Martindale abrasion without apparently changing the superamphiphobicity. This highly robust, superamphiphobic fabric may find applications for the development of "smart" functional textiles for various applications. PMID:24073919

  7. Modeling of self-healing against cascading overload failures in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaoran; Li, Daqing; Fu, Bowen; Yang, Shunkun; Wang, Yunpeng; Lu, Guangquan

    2014-09-01

    The development of online prognostic and fast-recovery technology promotes the realization of self-healing techniques. Considering the cascading overload failures as one of the major failure modes in real networks, we introduce a model for self-healing against overload propagation in complex networks due to malicious attack. Especially, we study the role of basic quantities (restoration timing and resource) in general self-healing restoration against cascading overload failures in network models of homogeneous (Erdős-Rényi) and heterogeneous (scale-free) networks. We demonstrate how networks during cascading failures can be saved from the brink of collapse by proper combination of both restoration timing and resource. And we find that optimal restoration timing for the model and realistic networks exists at a given restoration resource in the self-healing process.

  8. Methyl methacrylate as a healing agent for self-healing cementitious materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tittelboom, K.; Adesanya, K.; Dubruel, P.; Van Puyvelde, P.; De Belie, N.

    2011-12-01

    Different types of healing agents have already been tested on their efficiency for use in self-healing cementitious materials. Generally, commercial healing agents are used while their properties are adjusted for manual crack repair and not for autonomous crack healing. Consequently, the amount of regain in properties due to self-healing of cracks is limited. In this research, a methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based healing agent was developed specifically for use in self-healing cementitious materials. Various parameters were optimized including the viscosity, curing time, strength, etc. After the desired properties were obtained, the healing agent was encapsulated and screened for its self-healing efficiency. The decrease in water permeability due to autonomous crack healing using MMA as a healing agent was similar to the results obtained for manually healed cracks. First results seem promising: however, further research needs to be undertaken in order to obtain an optimal healing agent ready for use in practice.

  9. Molecular structure of self-healing polyampholyte hydrogels analyzed from tensile behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao Lin; Luo, Feng; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Karobi, Sadia Nazneen; Nakajima, Tasuku; Gong, Jian Ping

    2015-12-28

    Recently, charge balanced polyampholytes (PA) have been found to form tough and self-healing hydrogels. This class of physical hydrogels have a very high equilibrated polymer concentration in water (ca. 40-50 wt%), and are strongly viscoelastic. They are synthesized by random copolymerization of equal amounts of oppositely charged monomers at a high concentration, followed by a dialysis process of the small counter-ions and co-ions in water. The randomly distributed, opposite charges of the polymer form multiple ionic bonds of intra- and inter-chains with strength distribution. The strong inter-chain bonds, stabilized by topological entanglement, serve as quasi-permanent crosslinks, imparting the elasticity, while the weak bonds, both inter- and intra-chains, reversibly break and re-form to dissipate energy to toughen the materials. In this work, we intend to clarify the structure of the physical PA hydrogels from the tensile behaviors of the PA hydrogels. To clarify the structure and its formation mechanism, we analysed the tensile behaviors of the samples before and after the dialysis. We separated the quasi-permanent crosslinking of strong inter-chain bonds and the dynamic crosslinking of weak inter-chain bonds by using a combined model that consists of the Upper Convected Maxwell model and the Gent strain hardening model. The model fitting of the tensile behaviors extracts quantitative structural parameters, including the densities of weak and strong inter-chain bonds and the theoretical finite extensibility of polymer chains. Based on the fitting results of the combined model, the structural parameters of partial chains at a fixed observation time, including the Kuhn number, Kuhn length, and chain conformation, are determined using the scaling theory. The effects of monomer concentration at preparation, the effect of dialysis and the initial strain rate on the dynamic structure of PA gels, are discussed based on these analyses. PMID:26435107

  10. Radiation-Shielding Polymer/Soil Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Subhayu

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed to fabricate polymer/ soil composites primarily from extraterrestrial resources, using relatively low-energy processes, with the original intended application being that habitat structures constructed from such composites would have sufficient structural integrity and also provide adequate radiation shielding for humans and sensitive electronic equipment against the radiation environment on the Moon and Mars. The proposal is a response to the fact that it would be much less expensive to fabricate such structures in situ as opposed to transporting them from Earth.

  11. Constitutive Modeling of Piezoelectric Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Tom (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A new modeling approach is proposed for predicting the bulk electromechanical properties of piezoelectric composites. The proposed model offers the same level of convenience as the well-known Mori-Tanaka method. In addition, it is shown to yield predicted properties that are, in most cases, more accurate or equally as accurate as the Mori-Tanaka scheme. In particular, the proposed method is used to determine the electromechanical properties of four piezoelectric polymer composite materials as a function of inclusion volume fraction. The predicted properties are compared to those calculated using the Mori-Tanaka and finite element methods.

  12. Solid particle erosion of polymers and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, K.; Almajid, A. A.

    2014-05-01

    After a general introduction to the subject of solid particle erosion of polymers and composites, the presentation focusses more specifically on the behavior of unidirectional carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites under such loadings, using different impact conditions and erodents. The data were analyzed on the basis of a newly defined specific erosive wear rate, allowing a better comparison of erosion data achieved under various testing conditions. Characteristic wear mechanisms of the CF/PEEK composites consisted of fiber fracture, matrix cutting and plastic matrix deformation, the relative contribution of which depended on the impingement angles and the CF orientation. The highest wear rates were measured for impingement angles between 45 and 60°. Using abrasion resistant neat polymer films (in this case PEEK or thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) ones) on the surface of a harder substrate (e.g. a CF/PEEK composite plate) resulted in much lower specific erosive wear rates. The use of such polymeric films can be considered as a possible method to protect composite surfaces from damage caused by minor impacts and erosion. In fact, they are nowadays already successfully applied as protections for wind energy rotor blades.

  13. Providing Self-Healing Ability for Wireless Sensor Node by Using Reconfigurable Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shenfang; Qiu, Lei; Gao, Shang; Tong, Yao; Yang, Weiwei

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have received tremendous attention over the past ten years. In engineering applications of WSNs, a number of sensor nodes are usually spread across some specific geographical area. Some of these nodes have to work in harsh environments. Dependability of the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is very important for its successful applications in the engineering area. In ordinary research, when a node has a failure, it is usually discarded and the network is reorganized to ensure the normal operation of the WSN. Using appropriate WSN re-organization methods, though the sensor networks can be reorganized, this causes additional maintenance costs and sometimes still decreases the function of the networks. In those situations where the sensor networks cannot be reorganized, the performance of the whole WSN will surely be degraded. In order to ensure the reliable and low cost operation of WSNs, a method to develop a wireless sensor node with self-healing ability based on reconfigurable hardware is proposed in this paper. Two self-healing WSN node realization paradigms based on reconfigurable hardware are presented, including a redundancy-based self-healing paradigm and a whole FPAA/FPGA based self-healing paradigm. The nodes designed with the self-healing ability can dynamically change their node configurations to repair the nodes' hardware failures. To demonstrate these two paradigms, a strain sensor node is adopted as an illustration to show the concepts. Two strain WSN sensor nodes with self-healing ability are developed respectively according to the proposed self-healing paradigms. Evaluation experiments on self-healing ability and power consumption are performed. Experimental results show that the developed nodes can self-diagnose the failures and recover to a normal state automatically. The research presented can improve the robustness of WSNs and reduce the maintenance cost of WSNs in engineering applications. PMID:23202176

  14. Methods of Making and Using Shape Memory Polymer Composite Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    A method of repairing a composite component having a damaged area including: laying a composite patch over the damaged area: activating the shape memory polymer resin to easily and quickly mold said patch to said damaged area; deactivating said shape memory polymer so that said composite patch retains the molded shape; and bonding said composite patch to said damaged part.

  15. The life times of polymer composites in construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Urs

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses examples that prove the long-term reliability of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) under extreme loading conditions and outdoor weathering. Results of polymer/steel-composite anchorage systems, Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) plates and shells, GFRP box girders, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) post-tensioning tendons and CFRP stays are going to be presented.

  16. Self-Healing Textile: Enzyme Encapsulated Layer-by-Layer Structural Proteins.

    PubMed

    Gaddes, David; Jung, Huihun; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Dion, Genevieve; Tadigadapa, Srinivas; Dressick, Walter J; Demirel, Melik C

    2016-08-10

    Self-healing materials, which enable an autonomous repair response to damage, are highly desirable for the long-term reliability of woven or nonwoven textiles. Polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer (LbL) films are of considerable interest as self-healing coatings due to the mobility of the components comprising the film. In this work mechanically stable self-healing films were fabricated through construction of a polyelectrolyte LbL film containing squid ring teeth (SRT) proteins. SRTs are structural proteins with unique self-healing properties and high elastic modulus in both dry and wet conditions (>2 GPa) due to their semicrystalline architecture. We demonstrate LbL construction of multilayers containing native and recombinant SRT proteins capable of self-healing defects. Additionally, we show these films are capable of utilizing functional biomolecules by incorporating an enzyme into the SRT multilayer. Urease was chosen as a model enzyme of interest to test its activity via fluorescence assay. Successful construction of the SRT films demonstrates the use of mechanically stable self-healing coatings, which can incorporate biomolecules for more complex protective functionalities for advanced functional fabrics. PMID:27419265

  17. Lap shear strength and healing capability of self-healing adhesive containing epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Habibah; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Ming-Qiu

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a self-healing polymeric adhesive formulation with epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules. Epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules were dispersed into a commercialize two-part epoxy adhesive for developing self-healing epoxy adhesive. The influence of different content of microcapsules on the shear strength and healing capability of epoxy adhesive were investigated using single-lap-joints with average thickness of adhesive layer of about 180 µm. This self-healing adhesive was used in bonding of 5000 series aluminum alloys adherents after mechanical and alkaline cleaning surface treatment. The adhesion strength was measured and presented as function of microcapsules loading. The results indicated that the virgin lap shear strength was increased by about 26% with addition of 3 wt% of self-healing microcapsules. 12% to 28% recovery of the shear strength is achieved after self-healing depending on the microcapsules content. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study fracture surface of the joints. The self-healing adhesives exhibit recovery of both cohesion and adhesion properties with room temperature healing.

  18. Molecular composites and polymer blends containing ionic polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Li-Chun

    1997-11-01

    Polymer blends are generally immiscible due to the unfavorable thermodynamics of mixing. By the introduction of ion-dipole interaction, mechanical properties of the PPTA anion/polar polymers (such as PVP, PEO and PPrO) molecular composites have been investigated in relation to their miscibility and microstructural morphology. Optical clarity observed in the glassy PPTA anion/PVP system suggest the presence of miscibility, since the refractive indices between the two components are quite different, nsb{PVP} = 1.509 and nsb{PPTA} = 1.644. In general, the difference greater than 0.01 is sufficient to make blends opaque. DSC measurements, showing a composition dependent Tsb{g} and a melting temperature depression, also indicate the miscibility achieved at the molecular level, about 50-100 A. By using the Hoffman-Weeks plot, a negative Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, chi = -1.10, is obtained for the PPTA anion/PEO molecular composites. An irregular spherulitic pattern and a reduced crystal size suggest that PPTA anion is intimately mixed with the amorphous PEO, both inter- and intra-spherulitically. Molecular composites exhibit not only an enhanced tensile strength and modulus, but also a greater fracture toughness, Ksb{IC}, e.g., an 80% increase at a 2 wt% PPTA anion addition. An enhanced tensile strength associated with a reduced crystallinity suggests that PPTA anion is the major contributor to the superior tensile properties instead of the crystalline phase. Upon addition of PPTA anion to PPrO, a slower relaxation rate and a better thermal stability are observed. Significant enhancement is found when the monovalent K salt is replaced with a divalent Ca salt. The molecular reinforcement achieved via ion-dipole interactions is more effective than the rigid filler effect obtained in the non-ionic PPTA/PPrO blend: e.g., a modulus enhancement of 814% vs. 286%, as compared with the value for PPrO. Two phase systems with microphase separation are developed since many

  19. Durable polymer-aerogel based superhydrophobic coatings, a composite material

    DOEpatents

    Kissel, David J; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    2014-03-04

    Provided are polymer-aerogel composite coatings, devices and articles including polymer-aerogel composite coatings, and methods for preparing the polymer-aerogel composite. The exemplary article can include a surface, wherein the surface includes at least one region and a polymer-aerogel composite coating disposed over the at least one region, wherein the polymer-aerogel composite coating has a water contact angle of at least about 140.degree. and a contact angle hysteresis of less than about 1.degree.. The polymer-aerogel composite coating can include a polymer and an ultra high water content catalyzed polysilicate aerogel, the polysilicate aerogel including a three dimensional network of silica particles having surface functional groups derivatized with a silylating agent and a plurality of pores.

  20. Durable polymer-aerogel based superhydrophobic coatings: a composite material

    DOEpatents

    Kissel, David J.; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    2016-02-02

    Provided are polymer-aerogel composite coatings, devices and articles including polymer-aerogel composite coatings, and methods for preparing the polymer-aerogel composite. The exemplary article can include a surface, wherein the surface includes at least one region and a polymer-aerogel composite coating disposed over the at least one region, wherein the polymer-aerogel composite coating has a water contact angle of at least about 140.degree. and a contact angle hysteresis of less than about 1.degree.. The polymer-aerogel composite coating can include a polymer and an ultra high water content catalyzed polysilicate aerogel, the polysilicate aerogel including a three dimensional network of silica particles having surface functional groups derivatized with a silylating agent and a plurality of pores.

  1. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Poly(ethylene glycol) Double-Network Hydrogel: A General Approach to Shape Memory and Self-Healing Functionalities.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo; Zhang, Hongji; Fortin, Daniel; Xia, Hesheng; Zhao, Yue

    2015-10-27

    A double-network polymer hydrogel composed of chemically cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and physically cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was prepared. When the hydrogel (70 wt % of water) is subjected to freezing/thawing treatment under strain, the enhanced physical network as a result of crystallization of PVA chains can stabilize the hydrogel deformation after removal of the external force at room temperature. Subsequent disruption of the physical network of PVA by heating allows for the recovery of the initial shape of the hydrogel. Moreover, the double-network hydrogel exhibits self-healing capability stemming from the physical network of PVA by virtue of the extensive interchain hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl side groups. This study thus demonstrates a general approach to imparting both the shape memory and self-healing properties to chemically cross-linked hydrogels that otherwise do not have such functionalities. Moreover, by making use of the fixed hydrogel elongation, the effect of anisotropy arising from chain orientation on the self-healing was also observed. PMID:26442631

  2. Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ou, Danny; Stepanian, Christopher J.; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    Aerogels that consist, variously, of neat silica/polymer alloys and silica/polymer alloy matrices reinforced with fibers have been developed as materials for flexible thermal-insulation blankets. In comparison with prior aerogel blankets, these aerogel blankets are more durable and less dusty. These blankets are also better able to resist and recover from compression . an important advantage in that maintenance of thickness is essential to maintenance of high thermal-insulation performance. These blankets are especially suitable as core materials for vacuum- insulated panels and vacuum-insulated boxes of advanced, nearly seamless design. (Inasmuch as heat leakage at seams is much greater than heat leakage elsewhere through such structures, advanced designs for high insulation performance should provide for minimization of the sizes and numbers of seams.) A silica/polymer aerogel of the present type could be characterized, somewhat more precisely, as consisting of multiply bonded, linear polymer reinforcements within a silica aerogel matrix. Thus far, several different polymethacrylates (PMAs) have been incorporated into aerogel networks to increase resistance to crushing and to improve other mechanical properties while minimally affecting thermal conductivity and density. The polymethacrylate phases are strongly linked into the silica aerogel networks in these materials. Unlike in other organic/inorganic blended aerogels, the inorganic and organic phases are chemically bonded to each other, by both covalent and hydrogen bonds. In the process for making a silica/polymer alloy aerogel, the covalent bonds are introduced by prepolymerization of the methacrylate monomer with trimethoxysilylpropylmethacrylate, which serves as a phase cross-linker in that it contains both organic and inorganic monomer functional groups and hence acts as a connector between the organic and inorganic phases. Hydrogen bonds are formed between the silanol groups of the inorganic phase and the

  3. The analysis of thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Książek, Mariusz

    2016-07-01

    Specific chemical environments step out in the industry objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) were impregnated by using the special polymerized sulfur and technical soot as a filler (polymer sulfur composite). Sulfur and technical soot was applied as the industrial waste. Portland cement composites were made of the same aggregate, cement and water. The process of special polymer sulfur composite applied as the industrial waste is a thermal treatment process in the temperature of about 150-155°C. The result of such treatment is special polymer sulfur composite in a liquid state. This paper presents the plastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of special polymer sulfur composites, with isotropic porous matrix, reinforced by disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions with orthotropic symmetry of the thermoplastic properties. The investigations are based on the stochastic differential equations of solid mechanics. A model and algorithm for calculating the effective characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites are suggested. The effective thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites, with disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions, are calculated in two stages: First, the properties of materials with oriented inclusions are determined, and then effective constants of a composite with disoriented inclusions are determined on the basis of the Voigt or Rice scheme. A brief summary of new products related to special polymer sulfur composites is given as follows: Impregnation, repair, overlays and precast polymer concrete will be presented. Special polymer sulfur as polymer coating impregnation, which has received little attention in recent years, currently has some very interesting applications.

  4. Creep of plain weave polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Abhishek

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in various industrial sectors to reduce structural weight and improve performance. Woven (also known as textile) composites are one class of polymer matrix composites with increasing market share mostly due to their lightweight, their flexibility to form into desired shape, their mechanical properties and toughness. Due to the viscoelasticity of the polymer matrix, time-dependent degradation in modulus (creep) and strength (creep rupture) are two of the major mechanical properties required by engineers to design a structure reliably when using these materials. Unfortunately, creep and creep rupture of woven composites have received little attention by the research community and thus, there is a dire need to generate additional knowledge and prediction models, given the increasing market share of woven composites in load bearing structural applications. Currently, available creep models are limited in scope and have not been validated for any loading orientation and time period beyond the experimental time window. In this thesis, an analytical creep model, namely the Modified Equivalent Laminate Model (MELM), was developed to predict tensile creep of plain weave composites for any orientation of the load with respect to the orientation of the fill and warp fibers, using creep of unidirectional composites. The ability of the model to predict creep for any orientation of the load is a "first" in this area. The model was validated using an extensive experimental involving the tensile creep of plain weave composites under varying loading orientation and service conditions. Plain weave epoxy (F263)/ carbon fiber (T300) composite, currently used in aerospace applications, was procured as fabrics from Hexcel Corporation. Creep tests were conducted under two loading conditions: on-axis loading (0°) and off-axis loading (45°). Constant load creep, in the temperature range of 80-240°C and stress range of 1-70% UTS of the

  5. Magnetic polymer composite artificial bacterial flagella.

    PubMed

    Peyer, K E; Siringil, E; Zhang, L; Nelson, B J

    2014-01-01

    Artificial bacterial flagella (ABFs) are magnetically actuated swimming microrobots inspired by Escherichia coli bacteria, which use a helical tail for propulsion. The ABFs presented are fabricated from a magnetic polymer composite (MPC) containing iron-oxide nanoparticles embedded in an SU-8 polymer that is shaped into a helix by direct laser writing. The paper discusses the swim performance of MPC ABFs fabricated with varying helicity angles. The locomotion model presented contains the fluidic drag of the microrobot, which is calculated based on the resistive force theory. The robot's magnetization is approximated by an analytical model for a soft-magnetic ellipsoid. The helicity angle influences the fluidic and magnetic properties of the robot, and it is shown that weakly magnetized robots prefer a small helicity angle to achieve corkscrew-type motion. PMID:25405833

  6. Photomechanical actuation in polymer-nanotube composites.

    PubMed

    Ahir, Samit V; Terentjev, Eugene M

    2005-06-01

    For some systems, energy from an external source can trigger changes in the internal state of the structure, leading to a mechanical response much larger than the initial input. The ability to unlock this internal work in a solid-state structure is of key importance for many potential applications. We report a novel phenomenon of photo-induced mechanical actuation observed in a polymer-nanotube composite when exposed to infrared radiation. At small strains the sample tends to expand, when stimulated by photons, by an amount that is orders of magnitude greater than the pristine polymer. Conversely, at larger applied pre-strain, it will contract under identical infrared excitation. The behaviour is modelled as a function of orientational ordering of nanotubes induced by the uniaxial extension. It is thought that no other materials can display this continuously reversible response of so large a magnitude, making rubber nanocomposites important for actuator applications. PMID:15880115

  7. Characterization of Hybrid CNT Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Kinney, Megan C.; Pressley, James; Sauti, Godfrey; Czabaj, Michael W.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been studied extensively since their discovery and demonstrated at the nanoscale superior mechanical, electrical and thermal properties in comparison to micro and macro scale properties of conventional engineering materials. This combination of properties suggests their potential to enhance multi-functionality of composites in regions of primary structures on aerospace vehicles where lightweight materials with improved thermal and electrical conductivity are desirable. In this study, hybrid multifunctional polymer matrix composites were fabricated by interleaving layers of CNT sheets into Hexcel® IM7/8552 prepreg, a well-characterized toughened epoxy carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite. The resin content of these interleaved CNT sheets, as well as ply stacking location were varied to determine the effects on the electrical, thermal, and mechanical performance of the composites. The direct-current electrical conductivity of the hybrid CNT composites was characterized by in-line and Montgomery four-probe methods. For [0](sub 20) laminates containing a single layer of CNT sheet between each ply of IM7/8552, in-plane electrical conductivity of the hybrid laminate increased significantly, while in-plane thermal conductivity increased only slightly in comparison to the control IM7/8552 laminates. Photo-microscopy and short beam shear (SBS) strength tests were used to characterize the consolidation quality of the fabricated laminates. Hybrid panels fabricated without any pretreatment of the CNT sheets resulted in a SBS strength reduction of 70 percent. Aligning the tubes and pre-infusing the CNT sheets with resin significantly improved the SBS strength of the hybrid composite To determine the cause of this performance reduction, Mode I and Mode II fracture toughness of the CNT sheet to CFRP interface was characterized by double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notch flexure (ENF) testing, respectively. Results are compared to the

  8. Photodegradation and self-healing in a Rhodamine 6G dye and nanoparticle-doped polyurethane random laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Benjamin R.; Gunawidjaja, Ray; Eilers, Hergen

    2015-07-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in implementing organic dyes in random lasers is irreversible photodegradation of the dye molecules, leading to loss of performance and the need to replace the dye. We report the observation of self-healing after photodegradation in a Rhodamine 6G dye and nanoparticle-doped polyurethane random laser. During irradiation, we observe two distinct temporal regions in which the random lasing emission first increases in intensity and redshifts, followed by further redshifting, spectral broadening, and decay in the emission intensity. After irradiation, the emission intensity is found to recover back to its peak value, while still being broadened and redshifted, which leads to the result of an enhancement of the spectrally integrated intensity. We also perform IR-VIS absorbance measurements and find that the results suggest that during irradiation, some of the dye molecules form dimers and trimers and that the polymer host is irreversibly damaged by photooxidation and Norrish type I photocleavage.

  9. The Role of Multiple, Reformable Parallel Bonds on the Self-healing Behavior of Dual Crosslinked Nanogel Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salib, Isaac G.; Kolmakov, German V.; Gnegy, Chet N.; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Balazs, Anna C.

    2011-03-01

    Using computational modeling, we design novel self-healing materials composed of nanoscopic polymer gel particles, or nanogels. The particles are interconnected via both labile bonds (e.g., disulfide bonds) and stronger, less reactive bonds (e.g, C-C bonds) and therefore the nanogels form a ``dual crosslinked'' network. The stable bonds provide a rigid backbone while the labile bonds allow the material to undergo a dynamic reconfiguration in response to stress. We adapt the Hierarchical Bell Model (HBM) to describe the labile bonding interactions. The HBM effectively allows us to model cases where the ligands on neighboring nanogels interact through multiple sites. We show that the introduction of a small number of labile bonds that lie in parallel significantly increases the strength of the material relative to samples crosslinked solely by the stable bonds. We also isolate an optimal range of labile interconnections that provide high-strength, tough materials that are capable of self-repair.

  10. Controlling diffusion for a self-healing radiation tolerant nanostructured ferritic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. K.; Parish, C. M.; Bei, H.

    2015-07-01

    Diffusion plays a major role in the stability of microstructures to extreme conditions of high temperature and high doses of irradiation. In nanostructured ferritic alloys, first principle calculations indicate that the binding energy of vacancies is reduced by the presence of oxygen, titanium and yttrium atoms. Therefore, the number of free vacancies available for diffusion can be greatly reduced. The mechanical properties of these alloys, compared to traditional wrought alloys of similar composition and grain structure, is distinctly different, and the ultrafine grained alloy is distinguished by a high number density of Ti-Y-O-enriched nanoclusters and solute clusters, which drives the mechanical response. When a displacement cascade interacts with a nanocluster, the solute atoms are locally dispersed into the matrix by ballistic collisions, but immediately a new nanocluster reforms due to the local supersaturation of solutes and vacancies until the excess vacancies are consumed. The result of these processes is a structural material for advanced energy systems with a microstructure that is self-healing and tolerant to high doses of radiation and high temperatures.

  11. Enhancement of oxidation resistance via a self-healing boron carbide coating on diamond particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youhong; Meng, Qingnan; Qian, Ming; Liu, Baochang; Gao, Ke; Ma, Yinlong; Wen, Mao; Zheng, Weitao

    2016-02-01

    A boron carbide coating was applied to diamond particles by heating the particles in a powder mixture consisting of H3BO3, B and Mg. The composition, bond state and coverage fraction of the boron carbide coating on the diamond particles were investigated. The boron carbide coating prefers to grow on the diamond (100) surface than on the diamond (111) surface. A stoichiometric B4C coating completely covered the diamond particle after maintaining the raw mixture at 1200 °C for 2 h. The contribution of the boron carbide coating to the oxidation resistance enhancement of the diamond particles was investigated. During annealing of the coated diamond in air, the priory formed B2O3, which exhibits a self-healing property, as an oxygen barrier layer, which protected the diamond from oxidation. The formation temperature of B2O3 is dependent on the amorphous boron carbide content. The coating on the diamond provided effective protection of the diamond against oxidation by heating in air at 1000 °C for 1 h. Furthermore, the presence of the boron carbide coating also contributed to the maintenance of the static compressive strength during the annealing of diamond in air.

  12. Enhancement of oxidation resistance via a self-healing boron carbide coating on diamond particles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Youhong; Meng, Qingnan; Qian, Ming; Liu, Baochang; Gao, Ke; Ma, Yinlong; Wen, Mao; Zheng, Weitao

    2016-01-01

    A boron carbide coating was applied to diamond particles by heating the particles in a powder mixture consisting of H3BO3, B and Mg. The composition, bond state and coverage fraction of the boron carbide coating on the diamond particles were investigated. The boron carbide coating prefers to grow on the diamond (100) surface than on the diamond (111) surface. A stoichiometric B4C coating completely covered the diamond particle after maintaining the raw mixture at 1200 °C for 2 h. The contribution of the boron carbide coating to the oxidation resistance enhancement of the diamond particles was investigated. During annealing of the coated diamond in air, the priory formed B2O3, which exhibits a self-healing property, as an oxygen barrier layer, which protected the diamond from oxidation. The formation temperature of B2O3 is dependent on the amorphous boron carbide content. The coating on the diamond provided effective protection of the diamond against oxidation by heating in air at 1000 °C for 1 h. Furthermore, the presence of the boron carbide coating also contributed to the maintenance of the static compressive strength during the annealing of diamond in air. PMID:26831205

  13. Enhancement of oxidation resistance via a self-healing boron carbide coating on diamond particles

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Youhong; Meng, Qingnan; Qian, Ming; Liu, Baochang; Gao, Ke; Ma, Yinlong; Wen, Mao; Zheng, Weitao

    2016-01-01

    A boron carbide coating was applied to diamond particles by heating the particles in a powder mixture consisting of H3BO3, B and Mg. The composition, bond state and coverage fraction of the boron carbide coating on the diamond particles were investigated. The boron carbide coating prefers to grow on the diamond (100) surface than on the diamond (111) surface. A stoichiometric B4C coating completely covered the diamond particle after maintaining the raw mixture at 1200 °C for 2 h. The contribution of the boron carbide coating to the oxidation resistance enhancement of the diamond particles was investigated. During annealing of the coated diamond in air, the priory formed B2O3, which exhibits a self-healing property, as an oxygen barrier layer, which protected the diamond from oxidation. The formation temperature of B2O3 is dependent on the amorphous boron carbide content. The coating on the diamond provided effective protection of the diamond against oxidation by heating in air at 1000 °C for 1 h. Furthermore, the presence of the boron carbide coating also contributed to the maintenance of the static compressive strength during the annealing of diamond in air. PMID:26831205

  14. Controlling diffusion for a self-healing radiation tolerant nanostructured ferritic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Michael K.; Parish, Chad M.; Bei, Hongbin

    2014-12-18

    Diffusion plays a major role in the stability of microstructures to extreme conditions of high temperature and high doses of irradiation. In nanostructured ferritic alloys, first principle calculations indicate that the binding energy of vacancies is reduced by the presence of oxygen, titanium and yttrium atoms. Therefore, the number of free vacancies available for diffusion can be greatly reduced. The mechanical properties of these alloys, compared to traditional wrought alloys of similar composition and grain structure, is distinctly different, and the ultrafine grained alloy is distinguished by a high number density of Ti–Y–O-enriched nanoclusters and solute clusters, which drives the mechanical response. When a displacement cascade interacts with a nanocluster, the solute atoms are locally dispersed into the matrix by ballistic collisions, but immediately a new nanocluster reforms due to the local supersaturation of solutes and vacancies until the excess vacancies are consumed. Furthermore, the result of these processes is a structural material for advanced energy systems with a microstructure that is self-healing and tolerant to high doses of radiation and high temperatures.

  15. Controlling diffusion for a self-healing radiation tolerant nanostructured ferritic alloy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Miller, Michael K.; Parish, Chad M.; Bei, Hongbin

    2014-12-18

    Diffusion plays a major role in the stability of microstructures to extreme conditions of high temperature and high doses of irradiation. In nanostructured ferritic alloys, first principle calculations indicate that the binding energy of vacancies is reduced by the presence of oxygen, titanium and yttrium atoms. Therefore, the number of free vacancies available for diffusion can be greatly reduced. The mechanical properties of these alloys, compared to traditional wrought alloys of similar composition and grain structure, is distinctly different, and the ultrafine grained alloy is distinguished by a high number density of Ti–Y–O-enriched nanoclusters and solute clusters, which drives themore » mechanical response. When a displacement cascade interacts with a nanocluster, the solute atoms are locally dispersed into the matrix by ballistic collisions, but immediately a new nanocluster reforms due to the local supersaturation of solutes and vacancies until the excess vacancies are consumed. Furthermore, the result of these processes is a structural material for advanced energy systems with a microstructure that is self-healing and tolerant to high doses of radiation and high temperatures.« less

  16. Phosphazene polymer containing composites and method for making phosphazene polymer containing composites

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C.A.; Grey, A.E.; McCaffrey, R.R.; Simpson, B.M.; Stone, M.L.

    1990-12-31

    The object of the invention is to provide a composite material comprised of phosphazene polymer. A feature of phosphazene-containing composites is their superior stiffness, thermal stability, and hardness which is lacking in more typical composite constituents. An advantage of using phosphazene composites is a wider range of applications, including uses in harsh environments. Another object of the present invention provides a method for producing phosphazene-containing composite materials through a pultrusion process. In brief, these and other objects are achieved by a composite produced by first coating a reinforcing material with an inorganic phosphazene compound and then polymerizing the phosphazene compound so as to confer superior thermal, physical and chemical resistance qualities to the composite. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Phase stability and dynamics of entangled polymer-nanoparticle composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mangal, Rahul; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-06-10

    Nanoparticle–polymer composites, or polymer–nanoparticle composites (PNCs), exhibit unusual mechanical and dynamical features when the particle size approaches the random coil dimensions of the host polymer. Here, we harness favourable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered and free, host polymer chains to create model PNCs, in which spherical nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in high molecular weight entangled polymers. Investigation of the mechanical properties of these model PNCs reveals that the nanoparticles have profound effects on the host polymer motions on all timescales. On short timescales, nanoparticles slow-down local dynamics of the host polymer segments and lower the glass transition temperature. On intermediate timescales, where polymer chain motion is typically constrained by entanglements with surrounding molecules, nanoparticles provide additional constraints, which lead to an early onset of entangled polymer dynamics. Finally, on long timescales, nanoparticles produce an apparent speeding up of relaxation of their polymer host.

  18. Accelerated Aging of Polymer Composite Bridge Materials

    SciTech Connect

    J. G. Rodriguez; L. G. Blackwood; L. L. Torres; N. M. Carlson; T. S. Yoder

    1999-03-01

    Accelerated aging research on samples of composite material and candidate ultraviolet (UV) protective coatings is determining the effects of six environmental factors on material durability. Candidate fastener materials are being evaluated to determine corrosion rates and crevice corrosion effects at load-bearing joints. This work supports field testing of a 30-ft long, 18-ft wide polymer matrix composite (PMC) bridge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Durability results and sensor data from tests with live loads provide information required for determining the cost/benefit measures to use in life-cycle planning, determining a maintenance strategy, establishing applicable inspection techniques, and establishing guidelines, standards, and acceptance criteria for PMC bridges for use in the transportation infrastructure.

  19. Inorganic-organic composite solid polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, K.M.; Koch, V.R.; Blakley, T.J.

    2000-04-01

    Inorganic-organic composite solid polymer electrolytes (CSPEs) have been prepared from the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-like electrolytes of the general formula polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP)-PEO{sub n}-LiX and Li{sup +}-conducting ceramic powders. In the PEO-like electrolytes, PVdF-HFP is the copolymer of PVdF and HFP, PEO{sub n} is a nonvolatile oligomeric polyethylene oxide of {approximately}400 g/mol molecular weight, and LiX is lithium bis(trifluoroethylsulfonyl)imide. Two types of inorganic oxide ceramic powders were used: a highly Li{sup +}-conducting material of the composition 14 mol % Li{sub 2}O-9Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-38TiO{sub 2}-39P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the poorly Li{sup +}-conducting Li-silicates Li{sub 4{minus}x}M{sub x}SiO{sub 4} where M is Ca or Mg and x is 0 or 0.05. The composite electrolytes can be prepared as thin membranes in which the Li{sup +} conductivity and good mechanical strength of the Li{sup +}-conducting inorganic ceramics are complemented by the structural flexibility and high conductivity of organic polymer electrolytes. Excellent electrochemical and thermal stabilities have been demonstrated for the electrolyte films. Li//composite electrolyte//LiCoO{sub 2} rechargeable cells have been fabricated and cycled at room temperature and 50 C.

  20. Polymer precursors for ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, M. H.; Kumar, K.

    1986-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a polycyclohexasilane is reported. Because of its cyclic structure, it is anticipated that this polymer might serve as a precursor to SIC having a high char yield with little rearrangement to form small, volatile cyclic silanes, and, as such, would be of interest as a precursor to SiC composite matrices and fibers, or as a binder in ceramic processing. Several approaches to the synthesis of a bifunctional cyclic monomer were attempted; the most successful of these was metal coupling of PhMeSiCl2 and Me2SiCl2. The procedure gives six-membered ring compounds with all degrees of phenyl substitution, from none to hexaphenyl. The compounds with from 0-2 groups were isolated and characterized. The fraction with degree of phenyl substitution equal to 2, a mixture of cis and trans 1,2-; 1,3-; and 1,4 isomers, was isolated in 32 percent yield. Pure 1,4 diphenyldecamethylcyclohexasilane was isolated from the mixed diphenyl compounds and characterized. Diphenyldecamethylcyclohexasilanes were dephenylated to dichlorodecamethylcyclohexasilanes by treating with H2SO4.NH4Cl in benzene. The latter were purified and polymerized by reacting with sodium in toluene. The polymers were characterized by HPGPC, elemental analysis, proton NMR, and IR. Thermogravimetric analyses were carried out on the polymers. As the yield of residual SiC was low, polymers were heat treated to increase the residual char yield. As high as 51.52 percent residual char yield was obtained in one case.

  1. Self-healing gels based on constitutional dynamic chemistry and their potential applications.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhao; Yang, Jian Hai; Zhou, Jinxiong; Xu, Feng; Zrínyi, Miklós; Dussault, Patrick H; Osada, Yoshihito; Chen, Yong Mei

    2014-12-01

    As representative soft materials with widespread applications, gels with various functions have been developed. However, traditional gels are vulnerable to stress-induced formation of cracks. The propagation of these cracks may affect the integrity of network structures of gels, resulting in the loss of functionality and limiting the service life of the gels. To address this challenge, self-healing gels that can restore their functionalities and structures after damage have been developed as "smart" soft materials. In this paper, we present an overview of the current strategies for synthesizing self-healing gels based on the concept of constitutional dynamic chemistry, which involves molecular structures capable of establishing dynamic networks based upon physical interactions or chemical reactions. The characterization methods of self-healing gels and the key factors that affect self-healing properties are analyzed. We also illustrate the emerging applications of self-healing gels, with emphasis on their usage in industry (coatings, sealants) and biomedicine (tissue adhesives, agents for drug or cell delivery). We conclude with a perspective on challenges facing the field, along with prospects for future development. PMID:25144925

  2. Technology and Development of Self-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, Ben; Peijs, Ton

    In recent years there has been an increasing amount of interest, both commercially and scientifically, in the emerging field of "self-reinforced polymer composites". These materials, which are sometimes also referred to as "single polymer composites", or "all-polymer composites", were first conceived in the 1970s, and are now beginning to appear in a range of commercial products. While high mechanical performance polymer fibres or tapes are an obvious precursor for composite development, various different technologies have been developed to consolidate these into two- or three-dimensional structures. This paper presents a review of the various processing techniques that have been reported in the literature for the manufacture of self-reinforced polymer composites from fibres or tapes of different polymers, and so exploit the fibre or tape performance in a commercial material or product.

  3. Mechanical Evaluation of Polymer Composite Hip Protectors

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Jose Daniel Diniz; Barbosa, Ayrles S. Gonçalves; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Hip fractures often result in serious health implications, particularly in the geriatric population, and have been related to long-term morbidity and death. In most cases, these fractures are caused by impact loads in the area of the greater trochanter, which are produced in a fall. This work is aimed at developing hip protectors using composite materials and evaluating their effectiveness in preventing hip fractures under high impact energy (120 J). The hip protectors were developed with an inner layer of energy absorbing soft material and an outer rigid shell of fiberglass-reinforced polymer composite. According to the experimental results, all tested configurations proved to be effective at reducing the impact load to below the average fracture threshold of proximal femur. Furthermore, an addition of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) to the impacted area of the composite shell proved to be beneficial to increase impact strength of the hip protectors. Thus, composite hip protectors proved to be a viable alternative for a mechanically efficient and cost-effective solution to prevent hip fractures. PMID:20871841

  4. Methods of making composite optical devices employing polymer liquid crystal

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, S.D.; Marshall, K.L.; Cerqua, K.A.

    1991-10-08

    Composite optical devices are disclosed using polymer liquid crystal materials both as optical and adhesive elements. The devices are made by assembling a heated polymer liquid crystal compound, while in a low viscosity form between optically transparent substrates. The molecules of the polymer are oriented, while in the liquid crystalline state and while above the glass transition temperature (T[sub g]) of the polymer, to provide the desired optical effects, such as polarization, and selective reflection. The liquid crystal polymer cements the substrates together to form an assembly providing the composite optical device. 7 figures.

  5. Methods of making composite optical devices employing polymer liquid crystal

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Stephen D.; Marshall, Kenneth L.; Cerqua, Kathleen A.

    1991-01-01

    Composite optical devices using polymer liquid crystal materials both as optical and adhesive elements. The devices are made by assembling a heated polymer liquid crystal compound, while in a low viscosity form between optically transparent substrates. The molecules of the polymer are oriented, while in the liquid crystalline state and while above the glass transition temperature (T.sub.g) of the polymer, to provide the desired optical effects, such as polarization, and selective reflection. The liquid crystal polymer cements the substrates together to form an assembly providing the composite optical device.

  6. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; Jeon, Sea Ho; Mack, Nathan H.

    2011-08-02

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  7. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; Jeon, Sea Ho; Mack, Nathan H.

    2012-04-03

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  8. Temperature effects on polymer-carbon composite sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, J. R.; Homer, M. L.; Manatt, K.; Kisor, A.; Lara, L.; Jewell, A. D.; Shevade, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    At JPL we have investigated the effects of temperature on polymer-carbon black composite sensors. While the electrical properties of polymer composites have been studied, with mechanisms of conductivity described by connectivity and tunneling, it is not fully understood how these properties affect sensor characteristics and responses.

  9. Self-healing of optical functions by molecular metabolism in a swollen elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Mitsunori; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Sakiyama, Kohei; Inagaki, Sota

    2012-12-01

    Optical functions of organic dyes, e.g., fluorescence or photochromism, tend to degrade by light irradiation, which causes a short lifetime of photonic devices. Self-healing of optical functions is attainable by metabolizing bleached molecules with nonirradiated ones. A polydimethylsiloxane elastomer provides a useful matrix for dye molecules, since its flexible structure with nano-sized intermolecular spaces allows dye diffusion from a reservoir to an operation region. Swelling the elastomer with a suitable solvent promotes both dissolution and diffusion of dye molecules. This self-healing function was demonstrated by an experiment in which a photochromic elastomer exhibited improved durability against a repeated coloring-decoloring process.

  10. Generation and self-healing of a radially polarized Bessel-Gauss beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Gaofeng; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yangjian

    2014-04-01

    We report experimental generation of a radially polarized Bessel-Gauss (RPBG) beam of order 1 with the help of a spatial light modulator, a spiral phase plate, and a radial polarization converter. Furthermore, we carry out a comparative study of the self-healing properties of a RPBG beam and a linearly polarized Bessel-Gauss (LPBG) beam which are blocked by a sector-shaped opaque obstacle both experimentally and numerically. Our results clearly show that the self-healing ability of a RPBG beam indeed is superior to that of a LPBG beam, and some physical interpretations are given. Our results will be useful for particle trapping and microscopy.

  11. Recent Development of Durable and Self-Healing Surfaces with Special Wettability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunlin; Wu, Yi; Zhou, Shuxue; Wu, Limin

    2016-03-01

    Artificial special wetting surfaces have drawn much interest due to their important applications in many fields. Nevertheless, tremendous challenges still remain for the fabrication of wetting surfaces with durable and self-healing properties. Here, recent progress of durable, self-healing wetting surfaces is highlighted by discussing the fabrications of several typical wetting surfaces including superhydrophobic surfaces, superamphiphobic surfaces, underwater superoleophobic surfaces, and high hydrophilic antifouling surfaces based on expertise and related research experience. To conclude, some perspectives on the future research and development of these special wetting surfaces are presented. PMID:26833559

  12. Advanced composite polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Gottesfeld, S.; Kolde, J.A.; Bahar, B.

    1995-09-01

    A new type of reinforced composite perfluorinated polymer electrolyte membrane, GORE-SELECT{trademark} (W.L. Gore & Assoc.), is characterized and tested for fuel cell applications. Very thin membranes (5-20 {mu}m thick) are available. The combination of reinforcement and thinness provides high membrane, conductances (80 S/cm{sup 2} for a 12 {mu}m thick membrane at 25{degrees}C) and improved water distribution in the operating fuel cell without sacrificing longevity or durability. In contrast to nonreinforced perfluorinated membranes, the x-y dimensions of the GORE-SELECT membranes are relatively unaffected by the hydration state. This feature may be important from the viewpoints of membrane/electrode interface stability and fuel cell manufacturability.

  13. Fracture toughness testing of polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the interlaminar fracture indicates that a standard specimen geometry is needed to obtain consistent fracture toughness measurements in polymer matrix composites. In general, the variability of measured toughness values increases as the toughness of the material increases. This variability could be caused by incorrect sizing of test specimens and/or inconsistent data reduction procedures. A standard data reduction procedure is therefore needed as well, particularly for the tougher materials. Little work has been reported on the effects of fiber orientation, fiber architecture, fiber surface treatment or interlaminar fracture toughness, and the mechanisms by which the fibers increase fracture toughness are not well understood. The little data that is available indicates that woven fiber reinforcement and fiber sizings can significantly increase interlaminar fracture toughness.

  14. Computer-aided design of polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This book on computer-aided design of polymers and composites introduces and discusses the subject from the viewpoint of atomic and molecular models. Thus, the origins of stiffness, strength, extensibility, and fracture toughness in composite materials can be analyzed directly in terms of chemical composition and molecular structure. Aspects of polymer composite reliability are considered along with characterization techniques for composite reliability, relations between atomic and molecular properties, computer aided design and manufacture, polymer CAD/CAM models, and composite CAD/CAM models. Attention is given to multiphase structural adhesives, fibrous composite reliability, metal joint reliability, polymer physical states and transitions, chemical quality assurance, processability testing, cure monitoring and management, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), surface NDE, elementary properties, ionic-covalent bonding, molecular analysis, acid-base interactions, the manufacturing science, and peel mechanics.

  15. UV-Triggered Self-Healing of a Single Robust SiO2 Microcapsule Based on Cationic Polymerization for Potential Application in Aerospace Coatings.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wanchun; Jia, Yin; Tian, Kesong; Xu, Zhaopeng; Jiao, Jiao; Li, Ruifei; Wu, Yuehao; Cao, Ling; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-08-17

    UV-triggered self-healing of single microcapsules has been a good candidate to enhance the life of polymer-based aerospace coatings because of its rapid healing process and healing chemistry based on an accurate stoichiometric ratio. However, free radical photoinitiators used in single microcapsules commonly suffer from possible deactivation due to the presence of oxygen in the space environment. Moreover, entrapment of polymeric microcapsules into coatings often involves elevated temperature or a strong solvent, probably leading to swelling or degradation of polymer shell, and ultimately the loss of active healing species into the host matrix. We herein describe the first single robust SiO2 microcapsule self-healing system based on UV-triggered cationic polymerization for potential application in aerospace coatings. On the basis of the similarity of solubility parameters of the active healing species and the SiO2 precursor, the epoxy resin and cationic photoinitiator are successfully encapsulated into a single SiO2 microcapsule via a combined interfacial/in situ polymerization. The single SiO2 microcapsule shows solvent resistance and thermal stability, especially a strong resistance for thermal cycling in a simulated space environment. In addition, the up to 89% curing efficiency of the epoxy resin in 30 min, and the obvious filling of scratches in the epoxy matrix demonstrate the excellent UV-induced healing performance of SiO2 microcapsules, attributed to a high load of healing species within the capsule (up to 87 wt %) and healing chemistry based on an accurate stoichiometric ratio of the photoinitiator and epoxy resin at 9/100. More importantly, healing chemistry based on a UV-triggered cationic polymerization mechanism is not sensitive to oxygen, extremely facilitating future embedment of this single SiO2 microcapsule in spacecraft coatings to achieve self-healing in a space environment with abundant UV radiation and oxygen. PMID:27463101

  16. Inorganic-organic composite polymers and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Josowicz, Mira A.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a composition of an inorganic-organic polymer composite and a method of making it. The inorganic portion of the fundamental polymer composite polymer repeat is a speciated inorganic heterocyclic compound, and the organic portion of the polymer repeat is a cyclic organic radical anion compound having at least two charged sites. The composition of the present invention is made by combining a cyclic organic radical anion compound with a speciated inorganic heterocyclic compound by a nucleophilic substitution thereby forming a polymer of an inorganic-organic composite. The cyclic organic radical anion compound is preferably generated electrochemically. The nucleophilic substitution is alternately carried out chemically or electrochemically. A preferred embodiment of the present invention includes performing the nucleophilic substitution at the cathode of an electrochemical cell.

  17. Inorganic-organic composite polymers and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Josowicz, M.A.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1996-10-29

    The invention is a composition of an inorganic-organic polymer composite and a method of making it. The inorganic portion of the fundamental polymer composite polymer repeat is a speciated inorganic heterocyclic compound, and the organic portion of the polymer repeat is a cyclic organic radical anion compound having at least two charged sites. The composition of the present invention is made by combining a cyclic organic radical anion compound with a speciated inorganic heterocyclic compound by a nucleophilic substitution thereby forming a polymer of an inorganic-organic composite. The cyclic organic radical anion compound is preferably generated electrochemically. The nucleophilic substitution is alternately carried out chemically or electrochemically. A preferred embodiment of the present invention includes performing the nucleophilic substitution at the cathode of an electrochemical cell. 2 figs.

  18. Polymer Matrix Composites: A Perspective for a Special Issue of Polymer Reviews

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, Michael R.

    2012-09-04

    Polymer matrix composites, with their high specific strength and stiffness, are used in a wide range of applications from large wind turbine blades to microelectronics. This perspective article provides a brief primer on polymer matrix composites, discusses some of their advantages and limitations, and describes a number of emerging trends in the field. In addition, it introduces four review articles on the topics of recent developments in carbon fibers, natural fiber reinforced composites, evaluation of the interface between the fiber reinforcement and polymer matrix, and carbon nanotube reinforced polymers.

  19. Effects of reprocessing on nanoalumina polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chunchia

    The life cycle of reprocessed polymer nanocomposites is a critical factor associated with their growing use, but the limited work on reprocessing of nanocomposites has focused solely on the effects of organoclays. This research investigated of the structure and property changes during reprocessing of polypropylene (PP) and polycarbonate (PC) nanocomposites with 3 wt. % nanoalumina. Neat PP and PC were used as controls. Reprocessing of the neat polymers and nanocomposites produced no indication of oxidation (in FTIR), no changes in the glass transition temperature of PC and the melting temperatures of PP, and no changes in thermal stability (as measured using thermogravimetric analysis). Significant decreases, however, occurred in the melt viscosity of the materials. The introduction of nanoalumina during twin screw extrusion also produced a significant decrease in the viscosity and a 10°C decrease in the glass transition temperature of the PC nanocomposite. Color changes did not correspond to the chain scission in PP and PC; neat PP and PP composite yellowed, neat PC turned brown, and the PC nanocomposite did not change color. Dispersion of the nanoalumina in both PP and PC improved with repeated reprocessing, the crystallinity in the PP/nanoalumina composites remained constant. The Young's moduli of both the PP and PP/A12O3 nanocomposite were similar, whereas the Young's modulus values of the PC/A1 2O3 nanocomposite was slighted lower than that of the neat PC. In contrast, the elongations at break of the PP/A12O3 and PC/A12O3 nanocomposites were, respectively, 50% and 16% of the values measured for the neat resins. All modulus and elongation at break values, however, remained constant over five reprocessing cycles. This behavior suggests that the major degradation mechanism during reprocessing of neat PP and PP nanocomposites was thermal-mechanical polymer chain scission and that the nanoalumina enhanced this degradation in the PC/nanoalumina. This additional

  20. High Performance Polymers and Composites (HiPPAC) Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Eric A.; Veazie, David

    2005-01-01

    NASA University Research Centers funding has allowed Clark Atlanta University (CAU) to establish a High Performance Polymers and Composites (HiPPAC) Research Center. Clark Atlanta University, through the HiPPAC Center has consolidated and expanded its polymer and composite research capabilities through the development of research efforts in: (1) Synthesis and characterization of polymeric NLO, photorefractive, and piezoelectric materials; (2) Characterization and engineering applications of induced strain smart materials; (3) Processable polyimides and additives to enhance polyimide processing for composite applications; (4) Fabrication and mechanical characterization of polymer based composites.

  1. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material Comprising Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  2. Photorefractive conjugated polymer-liquid crystal composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wasielewski, M. R.; Yoon, B. A.; Fuller, M.; Wiederrecht, G. P.; Niemczyk, M. P.; Svec, W. A.

    2000-05-15

    A new mechanism for space-charge field formation in photorefractive liquid crystal composites containing poly(2,5-bis(2{prime}-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (BEH-PPV) and the electron acceptor N,N{prime}-dioctyl-1,4:5,8-naphthalenediimide, NI, is observed. Using asymmetric energy transfer (beam coupling) measurements that are diagnostic for the photorefractive effect, the direction of beam coupling as a function of grating fringe spacing inverts at a spacing of 5.5 {micro}m. The authors show that the inversion is due to a change in the dominant mechanism for space-charge field formation. At small fringe spacings, the space-charge field is formed by ion diffusion in which the photogenerated anion is the more mobile species. At larger fringe spacings, the polarity of the space charge field inverts due to dominance of a charge transport mechanism in which photogenerated holes are the most mobile species due to hole migration along the BEH-PEV chains coupled with interchain hole hopping. Control experiments are presented, which use composites that can access only one of the two charge transport mechanisms. The results show that charge migration over long distances leading to enhanced photorefractive effects can be obtained using conjugated polymers dissolved in liquid crystals.

  3. Polymer Matrix Composite Lines and Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.

    2001-01-01

    Since composite laminates are beginning to be identified for use in reusable launch vehicle propulsion systems, a task was undertaken to assess the feasibility of making cryogenic feedlines with integral flanges from polymer matrix composite materials. An additional level of complexity was added by having the feedlines be elbow shaped. Four materials, each with a unique manufacturing method, were chosen for this program. Feedlines were to be made by hand layup (HLU) with standard autoclave cure, HLU with electron beam cure, solvent-assisted resin transfer molding (SARTM), and thermoplastic tape laying (TTL). A test matrix of fill and drain cycles with both liquid nitrogen and liquid helium, along with a heat up to 250 F, was planned for each of the feedlines. A pressurization to failure was performed on any feedlines that passed the cryogenic cycling testing. A damage tolerance subtask was also undertaken in this study. The effects of foreign object impact to the materials used was assessed by cross-sectional examination and by permeability after impact testing. At the end of the program, the manufacture of the electron beam-cured feedlines never came to fruition. All of the TTL feedlines leaked heavily before any cryogenic testing, all of the SARTM feedlines leaked heavily after one cryogenic cycle. Thus, only the HLU with autoclave cure feedlines underwent the complete test matrix. They passed the cyclic testing and were pressurized to failure.

  4. Characterization of Combinatorial Polymer Blend Composition Gradients by FTIR Microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Eidelman, Naomi; Simon, Carl G.

    2004-01-01

    A new FTIR technique was developed for characterizing thin polymer films used in combinatorial materials science. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy mapping technique was used to determine the composition of polymer blend gradients. Composition gradients were made from poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) in the form of thin films (6 cm × 2 cm) deposited on IR reflective substrates. Three composition gradient films were prepared and characterized. The results demonstrate the reproducibility and feasibility of a new, high-throughput approach for preparing and characterizing polymer composition gradients. The combination of composition gradient film technology and automated nondestructive FTIR microspectroscopy makes it possible to rapidly and quantitatively characterize polymer composition gradients for use in combinatorial materials science. PMID:27366606

  5. Transparent composite electrode for high-efficiency polymer LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lu; Yu, Zhibin; Liang, Jiajie; Chang, Chia-Hao; Hu, Weili; Pei, Qibing

    2012-09-01

    Polymer composite electrodes based on silver nanowires or carbon nanotubes have been prepared with transparency and surface conductivity approaching those of ITO/glass and better than ITO/PET. The conductive surface has an average roughness less than 10 nm, better than ITO/glass. Depending on the polymer matrix selected, the composite electrodes can be made rigid, flexible like polycarbonate, or stretchable like a rubber. Various polymer light emitting diodes,light emitting electrochemical cells and polymer solar cells have been fabricated using the composite electrode as anode, exhibiting electroluminescent efficiencies generally higher than control devices fabricated on ITO/glass. These polymer light emitting devices are all highly flexible and can be bent to less than 3 mm radius without loss of performance. With further modification of the composite electrodes, we have also demonstrated stretchable OLEDs wherein the emissive area can be elongated by as much as 50%.

  6. Composite Polymer Derived Ceramic System for Oxidizing Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Torrey, Jessica D.; Bordia, Rajendra K.; Henager, Charles H.; Blum, Y.; Shin, Yongsoon; Samuels, William D.

    2006-07-01

    Preceramic polymers and expansion agents are being investigated to process composite ceramic coatings. In this paper, we present results of a systematic approach to selecting the preceramic polymer and expansion agents, and the optimization of the processing parameters to produce composite ceramics. Six commercially available poly(silsesquioxane) polymers and two polysiloxanes were studied. In addition, several metals and intermetallics were considered as potential expansion agents. Based on this study, the most desirable polymer/expansion agent combination and optimal processing parameters have been identified.

  7. Photoresponsive self-healing supramolecular hydrogels for light-induced release of DNA and doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Pianowski, Zbigniew L; Karcher, Johannes; Schneider, Knut

    2016-02-21

    An azobenzene-containing cyclic dipeptide PAP-DKP-Lys is a photoresponsive low-MW hydrogelator. The gelation process can be triggered with temperature, pH, light, and ionic strength. The resulting self-healing gels can encapsulate dsDNA or an anticancer drug doxorubicin, and release them in a light-dependent manner. PMID:26804160

  8. Geometric optimization of self-healing power capacitor with consideration of multiple factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zijian; Yan, Fei; Hua, Zheng; Qi, Lingna; Hou, Zhijian; Xu, Zhiniu

    2016-08-01

    To decrease temperature rise in self-healing power capacitor and lay foundation for improvement of applied voltage and lifetime, the influence of elements orientation on the temperature distribution of self-healing capacitor is investigated using Fluent15.0 and validated by thermal stability test. Based on the above investigations, the influences of parameters of film, electrode and element on power loss and temperature rise of capacitor are systematically investigated. The results reveal that if geometry and volume of capacitor remain constant, orientation of spray coating has little influence on temperature rise. In view of manufacturing processes, the mode of spray coating close to the large surface should be selected. The power loss will decrease with increasing/decreasing in film thickness/width. Therefore, thicker film should be selected and its width should be less than 75 mm. Temperature rise decreases slowly with element diameter. However, the element diameter should be a moderate value because of the influence of it on the number of self-healing point. A capacitor group with rated voltage of 11/ √{ 3} kV and capacity of 334 kvar is designed and the scheme with the lowest temperature rise is selected. This study provides a reference to self-healing capacitor geometric optimization and lifetime improvement.

  9. Induction and Tunability of Self-Healing Property of Dendron Based Hydrogel Using Clay Nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Vivek, Balachandran; Kumar, Prashant; Prasad, Edamana

    2016-06-16

    Low molecular weight gels have relatively poor self-healing capacity compared to that of polymeric gels. Induction and tuning of the healing capacity of low molecular weight gels to achieve desired applications are thus challenging tasks. The present work describes the achievement of remarkable tunability of self-healing property for a low molecular weight hybrid gel, based on poly(aryl ether) dendron derivative (PAD). The hybrid gel has been synthesized using PAD and poly(amido amine) {PAMAM} dendrimer derivative (QPD), which are intercalated in the montmorillonite clay (MMT) layers. The self-healing of the hybrid gel (QPD-MMT-PAD) was demonstrated through experiments where the distorted gel regained the initial value of storage modulus (G') within a few minutes. Further, the propensity of self-healing of the gel has been tuned as a function of QPD concentration. The mechanically stable QPD-MMT-PAD hybrid gel has been utilized for the adsorption of ppm level concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as β-naphthol, pyrene, and phenenathrene from water with excellent efficiency (80-98%). PMID:27193239

  10. An Implicational View of Self-Healing and Personality Change Based on Gendlin's Theory of Experiencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohart, Arthur C.

    There is relatively little theory on how psychotherapy clients self-heal since most theories of therapy stress the magic of the therapist's interventions. Of the theories that exist, this paper briefly discusses Carl Rogers' theory of self-actualization; and the dialectical theories of Greenberg and his colleagues, Jenkins, and Rychlak. Gendlin's…

  11. Intumescent flame-retardant and self-healing superhydrophobic coatings on cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanshan; Li, Xiang; Li, Yang; Sun, Junqi

    2015-04-28

    Flame-retardant and self-healing superhydrophobic coatings are fabricated on cotton fabric by a convenient solution-dipping method, which involves the sequential deposition of a trilayer of branched poly(ethylenimine) (bPEI), ammonium polyphosphate (APP), and fluorinated-decyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (F-POSS). When directly exposed to flame, such a trilayer coating generates a porous char layer because of its intumescent effect, successfully giving the coated fabric a self-extinguishing property. Furthermore, the F-POSS embedded in cotton fabric and APP/bPEI coating produces a superhydrophobic surface with a self-healing function. The coating can repetitively and autonomically restore the superhydrophobicity when the superhydrophobicity is damaged. The resulting cotton fabric, which is flame-resistant, waterproof, and self-cleaning, can be easily cleaned by simple water rinsing. Thus, the integration of self-healing superhydrophobicity with flame retardancy provides a practical way to resolve the problem of washing durability of the flame-retardant coatings. The flame-retardant and superhydrophobic fabric can endure more than 1000 cycles of abrasion under a pressure of 44.8 kPa without losing its flame retardancy and self-healing superhydrophobicity, showing potential applications as multifunctional advanced textiles. PMID:25777158

  12. Hydrocarbon compositions containing polyolefin graft polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kapuscinski, M.M.; Liu, C.S.; Hart, W.P.; Grina, L.D.

    1987-02-03

    A graft polymer is described comprising an oil-soluble, substantially linear, carbon-carbon backbone polymer having graft polymerized thereon units derived from, as a functional monomer, the reaction product of (i) an unsaturated aldehyde or ketone and (ii) a primary or secondary amine which contains at least one nitrogen atom in a heterocyclic ring. The graft polymer is also described wherein the backbone polymer is a copolymer of ethylene-propylene or a terpolymer of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer.

  13. Recent advances in research on carbon nanotube-polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Michele T; Gun'ko, Yurii K

    2010-04-18

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) demonstrate remarkable electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties, which allow a number of exciting potential applications. In this article, we review the most recent progress in research on the development of CNT-polymer composites, with particular attention to their mechanical and electrical (conductive) properties. Various functionalization and fabrication approaches and their role in the preparation of CNT-polymer composites with improved mechanical and electrical properties are discussed. We tabulate the most recent values of Young's modulus and electrical conductivities for various CNT-polymer composites and compare the effectiveness of different processing techniques. Finally, we give a future outlook for the development of CNT-polymer composites as potential alternative materials for various applications, including flexible electrodes in displays, electronic paper, antistatic coatings, bullet-proof vests, protective clothing, and high-performance composites for aircraft and automotive industries. PMID:20496401

  14. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; McCallum, Thomas J.

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  15. Thermal Degradation of Lead Monoxide Filled Polymer Composite Radiation Shields

    SciTech Connect

    Harish, V.; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-07-15

    Lead monoxide filled Isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the thermo gravimetric analysis of the composites done to understand their thermal properties especially the effect of filler concentration on the thermal stability and degradation rate of composites. Pristine polymer exhibits single stage degradation whereas filled composites exhibit two stage degradation processes. Further, the IDT values as well as degradation rates decrease with the increased filler content in the composite.

  16. Self-Healing and Thermo-Responsive Dual-Crosslinked Alginate Hydrogels based on Supramolecular Inclusion Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Tianxin; Fenn, Spencer L.; Charron, Patrick N.; Oldinski, Rachael A.

    2015-01-01

    β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), with a lipophilic inner cavity and hydrophilic outer surface, interacts with a large variety of non-polar guest molecules to form non-covalent inclusion complexes. Conjugation of β-CD onto biomacromolecules can form physically-crosslinked hydrogel networks upon mixing with a guest molecule. Herein describes the development and characterization of self-healing, thermo-responsive hydrogels, based on host-guest inclusion complexes between alginate-graft-β-CD and Pluronic® F108 (poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)). The mechanics, flow characteristics, and thermal response were contingent on the polymer concentrations, and the host-guest molar ratio. Transient and reversible physical crosslinking between host and guest polymers governed self-assembly, allowing flow under shear stress, and facilitating complete recovery of the material properties within a few seconds of unloading. The mechanical properties of the dual-crosslinked, multi-stimuli responsive hydrogels were tuned as high as 30 kPa at body temperature, and are advantageous for biomedical applications such as drug delivery and cell transplantation. PMID:26509214

  17. Electron beam curing of polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, C.J.; Wheeler, D.; Saunders, C.

    1998-01-08

    The purpose of the CRADA was to conduct research and development activities to better understand and utilize the electron beam PMC curing technology. This technology will be used to replace or supplement existing PMC thermal curing processes in Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Programs (DP) projects and American aircraft and aerospace industries. This effort involved Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc./Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. (Contractor), Sandia National Laboratories, and ten industrial Participants including four major aircraft and aerospace companies, three advanced materials companies, and three electron beam processing organizations. The technical objective of the CRADA was to synthesize and/or modify high performance, electron beam curable materials that meet specific end-use application requirements. There were six tasks in this CRADA including: Electron beam materials development; Electron beam database development; Economic analysis; Low-cost Electron Beam tooling development; Electron beam curing systems integration; and Demonstration articles/prototype structures development. The contractor managed, participated and integrated all the tasks, and optimized the project efforts through the coordination, exchange, and dissemination of information to the project participants. Members of the Contractor team were also the principal inventors on several electron beam related patents and a 1997 R and D 100 Award winner on Electron-Beam-Curable Cationic Epoxy Resins. The CRADA achieved a major breakthrough for the composites industry by having successfully developed high-performance electron beam curable cationic epoxy resins for use in composites, adhesives, tooling compounds, potting compounds, syntactic foams, etc. UCB Chemicals, the world`s largest supplier of radiation-curable polymers, has acquired a license to produce and sell these resins worldwide.

  18. Aromatic/aliphatic diamine derivatives for advanced compositions and polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delozier, Donovan M. (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Jr., Joseph G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Novel compositions of matter comprise certain derivatives of 9,9-dialkyl fluorene diamine (AFDA). The resultant compositions, whether compositions of matter or monomers that are subsequently incorporated into a polymer, are unique and useful in a variety of applications. Useful applications of AFDA-based material include heavy ion radiation shielding components and components of optical and electronic devices.

  19. Degradable Polymer Composites Fabricated from Starch and Alkyl Cyanoacrylate Monomer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degradable polymer composites are fabricated from alkyl cyanoacrylate monomer and starch without special equipment. Alkyl cyanoacrylate, which is a major component of “super glue”, is a monomer that polymerizes at room temperature in the presence of initiators. During the fabrication of polymer com...

  20. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Harik, Vasyl M.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a technique has been proposed for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Since the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties of the SWNT/polymer composites can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber retains the local molecular structure and bonding information and serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube sizes and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/polyethylene composite systems, one with continuous and aligned SWNT and the other with discontinuous and randomly aligned nanotubes.

  1. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Harik, Vasyl M.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a technique has been proposed for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Since the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties of the SWNT/polymer composites can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber retains the local molecular structure and bonding information and serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube sizes and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/polyethylene composite systems, one with continuous and aligned SWNT and the other with discontinuous and randomly aligned nanotubes.

  2. Use of agricultural byproducts as fillers in polymer composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent trend in polymer research is to use natural renewable materials as "green" raw materials for industrial applications. One of the applications pursued by the authors is to produce polymeric composites consisting of a polymer and an agricultural byproduct or waste. In this way, there is no c...

  3. Scratch Cell Test: A Simple, Cost Effective Screening Tool to Evaluate Self-Healing in Anti-Corrosion Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Amitha; Somaiah, Durga; Megha; Poddar, Mitalee

    2014-09-01

    A quick and simple scratch cell set up to evaluate the self-healing of an hybrid sol-gel (ormosil) coating was fabricated. This methacrylate-based anti-corrosion coating was applied on the aerospace aluminium alloy AA2024-T3, and cured at room temperature. This technique of evaluation requires minimum instrumentation. The inhibitors cerium nitrate, benzotriazole and 8-hydroxy quinoline (8-HQ) were used in the study. The self-healing ability of the inhibitors decreased in the following order: 8-HQ, BTZ and Ce. 8-HQ showed the highest self-healing ability and was comparable to the commercial hexavalent chromium conversion coating—Alodine. Spectroscopic analysis of the electrolyte and EDX of the coatings indicated the movement of the inhibitor from the coating to the site of damage, thereby effecting self-healing. It was observed that an increased inhibitor concentration in the coatings did not accelerate the healing process. Inhibitor release was slower in the coatings doped with inhibitor-loaded nano-containers, when compared to inhibitor-spiked coatings. This property of controlled release is desirable in self-healing coatings. Electro impedance studies further confirmed self-healing efficiency of the coatings. The scratch cell study reported here is the first of its kind with the ormosil under study on AA2024-T3 aluminium alloy. The results are encouraging and warranty a quick and simple qualitative screening of the self-healing potential of the inhibitors with minimum instrumentation.

  4. Water-assisted self-healing and property recovery in a natural dermal armor of pangolin scales.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Jiao, D; Weng, Z Y; Zhang, Z F

    2016-03-01

    Self-healing capacity, of which the inspiration comes from biological systems, is significant for restoring the mechanical properties of materials by autonomically repairing damages. Clarifying the naturally occurring self-healing behaviors and mechanisms may provide valuable inspiration for designing synthetic self-healing materials. In this study, water-assisted self-healing behavior was revealed in a natural dermal armor of pangolin scales. The indentation damages which imitate the injury caused by predatory attack can be continuously mitigated through hydration. The healing kinetics was characterized according to the variations of indentation crater dimension and quantitatively described in terms of the viscoelastic behavior of biopolymer. The mechanical properties of original, damaged, and recovered scales in both dry and wet states were systematically evaluated by three-point bending and compared through statistical analysis. The hydration effects and mechanisms were explored by examining the dynamic mechanical properties and thermal behaviors. The promoted self-healing process can be attributed to the improved flexibility of macromolecules in the biopolymer. This study may stimulate useful self-healing strategies in bio-inspired design and aid in developing high-performance synthetic self-healing materials. PMID:26651064

  5. Rate Dependent Deformation and Strength Analysis of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    A research program is being undertaken to develop rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composite materials. In previous work in this program, strain-rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations used to analyze polymers have been implemented into a mechanics of materials based composite micromechanics method. In the current work, modifications to the micromechanics model have been implemented to improve the calculation of the effective inelastic strain. Additionally, modifications to the polymer constitutive model are discussed in which pressure dependence is incorporated into the equations in order to improve the calculation of constituent and composite shear stresses. The Hashin failure criterion is implemented into the analysis method to allow for the calculation of ply level failure stresses. The deformation response and failure stresses for two representative uniaxial polymer matrix composites, IM7/977-2 and AS4-PEEK, are predicted for varying strain rates and fiber orientations. The predicted results compare favorably to experimentally obtained values.

  6. Space environmental effects on polymer composites: Research needs and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Bor Z.; Bianchi, J.; Liu, Y. M.; Chang, C. P.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term performance of polymer-based composites in the space environment is discussed. Both thermoset and thermoplastic matrix composites are included in this discussion. Previous efforts on the space environmental effects on composites are briefly reviewed. Focus of this review is placed on the effects of hygrothermal stresses, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV), and space debris/micrometeoroid impacts along with the potential synergism. Potential approaches to estimating the residual strength of polymer composites after exposure to atomic oxygen erosion or space debris/micrometeoroid impact are evaluated. New ground-based data are then utilized to illustrate the effects of atomic oxygen and thermal cycling on the failure behavior of polymer composites. Finally, research needs, challenges, and opportunities in the field of space environmental effects on composite materials are highlighted.

  7. Self-Healing, Expansion-Contraction, and Shape-Memory Properties of a Preorganized Supramolecular Hydrogel through Host-Guest Interactions.

    PubMed

    Miyamae, Kohei; Nakahata, Masaki; Takashima, Yoshinori; Harada, Akira

    2015-07-27

    Supramolecular materials cross-linked between polymer chains by noncovalent bonds have the potential to provide dynamic functions that are not produced by covalently cross-linked polymeric materials. We focused on the formation of supramolecular polymeric materials through host-guest interactions: a powerful method for the creation of nonconventional materials. We employed two different kinds of host-guest inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin (βCD) with adamantane (Ad) and ferrocene (Fc) to bind polymers together to form a supramolecular hydrogel (βCD-Ad-Fc gel). The βCD-Ad-Fc gel showed self-healing ability when damaged and responded to redox stimuli by expansion or contraction. Moreover, the βCD-Ad-Fc gel showed a redox-responsive shape-morphing effect. We thus succeeded in deriving three functions from the introduction of two kinds of functional units into a supramolecular material. PMID:26080301

  8. Nuclear alkylated pyridine aldehyde polymers and conductive compositions thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Singer, S. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A thermally stable, relatively conductive polymer was disclosed. The polymer was synthesized by condensing in the presence of catalyst a 2, 4, or 6 nuclear alklylated 2, 3, or 4 pyridine aldehyde or quaternary derivatives thereof to form a polymer. The pyridine groups were liked by olefinic groups between 2-4, 2-6, 2-3, 3-4, 3-6 or 4-6 positions. Conductive compositions were prepared by dissolving the quaternary polymer and an organic charge transfer complexing agent such as TCNQ in a mutual solvent such as methanol.

  9. Assessment of microcapsule—catalyst particles healing system in high performance fibre reinforced polymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolimowski, P. A.; Wass, D. F.; Bond, I. P.

    2016-08-01

    Autonomous self-healing in carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) is demonstrated using epoxy resin filled microcapsules and a solid-state catalyst. Microcapsules filled with oligomeric epoxy resin (20–450 μm) and particles of Sc(OTf)3 are embedded in an interleave region of a unidirectional CFRP laminate and tested under mode I loading. Double cantilever beam (DCB) test specimens containing variable concentrations of microcapsules and catalyst were prepared, tested and compared to those healed by manual injection with corresponding healing resin formulation. The healing efficiency was evaluated by comparing the maximum peak load recorded on load–displacement curves for pristine and healed specimens. A 44% maximum recovery was observed for specimens containing 10 wt% of solid phase catalyst and 11 wt% of epoxy microcapsules. However, a significant (80%) decrease in initial strain energy release rate (G IC) was observed for specimens with the embedded healing chemistries.

  10. Effect of processing on Polymer/Composite structure and properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in the vitality and economic health of the field of polymer forecasting are discussed. A consistent and rational point of view which considers processing as a participant in the underlying triad of relationships which comprise materials science and engineering is outlined. This triad includes processing as it influences material structure, and ultimately properties. Methods in processing structure properties, polymer science and engineering, polymer chemistry and synthesis, structure and modification and optimization through processing, and methods of melt flow modeling in processing structure property relations of polymer were developed. Mechanical properties of composites are considered, and biomedical materials research to include polymer processing effects are studied. An analysis of the design technology of advances graphite/epoxy composites is also reported.

  11. Spin labelled polymers for composite interface studies: Synthesis and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, A.W.; Pace, M.D.

    1993-12-31

    For the purpose of investigating the epoxy resin composite interface, a series of spin labelled epoxy polymers and model compounds were synthesized and characterized. Linear epoxy polymers were prepared by reacting systematically varying quantities of 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperid-1-yloxy and cyclohexyl amine with an equivalence bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. The adducts of phenylgylcidyl ether and 4-cumylphenylgylcidyl ether with 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperid-1-yloxy were synthesized as model compounds. Characterization determined that the 125{degrees}C polymerization temperature did not cause significant decomposition of the nitroxyl free radical, magnetic dilution of the spin label in the epoxy polymer to 3% of the amine repeat units is sufficient for observation of unobscured nitroxyl hyperfine structure in the ESR spectrum of the labelled epoxy polymer in the solid state, and a polymer glass transition temperature of 66{degrees}C as not affected by variation in the amine composition.

  12. 3D Printing of Biocompatible Supramolecular Polymers and their Composites.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lewis R; Li, Siwei; Sturgess, Craig; Wildman, Ricky; Jones, Julian R; Hayes, Wayne

    2016-02-10

    A series of polymers capable of self-assembling into infinite networks via supramolecular interactions have been designed, synthesized, and characterized for use in 3D printing applications. The biocompatible polymers and their composites with silica nanoparticles were successfully utilized to deposit both simple cubic structures, as well as a more complex twisted pyramidal feature. The polymers were found to be not toxic to a chondrogenic cell line, according to ISO 10993-5 and 10993-12 standard tests and the cells attached to the supramolecular polymers as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Silica nanoparticles were then dispersed within the polymer matrix, yielding a composite material which was optimized for inkjet printing. The hybrid material showed promise in preliminary tests to facilitate the 3D deposition of a more complex structure. PMID:26766139

  13. Special Polymer/Carbon Composite Films for Detecting SO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie; Ryan, Margaret; Yen, Shiao-Pin; Kisor, Adam; Jewell, April; Shevade, Abhijit; Manatt, Kenneth; Taylor, Charles; Blanco, Mario; Goddard, William

    2008-01-01

    A family of polymer/carbon films has been developed for use as sensory films in electronic noses for detecting SO2 gas at concentrations as low as 1 part per million (ppm). Most previously reported SO2 sensors cannot detect SO2 at concentrations below tens of ppm; only a few can detect SO2 at 1 ppm. Most of the sensory materials used in those sensors (especially inorganic ones that include solid oxide electrolytes, metal oxides, and cadmium sulfide) must be used under relatively harsh conditions that include operation and regeneration at temperatures greater than 100 C. In contrast, the present films can be used to detect 1 ppm of SO2 at typical opening temperatures between 28 and 32 C and can be regenerated at temperatures between 36 and 40 C. The basic concept of making sensing films from polymer/carbon composites is not new. The novelty of the present family of polymer/carbon composites lies in formulating the polymer components of these composites specifically to optimize their properties for detecting SO2. First-principles quantum-mechanical calculations of the energies of binding of SO2 molecules to various polymer functionalities are used as a guide for selecting polymers and understanding the role of polymer functionalities in sensing. The polymer used in the polymer-carbon composite is a copolymer of styrene derivative units with vinyl pyridine or substituted vinyl pyridine derivative units. To make a substituted vinyl pyridine for use in synthesizing such a polymer, poly(2-vinyl pyridine) that has been dissolved in methanol is reacted with 3-chloropropylamine that has been dissolved in a solution of methanol. The methanol is then removed to obtain the copolymer. Later, the copolymer can be dissolved in an appropriate solvent with a suspension of carbon black to obtain a mixture that can be cast and then dried to obtain a sensory film.

  14. Strain Rate Dependent Modeling of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    A research program is in progress to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations have been developed to model the polymer matrix, and have been incorporated into a micromechanics approach to analyze polymer matrix composites. The Hashin failure criterion has been implemented within the micromechanics results to predict ply failure strengths. The deformation model has been implemented within LS-DYNA, a commercially available transient dynamic finite element code. The deformation response and ply failure stresses for the representative polymer matrix composite AS4/PEEK have been predicted for a variety of fiber orientations and strain rates. The predicted results compare favorably to experimentally obtained values.

  15. Functional Three-Dimensional Graphene/Polymer Composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Duan, Xidong; Xu, Yuxi; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-08-23

    Integration of graphene with polymers to construct three-dimensional porous graphene/polymer composites (3DGPCs) has attracted considerable attention in the past few years for both fundamental studies and diverse technological applications. With the broad diversity in molecular structures of graphene and polymers via rich chemical routes, a number of 3DGPCs have been developed with unique structural, electrical, and mechanical properties, chemical tenability, and attractive functions, which greatly expands the research horizon of graphene-based composites. In particular, the properties and functions of the 3DGPCs can be readily tuned by precisely controlling the hierarchical porosity in the 3D graphene architecture as well as the intricate synergistic interactions between graphene and polymers. In this paper, we review the recent progress in 3DGPCs, including their synthetic strategies and potential applications in environmental protection, energy storage, sensors, and conducting composites. Lastly, we will conclude with a brief perspective on the challenges and future opportunities. PMID:27403991

  16. Research on spectral resource optimization and self-healing technology of hybrid optical fiber sensing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Sang, Mei; Ge, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanghui; Liu, Tiegen

    2015-08-01

    We propose an optical-fiber-sensing-network (OFSN) to allow hybrid fiber sensors working in the same network and it achieves self-healing function. The discrete and distributed optical fiber sensors can be connected in sub-layers of the network. WDM-OTDM technique is introduced to convert multi-wavelengths of light source into a specific arranged wavelength in each sub-layer. Thus every sub-layer can share the system spectrum resources, and sensing signals of each sub-layer are transmitted together in the backbone network. To achieve self-healing function, double-ring structure is adopted in the backbone network. Node microprocessor program is designed to make switching to the protect fiber when working fiber is broken. The experimental backbone setup of the network demonstrates the practical reliability and intelligence of the optical sensing network.

  17. Improving self-healing behavior of dually cross linked nanogels that encompass nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duki, Solomon; Kolmakov, German; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Balazs, Anna

    2010-03-01

    Numerical studies of nanogels that are cross-linked by stable and labile bonds have shown that the material can withstand significantly high stresses before it undergoes fracture. The mechanical integrity of such materials is preserved through structural rearrangement of the nanogel particles; this structural rearrangement is facilitated by the making and breaking of the labile bonds. Apart from the bond properties, the stiffness and flexibility of the nanogel is crucial to determine the mechanical properties of these self healing novel materials. Our simulations show that the mechanical property of the entire sample is significantly improved by introducing hard core nanoparticles into the structural units. Through numerical modeling of hard core-soft shell nanogel material we identify the region of parameters (the nanogel size and core/shell ratio) at which the sample demonstrates optimal stability and self-healing behavior.

  18. Harnessing Labile Bonds between Nanogels Particles to Create Self-Healing Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmakov, German; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Balazs, Anna

    2009-03-01

    Using computational modeling, we demonstrate the self-healing behavior of novel materials composed of nanoscopic gel particles that are interconnected into a macroscopic network by both stable and labile bonds. Under mechanical stress, the labile bonds between the nanogels can break and readily reform with reactive groups on neighboring units. This breaking and reforming allows the units in the network to undergo a structural rearrangement that preserves the mechanical integrity of the sample. The stable bonds between the nanogels play an essential role by forming a backbone that provides a mechanical strength to the material. The simulations show that just a relatively small fraction of such labile bonds (roughly 15%) are needed to prevent the catastrophic failure of the sample. The findings provide guidelines for creating high-strength, self-healing materials.

  19. Structural health management technologies for inflatable/deployable structures: Integrating sensing and self-healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, Erik J.; Vozoff, Max; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.; Studor, George F.; Lyons, Frankel; Keller, Michael W.; Beiermann, Brett; White, Scott R.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Curry, Mark A.; Banks, David L.; Brocato, Robert; Zhou, Lisong; Jung, Soyoun; Jackson, Thomas N.; Champaigne, Kevin

    2011-04-01

    Inflatable/deployable structures are under consideration as habitats for future Lunar surface science operations. The use of non-traditional structural materials combined with the need to maintain a safe working environment for extended periods in a harsh environment has led to the consideration of an integrated structural health management system for future habitats, to ensure their integrity. This article describes recent efforts to develop prototype sensing technologies and new self-healing materials that address the unique requirements of habitats comprised mainly of soft goods. A new approach to detecting impact damage is discussed, using addressable flexible capacitive sensing elements and thin film electronics in a matrixed array. Also, the use of passive wireless sensor tags for distributed sensing is discussed, wherein the need for on-board power through batteries or hardwired interconnects is eliminated. Finally, the development of a novel, microencapuslated self-healing elastomer with applications for inflatable/deployable habitats is reviewed.

  20. Quantitative comparison of self-healing ability between Bessel–Gaussian beam and Airy beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Wei; Chu, Xiuxiang

    2015-09-15

    The self-healing ability during propagation process is one of the most important properties of non-diffracting beams. This ability has crucial advantages to light sheet-based microscopy to reduce scattering artefacts, increase the quality of the image and enhance the resolution of microscopy. Based on similarity between two infinite-dimensional complex vectors in Hilbert space, the ability to a Bessel–Gaussian beam and an Airy beam have been studied and compared. Comparing the evolution of the similarity of Bessel–Gaussian beam with Airy beam under the same conditions, we find that Bessel–Gaussian beam has stronger self-healing ability and is more stable than that of Airy beam. To confirm this result, the intensity profiles of Bessel–Gaussian beam and Airy beam with different similarities are numerically calculated and compared.

  1. Acoustic and ultrasonic characterization constraints of self-healing (ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestka, Kenneth, II; Buckley, Jonathan; Kalista, Stephen; Bowers, Nicholas

    Recent experiments indicate that small sample poly (ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) copolymers (EMAA copolymers) exhibit time dependent variation in their acoustic and ultrasonic resonant spectra after exposure to a damage event. However, due to the relatively soft nature of these thermoplastic materials, several experimental constraints affect efficacy of resonant spectral analysis. In this work we will the address the effect of several characterization constraints on a self-healing EMAA ionomer (commercially known as Dupont Surlyn 8920) including the effects of transducer loading, continuous rapid resonant excitation and temporally separated long-term resonant excitation. In some circumstances, these experimental constraints can influence the time dependence of sample resonant frequency evolution, quality factor, and variation in spectral waveform. By quantifying these effects, robust characterization of post-damage self-healing EMAA samples is possible and will be presented.

  2. Self-Healing Underwater Superoleophobic and Antibiofouling Coatings Based on the Assembly of Hierarchical Microgel Spheres.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunlin; Zhou, Shuxue; Wu, Limin

    2016-01-26

    Marine biofouling has been plaguing people for thousands of years. While various strategies have been developed for antifouling (including superoleophobic) coatings, none of these exhibits self-healing properties because the bestowal of a zoetic self-repairing function to lifeless artificial water/solid interfacial materials is usually confronted with tremendous challenges. Here, we present a self-repairing underwater superoleophobic and antibiofouling coating through the self-assembly of hydrophilic polymeric chain modified hierarchical microgel spheres. The obtained surface material not only has excellent underwater superoleophobicity but also has very good subaqueous antibiofouling properties. More importantly, this surface material can recover the oil- and biofouling-resistant properties once its surface is mechanically damaged, similar to the skins of some marine organisms such as sharks or whales. This approach is feasible and easily mass-produced and could open a pathway and possibility for the fabrication of other self-healing functional water/solid interfacial materials. PMID:26687925

  3. Integration of the Reconfigurable Self-Healing eDNA Architecture in an Embedded System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesen, Michael Reibel; Keymeulen, Didier; Madsen, Jan; Lu, Thomas; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    In this work we describe the first real world case study for the self-healing eDNA (electronic DNA) architecture by implementing the control and data processing of a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on an eDNA prototype. For this purpose the eDNA prototype has been ported from a Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA to an embedded system consisting of a PowerPC and a Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. The FTS instrument features a novel liquid crystal waveguide, which consequently eliminates all moving parts from the instrument. The addition of the eDNA architecture to do the control and data processing has resulted in a highly fault-tolerant FTS instrument. The case study has shown that the early stage prototype of the autonomous self-healing eDNA architecture is expensive in terms of execution time.

  4. Self-healing of the superhydrophobicity by ironing for the abrasion durable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingxia; Li, Jingye; Deng, Bo; Jiang, Haiqing; Wang, Ziqiang; Yu, Ming; Li, Linfan; Xing, Chenyang; Li, Yongjin

    2013-01-01

    Self-healing of the superhydrophobic cotton fabric (SCF) obtained by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of lauryl methacrylate (LMA) and n-hexyl methacrylate (HMA), can be achieved by ironing. Through the steam ironing process, the superhydrophobicity of the SCFs will be regenerated even after the yarns are ruptured during the abrasion test under a load pressure of 44.8 kPa. SCFs made from LMA grafted cotton fabric can ultimately withstand at least 24,000 cycles of abrasion with periodic steam ironing. The FT-IR microscope results show that the migration of the polymethacrylates graft chains from the interior to the surface is responsible for the self-healing effect. PMID:24135813

  5. Preliminary report on self-healing minefield (frogs) concepts and utility in battle

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, R J; Magnoli, D

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of this study is to determine battlefield effectiveness of the self-healing minefield (''Frogs'') concept system compared to basecases of the standard AP/AT (anti-personnel/anti-tank) mixed minefield, the AT (anti-tank) pure minefield, and no minefields. This involves tactical modeling where a basecase with and without mines is compared to the concept system. However, it is first necessary to establish system characteristics and behavior of the Frog mine and minefield in order to do the tactical modeling. This initial report provides emerging insights into various minefield parameters in order to allow better program definition early in the conceptual development. In the following sections of this report, we investigate the self-healing minefield's ground pattern and several concepts for movement (''jump'') of a mine. Basic enemy breaching techniques are compared for the different mine movement concepts. These results are then used in the (Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation) JCATS tactical model to evaluate minefield effects in a combat situation. The three basecases and the Frogs concept are used against a North Korean mechanized rifle battalion and outcomes are compared. Preliminary results indicate: (1) Possible breaching techniques for the self-healing minefield were proposed and compared through simulation modeling. Of these, the best breaching counter to the self-healing minefield is the ''wide-lane'' breach technique. (2) Several methods for mine movement are tested and the optimal method from this group was selected for use in the modeling. However, continued work is needed on jump criteria; a more sophisticated model may reduce the advantage of the breach counter. (3) The battle scenario used in this study is a very difficult defense for Blue. In the three baseline cases (no mines, AT mines only, and mixed AT/AP minefield), Blue loses. Only in the Frog case does Blue win, and it is a high casualty win.

  6. Hydrophobic Light-to-Heat Conversion Membranes with Self-Healing Ability for Interfacial Solar Heating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianbin; Tang, Bo; Wu, Jinbo; Li, Renyuan; Wang, Peng

    2015-09-01

    Self-healing hydrophobic light-to-heat conversion membranes for interfacial solar heating are fabricated by deposition of light-to-heat conversion material of polypyrrole onto a porous stainless-steel mesh, followed by hydrophobic fluoroalkylsilane modification. The mesh-based membranes spontaneously stay at the water-air interface, collect and convert solar light into heat, and locally heat only the water surface for enhanced evaporation. PMID:26184454

  7. Carbon nanotube polymer composition and devices

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Johnson, Stephen; Kerr, John B.; Minor, Andrew M.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2011-06-14

    A thin film device and compound having an anode, a cathode, and at least one light emitting layer between the anode and cathode, the at least one light emitting layer having at least one carbon nanotube and a conductive polymer.

  8. Building adaptive self-healing systems within a resource contested environment.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Brian; Blackburn, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Critical Software systems must recover when they experience degradation, either through external actors or internal system failures. There is currently no accepted generic methodology used by the software engineering community to design self-healing systems. Such systems identify when they require healing resources, and then change their own behavior to acquire and utilize these same resources. This study investigates using a design pattern to build such a system. It uses simulated robot tank combat to represent a challenge faced by an adaptive self-healing system. It also investigates how an adaptive system chooses different behaviors balancing its actions between healing activities, movement activities, and combat activities. The results of this study demonstrate how an adaptive self-healing system utilizes behavior selection within a contested environment where other external actors attempt to deny resources to it. It demonstrates how a multi-system architecture inspired by cognitive science its behavior to maximize its ability to both win matches, and survive. This study investigates system characteristics such as how behaviors are organized and how computer memory is utilized. The performance of the adaptive system is compared with the performance of 840 non-adapting systems that compete within this same environment. PMID:27441273

  9. A bacteria-based bead for possible self-healing marine concrete applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palin, D.; Wiktor, V.; Jonkers, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a bacteria-based bead for potential self-healing concrete applications in low-temperature marine environments. The bead consisting of calcium alginate encapsulated bacterial spores and mineral precursor compounds was assessed for: oxygen consumption, swelling, and its ability to form a biocomposite in a simulative marine concrete crack solution (SMCCS) at 8 °C. After six days immersion in the SMCCS the bacteria-based beads formed a calcite crust on their surface and calcite inclusions in their network, resulting in a calcite–alginate biocomposite. Beads swelled by 300% to a maximum diameter of 3 mm, while theoretical calculations estimate that 0.112 g of the beads were able to produce ∼1 mm3 of calcite after 14 days immersion; providing the bead with considerable crack healing potential. The bacteria-based bead shows great potential for the development of self-healing concrete in low-temperature marine environments, while the formation of a biocomposite healing material represents an exciting avenue for self-healing concrete research.

  10. Injectable and Self-Healing Carbohydrate-Based Hydrogel for Cell Encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Lü, Shaoyu; Gao, Chunmei; Xu, Xiubin; Bai, Xiao; Duan, Haogang; Gao, Nannan; Feng, Chen; Xiong, Yun; Liu, Mingzhu

    2015-06-17

    With the fast development of cell therapy, there has been a shift toward the development of injectable hydrogels as cell carriers that can overcome current limitations in cell therapy. However, the hydrogels are prone to damage during use, inducing cell apoptosis. Therefore, this study was carried out to develop an injectable and self-healing hydrogel based on chondroitin sulfate multiple aldehyde (CSMA) and N-succinyl-chitosan (SC). By varying the CSMA to SC ratio, the hydrogel stiffness, water content, and kinetics of gelation could be controlled. Gelation readily occurred at physiological conditions, predominantly due to a Schiff base reaction between the aldehyde groups on CSMA and amino groups on SC. Meanwhile, because of the dynamic equilibrium of Schiff base linkage, the hydrogel was found to be self-healing. Cells encapsulated in the hydrogel remained viable and metabolically active. In addition, the hydrogel produced minimal inflammatory response when injected subcutaneously in a rat model and showed biodegradability in vivo. This work establishes an injectable and self-healing hydrogel derived from carbohydrates with potential applications as a cell carrier and in tissue engineering. PMID:26016388

  11. Self-healing metal wire using electric field trapping of metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshi, Tomoya; Iwase, Eiji

    2015-06-01

    We propose a self-healing metal wire using electric field trapping of gold nanoparticles by a dielectrophoresis force. A cracked gold wire can retrieve its conductivity through the self-healing function. In this paper, we examine the healing voltage causing the electric field trapping and determine the healing time, which is relevant to future device applications. First, the forces acting on a nanoparticle are analyzed and a theoretical healing voltage curve is calculated. Then, gold wires with 200- to 1,600-nm-wide cracks are fabricated on glass substrate and the self-healing function is verified through healing experiments. As a result, gold wires with cracks of up to 1,200 nm in width are successfully healed by applying less than ∼2.5 V (on average), and the experimental results correspond almost exactly with the calculated healing voltage curve. The average healing times are 10 to 285 s for 200- to 1,200-nm-wide cracks. Through scanning electron microscope analysis after the healing experiments, we confirm that the cracks are healed by assembled nanoparticles.

  12. Analytical study of the self-healing property of Airy beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xiuxiang; Zhou, Guoquan; Chen, Ruipin

    2012-01-01

    An analytical expression for the optical field of an Airy beam partially blocked by an opaque obstacle is derived. The self-healing properties of the Airy beam are studied and discussed in detail. The study shows that the self-healing process of the Airy beam is affected by many factors such as the opaque obstacle size, propagation distance, wavelength, and parameters of the Airy beam. The self-healing process is caused by the convergence of energy from the side to the position of the opaque obstacle and is finished when the convergence of energy flow disappears. When the propagation distance is short, the main lobe of the Airy beam is affected by the obstruction located near the main lobe. When the propagation distance is long, the main lobe of the Airy beam can be affected by the obstruction located far away from the main lobe. The result agrees with the existing results and can be explained by the caustic of the Airy beam.

  13. Ionic Modification Turns Commercial Rubber into a Self-Healing Material.

    PubMed

    Das, Amit; Sallat, Aladdin; Böhme, Frank; Suckow, Marcus; Basu, Debdipta; Wiessner, Sven; Stöckelhuber, Klaus Werner; Voit, Brigitte; Heinrich, Gert

    2015-09-23

    Invented by Charles Goodyear, chemical cross-linking of rubbers by sulfur vulcanization is the only method by which modern automobile tires are manufactured. The formation of these cross-linked network structures leads to highly elastic properties, which substantially reduces the viscous properties of these materials. Here, we describe a simple approach to converting commercially available and widely used bromobutyl rubber (BIIR) into a highly elastic material with extraordinary self-healing properties without using conventional cross-linking or vulcanising agents. Transformation of the bromine functionalities of BIIR into ionic imidazolium bromide groups results in the formation of reversible ionic associates that exhibit physical cross-linking ability. The reversibility of the ionic association facilitates the healing processes by temperature- or stress-induced rearrangements, thereby enabling a fully cut sample to retain its original properties after application of the self-healing process. Other mechanical properties, such as the elastic modulus, tensile strength, ductility, and hysteresis loss, were found to be superior to those of conventionally sulfur-cured BIIR. This simple and easy approach to preparing a commercial rubber with self-healing properties offers unique development opportunities in the field of highly engineered materials, such as tires, for which safety, performance, and longer fatigue life are crucial factors. PMID:26332010

  14. Poly(sebacoyl diglyceride) Cross-Linked by Dynamic Hydrogen Bonds: A Self-Healing and Functionalizable Thermoplastic Bioelastomer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuo; Bi, Xiaoping; Sun, Lijie; Gao, Jin; Huang, Peng; Fan, Xianqun; You, Zhengwei; Wang, Yadong

    2016-08-17

    Biodegradable and biocompatible elastomers (bioelastomers) could resemble the mechanical properties of extracellular matrix and soft tissues and, thus, are very useful for many biomedical applications. Despite significant advances, tunable bioelastomers with easy processing, facile biofunctionalization, and the ability to withstand a mechanically dynamic environment have remained elusive. Here, we reported new dynamic hydrogen-bond cross-linked PSeD-U bioelastomers possessing the aforementioned features by grafting 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidinones (UPy) units with strong self-complementary quadruple hydrogen bonds to poly(sebacoyl diglyceride) (PSeD), a refined version of a widely used bioelastomer poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS). PSeD-U polymers exhibited stronger mechanical strength than their counterparts of chemically cross-linked PSeD and tunable elasticity by simply varying the content of UPy units. In addition to the good biocompatibility and biodegradability as seen in PSeD, PSeD-U showed fast self-healing (within 30 min) at mild conditions (60 °C) and could be readily processed at moderate temperature (90-100 °C) or with use of solvent casting at room temperature. Furthermore, the free hydroxyl groups of PSeD-U enabled facile functionalization, which was demonstrated by the modification of PSeD-U film with FITC as a model functional molecule. PMID:27419538

  15. Multifunctional Hybrid Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Cano, Roberto J.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Luong, Hoa; Grimsley, Brian W.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    For aircraft primary structures, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites possess many advantages over conventional aluminum alloys due to their light weight, higher strengthand stiffness-to-weight ratio, and low life-cycle maintenance costs. However, the relatively low electrical and thermal conductivities of CFRP composites fail to provide structural safety in certain operational conditions such as lightning strikes. Despite several attempts to solve these issues with the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) into polymer matrices, and/or by interleaving CNT sheets between conventional carbon fiber (CF) composite layers, there are still interfacial problems that exist between CNTs (or CF) and the resin. In this study, hybrid CNT/CF polymer composites were fabricated by interleaving layers of CNT sheets with Hexcel® IM7/8852 prepreg. Resin concentrations from 1 wt% to 50 wt% were used to infuse the CNT sheets prior to composite fabrication. The interlaminar properties of the resulting hybrid composites were characterized by mode I and II fracture toughness testing (double cantilever beam and end-notched flexure test). Fractographical analysis was performed to study the effect of resin concentration. In addition, multi-directional physical properties like thermal conductivity of the orthotropic hybrid polymer composite were evaluated. Interleaving CNT sheets significantly improved the in-plane (axial and perpendicular direction of CF alignment) thermal conductivity of the hybrid composite laminates by 50 - 400%.

  16. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Gates, T. S.; Wise, K. E.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a technique is presented for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated by using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube shapes, sizes, concentrations, and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/LaRC-SI (with a PmPV interface) composite systems, one with aligned SWNTs and the other with three-dimensionally randomly oriented SWNTs. The Young's modulus and shear modulus have been calculated for the two systems for various nanotube lengths and volume fractions.

  17. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Gates, T. S.; Wise, K. E.; Park, C.; Siochi, E. J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a technique is presented for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated by using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube lengths, concentrations, and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/polyimide composite systems.

  18. Manufacturing Aspects of Advanced Polymer Composites for Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Klaus; Almajid, Abdulhakim A.

    2013-04-01

    Composite materials, in most cases fiber reinforced polymers, are nowadays used in many applications in which light weight and high specific modulus and strength are critical issues. The constituents of these materials and their special advantages relative to traditional materials are described in this paper. Further details are outlined regarding the present markets of polymer composites in Europe, and their special application in the automotive industry. In particular, the manufacturing of parts from thermoplastic as well as thermosetting, short and continuous fiber reinforced composites is emphasized.

  19. Nanostructured polymer-titanium composites and titanium oxide through polymer swelling in titania precursor.

    PubMed

    Kierys, A; Zaleski, R; Buda, W; Pikus, S; Dziadosz, M; Goworek, J

    2013-06-01

    Polymer (XAD7HP)/Ti(4+) nanocomposites were prepared through the swelling of polymer in titanium (IV) ethoxide as a titanium dioxide precursor. The nanocomposite beads exhibit relatively high porosity different than the porosity of the initial polymer. Thermal treatment of composite particles up to 200 °C in vacuum causes the change of their internal structure. At higher temperature, the components of composite become more tightly packed. Calcination at 600 °C and total removal of polymer produce spherically shaped TiO2 condensed phase as determined by XRD. Thermally treated composites show the substantial change of pore dimensions within micro- and mesopores. The presence of micropores and their transformation during thermal processing was studied successfully by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The results derived from PALS experiment were compared with those obtaining from low-temperature nitrogen adsorption data. PMID:23741082

  20. Rescaled temperature dependence of dielectric behavior of ferroelectric polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Lan; Wang, Hai-Yan; Nan, Ce-Wen; Xie, Dan; Yin, Yi; Tjong, S. C.

    2005-04-01

    Rescaled temperature dependence of dielectric behavior of ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) filled with electroactive ceramic particles of rocksalt-type Li and Ti codoped NiO (LTNO) was studied at wide frequency ranges. Dielectric behavior of the flexible PVDF-LTNO composites with LTNO filler at the volumetric function of 0.3 exhibits a dielectric constant value, ɛ ≈50 at broad temperature range (290-360 K), and the value is frequency independent from 103 to 106Hz. The dielectric response of the composite is almost in accordance to that of pure PVDF matrix polymer. It was found that though the dielectric constant value of the composites is high due to an introduction of the rock salt-type LTNO ceramic particles with high dielectric constant, the glass transition of the polymer and dielectric relaxation related to the wide-angle oscillation of polar groups attached to the main polymer chain determine the dielectric behavior of the composite.

  1. Concrete-polymer composites: current status and future research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L E

    1981-04-01

    When plastics are combined with mixtures of inorganic materials, high-strength, durable, fast-setting composites are produced. These materials are used in structural engineering and other applications, and as a result of the successes obtained to date, considerable research and development work is in progress throughout the world. One family of polymer-based composites receiving considerable attention is the concrete-polymer materials. Work in this area is directed toward developing new high-strength durable materials by combining cement and concrete technology with that of polymer chemistry. In addition to the significant property enhancement, many combinations of siliceous materials with polymers require lower energy inputs per unit of performance than either component alone.

  2. The effect of water on thermal stresses in polymer composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamentals of the thermodynamic theory of mixtures and continuum thermochemistry are reviewed for a mixture of condensed water and polymer. A specific mixture which is mechanically elastic with temperature and water concentration gradients present is considered. An expression for the partial pressure of water in the mixture is obtained based on certain assumptions regarding the thermodynamic state of the water in the mixture. Along with a simple diffusion equation, this partial pressure expression may be used to simulate the thermostructural behavior of polymer composite materials due to water in the free volumes of the polymer. These equations are applied to a specific polymer composite material during isothermal heating conditions. The thermal stresses obtained by the application of the theory are compared to measured results to verify the accuracy of the approach.

  3. Nano-structured polymer composites and process for preparing same

    DOEpatents

    Hillmyer, Marc; Chen, Liang

    2013-04-16

    A process for preparing a polymer composite that includes reacting (a) a multi-functional monomer and (b) a block copolymer comprising (i) a first block and (ii) a second block that includes a functional group capable of reacting with the multi-functional monomer, to form a crosslinked, nano-structured, bi-continuous composite. The composite includes a continuous matrix phase and a second continuous phase comprising the first block of the block copolymer.

  4. Polymer composites based on gypsum matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Maria; Mróz, Patrycja; Kocemba, Aleksandra

    2016-05-01

    The role of polymers as retarder additives is to prolong the workability connected with setting time of gypsum. Various cellulose derivatives, soluble in water in concentration up to 1,5% by weight were applied taking different water/binder ratio. The hydration process of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (gypsum binder) into dihydrate (gypsum plaster) was observed by setting and calorimetric techniques. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the gypsum microstructure was varied when polymers are used. The mechanical properties of gypsum plasters were studied by bending strength test and they are correlated with sample microstructure

  5. Conductivity of carbon nanotube polymer composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, J T; Kung, P; Maiti, A

    2006-11-20

    Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulations were used to investigate methods of controlling the assembly of percolating networks of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in thin films of block copolymer melts. For suitably chosen polymers the CNTs were found to spontaneously self-assemble into topologically interesting patterns. The mesoscale morphology was projected onto a finite-element grid and the electrical conductivity of the films computed. The conductivity displayed non-monotonic behavior as a function of relative polymer fractions in the melt. Results are compared and contrasted with CNT dispersion in small-molecule fluids and mixtures.

  6. Polypyrrole composite electrodes in an all-polymer battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Killian, J.G.; Coffey, B.M.; Gao, F.; Poehler, T.O.; Searson, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    The authors have fabricated an all-polymer battery utilizing the redox properties of electrically conducting polymers for the anode and cathode in conjunction with an ionic conducting polymer gel electrolyte. The anode and cathode consist of pyrrole electropolymerized onto a graphite fiber substrate resulting in a high-surface-area, composite electrode. A polymer gel electrolyte, based on polyacrylonitrile, was solution cast onto the electrodes to form an all-polymer cell. This system exhibits a specific charge capacity of 22 mAh/g based on the electroactive mass of the cathode and discharging the system to 0.4 V. These cells show no loss of capacity when cycled to 100 cycles.

  7. Compositions, methods, and systems comprising fluorous-soluble polymers

    DOEpatents

    Swager, Timothy M.; Lim, Jeewoo; Takeda, Yohei

    2015-10-13

    The present invention generally relates to compositions, methods, and systems comprising polymers that are fluorous-soluble and/or organize at interfaces between a fluorous phase and a non-fluorous phase. In some embodiments, emulsions or films are provided comprising a polymer. The polymers, emulsions, and films can be used in many applications, including for determining, treating, and/or imaging a condition and/or disease in a subject. The polymer may also be incorporated into various optoelectronic device such as photovoltaic cells, organic light-emitting diodes, organic field effect transistors, or the like. In some embodiments, the polymers comprise pi-conjugated backbones, and in some cases, are highly emissive.

  8. A self-sensing fiber reinforced polymer composite using mechanophore-based smart polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jin; Liu, Yingtao; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Dai, Lenore

    2015-04-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are ubiquitous in engineering applications due to their superior mechanical properties at low weight. However, they are susceptible to damage due to their low interlaminar mechanical properties and poor heat and charge transport in the transverse direction to the laminate. Moreover, methods to inspect and ensure the reliability of composites are expensive and labor intensive. Recently, mechanophore-based smart polymer has attracted significant attention, especially for self-sensing of matrix damage in PMCs. A cyclobutane-based self-sensing approach using 1,1,1-tris (cinnamoyloxymethyl) ethane (TCE) and poly (vinyl cinnamate) (PVCi) has been studied in this paper. The self-sensing function was investigated at both the polymer level and composite laminate level. Fluorescence emissions were observed on PMC specimens subjected to low cycle fatigue load, indicating the presence of matrix cracks. Results are presented for graphite fiber reinforced composites.

  9. Light weight polymer matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix is layed up, cured, and thermally aged at about 750 F in the presence of an inert gas. The heat treatment improves the structural integrity and alters the electrical conductivity of the materials. In the preferred embodiment PMR-15 polyimides and Celion-6000 graphite fibers are used.

  10. Light weight polymer matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix is layed up, cured, and thermally aged at about 750.degree. F. in the presence of an inert gas. The heat treatment improves the structural integrity and alters the electrical conductivity of the materials. In the preferred embodiment PMR-15 polyimides and Celion-6000 graphite fibers are used.

  11. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    2002-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  12. Compositions for directed alignment of conjugated polymers

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinsang; Kim, Bong-Gi; Jeong, Eun Jeong

    2016-04-19

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) achieve directed alignment along an applied flow field and a dichroic ratio of as high as 16.67 in emission from well-aligned thin films and fully realized anisotropic optoelectronic properties of CPs in field-effect transistor (FET).

  13. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gohdes, J.W.

    1999-04-06

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  14. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    1999-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  15. LC/polymer composite and its applications in photonics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, H. T.; Liu, Y. J.; Luo, D.; Sun, X. W.

    2011-03-01

    Traditionally LC/polymer composite, such as polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC), holographic PDLC (H-PDLC), and polymer stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) etc. is primarily used as display devices. Recently, with electrical, optical and thermal tunability, easy fabrication and fast response time, they have attracted much attention in photonics devices (grating, diffractive optical elements, optical switches etc.) with potential applications in communications, imaging, and biology. The intrinsic tunable property of LC/polymer composite (by means of mechanic, electronic, magnetic, thermal stimulus) makes it an attractive material used in dynamic photonics devices. In this paper, we will first introduce the preparation of LC/polymer material for various objectives. Then two essential fabrication approaches i.e. multibeams interference lithography for periodic structures and programmable projection lithography for specific designed patterns are introduced respectively. At last, our recent results in applying LC/polymer composite in photonic devices, such as tunable 3D photonics crystals, 2D tunable lasing source, focusing elements and binary Airy beams generation etc. are reviewed.

  16. Fabrication of an Electrically-Resistive, Varistor-Polymer Composite

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Fatehi, Asma; Zakaria, Azmi; Mahmud, Shahrom; Mohammadi, Sanaz A.

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the fabrication and electrical characterization of a polymer composite based on nano-sized varistor powder. The polymer composite was fabricated by the melt-blending method. The developed nano-composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FeSEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). The XRD pattern revealed the crystallinity of the composite. The XRD study also showed the presence of secondary phases due to the substitution of zinc by other cations, such as bismuth and manganese. The TEM picture of the sample revealed the distribution of the spherical, nano-sized, filler particles throughout the matrix, which were in the 10–50 nm range with an average of approximately 11 nm. The presence of a bismuth-rich phase and a ZnO matrix phase in the ZnO-based varistor powder was confirmed by FeSEM images and EDX spectra. From the current-voltage curves, the non-linear coefficient of the varistor polymer composite with 70 wt% of nano filler was 3.57, and its electrical resistivity after the onset point was 861 KΩ. The non-linear coefficient was 1.11 in the sample with 100 wt% polymer content. Thus, it was concluded that the composites established a better electrical non-linearity at higher filler amounts due to the nano-metric structure and closer particle linkages. PMID:23443085

  17. Carbon Nanotubes - Polymer Composites with Enhanced Conductivity using Functionalized Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasubramaniam, Rajagopal; Chen, Jian; Gupta, Rishi

    2003-03-01

    Individual carbon nanotubes show superior electrical, mechanical and thermal properties [1]. Composite materials using carbon nanotubes as fillers are predicted to show similar superior properties. However, realization of such composites has been plagued by poor dispersion of carbon nanotubes in solvents and in polymer matrices. We have developed a method to homogenously disperse carbon nanotubes in polymer matrices using functionalized nanotubes [2]. Thin films of functionalized single walled nanotubes (SWNT) - polystyrene composites and functionalized SWNT - polycarbonate composites were prepared using solution evaporation and spin coating. Both of the composites show several orders of magnitude increase in conductivity for less than 1 wt thresholds of the composites are less than 0.2 wt nanotubes. We attribute the enhanced conduction to the superior dispersion of the functionalized nanotubes in the polymer matrix and to the reduced nanotube waviness resulting from the rigid backbone of the conjugated polymer. References: [1]. R. H. Baughman, A. A. Zakhidov and W. A. de Heer, Science v297, p787 (2002); [2]. J. Chen, H. Liu, W. A. Weimer, M. D. Halls, D. H. Waldeck and G. C. Walker, J. Am. Chem. Soc. v124, p9034 (2002).

  18. Fracture behavior of glass fiber reinforced polymer composite

    SciTech Connect

    Avci, A.; Arikan, H.; Akdemir, A

    2004-03-01

    Chopped strand glass fiber reinforced particle-filled polymer composite beams with varying notch-to-depth ratios and different volume fractions of glass fibers were investigated in Mode I fracture using three-point bending tests. Effects of polyester resin content and glass fiber content on fracture behavior was also studied. Polyester resin contents were used 13.00%%, 14.75%, 16.50%, 18.00% and 19.50%, and glass fiber contents were 1% and 1.5% of the total weight of the polymer composite system. Flexural strength of the polymer composite increases with increase in polyester and fiber content. The critical stress intensity factor was determined by using several methods such as initial notch depth method, compliance method and J-integral method. The values of K{sub IC} obtained from these methods were compared.

  19. Composite membranes from photochemical synthesis of ultrathin polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Martin, Charles R.

    1991-07-01

    THERE has recently been a resurgence of interest in synthetic membranes and membrane-based processes1-12. This is motivated by a wide variety of technological applications, such as chemical separations1-7, bioreactors and sensors8,9, energy conversion10,11 and drug-delivery systems12. Many of these technologies require the ability to prepare extremely thin, defect-free synthetic (generally polymeric) films, which are supported on microporous supports to form composite membranes. Here we describe a method for producing composite membranes of this sort that incorporate high-quality polymer films less than 50-nm thick. The method involves interfacial photopolymerization of a thin polymer film on the surface of the microporous substrate. We have been able to use this technique to synthesize a variety of functionalized ultrathin films based on electroactive, photoactive and ion-exchange polymers. We demonstrate the method here with composite membranes that show exceptional gas-transport properties.

  20. Quantitative radiographic analysis of fiber reinforced polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Baidya, K P; Ramakrishna, S; Rahman, M; Ritchie, A

    2001-01-01

    X-ray radiographic examination of the bone fracture healing process is a widely used method in the treatment and management of patients. Medical devices made of metallic alloys reportedly produce considerable artifacts that make the interpretation of radiographs difficult. Fiber reinforced polymer composite materials have been proposed to replace metallic alloys in certain medical devices because of their radiolucency, light weight, and tailorable mechanical properties. The primary objective of this paper is to provide a comparable radiographic analysis of different fiber reinforced polymer composites that are considered suitable for biomedical applications. Composite materials investigated consist of glass, aramid (Kevlar-29), and carbon reinforcement fibers, and epoxy and polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) matrices. The total mass attenuation coefficient of each material was measured using clinical X-rays (50 kev). The carbon fiber reinforced composites were found to be more radiolucent than the glass and kevlar fiber reinforced composites. PMID:11261603

  1. Silver nanowire array-polymer composite as thermal interface material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ju; Munari, Alessio; Dalton, Eric; Mathewson, Alan; Razeeb, Kafil M.

    2009-12-01

    Silver nanowire arrays embedded inside polycarbonate templates are investigated as a viable thermal interface material for electronic cooling applications. The composite shows an average thermal diffusivity value of 1.89×10-5 m2 s-1, which resulted in an intrinsic thermal conductivity of 30.3 W m-1 K-1. The nanowires' protrusion from the film surface enables it to conform to the surface roughness to make a better thermal contact. This resulted in a 61% reduction in thermal impedance when compared with blank polymer. An ˜30 nm Au film on the top of the composite was found to act as a heat spreader, reducing the thermal impedance further by 35%. A contact impedance model was employed to compare the contact impedance of aligned silver nanowire-polymer composites with that of aligned carbon nanotubes, which showed that the Young's modulus of the composite is the defining factor in the overall thermal impedance of these composites.

  2. Thermal Protective Coating for High Temperature Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barron, Andrew R.

    1999-01-01

    The central theme of this research is the application of carboxylate-alumoxane nanoparticles as precursors to thermally protective coatings for high temperature polymer composites. In addition, we will investigate the application of carboxylate-alumoxane nanoparticle as a component to polymer composites. The objective of this research was the high temperature protection of polymer composites via novel chemistry. The significance of this research is the development of a low cost and highly flexible synthetic methodology, with a compatible processing technique, for the fabrication of high temperature polymer composites. We proposed to accomplish this broad goal through the use of a class of ceramic precursor material, alumoxanes. Alumoxanes are nano-particles with a boehmite-like structure and an organic periphery. The technical goals of this program are to prepare and evaluate water soluble carboxylate-alumoxane for the preparation of ceramic coatings on polymer substrates. Our proposed approach is attractive since proof of concept has been demonstrated under the NRA 96-LeRC-1 Technology for Advanced High Temperature Gas Turbine Engines, HITEMP Program. For example, carbon and Kevlar(tm) fibers and matting have been successfully coated with ceramic thermally protective layers.

  3. Mineralized polymer composites as biogenic bone substitute material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Rushita; Saha, Nabanita; Kitano, Takeshi; Saha, Petr

    2015-05-01

    Mineralized polymer composites (MPC) are recognized as potential fillers of bone defects. Though bioceramics exhibits quite a good bone-bonding and vascularization, it is considered to be too stiff and brittle for using alone. Thus, the use of polymer scaffold instead of bioceramics has several advantages including combining the osteoconductivity and bone-bonding potential of the inorganic phase with the porosity and interconnectivity of the three-dimensional construction. Aiming the advantages of ceramic-polymer composite scaffolds, the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) based biomineralized scaffold was prepared, where the PVP-CMC hydrogel was used as an extracellular matrix. This paper is reported about the morphology, swelling trend (in physiological solution) and viscoelastic behavior of (90 min mineralized) MPC. The dry MPC are off-white, coarse in texture, comparatively less flexible than the original PVP-CMC based hydrogel film, and the deposition of granular structures on the surface of the hydrogel film confirms about the development of biomineralized scaffold/polymer composites. Irrespective of thickness, the dry MPC shows higher values of swelling ratio within 30 min, which varies between 200-250 approximately. The dynamic viscoelastic nature of freshly prepared MPC was investigated applying 1% and 10% strain. At higher strain the viscoelastic moduli (G' and G") show significant change, and the nature of MPC turns from elastic to viscous. Based on the observed basic properties, the MPC (calcite based polymer composites) can be recommended for the treatment of adyanamic bone disorder.

  4. Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix

    DOEpatents

    Muenchausen, Ross Edward; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Gilbertson, Robert David

    2010-11-16

    An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  5. Ultraviolet and thermally stable polymer compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, M. J.; Gloria, H. R.; Goldsberry, R. E.; Reinisch, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Copolymers, produced from aromatic substituted aromatic azine-siloxane compositions, are thermally stable, solar ultraviolet light non-degradable by wavelengths shorter than those reaching earth surface.

  6. Temperature effects on polymer-carbon composite sensors: evaluating the role of polymer molecular weight and carbon loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, M. L.; Lim, J. R.; Manatt, K.; Kisor, A.; Lara, L.; Jewell, A. D.; Yen, S. -P. S.; Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report the effect of environmental condtions coupled with varying polymer properties and carbon loadings on the performance of polymer-carbon black composite film, used as sensing medium in the JPL Electronic Nose.

  7. Investigating accidents involving aircraft manufactured from polymer composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Leigh

    This study looks into the examination of polymer composite wreckage from the perspective of the aircraft accident investigator. It develops an understanding of the process of wreckage examination as well as identifying the potential for visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite aircraft wreckage. The in-field examination of aircraft wreckage, and subsequent interpretations of material failures, can be a significant part of an aircraft accident investigation. As the use of composite materials in aircraft construction increases, the understanding of how macroscopic failure characteristics of composite materials may aid the field investigator is becoming of increasing importance.. The first phase of this research project was to explore how investigation practitioners conduct wreckage examinations. Four accident investigation case studies were examined. The analysis of the case studies provided a framework of the wreckage examination process. Subsequently, a literature survey was conducted to establish the current level of knowledge on the visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite failures. Relevant literature was identified and a compendium of visual and macroscopic characteristics was created. Two full-scale polymer composite wing structures were loaded statically, in an upward bending direction, until each wing structure fractured and separated. The wing structures were subsequently examined for the existence of failure characteristics. The examination revealed that whilst characteristics were present, the fragmentation of the structure destroyed valuable evidence. A hypothetical accident scenario utilising the fractured wing structures was developed, which UK government accident investigators subsequently investigated. This provided refinement to the investigative framework and suggested further guidance on the interpretation of polymer composite failures by accident investigators..

  8. Enzyme-polymer composites with high biocatalytic activity and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jungbae; Kosto, Timothy J.; Manimala, Joseph C.; Nauman, E B.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    2004-08-22

    We have applied vacuum-spraying and electrospinning to incorporate an enzyme into a polymer matrix, creating a novel and highly active biocatalytic composite. As a unique technical approach, enzymes were co-dissolved in toluene with polymers, and the solvent was then rapidly removed by injecting the mixture into a vacuum chamber or by electrospinning. Subsequent crosslinking of the enzyme with glutaraldehyde resulted in stable entrapped enzyme within the polymeric matrices. For example, an amorphous composite of alpha-chymotrypsin and polyethylene showed no significant loss of enzymatic activity in aqueous buffer for one month. Nanofibers of alpha-chymotrypsin and polystyrene also showed no decrease in activity for more than two weeks. The normalized activity of amorphous composite in organic solvents was 3-13 times higher than that of native alpha-chymotrypsin. The activity of nanofibers was 5-7 times higher than that of amorphous composite in aqueous buffer solution. The composites of alpha-chymotrypsin and polymers demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining a wide variety of active and stable biocatalytic materials with many combinations of enzymes and polymers.

  9. Characterization of chitosan composites with synthetic polymers and inorganic additives.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, the results from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle measurements, tensile tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) of polymer composites containing chitosan (Ch) and montmorillonite (MMT) with and without poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) are presented. Measurements of the contact angles for diiodomethane (D) and glycerol (G) on the surfaces of chitosan films, Ch/MMT and Ch/PVA/MMT, were made and surface free energies were calculated. It was found that the wettability of the chitosan/MMT or Ch/PVA/MMT composite films decreased relative to the wettability of chitosan. The microstructure of unmodified polymers and their composites, as observed by SEM and AFM, showed particles that are relatively well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The TGA thermograms and mass loss percentages at different decomposition temperatures showed that the thermal stability of the binary composite slightly decreases upon the addition of PVA. The film mechanical properties such as tensile strength, Young's modulus and tensile strain at break depend on the composition and varied non-uniformly. Both composites possessed a tensile strength and Young's modulus of 27.6-94.3MPa and 1.5-3.5GPa, respectively. The addition of PVA to the composite led to a reduction in tensile strength by approximately 40%. PMID:26253510

  10. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  11. Surface characterization of LDEF carbon fiber/polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grammer, Holly L.; Wightman, James P.; Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.

    1995-01-01

    XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analysis of both carbon fiber/epoxy matrix and carbon fiber/polysulfone matrix composites revealed significant changes in the surface composition as a result of exposure to low-earth orbit. The carbon 1s curve fit XPS analysis in conjunction with the SEM photomicrographs revealed significant erosion of the polymer matrix resins by atomic oxygen to expose the carbon fibers of the composite samples. This erosion effect on the composites was seen after 10 months in orbit and was even more obvious after 69 months.

  12. Progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates: A new approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Minnetyan, L.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters has been developed and is described for the computational simulation of progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the laminate behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach accounts for all types of composite behavior, laminate configuration, load conditions, and delamination processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation, and to laminate fracture. Results of laminate fracture in composite beams, panels, plates, and shells are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this new approach.

  13. Size and core content optimization of epoxy nanocapsules by response surface methodology for use in self-healing coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoee, Sepideh; Hosein Payandeh, Seyed; Jafarzadeh, Parinaz; Asadi, Hamed

    2016-08-01

    A model is provided to estimate the effect of different factors on the synthesis of nanocapsules containing epoxy resin. Producing nanocapsules with different sizes and core-contents for different applications is made possible by using this model. The three parameters that have the most important effect on the properties of the nanocapsules: the surfactant concentration, agitation rate and sonication time are selected and the response surface methodology is used to determine the effect of these parameters on the nanocapsule size and core content. These parameters are modified to prepare nanoparticles with a high core content (68.7%) and small size (165 nm). The nanocapsules were stable up to 150 °C and these properties have made them applicable for future use in self-healing coatings and composites. The modified epoxy nanocapsules were mixed with amine-filled nanocapsules and were incorporated in an epoxy coating. This coating was scratched and kept in a corrosive environment and even after 30 days it still showed a high corrosion resistance, proving that the nanocapsules were able to successfully heal the scratches in the coating. After 30 days of immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl environment, the corrosion resistance of the coating with healing particles was 38 times higher than the pure coating.

  14. CaO insulator coatings and self-healing of defects on V-Cr-Ti alloys in liquid lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

    1996-02-01

    Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid metal/structural interface in fusion first-wall/blanket applications. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5--85 wt.% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degrees}C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted with the alloy substrate at 400--420{degrees}C to produce a CaO coating. Resistance of the coating layer measured in-situ in liquid Li was {approx}10{sup 6} {Omega} at 400{degrees}C. Thermal cycling between 300 and 700{degrees}C changed the coating layer resistance. which followed insulator behavior. These results suggest that thin homogeneous coatings can be produced on variously shaped surfaces by controlling the exposure time, temperature, and composition of the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes(e.g., inside/outside of tubes, complex geometrical shapes) because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. Examination of the specimens after cooling to room temperature revealed no spallation, but homogeneous crazing cracks were present in the CaO coating. Additional tests to investigate the in-situ self-healing behavior of the cracks indicated that rapid healing occurred at {ge}360{degrees}C.

  15. Monitoring of self-healing phenomena towards enhanced sustainability of historic mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amenta, M.; Karatasios, I.; Maravelaki, P.; Kilikoglou, V.

    2016-05-01

    Mortars are known for their ability to heal their defects in an autogenic way. This phenomenon is expressed by the filling of microcracks by secondary products, restoring or enhancing the material's performance. Parameterization of self-healing phenomenon could be a key factor for the enhanced sustainability of these materials in terms of reduced repair cost and consumption of natural raw materials and thus reduced environmental fingerprint. The fact that this phenomenon takes place autogenously suggests that the material can self-repair its defects, without external intervention, thus leading to a prolonged life cycle. In the present study, the autogenic self-healing phenomenon was studied in natural hydraulic lime mortars, considering aspects of curing time before initial cracking, duration and conditions of the healing period. Furthermore, strength recovery due to autogenic self-healing was measured under high humidity conditions, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (DTA/TG) was performed in all specimens in order to quantitatively assess the available unreacted components in the binder at all ages. Regarding the microstructure of the healing phases, the main products formed during healing consist of calcite and various C-S-H/C-A-H phases. Depending on the parameters mentioned above, there is a wide diversity in the intensity, typology and topography of the secondary phases inside the cracks. The main differences discussed were observed between specimens cracked at very early age and those damaged after 30 days of curing. Similarly, the mechanical properties of the crack-healed specimens were associated with the above findings and especially with the available each-time amount of lime, determined by thermo-gravimetric analysis.

  16. High Strain Rate Behavior of Polymer Matrix Composites Analyzed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2001-01-01

    Procedures for modeling the high-speed impact of composite materials are needed for designing reliable composite engine cases that are lighter than the metal cases in current use. The types of polymer matrix composites that are likely to be used in such an application have a deformation response that is nonlinear and that varies with strain rate. To characterize and validate material models that could be used in the design of impactresistant engine cases, researchers must obtain material data over a wide variety of strain rates. An experimental program has been carried out through a university grant with the Ohio State University to obtain deformation data for a representative polymer matrix composite for strain rates ranging from quasi-static to high rates of several hundred per second. This information has been used to characterize and validate a constitutive model that was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  17. Self-healing pulse-like shear ruptures in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lykotrafitis, George; Rosakis, Ares J; Ravichandran, Guruswami

    2006-09-22

    Models predict that dynamic shear ruptures during earthquake faulting occur as either sliding cracks, where a large section of the interface slides behind a fast-moving rupture front, or self-healing slip pulses, where the fault relocks shortly behind the rupture front. We report experimental visualizations of crack-like, pulse-like, and mixed rupture modes propagating along frictionally held, "incoherent" interfaces separating identical solids, and we describe the conditions under which those modes develop. A combination of simultaneously performed measurements via dynamic photoelasticity and laser interferometry reveals the rupture mode type, the exact point of rupture initiation, the sliding velocity history, and the rupture propagation speed. PMID:16990544

  18. Electromigration in Gold Films on Flexible Polyimide Substrates as a Self-healing Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Putz, Barbara; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.

    2016-01-01

    The study of electromigration (EM) in metallisations for flexible thin film systems has not been a major concern due to low applied current densities in today's flexible electronic devices. However, the trend towards smaller and more powerful devices demands increasing current densities for future applications, making EM a reliability matter. This work investigates EM in 50 nm Au thin films with a 10 nm Cr adhesion layer on a flexible polyimide substrate at high current densities. Results indicate that EM does occur and could be used as a self-healing mechanism for flexible electronics. PMID:27158564

  19. A Note on an Improved Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Scheme.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hua; Zheng, Yandong; Wang, Biao; Li, Zhoujun

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Chen et al. proposed a one-way hash self-healing group key distribution scheme for resource-constrained wireless networks in the journal of Sensors (14(14):24358-24380, doi: 10.3390/ s141224358). They asserted that their Scheme 2 achieves mt-revocation capability, mt-wise forward secrecy, any-wise backward secrecy and has mt-wise collusion attack resistance capability. Unfortunately, this paper pointed out that their scheme does not satisfy the forward security, mt-revocation capability and mt-wise collusion attack resistance capability. PMID:26426018

  20. A multifunctional transparent superhydrophobic gel nanocoating with self-healing properties.

    PubMed

    Si, Yifan; Zhu, Hai; Chen, Liwei; Jiang, Ting; Guo, Zhiguang

    2015-12-01

    Inspired by mussels we designed a novel green superhydrophobic gel nanocoating with good transparency and stability through a facile copolymerization reaction at room temperature and a subsequent trimethyl silyl modified process, which is applicable to various substrates via a simple spray process without requiring toxic substances. Importantly, this well-designed nanocoating has rapid self-healing superhydrophobicity induced by usual organic solvents to face complicated work conditions, which satisfies the need of daily life and can be applied in industry as well. PMID:26434728

  1. Propagation and self-healing ability of a Bessel-Gaussian beam modulated by Bessel gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Chunhong; Feng, Xiaoxing; Chu, Xiuxiang

    2016-04-01

    A new type of Bessel-like beam which can be generated by using Bessel gratings to modulate the amplitude and phase of a Bessel beam is proposed. In analogy to study a Bessel beam in free space, the intensity evolution and self-healing property of the Bessel-like beam have been studied. Meanwhile, based on the Fresnel diffraction integral, the propagation of the Bessel-like beam in free space has also been investigated. Results show that the Bessel-like beam and the Bessel-Gaussian-like beams have some special and interesting properties.

  2. Electrically Conductive Multiphase Polymer Blend Carbon-Based Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigandi, Paul James

    The use of multiphase polymer blends provides unique morphologies and properties to reduce the percolation concentration and increase conductivity of carbon-based polymer composites. These systems offer improved conductivity, temperature stability and selective distribution of the conductive filler through unique morphologies at significantly lower conductive filler concentration. In this work, the kinetic and thermodynamic effects on a series of multiphase conductive polymer composites were investigated. The polymer blend phase morphology, filler distribution, electrical conductivity, and rheological properties of CB-filled PP/PMMA/EAA conductive polymer composites were determined. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were found to influence the morphology development and final composite properties. The morphology and CB distribution were found to be kinetically driven when annealed for a short period of time following the shear-intensive mixing process, whereas the three-phase polymer blend morphology is driven by thermodynamics when given sufficient time under high temperature annealing conditions in the melt state. At short annealing times, the CB distribution was influenced by the compounding sequence where the CB was added after being premixed with one of the polymer phases or directly added to the three phase polymer melt, but again was thermodynamically driven at longer annealing times with the CB migrating to the EAA phase. The resistivity was found to decrease by a statistically significant amount to similar levels for all of the composite systems with increasing annealing time, providing evidence of gradual phase coalescence to a tri-continuous morphology and CB migration. The addition of CB via the PP and EAA masterbatch results in significantly faster percolation and lower resistivity compared to when added direct to the system during compounding after 30 minutes annealing by a statistically significant amount. Dynamic oscillatory shear rheology using

  3. Outgassing and dimensional changes of polymer matrix composites in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Matthews, R.

    1993-01-01

    A thermal-vacuum outgassing model and test protocol for predicting outgassing times and dimensional changes for polymer matrix composites is described. Experimental results derived from a 'control' sample are used to provide the basis for analytical predictions to compare with the outgassing response of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight samples.

  4. Mechanics of Carbon Nanotubes and their Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Chenyu; Cho, K. J.; Srivastava, Deepak; Tang, Harry (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the folloving: carbon nanotube (CNT): structures, application of carbon nanotubes, simulation method, Elastic properties of carbon nanotubes, yield strain of CNT, yielding under tensile stress, yielding: strain-rate and temperature dependence, yield strain under tension, yielding at realistic conditions, nano fibers, polymer CNT composite, force field, density dependency on temperature, diffusion coefficients, young modulus, and conclusions.

  5. Ionic polymer metal composites: IV. Industrial and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Kim, Kwang J.

    2005-02-01

    This paper, the last in a series of four review papers to appear in this journal, presents some critical applications using ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs). Industrial and biomedical applications of IPMCs are identified and presented along with brief illustration.

  6. Mechanics of particulate composites with glassy polymer binders in compression

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, J. L.; Spowart, J. E.; Kendall, M. J.; Woodworth, B.; Siviour, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Whether used as structural components in design or matrix materials for composites, the mechanical properties of polymers are increasingly important. The compressive response of extruded polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) rod with aligned polymer chains and Al–Ni–PMMA particulate composites are investigated across a range of strain rates and temperatures. The particulate composites were prepared using an injection-moulding technique resulting in highly anisotropic microstructures. The mechanics of these materials are discussed in the light of theories of deformation for glassy polymers. The experimental data from this study are compared with PMMA results from the literature as well as epoxy-based composites with identical particulates. The PMMA exhibited the expected strain rate and temperature dependence and brittle failure was observed at the highest strain rates and lowest temperatures. The Al–Ni–PMMA composites were found to have similar stress–strain response to the PMMA with reduced strain softening after yield. Increasing volume fraction of particulates in the composite resulted in decreased strength. PMID:24711495

  7. Bulk and surface polymer composites prepared in supercritical carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Edward

    This dissertation describes the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) as an aid in fabricating polymer/polymer composites. Monomers and initiators were infused into solid polymer substrates using SC CO 2. The monomers were subsequently polymerized within the substrates to form composites. CO2 swells the polymer substrate and increases the diffusively of reactants within the substrate. The solvent strength of SC CO2 is tunable allowing control over the degree of swelling and over the partitioning behavior of the reactants. CO2 can be easily removed from the final products. First, polystyrene/polyethylene bulk composites were investigated. Styrene and a radical initiator were infused into and reacted throughout the bulk of polyethylene substrates. The composite composition was controlled by controlling infusion time, reaction time and partitioning conditions. Characterization of the composites showed that the crystalline domains of the polyethylene were unaffected. Styrene infused into and polymerized within only the amorphous domains of polyethylene. Polyethylene and polystyrene are immiscible; the semicrystalline nature of polyethylene frustrated gross phase separation of the polystyrene. The resulting "kinetically trapped" phase morphology gave the composites interesting mechanical properties. The phase morphology was characterized, and the polystyrene was found to reside within the interlamellar regions and the centers of the polyethylene spherulites. The polystyrene formed a continuous "scaffold" that reinforced the polyethylene. The reinforcement provided efficient and dramatic improvement in the composite modulus and strength. However, the composites fracture toughness decreased with increasing polystyrene content. The fracture behavior was correlated to the microstructural damage mechanisms in the composites. Second, surface composites were investigated. Using a two-stage process, ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate (ECA) monomer was anionically polymerized in the

  8. Study of Geometric Stability and Structural Integrity of Self-Healing Glass Seal System Used in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-02-15

    A self-healing glass seal has the potential of restoring its mechanical properties upon being reheated to SOFC stack operating temperature, even when it has experienced some cooling induced damage/cracking at room temperature. Such a self-healing feature is desirable for achieving high seal reliability during thermal cycling. On the other hand, self-healing glass is also characterized by its low mechanical stiffness and high creep rate at the typical operating temperature of SOFCs. Therefore, geometry stability and structural integrity of the glass seal system becomes critical to its successful application in SOFCs. In this paper, the geometry stability of the self-healing glass and the influence of various interfacial conditions of ceramic stoppers with the PEN, IC, and glass seal on the structural integrity of the glass seal during the operating and cooling down processes are studied using finite element analyses. For this purpose, the test cell used in the leakage tests for compliant glass seals conducted at PNNL is taken as the initial modeling geometry. The effect of the ceramic stopper on the geometry stability of the self-healing glass sealants is studied first. Two interfacial conditions of the ceramic stopper and glass seals, i.e., bonded (strong) or un-bonded (weak), are considered. Then the influences of interfacial strengths at various interfaces, i.e., stopper/glass, stopper/PEN, as well as stopper/IC plate, on the geometry stability and reliability of glass during the operating and cooling processes are examined.

  9. Polymer derived ceramic composites as environmental barrier coatings on steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrey, Jessica D.

    Polymer derived ceramics have shown promise as a novel way to process low-dimensional ceramics such as fibers and coatings. They offer advantages over traditional ceramic processing routes including lower pyrolysis temperatures and the ability to employ polymeric processing techniques. The main drawback to preceramic polymers is that they undergo a shrinkage during pyrolysis that can be greater than 50-volume%. One way to overcome this shrinkage is to add filler particles, usually elemental or binary metals, which will expand upon reaction with the pyrolysis atmosphere, thereby compensating for the shrinkage of the polymer. The aim of this study is to develop a polymer derived ceramic composite coating on steel as a barrier to oxidation and carburization, while concurrently gaining insight as to the fundamental mechanisms for compositional and microstructural evolution within the system. A systematic approach to selecting the preceramic polymer and expansion agents was taken. Six commercially available poly(silsesquioxane) polymers and a polysiloxane were studied. Several metals and an intermetallic were considered as potential expansion agents. The most desirable polymer/expansion agent combination was achieved with poly(hydridomethylsiloxane) as the matrix and titanium disilicide as the filler. Processing parameters have been optimized and a relationship derived to predict final coating thickness based on slurry viscosity and dip coating withdrawal speed. Microstructural analysis reveals an amorphous composite coating of oxidized filler particles in a silica matrix. A diffusion layer is visible at the coating-steel interface, indicating good bonding. The optimized coatings are ˜18mum thick, have some residual porosity and a density of 2.57g/cm3. A systematic study of the phase transformations and microstructural changes in the coating and its components during pyrolysis in air is also presented. The system evolves from a polymer filled with a binary metal at

  10. Porous polymer networks and ion-exchange media and metal-polymer composites made therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Katsoulidis, Alexandros

    2015-03-10

    Porous polymeric networks and composite materials comprising metal nanoparticles distributed in the polymeric networks are provided. Also provided are methods for using the polymeric networks and the composite materials in liquid- and vapor-phase waste remediation applications. The porous polymeric networks, are highly porous, three-dimensional structures characterized by high surface areas. The polymeric networks comprise polymers polymerized from aldehydes and phenolic molecules.

  11. Additive Manufacturing of Ultem Polymers and Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Euy-Sik E.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimdes Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 filled with 10 chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25-31. Coupons of Ultem 9085, experimental Ultem 1000 composites and XH6050 resin were tested at room temperature and 400F to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties.

  12. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Arash, B; Wang, Q; Varadan, V K

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, such as high elastic modulus and tensile strength, make them the most ideal and promising reinforcements in substantially enhancing the mechanical properties of resulting polymer/carbon nanotube composites. It is acknowledged that the mechanical properties of the composites are significantly influenced by interfacial interactions between nanotubes and polymer matrices. The current challenge of the application of nanotubes in the composites is hence to determine the mechanical properties of the interfacial region, which is critical for improving and manufacturing the nanocomposites. In this work, a new method for evaluating the elastic properties of the interfacial region is developed by examining the fracture behavior of carbon nanotube reinforced poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix composites under tension using molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the aspect ratio of carbon nanotube reinforcements on the elastic properties, i.e. Young's modulus and yield strength, of the interfacial region and the nanotube/polymer composites are investigated. The feasibility of a three-phase micromechanical model in predicting the elastic properties of the nanocomposites is also developed based on the understanding of the interfacial region. PMID:25270167

  13. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash, B.; Wang, Q.; Varadan, V. K.

    2014-10-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, such as high elastic modulus and tensile strength, make them the most ideal and promising reinforcements in substantially enhancing the mechanical properties of resulting polymer/carbon nanotube composites. It is acknowledged that the mechanical properties of the composites are significantly influenced by interfacial interactions between nanotubes and polymer matrices. The current challenge of the application of nanotubes in the composites is hence to determine the mechanical properties of the interfacial region, which is critical for improving and manufacturing the nanocomposites. In this work, a new method for evaluating the elastic properties of the interfacial region is developed by examining the fracture behavior of carbon nanotube reinforced poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix composites under tension using molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the aspect ratio of carbon nanotube reinforcements on the elastic properties, i.e. Young's modulus and yield strength, of the interfacial region and the nanotube/polymer composites are investigated. The feasibility of a three-phase micromechanical model in predicting the elastic properties of the nanocomposites is also developed based on the understanding of the interfacial region.

  14. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    PubMed Central

    Arash, B.; Wang, Q.; Varadan, V. K.

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, such as high elastic modulus and tensile strength, make them the most ideal and promising reinforcements in substantially enhancing the mechanical properties of resulting polymer/carbon nanotube composites. It is acknowledged that the mechanical properties of the composites are significantly influenced by interfacial interactions between nanotubes and polymer matrices. The current challenge of the application of nanotubes in the composites is hence to determine the mechanical properties of the interfacial region, which is critical for improving and manufacturing the nanocomposites. In this work, a new method for evaluating the elastic properties of the interfacial region is developed by examining the fracture behavior of carbon nanotube reinforced poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix composites under tension using molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the aspect ratio of carbon nanotube reinforcements on the elastic properties, i.e. Young's modulus and yield strength, of the interfacial region and the nanotube/polymer composites are investigated. The feasibility of a three-phase micromechanical model in predicting the elastic properties of the nanocomposites is also developed based on the understanding of the interfacial region. PMID:25270167

  15. Ant aggregations self-heal to compensate for the Ringelmann effect.

    PubMed

    Phonekeo, Sulisay; Dave, Tanvi; Kern, Matthew; Franklin, Scott V; Hu, David L

    2016-05-14

    Fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, link their bodies together to form structures such as rafts, bivouacs and bridges. Such structures are in danger of being damaged by natural disturbances such as passing water currents. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the self-healing of ant assemblages. We press two ant aggregations together and measure the forces to pull them apart. As the group size increases, the contribution of each ant decreases. This phenomenon, known as the Ringelmann effect, or social loafing, has previously been shown for cattle and humans. In this study, we show that it is a challenge for ants as well. We rationalize this effect with an agent-based simulation which exhibits the Ringelmann effect of ants that periodically make and break links with each other, but grip with higher probability if the ants are stretched. Over time, ants compensate for the Ringelmann effect by building more links. We use a mathematical model to show that the rate of new links is proportional to the number of free ants in the cluster. The principles found here may inspire new directions in self-healing and active materials. PMID:27040612

  16. Role of Sacrificial Protein-Metal Bond Exchange in Mussel Byssal Thread Self-Healing.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Clemens N Z; Politi, Yael; Reinecke, Antje; Harrington, Matthew J

    2015-09-14

    Marine mussels tether to seashore surfaces with byssal threads, proteinaceous fibers that effectively dissipate energy from crashing waves. Protein-metal coordination bonds have been proposed to contribute to the characteristic mechanical and self-healing properties of byssal threads; however, very little is understood about how these cross-links function at the molecular level. In the present study, combined Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements were employed to confirm the presence of protein-Zn(2+) coordination bonds in the mussel byssus and to monitor transitions in the coordination structure during thread deformation and self-healing. Results indicate that Zn(2+) coordination bonds, primarily mediated via histidine, are ruptured during thread yield and reformed immediately following thread relaxation. Mechanical healing, on the other hand, is correlated with the transition toward shorter coordination bond lengths. Calculation of the healing activation energy suggests that protein-Zn bond exchange provides a primary rate-limiting step during healing. PMID:26296100

  17. Damage detection monitoring applications in self-healing concrete structures using embedded piezoelectric transducers and recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaiskos, G.; Tsangouri, E.; Aggelis, D. G.; Deraemaeker, A.; Van Hemelrijck, D.

    2015-07-01

    The ageing, operational and ambient loadings have a great impact in the operational and maintenance cost of concrete structures. Their service life prolongation is of utmost importance and this can be efficiently achieved by using reliable and low-cost monitoring and self-healing techniques. In the present study, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) method using embedded small-size and low-cost piezoelectric PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramic transducers in concrete with self-healing properties is implemented for monitoring not only the setting and hardening phases of concrete since casting time, but also for the detection of damage initiation, propagation and recovery of integrity after healing. A couple of small-scale notched unreinforced concrete beams are subjected to mode-I fracture through three-point bending tests. After a 24-hour healing agent curing period, the beams are reloaded using the same loading scenario. The results demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed monitoring technique during the hydration, damage generation and recovery periods.

  18. The resilient hybrid fiber sensor network with self-healing function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shibo; Liu, Tiegen; Ge, Chunfeng; Chen, Qinnan; Zhang, Hongxia

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a novel resilient fiber sensor network (FSN) with multi-ring architecture, which could interconnect various kinds of fiber sensors responsible for more than one measurands. We explain how the intelligent control system provides sensors with self-healing function meanwhile sensors are working properly, besides each fiber in FSN is under real-time monitoring. We explain the software process and emergency mechanism to respond failures or other circumstances. To improve the efficiency in the use of limited spectrum resources in some situations, we have two different structures to distribute the light sources rationally. Then, we propose a hybrid sensor working in FSN which is a combination of a distributed sensor and a FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) array fused in a common fiber sensing temperature and vibrations simultaneously with neglectable crosstalk to each other. By making a failure to a working fiber in experiment, the feasibility and effectiveness of the network with a hybrid sensor has been demonstrated, hybrid sensors could not only work as designed but also survive from destructive failures with the help of resilient network and smart and quick self-healing actions. The network has improved the viability of the fiber sensors and diversity of measurands.

  19. A galinstan-based inkjet printing system for highly stretchable electronics with self-healing capability.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangyong; Wu, Xuan; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2016-04-12

    We report a galinstan-based inkjet printing system to realize highly stretchable electronics with self-healing capability. The printing head made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) consists of a main microfluidic channel and a coplanar channel. The main channel containing the oxidized galinstan is surrounded by the coplanar channel, which is filled with HCl. The HCl vapor effectively permeates the channel wall due to the high gas permeability of PDMS. The oxide skin of galinstan is consistently removed by chemical reaction with the HCl vapor. This allows one to maintain galinstan in a true liquid phase in the main channel. After the fabrication of the printing head with PDMS, the sizes of droplets ejected from the printing head with various flow rates have been characterized. The fabricated inkjet printing system is also utilized to generate complex galinstan patterns on various substrates. An LED-integrated circuit with self-healing capability shows excellent electrical and mechanical performance even after it is twisted more than 180° or stretched up to ∼60% more than 2000 times. The experimental results reveal that the proposed system has tremendous potential for stretchable electronic applications in the future. PMID:26987310

  20. Simple and efficient self-healing strategy for damaged complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallos, Lazaros K.; Fefferman, Nina H.

    2015-11-01

    The process of destroying a complex network through node removal has been the subject of extensive interest and research. Node loss typically leaves the network disintegrated into many small and isolated clusters. Here we show that these clusters typically remain close to each other and we suggest a simple algorithm that is able to reverse the inflicted damage by restoring the network's functionality. After damage, each node decides independently whether to create a new link depending on the fraction of neighbors it has lost. In addition to relying only on local information, where nodes do not need knowledge of the global network status, we impose the additional constraint that new links should be as short as possible (i.e., that the new edge completes a shortest possible new cycle). We demonstrate that this self-healing method operates very efficiently, both in model and real networks. For example, after removing the most connected airports in the USA, the self-healing algorithm rejoined almost 90% of the surviving airports.

  1. A continuum thermo-inelastic model for damage and healing in self-healing glass materials

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Zbib, Hussein M.

    2014-07-08

    Self-healing glass, a recent advancement in the class of smart sealing materials, has attracted great attention from both research and industrial communities because of its unique capability of repairing itself at elevated temperatures. However, further development and optimization of this material rely on a more fundamental and thorough understanding of its essential thermo-mechanical response characteristics, which is also pivotal in predicting the coupling and interactions between the nonlinear stress and temperature dependent damage and healing behaviors. In the current study, a continuum three-dimensional thermo-inelastic damage-healing constitutive framework has been developed for the compliant self-healing glass material. The important feature of the present model is that various phenomena governing the mechanical degradation and recovery process, i.e. the nucleation, growth, and healing of the cracks and pores, are described with distinct mechanism-driven kinetics, where the healing constitutive relations are propagated from lower-length scale simulations. The proposed formulations are implemented into finite element analyses and the effects of various loading conditions and material properties on the material’s mechanical resistance are investigated.

  2. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Wang, Hailiang; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. PMID:27287112

  3. The resilient hybrid fiber sensor network with self-healing function

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Shibo Liu, Tiegen; Ge, Chunfeng; Chen, Qinnan; Zhang, Hongxia

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents a novel resilient fiber sensor network (FSN) with multi-ring architecture, which could interconnect various kinds of fiber sensors responsible for more than one measurands. We explain how the intelligent control system provides sensors with self-healing function meanwhile sensors are working properly, besides each fiber in FSN is under real-time monitoring. We explain the software process and emergency mechanism to respond failures or other circumstances. To improve the efficiency in the use of limited spectrum resources in some situations, we have two different structures to distribute the light sources rationally. Then, we propose a hybrid sensor working in FSN which is a combination of a distributed sensor and a FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) array fused in a common fiber sensing temperature and vibrations simultaneously with neglectable crosstalk to each other. By making a failure to a working fiber in experiment, the feasibility and effectiveness of the network with a hybrid sensor has been demonstrated, hybrid sensors could not only work as designed but also survive from destructive failures with the help of resilient network and smart and quick self-healing actions. The network has improved the viability of the fiber sensors and diversity of measurands.

  4. Polymer/carbon nanotube nano composite fibers--a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaodong; Kumar, Satish

    2014-05-14

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are regarded as ideal filler materials for polymeric fiber reinforcement due to their exceptional mechanical properties and 1D cylindrical geometry (nanometer-size diameter and very high aspect ratio). The reported processing conditions and property improvements of CNT reinforced polymeric fiber are summarized in this review. Because of CNT polymer interaction, polymer chains in CNTs' vicinity (interphase) have been observed to have more compact packing, higher orientation, and better mechanical properties than bulk polymer. Evidences of the existence of interphase polymers in composite fibers, characterizations of their structures, and fiber properties are summarized and discussed. Implications of interphase phenomena on a broader field of fiber and polymer processing to make much stronger materials are now in the early stages of exploration. Beside improvements in tensile properties, the presence of CNTs in polymeric fibers strongly affects other properties, such as thermal stability, thermal transition temperature, fiber thermal shrinkage, chemical resistance, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity. This paper will be helpful to better understand the current status of polymer/CNT fibers, especially high-performance fibers, and to find the most suitable processing techniques and conditions. PMID:24520802

  5. Droplet manipulation on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Tsou, Yu-Shih; Chu, Ting-Yu; Chen, Jun-Lin

    2010-08-01

    A droplet manipulation on a switchable surface using a liquid crystal and polymer composite film (LCPCF) based on phase separation is developed recently. The wettability of LCPCF is electrically tunable because of the orientation of liquid crystal directors anchored among the polymer grains. A droplet on LCPCF can be manipulated owning to the wettability gradient induced by spatially orientation of LC directors. We discuss the droplet manipulation on LCPCF and demonstrate several applications of LCPCF, such as polarizer-free displays, and human semen sensing.

  6. Tridimensional ionic polymer metal composites: optimization of the manufacturing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonomo, C.; Bottino, M.; Brunetto, P.; Di Pasquale, G.; Fortuna, L.; Graziani, S.; Pollicino, A.

    2010-05-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) belong to electroactive polymers (EAPs) and have been suggested for various applications due to their light weight and to the fact that they react mechanically when stimulated by an electrical signal and vice versa. Thick IPMCs (3D-IPMCs) have been fabricated by hot pressing several Nafion® 117 films. Additional post-processes (more cycles of Pt electroless plating and dispersing agents) have been applied to improve the 3D-IPMC performance. The electromechanical response of 3D-IPMCs has been examined by applying electrical signals and measuring the displacement and blocking force produced.

  7. Dissipative Particle Dynamics modeling of nanorod-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khani, Shaghayegh; Maia, Joao

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have seen a plethora of experimental methods for fabricating nanorod-polymer composites with enhanced physical and mechanical properties. The macroscopic properties of the composites are directly related to the dispersion and organization of the nanoparticles in the matrix. For instance, a significant improvement in the properties of the nanorod-polymer composites is observed upon formation of a percolating network. Thus, controlling the structure of the nanoparticles in the matrix will advance the technology in the field. One way of doing this is by adjusting the chemical interactions which is done through grafting polymer chains on the surface of the rods. Although the enthalpic interactions play the major role in such systems other entropic variables such as the dimension of the rods, density of grafting and etc. may influence the final morphology of the system. The recent developments in the computational techniques have paved the road for further understanding of the controlled assembly of nanorods in polymer matrices. In this study, Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is employed in order to investigate the effect of enthalpic and entopic variables on the phase behavior of the nanorod-polymer composites. DPD is a coarse-grained mesoscale method which has been found very promising in simulating multi component systems. The interaction parameter between the components of the systems can be mapped onto the Flory-Huggins χ-parameter via well-known Groot-Warren expression. The main goal of this work is to provide a phase diagram that can be used to guide the experiments in designing new materials.

  8. Sub percolation threshold carbon nanotube based polyvinylidene fluoride polymer-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Cedric Antony

    The study of piezoelectric materials has traditionally focused largely on homogeneous crystalline or semi-crystalline materials. This research focuses on the concept of piezoelectric composites using selective microstructural reinforcement in the piezoelectric material to improve the piezoelectric properties. This is done using a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and carbon nanotube composite as the model system. A multi-tiered engineering approach is taken to understand the material (experimental and computational analyses) and design a composite system which provides an effective platform for future research in piezoelectric improvement. A finite element analysis is used to evaluate the ability of carbon nanotubes to generate a heterogeneous electric field where local improvements in electric field produce an increase in the effective piezoelectric strength. The study finds that weight percent and aspect ratio of the carbon nanotubes are of key importance while formations of percolating networks are detrimental to performance. This motivates investigation into electrospinning into a method of producing sub percolation threshold composites with large carbon nanotube content. However, the electrospun fabrics have too low of a dielectric strength to sustain high strength electric fields. This is studied within the context of high voltage physics and a solution inspired by traditional composites manufacturing is proposed wherein the electrospun fiber mat is used as the fiber reinforcing component of a polymer-polymer composite. This composite is thoroughly analyzed to show that it allows for a high dielectric strength combined with high carbon nanotube content. It is also shown that the PVDF contains the proper crystal structure to allow for piezoelectric properties. Furthermore, the addition of carbon nanotubes greatly improves the strength and stiffness of the composite, as well as affecting the internal electric field response to an applied voltage. These qualities

  9. High Strain Rate Deformation Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 2; Composite Micromechanical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this second paper of a two part report, a three-dimensional composite micromechanical model is described which allows for the analysis of the rate dependent, nonlinear deformation response of a polymer matrix composite. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations utilized to model the deformation response of a polymer are implemented within the micromechanics method. The deformation response of two representative laminated carbon fiber reinforced composite materials with varying fiber orientation has been predicted using the described technique. The predicted results compare favorably to both experimental values and the response predicted by the Generalized Method of Cells, a well-established micromechanics analysis method.

  10. Asymmetry in ferroelectric polymer laminate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, B.A.; Scheinbeim, J.I.; Su, Ji

    1996-10-01

    Studies of the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of composite bilaminates of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and nylon 11 films have shown that the properties of the bilaminates cannot be understood solely in terms of the properties of the individual components. Further, the properties of films which are polarized with the positive voltage on the nylon 11 side are different from those having the positive voltage on the poly(vinylidene fluoride) side. This asymmetry is interpreted as resulting from a region of space charge trapped at the interface between the two layers.

  11. High performance polymers and polymer matrix composites for spacecraft structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, D. E.; Connell, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    A program implemented by NASA Langley Research Center to develop and evaluate new polymers and polymer matrix composites for spacecraft structural applications is examined. Various polymeric films, moldings, and adhesives are evaluated for resistance to atomic oxygen and high energy electron and UV radiation. Thin films from the poly(arylene ether)s containing phenylphosphine oxide groups and the siloxane-epoxies exhibited minor weight loss compared to Kapton polyimide after exposure. Large doses (greater than 10 exp 9 rads) of electron radiation, simulating 30 yr of exposure in GEO, are found to alter the chemical structure of epoxies by both chain scission and cross-linking. The thermal cycling representative of both LEO and GEO environments can cause microcracking in composites which can in turn affect the dimensional stability and produce mechanical property reductions. The processing and fabrication issues associated with precision composite spacecraft components are also addressed.

  12. Smart conducting polymer composites having zero temperature coefficient of resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Kunmo; Lee, Sung-Chul; Lee, Sangeui; Kim, Dongearn; Moon, Changyoul; Park, Sung-Hoon

    2014-12-01

    Zero temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) is essential for the precise control of temperature in heating element and sensor applications. Many studies have focused on developing zero-TCR systems with inorganic compounds; however, very few have dealt with developing zero-TCR systems with polymeric materials. Composite systems with a polymer matrix and a conducting filler show either a negative (NTC) or a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) of resistance, depending on several factors, e.g., the polymer nature and the filler shape. In this study, we developed a hybrid conducting zero-TCR composite having self-heating properties for thermal stability and reliable temperature control. The bi-layer composites consisted of a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based layer having an NTC of resistance and a carbon black (CB)-based layer having a PTC of resistance which was in direct contact with electrodes to stabilize the electrical resistance change during electric Joule heating. The composite showed nearly constant resistance values with less than 2% deviation of the normalized resistance until 200 °C. The CB layer worked both as a buffer and as a distributor layer against the current flow from an applied voltage. This behavior, which was confirmed both experimentally and theoretically, has been rarely reported for polymer-based composite systems.Zero temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) is essential for the precise control of temperature in heating element and sensor applications. Many studies have focused on developing zero-TCR systems with inorganic compounds; however, very few have dealt with developing zero-TCR systems with polymeric materials. Composite systems with a polymer matrix and a conducting filler show either a negative (NTC) or a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) of resistance, depending on several factors, e.g., the polymer nature and the filler shape. In this study, we developed a hybrid conducting zero-TCR composite having self

  13. Piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate ceramic fiber/polymer composites

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, D.J.; Safari, P. )

    1992-06-01

    This papers on piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic fiber/polymer composite were fabricated by a novel technique referred to as relic processing. Basically, this involved impregnating a woven carbon-fiber template material with PZT precursor by soaking the template in a PZT stock solution. Careful heat treatment pyrolized the carbon, resulting in a PZT ceramic relic that retained the fibrous template form. After sintering, the densified relic was backfilled with polymer to form a composite. Optimized relic processing consisted of soaking activated carbon-fiber fabric twice in an intermediate concentration (405-mg PZT/(1-g solution)) alkoxide PZT solution and sintering at 1285{degrees}C for 2 h. A series of piezoelectric composites encompassing a wide range of dielectric and piezoelectric properties was prepared by varying the PZT-fiber orientation and polymer-matrix material. In PZT/Eccogel polymer composites with PZT fibers orientated parallel to the electrodes, K = 75, d{sub 33} = 145 pC/N, d{sub h} = 45 {plus minus} 5 pC/N, and d{sub h}g{sub h} = 3150 {times} 10{sup {minus}15} m{sup 2}/N were measured. Furthermore, in composites with a number of PZT fibers arranged perpendicular to the electroded surfaces, K = 190, d{sub 33} = 250 pC/N, d{sub h} = 65 {plus minus} 2 pC/N, and d{sub h}g{sub h} = 2600 {times} 10{sup {minus}15} m{sub 2}/N.

  14. Survey of inorganic polymers. [for composite matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, A. H.; Mcinerney, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    A literature search was carried out in order to identify inorganic, metallo-organic, and hybrid inorganic-organic polymers that could serve as potential matrix resins for advanced composites. The five most promising candidates were critically reviewed and recommendations were made for the achievement of their potential in terms of performance and cost. These generic polymer classes comprise: (1) Poly(arylsil sesquioxanes); (2) Poly(silyl arylene siloxanes); (3) Poly(silarylenes); (4) Poly(silicon-linked ferrocenes); and (5) Poly(organo phosphazenes). No single candidate currently possesses the necessary combination of physicomechanical properties, thermal stability, processability, and favorable economics. The first three classes exhibit the best thermal performance. On the other hand, poly (organo phosphazenes), the most extensively studied polymer class, exhibit the best combination of structure-property control, processability, and favorable economics.

  15. Thermoelectricity in polymer composites due to fluctuation-induced tunneling.

    PubMed

    Stedman, T; Wei, K; Nolas, G S; Woods, L M

    2015-11-01

    Transport in heavily-doped polymer composites, characterized by localized charge regions, is examined in light of the recent interest in polymers for thermoelectric applications. The developed fundamental transport theory describes carrier tunneling between charged localizations by taking into account thermally induced fluctuations of the applied potential. A range of characteristic behaviors corresponding to experimental data are described. Deviations from the Wiedemann-Franz law are also identified. This novel theory enables the determination of factors dominating the transport in polymers and a comparison to tunneling without thermal fluctuations is also provided. The obtained asymptotic expressions for the conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and carrier thermal conductivity are particularly useful for elucidating possible routes for thermoelectric transport control and optimization. PMID:26437575

  16. Polymer sol-gel composite inverse opal structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoran; Blanchard, G J

    2015-03-25

    We report on the formation of composite inverse opal structures where the matrix used to form the inverse opal contains both silica, formed using sol-gel chemistry, and poly(ethylene glycol), PEG. We find that the morphology of the inverse opal structure depends on both the amount of PEG incorporated into the matrix and its molecular weight. The extent of organization in the inverse opal structure, which is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical reflectance data, is mediated by the chemical bonding interactions between the silica and PEG constituents in the hybrid matrix. Both polymer chain terminus Si-O-C bonding and hydrogen bonding between the polymer backbone oxygens and silanol functionalities can contribute, with the polymer mediating the extent to which Si-O-Si bonds can form within the silica regions of the matrix due to hydrogen-bonding interactions. PMID:25734614

  17. Electromagnetic interference shielding characteristics of carbon nanofiber-polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yonglai; Guptal, Mool C; Dudley, Kenneth L; Lawrence, Roland W

    2007-02-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding characteristics of carbon nanofiber-polystyrene composites were investigated in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (Ku-band). It was observed that the shielding effectiveness of such composites was frequency independent, and increased with increasing carbon nanofiber loading within Ku-band. The experimental data exhibited that the shielding effectiveness of the polymer composite containing 20 wt% carbon nanofibers could reach more than 36 dB in the measured frequency region, indicating such composites can be applied to the potential EMI shielding materials. In addition, the results showed that the contribution of reflection to the EMI shielding effectiveness was much larger than that of absorption, implying the primary EMI shielding mechanism of such composites was reflection of electromagnetic radiation within Ku-band. PMID:17450793

  18. Substrate-Independent, Transparent Oil-Repellent Coatings with Self-Healing and Persistent Easy-Sliding Oil Repellency.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Chen, George Y; Xu, Haolan; Liu, Xiaokong

    2016-01-26

    Herein we report a simple and substrate-independent approach to fabricate transparent oil-repellent coatings, which involves alternate deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium) (PDDA) and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) onto substrates, followed by incubation of the coated objects into perfluorooctanoate (PFO) aqueous solutions for 2 min. Various low-surface-tension liquids can easily slide down the coating surfaces on flat substrates at a sliding angle lower than 12° for 10 μL droplets. The coatings are applicable to different substrates including Si, glass, plastic, steel, and wood, and those with complex shapes and large surface areas. They are also applicable to rough substrates with roughness at both micro/nanoscale and macroscopic scales to realize the easy-sliding oil repellency. Incubation of the PDDA/PSS polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) into PFO solutions induces an effective but nondestructive substitution of PFO anions for PSS in the PEMs, which results in a composite coating with PFO anions homogeneously interspersed in both the coating surface and the bulk. Thanks to the as-described "repeating-layer" composition/structure of the coatings, their easy-sliding oil repellency can be self-healed after surface decomposition or well maintained after physical damages, due to the replenishing surface. Therefore, the advantageous characteristics of the as-developed oil-repellent coatings and the simplicity of the preparation protocol make the coatings highly practical for real-world applications. It is believed that the coatings can perform as antismudge coatings that shield against oil-borne contaminants, chemical-shield coatings that protect coated plastics from dissolution by organic solvents, and nonstick coatings (of oil tankers or pipelines) that enable loss-free oil transportation. PMID:26728655

  19. Fabrication, Modelling and Application of Conductive Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron David

    Electroactive polymers (EAP) are an emerging branch of smart materials that possess the capability to change shape in the presence of an electric field. Opportunities for the advancement of knowledge were identified in the branch of EAP consisting of inherently electrically conductive polymers. This dissertation explores methods by which the unique properties of composite materials having conductive polymers as a constituent may be exploited. Chapter 3 describes the blending of polyaniline with conventional thermoplastics. Processing these polyblends into foams yielded a porous conductive material. The effect of blend composition and processing parameters on the resulting porous morphology and electrical conductivity was investigated. These findings represent the first systematic study of porous conductive polymer blends. In Chapter 4, multilayer electroactive polymer actuators consisting of polypyrrole films electropolymerized on a passive polymer membrane core were harnessed as actuators. The membrane is vital in the transport of ionic species and largely dictates the stiffness of the layered configuration. The impact of the mechanical properties of the membrane on the actuation response of polypyrrole-based trilayer bending actuators was investigated. Candidate materials with distinct morphologies were identified and their mechanical properties were evaluated. These results indicated that polyvinylidene difluoride membranes were superior to the other candidates. An electrochemical synthesis procedure was proposed, and the design of a novel polymerization vessel was reported. These facilities were utilized to prepare actuators under a variety of synthesis conditions to investigate the impact of conductive polymer morphology on the electromechanical response. Characterization techniques were implemented to quantitatively assess physical and electrochemical properties of the layered composite. Chapter 5 proposes a new unified multiphysics model that captures the

  20. Basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites: Processing and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang

    A high efficiency rig was designed and built for in-plane permeability measurement of fabric materials. A new data derivation procedure to acquire the flow fluid pattern in the experiment was developed. The measurement results of the in-plane permeability for basalt twill 31 fabric material showed that a high correlation exists between the two principal permeability values for this fabric at 35% fiber volume fraction. This may be the most important scientific contribution made in this thesis. The results from radial measurements corresponded quite well with those from Unidirectional (UD) measurements, which is a well-established technique. No significant differences in mechanical properties were found between basalt fabric reinforced polymer composites and glass composites reinforced by a fabric of similar weave pattern. Aging results indicate that the interfacial region in basalt composites may be more vulnerable to environmental damage than that in glass composites. However, the basalt/epoxy interface may have been more durable than the glass/epoxy interface in tension-tension fatigue because the basalt composites have significantly longer fatigue life. In this thesis, chapter I reviews the literature on fiber reinforced polymer composites, with concentration on permeability measurement, mechanical properties and durability. Chapter II discusses the design of the new rig for in-plane permeability measurement, the new derivation procedure for monitoring of the fluid flow pattern, and the permeability measurement results. Chapter III compares the mechanical properties and durability between basalt fiber and glass fiber reinforced polymer composites. Lastly, chapter IV gives some suggestions and recommendations for future work.

  1. Electron Beam-Cure Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrenn, G.; Frame, B.; Jensen, B.; Nettles, A.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers from NASA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are evaluating a series of electron beam curable composites for application in reusable launch vehicle airframe and propulsion systems. Objectives are to develop electron beam curable composites that are useful at cryogenic to elevated temperatures (-217 C to 200 C), validate key mechanical properties of these composites, and demonstrate cost-saving fabrication methods at the subcomponent level. Electron beam curing of polymer matrix composites is an enabling capability for production of aerospace structures in a non-autoclave process. Payoffs of this technology will be fabrication of composite structures at room temperature, reduced tooling cost and cure time, and improvements in component durability. This presentation covers the results of material property evaluations for electron beam-cured composites made with either unidirectional tape or woven fabric architectures. Resin systems have been evaluated for performance in ambient, cryogenic, and elevated temperature conditions. Results for electron beam composites and similar composites cured in conventional processes are reviewed for comparison. Fabrication demonstrations were also performed for electron beam-cured composite airframe and propulsion piping subcomponents. These parts have been built to validate manufacturing methods with electron beam composite materials, to evaluate electron beam curing processing parameters, and to demonstrate lightweight, low-cost tooling options.

  2. Shape memory-based tunable resistivity of polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hongsheng; Zhou, Xingdong; Ma, Yuanyuan; Yi, Guobin; Cheng, Xiaoling; Zhu, Yong; Zu, Xihong; Zhang, Nanjun; Huang, Binghao; Yu, Lifang

    2016-02-01

    A conductive composite in bi-layer structure was fabricated by embedding hybrid nanofillers, namely carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), into a shape memory polyurethane (SMPU). The CNT/AgNP-SMPU composites exhibited a novel tunable conductivity which could be facially tailored in wide range via the compositions or a specifically designed thermo-mechanical shape memory programming. The morphologies of the conductive fillers and the composites were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mechanical and thermal measurements were performed by tensile tests and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). By virtue of a specifically explored shape memory programming, the composites were stretched and fixed into different temporary states. The electrical resistivity (Rs) varied accordingly, which was able to be stabilized along with the shape fixing. Theoretical prediction based upon the tunneling model was performed. The Rs-strain curves of the composites with different compositions were well fitted. Furthermore, the relative resistivity and the Gauge factor along with the elongation were calculated. The influence of the compositions on the strain-dependent Rs was disclosed. The findings provided a new avenue to tailor the conductivity of the polymeric nano-composites by combining the composition method and a thermo-mechanical programming, which may greatly benefit the application of intelligent polymers in flexible electronics and sensors fields.

  3. Supramolecular polymer networks: hydrogels and bulk materials.

    PubMed

    Voorhaar, Lenny; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2016-07-21

    Supramolecular polymer networks are materials crosslinked by reversible supramolecular interactions, such as hydrogen bonding or electrostatic interactions. Supramolecular materials show very interesting and useful properties resulting from their dynamic nature, such as self-healing, stimuli-responsiveness and adaptability. Here we will discuss recent progress in polymer-based supramolecular networks for the formation of hydrogels and bulk materials. PMID:27206244

  4. Thermosetting polymer-matrix composites for structural repair applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goertzen, William Kirby

    2007-12-01

    Several classes of thermosetting polymer matrix composites were evaluated for use in structural repair applications. Initial work involved the characterization and evaluation of woven carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites for structural pipeline repair. Cyanate ester resins were evaluated as a replacement for epoxy in composites for high-temperature pipe repair applications, and as the basis for adhesives for resin infusion repair of high-temperature composite materials. Carbon fiber/cyanate ester matrix composites and fumed silica/cyanate ester nanocomposites were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties as they relate to their structure, chemistry, and processing characteristics. The bisphenol E cyanate ester under investigation possesses a high glass transition temperature, excellent mechanical properties, and unique ambient temperature processability. The incorporation of fumed silica served to enhance the mechanical and rheological properties of the polymer and reduce thermal expansion without sacrificing glass transition or drastically altering curing kinetics. Characterization of the composites included dynamic mechanical analysis, thermomechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy.

  5. Microwave Dielectric Properties of Ceramic/Semicrystalline Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyeok Im, Dong; Ju, Han Sae; Kim, Eung Soo

    2012-09-01

    The effects of various ceramics and semicrystalline polymers on the dielectric properties of MgMoO4/polypropylene (PP), MgWO4/PP, NiNb2O6/poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), and MgNb2O6/PTFE composites were investigated at microwave frequencies. In the frequency range from 1 to 9.4 GHz, the dielectric constant (K) of the composites showed good frequency stability, while their dielectric loss (tan δ) increased with increasing frequency, due to the dipolar relaxation process associated with the matrices. With increasing ceramic content, the K and tan δ values of the composites increased, due to the K values of the individual components and interfacial polarization between the ceramics and polymers. For the composites with the same amounts of ceramics, the K value and temperature coefficient of the resonant frequency (TCF) of the composites were dependent on the type of ceramics. Also, the measured K values of the composites were compared with the effective dielectric properties calculated by different theoretical models.

  6. New generation fiber reinforced polymer composites incorporating carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Eslam

    The last five decades observed an increasing use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites as alternative construction materials for aerospace and infrastructure. The high specific strength of FRP attracted its use as non-corrosive reinforcement. However, FRP materials were characterized with a relatively low ductility and low shear strength compared with steel reinforcement. On the other hand, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been introduced in the last decade as a material with minimal defect that is capable of increasing the mechanical properties of polymer matrices. This dissertation reports experimental investigations on the use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to produce a new generation of FRP composites. The experiments showed significant improvements in the flexure properties of the nanocomposite when functionalized MWCNTs were used. In addition, MWCNTs were used to produce FRP composites in order to examine static, dynamic, and creep behavior. The MWCNTs improved the off-axis tension, off-axis flexure, FRP lap shear joint responses. In addition, they reduced the creep of FRP-concrete interface, enhanced the fracture toughness, and altered the impact resistance significantly. In general, the MWCNTs are found to affect the behaviour of the FRP composites when matrix failure dominates the behaviour. The improvement in the mechanical response with the addition of low contents of MWCNTs would benefit many industrial and military applications such as strengthening structures using FRP composites, composite pipelines, aircrafts, and armoured vehicles.

  7. Thermosetting Polymer-Matrix Composites for Strucutral Repair Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Goertzen, William Kirby

    2007-12-01

    Several classes of thermosetting polymer matrix composites were evaluated for use in structural repair applications. Initial work involved the characterization and evaluation of woven carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites for structural pipeline repair. Cyanate ester resins were evaluated as a replacement for epoxy in composites for high-temperature pipe repair applications, and as the basis for adhesives for resin infusion repair of high-temperature composite materials. Carbon fiber/cyanate ester matrix composites and fumed silica/cyanate ester nanocomposites were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties as they relate to their structure, chemistry, and processing characteristics. The bisphenol E cyanate ester under investigation possesses a high glass transition temperature, excellent mechanical properties, and unique ambient temperature processability. The incorporate of fumed silica served to enhance the mechanical and rheological properties of the polymer and reduce thermal expansion without sacrificing glass transition or drastically altering curing kinetics. Characterization of the composites included dynamic mechanical analysis, thermomechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy.

  8. Microwave Dielectric Properties of Ceramic/Semicrystalline Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Dong Hyeok; Ju, Han Sae; Kim, Eung Soo

    2012-09-01

    The effects of various ceramics and semicrystalline polymers on the dielectric properties of MgMoO4/polypropylene (PP), MgWO4/PP, NiNb2O6/poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), and MgNb2O6/PTFE composites were investigated at microwave frequencies. In the frequency range from 1 to 9.4 GHz, the dielectric constant (K) of the composites showed good frequency stability, while their dielectric loss (\\tan δ) increased with increasing frequency, due to the dipolar relaxation process associated with the matrices. With increasing ceramic content, the K and \\tan δ values of the composites increased, due to the K values of the individual components and interfacial polarization between the ceramics and polymers. For the composites with the same amounts of ceramics, the K value and temperature coefficient of the resonant frequency (TCF) of the composites were dependent on the type of ceramics. Also, the measured K values of the composites were compared with the effective dielectric properties calculated by different theoretical models.

  9. Electrochemical formation of a composite polymer-aluminum oxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge-Marchese, Jude Mary

    1997-10-01

    The formation of polymer films through electrochemical techniques utilizing electrolytes which include conductive polymer is of great interest to the coatings and electronics industries as a means for creating electrically conductive and corrosion resistant finishes. One of these polymers, polyamino-benzene (polyaniline), has been studied for this purpose for over ten years. This material undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition upon doping with protonic acids in an acid/base type reaction. Review of prior studies dealing with polyaniline and working knowledge of aluminum anodization has led to the development of a unique process whereby composite polymer-aluminum oxide films are formed. The basis for the process is a modification of the anodizing electrolyte which results in the codeposition of polyaniline during aluminum anodization. A second process, which incorporates electrochemical sealing of the anodic layer with polyaniline was also developed. The formation of these composite films is documented through experimental processing, and characterized by way of scientific analysis and engineering tests. Analysis results revealed the formation of unique dual phase anodic films with fine microstructures which exhibited full intrusion of the columnar aluminum oxide structure with polyaniline, indicating the polymer was deposited as the metal oxidation proceeded. An aromatic amine derivative of polyaniline with aluminum sulfate was determined to be the reaction product within the aluminum oxide phase of the codeposited films. Scientific characterization determined the codeposition process yields completely chemically and metallurgically bound composite films. Engineering studies determined the films, obtained through a single step, exhibited superior wear and corrosion resistance to conventionally anodized and sealed films processed through two steps, demonstrating the increased manufacturing process efficiency that can be realized with the modification of the

  10. Analyses of moisture in polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, L. E.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A suitable method for the direct measurement of moisture concentrations after humidity/thermal exposure on state of the art epoxy and polyimide resins and their graphite and glass fiber reinforcements was investigated. Methods for the determination of moisture concentration profiles, moisture diffusion modeling and moisture induced chemical changes were examined. Carefully fabricated, precharacterized epoxy and polyimide neat resins and their AS graphite and S glass reinforced composites were exposed to humid conditions using heavy water (D20), at ambient and elevated temperatures. These specimens were fixtured to theoretically limit the D20 permeation to a unidirectional penetration axis. The analytical techniques evaluated were: (1) laser pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry; (2) solids probe mass spectrometry; (3) laser pyrolysis conventional infrared spectroscopy; and (4) infrared imaging thermovision. The most reproducible and sensitive technique was solids probe mass spectrometry. The fabricated exposed specimens were analyzed for D20 profiling after humidity/thermal conditioning at three exposure time durations.

  11. Permeability of rayon based polymer composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, E. H.

    1992-01-01

    Several types of anomalous rayon based phenolic behavior have been observed in post-fired nozzles and exit cones. Many of these events have been shown to be related to the development of internal gas pressure within the material. The development of internal gas pressure is a function of the amount of gas produced within the material and the rate at which that gas is allowed to escape. The latter property of the material is referred to as the material's permeability. The permeability of two dimensional carbonized rayon based phenolic composites is a function of material direction, temperature, and stress/strain state. Recently significant differences in the permeability of these materials has been uncovered which may explain their inconsistent performance. This paper summarizes what is known about the permeability of these materials to date and gives possible implications of these finding to the performance of these materials in an ablative environment.

  12. Nanocellulose in Polymer Composites and Biomedical: Research and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yuan; Tekinalp, Halil L; Peter, William H; Eberle, Cliff; Naskar, Amit K; Ozcan, Soydan

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose materials are nano-sized cellulose fibers or crystals that are produced by bacteria or derived from plants. These materials exhibit exceptional strength characteristics, light weight, transparency, and excellent biocompatibility. Compared to some other nanomaterials, nanocellulose is renewable and less expensive to produce. As such, a wide range of applications for nanocellulose has been envisioned. Most extensively studied areas include polymer composites and biomedical applications. Cellulose nanofibrils and nanocrystals have been used to reinforce both thermoplastic and thermoset polymers. Given the hydrophilic nature of these materials, the interfacial properties with most polymers are often poor. Various surface modification procedures have thus been adopted to improve the interaction between polymer matrix and cellulose nanofibrils or nanocrystals. In addition, the applications of nanocellulose as biomaterials have been explored including wound dressing, tissue repair, and medical implants. Nanocellulose materials for wound healing and periodontal tissue recovery have become commercially available, demonstrating the great potential of nanocellulose as a new generation of biomaterials. In this review, we highlight the applications of nanocellulose as reinforcing fillers for composites and the effect of surface modification on the mechanical properties as well as the application as biomaterials.

  13. Evidence for and implications of self-healing pulses of slip in earthquake rupture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heaton, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    Dislocation time histories of models derived from waveforms of seven earthquakes are discussed. In each model, dislocation rise times (the duration of slip for a given point on the fault) are found to be short compared to the overall duration of the earthquake (??? 10%). However, in many crack-like numerical models of dynamic rupture, the slip duration at a given point is comparable to the overall duration of the rupture; i.e. slip at a given point continues until information is received that the rupture has stopped propagating. Alternative explanations for the discrepancy between the short slip durations used to model waveforms and the long slip durations inferred from dynamic crack models are: (1) the dislocation models are unable to resolve the relatively slow parts of earthquake slip and have seriously underestimated the dislocations for these earthquakes; (2) earthquakes are composed of a sequence of small-dimension (short duration) events that are separated by locked regions (barriers); (3) rupture occurs in a narrow self-healing pulse of slip that travels along the fault surface. Evidence is discussed that suggests that slip durations are indeed short and that the self-healing slip-pulse model is the most appropriate explanation. A qualitative model is presented that produces self-healing slip pulses. The key feature of the model is the assumption that friction on the fault surface is inversely related to the local slip velocity. The model has the following features: high static strength of materials (kilobar range), low static stress drops (in the range of tens of bars), and relatively low frictional stress during slip (less than several hundreds of bars). It is suggested that the reason that the average dislocation scales with fault length is because large-amplitude slip pulses are difficult to stop and hence tend to propagate large distances. This model may explain why seismicity and ambient stress are low along fault segments that have experienced large

  14. The Cost of Automotive Polymer Composites: A Review and Assessment of DOE's Lightweight Materials Composites Research

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.

    2001-01-26

    Polymer composite materials have been a part of the automotive industry for several decades, with early application in the 1953 Corvette. These materials have been used for applications with low production volumes, because of their shortened lead times and lower investment costs relative to conventional steel fabrication. Important drivers of the growth of polymer composites have been the reduced weight and parts consolidation opportunities the material offers, as well as design flexibility, corrosion resistance, material anisotropy, and mechanical properties. Although these benefits are well recognized by the industry, polymer composite use has been dampened by high material costs, slow production rates, and to a lesser extent, concerns about recyclability. Also impeding large scale automotive applications is a curious mixture of concerns about material issues such as crash energy absorption, recycling challenges, competitive and cost pressures, the industry's general lack of experience and comfort with the material, and industry concerns about its own capabilities (Flynn and Belzowski 1995). Polymer composite materials are generally made of two or more material components--fibers, either glass or carbon, reinforced in the matrix of thermoset or thermoplastic polymer materials. The glass-reinforced thermoset composites are the most commonly used composite in automotive applications today, but thermoplastic composites and carbon fiber-reinforced thermosets also hold potential. It has been estimated that significant use of glass-reinforced polymers as structural components could yield a 20-35% reduction in vehicle weight. More importantly, the use of carbon fiber-reinforced materials could yield a 40-65% reduction in weight.

  15. Significantly elevated dielectric permittivity of Si-based semiconductor/polymer 2-2 composites induced by high polarity polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yefeng; Gong, Honghong; Xie, Yunchuan; Wei, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Zhicheng

    2016-02-01

    To disclose the essential influence of polymer polarity on dielectric properties of polymer composites filled with semiconductive fillers, a series of Si-based semiconductor/polymer 2-2 composites in a series model was fabricated. The dielectric permittivity of composites is highly dependant on the polarity of polymer layers as well as the electron mobility in Si-based semiconductive sheets. The huge dielectric permittivity achieved in Si-based semiconductive sheets after being coated with high polarity polymer layers is inferred to originate from the strong induction of high polarity polymers. The increased mobility of the electrons in Si-based semiconductive sheets coated by high polarity polymer layers should be responsible for the significantly enhanced dielectric properties of composites. This could be facilely achieved by either increasing the polarity of polymer layers or reducing the percolative electric field of Si-based semiconductive sheets. The most promising 2-2 dielectric composite was found to be made of α-SiC with strong electron mobility and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with high polarity, and its highest permittivity was obtained as 372 at 100 Hz although the permittivity of α-SiC and PVA is 3-5 and 15, respectively. This work may help in the fabrication of high dielectric constant (high-k) composites by tailoring the induction effect of high polarity polymers to semiconductors.

  16. Processing of pristine graphene dispersions, gels, and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irin, Fahmida; Das, Sriya; Parviz, Dorsa; Green, Micah

    2015-03-01

    This work focuses on the central concept of producing graphene from graphite without covalently functionalizing the graphene basal plane; such graphene may be stabilized, dispersed, and processed for use in a range of high-performance materials. In particular, we show that various dispersants such as triphenylene derivatives, polymers (polyvinylpyrrolidone), pyrene derivatives etc. can naturally absorb to the graphene surface, create repulsive (steric and electrostatic) forces, and prevent aggregation. This allows for graphene dispersion in a wide range of organic solvents and composite precursors without compromising graphene structure. Such dispersions are stable against aggregation even when subjected to extreme temperature changes, pH changes, and freeze drying. The applications of these dispersions include the production of graphene/polymer nanocomposites, synthesis of self-healing hydrogels, and electrically conductive aerogels. We fabricate graphene loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films which show enhanced modulus, strength, and electrical conductivity. We also demonstrate novel results in the area of creating graphene loaded self-healing hydrogels. The hydrogels can be converted into electrically conductive aerogels that can be utilized as a template for doubly-percolated polymer composites.

  17. Electron Beam Curing of Polymer Matrix Composites - CRADA Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, C. J.; Howell, Dave; Norris, Robert E.

    1997-05-01

    The major cost driver in manufacturing polymer matrix composite (PMC) parts and structures, and one of the elements having the greatest effect on their quality and performance, is the standard thermal cure process. Thermal curing of PMCs requires long cure times and high energy consumption, creates residual thermal stresses in the part, produces volatile toxic by-products, and requires expensive tooling that is tolerant of the high cure temperatures.

  18. Rate dependent constitutive models for fiber reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.

    1990-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to assess the state-of-the-art in rate dependent constitutive models for continuous fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials. Several recent models which include formulations for describing plasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, and rate-dependent phenomenon such as creep and stress relaxation are outlined and compared. When appropriate, these comparisons include brief descriptions of the mathematical formulations, the test procedures required for generating material constants, and details of available data comparing test results to analytical predictions.

  19. Mechanoelectric transduction in ionic polymer-metal composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Rashi; Kim, Kwang J.

    2013-03-01

    The ability of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) to generate current on mechanical deformation, defined as mechanoelectric transduction, can be exploited for design and development of numerous sensors and energy harvesters. However, sensor application of IPMC is currently limited due to the lack of understanding of the transduction mechanism. This paper presents a physics-based mechanoelectric model that takes into account material properties, electrostatic phenomenon, and ion transport in the IPMC. Experimental verification of the model predictions is also reported.

  20. Thermal-vacuum response of polymer matrix composites in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Matthews, R.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a thermal-vacuum outgassing model and test protocol for predicting outgassing times and dimensional changes for polymer matrix composites. Experimental results derived from 'control' samples are used to provide the basis for analytical predictions to compare with the outgassing response of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight samples. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) data are also presented. In addition, an example is given illustrating the dimensional change of a 'zero' CTE laminate due to moisture outgassing.