A computer-administered interview is described that may be useful for identifying and tracking symptoms and assessing treatment outcome. The Symptoms of Schizophrenia (SOS) Inventory is a 30-item self-report instrument designed to be used with patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. It is administered and scored on a personal computer and typically is completed in 3 to 5 minutes. The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Symptoms of Schizophrenia (SOS) Inventory. The design of the study was a retrospective chart review. The setting of the study was the Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center inpatient wards and outpatient psychiatric clinics. Participants included 138 veterans with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Measurements were based on scores from the SOS Inventory and Colorado Symptom Index (CSI). There were reliable differences between inpatients and outpatients (t=3.56, p<0.001), and it was found to correlate (r=0.84, n=44, p<0.05) with the CSI. The conclusion is that the SOS Inventory is an efficient, low-cost method of tracking symptom distress in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:21120090
Background Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Methods Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90), we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females) aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. Results A total of 150 (14.2%) patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4%) had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4%) interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3%) panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7%) violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. Conclusions This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology. PMID:20388223
Researchers explored the factor structure of the Self-Report Family Inventory with a sample of heterosexual parents who have a son or daughter who self-identifies as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Results suggest that a two-factor solution is appropriate. Research and clinical implications are offered. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)
Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Selig, James P.; Trahan, Don P., Jr.
To determine whether self-report psychological inventories could be used to better understand characters in literature, a psychology instructor and an English instructor arranged their courses so that they both focused on interpersonal relationships. The psychology course emphasized research on attraction, romantic love, and interpersonal…
Matlak, Richard E.; Kerber, Kenneth W.
Examines two issues in the assessment of child sexual abuse victims: sensitivity to trauma-related symptoms and validity of self-reports. The Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) and Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY) were completed by 41 sexually abused children. Results reveal that TSCC validity scales moderately correlate with PIY…
Fricker, Adrienne E.; Smith, Daniel W.
Objective: The effect of manipulating item positioning on self-reported ADHD symptoms was examined. We assessed whether listing DSM-IV ADHD symptoms serially or interspersed affected (a) the correlation between ADHD symptoms and (b) the rate of symptom endorsement. Method: In Study 1, an undergraduate sample (n = 102) completed a measure that…
Mitchell, John T.; Knouse, Laura E.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Kwapil, Thomas R.
Childhood trauma is an important public health problem, but there are limitations in our ability to measure childhood abuse. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-report instrument for the assessment of childhood trauma that is valid but simple to administer. A total of 288 subjects with and without trauma and psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Early Trauma Inventory-Self Report (ETI-SR), an instrument for the assessment of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, as well as general traumas, which measures frequency, onset, emotional impact, and other variables. Validity and consistency of the ETI-SR using different methods of scoring was assessed. The ETI-SR was found to have good validity and internal consistency. No method was found to be superior to the simple method of counting the number of items endorsed as having ever occurred in terms of validity. Some items were found to be redundant or not necessary for the accurate measurement of trauma severity within specific domains. Subsequent analyses with a shortened checklist of items showed acceptable validity and internal consistency. These findings suggest that the ETI-SR is a valid measure of early trauma, and suggest future directions for a shortened version of the ETI-SR that could be more easily incorporated into clinical research studies and practice settings. PMID:17468680
Bremner, J Douglas; Bolus, Roger; Mayer, Emeran A
Objective: The effect of manipulating item positioning on self-reported ADHD symptoms was examined. We assessed whether listing DSM-IV ADHD symptoms serially or interspersed affected (a) the correlation between ADHD symptoms and (b) the rate of symptom endorsement. Method: In Study 1, an undergraduate sample (n = 102) completed a measure that listed DSM-IV ADHD symptoms serially and a measure that
John T. Mitchell; Laura E. Knouse; Rosemery O. Nelson-Gray; Thomas R. Kwapil
The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report version (BRIEF-SR) is the first self-report measure of executive functioning for adolescents. With the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act authorization, there is a greater need for appropriate assessment of severely impaired children. Recent studies have…
Walker, Justin M.; D'Amato, Rik Carl
The aim of this study was to analyze whether self-reported attachment style (measuring avoidance and anxiety) among adolescents was associated with dissociative symptoms, in addition to self-reported potentially traumatic experiences. A group consisting of 462 adolescents completed three self-assessment questionnaires: Linkoping Youth Life Experience Scale (LYLES), Experiences in Close Relationships, modified version (ECR) and Dissociation Questionnaire Sweden (Dis-Q-Sweden). Self-reported attachment
D. Nilsson; R. Holmqvist; M. Jonson
To facilitate life span research on depressive symptomatology, a depressive symptom scale for the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) is needed. The authors constructed such a scale (the CPI-D) and compared its psychometric properties with 2 widely used self-report depression scales: the Beck Depression Inventory and the Center for…
Jay, Meg; John, Oliver P.
Objective: Report the distribution of scores from the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and estimate the prevalence of self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as compared to clinical diagnoses. Participants: Participants were 1,080 college students, divided into 3 groups: (1) no ADHD diagnosis (n = 972), (2)…
Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.
BackgroundThe diagnosis and management of concussion in sport rely heavily on self-report of symptoms by the athlete. However, many symptoms commonly reported after a concussion (headache, nausea, fatigue, etc.) may be influenced by other factors. Fatigue is a frequent complaint, but may actually be a function of level of physical fitness.ObjectiveTo evaluate the role of physical fitness on self-report of
C Lebrun; M Mrazik; D Naidu; J Matthews-White; A Game
Objective Experiencing traumatic events in childhood is related to various psychiatric problems in adulthood, and a comprehensive tool for measuring childhood trauma is necessary in this field. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties, and factor structure of the Korean version of the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF). ETISR-SF measures the childhood trauma, including physical, and emotional sexual abuse, as well as general traumas. Methods A clinical and nonclinical samples comprising of 97 subjects from a local community, and 207 patients with the ETISR-SF, were assessed. Other tools, including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used to assess clinical symptoms. Additional data from 69 college students was used to examine the test-retest reliability. Results The original four-factor model was supported by the confirmatory factor analysis scale [?2 (351, n=304)=3374.025, p<0.001, TLI=0.969, CFI=0.972, RMSEA=0.030]. The ETISR-SF was found to be a reliable instrument (Cronbach's ?=0.869). Comparison of the ETISR-SF scores discriminated the clinical group from that of the control group. The measure showed good convergent and divergent validity, in that the scores were correlated higher with the scores on the CTQ-SF (0.691) than with the scores on the BDI or BAI (0.424, 0.397 respectively). The ETISR-SF was found to be temporally stable, showing the moderate to high correlation (0.844). Conclusion These findings suggest that the Korean version of the ETISR-SF appears to be a reliable and valid instrument for the measurement of reported childhood trauma. PMID:22993521
Jeon, Ju-Ri; Lee, Eun-Ho; Lee, Sun-Woo; Jeong, Eu-gene; Kim, Ji-Hae; Lee, Dongsoo
Presents two studies designed to examine the self-report of depressive symptoms in low back pain patients (N=134). Both studies found that patients were more likely to report somatic than cognitive symptoms of depression. Patients with multiple physical findings were not more likely to report somatic symptoms than patients with few physical…
Crisson, James; And Others
The authors describe a new self-report instrument, the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS), which was designed to assess specific symptom dimensions of major depression and related anxiety disorders. They created the IDAS by conducting principal factor analyses in 3 large samples (college students, psychiatric patients, community…
Watson, David; O'Hara, Michael W.; Simms, Leonard J.; Kotov, Roman; Chmielewski, Michael; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth A.; Gamez, Wakiza; Stuart, Scott
Describes investigation comparing two measures of perceived multicultural counseling awareness: the Multicultural Counseling Awareness Scale (MCAS) and the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI). Based on results, suggests that MCI is more appropriate as self-report, that replication of results is warranted, and that generalizability from this…
Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Dings, Jonathan G.
Developed Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI), self-report instrument that measures multicultural counseling competencies. Administered MCI to 604 psychology students, psychologists, and counselors (Study 1) and to 320 university counselors (Study 2). Results indicated that MCI has four factors: Multicultural Counseling Skills, Multicultural…
Sodowsky, Gargi Roysircar; And Others
This study has examined the relationship between cognitive functions and self-reported symptoms in ADHD adults. Cognitive functions were investigated with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) in N=113 ADHD adults. The severity of self-reported symptoms was based on a screening questionnaire (ADHS-E). Results indicated only weak correlations between self-reported ADHD symptoms and WAIS-IV performance. The ADHS-E scale "Emotion & Affect" accounted for a small but significant variance on most WAIS-IV indices and turned out to be the most important variable to explain performance. The findings suggest that concurrent and discrepant information contribute to a differentiated examination on adult ADHD and that both objective performance diagnostics and self-reports complement each other within the diagnostic process. PMID:24165919
Theiling, J; Petermann, F; Daseking, M
Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:…
Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan
The prevalence and the factors influencing respiratory symptoms and asthma in recreational athletes are still poorly defined. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported asthma and respiratory symptoms in a sample of Italian amateur athletes compared with the general population. We also intend to estimate the association between asthma, the type of exercise and the
Stefano Tardivo; Tamara Zerman; Sandra Frizzera; Francesca Locatelli; Pietro Ferrari; Kai Schenk; Francesco Bonella; Luca Tomaello; Chiara Posenato; Mara Meneghello; Marcello Ferrari
The prevalence and the factors influencing respiratory symptoms and asthma in recreational athletes are still poorly defined. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported asthma and respiratory symptoms in a sample of Italian amateur athletes compared with the general population. We also intend to estimate the association between asthma, the type of exercise and the
Stefano Tardivo; Tamara Zerman; Sandra Frizzera; Francesca Locatelli; Pietro Ferrari; Kai Schenk; Francesco Bonella; Luca Tomaello; Chiara Posenato; Mara Meneghello; Marcello Ferrari
The Padua Inventory (PI), a self-report measure of obsessive and compulsive symptoms, is increasingly used in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) research. Freeston, Ladouceur, Rheaume, Letarte, Gagnon and Thibodeau (1994) [Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 29–36], however, recently showed that the PI measures worry in addition to obsessions. In an attempt to solve this measurement problem, this study used a content
G. Leonard Burns; Susan G. Keortge; Gina M. Formea; Lee G. Sternberger
The first objective was to investigate the behavioural activity in the systems of Gray's theory; these are the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioural Approach System (BAS), in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The second aim was to assess in FM patients whether there is an association between BIS or BAS with self-reported somatic symptoms. Twenty FM patients and 20 healthy controls completed questionnaire measures of BIS and BAS activity (Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire), self-reported somatic symptoms (Somatic Symptoms Scale Revised), positive and negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and health status (EuroQoL Visual Analogue Scale). The results showed that FM patients had lower Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scores than controls. The SR score correlated with different somatic symptoms groups. The partial correlation (controlling for other variables measured) showed that the SR score correlated specifically with musculoskeletal symptoms. Furthermore, in regression analysis, SR score significantly predicted musculoskeletal symptoms, after controlling for other variables measured in this study. Our findings suggest that FM patients show BAS hypoactivity. This BAS activity in FM is similar to patients with depression, where a lower BAS functioning has also been found. The BAS activity predicts the musculoskeletal self-reported symptoms in FM better than other measures included in this study. Although this is a preliminary study, it suggests the importance of BAS activity in FM. PMID:24472271
Becerra-García, Juan A; Robles Jurado, Manuel J
Using a large longitudinal representative community sample, this study identified three groups of subjects who were depressed\\u000a either in pre-adolescence, late adolescence or early adulthood, and matched by age and gender to controls without depression.\\u000a The 90th percentile on one or two self-reported symptom scales [i. e. the Center for Epidemilogical Studies Depression Scale\\u000a (CES-D) or the subscale Anxious \\/
Hans-Christoph Steinhausen; Claudia Haslimeier; Christa Winkler Metzke
Objective: To examine the longitudinal associations between depressive symptoms and self-reported sexually transmitted disease (STD) diagnosis among adolescents. Setting and Participants: National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data were analyzed for 7th through 12th graders who reported having sexual intercourse be- tween baseline (Wave 1) and 1-year follow-up (Wave 2) in-home interviews (N=4738 (2232 boys, 2506 girls)). The association between
Lydia A. Shrier; Sion Kim Harris; William R. Beardslee
Symptoms are important indicators of health and treatment for people with HIV. Symptoms are measured by patient self-report, but there has been little attention to what is the best method of elicitation. We compared three methods (presence, frequency, and bother) commonly used to measure HIV self-reported symptoms. CD4+ T lymphocyte count and health-related quality of life (HRQL) scales were used to test validity in 160 people with HIV. The average number of symptoms reported was 15.2 (standard deviation 8.4). Correlation coefficients of summary symptom scores using the three methods ranged from -0.30 to -0.36 with HRQL score and from -0.19 to -0.20 with CD4 count (p<0.05). Correlation coefficients of seven specific symptom items with CD4+ counts and HRQL scores for the same concepts were small to moderate (-0.08 to -0.58, p<0.05). For the three methods, the correlation coefficients in general tended to be greater with frequency or bother than presence. However, the differences among the three methods were not statistically significant. We conclude that no single method is superior to the others. PMID:15385242
Wu, A W; Dave, N B; Diener-West, M; Sorensen, S; Huang, I-C; Revicki, D A
Treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia is a priority, but is approaching stagnation, due in part to the methods used to assess change in these symptoms. Traditional methods for assessing negative symptoms employ subjective self-report and/or clinician-rated scales, both of which are contaminated by considerable measurement error. The purpose of this article is to highlight the limitations in current assessment measures for negative symptoms and discuss the advantages of quantitative objective measurement, particularly in the context of clinical trial research. Recent research from psychology, neuroscience and computer technology has produced objective quantitative measures such as facial analysis and virtual reality that are more precise and sensitive to change; these objective measures are poised to revolutionize the measurement of this critical symptom. PMID:24976136
Gupta, Maya; Holshausen, Katherine; Gou, Lisa; Bowie, Christopher
Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work has reported that training attention away from negative stimuli reduced this bias and reduced depressive symptoms. However, the effect of attention training on subsequent learning has yet to be explored. In the present study, participants were required to learn to maximize reward during decision making. Undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision-making task (n = 20; active training). The active-training group was compared to two other groups: undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms who received placebo training (n = 22; placebo training) and a control group with low levels of depressive symptoms (n = 33; nondepressive control). The placebo-training depressive group performed worse and switched between options more than did the nondepressive controls on the reward maximization task. However, depressives that received active training performed as well as the nondepressive controls. Computational modeling indicated that the placebo-trained group learned more from negative than from positive prediction errors, leading to more frequent switching. The nondepressive control and active-training depressive groups showed similar learning from positive and negative prediction errors, leading to less-frequent switching and better performance. Our results indicate that individuals with elevated depressive symptoms are impaired at reward maximization, but that the deficit can be improved with attention training toward positive stimuli. PMID:24197612
Cooper, Jessica A; Gorlick, Marissa A; Denny, Taylor; Worthy, Darrell A; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd
Purpose To develop and evaluate a questionnaire that quantifies the self-reported frequency, duration and severity of illness symptoms in highly-trained athletes. We examined whether runners had more symptoms than recreationally-active individuals, and whether runners more prone to illness were undertaking more strenuous training programs. Methods A daily illness questionnaire was administered for three months during the summer to quantify the type, frequency, duration, and severity of illness symptoms as well as the functional impact on the ability to undertake exercise performance. A total of 35 participants (12 highly-trained runners living in a community setting and 23 recreationally-active medical students) completed the questionnaire. Results Runners had a similar frequency of illness (2.1 ± 1.2 vs. 1.8 ± 2.3 episodes, mean ± SD, P = 0.58), but substantially longer duration (5.5 ± 9.9 vs 2.8 ± 3.1 days, P < 0.01) and illness load (7.7 ± 16.2 vs 4.5 ± 4.8 units, P = 0.001) than age- and sex-matched recreationally-active individuals respectively. Runners more prone to illness symptoms had marginally higher training loads. Conclusions The athlete illness questionnaire is useful for quantifying the pattern of self-reported symptoms of illness in field settings. Highly-trained runners experience longer episodes of illness with a greater impact on daily activity than recreationally-active individuals. PMID:24198538
Matthews, Alexander; Pyne, David; Saunders, Philo; Fallon, Kieran; Fricker, Peter
Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work reported that training attention away from negative stimuli reduced this bias and reduced depressive symptoms. However, the effect of attention training on subsequent learning has yet to be explored. In the current study, participants were required to learn to maximize reward during decision-making. Undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision-making task (n=20; active training). The active training group was compared to two groups: undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms who received placebo training (n=22; placebo training) and control subjects with low levels of depressive symptoms (n=33; non-depressive control). The placebo-training depressive group performed worse and switched between options more than non-depressive controls on the reward maximization task. However, depressives that received active training performed as well as non-depressive controls. Computational modeling indicated that the placebo-trained group learned more from negative than from positive prediction errors, leading to more frequent switching. The non-depressive control and active training depressive groups showed similar learning from positive and negative prediction errors, leading to less frequent switching and better performance. Our results indicate that individuals with elevated depressive symptoms are impaired at reward maximization, but that the deficit can be improved with attention training toward positive stimuli. PMID:24197612
Cooper, Jessica A.; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Denny, Taylor; Worthy, Darrell A.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Maddox, W. Todd
Abstract In the last years, it has been discussed frequently whether there are any harmful effects of electromagnetic fields on human health. Electromagnetic fields are generated by several natural and man-made sources. Part of the electromagnetic spectrum called Radiofrequency is used in communication systems such as mobile (cellular) phone and computer. The aim of our study was to explore different self-reported symptoms that may be associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields. This survey study was conducted, using a questionnaire, on 350 people aged +9 years in Turkey. The chi-square test was used for data analysis. Self-reported symptoms were headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness, sleep disturbance-insomnia, tension-anxiety, joint and bone pain, lacrimation of the eyes, hearing loss and tinnitus. As a result of the survey, the study has shown that users of mobile phone and computer more often complained of headache, joint and bone pain, hearing loss, vertigo/dizziness, tension-anxiety symptoms according to time of daily usage (p?0.05). In users of mobile phone and computer, women significantly (p?0.05) complained more often of headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness and tension-anxiety than men. PMID:23730819
Küçer, Nermin; Pamukçu, Tu?ba
Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is regarded as a unitary nosological entity, it encompasses a rich variety of heterogeneous mental and behavioural phenomena. The identification of clinical subtypes within this broad concept has been a focus of attention in recent years. In the present study, we administered a clinician-rated scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) with the Y-BOCS Symptom Checklist (Y-BOCS CL), as well as a self-report questionnaire, the Padua Inventory revised (PI-R), to 150 outpatients with OCD. A principal component analysis on the Y-BOCS CL, along with the PI-R, identified 6 consistent symptom clusters: (1) contamination obsessions and cleaning compulsions, (2) sexual/religious/somatic obsessions and checking, (3) high risk assessment and checking, (4) impulses and fear of loss of control, (5) need for symmetry and exactness, and ordering and counting compulsions, and finally (6) rumination. The Y-BOCS CL and PI-R showed great overlap and consistency regarding content and severity of the OCD symptoms. On inspection of items with identical content, only half of the items showed significant agreement. Both inventories have unique factors: rumination is represented solely in the PI-R, somatic obsessions and checking solely in the Y-BOCS CL. This means that the use of both clinician-administered and self-report measures is recommended, so that the entire spectrum of symptoms is represented. PMID:15240990
Denys, Damiaan; de Geus, Femke; van Megen, Harold J G M; Westenberg, Herman G M
This paper illustrates a sequential item development process to create a new self-report instrument of depression refined with Rasch analysis from a larger pool of potential diagnostic items elicited through a consensus approach by clinical experts according to the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for major depression. A 51-item pool was administered to a sample of 529 subjects (300 healthy community-dwelling adults and 229 psychiatric outpatients). Item selection resulted in a 21-item set, named the Teate Depression Inventory, with an excellent Person Separation Index and no evidence of bias due to an item–trait interaction (?2=147.71; df =168; P=0.48). Additional support for the unidimensionality, local independence, appropriateness of the response format, and discrimination ability between clinical and nonclinical subjects was provided. No substantial differential item functioning by sex was observed. The Teate Depression Inventory shows considerable promise as a unidimensional tool for the screening of depression. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of this methodology will be discussed in terms of subsequent possible mathematical analyses, statistical tests, and implications for clinical investigations. PMID:24511231
Balsamo, Michela; Giampaglia, Giuseppe; Saggino, Aristide
OBJECTIVE To examine the association between depressive symptoms and fast-food intake in midlife women. METHODS Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional study of 626 women aged 45–54 years conducted from 2000–2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. Presence of depressive symptoms was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression scale and defined as a score of 16 or greater. The frequency of fast-food intake was assessed using self-reported questionnaire data, and was categorized as “at least weekly”, “at least monthly, but less than weekly” and “less than monthly”. RESULTS Approximately 25% of the study sample reported depressive symptoms; 14% consumed fast-food “at least weekly,” and 27% “at least monthly, but less than weekly”. Compared to their counterparts, women with depressive symptoms had significantly greater odds of reporting higher fast-food intake (confounder-adjusted odds ratio: 1.54; 95% confidence interval: 1.06–2.25). Other covariates associated with a higher frequency of fast-food intake included black race and body mass index ?30 kg/m2. CONCLUSIONS Findings from this study indicate that the presence of depressive symptoms is positively associated with fast-food intake in midlife women. These results may have important health implications given that both depression and dietary consumption patterns are risk factors for a number of diseases. PMID:21276813
Crawford, Geoffrey B.; Khedkar, Anuprita; Flaws, Jodi A.; Sorkin, John D.; Gallicchio, Lisa
Urogenital atrophy affects the lower urinary and genital tracts and is responsible for urinary, genital, and sexual symptoms. The accurate identification, measurement, and documentation of symptoms are limited by the absence of reliable and valid instruments. The Urogenital Atrophy Questionnaire was developed to allow self-reporting of symptoms and to provide clinicians and researchers an instrument to identify, measure, and document indicators of urogenital atrophy. A pilot study (n = 30) measured test-retest reliability (p < .05) of the instrument. Subsequently, a survey of women with (n = 168) and without breast cancer (n = 166) was conducted using the Urogenital Atrophy Questionnaire, Female Sexual Function Instrument, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, Breast, Endocrine Scale. Exploratory factor analysis (KMO 0.774; Bartlett's test of sphericity 0.000) indicated moderate-high relatedness of items. Concurrent (p > .01) and divergent validity (p < .000) were established. A questionnaire resulted that enables women, regardless of sexual orientation, partner status, and levels of sexual activity to accurately report symptoms. PMID:21172922
Lester, Joanne; Bernhard, Linda; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy
Urogenital atrophy affects the lower urinary and genital tracts and is responsible for urinary, genital, and sexual symptoms. The accurate identification, measurement, and documentation of symptoms are limited by the absence of reliable and valid instruments. The Urogenital Atrophy Questionnaire was developed to allow self-reporting of symptoms and to provide clinicians and researchers an instrument to identify, measure, and document indicators of urogenital atrophy. A pilot study (n = 30) measured test-retest reliability (p < .05) of the instrument. Subsequently, a survey of women with (n = 168) and without breast cancer (n = 166) was conducted using the Urogenital Atrophy Questionnaire, Female Sexual Function Instrument, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, Breast, Endocrine Scale. Exploratory factor analysis (KMO 0.774; Bartlett’s test of sphericity 0.000) indicated moderate-high relatedness of items. Concurrent (p > .01) and divergent validity (p < .000) were established. A questionnaire resulted that enables women, regardless of sexual orientation, partner status, and levels of sexual activity to accurately report symptoms. PMID:21172922
Lester, Joanne; Bernhard, Linda; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy
Background Beliefs play a crucial role in medication adherence. Interestingly, the relationship between beliefs and adherence varies when different adherence measures are used. How adherence, in turn, is related to asthma symptoms is still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between beliefs (ie, necessities and concerns) about inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and subjectively as well as objectively measure adherence and the agreement between these measures. Further, the relationship between adherence and asthma symptoms was examined. Methods A total of 280 patients aged 18–80 years who filled at least two ICS prescriptions in the preceding year were recruited to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire to assess necessity beliefs and concerns about ICS, four questions about ICS use to measure self-reported adherence, and the Asthma Control Questionnaire to assess asthma symptoms. Proportion of days covered was used to determine pharmacy refill adherence. Results Data from 93 patients with asthma were analyzed. Necessities were positively related to self-reported adherence (P = 0.01). No other associations were found between beliefs and subjective or objective adherence. There was no correlation between self-reported and refill adherence. Participants were significantly (P < 0.001) less adherent according to self-report data (24.4%) than according to pharmacy data (57.8%). No relationship was found between adherence and asthma symptoms. Conclusion Higher necessities are associated with higher self-reported adherence, suggesting that it could be more important to focus on necessities than on concerns in an attempt to improve adherence. Self-reported and refill adherence measurements cannot be used interchangeably. No relationship between adherence and asthma symptoms was found. PMID:24470757
Van Steenis, MNA; Driesenaar, JA; Bensing, JM; Van Hulten, R; Souverein, PC; Van Dijk, L; De Smet, PAGM; Van Dulmen, AM
The purpose of this cross-sectional observational study was to explore depressive symptoms, among 377 women, during hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Women were screened for depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Pearson chi-squared tests for independence were used for comparisons between categorical variables and t-tests for independent samples were used for comparisons between continuous variables. Tukey's honestly significant difference test along with one-way anova test was used to conduct multiple comparisons between the three defined age groups ranging from 29-49, 50-64 to ?65 years. A total of 118 women screened positive for depression (BDI-II score ? 14). The percentage of women that met the criteria for a positive depression screening was significantly different between the three age groups. The proportion of depressed women who reported feelings of sadness, past failures, punishment, self-dislike, agitation, worthlessness, sleep disturbances and irritability varied significantly by age group. Study findings indicate that symptom experience and severity may differ across a lifetime. These results support the need to understand the complexity of depressive symptoms experienced by women. The ability to understand and recognize depressive symptoms in women, with ACS, may assist healthcare professionals with the management of a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:23379757
Sanner, J E; Frazier, L; Udtha, M
Previous longitudinal studies of personality in adulthood have been limited in the range of traits examined, have chiefly made use of self-reports, and have frequently included only men. In this study, self-reports (N = 983) and spouse ratings (N = 167) were gathered on the NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1985b), which measures all five of the major dimensions
Paul T. Costa; Robert R. McCrae
The literature on the relationships between changes in mood and the menstrual cycle reveals many inconsistencies due to the absence of certain control procedures. Daily self-reports of moods and physical symptoms were collected from women with normal cycles, women using oral contraceptives, and men for 35 days in a camouflaged study. Retrospective…
Swandby, Janet R.
Psychometric characteristics of the Postconcussion Symptom Inventory (PCSI) were examined in both concussed (n = 633) and uninjured (n = 1,273) 5 to 18 year olds. Parent- and self-report forms were created with developmentally appropriate wording and content. Factor analyses identified physical, cognitive, emotional, and sleep factors; that did not load strongly or discriminate between groups were eliminated. Internal consistency was strong for the total scales (? = 0.8-0.9). Test-retest reliability for the self-report forms was moderate to strong (intraclass coeffecients, ICCs = 0.65-0.89). Parent and self-report concordance was moderate (r = .44-.65), underscoring the importance of both perspectives. Convergent validity with another symptom measure was good (r = .8). Classification analyses indicated greater discriminability from parent report, but caveats to this are presented. With strong psychometric characteristics, the four versions of the PCSI capture important postconcussion symptoms and can be utilized to track recovery from pediatric concussion and guide treatment recommendations. PMID:24739735
Sady, Maegan D; Vaughan, Christopher G; Gioia, Gerard A
"Breachers" are a unique military and law enforcement population because they are routinely exposed to low-level blast (LLB) during training and operations. This repeated exposure has been associated with symptoms similar to that of sports concussion. This study examined effects of repeated exposure to LLB during an explosive entry course. Twenty-one members of the New Zealand Defence Force volunteered for this study. Serum samples, neurocognitive performance, and self-reported symptoms were periodically measured before, during, and after a 2-week course. Serum concentrations of three biomarkers, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1, ?II-spectrin breakdown product, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, were determined with sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and rank scores were derived using the area under the curve (relative to baseline) for each subject. Neurocognitive performance was measured with a computer-based test battery, and symptoms were assessed by paper-based inventory. There was a significant relationship (p<0.05) between composite biomarker and neurocognitive performance and between neurocognitive performance and symptoms. The individuals with the five highest (Top 5) and lowest (Bottom 5) composite biomarker scores were identified and compared using Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. The Top 5 had significantly longer reaction times and lower percent correct on neurocognitive performance and an increase in symptom reporting. The difference between individuals expressing the highest biomarker load during breacher training (Top 5) and those with the lowest biomarker load (Bottom 5) is reflected in neurocognitive performance deficits and self-reported symptoms. This suggests a measureable degree of brain perturbation linked to LLB exposure. Follow-up studies are underway to expand upon these results. PMID:23687938
Tate, Charmaine M; Wang, Kevin K W; Eonta, Stephanie; Zhang, Yang; Carr, Walter; Tortella, Frank C; Hayes, Ronald L; Kamimori, Gary H
The aims of this study were two-fold; firstly, to investigate whether self-report measures are useful and reflect parent-reported psychiatric symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and secondly, to investigate whether children with ASD are able to access and report their cognitions, a prerequisite skill for cognitive behavior therapies. Thirty children with ASD and 21 comparison children without ASD completed the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory, with parents completing the parent version of both questionnaires. Intraclass correlations revealed that there was good agreement between ASD children and their parents on both measures, but only on the depression measure in non-ASD children. The children in both groups also completed the Children's Automatic Thoughts Questionnaires; multiple regression analyses indicated that within the ASD group, child-rated scores on the CATS questionnaire were positively related to increased self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression, but not in the comparison group, suggesting that children with ASD are able to accurately report their anxious and depressed cognitions. The implications of these results for both the practice and theory of CBT for children with ASD are discussed. PMID:24014195
Ozsivadjian, Ann; Hibberd, Charlotte; Hollocks, Matthew J
Self-report post-concussion symptom scales have been a key method for monitoring recovery from sport-related concussion, to assist in medical management, and return-to-play decision-making. To date, however, item selection and scaling metrics for these instruments have been based solely upon clinical judgment, and no one scale has been identified as the “gold standard”. We analyzed a large set of data from existing scales obtained from three separate case–control studies in order to derive a sensitive and efficient scale for this application by eliminating items that were found to be insensitive to concussion. Baseline data from symptom checklists including a total of 27 symptom variables were collected from a total of 16,350 high school and college athletes. Follow-up data were obtained from 641 athletes who subsequently incurred a concussion. Symptom checklists were administered at baseline (preseason), immediately post-concussion, post-game, and at 1, 3, and 5 days post-injury. Effect-size analyses resulted in the retention of only 12 of the 27 variables. Receiver-operating characteristic analyses were used to confirm that the reduction in items did not reduce sensitivity or specificity. The newly derived Concussion Symptom Inventory is presented and recommended as a research and clinical tool for monitoring recovery from sport-related concussion. PMID:19549721
Randolph, Christopher; Millis, Scott; Barr, William B.; McCrea, Michael; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Hammeke, Thomas A.; Kelly, James P.
Objective:To investigate the effects of weight loss diets on mood, food cravings, and other self-reported symptoms.Research Methods and Procedures:Mood and other symptoms were evaluated by participant self-report using the Atkins Health Indicator Test (AHIT) in individuals undergoing weight loss following either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LCKD) or a low-fat diet (LFD). Participants were 119 overweight community volunteers randomized to an
F. Joseph McClernon; William S. Yancy; Jacqueline A. Eberstein; Robert C. Atkins; Eric C. Westman
Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an incurable neurological disease with approximately 0.3% prevalence. The hallmark symptom is gradual movement deterioration. Current scientific consensus about disease progression holds that symptoms will worsen smoothly over time unless treated. Accurate information about symptom dynamics is of critical importance to patients, caregivers, and the scientific community for the design of new treatments, clinical decision making, and individual disease management. Long-term studies characterize the typical time course of the disease as an early linear progression gradually reaching a plateau in later stages. However, symptom dynamics over durations of days to weeks remains unquantified. Currently, there is a scarcity of objective clinical information about symptom dynamics at intervals shorter than 3 months stretching over several years, but Internet-based patient self-report platforms may change this. Objective To assess the clinical value of online self-reported PD symptom data recorded by users of the health-focused Internet social research platform PatientsLikeMe (PLM), in which patients quantify their symptoms on a regular basis on a subset of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Ratings Scale (UPDRS). By analyzing this data, we aim for a scientific window on the nature of symptom dynamics for assessment intervals shorter than 3 months over durations of several years. Methods Online self-reported data was validated against the gold standard Parkinson’s Disease Data and Organizing Center (PD-DOC) database, containing clinical symptom data at intervals greater than 3 months. The data were compared visually using quantile-quantile plots, and numerically using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. By using a simple piecewise linear trend estimation algorithm, the PLM data was smoothed to separate random fluctuations from continuous symptom dynamics. Subtracting the trends from the original data revealed random fluctuations in symptom severity. The average magnitude of fluctuations versus time since diagnosis was modeled by using a gamma generalized linear model. Results Distributions of ages at diagnosis and UPDRS in the PLM and PD-DOC databases were broadly consistent. The PLM patients were systematically younger than the PD-DOC patients and showed increased symptom severity in the PD off state. The average fluctuation in symptoms (UPDRS Parts I and II) was 2.6 points at the time of diagnosis, rising to 5.9 points 16 years after diagnosis. This fluctuation exceeds the estimated minimal and moderate clinically important differences, respectively. Not all patients conformed to the current clinical picture of gradual, smooth changes: many patients had regimes where symptom severity varied in an unpredictable manner, or underwent large rapid changes in an otherwise more stable progression. Conclusions This information about short-term PD symptom dynamics contributes new scientific understanding about the disease progression, currently very costly to obtain without self-administered Internet-based reporting. This understanding should have implications for the optimization of clinical trials into new treatments and for the choice of treatment decision timescales. PMID:23343503
Wicks, Paul; Vaughan, Timothy; Pentland, Alex
Summary.Background: Anecdotal\\u000areports suggest that bovine\\u000acolostrum may prevent upper respiratory\\u000atract infection (URTI).\\u000aThere is scant evidence to support\\u000asuch claims, although salivary IgA\\u000aprotects against URTI, and it was\\u000arecently shown that bovine\\u000acolostrum increases salivary IgA.Aim of the study: The present invesigation examined whether concentrated\\u000abovine colostrum protein\\u000a(CBC) affected the incidence or duration\\u000aof self-reported symptoms
Grant D. Brinkworth; Jonathan D. Buckley
Background: Patients with neurologically unexplained symptoms (NUS) often have a previous history of other medically unexplained symptoms. A past history of such symptoms can help make a positive diagnosis of a somatoform or affective disorder, and enable appropriate management strategies. However, information on past medical diagnoses is primarily obtained from patient interviews and may be inaccurate, particularly in patients with
A Schrag; R J Brown; M R Trimble
Active duty US Naval mobile construction battalion personnel (Seabees) were surveyed in 1994 for the presence of a variety of symptoms. Questions were drawn from the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and from a collection of symptoms either defining clinical depression or commonly reported by Persian Gulf War veterans. Of those surveyed, 524 were Gulf War veterans and 935 were nondeployed Gulf
James D. Knoke; Tyler C. Smith; Gregory C. Gray; Kevin S. Kaiser; Anthony W. Hawksworth
Longitudinal validity of Brief Symptom Inventory subscales was examined in a sample (N = 318) with schizophrenia-related illness measured at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years. Nonlinear factor analysis of items was used to test graded response models (GRMs) for subscales in isolation. The models varied in their within-time and between-times…
Long, Jeffrey D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, John S.; Test, Mary Ann; Greenberg, Jan
This study aims to translate and validate Early Trauma Inventory Self Report -Short Form (ETISR-SF) to Brazilian Portuguese. 253 adult subjects answered the ETISR-SF, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). The instrument showed good internal consistency (0.83). Correlations with the PHQ-9 and BAI were moderate (r=0.26-0.47) and showed the expected associations with psychiatric constructs. No associations were found for FTND and FAST. Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed that a correlated four-factor model as well as a second order model subsuming four lower order components presented the best model fit. Test-retest reliability was also excellent (ICC=0.78-0.90). ETISR-SF is suitable for assessing traumatic experiences in a Brazilian community sample. Given the importance of trauma as a public health problem, tools such as ETISR-SF may help clinicians/ researchers to better evaluate and measure such events and further advance clinical care of trauma victims. PMID:24098478
Osorio, Flavia L.; Salum, Giovanni Abrahao; Donadon, Mariana Fortunata; Forni-dos-Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, Jose Alexandre S.
OBJECTIVES—This study was part of the East African pesticides project. The general objective was to assess health hazards posed by handling, storage, and use of pesticides, on agricultural estates and small farms with a view to developing strategies for prevention and control of pesticide poisoning. The aim of this paper is to describe the prevalence of symptoms in this population, to relate levels of inhibition to reported symptoms and evaluate at which levels of inhibition symptoms become increased.?METHODS—Complete data were available for 256 exposed subjects and 152 controls from four regions in Kenya. A structured questionnaire on symptoms experienced at the time of interview was given to all subjects and controls. Information was also obtained on sex, age, main occupation, and level of education. Symptoms reported during the high exposure period, were initially clustered in broader symptom categories from reference literature on health effects of pesticides that inhibit cholinesterase (organophosphate and carbamate). Prevalence ratios were estimated for symptoms with changes in cholinesterase activity in serum.?RESULTS—Symptom prevalence in exposed subjects was higher during the high exposure period than the low exposure period, although these differences were not significant. Interestingly, a clear and significant change in symptoms prevalence was found in the controls with a higher prevalence in the low exposure period. Analysis of the relation between cholinesterase inhibition and symptoms showed that prevalence ratios were significantly >1 for respiratory, eye, and central nervous system symptoms for workers with >30% inhibition. Similar results were found for analyses with the actual level of acetylcholinesterase activity.?CONCLUSION—The results suggest the presence of a relation between exposure and acetylcholinesterase inhibition, acetylcholinesterase activity, and respiratory, eye, and central nervous system symptoms. Increased symptom prevalence was found at acetylcholinesterase activities generally considered to be non-adverse.???Keywords: cholinesterase inhibition; symptoms; health effects; Kenya; agricultural workers PMID:10810102
Ohayo-Mitoko, G.; Kromhout, H.; Simwa, J.; Boleij, J.; Heederik, D.
Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was firstly to assess the overall frequency of subjectively experienced symptoms self-reported by patients receiving endocrine therapy and secondly to compare these symptoms with side effects assessed by clinicians in pivotal trials. Methods: Unselected patients with early and advanced breast cancer receiving endocrine therapy were approached consecutively during a routine outpatient visit. They received
Thomas Ruhstaller; Roger von Moos; Kaspar Rufibach; Karin Ribi; Agnes Glaus; Bruno Spaeti; Dieter Koeberle; Urs Mueller; Markus Hoefliger; Dagmar Hess; Christel Boehme; Beat Thuerlimann
BACKGROUND: Previous research by the authors found evidence that up to 10% of particular household categories may be exposed to elevated carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations from poor quality gas appliance installations. The literature suggests certain neurological symptoms are linked to exposure to low levels of CO. This paper addresses the hypothesis that certain self-reported neurological symptoms experienced by a householder
Ben Croxford; Giovanni S Leonardi; Irene Kreis
This study examined whether self-reported childhood sexual abuse in schizophrenia spectrum disorders is linked with severity of neurocognitive deficits. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, California Verbal Learning Test, and select WAIS III subtests were administered to 15 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who had been sexually abused and to 28 participants with no abuse history. Controlling for age and premorbid IQ, a MANCOVA indicated there were group differences (f(9, 31) = 5.53, p < .001). Subsequent ANCOVA indicated that the sexual abuse group performed more poorly on tests of working memory and information processing speed. Childhood sexual abuse is associated with more severe working memory deficits in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. PMID:11534930
Lysaker, P H; Meyer, P; Evans, J D; Marks, K A
This study examined the possibility of eating disorders in 30 female aerobic dance instructors. All subjects completed a biographical questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Inventory. The results showed that the aerobic instructors yielded scores which were comparable to similarly aged female weight lifters but tended to be lower than those of women distance runners (also of similar age). Interestingly, 23% (n = 7) of the subjects reported a previous history of bulimia and 17% (n = 5) reported a previous history of anorexia. Thus, 40% of the instructors indicated a previous experience with eating disorders. Based on all 30 participants, the mean scores associated with Body Dissatisfaction, Drive for Thinness, Ineffectiveness, and Perfectionism were quite comparable to those previously established for anorexic groups. In addition, a relatively high percentage of the sample yielded scores which were actually greater than mean values associated with anorexia patients on nine of the 11 subscales. Based on these results, a number of the aerobic dance instructors possessed scores suggesting behaviors and attitudes consistent with female athletes whose sports emphasize leanness and comparable to those who have eating disorders. PMID:8774050
Olson, M S; Williford, H N; Richards, L A; Brown, J A; Pugh, S
Background Most studies examining medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) have been performed in primary or secondary care and have examined symptoms for which patients sought medical attention. Disasters are often described as precipitating factors for MUS. However, health consequences of disasters are typically measured by means of questionnaires, and it is not known whether these self-reported physical symptoms are presented to the GP. It is also not known if the self-reported symptoms are related to a medical disorder or if they remain medically unexplained. In the present study, three research questions were addressed. Firstly, were self-reported symptoms among survivors presented to the GP? Secondly, were the symptoms presented to the GP associated with a high level of functional impairment and distress? Thirdly, what was the GP's clinical judgment of the presented symptoms, i.e. were the symptoms related to a medical diagnosis or could they be labeled MUS? Methods Survivors of a man-made disaster (N = 887) completed a questionnaire 3 weeks (T1) and 18 months (T2) post-disaster. This longitudinal health survey was combined with an ongoing surveillance program of health problems registered by GPs. Results The majority of self-reported symptoms was not presented to the GP and survivors were most likely to present persistent symptoms to the GP. For example, survivors with stomachache at both T1 and T2 were more likely to report stomachache to their GP (28%) than survivors with stomachache at only T1 (6%) or only T2 (13%). Presentation of individual symptoms to the GP was not consistently associated with functional impairment and distress. 56 – 91% of symptoms were labeled as MUS after clinical examination. Conclusion These results indicate that the majority of self-reported symptoms among survivors of a disaster are not presented to the GP and that the decision to consult with a GP for an individual symptom is not dependent on the level of impairment and distress. Also, self-reported physical symptoms such as headache, back pain and shortness of breath are likely to remain medically unexplained after the clinical judgment of a GP. PMID:17888144
van den Berg, Bellis; Yzermans, C Joris; van der Velden, Peter G; Stellato, Rebecca K; Lebret, Erik; Grievink, Linda
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact, fighting sport that has risen in popularity over recent years, resulting in an increase in both training facilities and sport participants. To date, little research has examined the complications and vulnerability to head trauma, or concussive symptomatology, in MMA athletes. In this study, we assessed relationships between training routines and concussive symptoms, as well as medical care, in MMA athletes. A sample (N?=?119) of MMA athletes reported concussive symptoms, training routines, and medical histories through an online survey. Nearly 15% of the MMA athletes reported history of a knockout, and nearly one-third reported a technical knockout. Subjective ratings of concussive symptoms were high for these athletes, with many of them waiting only a brief time after such incidents to return to competition. These findings have important implications for informing the medical treatment and safety decision for returning to participation for these athletes. PMID:23777375
Heath, Christopher J; Callahan, Jennifer L
Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year\\u000a psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b)\\u000a current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High-\\u000a Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and
Assaf OshriJonathan; Jonathan G. Tubman; James Jaccard
In June 1991, 831 veterinarians registered in the Southern Netherlands were mailed a questionnaire to obtain details of work practice and health problems. One hundred fifty-two veterinarians were not eligible (retired or not working regularly), 497 practitioners returned a complete questionnaire (73% response rate). The purpose was to assess the prevalence of respiratory disease symptoms (RDS) and to compare the
Martin J. M. Tielen; Armin R. W. Elbers; Mirjam Snijdelaar; Paul J. M. M. van Gulick; Liesbeth Preller; Pieter J. Blaauw
Pregnancy represents a unique period of time when women are at an increased risk of developing depression. Although the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) is one of the most widely used self-report measures of depression symptomology, its psychometric properties and underlying factor structures have not been determined for antenatal women and among Latinas. The current study evaluated the latent symptom structure of the BDI-II in a community-based sample of Latina pregnant women (N = 217) identified to be at high risk for depression. Exploratory factor analyses were used to identify underlying salient individual item loadings for two- and three-factor models. Confirmatory factor analyses then examined several different indices to determine the best model fit. Examination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supports a three-factor oblique structure of the BDI-II composed of Cognitive-Affective, Somatic, and Pregnancy Symptoms. The three-factor model provides clinicians with the ability to target specific constellations of depressive symptoms instead of relying on the BDI-II total score that represents the overall severity of depression in this population. PMID:23929560
Alexander, Lisa A; de la Fey Rodríguez Muñoz, Maria; Perry, Deborah F; Le, Huynh-Nhu
In recent decades, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have reemerged and spread as a major public health problem in China. However, little effort has been made on promoting appropriate health-seeking behaviors among people living with STDs. A randomly selected sample of market vendors in Fuzhou (N = 4510) was recruited and assessed from 2003 to 2004 to examine their choice of pharmacy versus hospital, and folk remedy versus Western medicine when having STD symptoms. Approximately 11.3% of the sample (4.0% of men and 17.8% of women) reported having had abnormal genital discharge or genital ulcer during the past 6 months. More (over 60%) people chose Chinese folk remedy to treat symptoms or prevent transmission when they had genital discharge and/or genital ulcer. Approximately 30% of study participants with reported STD symptoms visited pharmacies only to seek treatment, and 17% visited neither hospital nor pharmacies. Visiting a pharmacy only for STD treatment was marginally significantly associated with being female (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.665, confidence interval [CI] = 0.980, 2.831) and never married (PR = 1.984, CI = 1.098, 3.594) after controlling for other potential confounders. Education about appropriate health-seeking behaviors to obtain effective treatment of STD must be a top priority to control the rapid spread of STDs in China. PMID:19519228
Guan, Jihui; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Detels, Roger; Hsieh, Julie
Occupationally exposed workers, farm workers and plant protection agents in the Sahel region of Burkina Faso were interviewed to assess adverse health effects of insecticides. The subjects were also examined for changes in both hematological and biochemical parameters. The prevalence of liver and kidney dysfunction was found to be quite high among insecticide applicators, especially among plant protection agents. The prevalence of biochemical alterations seems to be correlated to the frequency of insecticide use. However, no significant differences were found between the hematological parameters among farm workers and plant protection agents. The hematological parameters of all the insecticide applicators were normal. The great majority of insecticide applicators (85%) reported symptoms related to insecticide exposure. The use of insecticides in the agriculture of Burkina Faso is threatening to human health. PMID:22783149
Toe, Adama M.; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Ouedraogo, Moustapha; Guissou, Pierre I.
Current research in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) recognizes substantial symptom heterogeneity and emphasizes dimensional assessment of core domains. This study administered a self-report version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Symptom Checklist to OCD patients (n=53), non-OCD psychiatric patients (n=96), and students (n=419). Factor analyses of category- versus item-level data produced different solutions (4 or 5 vs. 3 factors, respectively), but support a multidimensional framework for OCD symptoms. For between-groups analyses, the two patient groups scored significantly higher than students on nearly all dimensions. However, OCD and non-OCD patients differed significantly only on Symmetry/Ordering symptoms. These findings provide novel data concerning this instrument and suggest that most of its scales may not distinguish OCD patients clearly when administered in this manner. We provide recommendations for improving subsequent self-report versions but caution users not to over-extend its intended use. PMID:17110080
Wu, Kevin D; Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna
The aims of the study are to examine the differences in symptoms, functioning and self-reported motives for drinking alcohol among seriously mentally ill patients with and without alcohol problems. The subjects (n = 69) were included from a patient register. They completed the Short Michigan Alcoholism Test (SMAST 13) and the drinking motives measure (DMM). Their psychiatrists completed the Health of the
Turid Møller Olsø; Camilla Buch Gudde; Elin Wullum; Olav M. Linaker
The aims of this study were two-fold; firstly, to investigate whether self-report measures are useful and reflect parent-reported psychiatric symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and secondly, to investigate whether children with ASD are able to access and report their cognitions, a prerequisite skill for cognitive behavior…
Ozsivadjian, Ann; Hibberd, Charlotte; Hollocks, Matthew J.
Evidence indicates acute sleep deprivation affects negative mood states. The present study experimentally tested the effects of acute sleep deprivation on self-reported symptoms of state anxiety and depression as well as general distress among 88 physically and psychologically healthy adults. As hypothesized, the effects of acute sleep deprivation increased state anxiety and depression, as well as general distress, relative to
Kimberly A. Babson; Casey D. Trainor; Matthew T. Feldner; Heidemarie Blumenthal
BACKGROUND: Despite the last years of rapid increase in use of wireless phones little data on the use of these devices has been systematically assessed among young persons. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to assess use of wireless phones and to study such use in relation to explanatory factors and self-reported health symptoms. METHODS: A postal questionnaire
Fredrik Söderqvist; Michael Carlberg; Lennart Hardell
Background Whether long-term, low-level hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas is a cause of health effects, including asthma, is uncertain. Rotorua city, New Zealand, has the largest population exposed, from geothermal sources, to relatively high ambient levels of H2S. In a cross-sectional study, the authors investigated associations with asthma in this population. Methods A total of 1,637 adults, aged 18-65 years, were enrolled during 2008-2010. Residences and workplaces were geocoded. H2S exposures at homes and workplaces were estimated using city-wide networks of passive H2S samplers and kriging to create exposure surfaces. Exposure metrics were based on (1) time-weighted exposures at home and work; and (2) the maximum exposure (home or work). Exposure estimates were entered as quartiles into log-binomial regression models, with covariate data. Results Neither exposure metric showed evidence of increased asthma risk from H2S. However, some suggestion of exposure-related reduced risks for diagnosed asthma and asthma symptoms, particularly wheezing during the last 12 months, emerged. With the maximum exposure metric, the prevalence ratio for wheeze in the highest exposure quartile was 0.80 (0.65, 0.99) and, for current asthma treatment, 0.75 (0.52, 1.08). There was no evidence that this was caused by a “survivor effect”. Conclusions The study provided no evidence that asthma risk increases with H2S exposure. Suggestions of a reduced risk in the higher exposure areas are consistent with recent evidence that H2S has signaling functions in the body, including induction of smooth muscle relaxation and reduction of inflammation. Study limitations, including possible confounding, preclude definitive conclusions. PMID:23453847
Bates, Michael N; Garrett, Nick; Crane, Julian; Balmes, John
Objectives: To assess the performance of four self-report measures of anxiety in an older adult population.Method: Forty older adults with current or previous anxiety symptoms completed four self-report measures of anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Visual Analogue Scale) and received an independent diagnostic assessment and rating of anxiety severity. After a
R. E. Dennis; S. J. A. Boddington; N. J. Funnell
Substantially higher mean scores on symptom-negatively versus symptom-positively worded items have consistently been reported in the literature for the balanced Stait-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In this study we aimed at replicating and comparing these findings for the Dutch adaptation of the inventory. Results indicated significantly higher mean subscale scores for symptom-negative as opposed to symptompositive items of both the Trait and
Jaap Mook; Henk M. van der Ploeg; Wim Chr. Kleijn
An analysis of social desirability in personality assessment is presented. Starting with the symptoms, Study 1 showed that mean ratings of graded personality items are moderately to strongly linearly related to social desirability (Self Deception, Impression formation, and the first Principal Component), suggesting that item popularity may be a useful heuristic tool for identifying items which elicit socially desirable responding. We diagnose the cause of socially desirable responding as an interaction between the evaluative content of the item and enhancement motivation in the rater. Study 2 introduced a possible cure; evaluative neutralization of items. To test the feasibility of the method lay psychometricians (undergraduates) reformulated existing personality test items according to written instructions. The new items were indeed lower in social desirability while essentially retaining the five factor structure and reliability of the inventory. We conclude that although neutralization is no miracle cure, it is simple and has beneficial effects. PMID:23252410
Backstrom, Martin; Bjorklund, Fredrik
Objective To assess the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on mental health symptoms in 9-year old children controlling for potential confounders. Methods 332 children (170 prenatally cocaine-exposed (PCE), 162 non cocaine-exposed (NCE) were assessed using self (Dominic Interactive; DI) and caregiver report (Child Behavior Checklist; CBCL). Results Higher levels of PCE were associated with caregiver report of clinically elevated aggressive and delinquent behavior. With each increased unit of PCE, children were 1.3 times more likely to be rated as aggressive (OR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.02–1.67, p<0.04). For each increased unit of PCE, girls were 2 times more likely to be rated as having delinquent behavior (OR=2.08, 95% CI: 1.46–2.96, p<0.0001). PCE status was also associated with increased odds of delinquent behavior (OR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.16–4.97, p=0.02), primarily due to the increased risk among girls with PCE. While girls with PCE status were 7 times more likely than NCE girls to have delinquent behaviors (OR=7.42; 95% CI: 2.03–27.11, p<0.002) boys with PCE did not demonstrate increased risk (OR=0.98; 95% CI: 0.36–2.65, p>0.97). Foster or adoptive parents were more likely to rate their PCE children as having more thought problems, inattention, delinquent behavior, aggression, externalizing and overall problems (p<0.05) than biologic mothers or relative caregivers. Higher 2nd trimester tobacco exposure was associated with increased odds of caregiver reported anxiety (OR=1.73; 95% CI 1.06–2.81, p<0.03) and marijuana exposure increased the odds of thought problems (OR=1.68; 95% CI 1.01–2.79, p<0.05). Children with PCE self-reported fewer symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) compared to NCE children (OR=0.44, 95% CI: 0.21–0.92, p<0.03). Greater tobacco exposure was associated with increased odds of child reported ODD (OR=1.24; 95% CI 1.03–1.78, p<0.03). Conclusion Higher PCE was associated with disruptive behaviors including aggression and delinquent behavior among girls by caregiver report, but not child report. These findings highlight the need for early behavioral assessment using multiple informants in multi-risk children. PMID:21764256
McLaughlin, Annamaria Aguirre; Minnes, Sonia; Singer, Lynn T.; Min, Meeyoung; Short, Elizabeth J.; Scott, Teresa Linares; Satayathum, Sudtida
Self-reported psychopathological symptoms in recreational ecstasy (MDMA) users are mainly associated with regular cannabis use: further evidence from a combined cross-sectional\\/longitudinal investigation
Rationale 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) has become a widely used recreational drug among young people. This is of great concern, since MDMA is neurotoxic in animal studies and its use has been associated with psychological distress and a variety of self-reported psychiatric symptoms. However, exploring the origins of psychopathology in ecstasy users is hampered by the frequent polydrug use and by
Jörg Daumann; Gernot Hensen; Bastian Thimm; Markus Rezk; Bianca Till; Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank
The current study examined the potentially moderating influence of post-migration living difficulties on the relationship between pre-migration traumatic exposure and self-reported symptomatology in a sample of 74 adult Somali refugees residing in the United States. Results suggest that post-migration psychosocial stressors exacerbate depressive symptoms (?R = .068, p = .017) for those exposed to low levels of trauma relative to other posttraumatic psychological
Jacob A. Bentley; John W. Thoburn; David G. Stewart; Lorin D. Boynton
Objective To describe new onset and persistence of self reported post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in a large population based military cohort, many of whom were deployed in support of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.Design Prospective cohort analysis.Setting and participants Survey enrolment data from the millennium cohort (July 2001 to June 2003) obtained before the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Tyler C Smith; Margaret A K Ryan; Deborah L Wingard; Donald J Slymen; James F Sallis; Donna Kritz-Silverstein
BACKGROUND: The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed in primary care to distinguish non-specific general distress from depression, anxiety and somatization. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate its criterion and construct validity. METHODS: Data from 10 different primary care studies have been used. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the 4DSQ scores
Berend Terluin; Harm WJ van Marwijk; Herman J Adèr; Henrica CW de Vet; Brenda WJH Penninx; Marleen LM Hermens; Christine A van Boeijen; Anton JLM van Balkom; Jac JL van der Klink; Wim AB Stalman
The Brief Symptom Inventory is designed to assess symptoms of psychological disorders in adole- scents and adults. The dimensional structure of the inventory, using exploratory and confirmatory fac- tor analyses, was examined with a cross-sectional design in a Spanish sample of college students (N = 1,033, aged between 18 and 30 years old). Two hypotheses were tested: the original distribution
Noemí Pereda; Maria Forns; Maribel Peró
Background Foulds’ Delusions-Symptoms-State Inventory (DSSI) has been purported to be a reliable, systematic categorical measure to assess the patients with schizophrenia according to the degree of illness. However, further cross-validations using other clinical measures and diverse samples from other cultures have not been advanced recently. We aimed to examine the validity of the DSSI hierarchical class model using both Korean non-patient and patient (schizophrenia and depression) groups. Method The hypothesis of inclusive, non-reflexive relationships among the DSSI classes was tested. The power of DSSI to detect presence of symptoms was assessed via cross-validation with other clinical measures, and the differences between the clinical features among the DSSI classes were examined using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Results The high rate of model conformity (91.1%) across the samples and cross-validation with other criterion measures provided further support for the validity of DSSI. Conclusions DSSI is a reliable self-report measure that can be applied to both patient and non-patients to assess the presence and severity of psychiatric illness. Future studies that include more diverse clinical groups are necessary to lend further support for its utility in clinical practice. PMID:24103322
The presence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male war veterans has been linked with family dysfunction and psychopathology in their children [1, 2]. This study aimed to evaluate self-reported emotional and behavioral symptoms, parent-adolescent bonding and family functioning in clinically referred adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD war veterans and determine the degree that parent-child bonding and family functioning contributed to adolescent behavior problems. Internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, parent-child bonding and family functioning were assessed in a sample of clinically referred Croatian PTSD veterans adolescent offspring (N = 122) and non-PTSD veteran adolescent offspring (N = 122) matched for age, sex, educational level, family income, parental employment status, ethnicity, and residential area. Youth Self-Report, Parental Bonding Instrument, Family Assessment Device were used. Adolescent offspring of PTSD veterans reported having significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems than non-PTSD veteran offspring, and also more difficulties in their family functioning, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and more impaired mother-child and father-child bonding than control subjects. Internalizing symptoms were associated with family dysfunction, while externalizing symptoms were associated with paternal overcontrol/overprotection, and low maternal and paternal care. In conclusion, the increase in internalizing and externalizing symptoms as well as family and parental dysfunction among clinically referred adolescent offspring of PTSD veterans compared to their non-PTSD veteran counterparts indicates a need for early detection and interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships. PMID:23949102
Bori?evi? Maršani?, Vlatka; Aukst Margeti?, Branka; Juki?, Vlado; Matko, Vlasta; Grgi?, Vesna
Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation carriers (PM-carriers) have a defective trinucleotide expansion on the FMR1 gene that is associated with continuum of neuropsychological and mental disorders. Currently, little is known about the distinct subcomponents of executive function potentially impaired in female PM-carriers, and there have been no investigations into associations between executive function and incidences of mental disorders. A total of 35 female PM-carriers confirmed by Asuragen triple primed PCR DNA testing and 35 age- and intelligence-matched controls completed tests of executive function (i.e., response inhibition and working memory) and self-reported on social anxiety, depression, and ADHD predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI) symptoms. Compared to controls, PM-carriers were significantly elevated on self-reported social anxiety and ADHD-PI symptoms. Irrespective of mental symptoms, female PM-carries performed significantly worse than controls on a response inhibition test, and further investigations revealed significant correlations between executive function performance and self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression and ADHD-PI. Critically, among PM-carriers with good executive function performance, no women exceeded threshold markers for probable caseness of mental disorder. However, rates of probable caseness were elevated in those with average performance (response inhibition: social anxiety: 41.7%; depression: 20%; ADHD: 44.4%; working memory: social anxiety: 27.3%; depression: 9.1%; ADHD: 18.2%) and highly elevated for those with poor executive function performance (response inhibition: social anxiety: 58.3%; depression: 80%; ADHD: 55.6%; working memory: social anxiety: 100%; depression: 50%; ADHD: 83.3%). These data suggest that subtle executive dysfunction may be a useful neuropsychological indicator for a range of mental disorders previously reported in female PM-carriers. PMID:24166828
Kraan, Claudine M; Hocking, Darren R; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Archibald, Alison D; Fielding, Joanne; Trollor, Julian; Bradshaw, John L; Cohen, Jonathan; Cornish, Kim M
objectives study assess knowledge practices associated pesticide agricultural community Palestine determine prevalence self-reported health symptoms related pesticide exposure. Methods cross-sectional questionnaire study agricultural farm workers Nablus district Palestine interviewed knowledge practices pesticide use.
Search instead for objectives study assess knowledge practices associated pesticide agricultural community Palestine determine prevalence self-reported health symptoms related pesticide exposure. Methods cross-sectional questionnaire study agricultural farm workers Nablus district Palestine interviewed knowledge practices pesticide use. ?
The Teaching Perspectives Inventory (TPI) measures teachers' profiles on five contrasting views of what it means "to teach." The inventory can be used in aiding self-reflection, developing statements of teaching philosophy, engendering conversations about teaching, and recognizing legitimate variations on excellence in teaching. Available at…
Collins, John B.; Pratt, Daniel D.
successful treatment modality for pain across various populations, including: stoke patients (Kim & Koh, 2005); pediatric patients receiving dressing changes (Whitehead- Pleaux & Baryza, 2006); patients receiving cardiac surgery (Sendelbach, Halm, Doran... in reducing self-reported pain in numerous populations ranging from pediatric patients receiving dressing changes (Whitehead-Pleaux & Baryza, 2006) to hospice patients receiving end-of-life care (Groen, 2007). Certain sedative properties of music (i. e...
Providers of mental health services need tools to screen for acute psychosis and ultrahigh risk (UHR) for transition to psychosis in help-seeking individuals. In this study, the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI) was examined as a screening tool and for its ability to correctly predict diagnostic group membership (e.g., help seeking, mild…
Niessen, Maurice A. J.; Dingemans, Peter M. A. J.; van de Fliert, Reinaud; Becker, Hiske E.; Nieman, Dorien H.; Linszen, Don
Background Recent epidemiological studies in Afghanistan using mental health questionnaires yielded high prevalence rates for anxiety\\u000a and depression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives To explore the validity in the Afghan cultural context of two mental health questionnaires, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25\\u000a (HSCL-25) and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The two mental health questionnaires were compared against a ‘gold standard’ semi-structured psychiatric interview, the Psychiatric\\u000a Assessment Schedule (PAS).
Peter Ventevogel; Gieljan De Vries; Willem F. Scholte; Nasratullah Rasa Shinwari; Hafizullah Faiz; Ruhullah Nassery; Wim van den Brink; Miranda Olff
Background Arsenic, a common groundwater pollutant, is associated with adverse reproductive health but few studies have examined its effect on maternal health. Methods A prospective cohort was recruited in Bangladesh from 2008–2011 (N?=?1,458). At enrollment (<16 weeks gestational age [WGA]), arsenic was measured in personal drinking water using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Questionnaires collected health data at enrollment, at 28 WGA, and within one month of delivery. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for self-reported health symptoms were estimated for each arsenic quartile using logistic regression. Results Overall, the mean concentration of arsenic was 38 ?g/L (Standard deviation, 92.7 ?g/L). A total of 795 women reported one or more of the following symptoms during pregnancy (cold/flu/infection, nausea/vomiting, abdominal cramping, headache, vaginal bleeding, or swollen ankles). Compared to participants exposed to the lowest quartile of arsenic (?0.9 ?g/L), the aOR for reporting any symptom during pregnancy was 0.62 (95% CI?=?0.44-0.88) in the second quartile, 1.83 (95% CI?=?1.25-2.69) in the third quartile, and 2.11 (95% CI?=?1.42-3.13) in the fourth quartile where the mean arsenic concentration in each quartile was 1.5 ?g/L, 12.0 ?g/L and 144.7 ?g/L, respectively. Upon examining individual symptoms, only nausea/vomiting and abdominal cramping showed consistent associations with arsenic exposure. The odds of self-reported nausea/vomiting was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.41), 1.52 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.18), and 1.81 (95% CI: 1.26, 2.60) in the second, third and fourth quartile of arsenic relative to the lowest quartile after adjusting for age, body mass index, second-hand tobacco smoke exposure, educational status, parity, anemia, ferritin, medication usage, type of sanitation at home, and household income. A positive trend was also observed for abdominal cramping (P for trend <0.0001). A marginal negative association was observed between arsenic quartiles and odds of self-reported cold/flu/infection (P for trend?=?0.08). No association was observed between arsenic and self-reported headache (P for trend?=?0.19). Conclusion Moderate exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water early in pregnancy was associated with increased odds of experiencing nausea/vomiting and abdominal cramping. Preventing exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water during pregnancy could improve maternal health. PMID:24735908
This study examined the direction of effects and age and sex differences between adolescents’ perceptions of parental behavioral\\u000a and psychological control and adolescents’ self-reports of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder\\u000a (SAD) symptoms. The study focused on 1,313 Dutch adolescents (early-to-middle cohort n = 923, 70.3%; middle-to-late cohort n = 390, 29.7%) from the general population. A multi-group, structural equation model was
Saskia A. M. WijsbroekWilliam; William W. Hale III; Quinten A. W. Raaijmakers; Wim H. J. Meeus
We examined the convergent validity of three posttraumatic symptoms inventories, the civilian version of the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD (CM-PTSD), the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and the Response to Childhood Incest Questionnaire (RCIQ), in a sample of 52 adult sexual abuse survivors. The significant and moderate to strong correlations (r = .6 or higher) among these inventories supported their
Jeffrey W. Gold; Etzel Cardeña
Few efforts have been made to examine the relationship between standard self-report measures and observer ratings of distress in veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the present study correlations between self-report (verbal ratings and scores on the Brief Symptom Inventory) and observer ratings (scores on the Brief Hopkins Psychiatric Rating Scale) of pathology and distress were analyzed for
Stephen Perconte; Anne Wilson
This study examines the relationship between toner-handling work and its health effects on self-reported respiratory symptoms. The subjects were 1,504 male workers in a Japanese toner and photocopier manufacturing company. Personal exposure measurement, pulmonary function tests, chest X-ray examination, measurement of biomarkers, and a questionnaire about self-reported respiratory symptoms were performed annually. This study discusses the questionnaire results. We found that the toner-handling group showed significantly higher prevalence of breathlessness than the never-toner-handling group. The significant reduction of pulmonary function and fibrosis change in the chest X-ray examination associated with breathlessness were not observed. However the morbidity of asthma was higher compared to the Japanese population in both of the toner-handling group and the never-toner handling group, the effect of toner exposure was not clarified. Nevertheless, while the toner exposure levels in the current well-controlled working environment may be sufficiently low to prevent adverse health effects, further studies are needed to assess the more long-term latent health effects of toner exposure. PMID:24719889
Kitamura, Hiroko; Terunuma, Niina; Kurosaki, Shizuka; Hata, Koichi; Masuda, Masashi; Kochi, Takeshi; Yanagi, Nobuaki; Murase, Tadashi; Ogami, Akira; Higashi, Toshiaki
Background: Home and garden pesticide use has been linked to cancer and other health outcomes in numerous epidemiological studies. Exposure has generally been self-reported, so the assessment is potentially limited by recall bias and lack of information on specific chemicals. Objectives: As part of an integrated assessment of residential pesticide exposure, we identified active ingredients and described patterns of storage and use. Methods: During a home interview of 500 residentially stable households enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study during 2001–2006, trained interviewers inventoried residential pesticide products and queried participants about their storage and use. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency registration numbers, recorded from pesticide product labels, and pesticide chemical codes were matched to public databases to obtain information on active ingredients and chemical class. Poisson regression was used to identify independent predictors of pesticide storage. Analyses were restricted to 259 participating control households. Results: Ninety-five percent (246 of 259) of the control households stored at least one pesticide product (median, 4). Indicators of higher sociodemographic status predicted more products in storage. We identified the most common characteristics: storage areas (garage, 40%; kitchen, 20%), pests treated (ants, 33%; weeds, 20%), pesticide types (insecticides, 46%; herbicides, 24%), chemical classes (pyrethroids, 77%; botanicals, 50%), active ingredients (pyrethrins, 43%) and synergists (piperonyl butoxide, 42%). Products could contain multiple active ingredients. Conclusions: Our data on specific active ingredients and patterns of storage and use will inform future etiologic analyses of residential pesticide exposures from self-reported data, particularly among households with young children. PMID:23110983
Guha, Neela; Ward, Mary H.; Gunier, Robert; Colt, Joanne S.; Lea, C. Suzanne; Buffler, Patricia A.
Surveys of 1217 undergraduate students supported the reliability (inter-item and test-retest) and validity of the Prosocial and Aggressive Driving Inventory (PADI). Principal component analyses on the PADI items yielded two scales: Prosocial Driving (17 items) and Aggressive Driving (12 items). Prosocial Driving was associated with fewer reported traffic accidents and violations, with participants who were older and female, and with lower Boredom Susceptibility and Hostility scores, and higher scores on Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness, and Neuroticism. Aggressive Driving was associated with more frequent traffic violations, with female participants, and with higher scores on Competitiveness, Sensation Seeking, Hostility, and Extraversion, and lower scores on Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. The theoretical and practical implications of the PADI's dual focus on safe and unsafe driving are discussed. PMID:25000297
Harris, Paul B; Houston, John M; Vazquez, Jose A; Smither, Janan A; Harms, Amanda; Dahlke, Jeffrey A; Sachau, Daniel A
This multicenter cross-sectional study (n=226) validated the Russian-language M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI-R) in Russian cancer patients with hematological malignancies or solid tumors. The Russian-language Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36-R) also was used for validation. Factor analysis found three underlying constructs for symptom items—general, treatment-related, and affective symptoms—with Cronbach alphas of 0.86, 0.68, and 0.90, respectively.
Maria O. Ivanova; Tatyana I. Ionova; Svetlana A. Kalyadina; Olga S. Uspenskaya; Anton V. Kishtovich; Hong Guo; Tito R. Mendoza; Andrei Novik; Charles S. Cleeland; Xin S. Wang
The reliability and validity of the teacher version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) was examined in 248 boys referred for evaluation of behavioral and emotional problems. The CSI-4 is a behavior rating scale whose items correspond to the symptoms of DSM-IV-defined disorders. The results indicated satisfactory internal consistency reliabilities for most symptom categories, and CSI-4 scores converged and diverged
Kenneth D. Gadow; Joyce Sprafkin; Helen Salisbury; Jayne Schneider; Jan Loney
Summary Resource-limited countries have limited laboratory capability and rely on syndromic management to diagnose sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We aimed to estimate the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of STI syndromic management when used as a screening method within a study setting. Men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSWs) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) participated in a behavioural surveillance study. Data were obtained on demographics, sexual behaviours, STI history and service utilisation. Biological specimens were tested for genital inflammatory infections (Neisseria gonorrhoeae [GC], Chlamydia trachomatis [CT], Mycoplasma genitalium [MG], Trichomonas vaginalis [TV]) and genital ulcerative infection (syphilis and Herpes simplex virus-2). There was a high prevalence of Herpes simplex virus-2 (MSM 48.1%, FSW 82.0% and PLWHA 84.4%). Most participants reported no ulcerative symptoms and the majority of men reported no inflammatory symptoms. Sensitivity and PPV were poor for inflammatory infections among PLWHA and MSM. Sensitivity in FSWs for inflammatory infections was 75%. For ulcerative infections, sensitivity was poor, but specificity and PPV were high. Reliance on self-reported symptoms may not be an effective screening strategy for these populations. STI prevention studies should focus on symptom recognition and consider routine screening and referral for high-risk populations. PMID:24616119
Shah, Neha S; Kim, Evelyn; de Maria Hernández Ayala, Flor; Guardado Escobar, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Kim, Andrea A; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela
Background: The use of mobile phone by children is increasing drastically. Children are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives. Furthermore, as nervous systems in children are developing, children may be at a greater risk compared to adults. In this light, some scientists have suggested that the use of mobile phones should be restricted in high-risk groups such as children. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of mobile phone use and its health effects among students from the city of Shiraz, Iran. Methods: A total of 469 (235 males and 234 females; 250 elementary and 219 junior high school) healthy students participated in this study. The students were randomly selected from three different educational districts of the city. For each student, a questionnaire regarding the possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic fields or microwave radiation, specially the pattern of mobile phone use, medical history and life style was filled out by interviewers. Results: Only 31.42% of the students used to use mobile phones. The average daily time of using mobile phones in talk mode was 7.08±21.42 minutes. Not only the relative frequency of mobile phone ownership in boys was significantly more than the girls, but also the boys used their mobile phones more frequently. Statistically significant associations were found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and some symptoms. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and the number of headaches per month, number of vertigo per month, or number of sleeping problem per month. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study show that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz use mobile phones. A significant increase was found in some self-reported symptoms among users of mobile phones. These findings are in line with what is widely believed regarding the higher vulnerability of children to exhibit symptoms from using mobile phones. The findings and conclusion of the present study should be viewed in the light the nature of symptoms measurement (self-report) and the knowledge and understandings of the participants about the symptoms. PMID:23358105
Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Atefi, Mohammad; Kholghi, Fatemeh
This study examined the degree to which subclinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms (SOCS) among individuals with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) were associated with response inhibition difficulties on a performance-based test. Participants consisted of 64 adults with AD/HD who completed the Conner?s Continuous Performance Test, Second Edition (CPT-II), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (ADD Scale). Individuals with higher scores on the Obsessive-Compulsive Scale from the SCL-90-R made significantly more commission errors on the CPT-II; whereas other SCL-90-R scores did not demonstrate such a relationship. We did not find that SOCS were related to severity of AD/HD. These results supported the hypothesis that individuals with AD/HD with response inhibition difficulties tend to report more subclinical obsessive symptoms. PMID:24556290
Brown, Franklin C; Katz, Lynda J; Roth, Robert M; Beers, Sue R
A large sample (N = 425) of young adult males from the Pittsburg Youth Study (PYS; Loeber, Farrington, Stouthamer-Loeber, & Van Kammen, 1998) was used to test the item-level structure of the short-form version of the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (SRP; Paulhus, Neumann, & Hare, in press) and the standard version of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI; Andershed, Kerr, Stattin, & Levander, 2002). Also, structural equation modeling analyses examined how the SRP and YPI factors were linked to external correlates involving criminal offenses and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. The modeling results indicated acceptable fit for the latent structure of both instruments and the SRP and YPI factor correlations were strong, particularly for conceptually-related scales. Finally, both instruments showed similar patterns in predicting externalizing and internalizing psychopathology, as well as criminal offenses. Taken together, the results provide evidence of convergent and construct validity across the two instruments. New insights into the link between psychopathy and the external correlates in young adult males are discussed. PMID:22984856
Neumann, Craig S; Pardini, Dustin
The screening of women of childbearing age for haematuria, leukocyturia and proteinuria to detect urinary schistosomiasis can be confounded by several factors such as menstruation, pregnancy and genitourinary infections. We therefore undertook a study in an area endemic for Schistosoma haematobium in the United Republic of Tanzania to carry out the following: assess the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values--in women of childbearing age--of indirect indicators of urinary schistosomiasis, as measured by urine reagent strip readings; assess the predictive values of self-reported symptoms; and finally to estimate the morbidity attributable to S. haematobium. A total of 303 women (128 and 175, respectively, living in high- and low-risk sites) participated in the study. Haematuria was more frequent among women excreting S. haematobium eggs than among those who did not (65% versus 32%). The predictive potential of all indirect disease markers was poor in the highly endemic site, while in the sites with low endemicity the negative predictive values were high. Among infected women, 54% of haematuria could be attributed to S. haematobium, but for patients with more than 10 eggs/10 ml the attributable fraction rose to 70%. Symptoms of "bloody urine" and "pain while urinating" were recalled significantly more often by women living in the highly endemic site. On a population level, one-third of the self-reported cases with bloody urine could be attributed to urinary schistosomiasis. Screening of women of childbearing age for urinary schistosomiasis using urine reagent strips can be biased in two directions. The prevalence of S. haematobium will be overestimated if other causes of haematuria, such as reproductive tract infections, are highly endemic. On the other hand, women with light or very light infections will be missed and will not be treated. This is of concern because genital schistosomiasis, a possible risk factor for the transmission of HIV, occurs among women even with light infections. PMID:10885183
Poggensee, G.; Krantz, I.; Kiwelu, I.; Feldmeier, H.
Objective: To study the correlation between symptoms of ADHD in adults, obtained with different methods and from different sources. Method: Information was obtained from 120 adults with ADHD, their partners, and their parents, using the ADHD Rating Scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale…
Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swinkels, S. H. N.; Bekker, Evelijne M.; de Noord, Ineke; Buitelaar, Jan K.
Research on adolescent well-being has shown that students with depression have an increased risk of facing academic failure, yet few studies have looked at the implications of adolescent depression in the process of school dropout. This study examined mediation processes linking depression symptoms, self-perceived academic competence, and…
Quiroga, Cintia V.; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Morin, Alexandre J. S.
Objective: The M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI) is a brief assessment of the severity and impact of cancer-related symptoms. The purpose of this study was the translation and validation of the questionnaire in Greek (G-MDASI). Methods: The translation and validation of the assessment took place at a Pain Relief and Palliative Care Unit. The final validation sample included 150 cancer
Kyriaki Mystakidou; Charles Cleeland; Eleni Tsilika; Emmanuela Katsouda; Aphrodite Primikiri; Efi Parpa; Lambros Vlahos; Tito Mendoza
PURPOSE While depression has been associated with infertility treatments, it is not routinely assessed in women prior to undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Findings are mixed regarding the degree to which women report depression prior to IVF. The purpose of this study was to: 1) examine response profiles in women preparing for IVF, and 2) compare responses to those of postpartum, primary care, and general population groups. METHODS Female IVF patients (n=321; 19 – 45 years) completed the PHQ-9 at their first visit. Clinical, demographic characteristics, and incidence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other depressive disorder (ODD) were examined. Overall score distributions of the IVF group were compared to those of local postpartum patients, and published primary care and general populations. RESULTS Demographic or clinical characteristics did not account for response differences within the IVF group. The IVF group had lower incidences of MDD and ODD than a PHQ-9 normative group. Women in the IVF group reported no depressive symptoms significantly more than postpartum, primary care, and general population groups. CONCLUSIONS Women preparing to undergo IVF report fewer symptoms of depression than multiple comparison groups. Specific quality of life measures may be needed to assess distress in this population. PMID:23138273
Lewis, Adam M.; Liu, Dawei; Stuart, Scott P.; Ryan, Ginny
Background Chronic whiplash leads to considerable patient suffering and substantial societal costs. There are two competing hypothesis on the etiology of chronic whiplash. The traditional organic hypothesis considers chronic whiplash and related symptoms a result of a specific injury. In opposition is the hypothesis that chronic whiplash is a functional somatic syndrome, and related symptoms a result of society-induced expectations and amplification of symptoms. According to both hypotheses, patients reporting chronic whiplash are expected to have more neck pain, headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression than the general population. Increased prevalence of somatic symptoms beyond those directly related to a whiplash neck injury is less investigated. The aim of this study was to test an implication derived from the functional hypothesis: Is the prevalence of somatic symptoms as seen in somatization disorder, beyond symptoms related to a whiplash neck injury, increased in individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash? We further aimed to explore recall bias by comparing the symptom profile displayed by individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash to that among those self-reporting a non-functional injury: fractures of the hand or wrist. We explored symptom load, etiologic origin could not be investigated in this study. Methods Data from the Norwegian population-based “Hordaland Health Study” (HUSK, 1997–99); N?=?13,986 was employed. Chronic whiplash was self-reported by 403 individuals and fractures by 1,746. Somatization tendency was measured using a list of 17 somatic symptoms arising from different body parts and organ systems, derived from the research criteria for somatization disorder (ICD-10, F45). Results Chronic whiplash was associated with an increased level of all 17 somatic symptoms investigated (p<0.05). The association was moderately strong (group difference of 0.60 standard deviation), only partly accounted for by confounding. For self-reported fractures symptoms were only slightly elevated. Recent whiplash was more commonly reported than whiplash-injury a long time ago, and the association of interest weakly increased with time since whiplash (r?=?0.016, p?=?0.032). Conclusions The increased prevalence of somatic symptoms beyond symptoms expected according to the organic injury model for chronic whiplash, challenges the standard injury model for whiplash, and is indicative evidence of chronic whiplash being a functional somatic syndrome. PMID:22935146
This study included 131 male Vietnam veterans between the ages of 40 and 65 years whose files were provided by the external investigator (Jerry Barnett) assigned by Base Camp, Inc., for this study. The study looked at veterans on five different trauma scales of the Trauma Symptom Inventory (Dissociation (DIS), Anxious Arousal (AA), Anger\\/Irritability (AI), Tension Reducing Behavior (TRB) and
Roger Dale Barnes
The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) has become a popular measure in anxiety assessment and the BAI does not overlap in content with measures of depression. There is also some factor analytic evidence to support this distinction. However, an inspection of the BAI's content indicates that many of its items resemble, or are identical to, the symptoms of panic attacks listed
Brian J. Cox; Eva Cohen; David M. Direnfeld; Richard P. Swinson
Objective: This research was conducted to assess the Spanish-language Trauma Symptom Inventory's (Briere, 1995) suitability for use with a Puerto Rican sample. Minor revisions were made to the original instrument following a comprehensive appraisal involving a bilingual committee and pilot focus group. The present study outlines the review and…
Gutierrez Wang, Lisa; Cosden, Merith; Bernal, Guillermo
Despite much debate over a presumptively somatic vs psychological etiology of nonatopic food and chemical sensitivities, little systematic research has addressed the issues. The present study investigated self-reported illness from several common foods (wheat, dairy, eggs) and chemicals (pesticide, car exhaust, paint, perfume, new carpet), symptom patterns, and psychological profiles of a sample of young adult college students (n = 490, age 19.4 +/- 2.4, 52% female/48% male). Subjects were divided into 4 groups on the basis of sample medians for frequency of illness from the foods (FI) and chemicals (CI); high FI with high CI (FI/CI), high FI alone, high CI alone, and NOILL (low FI and CI). FI was associated with more defensiveness (denial of negativity) while CI was linked with more shyness (avoidance of novelty). Women outnumbered men in all groups (FI/CI: 61%; FI: 80% CI: 55%) except the NOILL (40% women). Nevertheless, the FI/CI, FI, and/or CI groups still had significantly higher total symptom scores as well as more indigestion, headache, and memory trouble than did the NOILL group, even after depression, anxiety, shyness, defensiveness, and gender were covaried. The illness groups reported significantly more limitation of foods that mobilize endogenous opioids or generate exogenous opioids (sweets, fats, bread) as well as more illness from opiate drugs, small amounts of beverage alcohol, and late meals. Nasal symptoms from pollens or animals were more common in the FI/CI (42%) and CI (42%) than in FI (26%) or NOILL (28%) groups. Premenstrual tension syndrome and irritable bowel were also more common in the FI/CI group. The findings indicate that young adults outside the clinical setting who are relatively higher in FI and/or CI have distinctive symptom and psychological patterns. Covariate analyses suggest that important symptoms in FI and CI individuals such as indigestion, headache, and memory problems may occur in addition to rather than as simply part of emotional distress. The data are consistent with a previously hypothesized role of olfactory-limbic and hypothalamic pathways and with a time-dependent sensitization model for illness from foods and chemicals. PMID:8294725
Bell, I R; Schwartz, G E; Peterson, J M; Amend, D
To ascertain whether psychiatric outpatients can be classified into distinct types according to their self-reported symptoms of anxiety, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was administered to 655 outpatients diagnosed with DSM-III-R anxiety disorders. Cluster analysis identified three internally consistent subscales representing subjective, somatic, and panic symptoms. Further analysis revealed six types of outpatients reflecting below average, panic-subjective, low subjective, low
Aaron T. Beck; Robert A. Steer; Judith S. Beck
Backgroud It has been shown that different symptoms or symptom combinations of neuropathic pain (NeP) may correspond to different mechanistic backgrounds and respond differently to treatment. The Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) is able to detect distinct clusters of symptoms (i.e. dimensions) with a putative common mechanistic background. The present study described the psychometric validation of the Portuguese version (PV) of the NPSI. Methods Patients were seen in two consecutive visits, three to four weeks apart. They were asked to: (i) rate their mean pain intensity in the last 24 hours on an 11-point (0-10) numerical scale; (ii) complete the PV-NPSI; (iii) provide the list of pain medications and doses currently in use. VAS and Global Impression of Change (GIC) were filled out in the second visit. Results PV-NPSI underwent test-retest reliability, factor analysis, analysis of sensitivity to changes between both visits. The PV-NPSI was reliable in this setting, with a good intra-class correlation for all items. The factorial analysis showed that the PV-NPSI inventory assessed different components of neuropathic pain. Five different factors were found. The PV-NPSI was adequate to evaluate patients with neuropathic pain and to detect clusters of NeP symptoms. Conclusions The psychometric properties of the PV-NPSI rendered it adequate to evaluate patients with both central and peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes and to detect clusters of NeP symptoms. PMID:22128801
Background The electronic self report assessment - cancer (ESRA-C), has been shown to reduce symptom distress during cancer therapy The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate aspects of how the ESRA-C intervention may have resulted in lower symptom distress (SD). Methods Patients at two cancer centers were randomized to ESRA-C assessment only (control) or the Web-based ESRA-C intervention delivered to patients’ homes or to a tablet in clinic. The intervention allowed patients to self-monitor symptom and quality of life (SxQOL) between visits, receive self-care education and coaching to report SxQOL to clinicians. Summaries of assessments were delivered to clinicians in both groups. Audio-recordings of clinic visits made 6 weeks after treatment initiation were coded for discussions of 26 SxQOL issues, focusing on patients’/caregivers’ coached verbal reports of SxQOL severity, pattern, alleviating/aggravating factors and requests for help. Among issues identified as problematic, two measures were defined for each patient: the percent SxQOL reported that included a coached statement, and an index of verbalized coached statements per SxQOL. The Wilcoxon rank test was used to compare measures between groups. Clinician responses to problematic SxQOL were compared. A mediation analysis was conducted, exploring the effect of verbal reports on SD outcomes. Results 517 (256 intervention) clinic visits were audio-recorded. General discussion of problematic SxQOL was similar in both groups. Control group patients reported a median 75% of problematic SxQOL using any specific coached statement compared to a median 85% in the intervention group (p = .0009). The median report index of coached statements was 0.25 for the control group and 0.31 for the intervention group (p = 0.008). Fatigue, pain and physical function issues were reported significantly more often in the intervention group (all p < .05). Clinicians' verbalized responses did not differ between groups. Patients' verbal reports did not mediate final SD outcomes (p = .41). Conclusions Adding electronically-delivered, self-care instructions and communication coaching to ESRA-C promoted specific patient descriptions of problematic SxQOL issues compared with ESRA-C assessment alone. However, clinician verbal responses were no different and subsequent symptom distress group differences were not mediated by the patients' reports. Trial registration NCT00852852; 26 Feb 2009 PMID:25014995
Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family competence from…
Green, Robert G.
The Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) were administered to 71 women who reported histories of childhood and/or adult sexual maltreatment and 25 women who did not report a history of victimization. The TSI validity scales were not effective in identifying…
Arbisi, Paul A.; Erbes, Christopher R.; Polusny, Melissa A.; Nelson, Nathaniel W.
This study evaluated the incremental validity of scores from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) in a sample of mental health inpatients originally published by Archer, Griffin, and Aiduk (1995). The incremental validity of scores from the SCL-90-R primary symptom dimensions…
Simonds, Elise C.; Handel, Richard W.; Archer, Robert P.
Background Psoriasis symptoms have a significant negative impact on health-related quality of life, impairing physical functioning and well-being. Objective To evaluate the impact of brodalumab, a human anti-interleukin-17R monoclonal antibody, on psoriasis symptom severity as measured by a novel patient-reported outcome measure, the Psoriasis Symptom Inventory, and dermatology-specific health-related quality of life as measured by the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Methods This was a secondary analysis of a phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study of patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis (n = 198) treated with brodalumab or placebo. This analysis assessed Psoriasis Symptom Inventory scores and DLQI scores over time. Analyses were conducted on all patients who were randomized and received one or more injections of the study drug according to intention to treat using last observation carried forward to impute missing data. Results At week 12, subjects in the brodalumab groups had significant improvements in mean Psoriasis Symptom Inventory total scores [8·5 (70 mg), 15·8 (140 mg), 16·2 (210 mg) and 12·7 (280 mg)] compared with placebo (4·8). Mean improvements in DLQI were clinically meaningful (? 5·7) in the brodalumab groups (6·2, 9·1, 9·6 and 7·1, respectively) and significantly greater than placebo (3·1). Improvements in Psoriasis Symptom Inventory were observed as early as week 2 and in DLQI by week 4. All eight Psoriasis Symptom Inventory item scores improved significantly among the brodalumab groups by week 12. Conclusions Results were from a single randomized clinical trial and may not generalize to broader patient populations. However, treatment with brodalumab provided significant improvement in psoriasis symptoms in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. PMID:24079852
Gordon, KB; Kimball, AB; Chau, D; Viswanathan, HN; Li, J; Revicki, DA; Kricorian, G; Ortmeier, BG
The aims of this study were, first, to examine the structure and validity of the Eating-related Intrusive Thoughts Inventory (INPIAS), a self-report questionnaire designed to assess eating disorders related to intrusive thoughts (EDITs), and second, to explore the existence of a continuum ranging from normal to abnormal thought intrusions related to eating, weight, and shape. Participants were 574 (408 women) nonclinical community individuals. Analyses revealed that EDITs can be clustered into three sets: appearance-dieting, need to exercise, and thoughts-impulses related to eating disorders. EDITs' consequences showed a two-factor structure: emotional consequences/personal meaning and thought-action fusion responsibility; and four factors of strategies: "anxiety," suppression, obsessive-compulsive rituals, and distraction. The sample was then divided according to reported restrained eating. The High dietary restraint group reported a higher frequency of EDITs, whereas differences in the other factors were mediated by depression, anxiety, and obsessionality. The results suggest that eating disorder-related cognitions are experienced by nonclinical individuals, and distributed on a continuum. PMID:22049653
Perpiñá, Conxa; Roncero, María; Belloch, Amparo; Sánchez-Reales, Sergio
The high rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among substance use disorder (SUD) patients has been documented in research protocols, but there is evidence that it is markedly under-diagnosed in clinical settings. To address the need for a brief self-report measure to identify SUD patients who may benefit from further assessment and\\/or treatment for PTSD, the psychometric properties of a
Scott F. Coffey; Bonnie S. Dansky; Sherry A. Falsetti; Michael E. Saladin; Kathleen T. Brady
The purpose of this study is to examine the factorial structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory 18 (BSI-18) and test its measurement invariance among different drug using populations. A total sample of 710 drug users was recruited using respondent-drive sampling (RDS) from three states: Ohio (n=248), Arkansas (n=237), and Kentucky (n=225). The results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) show: 1) the BSI-18 has a three-factor structure (somatization, depression, and anxiety) with an underlying second-order factor (global severity index of distress); and 2) its factorial structure and metric (factor loadings) are invariant across populations under study. However, the scalars (intercepts) of the BSI-18 items are not invariant, and the means of the latent factors also varied across populations. Our findings provide evidence of a valid factorial structure of the BSI-18 that can be readily applied to studying drug using populations. PMID:19733442
Wang, Jichuan; Kelly, Brian C; Booth, Brenda M; Falck, Russel S; Leukefeld, Carl; Carlson, Robert G
To determine whether self-reported anxious symptoms differentiated elderly medical and psychiatric outpatients, the Beck Anxiety Inventory was administered to 45 medical outpatients and 117 psychiatric inpatients. Only two symptoms, fear of the worst happening and unsteady, contributed unique variance to the differentiation of the two groups. (SLD)
Steer, Robert A.; And Others
The authors examined the Trauma Symptom Inventorys (TSI) ability to discriminate 88 student post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) simulators screened for genuine PTSD from 48 clinical PTSD-diagnosed outpatients. Results demonstrated between-group differences on several TSI clinical scales and the Atypical Response (ATR) validity scale.…
Elhai, Jon D.; Gray, Matthew J.; Naifeh, James A.; Butcher, Jimmie J.; Davis, Joanne L.; Falsetti, Sherry A.; Best, Connie L.
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met single nucleotide polymorphism may be associated with clinical and subsyndromal depression, but physical activity improves mood and increases BDNF expression. The aim of the study was to examine whether the BDNF polymorphism moderates an effect of physical activity on depressive symptoms. BDNF genotype, physical activity measured by the Paffenbarger Questionnaire, and depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiology Depression Scale (CES-D) were collected on 1072 participants (mean age=44). Multiple linear regression was used to examine the association between BDNF genotype, physical activity, and depressive symptoms. After adjusting for family income, age, and education, depressive symptoms were higher in Met carriers compared to Val homozygotes (p=0.03), but this was only significant in men. Physical activity was associated with fewer depressive symptoms, but only in women (p=0.01). BDNF genotype did not moderate the effect of physical activity on depressive symptoms (p=0.94). In midlife, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism neither attenuates nor magnifies the effect of physical activity on depressive symptoms. PMID:24745471
Gujral, Swathi; Manuck, Stephen B; Ferrell, Robert E; Flory, Janine D; Erickson, Kirk I
The current prospective study investigated transactional relations between maternal depressive symptoms and children’s depressive\\u000a and externalizing symptoms. Participants included 240 children (M age?=?11.86 years, SD?=?0.56; 53.9% female) and their mothers who were part of a 6-year longitudinal study. Measures of maternal depression (Beck\\u000a Depression Inventory), child depression (Children’s Depression Inventory), and children’s externalizing symptoms (Youth Self-Report\\u000a Form) were assessed annually. Data
Chrystyna D. Kouros; Judy Garber
Hearing loss is a potentially disabling problem among elderly leading to physical and social dysfunction. Though audiometric assessment of hearing loss is considered as gold standard, it is not feasible in community settings. Several questionnaires measuring hearing handicap have been developed. Knowledge regarding applicability of these questionnaires among rural elderly is limited, hence a study was planned to validate single question and Shortened Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly (HHIE-S) in detecting hearing loss against pure tone-audiometry among rural Indian elderly. A single question 'do you feel you have a hearing loss?' and the HHIE-S was administered to 175 elderly in two rural areas. Hearing ability was assessed using pure tone audiometry. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of both screening tools were compared with pure tone averages (PTAs) greater than 25, 40 and 55 dB hearing level (mild, moderate and severe hearing loss, respectively). The single question yielded low sensitivity (30.9%) and high specificity (93.9%) for mild hearing loss. Similarly HHIE-S yielded a sensitivity of 26.2% and specificity of 95.9%. Sensitivity with single question increased to 76.2% and specificity decreased to 83.1% with severe hearing loss. Sensitivity with HHIE-S also increased to 76.2% and specificity decreased to 87.7% with severe hearing loss. These hearing screening questionnaires will be useful in identifying more disabling hearing losses among rural elderly which helps in rehabilitation services planning. PMID:22898672
Deepthi, R; Kasthuri, Arvind
Research on patient-centered care supports use of patient/consumer self-report measures in monitoring health outcomes. This study examined the incremental value of self-report mental health measures relative to a clinician-rated measure in predicting functional outcomes among mental health service recipients. Participants (n?=?446) completed the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Veterans/Rand Short Form-36 at enrollment in the study (T1) and 3 months later (T2). Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) ratings, mental health service utilization, and psychiatric diagnoses were obtained from administrative data files. Controlling for demographic and clinical variables, results indicated that improvement based on the self-report measures significantly predicted one or more functional outcomes (i.e., decreased likelihood of post-enrollment psychiatric hospitalization and increased likelihood of paid employment), above and beyond the predictive value of the GAF. Inclusion of self-report measures may be a useful addition to performance measurement efforts. PMID:21191819
Eisen, Susan V; Bottonari, Kathryn A; Glickman, Mark E; Spiro, Avron; Schultz, Mark R; Herz, Lawrence; Rosenheck, Robert; Rofman, Ethan S
Objective: To directly compare estimates of potential depressive disorders and clinically significant depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Older Adult Health and Mood Questionnaire (OAHMQ) among participants with spinal cord injury (SCI). Research Design: 727 participants from a hospital in the Southeastern United States were administered the PHQ-9 and OAHMQ during a follow-up survey. We compared the
James S. Krause; Lee L. Saunders; Karla S. Reed; Jennifer Coker; Yusheng Zhai; Emily Johnson
\\u000a Abstract Following the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse on September 11, 2001, more than 40,000 people were exposed to a complex mixture\\u000a of inhalable nanoparticles and toxic chemicals. While many developed chronic respiratory symptoms, to what degree olfaction\\u000a was compromised is unclear. A previous WTC Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program study found that olfactory and nasal trigeminal\\u000a thresholds were altered by
Kenneth W. Altman; Shaun C. Desai; Jacqueline Moline; Rafael E. de la Hoz; Robin Herbert; Patrick J. Gannon; Richard L. Doty
In Bangladesh there is a dearth on information relating to complications during pregnancy. We followed up 1,019 pregnant women in rural Bangladesh sampled from all the 4 old administrative divisions of the country. Trained female interviewers visited households of the pregnant women at four-week intervals and interviewed them for their current pregnancy-related complications. Out of a total of 3,812 antepartum visits the percentage of reported symptoms of bleeding, fits and convulsions, excessive vomiting, fever >3 days, urinary problems, palpitations and symptomatic anemia were 0.3, 0.7, 1.4, 4.0, 26.8, 46.5 and 78.3 respectively. Morbidities were considered to cause a health burden if they imposed constraints in daily activities of the pregnant women and they were weighted according to intensity of the constraint. For each morbidity, the mean intensity of burden per episode and the population burden per 1,000 person months of observation of all the women were calculated. For common sustaining morbidities like symptomatic anemia and urinary problems the population burden was much heavier than that for more serious but rare morbidities like bleeding and convulsions. Among the visits in which the women had any symptoms, the percentages of care-seeking for less frequently reported morbidities such as fits and convulsions, bleeding, fever >3 days, excessive vomiting were about 74, 50, 34 and 33% respectively, whereas those for more commonly reported complications such as urinary problems, symptomatic anemia and palpitations were less than 20%. Care for these morbidities was mostly sought from untrained providers. PMID:11289029
Chowdhury, M E; Akhter, H H; Chongsuvivatwong, V
This study examined anxiety and depressive symptoms among 115 mothers of children undergoing bone marrow transplant and evaluated the ability of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; A. T. Beck, N. Epstein, et al., 1988) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; A. T. Beck, 1978) to serve as screening tools for assessing generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and major
Sharon Manne; Nancy Nereo; Katherine DuHamel; Jamie Ostroff; Susan Parsons; Richard Martini; Sharon Williams; Laura Mee; Sandra Sexson; Julie Lewis; Suzanne J. Vickberg; William H. Redd
The authors examined the comparative predictive capacity of the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) Atypical Response Scale (ATR) and the standard set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) fake-bad validity scales (i.e., F, F[subscript B[prime
Efendov, Adele A.; Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael
Depressive symptoms in youth may be a risk factor for obesity, with altered eating behaviors as one possible mechanism. We tested whether depressive symptoms were associated with observed eating patterns expected to promote excessive weight gain in two separate samples. In Study 1, 228 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 12-17y (15.3±1.4y; 54.7% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 10,934-kcal buffet meal served at 11:00am after an overnight fast. In Study 2, 204 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 8-17y (13.0±2.8y; 49.5% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children's Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 9835-kcal buffet meal served at 2:30pm after a standard breakfast. In Study 1, controlling for body composition and other relevant covariates, depressive symptoms were positively related to total energy intake in girls and boys. In Study 2, adjusting for the same covariates, depressive symptoms among girls only were positively associated with total energy intake. Youth high in depressive symptoms and dietary restraint consumed the most energy from sweets. In both studies, the effects of depressive symptoms on intake were small. Nevertheless, depressive symptoms were associated with significantly greater consumption of total energy and energy from sweet snack foods, which, over time, could be anticipated to promote excess weight gain. PMID:24424352
Mooreville, Mira; Shomaker, Lauren B; Reina, Samantha A; Hannallah, Louise M; Adelyn Cohen, L; Courville, Amber B; Kozlosky, Merel; Brady, Sheila M; Condarco, Tania; Yanovski, Susan Z; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A
To investigate the dimensions of self-reported anxiety in adolescents, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was administered to 108 inpatients between 12 and 17 years old who were diagnosed with mixed psychiatric disorders. An iterated principal-factor analysis was performed, and two factors were found representing subjective and somatic symptoms of anxiety. The compositions of these dimensions were comparable to those previously
Geetha Kumar; Robert A. Steer; Aaron T. Beck
Study Objectives: Prior research suggests that sleep deprivation is associated with declines in some aspects of emotional intelligence and increased severity on indices of psychological disturbance. Sleep deprivation is also associated with reduced prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity, potentially reflecting impaired top-down modulation of emotion. It remains unknown whether this modified connectivity may be observed in relation to more typical levels of sleep curtailment. We examined whether self-reported sleep duration the night before an assessment would be associated with these effects. Design: Participants documented their hours of sleep from the previous night, completed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Setting: Outpatient neuroimaging center at a private psychiatric hospital. Participants: Sixty-five healthy adults (33 men, 32 women), ranging in age from 18-45 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Greater self-reported sleep the preceding night was associated with higher scores on all scales of the EQ-i but not the MSCEIT, and with lower symptom severity scores on half of the psychopathology scales of the PAI. Longer sleep was also associated with stronger negative functional connectivity between the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Moreover, greater negative connectivity between these regions was associated with higher EQ-i and lower symptom severity on the PAI. Conclusions: Self-reported sleep duration from the preceding night was negatively correlated with prefrontal-amygdala connectivity and the severity of subjective psychological distress, while positively correlated with higher perceived emotional intelligence. More sleep was associated with higher emotional and psychological strength. Citation: Killgore WDS. Self-reported sleep correlates with prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity and emotional functioning. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1597-1608. PMID:24179291
Killgore, William D. S.
To study the distinction between self-reports of anxiety and depression, a factor analysis was conducted using responses of 298 anxiety disorder patients on the Beck Depression Inventory and the State Anxiety subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that the two conditions can be reliably differentiated in self-reports. (SLD)
Cox, Brian J.; And Others
Abstract Background Some domains of the questionnaires used to measure symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in patients with advanced cancer seem to measure similar dimensions or constructs, so it would be useful for clinicians to demonstrate the interchangeability of equivalent domains of the questionnaires in measuring the same constructs. Objective This study investigated the reliability and concurrent validity of the Palliative Outcome Scale (POS), the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL), and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), used to measure symptom control in patients with advanced cancer. Design This was an evaluative study. Setting/Subjects Subjects were patients with advanced cancer attended by Spanish primary care physicians. Measurements Secondary analysis was performed of 117 outpatients who completed the POS, BPI, and RSCL at two different times, with an interval of 7 to 10 days. Bland and Altman analyses and plot, repeatability coefficient, as well as Spearman correlations were carried out. Results There were 117 included patients. Mean age was 69.4 (11.5) years, gender was 60% male, 37.6% completed only elementary school, diagnoses were mainly digestive and lung cancer, with a low functional rate and presence of oncologic pain. First and second questionnaire rounds showed significant correlations and agreement. Agreement was shown between pain intensity of BPI and pain and physical scales of RSCL, and between physical symptoms of RSCL and of POS, with significant correlations in equivalent dimensions. Conclusion BPI, POS, and RSCL have shown adequate reliability and moderate concurrent validity among them. PMID:23808642
Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Agra-Varela, Yolanda
Examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and decision making among a non-clinical sample of low-income African American adolescents. Data from the Children's Depression Inventory and Flinders Adolescent Decision Making Questionnaire indicated that there was a significant correlation between adolescents' self-reported depressive…
Okwumabua, Jebose O.; Duryea, Elias J.; Wong, S. P.
Background: Diagnostics and care for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and psychiatric disorders need to be improved. This can be done by using assessment instruments to routinely measure the nature and severity of psychiatric symptoms. Up until now, in the Netherlands, assessment measures are seldom used in the psychiatric care for this…
Wieland, J.; Wardenaar, K. J.; Fontein, E.; Zitman, F. G.
Background: A self-rating inventory has been developed to measure DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnoses of major (moderate to severe) depression by the patients’ self-reported symptoms. This Major Depression Inventory (MDI) can be scored both according to the DSM-IV and the ICD-10 algorithms for depressive symptomatology and according to severity scales by the simple total sum of the items. Methods: The Schedule
P. Bech; N.-A. Rasmussen; L. Raabæk Olsen; V. Noerholm; W. Abildgaard
Psychopathy has been conceptualized as a personality disorder with distinctive interpersonal-affective and behavioral deviance features. The authors examine correlates of the factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), Self-Report Psychopathy–II (SRP-II) scale, and Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) to understand similarities and differences among the constructs embodied in these instruments. PPI Fearless Dominance and SRP-II Factor 1 were negatively related to most personality disorder symptoms and were both predicted by high Dominance and low Neuroticism. In addition, PPI Fearless Dominance correlated positively with antisocial personality features, although SRP-II Factor 1 did not. In contrast, PPI Impulsive Antisociality, SRP-II Factor 2, and both APSD factors correlated with antisocial personality features and symptoms of nearly all personality disorders, and were predicted by low Love. Results suggest ways in which the measurement of the constructs in each instrument may be improved. PMID:16123248
Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Salekin, Randall T.; Leistico, Anne-Marie R.
The aim of this study was to assess stress response symptoms in children of parents diagnosed with cancer 1–5 year prior to study entry. The impact of event scale was used to measure stress response symptoms in terms of intrusion and avoidance; the youth self-report assessed emotional and behavioural functioning; the state-trait anxiety inventory for children measured trait-anxiety. Participants included
Gea A. Huizinga; Annemieke Visser; Harald J. Hoekstra; Ed C. Klip; Elisabeth Pras; Josette E. H. M. Hoekstra-Weebers
This study employed the Basic Personality Inventory (BPI) to differentiate various types of dis-simulation, including malingered psychopathology and faking good, by inmates. In particular, the role of intelligence in utilizing symptom information to successfully malinger was examined. On admission to a correctional facility, 161 inmates completed…
Steffan, Jarrod S.; Kroner, Daryl G.; Morgan, Robert D.
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the relationship between self- reported bleeding symptoms and uterine leiomyoma size and location. METHODS: The leiomyoma status of a randomly selected sample of women aged 35- 49 in the Washington, DC, area was determined using abdominal and transvaginal ultra- sound to measure size and location of leiomyomata found at screening. Women were asked about symptoms of heavy
Ganesa Wegienka; Irva Hertz-Picciotto; Sioban D. Harlow; John F. Steege; Michael C. Hill; Joel M. Schectman; Katherine E. Hartmann
Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1996) and…
Zekveld, Adriana A.; George, Erwin L. J.; Houtgast, Tammo; Kramer, Sophia E.
The present study examined whether popular self-report measures of depression could be distinguished from self-report measures of anxiety and social desirability response style. Subjects were 391 college students (135 males and 256 females). The scales included the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Lubin Depression Adjective Checklist, the State and Trait forms of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory,
Junko Tanaka-Matsumi; Velma A. Kameoka
The literature on the effect of maltreatment has revealed several methodological problems of retrospective studies, such as the validity and stability of retrospective reports, which may be influenced by factors such as one's mental health at the time of the report. This study aims to assess the temporal stability of self-reported adverse childhood experiences at three different time points, separated by 6 months each, and to analyze the relationship between general psychopathology and the number of reported experiences. Thirty obese participants responded to the Portuguese version of the Childhood History Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses adverse childhood experiences, and the Brief Symptom Inventory. The results suggest that adverse childhood experiences are common in these participants (time 1: X = 1.87, SD = 1.3; time 2: X = 1.98, SD = 1.6; time 3: X = 1.98, SD = 1.6). The agreement levels, as measured by kappa values, were satisfactory for the dimensions of maltreatment focused on the individual, with kappas ranging between .34 and .44. Our participants did not exhibit psychopathology at any of the time points, and the psychopathological symptoms were not related to total adversity reported. The major contribution of this study is the comparison of self-reports at three time points, separated by significant time intervals, and the inclusion of 10 different dimensions of childhood adversity. The data show an adequate stability in the report of maltreatment toward the individual (abuse and physical neglect) and in specific aspects of adversity in the family. PMID:23360751
da Silva, Susana Sofia Pereira; da Costa Maia, Angela
The Life Style Index (LSI), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ), the Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI), and the FIRO Coping Operations Preferences Enquiry (FIRO) were administered to 187 undergraduates in order to determine convergent and discriminant validity of self-report measures of defense mechanisms. A correlational analysis of the four scales resulted in low correlations among subscales measuring similar defense mechanisms. A factor analysis produced factors based on particular scales rather than identical or similar constructs. Results suggest that self-report measures may not be an effective method for assessing various ego defense strategies. PMID:9465149
Objectives. The long-form 64-item Profile of Fatigue and Discomfort—Sicca Symptoms Inventory (PROFAD-SSI) questionnaire was developed as a patient-reported assessment tool for use in primary SS (PSS) and other rheumatic disorders. In this study, we assess whether the (shorter and more practical) 19-item PROFAD-SSI-SF (short form) gives similar results and whether a still briefer version using visual analogue scales (VASs) is
S. J. Bowman; J. Hamburger; A. Richards; R. J. Barry; S. Rauz
This study examines the usefulness of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) as a screening tool for psychological disorders in patients with epilepsy and mild intellectual disabilities. Participants were 91 residents of the Bethel Institute, Bielefeld, Germany. Cronbach’s ? was revealed to be sufficient for the composite score Global Severity Index (GSI) (0.95) and for most of the subscales (0.64–0.80). Compared
Objectives. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF) in a community-based sample of African-Americans. Design. A sample of 340 African-Americans (116 men, 224 women) ranging in age from 18-81 years were recruited from the community (e.g., churches, health fairs, and beauty salons). Participants completed a brief demographic survey, the MFSI-SF and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Results. The structural validity of the MFSI-SF for a community-based sample of African-Americans was not supported. The five dimensions of fatigue (General, Emotional, Physical, Mental, Vigor) found for Whites in prior research were not found for African-Americans in this study. Instead, fatigue, while multidimensional for African-Americans, was best represented by a unique four-four profile in which general and emotional fatigue are collapsed into a single dimension and physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and vigor are relatively distinct. Hence, in the absence of modifications, the MFSI-SF cannot be considered to be structurally invariant across ethnic groups. A modified four-factor version of the MFSI-SF exhibited excellent internal consistency reliability and evidence supports its convergent validity. Using the modified four-factor version, gender, and age were not meaningfully associated with MFSI-SF scores. Conclusion. Future research should further examine whether modifications to the MFSI-SF would, as the findings suggest, improve its validity as a measure of multidimensional fatigue in African-Americans. PMID:24527980
Asvat, Yasmin; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Sadler, Georgia R; Jacobsen, Paul B
To ascertain whether self-reported anxious symptoms differentiated elderly (? 60 years old) medical and psychiatric outpatients, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was administered to 45 medical outpatients without psychiatric disorders and 117 psychiatric outpatients with mixed DSM-III-R disorders. The coefficient alphas of the BAI for the medical and psychiatric outpatients were 0.86 and 0.90, respectively. The mean BAI score (19.19,
Robert A. Steer; Margaret Willman; Patricia A. J. Kay; Aaron T. Beck
To ascertain how effective the Beck Depression Inventory for Primary Care (BDI-PC) was for differentiating medical inpatients who were and were not diagnosed with DSM-IV major depression disorders (MDD), this 7-item self-report instrument composed of cognitive and affective symptoms was administered to 50 medical inpatients along with the Depression subscale (HDS) from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond &
Aaron T. Beck; David Guth; Robert A. Steer; Roberta Ball
Abstract Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE. PMID:23421745
Seichepine, Daniel R.; Stamm, Julie M.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Riley, David O.; Baugh, Christine M.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C.; Nowinski, Christopher J.
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE. PMID:23421745
Seichepine, Daniel R; Stamm, Julie M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Riley, David O; Baugh, Christine M; Gavett, Brandon E; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A
This study suggests that women who underwent breast reduction showed a significant improvement in both physical and psychological symptoms associated with macromastia and in their overall quality of life, 12 months postoperatively. Comparing pre- with postoperative scores obtained with the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination Self-Report (BDDE-SR23), the Short Form-36 Health Survey and the Symptom Inventory Questionnaire, the study objectively proves that breast reduction increases patient's satisfaction with their body image and improves their lives from both a psychological and relational point of view. PMID:18951077
Rogliani, M; Gentile, P; Labardi, L; Donfrancesco, A; Cervelli, V
The Post-concussive Symptom Questionnaire (PCSQ) and its short forms were evaluated to determine their utility in measuring symptom validity as brief self-report measures in 112 individuals referred for a neuropsychological evaluation. First, the relationships between the PCSQ forms and measures of cognitive performance (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Full-Scale IQ, California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition Trials 1-5 Total T-score, Trails B, FAS), general distress (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI]-2 M8), and self-report symptom validity (MMPI-2 FBS Symptom Validity Scale [FBS] and Response Bias Scale [RBS]) were investigated to determine construct validity. Measures of self-report symptom validity explained the greatest amount of variance. Second, receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were conducted to determine the predictive value of the PCSQ forms in detecting over reporting on the FBS and the RBS in addition to establishing optimal cutoff scores. On the basis of the proposed cutoff scores, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power, negative predictive power, and hit rates were calculated. PMID:20710017
Van Dyke, Sarah A; Axelrod, Bradley N; Schutte, Christian
This article reviews recent developments in the assessment of creativity using self-report scales. We focus on four new and promising scales: the Creative Achievement Questionnaire, the Biographical Inventory of Creative Behaviors, the revised Creative Behavior Inventory, and the Creative Domain Questionnaire. For each scale, we review evidence for reliability, validity, and structure, and we discuss important methodological features for users
Paul J. Silvia; Benjamin Wigert; Roni Reiter-Palmon; James C. Kaufman
We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression). PMID:23644673
Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John
We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression). PMID:23644673
Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C.; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John
Three studies that examined the links between affective personality, as constructed from responses to the Positive Affect\\u000a (PA) and Negative Affect (NA) Scale (PANAS), and individuals’ self-report of self- esteem, intrinsic motivation and Beck’s\\u000a Depression Inventory (BDI) depression in high school students and persons in working occupations are described. Self- report\\u000a estimations of several other neuropsychiatric and psychosocial variables including,
Trevor Archer; Birgitta Adolfsson; Erica Karlsson
The Externalizing Spectrum Inventory (ESI; Krueger, Markon, Patrick, Benning, & Kramer, 2007) provides a self-report based method for indexing a range of correlated problem behaviors and traits in the domain of deficient impulse control. The ESI organizes lower-order behaviors and traits of this kind around higher-order factors encompassing general disinhibitory proneness, callous-aggression, and substance abuse. The current study used data from a male prisoner sample (N = 235) to evaluate the validity of ESI total and factor scores in relation to external criterion measures consisting of externalizing disorder symptoms (including child and adult antisocial deviance and substance-related problems) assessed via diagnostic interview, personality traits assessed by self-report, and psychopathic features as assessed by both interview and self-report. Results provide evidence for the validity of the ESI measurement model and point to its potential utility as a referent for research on the neurobiological correlates and etiological bases of externalizing proneness. PMID:21787091
Venables, Noah C.; Patrick, Christopher J.
Objective This study aimed to examine the relationship between internalization of weight bias, which has been linked to specific negative mental health outcomes, and overall mental and physical health among overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED). The role of depressive symptoms as a potential mediator in this relationship was also tested. Design and Methods In a cross-sectional study, 255 individuals who were overweight and seeking treatment for BED completed the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS), Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI). Regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between the WBIS and the SF-36, and bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted to test whether BDI scores mediated this relationship. Results Higher weight bias internalization was associated with poorer self-reported health on all scales of the SF-36, and BDI scores mediated the relationship. Additional analyses revealed that WBIS scores also mediated the relationship between BDI scores and three SF-36 scales. Conclusions Weight bias internalization is associated with poorer overall mental and physical health, and depressive symptoms may play a role in accounting for this relationship in treatment-seeking overweight patients with BED. PMID:24039219
Pearl, Rebecca L.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.
The cumulative effect of different childhood trauma types on self-reported symptoms of adult male depression and PTSD, substance abuse and health-related quality of life in a large active-duty military cohort.
History of childhood trauma (CT) is highly prevalent and may lead to long-term consequences on physical and mental health. This study investigated the independent association of CT with symptoms of adult depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL), as well as current tobacco consumption and alcohol abuse in a large homogenous cohort of 1254 never-deployed, young male Marines enrolled in the Marine Resiliency Study. Independent effects of CT history, number and type of CT on outcomes were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate logistic regression models. Our results suggested dose-dependent negative effect of an increasing number of trauma types of CT on depression, PTSD and HRQoL. Experience of single CT type demonstrated overall weak effects, while history of multiple CT types distinctively increased the likelihood of adult PTSD symptomology (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5-6.2), poor mental (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.1) and physical HRQoL (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9). Risk for depression symptoms was similar for both single and multiple CT (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.8 and OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.5 respectively). CT history had no effects on current tobacco use and alcohol abuse. Our study thus provides evidence for substantial additive effect of different CT types on adult mental and physical health with increasing levels of exposure. PMID:25139009
Agorastos, Agorastos; Pittman, James O E; Angkaw, Abigail C; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Hansen, Christian J; Aversa, Laura H; Parisi, Sarah A; Barkauskas, Donald A; Baker, Dewleen G
Depression and alcohol use are often found in college students, particularly during their first year. The current study assessed the interrelationship of alcohol use and specific depression symptoms. A large sample (n = 869) of first year students were invited to participate via the Internet Results indicated that specific depression symptoms correlated with alcohol consumption. Self-reported heavy, problem drinkers experienced significantly higher Beck Depression Inventory scores than all other groups. Our findings higlight the importance of screening for both alcohol use and depressed mood in college students. PMID:22545634
Geisner, Irene Markman; Mallett, Kimberly; Kilmer, Jason R.
Despite the frequent use of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist (Y-BOCS-SC; Goodman et al., 1989a) and the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R; Foa et al., 2002), there are limited data on the psychometric properties of the two instruments. In the present research, clinician ratings on the Y-BOCS-SC for 112 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were compared to their self-report ratings on the OCI-R. In addition, Y-BOCS-SC and OCI-R scores were compared to measures of OCD symptom severity and self-report measures of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Subscale [STAI-T]; Spielberger, Gorusch, & Lushene, 1970) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II [BDI-II]; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996). The six symptom scales of the OCI-R had good internal consistency reliabilities (alphas). For the Y-BOCS-SC, three of five scales had good reliabilities (alphas >.80), but alphas for symmetry/ordering and sexual/religious symptom scales were inadequate. Total scores for the two instruments were strongly correlated with their corresponding "checking" scales, but no individual symptoms scales were identified as indices of overall OCD symptom presence. Scales assessing washing/contamination, symmetry/ordering, and hoarding from the two OCD instruments correlated well, but lower correlations for the other scales suggested differences in symptom coverage by the two instruments. Most symptom scales from the Y-BOCS-SC and OCI-R had low correlations with the BDI-II and STAI-T, but the OCI-R obsessing scale was well correlated (r=.54) with the STAI-T. These findings reveal some of the strengths and weaknesses of these two OCD instruments, and the results provide guidance for selecting scales that are suitable for measuring OCD symptoms. PMID:18942133
Sulkowski, Michael L; Storch, Eric A; Geffken, Gary R; Ricketts, Emily; Murphy, Tanya K; Goodman, Wayne K
The current study assessed self-reported psychopathology in women who spontaneously quit or continued smoking after learning that they are pregnant and examined whether any potential differences remained after control for confounding variables. All participants (77 smokers and 50 spontaneous quitters) completed 3 assessments of psychological functioning prior to enrollment in either smoking cessation or relapse prevention studies. Assessments included the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI); the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); and the Adult Self-Report (ASR). Smokers and spontaneous quitters differed on sociodemographic and smoking characteristics. In terms of psychological functioning, smokers reported significantly more depression/anxiety symptoms and withdrawn behavior than spontaneous quitters on the BSI and the ASR. Higher depression scores on the BSI were associated with increased odds of continued smoking, even after controlling for sociodemographic and smoking variables in multivariate analyses. These results suggest that depressive symptoms may be an independent contributor to the problem of continued smoking during pregnancy, which may have implications for smoking-cessation interventions among pregnant women. PMID:19411145
Linares Scott, Teresa J.; Heil, Sarah H.; Higgins, Stephen T.; Badger, Gary J.; Bernstein, Ira M.
Objective This study examined the effects of chronic focal lesions to the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) on neuropsychological test performance and self-reported executive functioning in everyday living. Methods Fourteen adults with OFC lesions were compared to 10 patients with LPFC injuries and 21 healthy controls. Neuropsychological tests with emphasis on measures of cognitive executive function were administered along with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-A) and a psychiatric screening instrument. Results The LPFC group differed from healthy controls on neuropsychological tests of sustained mental effort, response inhibition, working memory and mental switching, while the BRIEF-A provided more clinically important information on deficits in everyday life in the OFC group compared to the LPFC group. Correlations between neuropsychological test results and BRIEF-A were weak, while the BRIEF-A correlated strongly with emotional distress. Conclusions It was demonstrated that LPFC damage is particularly prone to cause cognitive executive deficit, while OFC injury is more strongly associated with self-reported dysexecutive symptoms in everyday living. The study illustrates the challenge of identifying executive deficit in individual patients and the lack of strong anatomical specificity of the currently employed methods. There is a need for an integrative methodological approach where standard testing batteries are supplemented with neuropsychiatric and frontal-specific rating scales. PMID:22731818
L?VSTAD, M.; FUNDERUD, I.; ENDESTAD, T.; DUE-T?NNESSEN, P.; MELING, T. R.; LINDGREN, M.; KNIGHT, R. T.; SOLBAKK, A. K.
Brief self-report symptom checklists are often used to screen for postconcussional disorder (PCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are highly susceptible to symptom exaggeration. This study examined the utility of the five-item Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms Scale (mBIAS) designed for use with the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C). Participants were 85 Australian undergraduate students who completed a battery of self-report measures under one of three experimental conditions: control (i.e., honest responding, n?=?24), feign PCD (n?=?29), and feign PTSD (n?=?32). Measures were the mBIAS, NSI, PCL-C, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), and the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS). Participants instructed to feign PTSD and PCD had significantly higher scores on the mBIAS, NSI, PCL-C, and MMPI-2-RF than did controls. Few differences were found between the feign PCD and feign PTSD groups, with the exception of scores on the NSI (feign PCD > feign PTSD) and PCL-C (feign PTSD > feign PCD). Optimal cutoff scores on the mBIAS of ?8 and ?6 were found to reflect "probable exaggeration" (sensitivity = .34; specificity = 1.0; positive predictive power, PPP = 1.0; negative predictive power, NPP = .74) and "possible exaggeration" (sensitivity = .72; specificity = .88; PPP = .76; NPP = .85), respectively. Findings provide preliminary support for the use of the mBIAS as a tool to detect symptom exaggeration when administering the NSI and PCL-C. PMID:23419145
Lange, Rael T; Edmed, Shannon L; Sullivan, Karen A; French, Louis M; Cooper, Douglas B
To examine whether personality traits related to psychopathy predict specific forms of sexual aggression in college men, a sample of 378 men completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES), the Socialization Scale, and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Psychopathy Checklist ratings were also available for 63 of these men based on a brief interview. The SES is a self-report measure designed to
DAVID S. KOSSON; JENNIFER C. KELLY; JACQUELYN W. WHITE
Undergraduates completed self-report inventories of assertiveness, participated in behavior role-playing tasks and in vivo measures of assertiveness, and completed the Personality Research Form E (PRF-E). Of 22 PRF-E scales, 11 had at least one significant correlation with assertiveness measures. Some composites of PRF-E scales were related to…
Green, Samuel B.; And Others
Reviews the case against and for verbal self-reports, then attempts a balanced assessment. Also critiques recent argumentation studies. (Examples of self-reports include disclosures under psychoanalysis, thinking aloud protocols of undergraduates reading a message, oral choices made in perceptual judgment tasks, marks on a Likert scale.) (PD)
Studies have demonstrated that self-report tools can be used to reliably and validly examine psychopathic-like traits in adolescents. However, it is unclear if self-report instruments are still reliable and valid when confidentiality cannot be guaranteed, such as during routine assessments in juvenile detention centres. To address this issue, the current study used data from the routine mental health screening of 365 detained male adolescents (12-18 years) in two juvenile detention centres. With the intention of gaining insight in the clinical usefulness of self-reported psychopathic-like traits, we examined relations known from literature with emotional and behavioural features. Self-reported psychopathic-like traits, measured by the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short version (YPI-S), were uniquely associated with substance abuse, anger/irritability, conduct problems and hyperactivity, but not with internalizing problems. YPI-S-dimensions showed several specific relationships with variables of interest. For example, only the callous unemotional dimension was negatively related with prosocial behaviour and only the behavioural dimension was positively related with hyperactivity. In conclusion, self-reported psychopathic-like traits showed expected relations with relevant variables. These findings suggest that self-report can be used to identify detained youths with high levels of psychopathic-like traits outside a research context, thus, even when anonymity and confidentiality are not guaranteed. PMID:24327266
Vahl, Pauline; Colins, Olivier F; Lodewijks, Henny P B; Markus, Monica T; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M
The Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-Progress Monitor-Parent Form (CASI-PM-P) is a 29-item rating scale designed to evaluate symptom change for commonly referred child and adolescent disorders. Its intended applications include monitoring longer-term changes in clinical status and assessing intervention responsiveness. To enhance practicality, there is one version of the CASI-PM-P for all age groups with a common set of norms for both genders. Scoring procedures allow clinicians to assess whether observed symptom changes exceeded chance fluctuations. Using a clinical sample of 2,693 children ages 3-17 years, the 29 symptom-related items were identified that had the best item-to-total minus item correlations on the three age-appropriate scales of the Symptom Inventories. Item-to-total minus item correlations of similar magnitude were also obtained for those items with the standardization sample. In clinical samples, the CASI-PM-P scores had both high levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and were sensitive to change in a treated sample. Collectively, the findings support the reliability and validity of the CASI-PM-P as a measure of behavioral change in clinical settings, while continued research will be necessary to improve clinical utility and provide better documentation of the scale's strengths and weaknesses. PMID:19519259
Lavigne, John V; Cromley, Taya; Sprafkin, Joyce; Gadow, Kenneth D
The study aimed to detect the frequency of social phobia symptoms in a sample of German medical students and to compare students with and without these symptoms related to interpersonal characteristics. 525 students filled out a battery of self-report questionnaires consisting of the LSAS (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), the SPAI (Social Phobia Anxiety Inventory), the IIP-32 (Inventar of interpersonal problems) and the IIM (Inventar of interpersonal motives). Relevant social phobia symptoms were found in 12.2%. Students with symptoms of social phobia differed significantly in subscales of the IIP and the IIM. Students with symptoms of social phobia also had higher scores for interpersonal problems especially related to the main issue of being too "socially avoidant". PMID:24515848
Baldauf, Matthias; Thomas, Andrea; Strauß, Bernhard
The Barkley Current Symptoms Scale (BCSS)--Self-Report Form was designed to assess attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The purpose of the current study was to add to BCSS psychometric literature in a sample of university students. Comparisons with normative data are provided, and implications for these findings are offered. (Contains 5…
Ladner, Jennifer M.; Schulenberg, Stefan E.; Smith, C. Veronica; Dunaway, Marcella H.
This study was designed to revisit the response bias hypothesis, which posits that gender differences in depression prevalence rates may reflect a tendency for men to underreport depressive symptoms. In this study, we examined aspects of gender role socialization (gender-related traits, socially desirable responding, beliefs about mental health and depression) that may contribute to a response bias in self-reports of
Sandra T. Sigmon; Jennifer J. Pells; Nina E. Boulard; Stacy Whitcomb-Smith; Teresa M. Edenfield; Barbara A. Hermann; Stephanie M. LaMattina; Janell G. Schartel; Elizabeth Kubik
The goal of this project was to develop a self-report inventory designed to assess constructs associated with academic motivation and various learning strategies including study strategies, time management, organizational techniques, attention...
Stroud, Kathryn Chatham
Assessment of workplace physical exposures by self-reported questionnaires has logistical advantages in population studies but is subject to exposure misclassification. This study measured agreement between eight self-reported and observer-rated physical exposures to the hands and wrists, and evaluated predictors of inter-method agreement. Workers (n=341) from three occupational categories (clerical/technical, construction, and service) completed self-administered questionnaires and worksite assessments. Analyses compared self-reported and observed ratings using a weighted kappa coefficient. Personal and psychosocial factors, presence of upper extremity symptoms and job type were evaluated as predictors of agreement. Weighted kappa values were substantial for lifting (0.67) and holding vibrating tools (0.61), moderate for forceful grip (0.58) and fair to poor for all other exposures. Upper extremity symptoms did not predict greater disagreement between self-reported and observed exposures. Occupational category was the only significant predictor of inter-method agreement. Self-reported exposures may provide a useful estimate of some work exposures for population studies. PMID:20166314
Dale, Ann Marie; Strickland, Jaime; Gardner, Bethany; Symanzik, Jurgen; Evanoff, Bradley
Depression is a frequent yet overlooked occurrence in primary health care clinics worldwide. Depression and related health screening instruments are available but are rarely used consistently. The availability of technologically based instruments in the assessments offers novel approaches for gathering, storing, and assessing data that includes self-reported symptom severity from the patients themselves as well as clinician recorded information. In a suburban primary health care clinic in Quito, Ecuador, we tested the feasibility and utility of computer tablet-based assessments to evaluate clinic attendees for depression symptoms with the goal of developing effective screening and monitoring tools in the primary care clinics. We assessed individuals using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self-Report, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, the Clinical Global Impression Severity, and a DSM-IV checklist of symptoms. We found that 20% of individuals had a PHQ9 of 8 or greater. There was good correlation between the symptom severity assessments. We conclude that the tablet-based PHQ9 is an excellent and efficient method of screening for depression in attendees at primary health care clinics and that one in five people should be assessed further for depressive illness and possible intervention. PMID:24693425
Grunauer, Michelle; Schrock, David; Jimenez, Gabriela; Miller, Aimee; Lai, Zongshan; Kilbourne, Amy; McInnis, Melvin G.
Background These studies sought to investigate the relation between social desirability and self-reported health risk behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, drug use, smoking) in web-based research. Methods Three longitudinal studies (Study 1: N = 5612, 51% women; Study 2: N = 619, 60%; Study 3: N = 846, 59%) among randomly selected members of two online panels (Dutch; German) using several social desirability measures (Marlowe-Crowne Scale; Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding; The Social Desirability Scale-17) were conducted. Results Social desirability was not associated with self-reported current behavior or behavior frequency. Socio-demographics (age; sex; education) did not moderate the effect of social desirability on self-reported measures regarding health risk behaviors. Conclusions The studies at hand provided no convincing evidence to throw doubt on the usefulness of the Internet as a medium to collect self-reports on health risk behaviors. PMID:21092267
The purpose of the study was to examine how anxiety sensitivity (AS) acts as a dispositional factor in the development of panic symptoms, panic attacks, and panic disorder. Between 1986 and 1988, data were collected from 505 undergraduates at an urban university. At Time 1, measures used were the ASI to assess AS, the trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T) to measure trait anxiety, and self-report questionnaires to measure personal and family history of panic and anxiety symptoms. During the Spring of 1999, 178 of these subjects were re-contacted, and information was gathered on subjects' subsequent development of panic symptoms, panic attacks, panic disorder, and trait anxiety (STAI-T). The ASI was the strongest predictor of the development of panic symptoms and panic attacks. After controlling for trait anxiety, the ASI was not predictive of the development of panic disorder. PMID:12213039
Plehn, Kirsten; Peterson, Rolf A
Relationships among Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and adult personality traits have not been examined in larger clinically diagnosed samples. We collected multi-source ADHD symptom and self-report NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992a) data from 117 adults with ADHD and tested symptom-trait associations using structural equation modeling. The final model fit the data. Inattention was positively associated with Neuroticism and negatively associated with Conscientiousness. Based on ADHD expression in adulthood, hyperactivity and impulsivity were estimated as separate constructs and showed differential relationships to Extraversion and Agreeableness. A significant positive relationship between Hyperactivity and Conscientiousness arose in the context of other pathways. ADHD symptoms are reliably associated with personality traits, suggesting a complex interplay across development that warrants prospective study into adulthood. PMID:24080671
Knouse, Laura E.; Traeger, Lara; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A.
Measures of salivary testosterone and the personality dimensions of aggression and pro- social behavior were obtained in 306 (155 male and 151 female) university students. Each participant provided two samples of saliva and completed ten self-report person- ality scales from multiple inventories. A factor analysis of the personality scales pro- duced two factors, an aggression factor and a pro-social behavior
Julie Aitken Harris; J. Philippe Rushton; Elizabeth Hampson; Douglas N. Jackson
The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) is a commonly used self-report measure of social phobia that has demonstrated adequate reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity. However, research has yet to address whether this measure functions equivalently in (a) individuals with and without a diagnosis of social phobia and (b) males and females. Evaluating measurement equivalence is necessary in order to determine that the construct of social anxiety is conceptually understood invariantly across these populations. The results of the current investigation, using a series of nested factorial models proposed by Vandenberg and Lance (2000), provide evidence for strong equivalence across 420 individuals with and without diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and across male and female samples. Accordingly, these results provide psychometric justification for comparison of SPAI scores across the symptom continuum and sexes. PMID:23247204
Bunnell, Brian E.; Joseph, Dana L.; Beidel, Deborah C.
Abstract Background Identifying predictors of the course of depressive symptoms from pregnancy through postpartum is important to inform clinical interventions. Methods This longitudinal study investigated predictors of recovery from prenatal elevated depressive symptoms in the postpartum period. Forty-one pregnant women completed demographic, interpersonal, and psychosocial self-report assessment measures at 32 weeks of gestation and again 12 weeks postpartum. Results Of those with elevated depressive symptoms, defined as a Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) score ?10, at the prenatal baseline, 39% (n=16) recovered to nonelevated symptom levels postpartum, whereas 61% (n=25) experienced sustained elevated symptoms. Women who recovered evidenced significantly lower baseline depression severity and more frequent engagement in physical activity and cohabitated with a romantic partner. In multiparous women (n=25), history of past postpartum depression (PPD) differentiated between those with transient and those with persisting symptoms, although history of lifetime depression did not. None of the additional demographic, interpersonal, or psychosocial variables investigated differentiated between groups. Logistic regression analysis showed prenatal depression severity and exercise frequency as predictors of recovery postpartum. Conclusions Results suggest most women will not experience spontaneous recovery. Women with prenatal heightened symptom severity and previous experiences with PPD are acutely vulnerable to experience sustained symptoms. In contrast, having a cohabitating partner and engagement in prenatal exercise predicted symptom improvement. Physical exercise may be an important clinical recommendation, as it may improve mood. Given the small sample size, these results are preliminary. Implications and future research recommendations are discussed. PMID:22060255
Flynn, Heather A.; Lancaster, Christie; Marcus, Sheila M.; McDonough, Susan C.; Volling, Brenda L.; Lopez, Juan F.; Kaciroti, Niko; Vazquez, Delia M.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the contribution of genes and environmental factors to variation in a common measure (i.e., a five-point--excellent, very good, good, fair, and poor--Likert scale) of self-reported health. DATA SOURCES: Data were analyzed from 4,638 male-male twin pair members of the Vietnam Era Twin (VET) Registry who responded to a 1987 health survey. STUDY DESIGN: Varying models for the relationship between genetic and environmental influences on self-reported health were tested in an attempt to explain the relative contributions of additive genetic, shared and nonshared environmental effects, and health conditions reported since 1975 to perceived health status. DATA COLLECTION: A mail and telephone survey of health was administered in 1987 to VET Registry twins. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Variance component estimates under the best-fitting model included a 39.6 percent genetic contribution to self-reported health. In a model which included the effect of health condition, genes accounted for 32.5 percent and health condition accounted for 15.0 percent of the variance in self-reported health. The magnitude of the genetic contribution to perceived health status was not significantly different in a model with or without health condition. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest over one-third of the variability of self-reported health can be attributed to genes. Since perceived health status is a major predictor of morbidity, mortality, and health services utilization, future analyses should consider the role of heritable influences on traditional health services variables. PMID:11130808
Romeis, J C; Scherrer, J F; Xian, H; Eisen, S A; Bucholz, K; Heath, A C; Goldberg, J; Lyons, M J; Henderson, W G; True, W R
Surveys a collegiate athlete population for alcohol abuse as well as self-reported depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric symptoms. Significant correlations were found between reported alcohol abuse and self-reported symptoms of depression and general psychiatric symptoms. Findings suggest a possible link between psychopathology and serious…
Miller, B. E.; Miller, M. N.; Verhegge, R.; Linville, H. H.; Pumariega, A. J.
The findings described here compare odometer readings with self-reported estimates of Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) to investigate to what extent self-reported VMT is a reliable surrogate for odometer-based VMT.
This paper examines empirical links between sexual orientation and self-reported lying using data collected in several waves\\u000a of Georgia Institute of Technology’s World Wide Web Users Survey. The data include questions about sexual orientation, lying\\u000a in cyberspace, and a broad range of demographic information. According to the theoretical framework of Gneezy (Am Econ Rev\\u000a 95: 384–395, 2005) on the economics
Nathan Berg; Donald Lien
This paper is based on a self-reported juvenile delinquency study conducted among high school students in Kuwait, a rapidly developing Arab speaking Muslim Persian-Gulf country. A group-interview-questionnaire was administered to a sample of 483 male students in grades 10 and 11 enrolled in four high schools located in the four Governerates. Specifically we measured the interrelationship between delinquency and selected
K. S. MURTY; ABDULLAH M. AL-LANQAWI; JULIAN B. ROEBUCK
In conjunction with a longitudinal study of the effects of the school environment on the self-concepts and mental health of first- and second-grade students, a primary level group-administered self-report self-concept inventory (PSCI) was developed. The PSCI, based on Pauline Sears' Self-Concept Inventory for middle grades, does not require…
Torshen, Kay Pomerance; And Others
Describes development of Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), self-report inventory for measuring severity of anxiety in psychiatric populations. Describes study results which showed BAI to have high internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and to discriminate anxious diagnostic groups from nonanxious diagnostic groups. (Author/NB)
Beck, Aaron T.; And Others
The scientific investigation of the relationship between resources and retirement well-being is impeded by the lack of proper measurement of resources. This study reports on the development of an inventory that assesses resources relevant to retirement well-being. The 35-item Retirement Resources Inventory (RRI) is a self-report measure consisting…
Leung, Cindy S. Y.; Earl, Joanne K.
The aim of this paper was to specifically analyse the relationship between the different components of academic self-image, defined as the way adolescents represent themselves as students, and self-reported depressive symptoms, assessed with the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), in a non-clinical sample of 298 adolescents. We considered both adolescents' beliefs about their own cognitive functioning in academic performance and beliefs about their emotional attitude in achievement situations. Our data indicate that the pattern of correlation between emotional beliefs about schooling and learning are significantly related to CDI scores, but this correlation is not evident for the cognitive beliefs. This pattern of correlation is affected by actual school functioning, because correlation between CDI and beliefs is much more significant in subjects without school failure. Differences between gender in CDI scores, beliefs about schooling and learning, and pattern of correlation are considered. These results can enable to focus supporting psychological interventions on more specific targets. PMID:11244375
Masi, G; Tomaiuolo, F; Sbrana, B; Poli, P; Baracchini, G; Pruneti, C A; Favilla, L; Floriani, C; Marcheschi, M
To further investigate the long-term impact of pre-adoption adversity on international adoptees, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a self-report measure at school-age in addition to mothers' reports. The sample consisted of 95 adopted children and their mothers. Children's health and developmental status were assessed soon after arrival in their adoptive family. At age 7, the Dominic Interactive, a self-report measure, was used to evaluate externalizing and internalizing symptoms while mothers completed the CBCL. Children's self-reports were compared to their non-adopted peers'. Adopted children reported more symptoms of specific phobia than their peers. A significant correlation was found between mothers' and children's reports but only for externalizing symptoms. Self-reported symptoms were related to indices of nutritional and psychosocial deprivation at arrival, such as low height/age and weight/height ratios. Our results emphasize the importance of considering international adoptees' perception of their psychological adjustment and the long-term impact of early risk factors. PMID:22222488
Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noémi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andrée; Malcuit, Gérard; Chicoine, Jean-François; Jéliu, Gloria; Belhumeur, Céline; Berthiaume, Claude
The Inventory of Individually Perceived Group Cohesiveness (IIPGC) is a self-report measure of an individual's perception of group cohesiveness, which is defined as the perceived degree, extent, or strength of mutual attention given by the membership to processes of cooperation, control, and task communication. The IIPGC provides a reliable…
Johnson, David L.
The authors describe the development and preliminary validation of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory, a self-report measurement of math-related stereotype threat among women. A preliminary version of the instrument was administered to 308 undergraduate women. Principal component analysis yielded a 3-factor solution. Convergent and…
Pseekos, A. Chantelle; Dahlen, Eric R.; Levy, Jacob J.
Background\\/Aims: To examine the influence of dementia stage and psychoactive medication use on the factor structure of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version (NPI-NH) in Dutch nursing home patients. Methods: The NPI-NH was administered to a large sample of 1,437 patients with mild to severe dementia receiving nursing home care. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine behavioural dimensions underlying neuropsychiatric
Sytse U. Zuidema; Jos F. M. de Jonghe; Frans R. J. Verhey; Raymond T. C. M. Koopmans
As there is no multidimensional instrument available that reflects the severity of benzodiazepine (BZD) dependence comprehensively, the Benzodiazepine Dependence Self-Report Questionnaire (Bendep-SRQ) was developed and investigated. The Bendep-SRQ, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), Schedules for Clinical Assessments in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), and Addiction Severity Index-Revised (ASI-R) were administered to 115 general practice (GP) patients, 124 psychiatric outpatients, and 33 self-help patients who were
C. C Kan; M. H. M Breteler; E. A. Y Timmermans; A. H. G. S van der Ven; F. G Zitman
The aim of this study was to cross-validate the Benzodiazepine Dependence Self-Report Questionnaire (Bendep-SRQ), which reflects the severity of benzodiazepine (BZD) dependence. The Bendep-SRQ, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) Schedules for Clinical Assessments in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), and Addiction Severity Index-Revised (ASI-R) were administered to 102 general practice (GP) patients and 126 psychiatric outpatients who were using BZDs. The scalability and reliability of
C. C. Kan; M. H. M. Breteler; F. G. Zitman
The aims of this study are to estimate the prevalence of self-reported uterine prolapse and to determine the treatment-seeking behavior of the respondents. Participants of this study are married women of Dadu Majra colony, Chandigarh, India, January–February, 1996. A house-to-house screening of the women was done by a nursing student utilizing a checklist of indicator symptoms of uterine prolapse. All
Santosh Kumari; Indarjit Walia; Amarjeet Singh
Background: This study examined parent\\/youth self-report agreement on emotional and behavioral symptoms among adolescents with eating disorders (ED). Sampling and Methods: Eighty-three parent-adolescent pairs participated. All adolescents (age 11–18 years) were females and met diagnostic criteria according to the DSM-IV for anorexia nervosa restricting type (n = 53) or bulimia nervosa (n = 30). Diagnoses were confirmed using the Structured
Harriet Salbach-Andrae; Nora Klinkowski; Klaus Lenz; Ernst Pfeiffer; Ulrike Lehmkuhl; Stefan Ehrlich
We reassess the impact of health on retirement plans of older workers using a unique survey-register match-up which allows comparing the retirement effects of potentially biased survey self-reports of health to those of unbiased register-based diagnostic measures. The aim is to investigate whether even for narrowly defined health measures a divergence exists in the impacts of health on retirement between self-reported health and objective physician-reported health. Our sample consists of older workers and retirees drawn from a Danish panel survey from 1997 and 2002, merged to longitudinal register data. Estimation of measurement error-reduced and selection-corrected pooled OLS and fixed effects models of retirement show that receiving a medical diagnosis is an important determinant of retirement planning for both men and women, in fact more important than economic factors. The type of diagnosis matters, however. For men, the largest reduction in planned retirement age occurs for a diagnosis of lung disease while for women it occurs for musculo-skeletal disease. Except for cardiovascular disease, diagnosed disease is more influential in men's retirement planning than in women's. Our study provides evidence that men's self-report of myalgia and back problems and women's self-report of osteoarthritis possibly yield biased estimates of the impact on planned retirement age, and that this bias ranges between 1.5 and 2 years, suggesting that users of survey data should be wary of applying self-reports of health conditions with diffuse symptoms to the study of labor market outcomes. On the other hand, self-reported cardiovascular disease such as high blood pressure does not appear to bias the estimated impact on planned retirement. PMID:19582695
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona
It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01) than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01) and externalizing problems (p<.05) than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001). Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05). Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of family type and parental depressive symptoms on adolescent functioning. Older and female adolescents deserve particular attention. PMID:24260457
Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie
To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72-2.67) among ill group compared to controls (0.58-1.59). We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series. PMID:24431987
Li, Mian; Xu, Changqing; Yao, Wenguo; Mahan, Clare M; Kang, Han K; Sandbrink, Friedhelm; Zhai, Ping; Karasik, Pamela A
To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72–2.67) among ill group compared to controls (0.58–1.59). We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series. PMID:24431987
Li, Mian; Xu, Changqing; Yao, Wenguo; Mahan, Clare M.; Kang, Han K.; Sandbrink, Friedhelm; Zhai, Ping; Karasik, Pamela A.
The aim of study was to estimate the score of symptoms of depression with the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) among Estonian schoolchildren aged 7-13-year-old, according to age and gender differences, and to identify the components in factor analysis characterising self-reported childhood symptoms of depression. The applicability of the CDI in 7-year-old children was also estimated. The number of subjects in the study was 725 (342 girls and 383 boys), and the mean age was 10.2 (SD 1.7). The mean total score of the CDI for the whole sample was 9.96 (SD = 6.3, range 0-39, median 9.0). The mean scores of symptoms of depression among children did not differ by gender or age. There were no significant differences in the CDI mean scores between 7-year-old compared to older schoolchildren in the present study. Factor analysis obtained five factors: anhedonia, ineffectiveness, negative self-esteem, negative mood and interpersonal problems. Significant gender and age differences were found: girls reported more symptoms of anhedonia and negative self-esteem, and boys reported more symptoms of ineffectiveness. Younger children reported more symptoms of anhedonia and ineffectiveness, and older children negative self-esteem. The study serves as baseline data before intervention of the EC project "European Alliance Against Depression". PMID:17876502
Samm, Algi; Värnik, Airi; Tooding, Liina-Mai; Sisask, Merike; Kölves, Kairi; von Knorring, Anne-Liis
This research aimed to compare the prevalence rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to differentiate the presence and severity of depressive symptoms between women and men aged 18-24?years. In this population-based, cross-sectional study (n?=?1560), young adults were screened with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for MDD (n?=?137). Participants then completed a self-report questionnaire to gather sociodemographic data, and the presence of each symptom of depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The proportion of women (12.2%) with MDD was higher than that of men (5.3%). The symptoms of depression found to be significantly more prevalent in women were sadness, crying, difficulty making decisions, and lack of energy, as well as self-criticism, irritability, changes in self-image, work difficulty, and loss of interest in sex. Sadness and self-criticism were significantly more severe in women than in men. The presentation of depressive symptoms in young adults with MDD differed between men and women. PMID:23651450
Lopez Molina, Mariane Acosta; Jansen, Karen; Drews, Cláudio; Pinheiro, Ricardo; Silva, Ricardo; Souza, Luciano
This study explored differences in the factor structure of depressive symptoms in patients with and without alcohol abuse, and differences in the severity of depressive symptoms between the two groups. In a sample of 358 patients without alcohol problems and 167 patients with comorbid alcohol problems, confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the same factor structures, Beck et al.'s two-factor Somatic Affective-Cognitive (SA-C) model, and Buckley et al.'s three-factor Cognitive-Affective- Somatic (C-A-S) model, demonstrated the best fit to the data in both groups. The SA-C model was preferred due to its more parsimonious nature. Evidence for strict measurement invariance across the two groups for the SA-C model was found. MIMIC (multiple-indicator-multiple-cause) modeling showed that the level of depressive symptoms was found to be highest on both factors in the group with comorbid alcohol problems. The magnitude of the differences in latent mean scores suggested a moderate difference in the level of depressive symptoms between the two groups. It is argued that patients with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse should be offered parallel and adequate treatment for both conditions. PMID:24533075
Skule, Cecilie; Ulleberg, Pål; Dallavara Lending, Hilde; Berge, Torkil; Egeland, Jens; Brennen, Tim; Landrø, Nils Inge
This study explored differences in the factor structure of depressive symptoms in patients with and without alcohol abuse, and differences in the severity of depressive symptoms between the two groups. In a sample of 358 patients without alcohol problems and 167 patients with comorbid alcohol problems, confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the same factor structures, Beck et al.'s two-factor Somatic Affective-Cognitive (SA-C) model, and Buckley et al.'s three-factor Cognitive-Affective- Somatic (C-A-S) model, demonstrated the best fit to the data in both groups. The SA-C model was preferred due to its more parsimonious nature. Evidence for strict measurement invariance across the two groups for the SA-C model was found. MIMIC (multiple-indicator-multiple-cause) modeling showed that the level of depressive symptoms was found to be highest on both factors in the group with comorbid alcohol problems. The magnitude of the differences in latent mean scores suggested a moderate difference in the level of depressive symptoms between the two groups. It is argued that patients with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse should be offered parallel and adequate treatment for both conditions. PMID:24533075
Skule, Cecilie; Ulleberg, Pal; Dallavara Lending, Hilde; Berge, Torkil; Egeland, Jens; Brennen, Tim; Landr?, Nils Inge
The current study examined relationships between attachment style, parental rearing behaviors, and symptoms of internalizing and externalizing in a large sample of nonreferred adolescents (N = 742). Adolescents completed (a) a single-item measure of attachment style, (b) the child version of the EMBU, a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors, and (c) the Youth Self-Report, an index of severity
Peter Muris; Cor Meesters; Silvia van den Berg
The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate
Lenore Sawyer Radloff
To further investigate the long-term impact of pre-adoption adversity on international adoptees, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a self-report measure at school-age in addition to mothers' reports. The sample consisted of 95 adopted children and their mothers. Children's health and developmental status were assessed…
Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Jeliu, Gloria; Belhumeur, Celine; Berthiaume, Claude
Objective: This article evaluates the diagnostic utility of a self-report screening tool for adults based on "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV") ADHD criteria. Method: Children with speech/language (S/L) impairment and typically developing controls had ADHD symptoms rated by parents and teachers at ages 5…
Brownlie, E. B.; Lazare, Kim; Beitchman, Joseph
Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) remains poor among heroin users, even after being treated with methadone. Evidence regarding self-reported psychopathology and HRQoL in heroin users is also limited. The present study aimed to investigate the association between self-reported psychopathology and HRQoL in Asian heroin users treated with methadone. Methods Thirty-nine heroin users treated with methadone and 39 healthy controls were recruited. Both groups self-reported on demographic data, the Brief Symptom Rating Scale, EuroQoL-5D, and World Health Organization Questionnaire on Quality of Life: Short Form. We compared clinical characteristics, psychopathology, and HRQoL between the two study groups. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to explore the association between psychopathology and HRQoL in the heroin user group. Results Heroin users had more psychopathology and worse HRQoL than healthy controls. The HRQoL of heroin users had significant correlations with Brief Symptom Rating Scale scores. HRQoL could be predicted by depression, anxiety, paranoia, and additional symptoms (ie, poor appetite and sleep difficulties) independently. Conclusion Self-reported psychopathology, depression, anxiety, paranoia, poor appetite, and sleep difficulties had a negative impact on each domain of HRQoL among heroin users treated with methadone. The importance of the environmental domain of HRQoL is discussed. Clinicians should recognize comorbid psychiatric symptoms early on to improve HRQoL in heroin users. PMID:23293525
Chen, Ying-Zai; Huang, Wei-Lieh; Shan, Jia-Chi; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Hung-Chieh Wu; Chang, Li-Ren
"Let's Talk about OA Pain": A Qualitative Analysis of the Perceptions of People Suffering from OA. Towards the Development of a Specific Pain OA-Related Questionnaire, the Osteoarthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS)
Introduction Pain is the primary outcome measurement in osteoarthritis, and its assessment is mostly based on its intensity. The management of this difficult chronic condition could be improved by using pain descriptors to improve analyses of painful sensations. This should help to define subgroups of patients based on pain phenotype, for more adapted treatment. This study draws upon patients’ descriptions of their pain, to identify and understand their perception of osteoarthritis pain and to categorize pain dimensions. Methods This qualitative study was conducted with representative types of patients suffering from osteoarthritis. Two focus groups were conducted with a sample of 14 participants, with either recent or chronic OA, at one or multiple sites. Focus groups were semi-structured and used open-ended questions addressing personal experiences to explore the experiences of patients with OA pain and the meanings they attributed to these pains. Results Two main points emerged from content analyses: -A major difficulty in getting patients to describe their osteoarthritis pain: perception that nobody wants to hear about it; necessity to preserve one’s self and social image; notion of self-imposed stoicism; and perception of osteoarthritis as a complex, changing, illogical disease associated with aging. -Osteoarthritis pains were numerous and differed in intensity, duration, depth, type of occurrence, impact and rhythm, but also in painful sensations and associated symptoms. Based on analyses of the verbatim interviews, seven dimensions of OA pain emerged: pain sensory description, OA-related symptoms, pain variability profile, pain-triggering factors, pain and physical activity, mood and image, general physical symptoms. Summary In osteoarthritis, pain analysis should not be restricted to intensity. Our qualitative study identified pain descriptors and defined seven dimensions of osteoarthritis pain. Based on these dimensions, we aim to develop a specific questionnaire on osteoarthritis pain quality for osteoarthritis pain phenotyping: the OsteoArthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS). PMID:24244589
Cedraschi, Christine; Delezay, Sylvie; Marty, Marc; Berenbaum, Francis; Bouhassira, Didier; Henrotin, Yves; Laroche, Francoise; Perrot, Serge
Differences in the presentation of clinical features of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) across ethnic groups have received little investigation. The current study assessed BDD symptoms in an ethnically diverse sample of adults (n=401) using an online survey. Participants completed self-report measures assessing BDD symptoms, body parts of concern and BDD behaviors. Compared to Caucasian participants, no significant differences were found
Luana Marques; Nicole LeBlanc; Hilary Weingarden; Jennifer L. Greenberg; Lara N. Traeger; Aparna Keshaviah; Sabine Wilhelm
There is a growing appetite for mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that can inform clinical practice at individual and service levels, including use for local and national benchmarking. Despite a varied literature on child mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that focus on psychometric properties alone, no reviews exist that appraise the availability of psychometric evidence and suitability for use in routine practice in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) including key implementation issues. This paper aimed to present the findings of the first review that evaluates existing broadband measures of mental health and wellbeing outcomes in terms of these criteria. The following steps were implemented in order to select measures suitable for use in routine practice: literature database searches, consultation with stakeholders, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, secondary searches and filtering. Subsequently, detailed reviews of the retained measures’ psychometric properties and implementation features were carried out. 11 measures were identified as having potential for use in routine practice and meeting most of the key criteria: 1) Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, 2) Beck Youth Inventories, 3) Behavior Assessment System for Children, 4) Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, 5) Child Health Questionnaire, 6) Child Symptom Inventories, 7) Health of the National Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents, 8) Kidscreen, 9) Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 10) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, 11) Youth Outcome Questionnaire. However, all existing measures identified had limitations as well as strengths. Furthermore, none had sufficient psychometric evidence available to demonstrate that they could reliably measure both severity and change over time in key groups. The review suggests a way of rigorously evaluating the growing number of broadband self-report mental health outcome measures against standards of feasibility and psychometric credibility in relation to use for practice and policy. PMID:24834111
The self-report technique is one of three major ways of measuring involvement in delinquent and criminal behavior. The basic approach of the self-report method is to ask individuals if they have engaged in delinquent or criminal behavior, and if so, how often they have done so. In this chapter, we review the origins of the self-report method in the 1950s,
Terence P. Thornberry; Marvin D. Krohn
We consider a model of optimal law enforcement where sanctions are reduced for self-reporting individuals. Violators get private\\u000a signals about their individual probabilities of apprehension after they committed a crime. Since violators will self-report if and only if the signal is above a specific threshold, the possibility\\u000a of self-reporting has an option value that leads to a higher crime rate
Eberhard Feess; Eva Heesen
This study assessed the accuracy of self-reported Pap smear utilisation over four different time frames, examining the magnitude of errors in self-report and sociodemographic predictors of accuracy. Self-report data on women's cervical screening was collected by interview in a random household survey (Hunter Region, NSW, Australia), with pathology laboratory data collected by a search of records within laboratories. The magnitude
Jennifer Ann Bowman; Rob Sanson-Fisher; Sally Redman
In this study psychometric properties of seven self-report measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were compared. The seven scales evaluated were the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS), the PTSD Checklist (PCL), the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), the Civilian Mississippi Scale (CMS), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Penn Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Penn), and the PK scale of
Jennifer W. Adkins; Frank W. Weathers; Meghan McDevitt-Murphy; Jennifer B. Daniels
Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1), in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD. Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males) with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students' self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1-2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ) and executive functioning (BDEFS). Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47), and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66). The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63) and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74). Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores. Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current symptoms of ADHD in college and university students. Collateral reports were moderately related to self-reports, although we note the difficulty in obtaining informant reports for this population. Use of a telephone interview to elicit behavioral descriptions for each item may be useful in future research that is required to specifically test the utility of the ASRS in, for example, documenting and confirming current reports of impairment due to ADHD symptoms and its positive and negative predictive power for diagnosis. PMID:24711973
Gray, Sarah; Woltering, Steven; Mawjee, Karizma; Tannock, Rosemary
Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1), in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD. Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males) with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students’ self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1–2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ) and executive functioning (BDEFS). Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47), and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66). The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63) and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74). Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores. Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current symptoms of ADHD in college and university students. Collateral reports were moderately related to self-reports, although we note the difficulty in obtaining informant reports for this population. Use of a telephone interview to elicit behavioral descriptions for each item may be useful in future research that is required to specifically test the utility of the ASRS in, for example, documenting and confirming current reports of impairment due to ADHD symptoms and its positive and negative predictive power for diagnosis. PMID:24711973
Gray, Sarah; Woltering, Steven; Mawjee, Karizma
Background Recent studies have shown ethnic differences concerning cardio-vascular disease, diabetes and mental health. Little is known about ethnic differences in skin morbidity. The purpose of this study was to describe possible ethnic differences in self-reported skin morbidity in a Western urban community. Methods The design was cross sectional. 40 888 adults in Oslo, Norway, received a postal questionnaire providing information on socio-demographic factors and self-reported health, including items on skin complaints. Results 18770 individuals answered the questionnaire. In the sample 84% were from Norway. The largest immigrant group was from Western countries (5%) and the Indian Subcontinent (3%). Itch was the most prevalent reported skin symptom (7%), and was significantly more reported by men from East Asia (18%) and Middle East/North Africa (13%). The same observations were seen for reported dry and sore skin. Hair loss was a dominating complaint for men from the Indian Subcontinent and the Middle East/North Africa (23% and 25%) and for women from the same ethnic groups. Women from Sub-Saharan Africa reported significantly more pimples than in the other groups (17%). Conclusion The study showed that there were significant differences in self-reported skin complaints among ethnic groups. Issues concerning the cultural value of some skin symptoms should be examined further. PMID:17603893
Dalgard, Florence; Holm, Jan Øivind; Svensson, Åke; Kumar, Bernadette; Sundby, Johanne
The association of callous-unemotional (CU) traits with violence and severe antisocial behavior has led to a recent focus on the association between CU traits and sexual offending behavior. When assessing juveniles with sexual offenses, practice standards recommend that multiple sources of data are considered. However, the differential correlates of parent-report versus self-report of CU traits in juvenile sex offenders have not been investigated. A sample of 94 detained male youth (mean age = 15.22, SD = 1.48) was administered both youth and parent versions of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU), a general delinquency risk assessment tool (YLS), and a sexual offending risk assessment tool (J-SOAP-II) to investigate concordance between self-report and parent-report of CU traits as well as association with general and sex-specific risk factors. Both parent-report and self-report of CU traits were significantly related to higher general delinquency risk scores, with parent-report showing stronger correlations than self-report. Both parent-report and self-report were related to sex-specific risk factors. However, only parent-report significantly predicted static sexual risk, while self-report significantly predicted dynamic sexual risk scores. Evidence supports the importance of including both parent- and self-report of CU traits in the comprehensive assessment of sexually offending youth. PMID:19937922
White, Stuart F; Cruise, Keith R; Frick, Paul J
Self-Reported quality of life in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and executive function impairment treated with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study
Background This study examined the effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on quality of life (QOL) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and clinically significant executive function deficits (EFD). Methods This report highlights QOL findings from a 10-week randomized placebo-controlled trial of LDX (30–70 mg/d) in adults (18–55 years) with ADHD and EFD (Behavior Rating Inventory of EF-Adult, Global Executive Composite [BRIEF-A GEC] ?65). The primary efficacy measure was the self-reported BRIEF-A; a key secondary measure was self-reported QOL on the Adult ADHD Impact Module (AIM-A). The clinician-completed ADHD Rating Scale version IV (ADHD-RS-IV) with adult prompts and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) were also employed. The Adult ADHD QoL (AAQoL) was added while the study was in progress. A post hoc analysis examined the subgroup having evaluable results from both AIM-A and AAQoL. Results Of 161 randomized (placebo, 81; LDX, 80), 159 were included in the safety population. LDX improved AIM-A multi-item domain scores versus placebo; LS mean difference for Performance and Daily Functioning was 21.6 (ES, 0.93, P<.0001); Impact of Symptoms: Daily Interference was 14.9 (ES, 0.62, P<.0001); Impact of Symptoms: Bother/Concern was 13.5 (ES, 0.57, P=.0003); Relationships/Communication was 7.8 (ES, 0.31, P=.0302); Living With ADHD was 9.1 (ES, 0.79, P<.0001); and General Well-Being was 10.8 (ES, 0.70, P<.0001). AAQoL LS mean difference for total score was 21.0; for subscale: Life Productivity was 21.0; Psychological Health was 12.1; Life Outlook was 12.5; and Relationships was 7.3. In a post hoc analysis of participants with both AIM-A and AAQoL scores, AIM-A multi-item subgroup analysis scores numerically improved with LDX, with smaller difference for Impact of Symptoms: Daily Interference. The safety profile of LDX was consistent with amphetamine use in previous studies. Conclusions Overall, adults with ADHD/EFD exhibited self-reported improvement on QOL, using the AIM-A and AAQoL scales in line with medium/large ES; these improvements were paralleled by improvements in EF and ADHD symptoms. The safety profile of LDX was similar to previous studies. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01101022 PMID:24106804
This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…
Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen
In this study, we investigated the relationships between features of personality organization (PO) as assessed by theory driven profiles of the Dutch Short Form of the MMPI (DSFM; Luteijn & Kok, 1985) and 2 self-report measures of personality pathology, that is, the Dutch Inventory of Personality Organization (Berghuis, Kamphuis, Boedijn, & Verheul, 2009) and the Dutch Schizotypy Personality Questionnaire–Revised (Vollema
Elisabeth H. M. Eurelings-Bontekoe; Patrick Luyten; Mila Remijsen; Jurrijn Koelen
This study investigated the utility of self-report measures to screen for psychiatric comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Thirty-eight 10-17 year olds with an ASD and without mental retardation completed: the "Children's Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S)", "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS)", "Conners-Wells…
Mazefsky, C. A.; Kao, J.; Oswald, D. P.
... 22 teens had emotional symptoms such as irritability, aggression, anxiety, depression, apathy, frequent mood changes or excessive ... than those without anxiety, while teens with irritability/aggression were 35 percent more likely to self-report ...
Objective A self-report scale of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the World Health Organization (WHO) Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was developed and demonstrated good psychometric properties. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the ASRS in Korean samples. Methods The ASRS includes 18 questions regarding the frequency of recent DSM-IV Criterion A symptoms of adult ADHD. We examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity of the ASRS in Korean samples. Results The ASRS demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the ASRS and other adult ADHD measures were high, providing evidence of convergent validity. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor solution provided the best fit. Conclusion It is expected that this scale would be helpful in clinical settings and research in Korea. PMID:23482673
Kim, Ji-Hae; Lee, Eun-Ho
The current study aimed to clarify the relationship among the constructs involved in neuropsychological assessment, including cognitive performance, symptom self-report, performance validity, and symptom validity. Participants consisted of 120 consecutively evaluated individuals from a veteran's hospital with mixed referral sources. Measures included the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Full Scale IQ (WAIS-IV FSIQ), California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), Trail Making Test Part B (TMT-B), Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT), WAIS-IV Reliable Digit Span (RDS), Post-traumatic Check List-Military Version (PCL-M), MMPI-2 F scale, MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale (FBS), MMPI-2 Response Bias Scale (RBS), and the Postconcussive Symptom Questionnaire (PCSQ). Six different models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine the factor model describing the relationships between cognitive performance, symptom self-report, performance validity, and symptom validity. The strongest and most parsimonious model was a three-factor model in which cognitive performance, performance validity, and self-reported symptoms (including both standard and symptom validity measures) were separate factors. The findings suggest failure in one validity domain does not necessarily invalidate the other domain. Thus, performance validity and symptom validity should be evaluated separately. PMID:24028487
Van Dyke, Sarah A; Millis, Scott R; Axelrod, Bradley N; Hanks, Robin A
Introduction Little is known about the relationship between discrimination and distress among multiple racial groups because previous studies have focused primarily on either blacks or Asian Americans. The objective of this study was to assess the association between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination and symptoms of psychological distress among 5 racial/ethnic groups in California. Methods I used data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey describing an adult sample of 27,511 non-Hispanic whites, 8,020 Hispanics, 1,813 non-Hispanic blacks, 3,875 non-Hispanic Asians, and 1,660 people of other races/ethnicities. The Kessler 6-item Psychological Distress Scale determined symptoms of psychological distress. I used a single-item, self-reported measure to ascertain experiences of racial discrimination. Results Reports of racial discrimination differed significantly among racial groups. Self-reported discrimination was independently associated with psychological distress after adjusting for race/ethnicity, age, sex, education level, employment status, general health status, nativity and citizenship status, English use and proficiency, ability to understand the doctor at last visit, and geographic location. The relationship between discrimination and psychological distress was modified by the interaction between discrimination and race/ethnicity; the effect of discrimination on distress was weaker for minority groups (ie, blacks and people of other races/ethnicities) than for whites. Conclusion Self-reported discrimination may be a key predictor of high levels of psychological distress among racial/ethnic groups in California, and race appears to modify this association. Public health practitioners should consider the adverse effects of racial discrimination on minority health. PMID:23078667
This digest investigates the methodological practice of relying on self-reported Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and grade point average (GPA) scores on educational-psychological research, explores the differential reliability of self-reported SAT and GPA values, and examines trends of deviation in a sample of midwestern teacher education…
Cassady, Jerrell C.
There are multiple approaches to measuring physical activity. Among these are direct observation, electronic monitoring, direct and indirect calorimetry, and self-report instruments. Self-report instruments are the most practical and cost effective option for use with a large group. In a study by Motl, Dishman, Dowda, and Pate (2004), two groups…
Self-reported health is an important outcome in the evaluation of health care but is largely ignored in favor of proxy-based reporting for people with an intellectual disability. This study briefly reviews the role of self-report in health assessment of people with intellectual disability and the challenges and recommendations that have emerged…
Fujiura, Glenn T.
There are no established screening criteria to help identify mothers of premature infants who are at risk for symptoms of emotional distress. The current study, using data obtained from recruitment and screening in preparation for a randomized controlled trial, aimed to identify potential risk factors associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress in a sample of mothers with premature infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit. One hundred, thirty-five mothers of preterm infants born at 26-34 weeks of gestation completed three self-report measures: the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory (2nd ed.), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory to determine their eligibility for inclusion in a treatment intervention study based on clinical cut-off scores for each measure. Maternal sociodemographic measures, including race, ethnicity, age, maternal pregnancy history, and measures of infant medical severity were not helpful in differentiating mothers who screened positive on one or more of the measures from those who screened negative. Programs to screen parents of premature infants for the presence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression will need to adopt universal screening rather than profiling of potential high risk parents based on their sociodemographic characteristics or measures of their infant's medical severity. PMID:24597585
Shaw, Richard J; Lilo, Emily A; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Ball, M Bethany; Proud, Melinda S; Vierhaus, Nancy S; Huntsberry, Audrey; Mitchell, Kelley; Adams, Marian M; Horwitz, Sarah M
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) and Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) are frequently used objective personality self-report measures. Given their widespread use, the purpose of the current study was to examine and compare the literature base for the two instruments. A comprehensive review of the…
Baum, Linda J.; Archer, Robert P.; Forbey, Johnathan D.; Handel, Richard W.
The common and specific symptom dimensions of anxiety and depression proposed by the tripartite (L. A. Clark & D. Watson, 1991c) and cognitive (A. T. Beck, 1976, 1987) models were investigated in 844 psychiatric outpatients and 420 undergraduates. Principal-factor analyses with oblique rotations performed on the 42 items of the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory for both samples
David A. Clark; Robert A. Steer; Aaron T. Beck
Examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in an African American female college student sample (n=78) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI2) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). MMPI-2 was a more conservative scale than BDI in identifying depressive symptom levels. Discusses stress inoculation methods to assist…
Reed, Michael K.; And Others
Olfactory dysfunction is a very early symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and olfactory dysfunction has also been found in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The goal of the present study was to compare odor identification ability and self-reported olfactory functioning in patients with different types of MCI. We included 104 elderly participants classified into two groups: patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and elderly controls (EC). Based on their performance in neuropsychological testing the study population was divided into four groups of participants based on cognitive features: amnestic MCI single domain (11), amnestic MCI multiple domain (19), non-amnestic MCI single domain (21) and non-amnestic MCI multiple domain (13), respectively. The MCI patients were compared to 40 elderly controls (EC) controls with no cognitive deficit. Comparison for odor identification revealed a significant difference between amnestic MCI multiple domain patients and the EC group. No other group comparison was significant. Statistical analyses for self-reported olfactory functioning revealed no significant group differences between any subgroup of MCI patients and the control group. Correlational analyses indicated that odor identification ability was related to cognition whereas no relationship was found for self-reported olfactory functioning. The present study showed that amnestic MCI patients with additional deficits in other cognitive domains have a specific odor identification impairment. Together with cognitive testing, olfactory testing may more accurately help predict whether or not a patient with MCI will convert to AD in the near future. PMID:19214830
Lehrner, Johann; Pusswald, Gisela; Gleiss, Andreas; Auff, Eduard; Dal-Bianco, Peter
There is growing interest in the use of the Internet for interacting with patients, both in terms of healthcare information provision and information gathering. In this article, we examine the issues in designing healthcare websites for elderly users. In particular, this article uses a year-long case study of the development of a web-based system for self-reporting of symptoms and quality of life with a view to examine the issues relating to website design for elderly users. The issues identified included the technical, social and medical aspects of website design for elderly users. The web-based system developed was based on the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions health-status questionnaire, a commonly used tool for patient self-reporting of quality of life, and the more specific coronary revascularisation outcome questionnaire. Currently, self-reporting is generally administered in the form of paper-based questionnaires to be completed in the outpatient clinic or at home. There are a variety of issues relating to elderly users, which imply that websites for elderly patients may involve different design considerations to other types of websites. PMID:24047573
Taylor, Mark J; Stables, Rod; Matata, Bashir; Lisboa, Paulo J G; Laws, Andy; Almond, Peter
Psychiatric co-morbidities in epilepsy are of great concern. The current study investigated the relative contribution of structural and functional connectivity (FC) between medial temporal (MT) and prefrontal regions in predicting levels of depressive symptoms in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Twenty-one patients with TLE [11 left TLE (LTLE); 10 right TLE (RTLE)] and 20 controls participated. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) of the uncinate fasciculus (UF), and mean diffusivity (MD) of the amygdala (AM) and hippocampus (HC). Functional MRI was performed to obtain FC strengths between the AM and HC and prefrontal regions of interest including anterior prefrontal (APF), orbitofrontal, and inferior frontal regions. Participants self-reported depression symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Greater depressive symptoms were associated with stronger FC of ipsilateral HC-APF, lower FA of the bilateral UF, and higher MD of the ipsilateral HC in LTLE, and with lower FA of the contralateral UF in RTLE. Regression analyses indicated that FC of the ipsilateral HC-APF was the strongest contributor to depression in LTLE, explaining 68.7% of the variance in depression scores. Both functional and microstructural measures of frontolimbic dysfunction were associated with depressive symptoms. These connectivity variables may be moderating which patients present with depression symptoms. In particular, FC MRI may provide a more sensitive measure of depression-related dysfunction, at least in patients with LTLE. Employing sensitive measures of frontolimbic network dysfunction in TLE may help provide new insight into mood disorders in epilepsy that could eventually guide treatment planning. PMID:25223729
Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Kucukboyaci, N Erkut; Leyden, Kelly M; Cheng, Christopher E; Girard, Holly M; Iragui, Vicente J; Tecoma, Evelyn S; McDonald, Carrie R
This article reports a 3-phase study to develop and validate the Penn Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a 26-item self-report measure of the severity of PTSD. In Phase 1, using a sample (n = 83) selected in 4 different groups, the inventory showed high internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and validity in relation to a structured clinical PTSD diagnosis, measures
The development of a 21-item self-report inventory for measuring the severity of anxiety in psychiatric populations is described. The initial item pool of 86 items was drawn from three preexisting scales: the Anxiety Checklist, the Physician’s Desk Reference Checklist, and the Situational Anxiety Checklist. A series of analyses was used to reduce the item pool. The resulting Beck Anxiety Inventory
Aaron T. Beck; Norman Epstein; Gary Brown; Robert A. Steer
A new inventory for examining the first six of Erikson's psychosocial stages is described. The self-report questionnaire, developed in a pilot study of 97 adolescents and tested in a study of 622 adolescents, has 12 items for each subscale. Measures of reliability and validity are reported. It is concluded that the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI) is a useful measure
Doreen A. Rosenthal; Ross M. Gurney; Susan M. Moore
This review focused on the Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment (BYI) [Beck, J., Beck, A., & Jolly, J. (2001). Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment manual. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation]. The BYI were designed as self-report instruments for assessing maladaptive cognitions and behaviors of…
Bose-Deakins, Jillayne E.; Floyd, Randy G.
The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a self-reported inventory tapping current feelings only. A short form was published in 1972 consisting of 13 items from the original BDI, called the BDI-SF. In 1978 the original version was modified to eliminate double negative statements and alternative ways of asking the same question and then referred to…
Watkins, Arleen J.; Kligman, Evan
Self-report ergometric inventories can provide valuable information to employers and can serve as a means of intervention to improve employee attributes. Based on the science of ergonomics (a science that studies the natural laws of work in order to maximize human efficiency in job performance), such an inventory focuses on the interaction of the…
Johnson, Kenneth A.
We assessed the validity and stability of the Swedish developed Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI; Andershed, Kerr, Stattin, & Levander, 2002) in Canadian nonforensic young adults. In Study 1, a total of 217 undergraduates completed the YPI as well as the Psychopathic Personality Inventory–Revised (PPI–R; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005) and the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP; Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick,
Mary Ann Campbell; Naomi L. Doucette; Sheila French
The current research study replicated a study by Rogers et al. (Rogers M, Smoak ND, Liu J. Self-reported criminal computer behavior: a big-5, moral choice and manipulative exploi- tive behavior analysis. Deviant Behavior 2006;27:1-24) and examined the psychological characteristics, moral choice, and exploitive manipulative behaviors of self-reported com- puter criminals and non-computer criminals. Seventy-seven students enrolled in an infor- mation
Marcus K. Rogers; Kathryn Seigfried; Kirti Tidke
\\u000a Much of the data used by criminologists is generated by self-report surveys of victims and offenders. Although both sources\\u000a share a common reliance on responses to questions, little overlap exists between the two traditions mainly because of the\\u000a differences in the original motivating goals and auspices of each. Recent changes in how these data are used–especially self-report\\u000a offending surveys–necessitate a
James P. Lynch; Lynn A. Addington
This article describes the models and methods that cognitive psychologists and survey researchers use to evaluate and experimentally test cognitive issues in questionnaire design and subsequently improve self-report instruments. These models and methods assess the cognitive processes underlying how respondents comprehend and generate answers to self-report questions. Cognitive processing models are briefly described. Non-experimental methods – expert cognitive review, cognitive
Jared B. Jobe
Although self-report measures play a critical role in the process of family assessment, their utility is limited by the ease with which they can be read and understood by family members. Using a standardized readability formula, we assessed 39 family assessment self-report instruments. Results indicated that readability ranged from very difficult (college level) to fairly easy (6th grade level). Most
Keith L. Kaufman; Kenneth J. Tarnowski; Susan J. Simonian; Karen Graves
The aim of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of self-reports of juvenile offenders on physical factors (e.g. sleep difficulties, weight-related behaviours and weight perceptions), health risk behaviours (e.g. alcohol use), trauma history (e.g. physical and sexual abuse) and psychological factors (e.g. anxiety, suicidal and self-harm behaviours). Self-reports obtained via a Health Questionnaire from 242 incarcerated juvenile offenders
Dianna T Kenny; Jennifer Grant
College students represent a unique population among substance users, with developmental needs and motivational factors different from those of other adults with substance abuse problems. As most college-based treatment programs focus on harm reduction, the reliability of self-reported substance use is critical to assessing treatment needs and outcomes. This study examined the reliability of students' self-reported alcohol consumption for the
Sara Walker; Merith Cosden
Using a computer-administered interview, self-reports of past criminal behavior were obtained from 99 institutionalized sex offenders. The sample contained both rapists and child molesters who had been mandated to receive specialized treatment. Offenders disclosed an enormous amount of undetected sexual aggression, a finding consistent with other self-report studies. Also striking was the high rate and variety of nonsex offenses. According
MARK R. WEINROTT; MAUREEN SAYLOR
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a syndrome with heterogeneous symptoms. The evaluation in the clinical setting usually fails to cover the complexity of the syndrome. This study aims to determine how different aspects of fibromyalgia are inter-related when measured by means of a self-reporting tool. The objective is to develop a more complete evaluation model adjusted to the complexity and multi-dimensional nature
Miguel A Vallejo; Javier Rivera; Joaquim Esteve-Vives
This paper reports the early development of the Academic Motivations Inventory (AMI), a self-report measure of the academic motivations of college students. Content validation procedures and the reliability of items and scales suggest that AMI is at present a promising instrument for group measurement (e.g., to describe the predominant motivations of students in a course) and that it may become,
Ross Moen; Kenneth O. Doyle
A three-phase study was conducted to develop and validate the Penn Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a 26-item self-report measure. Results with 83 and 98 combat veterans and with 76 general population patients and disaster survivors support usefulness of the measure. (SLD)
The primary goal of this study was to determine if the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory-Self-Report conformed to the five-factor scale format that was initially used with a clinical sample that included adolescents referred for sexual abuse evaluations. Participants were 141 teenagers, ages 12-19 (M = 15.11, SD = 1.4), and their…
Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Berres, Ashley K.; Sim, Leslie; Friedrich, William N.
Issues concerning use of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for the self-report of depressive symptomatology are raised and considered. Discussion includes the stability of depression and the need for multiple assessment periods, specificity and the need for multiple assessment measures, and selection cut scores and the need for terminological accuracy. Recommendations for the continued use of the BDI, designed to
Philip C. Kendall; Steven D. Hollon; Aaron T. Beck; Constance L. Hammen; Rick E. Ingram
The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; S. O.Lilienfeld & B. P. Andrews, 1996) is a self-report test that has shown considerable promise as a screening measure for psychopathy. A current limitation of the PPI is that no data exist regarding the impact of response sets such as positive impression management. Although the PPI contains a validity scale (Unlikely Virtues) designed to
John F. Edens; Jacqueline K. Buffington; Tara L. Tomicic; Brandon D. Riley
Objective: The primary aim of this study was to develop and validate the Food-Craving Inventory (FCI), a self-report measure of specific food cravings.Research Methods and Procedures: In a preliminary study, participants (n = 474) completed the initial version of the FCI. The results from this study were used in developing the revised FCI. Participants (n = 379) completed the revised
Marney A. White; Brooke L. Whisenhunt; Donald A. Williamson; Frank L. Greenway; Richard G. Netemeyer
This annotated bibliography contains a record of the evolution of a system for evaluating children in the classroom setting. The Barclay Classroom Climate Inventory is a needs assessment system in the affective-social domain. It is unique in that it taps three inputs, self-report, peer judgements and teacher expectations. These inputs are blended…
Barclay, James R.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of self-reported measures in predicting periodontitis in a representative US adult population, based on 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Self-reported gum health and treatment history, loose teeth, bone loss around teeth, tooth not looking right, and use of dental floss and mouthwash were obtained during in-home interviews and validated against full-mouth clinically assessed periodontitis in 3,743 US adults 30 years and older. All self-reported measures (> 95% item response rates) were associated with periodontitis, and bivariate correlations between responses to these questions were weak, indicating low redundancy. In multivariable logistic regression modeling, the combined effects of demographic measures and responses to 5 self-reported questions in predicting periodontitis of mild or greater severity were 85% sensitive and 58% specific and produced an 'area under the receiver operator characteristic curve' (AUROCC) of 0.81. Four questions were 95% sensitive and 30% specific, with an AUROCC of 0.82 in predicting prevalence of clinical attachment loss ? 3 mm at one or more sites. In conclusion, self-reported measures performed well in predicting periodontitis in US adults. Where preferred clinically based surveillance is unattainable, locally adapted variations of these self-reported measures may be a promising alternative for surveillance of periodontitis. PMID:24065636
Eke, P I; Dye, B A; Wei, L; Slade, G D; Thornton-Evans, G O; Beck, J D; Taylor, G W; Borgnakke, W S; Page, R C; Genco, R J
Objective The etiology of somatization is incompletely understood, but could be elucidated by models of psychosocial stress. Academic exam stress has effectively been applied as a naturalistic stress model, however its effect on somatization symptoms according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria has not been reported so far. Baseline associations between somatization and personality traits, such as alexithymia, have been studied exhaustively. Nevertheless, it is largely unknown if personality traits have an explanatory value for stress induced somatization. Methods This longitudinal, quasi-experimental study assessed the effects of university exams on somatization — and the reversal of effects after an exam-free period. Repeated-observations were obtained within 150 students, measuring symptom intensity before, during and after an exam period, according to the Screening for Somatoform Symptoms 7-day (SOMS-7d). Additionally, self-reports on health status were used to differentiate between medically explained and medically unexplained symptoms. Alexithymia, neuroticism, trait-anxiety and baseline depression were surveyed using the Toronto-Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Big-Five Personality Interview (NEO-FFI), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II). These traits were competitively tested for their ability to explain somatization increases under exam stress. Results Somatization significantly increased across a wide range of symptoms under exam stress, while health reports pointed towards a reduction in acute infections and injuries. Neuroticism, alexithymia, trait anxiety and depression explained variance in somatization at baseline, but only neuroticism was associated with symptom increases under exam stress. Conclusion Exam stress is an effective psychosocial stress model inducing somatization. A comprehensive quantitative description of bodily symptoms under exam stress is supplied. The results do not support the stress-alexithymia hypothesis, but favor neuroticism as a personality trait of importance for somatization. PMID:24367700
Zunhammer, Matthias; Eberle, Hanna; Eichhammer, Peter; Busch, Volker
We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD. PMID:22766012
Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff
Relatively little is known about how genetic influences on alcohol abuse and dependence (AAD) change with age. We examined the change in influence of genetic and environmental factors which explain symptoms of AAD from adolescence into early adulthood. Symptoms of AAD were assessed using the four AAD screening questions of the CAGE inventory. Data were obtained up to six times by self-report questionnaires for 8,398 twins from the Netherlands Twin Register aged between 15 and 32 years. Longitudinal genetic simplex modeling was performed with Mx. Results showed that shared environmental influences were present for age 15-17 (57%) and age 18-20 (18%). Unique environmental influences gained importance over time, contributing 15% of the variance at age 15-17 and 48% at age 30-32. At younger ages, unique environmental influences were largely age-specific, while at later ages, age-specific influences became less important. Genetic influences on AAD symptoms over age could be accounted for by one factor, with the relative influence of this factor differing across ages. Genetic influences increased from 28% at age 15-17 to 58% at age 21-23 and remained high in magnitude thereafter. These results are in line with a developmentally stable hypothesis that predicts that a single set of genetic risk factors acts on symptoms of AAD from adolescence into young adulthood. PMID:21818662
van Beek, Jenny H D A; Kendler, Kenneth S; de Moor, Marleen H M; Geels, Lot M; Bartels, Meike; Vink, Jacqueline M; van den Berg, Stéphanie M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I
This article, part of Biodiversity Counts, reports on the process of doing a plant inventory. The article discusses how scientists begin by marking out the plot, using colored flagging and permanent marker, why you may need to divide a plot into smaller subplots if the plants you're inventorying are smaller than trees, and some of the difficulties scientists face in the field when they're working in particularly dense areas.
Background: This study took place to enable the measurement of the effects on mental health of a psychosocial intervention in Rwanda. It aimed to establish the capacities of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) to screen for mental disorder and to assess symptom change over time in a Rwandan community setting. Methods. The SRQ-20 was translated into Kinyarwanda in a process of
W. F. Scholte; F. Verduin; Lammeren van A; T. Rutayisire; A. M. Kamperman
Recent theories of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) suggest that memory dysregulation plays a crucial role in symptom\\u000a maintenance. However, it is not clear which specific memory systems are involved in PTSD. In this study we used a visual implicit\\u000a memory paradigm to examine memory bias in individuals with PTSD symptoms. Three hundred nineteen participants provided self-report\\u000a measures of PTSD, anxiety
Nader Amir; Amy S. Leiner; Jessica Bomyea
The aim of the present study was to assess self-reported oral health habits, attitudes, lifestyle between the sample groups of preclinical and clinical dental and technology students in Lithuania using the Hiroshima University Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI), and to evaluate the impact of education on their behavior and self-reported oral health. A sample of 183 dental and 75 technology students at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Medical Academy, Faculty of Odontology, and Kaunas University of Technology completed the Lithuanian version the HU-DBI questionnaire with 11 additional items. The data were analyzed using the "SPSS 19.0 for Windows" software package. The mean HU-DBI score of clinical final-year dentistry students was significantly higher (p=0.001) than the score of the preclinical group (6.81 (1.2) and 5.96 (1.5), respectively). The mean scores of both groups of dental students were significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of the technology group (5.37 (1.8)). Oral health behaviors and knowledge were superior in dental students. Dental education had a significant positive impact on the oral health and behavior improvement. The attitudes of the Lithuanian dental students should be further improved by initiating a comprehensive program that would emphasize the importance of oral hygiene before the clinical program starts. PMID:25209229
Pacauskiene, Ingrida M; Smailiene, Dalia; Siudikien?, Jolanta; Savanevskyte, Julija; Nedzelskiene, Irena
Objective To explore the constructs underlying a self-report assessment of multimorbidity. Study design and setting We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 352 HMO members age 65 or older with, at a minimum, diabetes, depression, and osteoarthritis. We assessed self-reported ‘disease burden’ (a severity-adjusted count of conditions) as a function of biopsychosocial factors, two data-based comorbidity indices, and demographic variables. Results In multivariate regression, age, ‘compound effects of conditions’ (treatments and symptoms interfering with each other), self-efficacy, financial constraints and physical functioning, were significantly (p ? 0.05) associated with disease burden. An ICD-9-based morbidity index did not significantly contribute to disease burden, and a pharmacy-data based morbidity index was minimally significant. Conclusion This measure of self-reported disease burden represents an amalgamation of functional capabilities, social considerations, and medical conditions that are not captured by two administrative data-based measures of morbidity. This suggests that a) self-reported descriptions of multimorbidity incorporate biopsychosocial constructs that reflect the perceived burden of multimorbidity, b) a simple count of diagnoses should be supplemented by an assessment of activity limitations imposed by these conditions, and c) choice of morbidity measurement instrument should be based on the outcome of interest rather than the most convenient method of measurement. PMID:18757178
Bayliss, EA; Ellis, JL; Steiner, JF
. Our primary study outcome will be depressive symptoms, Beck Depression Inventory- II (rated over the past two weeks). Our secondary outcomes are: depressive symptoms, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; anxiety symptoms, Beck Anxiety Inventory (rated...
Adams, Sally; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Harmer, Catherine J; Holmes, Emily A; Munafò, Marcus R
Objective: A new Web-based neuropsychological test was field tested to determine usefulness in detecting and monitoring resolution of symptoms after sport-related concussions and in providing objective information for return-to-play decisions. Design and Setting: We obtained neuropsychological baseline data on all subjects. After concussion, subjects were administered alternate, equivalent follow-up tests until symptoms resolved. Follow-up testing typically occurred at 1- to 2-day intervals after the concussion. Subjects: Baseline testing was obtained for 834 athletes as part of ongoing field trials. Subsequently, 26 athletes sustained concussions and were studied. Measurements: We administered The Concussion Resolution Index (CRI) at baseline and alternate forms posttrauma. Follow-up tests included a self-report inventory of neurophysiologic symptoms. Results: A total of 88% of patients were identified as symptomatic on initial postconcussion testing. The CRI appeared relatively resistant to retest effects, and multiple administrations tracked resolution of symptoms over short and extended time periods. Conclusions: Although the CRI is still in field trials, preliminary data indicate that the CRI may be a useful method for athletic trainers and other professionals to expeditiously track resolution of symptoms after sport-related concussion. PMID:12937497
Saliba, Ethan; Barth, Jeffrey; Almquist, Jon; Webright, William; Freeman, Jason
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has received much attention due to high rates of this injury in Service Members returning from the Iraq/Afghanistan conflicts. This study examined cognitive performance in Service Members tested with ANAM prior to and following deployment. The sample was divided into a control group (n=400) reporting no TBI injury prior to or during most recent deployment, and a group who self-reported a TBI injury (n=502) during most recent deployment. This latter group was divided further based on self-report of post-concussion symptoms at post-deployment testing. All three groups performed similarly at pre-deployment. The group reporting TBI with active symptoms performed worst at post-deployment and included the highest percentage of individuals showing significant decline in cognitive performance over time (30.5%). A small sample of symptomatic individuals with a non-TBI reported injury did not demonstrate similar declines in performance, suggesting that active symptoms alone cannot account for these findings. Of those reporting a TBI injury during deployment, 70% demonstrated no significant change in cognitive performance compared with baseline. Although the exact etiology of observed declines is uncertain, findings indicate that individuals who self-report TBI during deployment with active symptomatology at post-deployment are at greatest risk for declines in cognitive performance. These individuals can be identified using self-report and brief computer-based testing. Importantly, the majority of active-duty individuals reporting TBI during deployment do not present with lasting significant cognitive impairment, a finding consistent with the civilian literature on mild TBI. PMID:22268558
Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Vincent, Andrea S; Twillie, David A; Logan, Bret W; Lopez, Mary; Friedl, Karl E; Grate, Stephen J; Schlegel, Robert E; Gilliland, Kirby
To assess the influence of gag reflex severity, assessed according to the short form of the patient part of Gagging Problem Assessment Questionnaire (GPA-pa SF), on the dental attendance, dental anxiety, self-reported temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms and presence of prosthetic restorations among patients requiring prosthodontic treatment in Turkey. A total of 505 patients (305 women; mean age: 46·35 years, SD: 28·2 years) undergoing dental examination were administered a questionnaire containing questions regarding their age, gender, education level, dental attendance, TMD symptoms (limitation in jaw opening, muscle pain, pain/sounds in the temporomandibular jaw), the Turkish version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) and the GPA-pa SF. Subsequently, any prosthetic restoration was recorded by a dentist. Descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance (anova) and the chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Differences were found between GPA-pa SF scores 0, 1 and 2 for education level (P = 0·001), MDAS scores (P = 0·003), self-reported TMD (P = 0·000) and prosthesis wear (P = 0·000), but not for attendance patterns (P = 0·826). Patients with gag reflex had lower education levels, higher levels of dental anxiety, more self-reported TMD symptoms and fewer fixed or removable prosthetic restorations than patients without gag reflex. Gag reflex has impacts on dental anxiety, self-reported TMD and prosthetic restorations, but not on dental attendance patterns, according to the results of the GPA-pa SF. PMID:24118087
Akarslan, Z Z; Y?ld?r?m Biçer, A Z
Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents with varying drug use histories, self-reported physical health problems were not related to inhalant use history, but blood analyses indicated a relationship between extensive inhalant use and liver problems. Psychological distress symptoms were related to inhalant use and physical symptoms. Contains 23…
Joe, George W.; And Others
Of primary interest in the present study was the assessment of the association between several contextual factors, including chronic stress, exercise, alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine intake, and the self-report of perimenstrual symptoms. Two hundred and eleven women completed questionnaires designed to assess chronic stress, perimenstrual symptoms, and physical health. The results indicated that stress accounted for a significant amount of
Linda Gannon; Tracy Luchetta; Lynn Pardie; Kelly Rhodes
This experimental study explored whether the physical symptoms of cold, pain and itchiness could be generated by visual cues, whether they varied in the ease with which they could be generated and whether they were related to negative affect. Participants were randomly allocated by group to watch one of three videos relating to cold (e.g. ice, snow, wind), pain (e.g. sporting injuries, tattoos) or itchiness (e.g. head lice, scratching). They then rated their self-reported symptoms of cold, pain and itchiness as well as their negative affect (depression and anxiety). The researcher recorded their observed behaviour relating to these symptoms. The results showed that the interventions were successful and that all three symptoms could be generated by the visual cues in terms of both self-report and observed behaviour. In addition, the pain video generated higher levels of anxiety and depression than the other two videos. Further, the degree of itchiness was related to the degree of anxiety. This symptom onset process also showed variability between symptoms with self-reported cold symptoms being greater than either pain or itchy symptoms. The results show that physical symptoms can be generated by visual cues indicating that psychological factors are not only involved in symptom perception but also in symptom onset. PMID:20183542
Ogden, Jane; Zoukas, Serafim
Background Workload has traditionally been measured by using surrogates, such as number of patients admitted or census, but these may not fully represent the complex concept of workload. Objective We measured self-reported subjective workload of interns and explored the relationship between subjective workload and possible predictors of it. Methods Trained research assistants observed internal medicine interns on call on a general medicine service. Approximately once an hour, the research assistants recorded the self-reported subjective workload of the interns by using Borg's Self-Perceived Exertion Scale, a 6 to 20 scale, and also recorded their own perceptions of the intern's workload. Research assistants continuously recorded the tasks performed by the interns. Interns were surveyed before and after the observation to obtain demographic and census data. Results Our sample included 25 interns, with a mean age of 28.6 years (SD, 2.4 years). Mean self-reported subjective workload was 12.0 (SD, 2.4). Mean self-reported subjective workload was significantly correlated with intern age (r??=??0.49, P?.05), but not with team or intern census, number of admissions, or number of patients cross-covered. Self-reported subjective workload in the period after sign-out was significantly higher than in the period before and during sign-out (P?.001). Conclusions Self-reported subjective workload was not associated with traditional measures of workload. However, receiving sign-out and assuming the care of cross-coverage patients may be related to higher subjective workload in interns. Given the patient safety implications of workload, it is important that the medical education community have tools to evaluate workload and identify contributors to it. PMID:24404306
Fletcher, Kathlyn E.; Visotcky, Alexis M.; Slagle, Jason M.; Tarima, Sergey; Whittle, Jeff; Weinger, Matthew B.; Schapira, Marilyn M.
Two hypothesized moderators of the effect of peer victimization during fifth grade on subsequent symptoms of (anxious) depression in sixth grade were examined: engagement in bullying and baseline fifth grade symptoms of (anxious) depression. Analyses were conducted on longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Interview data from 1,081 fifth grade participants assessed peer victimization and engagement in bullying classmates during the school year. Self-reported symptoms of depression were measured in fifth and sixth grade with the Child Depression Inventory Short form. Additionally, maternal reports of child anxious depression were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist. Engagement in bullying and concurrent depression symptoms moderated the effect of peer victimization in fifth grade on child-reported symptoms of depression in sixth grade. The adverse effect of peer victimization was stronger for children with high levels of concurrent depression symptoms or engagement in bullying. Concurrent symptomatology also moderated the effects of peer victimization on mother-reported child anxious depression 1 year later. PMID:24395472
Henrich, Christopher C; Shahar, Golan
Although the prevalence, risk factors for, and consequences of postpartum depression have been studied extensively, little work has examined the nature of postpartum anxiety disorders in community samples. In the present study, 147 community women completed a diagnostic interview and a battery of self-report inventories approximately eight weeks after childbirth. The rate of generalized anxiety disorder was elevated as compared
Amy Wenzel; Erin N. Haugen; Lydia C. Jackson; Jennifer R. Brendle
The objective of this study was to evaluate the biogenetic temperament and character profiles in Korean adolescents with problematic Internet use. Six hundred eighty-six high school students completed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), and Conners/Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale: Short Form (CASS: Short). The problematic Internet use group showed higher scores in the Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness profiles and lower scores in the Novelty Seeking and Self-Transcendence profiles of the JTCI, compared with the nonproblematic Internet use group, after controlling for the ADHD symptoms. The results of this study suggest that temperament/character patterns should be considered in accounts of the etiology of problematic Internet use. PMID:18954290
Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-won; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Eun-Hui
In the present study, I examined the relationship between social desirability, competitive state anxiety, and perceived coach support among male and female high school tennis players (N = 270). On the basis of SCAT (Martens, 1977) and M-C SDS scores (Crowne & Marlowe, 1960), I developed four stress coping style groups. Results did not reveal significant differences between these groups
Todd A. Ryska
The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education. PMID:24232917
Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Ezquerra-Cabrera, Mercedes; Carbonero-Carreno, Rocio; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada
The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education. PMID:24232917
Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Ezquerra-Cabrera, Mercedes; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada
BackgroundTo extend previous observations that secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with nicotine markers in children, we investigated if SHS exposure is associated with self-reports of nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms among young never-smokers.
Mathieu Bélanger; Jennifer O'Loughlin; Chizimuzo T. C. Okoli; Jennifer J. McGrath; Maninder Setia; Louise Guyon; André Gervais
This study examined the effects of attachment style on self-reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a population of service members (N=561). Active duty, postdeployment service members completed anonymous questionnaires, including two m...
A. J. Maiers, E. J. Hildebrandt, R. Arata-Maiers, S. M. Escolas, S. T. Mason
Specific uses and outcomes of studies conducted with the Inventory of Individually Perceived Group Cohesiveness (IIPGC) are described. This document serves as a supplementary guide to field studies and normative data obtained in reference to the IIPGC. The Inventory of Individually Perceived Group Cohesiveness is a self-report measure of an…
Johnson, David L.
The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI) is a new self-report measure that was developed to assess traits associated with grandiose and vulnerable narcissism from a Five-factor model (FFM) perspective. In a sample of undergraduates (N = 283), the relations among the FFNI scales, grandiose and vulnerable dimensions, and an array of relevant criteria were examined including self- and informant reports of the Big Five domains, measures of the Dark Triad, ratings of the interpersonal circumplex, externalizing and internalizing behaviors and symptoms, and romantic and attachment styles. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable dimensions demonstrated good convergent and criterion validity. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable dimensions manifested converging (e.g., disagreeableness, low love/communion, psychopathy, Machiavellianism, Ludus/Manic love styles) and diverging (e.g., neuroticism, extraversion, dominance, externalizing, internalizing, attachment anxiety) relations in a manner largely consistent with predictions. The FFNI joins the Pathological Narcissism Inventory as a measure that can simultaneously assess both grandiose and vulnerable dimensions of narcissism. PMID:23186210
Miller, Joshua D; Gentile, Brittany; Campbell, W Keith
In a short-term experimental study about one-third of subjects exposed to noise shows both increases and decreases in blood pressure. While the association of noise with hypertension is established it is not yet known whether hypotension is associated with noise in field studies. In a cross-sectional study the association of self-reported hypotension and low blood pressure readings with traffic noise was examined in adults (age 25-65, N = 1989, participation = 62%). Noise exposure was based on both, short and long-term day/night recordings and standard noise mapping. Questionnaire data on socio-demographics, housing, life-style, noise and weather sensitivity, health status, mental and physical symptoms were available to adjust for potential confounding and testing for moderation. Non-linear multiple regression was applied to estimate the association between the two outcomes and overall noise exposure. We did not observe a stable relation between noise and low blood pressure readings since the number of subjects based on the recommended cut-off points (5 th percentile or 110 (100)/60 mmHg) was too small. However, self-reported hypotension was non-linearly associated with noise exposure ( P = 0.044) in the presence of a strong sex × age effect modification ( P < 0.0001). Another significant moderation by noise were observed with reported symptoms of exhaustion ( P = 0.03). Weather sensitivity showed a significant interaction with noise sensitivity ( P = 0.02) and also a non-linear interaction with age ( P = 0.02). The results remained stable after adjustment for variables known to be associated with constitutional hypotension. The exposure-effect curve ascends around sound levels of 55 dBA. The results suggest a novel moderated association of noise with self-reported hypotension, predominantly in weather sensitive women with symptoms of exhaustion. Further and larger studies are needed to replicate the potential moderating effect of noise on persons with constitutional hypotension. PMID:23771418
Lercher, Peter; Widmann, Ulrich
Reviews and evaluates the extent of gender differences in academic cheating behaviors based on previous studies that used self-report data. Findings from 21 studies suggest that substantial proportions of students cheat in high school and college, with only small differences between males and females. (SLD)
Athanasou, James A.; Olasehinde, Olabisi
Background Illness and illness behaviour are important problems in the Dutch workforce. Illness has been associated with job demands, with high demands relating to poorer health. It has not been reported whether subjective health complaints relate to job demands. Aims To investigate whether perceived (physical and mental) workload and specific job demands are associated with self-reported health complaints. Methods Cross-sectional
Corne A. M. Roelen; K. Jeep Schreuder; Petra C. Koopmans; Johan W. Groothoff
-source software and free, but also ready for the machine room: at Michigan State University, more than 16 and their relationships. Network Joining 46 Colleges and Universities and 50 Middle and High Schools with over 40Self-Reported Additional Time on Task versus Perceived Helpfulness The LearningOnline Network
A study determined self-reported positive and negative physical, academic, and social effects of stimulant medication on 86 secondary students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Students reported the medication helped them pay attention, earn better grades, and improve their behavior but were unsure if it helped them on tests or on…
Doherty, Stephanie L.; Frankenberger, William; Fuhrer, Richard; Snider, Vicki
Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)
Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.
The maturational reform hypothesis and the Easterlin cohort size hypothesis are used to specify models in which age, period, and cohort effects on self-reported crime and delinquency are estimated. Curvilinear effects, logarithmic transformations, and the distinction between prevalence and frequency of offending are considered. The maturational reform hypothesis is supported for general delinquency but not for serious (Index) delinquency, for
Scott Menard; Delbert S. Elliott
This study was designed to assess the relationship between self-report and psychophysiological responses to fear appeals and behavioral changes elicited by these. Ninety-two subjects watched one of four messages that varied in level of threat (high vs. low) and efficacy (high vs. low). Concomitantly, psychophysiological measures (heart rate and…
Ordonana, Juan R.; Gonzalez-Javier, Francisca; Espin-Lopez, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus
RESEARCH Open Access Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Despite an increase in the number of food handlers receiving food hygiene training, a high proportion of food poisoning outbreaks still occur as a result of poor food handling practices. This paper uses elements of social cognitive theory to examine the beliefs of food handlers towards food safety and to determine food handlers' self-reported practices. Questionnaires were completed by 137
Deborah A. Clayton; Christopher J. Griffith; Patricia Price; Adrian C. Peters
Traditionally, studies assessing children's experiences of bullying and victimization have focused on the use of questionnaires and peer-nominations. The present study aimed to investigate this phenomenon by using two complementary assessment tools, namely self-reported questionnaires and children's drawings. The sample consisted of 448 boys and…
Andreou, Eleni; Bonoti, Fotini
Self-reports of grade at first menstrual period for 1,967 fourth-grade through ninth-grade girls were used to categorize girls as early maturers. The categories of early maturer and other (on-time or late maturers) were then examined for stability over a 3-year period using McNemar tests and [kappa] coefficients. Although the results showed…
Smolak, Linda; Krieg, Dana B.; Hayward, Chris; Shisslak, Catherine M.; Taylor, C. Barr
This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to “conventional” property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined
Scott Menard; Robert G. Morris; Jurg Gerber; Herbert C. Covey
In the absence of criteria for the diagnosis of dyslexia, considerable weight is given to self-report, in particular in studies of children at family risk of dyslexia. The present paper uses secondary data from a previous study to compare parents who self-report as dyslexic and those who do not, in relation to objectively determined levels of ability. In general, adults are more likely to self-report as 'dyslexic' if they have poorer reading and spelling skills and also if there is a discrepancy between IQ and measured literacy. However, parents of higher social status who have mild literacy difficulties are more likely to self-report as dyslexic than parents who have weaker literacy skills but are less socially advantaged. Together the findings suggest that the judgement as to whether or not a parent considers themselves 'dyslexic' is made relative to others in the same social sphere. Those who are socially disadvantaged may, in turn, be less likely to seek support for their children. Â © 2014 The Authors Dyslexia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25185509
Leavett, Ruth; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J
Purpose: To identify competencies connecting personality, organizational orientations and self-reported learning outcomes (as measured by concise Likert-type scales), for individuals who are learning for their organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Five concise factor scales were constructed to represent aspects of personality. Three further…
Bamber, David; Castka, Pavel
The results of two data sets (n=217 and n=209) are reported in which the links between the Eysenckian personality factors (psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism), identification with delinquent peers, and self-reported delinquency among high school students are examined. The factor structure of a delinquent identity measure is reported in Study 1 and partly confirmed in Study 2, suggesting at least two
P. C. L Heaven; P Caputi; D Trivellion-Scott; T Swinton
Objective To compare the risk of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and the mediating effect of perceived future threat on the risk of PTS symptoms among survivors of pediatric cancer and children who had a parent die. Methods Seventy-eight children (39 survivors of cancer, 39 bereaved) completed self-report measures of PTS symptoms, depression, anxiety, and perceived risk of future threat for
Laura A. Stoppelbein; Leilani Greening; T. David Elkin
Aerobic exercise training may help prevent or reduce depressive symptoms experienced by persons living with HIV infection. However, the psychological effects of aerobic exercise have not been studied exten- sively. This study evaluated the effects of an aerobic exercise training program on self-reported symptoms of depression in HIV-infected adults and examined the convergent validity of two widely used depressive symptom
Judith L. Neidig; Barbara A. Smith; Dale E. Brashers
We examined the impact of negative affectivity, chronic shame, and emotion regulation skills on eating disorder symptoms in undergraduate women (N = 154). We hypothesized that self-reported emotion regulation skills would mediate the well-documented relationship between chronic shame and eating disorder symptoms. Results revealed that chronic shame predicted eating disorder symptoms over and above general negative affectivity. Further, difficulties with
Sumati Gupta; M. Zachary Rosenthal; Anthony D. Mancini; Jennifer S. Cheavens; Thomas R. Lynch
Objective: Previous research has found ADHD symptoms to be common in the general population but has not compared endorsement of symptoms between ADHD and non-ADHD groups. This study examines self-reported ADHD symptoms and academic complaints in college students. Method: Students without (n = 496) and with ADHD (n = 38) completed a questionnaire…
Lewandowski, Lawrence J.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Codding, Robin S.; Gordon, Michael
This study was undertaken to assess recognition of medically unexplained physical symptoms by general practitioners (GPs), and the feasibility of using a screening procedure based on validated self-report questionnaires. GPs identified unexplained physical symptoms as the main clinical problem for 19% of attending patients. Screening instruments identified 35% of patients as having multiple unexplained physical symptoms, of whom 5% were
Robert Peveler; Lesley Kilkenny; Anne-Louise Kinmonth
This study investigated the associations between internalized stigma, depressive symptoms, and temperament dimension Harm avoidance. One hundred and seventeen stable outpatients with schizophrenia completed a battery of self-report instruments. Internalized stigma was significantly positively related to depressive symptoms, while Harm avoidance moderated the internalized stigma-depressive symptoms relationship. PMID:24857565
Aukst-Margeti?, Branka; Jakši?, Nenad; Bori?evi? Maršani?, Vlatka; Jakovljevi?, Miro
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether having childhood depressive symptoms is a risk factor that prospectively predicts impairment in glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A non–treatment-seeking sample of 115 children (aged 5–13 years), oversampled for being at risk for adult obesity, was assessed at baseline and again ~6 years later. Children self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children’s Depression Inventory at baseline. Insulin resistance was assessed at baseline and follow-up with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). RESULTS Children’s depressive symptoms were a significant predictor of follow-up HOMA-IR, fasting insulin, and fasting glucose in models accounting for baseline HOMA-IR, insulin, or glucose values; sex; race; baseline age; baseline BMI; change in BMI at follow-up; family history of type 2 diabetes; and time in the study (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In this study, depressive symptomatology at baseline predicted the progression of insulin resistance during child and adolescent development independent of changes in BMI. Research is needed to determine whether early intervention to decrease elevated depressive symptoms in youth ameliorates later development of insulin resistance and lessens the risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21911779
Shomaker, Lauren B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Stern, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Rachel; Zocca, Jaclyn M.; Field, Sara E.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Hubbard, Van S.; Yanovski, Jack A.
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether having childhood depressive symptoms is a risk factor that prospectively predicts impairment in glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A non-treatment-seeking sample of 115 children (aged 5-13 years), oversampled for being at risk for adult obesity, was assessed at baseline and again ~6 years later. Children self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children's Depression Inventory at baseline. Insulin resistance was assessed at baseline and follow-up with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). RESULTS Children's depressive symptoms were a significant predictor of follow-up HOMA-IR, fasting insulin, and fasting glucose in models accounting for baseline HOMA-IR, insulin, or glucose values; sex; race; baseline age; baseline BMI; change in BMI at follow-up; family history of type 2 diabetes; and time in the study (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In this study, depressive symptomatology at baseline predicted the progression of insulin resistance during child and adolescent development independent of changes in BMI. Research is needed to determine whether early intervention to decrease elevated depressive symptoms in youth ameliorates later development of insulin resistance and lessens the risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21911779
Shomaker, Lauren B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Stern, Elizabeth A; Miller, Rachel; Zocca, Jaclyn M; Field, Sara E; Yanovski, Susan Z; Hubbard, Van S; Yanovski, Jack A
Background In recent years, the understanding of concussion has evolved in the research and medical communities to include more subtle and transient symptoms. The accepted definition of concussion in these communities has reflected this change. However, it is unclear whether this shift is also reflected in the understanding of the athletic community. What is known about the subject Self-reported concussion history is an inaccurate assessment of someone’s lifetime exposure to concussive brain trauma. However, unfortunately, in many cases it is the only available tool. Hypothesis/purpose We hypothesize that athletes’ self-reported concussion histories will be significantly greater after reading them the current definition of concussion, relative to the reporting when no definition was provided. An increase from baseline to post-definition response will suggest that athletes are unaware of the currently accepted medical definition. Study design Cross-sectional study of 472 current and former athletes. Methods Investigators conducted structured telephone interviews with current and former athletes between January 2010 and January 2013, asking participants to report how many concussions they had received in their lives. Interviewers then read participants a current definition of concussion, and asked them to re-estimate based on that definition. Results The two estimates were significantly different (Wilcoxon signed rank test: z=15.636, P<0.001). Comparison of the baseline and post-definition medians (7 and 15, respectively) indicated that the post-definition estimate was approximately twice the baseline. Follow-up analyses indicated that this effect was consistent across all levels of competition examined and across type of sport (contact versus non-contact). Conclusion Our results indicate that athletes’ current understandings of concussions are not consistent with a currently accepted medical definition. We strongly recommend that clinicians and researchers preface requests for self-reported concussion history with a definition. In addition, it is extremely important that researchers report the definition they used in published manuscripts of their work. What this study adds to existing knowledge Our study shows that unprompted reporting of concussion history produces results that are significantly different from those provided after a definition has been given, suggesting one possible mechanism to improve the reliability of self-reported concussion history across multiple individuals. PMID:24891816
Robbins, Clifford A; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Picano, John D; Gavett, Brandon E; Baugh, Christine M; Riley, David O; Nowinski, Christopher J; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; Stern, Robert A
The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the personality predictors of bipolar disorder symptoms, conceptualized as one-dimensional (bipolarity) or two-dimensional (mania and depression). A psychiatric sample (N=370; 45% women; mean age 39.50 years) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory —2. A model in which bipolar symptoms were represented as a single dimension provided
Lena Catherine Quilty; Martin Sellbom; Jennifer Lee Tackett; Robert Michael Bagby
Rumination is thought to be an important maintaining factor in depression. Depressive symptomatology is also a prominent feature in schizophrenia. However, little is known about the relationship between rumination and symptoms, such as depression and negative symptoms, in schizophrenia. The present study examined associations between rumination and symptoms in a group of 37 stable medicated patients with schizophrenia. All participants were clinically assessed on their symptoms and completed self-reported measures of depression and rumination. The findings showed that negative symptoms, especially emotional withdrawal and stereotyped thinking, but not depressive symptomatology, were associated with rumination in the present sample of patients with schizophrenia. If the findings are replicated, interventions that reduce rumination and rigid thinking might be helpful to reduce some negative symptoms of psychosis. PMID:19752652
Halari, Rozmin; Premkumar, Preethi; Farquharson, Lorna; Fannon, Dominic; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena
.0077). All effects remained after controlling for maternal smoking, birth weight, obstetrical optimality and Abramson, 2001; Hankin, 2006; Kessler, 2003). Early-life exposure to adverse environmental cues during
Pesticide poisoning is a major public health concern in developing countries. We conducted a population survey among farmers in three parishes of northwestern Jamaica to determine the occurrence of acute pesticide poisoning and to identify factors associated with pesticide poisoning. Approximately 16% of 359 farmers who participated in the study reported one or more incidents of acute pesticide poisoning within the last two years. Only 25% of the farmers reported ever receiving training in pesticide handling or safety. The majority (68%) of farmers who reported pesticide poisoning never sought medical attention for poisoning. The factors found to be associated with pesticide poisoning in this study indicate that implementation of specific intervention strategies and education of farmers is needed in order to improve safe handling, use and disposal of pesticides and reduce incidents of acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:24484363
Ncube, Ngqabutho M.; Fogo, Christopher; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Curtis M.; Jolly, Pauline E.
, therefore the much lower prevalence in that study is not truly comparable. Trouble rising from a chair was reported less frequently by EPIC participants with complete responses compared with other questionnaires. The same was true for PD cases. The presence... and Italian). J Neurol 1999, 246:79-86. 6. Rocca WA, Maraganore DM, McDonnell SK, Schaid DJ: Validation of a telephone questionnaire for Parkinson's disease. J Clin Epidemiol 1998, 51:517-523. 7. Teresi JA, Albert SM, Holmes D, Mayeux R: Use of latent class...
Ishihara, Lianna S; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Luben, Robert; Bingham, Sheila; Welch, Ailsa; Day, Nicholas E; Brayne, Carol
by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work has reported that training attention away from negative stimuli reduced training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision-making task (n = 20; active training
Maddox, W. Todd
It is estimated that from 20 to 60% of substance abusers meet criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD). An accurate and reliable diagnosis is important because persons meeting criteria for APD, by the nature of their disorder, are less likely to change behaviors and more likely to relapse to both substance abuse and high risk behaviors. To understand more about
Linda B Cottler; Wilson M Compton; T. Andrew Ridenour; Arbi Ben Abdallah; Tim Gallagher
Group differences and prevalence rates for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a matched sample of college freshmen (n = 956) and their parents (n = 956) were investigated for gender and race (African American and Caucasian) effects using current self-report and retrospective parent-report ratings. On self-report, compared…
Lee, Dong Hun; Oakland, Thomas; Jackson, Gina; Glutting, Joseph
This brief report details a study of the construct validity of the Internalizing Symptoms Scale for Children (ISSC) in comparison with the Child Self-Report Form of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC). Using self-reports of 121 students ages 8-12 from general education classes, who were administered both measures, correlational…
Merrell, Kenneth W.; Blade, Richard L.; Lund, Jacqueline; Kempf, Kari K. G.
Objective Nearly half of Operation Enduring Freedom / Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans experience continued pain post-deployment. Several investigations report analgesic effects of allopregnanolone and other neurosteroids in animal models, but few data are currently available focusing on neurosteroids in clinical populations. Allopregnanolone positively modulates GABAA receptors and demonstrates pronounced analgesic and anxiolytic effects in rodents, yet studies examining the relationship between pain and allopregnanolone in humans are limited. We thus hypothesized that endogenous allopregnanolone and other neurosteroid levels may be negatively correlated with self-reported pain symptoms in humans. Design We determined serum neurosteroid levels by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (allopregnanolone, pregnenolone) or radioimmunoassay (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], progesterone, DHEA sulfate [DHEAS]) in 90 male veterans who served in the U.S. military after September 11, 2001. Self-reported pain symptoms were assessed in four areas (low back pain, chest pain, muscle soreness, headache). Stepwise linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between pain assessments and neurosteroids, with the inclusion of smoking, alcohol use, age, and history of traumatic brain injury as covariates. Setting Durham VA Medical Center. Results Allopregnanolone levels were inversely associated with low back pain (p=0.044) and chest pain (p=0.013), and DHEA levels were inversely associated with muscle soreness (p=0.024). DHEAS levels were positively associated with chest pain (p=0.001). Additionally, there was a positive association between traumatic brain injury and muscle soreness (p=0.002). Conclusions Neurosteroids may be relevant to the pathophysiology of self-reported pain symptoms in this veteran cohort, and could represent future pharmacological targets for pain disorders. PMID:20735755
Kilts, Jason D; Tupler, Larry A; Keefe, Francis J; Payne, Victoria M; Hamer, Robert M; Naylor, Jennifer C; Calnaido, Rohana P; Morey, Rajendra A; Strauss, Jennifer L; Parke, Gillian; Massing, Mark W; Youssef, Nagy A; Shampine, Lawrence J; Marx, Christine E
The hierarchical structure of 95 self-reported impulsivity items, along with delay-discount rates for money, was examined. A large sample of college students participated in the study (N = 407). Items represented every previously proposed dimension of self-reported impulsivity. Exploratory PCA yielded at least 7 interpretable components: Prepared/Careful, Impetuous, Divertible, Thrill and Risk Seeking, Happy-Go-Lucky, Impatiently Pleasure Seeking, and Reserved. Discount rates loaded on Impatiently Pleasure Seeking, and correlated with the impulsiveness and venturesomeness scales from the I7 (Eysenck, Pearson, Easting, & Allsopp, 1985). The hierarchical emergence of the components was explored, and we show how this hierarchical structure may help organize conflicting dimensions found in previous analyses. Finally, we argue that the discounting model (Ainslie, 1975) provides a qualitative framework for understanding the dimensions of impulsivity. PMID:20224803
Kirby, Kris N.; Finch, Julia C.
Administered Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI) to 108 adolescent inpatients diagnosed with mixed psychiatric disorders. Examined relationships of Beck Depression Inventory, Anxiety Inventory, and Hopelessness Scale with BSI. Results support use of BSI with adolescent inpatients. Findings indicated that hopelessness was related to suicidal…
Steer, Robert A.; And Others
The popularity of bariatric surgery has increased the focus on the psychological aspects of extreme obesity. Although a growing literature has documented the psychosocial burden associated with extreme obesity, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the experience of weight-related stigmatization among extremely obese individuals. The present study investigated self-reported experiences of weight-related stigmatization, weight-related quality of life, and depressive
David B. Sarwer; Anthony N. Fabricatore; Miriam H. Eisenberg; Laura A. Sywulak; Thomas A. Wadden
This article evaluates the measurement equivalence of a self-report of offending measure among female and male juveniles, as well as Hispanic, African American, and White male juveniles. The findings indicate (a) considerable functional equivalence across gender and ethnically/racially diverse groups of juvenile offenders, and (b) scalar equivalence across Hispanic and White male juvenile offenders, but (c) that researchers should be careful making either mean difference or association comparisons across genders or African American/White boys. PMID:20119516
Knight, George P.; Little, Michelle; Losoya, Sandra H.; Mulvey, Edward P.
ObjectivesHeightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct.Data sourcesPubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database.Review methodsAbstracts were screened;
Wolf E. Mehling; Viranjini Gopisetty; Jennifer Daubenmier; Cynthia J. Price; Frederick M. Hecht; Anita Stewart; Antonio Verdejo García
STUDY OBJECTIVE--To assess the extent to which the size of socioeconomic inequalities in self reported health varies among industrialised countries. DESIGN--Cross sectional data on the association between educational level and several health indicators were obtained from national health interview surveys. This association was quantified by means of an inequality index based on logistic regression analysis. SETTING--The national, non-institutionalised populations of
A E Kunst; J J Geurts; J van den Berg
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the interplay of workplace exercising on self-reported workplace performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A mixed methods design combined a randomised cross-over trial with concurrent focus groups. Three workplaces (two private companies, one public service organisation) were purposefully selected for their provision of on-site exercise facilities, size (>250 employees) and large proportion of
J. C. Coulson; J. McKenna; M. Field
Background Forces deployed to the first Gulf War report more ill health than veterans who did not serve there. Many studies of post-Gulf morbidity are based on relatively small sample sizes and selection bias is often a concern. In a setting where selection bias relating to the ill health of veterans may be reduced, we: i) examined self-reported adult ill health in a large sample of male UK Gulf War veterans and a demographically similar non-deployed comparison group; and ii) explored self-reported ill health among veterans who believed that they had Gulf War syndrome. Methods This study uses data from a retrospective cohort study of reproduction and child health in which a validated postal questionnaire was sent to all UK Gulf War veterans (GWV) and a comparison cohort of Armed Service personnel who were not deployed to the Gulf (NGWV). The cohort for analysis comprises 42,818 males who responded to the questionnaire. Results We confirmed that GWV report higher rates of general ill health. GWV were significantly more likely to have reported at least one new medical symptom or disease since 1990 than NGWV (61% versus 37%, OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.5–2.8). They were also more likely to report higher numbers of symptoms. The strongest associations were for mood swings (OR 20.9, 95%CI 16.2–27.0), memory loss/lack of concentration (OR 19.6, 95% CI 15.5–24.8), night sweats (OR 9.9, 95% CI 6.5–15.2), general fatigue (OR 9.6, 95% CI 8.3–11.1) and sexual dysfunction (OR 4.6, 95%CI 3.2–6.6). 6% of GWV believed they had Gulf War syndrome (GWS), and this was associated with the highest symptom reporting. Conclusions Increased levels of reported ill health among GWV were confirmed. This study was the first to use a questionnaire which did not focus specifically on the veterans' symptoms themselves. Nevertheless, the results are consistent with those of other studies of post-Gulf war illness and thus strengthen overall findings in this area of research. Further examination of the mechanisms underlying the reporting of ill health is required. PMID:15251045
Simmons, Rebecca; Maconochie, Noreen; Doyle, Pat
Background Many non-pharmacological treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been attempted, but reports indicate that most are ineffective. Although neurofeedback (NF) is a treatment approach for children with ADHD that remains promising, a variety of appropriate measures have been used in reporting and evaluating its effect. Objective To report the self-evaluations of NF treatment by children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods Randomized controlled trial in 91 children and adolescents with ADHD, aged less than 18 years (mean, 11.2 years) participated in a 30-session program of intensive NF treatment. Participants were randomized and allocated by sequentially numbered sealed envelopes into three groups: methylphenidate (MPH) as an active control group, and two trial groups NF with MPH, and NF alone. ADHD core symptoms and school performance were given on a scale of 1 to 10 using a self-reporting questionnaire, and the changes in these scores after treatment were used as the self-reported evaluation. Basic statistical methods (descriptive, analyses of variance, exact ?2 test, and paired t-test) were used to investigate the baseline data. Changes in ADHD core symptoms and treatment effects were investigated using a general linear model for repeated measures. Results Eighty participants completed the treatment study and 73 (91%) responded sufficiently on the self-reporting questionnaires. The treatment groups were comparable in age, sex, and cognition as well as in the baseline levels of core ADHD symptoms. All treatments resulted in significant improvements regarding attention and hyperactivity (P<0.001), and did not differ from each other in effectiveness. However, a significant treatment effect in school performance was observed (P=0.042), in which only the NF group showed a significant improvement. Conclusion The self-reported improvements in ADHD core symptoms and school performance shortly after treatment indicate NF treatment being promising in comparison with medication, suggesting NF as an alternative treatment for children and adolescents who do not respond to MPH, or who suffer side effects. Further long-term follow-up is needed. PMID:25214789
Duric, Nezla S; Assmus, Jorg; Elgen, Irene B
... copyright holder. Print page View page in Español (Spanish) Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... CDC-INFO Rotavirus Home About Rotavirus Symptoms Symptoms - Spanish Transmission Transmission - Spanish Prevention Prevention - Spanish Treatment Treatment - ...
Objective: The present research examined the validity of self-report versus informant-report in relation to a performance-based indicator of adult ADHD. Method: Archival data from 118 participants (52 males, 66 females) were used to compare Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Self-Report: Long Format (CAARS-S:L) and Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Observer Report: Long Format (CAARS-O:L) with discrepancy scores calculated between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) Verbal Comprehension Index - Working Memory Index (VCI - WMI) and Perceptual-Organizational Index - Processing Speed Index (POI - PSI) scaled scores. Results: Neither the self- nor informant-report formats of the CAARS were better predictors of discrepancies between WAIS-III Index scores. Intercorrelations between the CAARS-S:L and CAARS-O:L revealed generally higher correlations between the same scales of different formats and among scales measuring externally visible symptoms. Furthermore, regression analysis indicated that both the CAARS-S:L and CAARS-O:L clinical scales contributed a significant proportion of variance in WAIS-III VCI - WMI discrepancy scores (14.7% and 16.4%, respectively). Conclusion: Results did not establish greater accuracy of self-report versus informant-report of ADHD symptomatology, rather demonstrate the need for multimodal assessment of ADHD in adults. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:23503811
Alexander, Lisa; Liljequist, Laura
Objective To estimate the association between BMI and pelvic organ prolapse symptoms and bother among overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence before and after weight loss. Methods Women (N=338) were randomized to either an intensive 6-month weight loss or educational program (control); they were evaluated for prolapse symptoms at baseline and 6 months. Symptomatic prolapse was defined as a positive response to at least one prolapse subscale question of the Urogenital Distress Inventory. “Bother” was defined as responses of slight, moderate or great. Women with prolapse symptoms were analyzed by baseline BMI category: overweight, obese and severely obese at baseline and at 6 months. Proportional odds regression and chi square tests for trend were used for analysis. Results Mean +/?SD age was 53 ± 10 years, BMI was 36 ± 6 kg/m2, and 78% were white. A higher proportion of obese women reported feeling vaginal bulging compared to overweight women (13 % vs. 0 %, P=<.01). At baseline, 37% (N=124) reported bothersome “lower abdominal pressure”, 18% (N=62) bothersome “heaviness in the pelvic area”, and 14% (N=48) bothersome “pelvic discomfort when standing”. Nine percent (N=31) reported bothersome “feeling” and 2% (N=6) reported bothersome “seeing a bulge” in the vagina. At 6 months, there were no significant differences in improvement of self-reported bothersome prolapse symptoms in women in the weight loss or the control group. Conclusion In this study of overweight and obese women, increasing BMI was only associated with “feeling” a vaginal bulge. Weight loss did not improve bothersome prolapse symptoms. PMID:22453270
Myers, Deborah L.; Sung, Vivian W.; Richter, Holly E.; Creasman, Jennifer; Subak, Leslee L.
differences in self-report ratings of experienced emotion reflect differences in actual feelings or merelyFeelings or Words? Understanding the Content in Self-Report Ratings of Experienced Emotion Lisa with the view that self-report ratings are being driven by the properties of the feelings that are being
Barrett, Lisa Feldman
, it is important to determine whether self-report ratings reÂ¯ ect a respondent' s actual emotional state, or merelyHedonic Tone, Perceived Arousal, and Item Desirability: Three Components of Self-reported Mood Lisa FeldmanBarrett The Pennsylvania StateUniversity, USA Self-reports of mood are the most frequently used
Barrett, Lisa Feldman
Most information on the prevalence of drug use comes from self-report surveys. The sensitivity of such information is cause for concern about the accuracy of self-report measures. In this study, self-reported drug use in the last 48 hr is compared to results from biological assays of saliva samples from 371 young adults entering clubs. The…
Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert A.; Miller, Brenda A.; Holder, Harold D.
Aims To determine whether race/ethnicity affects urinary incontinence (UI) severity and bother, in women undergoing surgery for stress incontinence. Methods We used baseline data from participants in the Stress Incontinence Surgical Treatment Efficacy trial. UI severity was measured by the number of leakage episodes during a 3-day urinary diary and by urodynamic evaluation. UI bother was measured using the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI). Race/ethnicity classification was based on self report. Results Of the 654 women, 72(11%) were Hispanic, 480(73%) non-Hispanic White, 44 (6.7%) non-Hispanic Black and 58 (8.9%) ‘Other’. No differences were seen in any UI severity measures. Non-Hispanic Whites had lowest UDI scores on bivariate analysis, explained by socioeconomic status, BMI and age on multivariate analysis. Conclusion Factors other than racial/ethnic differences underlie variations in UI symptoms and bother in this group of women seeking surgery for stress incontinence. PMID:17618773
Kraus, Stephen R.; Markland, Alayne; Chai, Toby C.; Stoddard, Anne; FitzGerald, Mary Pat; Leng, Wendy; Mallett, Veronica; Tennstedt, Sharon L.
Attentional control is a regulative trait referring to individual differences in the ability to focus, sustain, and shift attention at will. This article presents two studies examining the relationship between attentional control and psychopathological symptoms in non-clinical children. In Study 1 (N=82), attentional control was measured by means of self-report and a neuropsychological test battery, and then related to scores
Peter Muris; Birgit Mayer; Céline van Lint; Saskia Hofman
Objective To determine if baseline functional health status, as measured by SF-36 (veterans), predicts new onset symptoms or diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder among deployed US military personnel with combat exposure.Design Prospective cohort analysis.Setting Millennium Cohort.Participants Combat deployed members who completed baseline (2001-3) and follow-up (2004-6) questionnaires. Self reported and electronic data used to examine the relation between functional health
Cynthia A LeardMann; Tyler C Smith; Besa Smith; Timothy S Wells; Margaret A K Ryan
This study examines the relationship between adolescent depressive symptoms and risk and protective factors identified for substance use. A questionnaire, developed to measure these factors in a young person’s community, family, school, peer group, and individual characteristics for substance use, was used to assess associations with self-reported depressive symptoms. Data were provided by a representative sample of 8984 secondary school
Lyndal Bond; John W. Toumbourou; Lyndal Thomas; Richard F. Catalano; George Patton
Individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder can display diverse and heterogeneous patterns of symptoms. Little is known about the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom (OCS) dimensions and normal personality traits, particularly those that increase risk for other internalizing disorders. In this study of 1,382 individuals from female-female twin pairs, we examined the relationship between self-report OCS dimensions derived from the Padua Inventory and Eysenck's personality traits neuroticism and extraversion. We conducted factor analysis to determine their phenotypic structure followed by twin analyses to determine their genetic and environmental sources of covariation. A three-factor solution, with dimensions corresponding to checking, aggressive obsessions, and contamination, was the best fit for the Padua OCS items. These dimensions were significantly and somewhat variably associated with neuroticism but negligibly associated with extraversion. The genetic correlations between neuroticism and these three OCS dimensions were moderate to high (0.66 with checking, 0.89 with aggressive obsessions, and 0.40 with contamination). However, the estimated genetic correlation between neuroticism and a unified latent OCS construct was smaller (0.32). Overall this study suggests that genetic, and to a smaller extent environmental, factors underlying neuroticism may act differentially as risk factors for OCS dimensions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25231027
Bergin, Jocilyn; Verhulst, Brad; Aggen, Steven H; Neale, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Bienvenu, Oscar J; Hettema, John M
Typologies of sleep problems have usually relied on identifying underlying causes or symptom clusters. In this study the value of using the patient's own reasons for sleep disturbance are explored. Using secondary data analysis of a nationally representative psychiatric survey the patterning of the various reasons respondents provided for self-reported sleep problems were examined. Over two thirds (69.3%) of respondents could identify a specific reason for their sleep problem with worry (37.9%) and illness (20.1%) representing the most commonly reported reasons. And while women reported more sleep problems for almost every reason compared with men, the patterning of reasons by age showed marked variability. Sleep problem symptoms such as difficulty getting to sleep or waking early also showed variability by different reasons as did the association with major correlates such as worry, depression, anxiety and poor health. While prevalence surveys of ‘insomnia’ or ‘poor sleep’ often assume the identification of an underlying homogeneous construct there may be grounds for recognising the existence of different sleep problem types particularly in the context of the patient's perceived reason for the problem. PMID:24983754
Armstrong, David; Dregan, Alex
Aim In this retrospective survey women with and without self-reported postpartum depression (PPD) were compared in regards to consumption-frequency of foods and supplements rich in nutrients beneficial to nervous system (NS) health, in regards to consumption-frequency of compounds which may counteract the effect of the above and in regards to nutritional support provided to them during a pregnancy between 2003 and 2008. Background Postpartum depression (PPD) is defined as a major depressive episode that begins within 1 month of delivery and is experienced by roughly 13% of mothers. Patients and methods Four Hundred participants were recruited through the internet. Data gathered via multiple choice questionnaires was statistically analyzed using SPSS and Statistical software; statistical procedures included discriminant analysis, Pearson's product moment correlation, independent t-test and cross-tabulations. Results Out of 400 participants 83 (20.8%) were affected by self-reported depression after a pregnancy between 2003 and 2008. Depressed subjects consumed oily fish and offal significantly more often than non depressed subjects. Depression was more prevalent among women with vegetarian diets. No significant difference concerning food group intake or the ratios between foods rich in nutrients beneficial to NS health and foods rich in compounds antagonising their effect were found between depressed and non depressed subjects. Iron supplementation correlated positively with zinc supplementation in both groups. Roughly 70% of women reported to have received no information about n-3 fatty acid fish oils during pregnancy; informed subjects consumed fish oils more often. The majority of subjects with self-reported depression described nutritional support during pregnancy as inadequate. Conclusion Within this Austrian sample, the prevalence rate of postpartum depression was high; while the consumption of oily fish and vegetarian diets negatively correlated with depression, Patient information positively correlated with the consumption of fish oil supplements. These results indicate that further studies will be required in order to establish the exact relationship between nutrition and mental health during and after pregnancy. PMID:24834169
Mortimore, Denise; Snow, Sarah
Genetically informative longitudinal data on self-reported symptoms of depression allow for an investigation of the causes of stability and change in depression symptoms throughout adult life. In this report, the authors investigated the relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences to symptoms of depression in 83 monozygotic and 84 dizygotic male twin pairs from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood
Dorit Carmelli; Gary E. Swan; Margaret Kelly-Hayes; Philip A. Wolf; Terry Reed; Bruce Miller
Objective: To examine the reliability of the ecSatter Inventory (ecSI), a measure of eating competence. Design: Self-report questionnaires were administered in person or by mail. Retesting occurred 2 to 6 weeks after completion of the first questionnaire. Participants: Both administrations of the questionnaire were completed by 259 participants…
Stotts, Jodi L.; Lohse, Barbara
The Study Anxiety Inventory (SAI), consisting of the factors of worry and emotionality, was developed to measure college students' self-reported levels of anxiety while studying for an exam. Data from 2002 undergraduate students from four colleges (Arts and Sciences, Engineering, Business, and Education) at a southeastern state university were…
Lunsford, George Douglas
The Problem Solving Inventory (PSI; Heppner & Petersen, 1982) is a widely used self-report measure of applied problem solving in the United States. This study examined the psychometric properties of the PSI in a Turkish cultural context, specifically with regard to normative, reliability, and validity information. Subjects were 244 Turkish university students (153 women, 71 men) who completed the Turkish
Nail Sahin; Nesrin H. Sahin; P. Paul Heppner
A new measure, the Strengths Assessment Inventory-Youth self-report (SAI-Y), was recently developed to assess the strengths of children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 18 years. The SAI-Y differs from similar measures in that it provides a comprehensive assessment of strengths that are intrinsic to the individual as well as strengths…
Brazeau, James N.; Teatero, Missy L.; Rawana, Edward P.; Brownlee, Keith; Blanchette, Loretta R.
The range of response options has been shown to influence the answers given in self-report instruments that measure behaviors ranging from television viewing to sexual partners. The current research extends this line of inquiry to 36 quantitative items extracted from a biographical inventory used in personnel selection. A total of 92…
Kirnan, Jean Powell; Edler, Erin; Carpenter, Allison
The OMNI Personality Inventory (OMNI) is a self-report questionnaire designed for use with adolescents and adults between 18 and 74 years of age. The questionnaire is not based on a particular theory, consistent with current trends in test development, according to the author. An abbreviated form of the OMNI, the OMNI-IV Personality Disorder…
The Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI; Nichols & Molinder, 1984) is a self-report measure frequently used in the assessment of sex offenders. Scores on the MSI are often used to assess levels of pedophilic interest. However, the question of whether men with pedophilia represent a unique group distinguished by their sexual interests, or whether they…
Mackaronis, Julia E.; Strassberg, Donald S.; Marcus, David K.
The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) is a 20-item self-report instrument designed to measure fatigue. It covers the following dimensions: General Fatigue, Physical Fatigue, Mental Fatigue, Reduced Motivation and Reduced Activity. This new instrument was tested for its psychometric properties in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome, psychology students, medical students, army recruits and junior physicians. We
E. M. A. Smets; B. Garssen; B. Bonke
The Study Anxiety Inventory (SAI), consisting of the factors of worry and emotionality, was developed to measure college students' self-reported levels of anxiety while studying for an exam. Data from 2002 undergraduate students from four colleges (Arts and Sciences, Engineering, Business, and Education) at a southeastern state university were used to evaluate the validity of the scores from the 16-item
George Douglas Lunsford
The Inventory of Pre-Marital Conflict (IPMC) is a systematic procedure for the diagnosis and assessment of pre-marital conflict and related issues. The self-report component of the IPMC involves a series of 18 hypothetical conflict situations. The individual responds to each of these by evaluating who is primarily responsible for the problem, and…
Fournier, David G.; And Others
Background The evaluation of smoke-free legislation (SFL) in the UK examined the impacts on exposure to second-hand smoke, workers’ attitudes and changes in respiratory health. Studies that investigate changes in the health of groups of people often use self-reported symptoms. Due to the subjective nature it is of interest to determine whether workers’ attitudes towards the change in their working conditions may be linked to the change in health they report. Methods Bar workers were recruited before the introduction of the SFL in Scotland and England with the aim of investigating their changes to health, attitudes and exposure as a result of the SFL. They were asked about their attitudes towards SFL and the presence of respiratory and sensory symptoms both before SFL and one year later. Here we examine the possibility of a relationship between initial attitudes and changes in reported symptoms, through the use of regression analyses. Results There was no difference in the initial attitudes towards SFL between those working in Scotland and England. Bar workers who were educated to a higher level tended to be more positive towards SFL. Attitude towards SFL was not found to be related to change in reported symptoms for bar workers in England (Respiratory, p?=?0.755; Sensory, p?=?0.910). In Scotland there was suggestion of a relationship with reporting of respiratory symptoms (p?=?0.042), where those who were initially more negative to SFL experienced a greater improvement in self-reported health. Conclusions There was no evidence that workers who were more positive towards SFL reported greater improvements in respiratory and sensory symptoms. This may not be the case in all interventions and we recommend examining subjects’ attitudes towards the proposed intervention when evaluating possible health benefits using self-reported methods. PMID:22551087
Self-report measures of depression differ in their construction and scoring rules. In the present study from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project we tested the hypothesis that the loss of information due to scoring rules or rating formats reduces the validity of depression severity assessment. One hundred fifty-three outpatients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) who presented for treatment or who were in ongoing treatment and had their medication changed due to lack of efficacy completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) and Remission from Depression Questionnaire (RDQ) at the initiation of treatment and 4 month follow-up. The patients were evaluated with the 17-item Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD). The CUDOS and RDQ were equally highly correlated with the HAMD at baseline and follow-up. There was no significant difference in the correlations between the modified and original scoring algorithms of the QIDS with the HAMD at baseline and the follow-up. On each scale, the patients showed significant levels of improvement from baseline to 4 months, and the effect sizes were similar. These findings suggest that the loss of information due to the scoring rules of the QIDS or the rating format of the RDQ did not reduce the validity of depression severity assessment. PMID:24745466
Zimmerman, Mark; D'Avanzato, Catherine; Attiullah, Naureen; Friedman, Michael; Toba, Cristina; Boerescu, Daniela A
Lahey and Waldman (2003; 2005) proposed a model in which three dispositions—sympathetic response to others; negative emotional response to threat, frustration, and loss; and positive response to novelty and risk—transact with the environment to influence risk for conduct disorder (CD). To test this model, the Child and Adolescent Dispositions Scale (CADS) was developed to measure these dispositions using parent ratings of the child. Here we report psychometric evaluations of a parallel youth self-report version (CADS-Y). Exploratory factor analysis of CADS-Y items among 832 9–17 year olds yielded a 3-factor structure that was consistent with the model and invariant across sex and informants. In 1,582 pairs of 9–17 year old twins, confirmatory factor analyses supported the CADS-Y 3-factormodel. Each CADS-Y dimension was associated with CD as predicted. Correlations between the CADS-Y and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory described relations between the dispositions and an important model of personality. PMID:20419576
Lahey, Benjamin B.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Applegate, Brooks; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.
Background Although psychological stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ventricular arrhythmias, the relationship between self-reported stress and ventricular ectopy has not been evaluated under naturalistic conditions in acute post-MI patients, a group at elevated risk for arrhythmias. Methods Diary-reported stress was measured during 24-hour Holter monitoring in 80 patients (52 men, 28 women) approximately 12 weeks following MI. In addition, state and trait anxiety were measured using the Spielberger State and Trait anxiety inventory (STAI), administered at the beginning of the 24-hour holter monitoring session. The relationship between diary reported stress, anxiety, and ventricular ectopy was evaluated. Results Mean diary-reported stress (?= .29, p = .01) was associated with total ventricular ectopy. State anxiety was also associated with 24-hour ectopy (?= .24, p = .04); however, trait anxiety was not significantly associated with ectopy. Temporal analyses of the relationship between stress and ectopy showed that diary-reported stress was associated with an increase in the number of VPBs occurring in the following hour (B = 0.74, p < .0001). Conclusions These findings extend existing evidence linking psychological factors to ventricular arrhythmias by demonstrating that psychological stress predicts increased arrhythmic activity during routine daily activities in post-MI patients. PMID:17174651
Smith, Patrick J.; Blumenthal, James A.; Babyak, Michael A.; Georgiades, Anastasia; Sherwood, Andrew; Sketch, Michael H.; Watkins, Lana L.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders lists weight gain or weight loss as a symptom of depression at all ages, but no study of adolescent depression has examined its relation to actual (not just self-reported) weight change. In the current longitudinal study, 215 adolescents provided physical and self-report measures of change in weight, body mass, and body fat over a 4-month time interval. They also completed psychological measures of body dissatisfaction, problematic eating attitudes, and depressive symptoms. The relation between physical measures of weight change and depressive symptoms varied with age. These relations were explained by individual differences in body dissatisfaction, eating attitudes, and behaviors, leading to questions about weight change as a symptom of depression in adolescence. PMID:20102656
FELTON, JULIA; COLE, DAVID A.; TILGHMAN-OSBORNE, CARLOS; MAXWELL, MELISSA A.
Stress and its influence upon physiological and emotional functioning has been well documented in research literature. In order to extend this research to study the relationship between accumulated life stress, symptoms, and coping responses, 202 college graduates and undergraduates, (144 females and 58 males) responded to three self-report…
Kantner, James E.; And Others
Eating disorders (EDs) are common, complex psychiatric disorders thought to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. They share many symptoms, behaviors, and personality traits, which may have overlapping heritability. The aim of the present study is to perform a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) of six ED phenotypes comprising three symptom traits from the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 [Drive for Thinness (DT), Body Dissatisfaction (BD), and Bulimia], Weight Fluctuation symptom, Breakfast Skipping behavior and Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder trait (CHIRP). Investigated traits were derived from standardized self-report questionnaires completed by the TwinsUK population-based cohort. We tested 283,744 directly typed SNPs across six phenotypes of interest in the TwinsUK discovery dataset and followed-up signals from various strata using a two-stage replication strategy in two independent cohorts of European ancestry. We meta-analyzed a total of 2,698 individuals for DT, 2,680 for BD, 2,789 (821 cases/1,968 controls) for Bulimia, 1,360 (633 cases/727 controls) for Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder trait, 2,773 (761 cases/2,012 controls) for Breakfast Skipping, and 2,967 (798 cases/2,169 controls) for Weight Fluctuation symptom. In this GWAS analysis of six ED-related phenotypes, we detected association of eight genetic variants with P?10(-5) . Genetic variants that showed suggestive evidence of association were previously associated with several psychiatric disorders and ED-related phenotypes. Our study indicates that larger-scale collaborative studies will be needed to achieve the necessary power to detect loci underlying ED-related traits. PMID:22911880
Boraska, Vesna; Davis, Oliver S P; Cherkas, Lynn F; Helder, Sietske G; Harris, Juliette; Krug, Isabel; Liao, Thomas Pei-Chi; Treasure, Janet; Ntalla, Ioanna; Karhunen, Leila; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Christakopoulou, Danai; Raevuori, Anu; Shin, So-Youn; Dedoussis, George V; Kaprio, Jaakko; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D; Collier, David A; Zeggini, Eleftheria
STUDY OBJECTIVE--To assess the extent to which the size of socioeconomic inequalities in self reported health varies among industrialised countries. DESIGN--Cross sectional data on the association between educational level and several health indicators were obtained from national health interview surveys. This association was quantified by means of an inequality index based on logistic regression analysis. SETTING--The national, non-institutionalised populations of the United Kingdom, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands, Italy, the United States, and Canada were studied. The age group was 15-64 years, and the study period was 1983-90. PARTICIPANTS--Representative population samples with the number of respondents ranging from approximately 6000 (Denmark) to 90,000 (the United States) were studied. MAIN RESULTS--For men, the smallest health inequalities were observed for the United Kingdom and Sweden, and the largest inequalities for Italy and the United States. Other countries held an intermediate position. The same international pattern was observed for women, except that relatively small inequalities were also observed for Dutch women. CONCLUSIONS--The results agree to a large extent with those of previous comparative studies. The international pattern observed here may be partly related to "subjective" aspects of self reported health, such as the propensity to complain and illness behaviour. The results challenge the view that disease and disability are distributed less equally in the UK than in countries like Sweden. PMID:7798037
Kunst, A E; Geurts, J J; van den Berg, J
Research has revealed negative associations between religiosity and alcohol consumption. Given these associations, the aim of the current research was to evaluate whether the order of assessing each construct might affect subsequent reports of the other. The present research provided an experimental evaluation of response biases of self-reported religiosity and alcohol consumption based on order of assessment. Participants (N = 301 undergraduate students) completed an online survey. Based on random assignment, religiosity was assessed either before or after questions regarding recent alcohol consumption. Social desirability bias was also measured. Results revealed a priming effect such that participants who answered questions about their religiosity prior to their alcohol consumption reported fewer drinks on their peak drinking occasions, drinking less on typical occasions, and drinking less frequently, even when controlling for social desirability and for the significant negative associations between their own religiosity and drinking. In contrast, assessment order was not significantly associated with religiosity. Results indicate priming religion results in reporting lower, but potentially more accurate, levels of health risk behaviors and that these effects are not simply the result of socially desirable responding. Results are interpreted utilizing several social–cognitive theories and suggest that retrospective self-reports of drinking may be more malleable than self-descriptions of religiosity. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23528191
Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Foster, Dawn W.
Setting: Parents of children 12 years old and under whose child had made at least one visit to a study clinic in the years 2000–2003. Methods: As part of a randomized controlled trial to improve patient provider communication and preventive practices, parents' responses to telephone interview were compared with observations of safety practices during a home visit. Home visits were completed within nine weeks of the telephone interview. Parents were not told that the visit was part of a validation study and home visit observers were unaware of the interview responses. The authors calculated sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative predictive values, and their corresponding confidence intervals. Results: Sensitivity (0.78 to 0.98) and positive predictive values (0.75 to 1.00) were high for all items. Specificities and negative predictive values were more variable and the highest estimates (specificity 0.95 to 1.00, negative predictive value 0.95 to 0.97) were for car seat types. Conclusions: The results suggest that parent self report practice of certain injury prevention behaviors (owning a car seat, hot water temperatures) is reliable, whereas self reports on other practices (working smoke detectors, properly fitting bike helmets) may be overstated. PMID:16081748
Robertson, A; Rivara, F; Ebel, B; Lymp, J; Christakis, D
Two self-report measures of psychopathy, Levenson's Primary and Secondary Psychopathy scales (LPSP) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), were administered to a large sample of 1,603 offenders. The most widely researched measure of criminal psychopathy, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), served as a provisional referent for estimating the construct validity of these self-report measures with offenders. Compared with the LPSP, the PPI displayed higher zero-order correlations with the PCL-R, better convergent and discriminant validity, and more consistent incremental utility in predicting PCL-R scores. Furthermore, using a variant of Westen and Rosenthal's approach to evaluating the construct validity of a new measure, compared with the LPSP, the PPI's pattern of associations with measures of 35 external criterion variables was more similar to the pattern observed for the PCL-R. Results generally provide stronger support for the validity of the PPI than the LPSP in offender populations using the PCL-R as a provisional benchmark, particularly for assessing interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy. PMID:19915197
Poythress, Norman G; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Skeem, Jennifer L; Douglas, Kevin S; Edens, John F; Epstein, Monica; Patrick, Christopher J
In a cross-sectional study of 250 farmers aged 22 to 77 years, of whom 36.4% are smokers, the authors aimed at describing lung function and respiratory symptoms and to estimate associations with exposures to pesticides and dust. Lung function was measured using a spirometer. Respiratory symptoms and exposure levels were self-reported based on a modified standardized questionnaire. Mean forced vital
F. Abu Shama; M. Skogstad; K. Nijem; E. Bjertness; P. Kristensen
Abstract This study of patients under investigation for lung cancer (LC) aims to: 1) examine the prevalence of self-reported taste and smell alterations (TSAs) and their relationships with demographic and clinical characteristics; and 2) explore nutritional importance of TSAs by examining their associations with patient-reported weight loss, symptoms interfering with food intake, and changes in food intake. Methods. Patients were recruited consecutively during investigation for LC from one university hospital in Sweden. Patient-reported information on TSAs, demographics, six-month weight history, symptoms interfering with food intake, and changes in food intake was obtained. Relationships between TSAs and other variables were examined using two-tailed significance tests. In addition, putative explanatory factors for weight loss were explored in those patients diagnosed with LC, since a relationship between TSAs and weight loss was found in this group. Results. The final sample consisted of 215 patients, of which 117 were diagnosed with primary LC within four months of study inclusion and 98 did not receive a cancer diagnosis. The 38% prevalence of TSAs was identical in both groups, and were generally reported as mild and not interfering with food intake. However, a statistically significant relationship between TSAs and weight loss was found among patients with LC, with a median weight change of - 5.5% and a higher frequency of weight loss ? 10%. Patients with LC and weight loss ? 10%, had higher frequency of reporting TSAs, of decreased food intake and of ? 1 symptom interfering with food intake compared with those with less weight loss. Conclusion. TSAs, although relatively mild, were present in 38% of patients with and without LC. Relationships between TSAs and weight loss were found among patients with LC, but not fully explained by decreased food intake. This highlights the complexity of cancer-related weight loss. PMID:24702121
Belqaid, Kerstin; Orrevall, Ylva; McGreevy, Jenny; Månsson-Brahme, Eva; Wismer, Wendy; Tishelman, Carol; Bernhardson, Britt-Marie
Objective The aim of this study was to examine low hedonic responsivity, a facet of hedonic capacity, as a potential explanatory variable in the relationship between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and depressive symptoms. Method One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate students (mean age = 21.3, standard deviation = 4.6; 59.6% women) from a large, public university completed self-report measures for this cross-sectional study. Results Results indicated that ADHD symptoms were significantly associated with depressive symptoms, and that low hedonic responsivity partially accounted for this association. This effect was statistically significant for total ADHD symptoms and inattentive symptoms, but not for hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. Conclusions Findings are consistent with the possibility that impaired hedonic responsiveness may be a common endophenotype for depression and the inattentive symptoms of ADHD. Implications for future research and clinical work are discussed. PMID:22777931
Meinzer, Michael C.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Hill, Ryan M.
We applied an ecological multiple risk/protective factor model to study factors related to depressive symptoms among adolescents. Participants were 39,740 adolescents who self-reported risk factors, protective factors, and depressive symptoms on a school-based survey. Results indicate that an index of multiple risk was related to increased…
Olson, Jonathan; Goddard, H. Wallace
:self reported symptom intensity on exercise days for pain,fatigue,stiffness,and stress (numeric rating scales underlying pain. Purpose To determine whether symptom trajectories (pain,fatigue,stiffness, stress) during with regimen. Study Procedures Participants got weekly calls,completed weekly diaries to record days exercised,perceived
de Lijser, Peter
Despite the widespread use of tobacco and alcohol by illicit drug users, the medical effects of smoking and alcohol use remain understudied among such individuals. We investigated the relationship between smoking and alcohol use, and medical symptoms among 125 cocaine dependent patients. Subjects were assessed for smoking, alcohol use, and medical problems using a standardized self-report instrument (MILCOM). Medical symptoms
Ashwin A. Patkar; Allan Lundy; Frank T. Leone; Stephen P. Weinstein; Edward Gottheil; Michael Steinberg
Drawing from transactional models, the authors examined whether attachment security measured at age 3 (a potential source of differential vulnerability) interacts with the course of maternal depressive symptoms over an 8-year period (a potential source of differential exposure) in predicting children's self-reported depressive symptoms at age 11.…
Milan, Stephanie; Snow, Stephanie; Belay, Sophia
Adolescent substance abusers demonstrate numerous emotional and behavioral difficulties in conjunction with drug problems. In this study, 236 clinically referred substance abusing adolescents were grouped on level of self-reported and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms and compared on important variables. Three groups emerged: Externalizers, Exclusive Substance Abusers, and Mixed (adolescents with both internalizing and externalizing symptoms). Exclusive Substance Abusers showed
Cynthia L. Rowe; Howard A. Liddle; Gayle A. Dakof
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study explored the convergent and discriminant validity of the Geriatric Anxiety Scale (GAS), a new measure of anxiety symptoms for older adults. The GAS, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were administered to 117 community-dwelling, predominantly White, older adults (62% female; M age = 74.75 years,
Brian P. Yochim; Anne E. Mueller; Andrea June; Daniel L. Segal
Stature, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained by self-reports and by measurements for 69 American Indian youth, 12-19 years of age, to determine the validity of self-reported values for research and clinical use. Self-reported weight was significantly less than measured weight by 2.64 kg and 2.76 kg for boys and girls, respectively. There was no systematic bias in self-reported stature in either sex. BMI based on self-reported values was significantly less than measured BMI by about 1 kg/m2 in each sex. Reporting errors for weight and BMI were related to measured size, with the greatest underestimates at the highest values of measured weight and BMI. If the patterns observed in this sample exist more widely, self-reported measures may not be acceptable proxies for measured values. PMID:1627578
Himes, J H; Story, M
Adolescents in junior high school (n = 237), completed a questionnaire on bullying as it relates to victim and to perpetrator status, suicidality and biographical data. Psychological symptoms were assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) supplemented by school health officers blind assessments. Bullying was common: bully only (18%), victim only (10%) and victim and bully (9%). Bullies had mainly externalizing symptoms (delinquency and aggression) and those of the victim and bully group both externalizing and internalizing symptoms as well as high levels of suicidality. Adolescents in the bully only group were more likely to be boys and to have attention problems. Moreover, a substantial proportion of the adolescents in the victim only group were judged by school health officer to have psychiatric symptoms and to function socially less well. PMID:16757465
Ivarsson, Tord; Broberg, Anders G; Arvidsson, Tomas; Gillberg, Christopher
Distinction between true negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia is difficult. In the present study we seek to establish the psychological profile of depression-prone schizophrenic patients. We addressed the issue by comparing the expression of psychological indices, such as the feelings of being in control of events, anxiety, mood, and the style of coping with stress in depressive and non-depressive schizophrenics. We also analyzed the strength of the association of these indices with the presence of depressive symptoms. A total of 49 patients (18 women and 31 men, aged 23-59) were enrolled into the study, consisting of a self-reported psychometric survey. We found that the prevalence of clinically significant depression in schizophrenic patients was 61%. The factors which contributed to the intensification of depressive symptoms were the external locus of control, anxiety, gloomy mood, and the emotion-oriented coping with stress. We conclude that psychological testing may discern those schizophrenic patients who would be at risk of depression development and may help separate the blurred boundaries between depressive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:22112362
Because it is often impractical or impossible to obtain school transcripts or records on subjects, many researchers rely on\\u000a college students to accurately self-report their academic record as part of their data collection procedures. The purpose\\u000a of this study is to investigate the validity and reliability of student self-reported academic performance. As expected the\\u000a study finds overall validity of self-reported
James S. ColeRobert; Robert M. Gonyea
Objectives. We used self-reported and measured height and weight data to ex- amine the relationship between food insecurity and obesity. Methods. We defined food insecurity according to 3 different models. We used self-reported and measured height and weight from 2 versions of the Canadian Community Health Survey to calculate obesity rates. Results. When self-reported height and weight data were used
Ariel-Ann Lyons; C. H. Nelson
Data from a survey questionnaire and from water utility billing records are used to compare self-reported and actual water savings for 471 households during a conservation campaign. Self-reports are only weakly related to actual changes in water consumption. Errors are widespread, and not wholly random: The accuracy of self-reports increases with household socioeconomic status and with the extent of conservation
Lawrence C. Hamilton
OBJECTIVE. We examined agreement of data between self-reported and objectively assessed exercise adherence among women with systemic lupus erythematosus. METHOD. Eleven participants completed weekly exercise logs on date and duration of exercise during a 10-wk Wii Fit™ home-based program. Afterward, exercise data from the log were compared with those recorded in the Wii console. RESULTS. Of the paired data, the mean duration of exercise recorded in the Wii was 29.5 min and that recorded in the log was 33.3 min. The composite intraclass correlation for exercise duration between exercise log and the Wii Fit was 0.4. The 95% limits of agreement indicated large between-subjects variability. CONCLUSION. Exercise logs exhibit a marginally acceptable agreement with Wii estimation of exercise duration at a group level. However, caution should be applied when using the exercise log as a measure of a person's exercise behavior because of the tendency to overreport. PMID:23791324
Yuen, Hon K; Wang, Ed; Holthaus, Katy; Vogtle, Laura K; Sword, David; Breland, Hazel L; Kamen, Diane L
This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to "conventional" property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11-18 years old in 1976-77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36-44) in 2002-2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002-2003 (total age range 11-88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes. PMID:22347761
Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C
Background Poor sleep quality (SQ) and daytime sleepiness (DS) are common in renal transplant (RTx) recipients; however, related data are rare. This study describes the prevalence and frequency of self-reported sleep disturbances in RTx recipients. Methods This cross-sectional study included 249 RTx recipients transplanted at three Swiss transplant centers. All had reported poor SQ and / or DS in a previous study. With the Survey of Sleep (SOS) self-report questionnaire, we screened for sleep and health habits, sleep history, main sleep problems and sleep-related disturbances. To determine a basis for preliminary sleep diagnoses according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), 164 subjects were interviewed (48 in person, 116 via telephone and 85 refused). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data and to determine the frequencies and prevalences of specific sleep disorders. Results The sample had a mean age of 59.1?±?11.6 years (60.2% male); mean time since Tx was 11.1?±?7.0 years. The most frequent sleep problem was difficulty staying asleep (49.4%), followed by problems falling asleep (32.1%). The most prevalent sleep disturbance was the need to urinate (62.9%), and 27% reported reduced daytime functionality. Interview data showed that most suffered from the first ICSD category: insomnias. Conclusion Though often disregarded in RTx recipients, sleep is an essential factor of wellbeing. Our findings show high prevalences and incidences of insomnias, with negative impacts on daytime functionality. This indicates a need for further research on the clinical consequences of sleep disturbances and the benefits of insomnia treatment in RTx recipients. PMID:24112372
The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between patients' psychiatric symptoms and therapists' countertransference reactions. Additionally, we wanted to examine the relationship between symptom improvement and countertransference reactions. Eleven therapists completed the Feeling Word Checklist 58 for each patient admitted to a day treatment program. Forty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. The patients completed the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90R) upon admission and at discharge. The study revealed several specific and significant correlations between the therapists' countertransference reactions and the patients' self-reported symptoms. At the end of treatment, notable findings included negative correlations between higher patient scores on the symptom dimensions and the therapists' feelings of being important and confident, and positive correlations between higher patient scores on the symptom dimensions and the therapists' feelings of being bored, on guard, overwhelmed and inadequate. Symptom change was positively correlated with positive countertransference feelings and negatively correlated with negative countertransference feelings. The study revealed that the patients' levels of self-reported symptoms were significantly associated with the therapists' countertransference feelings. This empirical study confirmed findings from the clinical literature of a specific relationship between symptom improvement and countertransference reactions. PMID:20452056
Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Karterud, Sigmund; Pedersen, Geir; Friis, Svein
??Background: Bipolar disorders represent a serious mental health problem, but clinicians often fail to detect bipolar diagnoses. The validation of brief and accurate self-report questionnaires… (more)
Miller, Christopher J.
Children with low (n = 25) and high (n = 38) peer-rated popularity completed an emotional Stroop task, using negative social words, a self-report measure of friendship value relative to other domains of competence, and the Child Depression Inventory (CDI). Six months later, they completed the CDI again. In regression analyses, after controlling for prior CDI scores, social status interacted
Joan M. Martin; David A. Cole; Amalie Clausen; Jessica Logan; Heather L. Wilson Strosher
OBJECTIVES: Investigation of sleep patterns, sleep problems, and behavioral problems in 8- to 11-year-old children. METHODS: A total of 330 children (age: M=9.52; SD=0.56; range=8-11 years; 47.3% girls) in the 4th grade of elementary school in Salzburg (Austria) completed a self-report questionnaire (80 items) to survey sleep patterns, sleep problems, and behavioral problems. RESULTS: Children aged 8-11 years slept approximately 10 h and 13 min on school days (SD=47 min) as well as on weekends (SD=81 min); girls slept significantly longer on weekends than boys. Most common self-reported sleep problems were dryness of the mouth (26.6%), sleep onset delay (21.9%), bedtime resistance (20.3%), and restless legs (19.4%). There was a significant association between watching TV as well as playing computer games prior to sleep with frightful dreams. Daytime sleepiness indicated by difficulty waking up (33.4%) and having a hard time getting out of bed (28.5%) was also very prominent. However, children in Salzburg seemed to be less tired during school (6.6%) or when doing homework (4.8%) compared to other nationalities. Behavioral problems (e.g., emotional symptoms, hyperactivity and inattention, conduct problems, peer problems) and daytime sleepiness were both significantly associated with sleep problems: the more sleep problems reported, the worse behavioral problems and daytime sleepiness were. Moreover, we could show that sharing the bed with a pet was also related to sleep problems. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported sleep problems among 8- to 11-year-old children are very common. There is a strong relationship between sleep disorders and behavioral problems. Routine screening and diagnosis as well as treatment of sleep disorders in school children should, therefore, be established in the future. PMID:23162377
Hoedlmoser, K; Kloesch, G; Wiater, A; Schabus, M
This study examined depressive biases in adolescents’ labelling of parental affect. Adolescents (151 girls; 82 boys) and their parents engaged in videotaped problem-solving interactions (PSIs). Adolescents then participated in a video-mediated recall procedure in which they watched the videotaped interaction and indicated how they thought their parents were feeling. Indices of parents’ affect during the PSIs were also provided by parent self-report and behavioral observations. Adolescent depressive symptoms were associated with over-reporting of parental aggressive affect and under-reporting of parental happy and neutral affects, relative to both directly observed and self-reported parental affect. Depressive symptoms were not associated with over-reporting of parental dysphoric affect. Given the importance of accurately reading affective cues for negotiating interpersonal interactions, these findings likely have implications for understanding processes that contribute to adverse relationships amongst the families of adolescents with depressive symptoms. PMID:21381801
Ehrmantrout, Nikki; Allen, Nicholas B.; Leve, Craig; Davis, Betsy; Sheeber, Lisa
Fatigue is one of the most complex and ill understood symptoms of chronic illness often reported as the number one complaint by patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the literature on fatigue in SLE. A pool of 55 relevant articles was retrieved via electronic searches of six databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PsychINFO and PubMed. Fatigue in the studies reviewed was assessed by a range of self-report instruments, the content of which is varied. The results displayed a consensus on the high prevalence of fatigue in SLE, which is significantly higher when compared with controls. The aetiology of fatigue appears to be multifactorial. Disease activity is not always significantly associated with fatigue, in comparison with other secondary features of SLE and psychological variables. The literature is limited by the cross-sectional nature of most of the studies, which does not permit for any firm conclusion regarding the direction of causal relationships to be made. The high prevalence of fatigue in SLE emphasizes the need for further detailed prospective research to inform the understanding of its aetiology, course and management. PMID:22345120
Cleanthous, S; Tyagi, M; Isenberg, D A; Newman, S P
Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and currently the only one legally available to children and adolescents. The sale and use of caffeinated beverages has increased markedly among adolescents during the last decade. However, research on caffeine use and behaviors among adolescents is scarce. We investigate the relationship between adolescent caffeine use and self-reported violent behaviors and conduct disorders in a population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,747 10th grade students (15-16 years of age, 50.2 % girls) who were enrolled in the Icelandic national education system during February 2012. Through a series of multiple regression models, while controlling for background factors, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and current medication and peer delinquency, and including measures on substance use, our findings show robust additive explanatory power of caffeine for both violent behaviors and conduct disorders. In addition, the association of caffeine to the outcomes is significantly stronger for girls than boys for both violent behaviors and conduct disorders. Future studies are needed to examine to what extent, if at all, these relationships are causal. Indication of causal connections between caffeine consumption and negative outcomes such as those reported here would call into question the acceptability of current policies concerning the availability of caffeine to adolescents and the targeting of adolescence in the marketing of caffeine products. PMID:23358888
Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Frost, Stephanie S; James, Jack E
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is prevalent and rarely diagnosed due to the difficulty in recognizing its symptoms as belonging to a disorder. Therefore, the evaluation/screening scales are of great importance for its detection, with the most used being the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Thus, this study proposed to evaluate the psychometric properties of internal consistency and convergent validity, as well as the confirmatory factorial analysis and reliability of the self-reported version of the LSAS (LSAS-SR), translated into Brazilian Portuguese, in a sample of the general population (N?=?413) and in a SAD clinical sample (N?=?252). The convergent validity with specific scales for the evaluation of SAD and a general anxiety scale presented correlations ranging from 0.21 to 0.84. The confirmatory factorial analysis did not replicate the previously indicated findings of the literature, with the difficulty being in obtaining a consensus factorial structure common to the diverse cultures in which the instrument was studied. The LSAS-SR presented excellent internal consistency (??=?0.90–0.96) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient?=?0.81; Pearson’s?=?0.82). The present findings support those of international studies that attest to the excellent psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR, endorsing its status as the gold standard. PMID:23922961
Forni dos Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, Jose Alexandre de Souza; Osorio, Flavia de Lima
It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students’ self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity–impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD. PMID:24478679
Converse, Alexander K.; Ahlers, Elizabeth O.; Travers, Brittany G.; Davidson, Richard J.
Patient self-reported outcomes are increasingly important in measuring disease, treatment and care outcomes. It is unclear what constitutes well-being using a combined biomedical and psychosocial approach for patients with antiretroviral therapy (ART) access. This study aimed to determine the variance within the visual analogue scale (VAS) measure of health status using the existing five dimensions of the EuroQOL-5D, to identify which domains have the greatest effect on self-reported health status and to identify associations with the VAS using both biomedical and psychosocial factors among HIV outpatients. Consecutive patients in five UK clinics were recruited to a cross-sectional survey, n=778 (86% response rate). Patients self-completed validated measures, with treatment variables extracted from file. On the EuroQOL-5D, nearly one-third (28.1%) had mobility problems, one-fifth (18.7%) self-care problems, one-third (37.4%) difficulty in performing usual tasks and one-half (44.4%) reported pain/discomfort. In the regression model to determine associations with self-reported health status (VAS score), neither CD4 count nor ART status was associated with the outcome. However, in addition to four dimensions of the EuroQOL-5D, poorer health status was associated with worse physical symptom burden, treatment optimism and psychological symptoms. There is a relatively high prevalence of psychological morbidity and poor physical function, and these burdens of disease are associated with worse self-reported health status. As HIV management focuses on treatment for extended survival and a chronic model of disease, clinical attention to physical and psychological dimensions of patient care are essential to achieve optimal well-being. PMID:22519889
Harding, Richard; Clucas, Claudine; Lampe, Fiona C; Date, Heather Leake; Fisher, Martin; Johnson, Margaret; Edwards, Simon; Anderson, Jane; Sherr, Lorraine
The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...
PURPOSE: It is vital to understand the associations between the medication event monitoring systems (MEMS) and self-reported questionnaires (SRQs) because both are often used to measure medication adherence and can produce different results. In addition, the economic implication of using alternative measures is important as the cost of electronic monitoring devices is not covered by insurance, while self-reports are the
Lizheng Shi; Jinan Liu; Vivian Fonseca; Philip Walker; Anupama Kalsekar; Manjiri Pawaskar
Because it is often impractical or impossible to obtain school transcripts or records on subjects, many researchers rely on college students to accurately self-report their academic record as part of their data collection procedures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the validity and reliability of student self-reported academic…
Cole, James S.; Gonyea, Robert M.
The effect of musical experience on emotional self-reports and psychophysiological responses of musical education on emotional reactions to dissonance, we examined self-reports and physiological responses to dissonant and consonant musical excerpts in listeners with low (LE: n 5 15) and high (HE: n 5
The purpose of the current study was to test the ability of adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD to reliably self-report delinquency history. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD between 1987 and 1996. Self-report of lifetime delinquency history was…
Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Babinski, Dara E.; Biswas, Aparajita
Objective: To validate the self-reported smoking status of Korean university students. Methods: Subjects included 322 Korean university in Korea, who participated in an annual health screening. Data on smoking were collected through a self-reported questionnaire and urine test. The data were analyzed by the McNemar test. Results: In the…
Lee, Chung Yul; Shin, Sunmi; Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Hong, Yoon Mi
Global self-esteem, appearance satisfaction, and self-reported dieting are interrelated. This study examines the temporal ordering of global self-esteem and appearance satisfaction across the early adolescence transition, from age 10 to age 14, as well as the independent associations of self-esteem and appearance satisfaction on self-reported…
Barker, Erin T.; Bornstein, Marc H.
Clinical assessment of domestic violence has traditionally relied on self-report methods of data collection, using structured interviews and lengthy questionnaires such as the MMPI-2. However, in certain situations such as court-ordered domestic violence evaluations, information obtained through self-report methods may be tainted because of…
Helfritz, Laura E.; Stanford, Matthew S.; Conklin, Sarah M.; Greve, Kevin W.; Villemarette-Pittman, Nicole R.; Houston, Rebecca J.
Currently, there is no standard self-report measure of psychopathy in community-dwelling samples that parallels the most commonly used measure of psychopathy in forensic and clinical samples, the Psychopathy Checklist. A promising instrument is the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP), which was derived from the original version the Psychopathy…
Mahmut, Mehmet K.; Menictas, Con; Stevenson, Richard J.; Homewood, Judi
Recent evidence suggests that child sexual offenders' self-report can provide a reliable source of information regarding offenders' use of threats and violence. However, the majority of studies in this area have specifically focused on coercion occurring within sexually abusive acts. The current investigation examined the accuracy of offenders' self-report regarding their use of threats and violence with child and adolescent
Keith L. Kaufman; Daniel R. Hilliker; Patty Lathrop; Eric L. Daleiden
Tested the validity of self-reports of socially undesirable adolescent behavior using a bogus pipeline procedure with students (N=291) in grades seven through nine. In the context of a school-based study in which confidentiality was assured, adolescents' self-reports of alcohol use and misuse were not significantly affected by a bogus pipeline…
Campanelli, Pamela C.; And Others
Purpose: This study examined the congruence of self-reported medications with computerized pharmacy records. Design and Methods: Pharmacy records and self-reported medications were obtained for 294 members of a state pharmaceutical assistance program who also participated in ACTIVE, a clinical trial on cognitive training in nondemented elderly…
Caskie, Grace I. L.; Willis, Sherry L.
The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationships between self-reported and measured height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of eighth-grade students. The study population consisted of eighth-grade students in eastern North Carolina who completed a cross-sectional survey, self-reported their height and weight, and had their…
Morrissey, Susan L.; Whetstone, Lauren M.; Cummings, Doyle M.; Owen, Lynda J.
The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability and validity of a new Youth Physical Activity Self-Report measure. Heart rate and direct observation were employed as criterion measures with a sample of 79 children (aged 7-9 years). Spearman's rho correlation between self reported activity intensity and heart rate was 0.87 for…
Belton, Sarahjane; Mac Donncha, Ciaran
This study uses data from 641 state prison parolees in California to examine the associations between methamphetamine use and three measures of criminal behavior: (a) self-reported violent criminal behavior, (b) return to prison for a violent offense, and (c) return to prison for any reason during the first 12 months of parole. Methamphetamine use was significantly predictive of self-reported violent
Jerome Cartier; David Farabee; Michael L. Prendergast
Cigarette smoking and self-reported health in China Steven T. YEN a, , W. Douglass SHAW b , Yan The effect of cigarette smoking on self-reported or assessed health (SAH) has been considered in several studies, with some surprising results, but smoking behavior has received less attention in studies
Shaw, W. Douglass
Self-reported and measured weight and height of 234 Croatian girls in Grades 5, 8, and 11 were used to explore the validity of these measures for calculating Body Mass Index. For both weight and height, the correlations between self-reported and measured values were over .93. Overweight girls underreported their weight and overreported their height. PMID:17450967
Ambrosi-Randi?, Neala; Bulian, Alessandra Pokrajac
Bland-Altman analysis used to determine the extent of bias, agreement, and precision between self-report and the "gold standard" of actual weight and height measurement revealed significant discrepancies between methods. Use of self-report data by health care providers and researchers should be made based on the clinical situation, patient safety, and research goals. PMID:20974100
Powell-Young, Yolanda M
Trends in Ambulatory Self-Report: The Role of Momentary Experience in Psychosomatic Medicine TAMLIN reports of momentary experience play in psychosomatic medicine. After a brief historical review of self recommendations for using self-report questionnaires in psychosomatic medicine and suggest that intensive
Barrett, Lisa Feldman
This review examines the accuracy and the concurrent and predictive validity of brief self-report information, and evaluates the promise and problems involved in its practical use. In section one, the power of self-report information for predicting and understanding grades is reviewed. In the second section, research on the influence of background…
Baird, Leonard L.
Study analyzed associations between pubertal timing, sexual activity, and self-reported depression in sample of girls and boys aged 14-16. Among girls, self-reported depression was associated with early puberty and intimate sexual relationship. Among boys, depression was associated with every early and late puberty and experience of intercourse.…
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kosunen, Elisa; Rimpela, Matti
No self-report measure of cultural competence currently exists in program evaluation. Adapting items from cultural competence measures in fields such as counseling and nursing, the researchers developed the Cultural Competence of Program Evaluators (CCPE) self-report scale. The goals of this study were to validate the CCPE and to assess…
Dunaway, Krystall E.; Morrow, Jennifer A.; Porter, Bryan E.
To examine whether adolescent cigarette smoking predicts the development of depressive symptoms, we used a longitudinal follow-up\\u000a survey of 6,863 adolescents ages 12 to 18 in the U.S. who did not report notable depressive symptoms at baseline. This study\\u000a used a self-report measure of six depressive symptoms experienced within the past twelve months at follow-up as the outcome\\u000a of interest.
Won S. Choi; Christi A. Patten; J. Christian Gillin; Robert M. Kaplan; John P. Pierce
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms.\\u000a A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction,\\u000a drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and the media. Both girls\\u000a and boys displaying high levels of depressive symptoms perceived
Rachel F. Rodgers; Susan J. Paxton; Henri Chabrol
... by the bacteria. The pseudomembrane sticks to the tissue below and may get in the way of breathing. The toxin may be absorbed into the blood stream and may cause damage to the heart, kidneys and nerves. Related Pages Diphtheria for Parents: The Basics Describes symptoms ...
Introduction Menopause is a physiological event. In the UK, the median age for onset of menopausal symptoms is 45.5 to 47.5 years. Although endocrine changes are permanent, menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, which are experienced by about 70% of women, usually resolve with time, although they can persist for decades in some women. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical treatments for menopausal symptoms? What are the effects of non-prescribed treatments for menopausal symptoms? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: agnus castus, antidepressants, black cohosh, clonidine, oestrogens, phyto-oestrogens, progestogens, testosterone, and tibolone. PMID:21696644
Introduction Menopause is a physiological event. In the UK, the median age for onset of menopausal symptoms is 45.5 to 47.5 years. Although endocrine changes are permanent, menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, which are experienced by about 70% of women, usually resolve with time, although they can persist for decades in some women. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical treatments for menopausal symptoms? What are the effects of non-prescribed treatments for menopausal symptoms? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 68 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: agnus castus, antidepressants, black cohosh, clonidine, oestrogens, phyto-oestrogens, progestogens, testosterone, and tibolone. PMID:21718582
This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Milwaukee Inventory for Styles of Trichotillomania-Child Version (MIST-C), a self-report scale designed to assess styles of hair pulling in children and adolescents diagnosed with trichotillomania (TTM). Using Internet sampling procedures, the authors recruited 164…
Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Franklin, Martin E.; Keuthen, Nancy J.; Piacentini, John; Cashin, Susan E.; Moore, Phoebe S.
The results of two studies are reported. Study I involved the development of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), a self-report instrument for use with adolescents. Subject were 179 college students aged 16–20 years. Item content of the instrument was suggested by attachment theory's formulations concerning the nature of feelings toward attachment figures. In Study II, the convergent
Gay C. Armsden; Mark T. Greenberg
The development and validation of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), a self-report instrument for use with adolescents, is described. Item content of the instrument was suggested by Bowlby's theoretical formulations concerning the nature of feelings toward attachment figures. A hierarchical regression model was employed to…
Armsden, Gay G.; Greenberg, Mark T.
This study aimed to (a) assess relationships between the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and "DSM"-oriented depression and anxiety scales of the Youth Self Report, (b) develop reliable norms for the CDI, and (c) determine CDI cutoff scores for selecting youngsters at risk for depression and anxiety. A total of 3,073 nonclinical and 511…
Roelofs, Jeffrey; Braet, Caroline; Rood, Lea; Timbremont, Benedikte; van Vlierberghe, Leen; Goossens, Lien; van Breukelen, Gerard
Historically, poliovirus infection has been an important cause of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) worldwide; however, successful elimination of wild-type poliovirus in much of the world has highlighted the importance of other causes of AFP. Despite the evolving etiology, AFP surveillance in most developing countries still focuses on poliovirus detection and fails to detect many AFP cases, particularly among adults. We assessed 41 subjects self-reporting symptoms suggestive of AFP during a population-based health survey in the Department of Santa Rosa, Guatemala. Thirty-five (85%) of the suspected cases were not hospitalized. Most subjects (37) did not have features consistent with AFP or had other diagnoses explaining weakness. We identified two adults who had not received medical attention for a clinical illness consistent with Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most important cause of non-poliovirus AFP. Usual surveillance methods for AFP, particularly in developing countries, may underestimate the true burden of non-poliovirus AFP. PMID:20348524
Sejvar, James J.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Arvelo, Wences; Padilla, Norma; Pringle, Kimberly; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Farnon, Eileen; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Dueger, Erica
Background The reliability of retrospective time to pregnancy (TTP) has been established, but its validity has been assessed in only 1 study, which had a short follow-up. Methods Ninety-nine women enrolled a decade earlier in a prospective TTP study were queried by means of mailed questionnaires about the duration of time they had required to become pregnant. Their responses were compared with their earlier data from daily diaries (gold standard). Results One-third of women could not recall their earlier TTP either in menstrual cycles or calendar months. Only 17%-19% of women recalled their TTP exactly. Agreement increased to 41%-51%, 65%-72%, and 72%-77% when defined as ±1, ±2, and ±3 months, respectively. Women with longer observed TTPs or previous pregnancies were more likely to under-report their TTP. Conclusions The findings raise questions about the commonly assumed validity of self-reported TTP. Recalled TTP may introduce error when estimating fecundability or classifying couples’ fecundity status. PMID:19057382
Cooney, Maureen A.; Louis, Germaine M. Buck; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; McGuiness, Bridget M.; Lynch, Courtney D.
Direct assessment of capability to function may be useful in healthcare settings, but poses many challenges. This paper reports a first investigation of the feasibility of individuals self-reporting their capabilities and the meaning of the responses. The study was conducted in 2010, using think-aloud interviews with participants in the UK. The findings of the study suggest that the majority of participants were able to comprehend questions about their capabilities, felt able to judge their own capability wellbeing and provided responses in line with this judgement. In a number of cases, for example in relation to ‘autonomy’, participants highlighted that their capability was potentially greater than their functioning. The findings also show varying interpretations of the capability concept, with some participants finding the capability concept unintuitive in relation to specific aspects of life (in particular, ‘attachment’). The findings suggest that guiding individuals in the process of identifying their capabilities may be important in generating consistent responses to capability questions. PMID:23631786
Al-Janabi, Hareth; Keeley, Thomas; Mitchell, Paul; Coast, Joanna
OBJECTIVE. We examined agreement of data between self-reported and objectively assessed exercise adherence among women with systemic lupus erythematosus. METHOD. Eleven participants completed weekly exercise logs on date and duration of exercise during a 10-wk Wii Fit™ home-based program. Afterward, exercise data from the log were compared with those recorded in the Wii console. RESULTS. Of the paired data, the mean duration of exercise recorded in the Wii was 29.5 min and that recorded in the log was 33.3 min. The composite intraclass correlation for exercise duration between exercise log and the Wii Fit was 0.4. The 95% limits of agreement indicated large between-subjects variability. CONCLUSION. Exercise logs exhibit a marginally acceptable agreement with Wii estimation of exercise duration at a group level. However, caution should be applied when using the exercise log as a measure of a person’s exercise behavior because of the tendency to overreport. PMID:23791324
Wang, Ed; Holthaus, Katy; Vogtle, Laura K.; Sword, David; Breland, Hazel L.; Kamen, Diane L.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n?=?433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n?=?165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's?=?299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. Aggr. Behav. 40:582-592, 2014. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25131806
Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S
Children with low (n = 25) and high (n = 38) peer-rated popularity completed an emotional Stroop task, using negative social words, a self-report measure of friendship value relative to other domains of competence, and the Child Depression Inventory (CDI). Six months later, they completed the CDI again. In regression analyses, after controlling for prior CDI scores, social status interacted significantly with both Stroop and value measures (separate regressions). For unpopular children, both greater friendship valuing and greater negative social word Stroop interference predicted increases in depressive symptoms. In contrast, neither predictor was significant for popular children. In a third regression that included friendship value and Stroop interference as joint predictors of depression change, their effects remained significant and independent. We discuss these findings' implications for 3 models of depression; Champion and Power's social-cognitive theory of depression (L. A. Champion and M. J. Power, 1995), Pyszczynski and Greenberg's self-regulatory perseveration theory of depression (T. Pyszczynski & J. Greenberg, 1992), and Harter's model of global self-worth (S. Harter, 1985). PMID:14561056
Martin, Joan M; Cole, David A; Clausen, Amalie; Logan, Jessica; Strosher, Heather L Wilson
Background Evidence is accumulating that a cannabis withdrawal syndrome is common, of clinical significance, and has a clear time course. Up till now, very limited data exist on the cannabis withdrawal symptoms in patients with co-morbid substance use disorders, other than cannabis use and tobacco use. Methods Symptoms of withdrawal were assessed through patient self-reports during detoxification in Danish residential rehabilitation centers. Patients (n?=?90) completed booklets three times during their first month at the treatment centre. Self-reported withdrawal symptoms was rated using the DSM-5 Withdrawal Symptom Check List with withdrawal symptoms from all classes of substances, with no indication that the described symptoms should be attributed to withdrawal. Self-reported time since last use of cannabis was used as a predictor of cannabis withdrawal severity. Results With the exception of loss of appetite, time since last use of cannabis was associated with all types of withdrawal symptoms listed in the DSM-5. Only four of 19 symptoms intended to measure withdrawal from other substances were related to time since last use of cannabis, including vivid, unpleasant dreams. Conclusions The findings yield strong support to the notion of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and gives further evidence for the inclusion of the criterion of vivid, unpleasant dreams. Further, the findings speak against the significance of demand characteristics in determining the course of the symptoms of cannabis withdrawal. PMID:24118963
Objective To determine the type and frequency of neurological signs and symptoms in individuals with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods Persons with FM (n=166) and pain-free controls (n=66) underwent systematic neurological examination by a neurologist blinded to disease status. Neurological symptoms present over the preceding 3 months were assessed with a standard questionnaire. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association of neurological symptoms and examination findings with FM status. Within the FM group we examined the correlation between self-reported symptoms and physical examination findings. Results Compared to the control group, age and gender adjusted estimates revealed the FM group had significantly more neurological abnormalities in multiple categories including: cranial nerves IX and X (42% vs. 8%), sensory (65% vs. 25%), motor (33% vs. 3%), and gait (28% vs. 7%). Similarly, the FM group endorsed significantly more neurological symptoms than the control group in 27 of 29 categories with the biggest differences observed for photophobia (70% vs. 6%), poor balance (63% vs. 4%), and weakness (58% vs. 2%) and tingling (54% vs. 4%) in the arms and legs. Poor balance, coordination, tingling, weakness in the arms and legs, and numbness in any part of body correlated with appropriate neurological exam findings in the FM group. Conclusions This blinded, controlled study demonstrated neurological physical examination findings in persons with FM. The FM group had more neurological symptoms than controls, with moderate correlation between symptoms and signs. These findings have implications for the medical work-up of patients with FM. PMID:19714636
Watson, Nathaniel F.; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack; Noonan, Carolyn; Ellenbogen, Richard G.
Experimental and epidemiological research indicate an association between long-term stress and hearing problems, yet the mechanisms underlying these disorders are not yet fully established. Thus, in order to better understand the pathogenesis of stress-related hearing problems, the present study explored the symptoms and general physiological and psychosocial status of musicians in symphony orchestras. Orchestral musicians are an ideal group to study since physical, psychosocial, work-environmental and acoustic stressors are highly prevalent. The subjects where obtained from two different studies. The first group included 250 participants from 12 orchestras and is entitled "the epidemiological study". The second group, entitled "the longitudinal study", included 47 musicians who were assessed at five occasions (every half year) during two years. Thirty-one of the 47 participants were selected for sampling of physiological variables, i.e. 24-hour ECG to assess heart rate variability to evaluate the synergistic action of the autonomic system as well as saliva cortisol and testosterone levels. The results indicate that self-reported hearing problems are associated with perceived poorer psychosocial environment, as well as mental health symptoms and stress. High-frequency power of heart rate variability (parasympathetic activity) showed a negative relationship to hearing problems, implying a poorer ability to "unwind" from stress. Cortisol levels were not correlated to hearing problems whereas testosterone levels showed a tendency to be lower in subjects with hearing problems than in others. These findings provide evidence for a relationship between long-term stress and self-reported hearing problems and demonstrate a protective role of parasympathetic and anabolic activity on hearing status. PMID:19666059
Hasson, Dan; Theorell, Töres; Liljeholm-Johansson, Yvonne; Canlon, Barbara
In an at-risk community sample of 2101 girls, we examined trajectories, predictors, and consequences of changes in a central aspect of adolescents' perceived quality of attachment (QOA), i.e., their reported trust in the availability and supportiveness of the primary caregiver. Results demonstrated two distinct epochs of change in this aspect of girls' perceived QOA, with a significant linear decrease in early adolescence (ages 11-14) followed by a plateau from 14 to 16. Baseline parent-reported harsh punishment, low parental involvement, single parent status, and child-reported depression symptoms predicted steeper decreases in attachment during early adolescence, which in turn predicted greater child-reported depression and conduct disorder symptoms in later adolescence. Results suggest that both parent and child factors contribute to trajectories of self-reported QOA in adolescence, and a faster rate of decrease in girls' perceived QOA to caregivers during early adolescence may increase risk for both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. PMID:24011095
Scott, Lori N; Whalen, Diana J; Zalewski, Maureen; Beeney, Joseph E; Pilkonis, Paul A; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D
In an at-risk community sample of 2,101 girls, we examined trajectories, predictors, and consequences of changes in a central aspect of adolescents’ perceived quality of attachment (QOA), i.e., their reported trust in the availability and supportiveness of the primary caregiver. Results demonstrated two distinct epochs of change in this aspect of girls’ perceived QOA, with a significant linear decrease in early adolescence (ages 11 to 14) followed by a plateau from 14 to 16. Baseline parent-reported harsh punishment, low parental involvement, single parent status, and child-reported depression symptoms predicted steeper decreases in attachment during early adolescence, which in turn predicted greater child-reported depression and conduct disorder symptoms in later adolescence. Results suggest that both parent and child factors contribute to trajectories of self-reported QOA in adolescence, and a faster rate of decrease in girls’ perceived QOA to caregivers during early adolescence may increase risk for both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. PMID:24011095
Scott, Lori N.; Whalen, Diana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Beeney, Joseph E.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.
The authors examined how the self-reported health of 7,924 US Army Vietnam veterans in 1985-1986 related to the men's perceived exposure to herbicides and combat in Vietnam. The results showed strong, positive associations between the extent of reported herbicide exposure (classified as a four-level ordinal index) and all 21 health outcomes studied, with clear "dose-response" relations in most instances. In contrast, only chloracne and psychological symptoms, including a symptom pattern consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder, were found to be strongly related to the amount of reported combat exposure (classified as a four-level ordinal index). The multiple herbicide/outcome associations seem implausible because of their nonspecificity and because of collateral biologic evidence suggesting the absence of widespread exposure to dioxin-containing herbicides among US Army combat units. These associations may have resulted from long-term stress reactions that produced somatization, hypochondriasis, and increased utilization of medical care among some Vietnam veterans. The available data suggest, however, that the association between reported combat exposure and psychological symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder may be causal. PMID:1546707
Decouflé, P; Holmgreen, P; Boyle, C A; Stroup, N E
Survey results from 90 Mexican Americans and Latinos found that individuals who experienced social and economic challenges were more likely to self-report depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among this sample was 30 percent. Results from a logistic regression analysis identified three significant predictors for depressive symptoms: (1) Individuals concerned about discrimination were twice as likely to self-report depressive symptoms; (2) individuals with concerns about access to medical care had a greater likelihood of having depressive symptoms by 94.8 percent; and (3) those who had experienced a dramatic loss of income were 1.1 times more likely to have depressive symptoms than those who had not experienced income loss. Results from the study also confirmed that the majority of Mexican Americans and Latinos prefer to seek assistance for mental health issues from a medical doctoral or from indigenous community resources, such as family members, friends, and religious consultation. Strategies for overcoming barriers to receive adequate and culturally competent mental health care and for coping with dramatic loss of income may help to alleviate depressive symptoms among the Mexican American and Latino populations. PMID:24640230
Leung, Patrick; LaChapelle, Alicia R; Scinta, Ashleigh; Olvera, Norma
The role of cognitive vulnerability in the development of depressive symptoms in youth might depend on age and gender. The current study examined cognitive vulnerability models in relationship to depressive symptoms from a developmental perspective. For that purpose, 805 youth (aged 10-18, 59.9% female) completed self-report measures.…
Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bogels, Susan M.; Meesters, Cor
The aim of the present study was to examine differences in psychological symptoms and sense of self-competence between adolescents with and without non-suicidal self-injurious behavior. We collected data in a sample of 281 Flemish adolescents. Psychological symptoms and self-competencies were assessed by means of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) and…
Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick
Self-report instruments of psychological symptoms are increasingly used in counseling centers but rely on rigorous evaluation of their clinical validity. Three studies reported here (total N = 26,886) investigated the validity of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62; Locke et al., 2011) as an assessment and…
McAleavey, Andrew A.; Nordberg, Samuel S.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Locke, Benjamin D.; Lockard, Allison J.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Faces Pain Scale–Revised (FPS-R) and Color Analog Scale (CAS) are self-report pain scales commonly used in children but insufficiently validated in the emergency department setting. Our objectives were to determine the psychometric properties (convergent validity, discriminative validity, responsivity, and reliability) of the FPS-R and CAS, and to determine whether degree of validity varied based on age, sex, and ethnicity. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational study of English- and Spanish-speaking children ages 4 to 17 years. Children with painful conditions indicated their pain severity on the FPS-R and CAS before and 30 minutes after analgesia. We assessed convergent validity (Pearson correlations, Bland-Altman method), discriminative validity (comparing pain scores in children with pain against those without pain), responsivity (comparing pain scores pre- and postanalgesia), and reliability (Pearson correlations, repeatability coefficient). RESULTS: Of 620 patients analyzed, mean age was 9.2 ± 3.8 years, 291(46.8%) children were girls, 341(55%) were Hispanic, and 313(50.5%) were in the younger age group (<8 years). Pearson correlation was 0.85, with higher correlation in older children and girls. Lower convergent validity was noted in children <7 years of age. All subgroups based on age, sex, and ethnicity demonstrated discriminative validity and responsivity for both scales. Reliability was acceptable for both the FPS-R and CAS. CONCLUSIONS: The FPS-R and CAS overall demonstrate strong psychometric properties in children ages 4 to 17 years, and between subgroups based on age, sex, and ethnicity. Convergent validity was questionable in children <7 years old. PMID:23999954
von Baeyer, Carl L.; Bulloch, Blake; Dayan, Peter S.
Sleep research has made extensive use of self-report measures relying on a response format that requires respondents to provide single, specific numerical estimates. The cognitive processes involved in storing and retrieving sleep-related information allow only approximate numeric estimates of sleep behavior. Based on a fuzzy set model of survey responses, a response format is proposed to better capture the inherent vagueness of quantitative estimates of sleep behavior. Ninety-three adults (mean age 29.3 years) participated in two interviews, 1 month apart, consisting of questions about health-related behaviors. Questions were asked in both traditional point estimate and fuzzy response formats. A subset of questions was repeated at the end of each interview to examine test-retest reliability. Subjects filled out daily diaries each morning during the month between interviews. Quantitative estimates of usual sleep behavior were found to be highly reliable. Point estimates differed significantly from fuzzy boundary estimates. Differences between lower and upper boundary estimates indicated substantial ranges in estimates of usual sleep: total sleep time (6-8.2 h), sleep latency (26-44 min), bed time (11:25 PM-12:56 AM) and waking time (7:24-8:39 AM). Mean diary-recorded bed and waking times fell between the lower and upper boundary estimates in more than 53% of cases, and between the lower and upper extreme estimates in more than 92% of cases. Fuzzy response formats provide an opportunity to report more completely what can be recalled about sleep behavior. They also provide a useful framework for better understand the meaning of traditional point estimate formats. PMID:12220319
Gehrman, Philip; Matt, Georg E; Turingan, Maria; Dinh, Quyen; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia
Objective Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. Methods We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female “MtF” and 45 female-to-male “FtM”) patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. Results In total, 32.9% (n?=? 23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n?=? 10) FtM transsexual persons (p?=? 0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males (?=?androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p ?=? 0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p ?=? 0.05). Conclusion In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon. PMID:25299675
Hohne, Nina; Stalla, Gunter K.; Sievers, Caroline
Data is reviewed on premenstrual symptoms which have been related to high suicide and accident rates, employment absentee rates, poor academic performance and acute psychiatric problems. A recent study of healthy young women indicated that 39% had troublesome premenstrual symptoms, 54% passed clots in their menses, 70% had cyclical localized acneiform eruptions and only 17% failed to experience menstrual pain. Common menstrual disorders are classified as either dysmenorrhea or the premenstrual syndrome. Symptoms for the latter usually begin 2-12 days prior to menstruation and include nervous tension, irritability, anxiety, depression, bloated breasts and abdomen, swollen fingers and legs, headaches, dizziness, occasional hypersomia, excessive thirst and appetite. Some women may display an increased susceptibility to migraine, vasomotor rhinitis, asthma, urticaria and epilepsy. Symptoms are usually relieved with the onset of menses. While a definitive etiological theory remains to be substantiated, symptomatic relief has been reported with salt and water restriction and simple diuretics used 7 to 10 days premenstrually. Diazapam or chlordiazepoxide treatment is recommended before oral contraceptive therapy. The premenstrual syndrome may persist after menopause, is unaffected by parity, and sufferers score highly on neuroticism tests. Primary or spasmodic dysmenorrhea occurs in young women, tends to decline with age and parity and has no correlation with premenstrual symptoms or neuroticism. Spasmodic or colicky pain begins and is most severe on the first day of menstruation and may continue for 2-3 days. Treatment of dysmenorrhea with psychotropic drugs or narcotics is discouraged due to the risk of dependence and abuse. Temporary relief for disabling pain may be obtained with oral contraceptives containing synthetic estrogen and progestogen but the inherent risks should be acknowledged. Both disorders have been correlated to menstrual irregularity. Amenorrhea in many women may be precipitated by simple psychological events such as leaving home, while severely stressful events produce a higher incidence. Unless a physiological factor such as malnutrition is operating, menses usually recur spontaneously within a few months. Amenorrhea is a constant feature of anorexia nervosa and may precede related attitudes toward eating and body weight. This syndrome is best regarded as a chronic and often severe neurotic disorder requiring combined physiological and psychological treatment, although some evidence exists to indicate an endocrine disorder. Extensive basic research is needed on the complex relationship between the neuroendocrine system and emotion. PMID:4735136
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence and health burden of self-reported adult-onset diabetes mellitus were examined in older Mexican Americans. METHODS: Data from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly were used to assess the prevalence of self-reported diabetes and its association with other chronic conditions, disability, sensory impairments, health behaviors, and health service use in 3050 community-dwelling Mexican Americans 65 years and older. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported diabetes in this sample was 22%, and there were high rates of obesity, diabetes-related complications, and diabetic medication use. Myocardial infarction, stroke, hypertension, angina, and cancer were significantly more common in diabetics than in nondiabetics, as were high levels of depressive symptoms, low perceived health status, disability, incontinence, vision impairment, and health service use. Many of the rate differences found in this sample of older Mexican Americans were higher than those reported among other groups of older adults. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the prevalence and health burden of diabetes are greater in older Mexican Americans than in older non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans, particularly among elderly men. PMID:10191799
Black, S A; Ray, L A; Markides, K S
Background Patients on antiretroviral therapy have higher risk of developing adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The impact of ADRs on treatment adherence, treatment outcomes and future treatment options is quiet considerable. Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the common self-reported ADRs and their impact on antiretroviral treatment. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted at antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic of Gondar University Hospital. Semi-structured interview questionnaire was used to extract self-reported ADRs, socio-demographic, and psycho-social variables. Variables related to antiretroviral medication, laboratory values and treatment changes were obtained from medical charts. Chi-square and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used to determine the associations of dependent variables. Result A total of 384 participants were enrolled. At least one adverse drug reaction was reported by 345 (89.8%) study participants and the mean number of ADRs reported was 3.7 (±0.2). The most frequently reported ADRs were nausea (56.5%) and headache (54.9%). About 114 (31.0%) participants considered antiretroviral therapy to be unsuccessful if ADRs occurred and only 10 (2.6%) decided to skip doses as ADRs were encountered. Based on chart review, treatment was changed for 78 (20.3%) patients and from which 79% were due to documented ADRs (p = 0.00). Among them, CNS symptoms (27.4%) and anemia (16.1%) were responsible for the majority of changes. Around four percent of patients were non-adherent to ART. Non-adhered participants and those on treatment changes were not statistically associated with self-reported ADRs. Only unemployment status (AOR = 1.76 (1.15 - 2.70), p = 0.01) and ADR duration of less than one month (AOR = 1.95 (1.28-2.98), p = 0.001) were significantly associated with self-reported adverse effects of three or more in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion Self-reported ADRs to antiretroviral therapy are quite common. More of the reactions were of short lasting and their impact on adherence and treatment change were less likely. However, documented ADRs were the most prevalent reasons for ART switch. Moreover, the level of unemployment was a strong predictor of self-reported ADRs. PMID:24957052
The purpose of the present study was to examine the potential efficacy, patient acceptability, and feasibility of a novel, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have been stabilized on medications but still show clinically significant symptoms. Thirty-one adults with ADHD and stable psychopharmacology for ADHD were randomized to CBT plus continued psychopharmacology or continued psychopharmacology alone. Assessments included ADHD severity and associated anxiety and depression rated by an independent evaluator (IE) and by self-report. At the outcome assessment, those who were randomized to CBT had lower IE-rated ADHD symptoms (p < .01) and global severity (p < .002), as well as self-reported ADHD symptoms (p < .0001) than those randomized to continued psychopharmacology alone. Those in the CBT group also had lower IE-rated and self-report anxiety (p's < .04), lower IE-rated depression (p < .01), and a trend to have lower self-reported depression (p = .06). CBT continued to show superiority over continued psychopharmacology alone when statistically controlling levels of depression in analyses of core ADHD symptoms. There were significantly more treatment responders among patients who received CBT (56%) compared to those who did not (13%) (p < .02). These data support the hypothesis that CBT for adults with ADHD with residual symptoms is a feasible, acceptable, and potentially efficacious next-step treatment approach, worthy of further testing. PMID:15896281
Safren, Steven A; Otto, Michael W; Sprich, Susan; Winett, Carol L; Wilens, Timothy E; Biederman, Joseph