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This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed…
Storch, Eric A.; Khanna, Muniya; Merlo, Lisa J.; Loew, Benjamin A.; Franklin, Martin; Reid, Jeannette M.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Murphy, Tanya K.
This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children’s Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory\\u000a (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive–compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for\\u000a use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed with primary Obsessive–Compulsive\\u000a Disorder, and their parents. The Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) was
Eric A. Storch; Muniya Khanna; Lisa J. Merlo; Benjamin A. Loew; Martin Franklin; Jeannette M. Reid; Wayne K. Goodman; Tanya K. Murphy
Researchers explored the factor structure of the Self-Report Family Inventory with a sample of heterosexual parents who have a son or daughter who self-identifies as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Results suggest that a two-factor solution is appropriate. Research and clinical implications are offered. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)
Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Selig, James P.; Trahan, Don P., Jr.
To determine whether self-report psychological inventories could be used to better understand characters in literature, a psychology instructor and an English instructor arranged their courses so that they both focused on interpersonal relationships. The psychology course emphasized research on attraction, romantic love, and interpersonal…
Examines two issues in the assessment of child sexual abuse victims: sensitivity to trauma-related symptoms and validity of self-reports. The Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) and Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY) were completed by 41 sexually abused children. Results reveal that TSCC validity scales moderately correlate with PIY…
Objective: The effect of manipulating item positioning on self-reported ADHD symptoms was examined. We assessed whether listing DSM-IV ADHD symptoms serially or interspersed affected (a) the correlation between ADHD symptoms and (b) the rate of symptom endorsement. Method: In Study 1, an undergraduate sample (n = 102) completed a measure that…
Mitchell, John T.; Knouse, Laura E.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Kwapil, Thomas R.
Childhood trauma is an important public health problem, but there are limitations in our ability to measure childhood abuse. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-report instrument for the assessment of childhood trauma that is valid but simple to administer. A total of 288 subjects with and without trauma and psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Early Trauma Inventory– SelfReport (ETI-SR), an instrument for the assessment of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, as well as general traumas, which measures frequency, onset, emotional impact, and other variables. Validity and consistency of the ETI-SR using different methods of scoring was assessed. The ETI-SR was found to have good validity and internal consistency. No method was found to be superior to the simple method of counting the number of items endorsed as having ever occurred in terms of validity. Some items were found to be redundant or not necessary for the accurate measurement of trauma severity within specific domains. Subsequent analyses with a shortened checklist of items showed acceptable validity and internal consistency. These findings suggest that the ETI-SR is a valid measure of early trauma, and suggest future directions for a shortened version of the ETI-SR that could be more easily incorporated into clinical research studies and practice settings.
Bremner, J. Douglas; Bolus, Roger; Mayer, Emeran A.
The primary purpose of this study was to develop and gather initial psychometric information regarding the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory--Self-Report (SRSI-SR), a self-report measure of students' use of specific self-regulation strategies. Information regarding the scales' factor structure, convergent and discriminant validity, differential…
The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report version (BRIEF-SR) is the first self-report measure of executive functioning for adolescents. With the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act authorization, there is a greater need for appropriate assessment of severely impaired children. Recent studies have…
BACKGROUND: On 4 October 1992, an El Al Boeing 747-F cargo aeroplane crashed on two apartment buildings in Amsterdam. Thirty-nine residents on the ground and the four crew members of the plane died. In the years after, a gradually increasing number of people attributed physical signs and symptoms to their presence at the disaster scene. AIM: To investigate the consistency between patients' symptoms attributed to the crash and GPs' diagnoses and perception of the association with the crash. DESIGN OF STUDY: Comparison between self-reportedsymptoms to a call centre and GPs' medical records on onset and type of symptoms, diagnoses, and GPs' perception of association with the disaster, assessed by questionnaire. SETTING: Consenting patients (n = 621) contacting the call centre and their GPs. METHOD: Patients were interviewed by the call centre staff and interview data were recorded on a database. Questionnaires were sent to the consenting patients' GPs, requesting their opinions on whether or not their patients' symptoms were attributable to the effects of disaster. Baseline differences and differences in reported symptoms between interviewed patients and their GP records were tested using the chi2 test. RESULTS: The 553 responders reported on average 4.3 symptoms to the call centre. The majority of these symptoms (74%) were reported to the GP. Of the ten most commonly reported symptoms, fatigue, skin complaints, feeling anxious or nervous, dyspnoea, and backache featured in 80% of symptoms reported to the GP. One out of four symptoms was either reported to the GP before the disaster took place, or six or more years after (1998/1999, during a period of much media attention). Depression (7%), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (5%) and eczema (5%) were most frequently diagnosed by GPs. They related 6% of all reported symptoms to the disaster. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the symptoms attributed to a disaster by patients have been reported to their GP, who related only a small proportion of these to the disaster.
Donker, G A; Yzermans, C J; Spreeuwenberg, P; van der Zee, J
This paper examines the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among older persons of Punjab, the largest Province of Pakistan. Data were gathered from 4191 older persons aged 60+ using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) of population. A version of the CES-D Scale adapted for low-literate populations was used to measure selfreported depressive symptoms. Various independent factors, including socioeconomic factors, self-reported health conditions, and functional impairments were examined to see their net effect on depressive symptoms among older persons. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that region, area, living index, independent source of income, self-reported health conditions, and functional impairment were significant factors affecting self-reported depressive symptoms among older persons in Punjab. An important cross-cultural difference was a lower risk of depressive symptoms among older women, which may reflect the buffering effects of family co-residence and the position of seniors in extended families.
Maqsood, Fauzia; Flatt, Jason D.; Albert, Steven M.; Maqsood, Sidra; Nizamuddin, Mohammad
This paper examines the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among older persons of Punjab, the largest Province of Pakistan. Data were gathered from 4191 older persons aged 60+ using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) of population. A version of the CES-D Scale adapted for low-literate populations was used to measure selfreported depressive symptoms. Various independent factors, including socioeconomic factors, self-reported health conditions, and functional impairments were examined to see their net effect on depressive symptoms among older persons. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that region, area, living index, independent source of income, self-reported health conditions, and functional impairment were significant factors affecting self-reported depressive symptoms among older persons in Punjab. An important cross-cultural difference was a lower risk of depressive symptoms among older women, which may reflect the buffering effects of family co-residence and the position of seniors in extended families. PMID:23242697
Maqsood, Fauzia; Flatt, Jason D; Albert, Steven M; Maqsood, Sidra; Nizamuddin, Mohammad
OBJECTIVES: Validated or standardized self-report questionnaires used in research studies and clinical evaluation of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) generally focus on the assessment of fatigue. There are relatively few published questionnaires that evaluate case defining and other accompanying symptoms in CFS. This paper introduces the self-report CDC CFS SymptomInventory and analyzes its psychometric properties. METHODS: One hundred sixty-four subjects
Dieter Wagner; Rosane Nisenbaum; Christine Heim; James F Jones; Elizabeth R Unger; William C Reeves
Objective: Report the distribution of scores from the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and estimate the prevalence of self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as compared to clinical diagnoses. Participants: Participants were 1,080 college students, divided into 3 groups: (1) no ADHD diagnosis (n = 972), (2)…
Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.
The research in this article focuses on the relation between self-report of attention deficit disorder (ADD) symptoms and performance on a two-alternative forced-choice task that measures repetition effects. The ADD/Hyperactive Adolescent Self-Report Scale--Short Form is administered to college students after they completed the repetition effects…
Objective Experiencing traumatic events in childhood is related to various psychiatric problems in adulthood, and a comprehensive tool for measuring childhood trauma is necessary in this field. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties, and factor structure of the Korean version of the Early Trauma InventorySelfReport-Short Form (ETISR-SF). ETISR-SF measures the childhood trauma, including physical, and emotional sexual abuse, as well as general traumas. Methods A clinical and nonclinical samples comprising of 97 subjects from a local community, and 207 patients with the ETISR-SF, were assessed. Other tools, including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used to assess clinical symptoms. Additional data from 69 college students was used to examine the test-retest reliability. Results The original four-factor model was supported by the confirmatory factor analysis scale [?2 (351, n=304)=3374.025, p<0.001, TLI=0.969, CFI=0.972, RMSEA=0.030]. The ETISR-SF was found to be a reliable instrument (Cronbach's ?=0.869). Comparison of the ETISR-SF scores discriminated the clinical group from that of the control group. The measure showed good convergent and divergent validity, in that the scores were correlated higher with the scores on the CTQ-SF (0.691) than with the scores on the BDI or BAI (0.424, 0.397 respectively). The ETISR-SF was found to be temporally stable, showing the moderate to high correlation (0.844). Conclusion These findings suggest that the Korean version of the ETISR-SF appears to be a reliable and valid instrument for the measurement of reported childhood trauma.
A mailed, self-reported shelf inventory was validated for use as a tool in assessing the impact of a community nutrition intervention that included a point-of-purchase component. The self-reportedinventory was evaluated for overall accuracy as well as for the effects of gender, age, and shopping responsibility on accuracy. In addition, the food-shelf inventory was compared with a specific food frequency questionnaire. Specificity and sensitivity were calculated for self-reportedinventories using an interviewer-completed, same-day inventory as the gold standard.
A self-reportinventory for the assessment of mindfulness skills was developed, and its psychometric characteristics and relationships with other constructs were examined. Participants included three samples of undergraduate students and a sample of outpatients with borderline personality disorder. Based on discussions of mindfulness in the current literature, four mindfulness skills were specified: observing, describing, acting with awareness, and accepting without
BackgroundThe diagnosis and management of concussion in sport rely heavily on self-report of symptoms by the athlete. However, many symptoms commonly reported after a concussion (headache, nausea, fatigue, etc.) may be influenced by other factors. Fatigue is a frequent complaint, but may actually be a function of level of physical fitness.ObjectiveTo evaluate the role of physical fitness on self-report of
C Lebrun; M Mrazik; D Naidu; J Matthews-White; A Game
To examine the efficacy of providing dieters with information on food sensitivities and potential food allergies, 100 subjects completed a beginning and ending ALCAT food sensitivity blood test, an underwater test (displacement method) for assessing body composition and a Disease SymptomInventory (DSI) self-report at the beginning and end of a 4- week test period. After completion of initial test,
The authors describe a new self-report instrument, the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS), which was designed to assess specific symptom dimensions of major depression and related anxiety disorders. They created the IDAS by conducting principal factor analyses in 3 large samples (college students, psychiatric patients, community…
Watson, David; O'Hara, Michael W.; Simms, Leonard J.; Kotov, Roman; Chmielewski, Michael; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth A.; Gamez, Wakiza; Stuart, Scott
Investigated physical complaints and their relationship to school-related stress in two adolescent samples. Overall, the two groups complained of more physical symptoms than did adult sample. Positive correlation between body symptoms and test-trait anxiety was highly significant. Gender differences in reporting symptoms were apparent only in…
Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:…
Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan
PurposeThe aim of this study was to examine how patients recall symptoms at a delayed self-report. Accurate insight into toxicity symptoms during chemotherapy is essential so that nurses and doctors can assess therapeutic tolerance and adjust supportive care accordingly.
Annemarie Coolbrandt; Koen Van den Heede; Ellen Vanhove; Ann De Bom; Koen Milisen; Hans Wildiers
The prevalence and the factors influencing respiratory symptoms and asthma in recreational athletes are still poorly defined. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported asthma and respiratory symptoms in a sample of Italian amateur athletes compared with the general population. We also intend to estimate the association between asthma, the type of exercise and the
Stefano Tardivo; Tamara Zerman; Sandra Frizzera; Francesca Locatelli; Pietro Ferrari; Kai Schenk; Francesco Bonella; Luca Tomaello; Chiara Posenato; Mara Meneghello; Marcello Ferrari
The prevalence and the factors influencing respiratory symptoms and asthma in recreational athletes are still poorly defined. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported asthma and respiratory symptoms in a sample of Italian amateur athletes compared with the general population. We also intend to estimate the association between asthma, the type of exercise and the
Stefano Tardivo; Tamara Zerman; Sandra Frizzera; Francesca Locatelli; Pietro Ferrari; Kai Schenk; Francesco Bonella; Luca Tomaello; Chiara Posenato; Mara Meneghello; Marcello Ferrari
Most published reports of health symptoms among Gulf War (GW) veterans have been based on self-reported questionnaire data. The presence of these symptoms at the time of a clinical evaluation and the unexplained nature of the symptoms have not been described. We report the findings of a sample of symptomatic veterans that were examined as part of a population-based case-control
Linda A. McCauley; Sandra K. Joos; Michael R. Lasarev; Daniel Storzbach; Dennis N. Bourdette
The research in this article focuses on the relation between self-report of attention deficit disorder (ADD) symptoms and performance on a two-alternative forced-choice task that measures repetition effects. The ADD/Hyperactive Adolescent Self-Report Scale--Short Form is administered to college students after they completed the repetition effects task. Performance to familiar and novel stimuli can be measured using this paradigm. The results indicate that participants in the good and poor attention groups do not differ in their responses to repeated stimuli. However, participants who self-report poor attention are faster to respond to novel stimuli compared with participants who self-report good attention. This brief questionnaire appears to capture individual differences in attention and may be useful in attention research. PMID:16110048
In this study we examined the association of optimism and depressive symptoms with self-reported physical symptoms in 241 low-income, inner-city African American women with or without a chronic illness (HIV). Although optimism was not a unique predictor of self-reported physical symptoms over and above depressive symptoms, optimism interacted with…
The first objective was to investigate the behavioural activity in the systems of Gray's theory; these are the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioural Approach System (BAS), in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The second aim was to assess in FM patients whether there is an association between BIS or BAS with self-reported somatic symptoms. Twenty FM patients and 20 healthy controls completed questionnaire measures of BIS and BAS activity (Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire), self-reported somatic symptoms (Somatic Symptoms Scale Revised), positive and negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and health status (EuroQoL Visual Analogue Scale). The results showed that FM patients had lower Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scores than controls. The SR score correlated with different somatic symptoms groups. The partial correlation (controlling for other variables measured) showed that the SR score correlated specifically with musculoskeletal symptoms. Furthermore, in regression analysis, SR score significantly predicted musculoskeletal symptoms, after controlling for other variables measured in this study. Our findings suggest that FM patients show BAS hypoactivity. This BAS activity in FM is similar to patients with depression, where a lower BAS functioning has also been found. The BAS activity predicts the musculoskeletal self-reportedsymptoms in FM better than other measures included in this study. Although this is a preliminary study, it suggests the importance of BAS activity in FM. PMID:24472271
Despite the frequency of postpartum depression, little is known about the experiences of lesbian birth mothers and their female partners, or comothers. In this modest yet important exploratory investigation, 20 lesbian mothers completed a survey of self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and related risk factors. Results indicate that…
Using a large longitudinal representative community sample, this study identified three groups of subjects who were depressed either in pre-adolescence, late adolescence or early adulthood, and matched by age and gender to controls without depression. The 90th percentile on one or two self-reportedsymptom scales [i. e. the Center for…
In a continuing effort to explore the application and the reliability of self-reportedsymptoms and cholinesterase levels over time, 22 ginseng producers in central Wisconsin participated in two years of on-site testing. Each year, the participants reported on farming practices and health-seeking behavior and completed a 20-item questionnaire related to possible farm chemical exposure symptoms. Plasma and red cell cholinesterase
Dean T. Stueland; Barbara J. Ault; Paul D. Gunderson
Symptom burden has been identified as a predictor of medication adherence, but little is known about which symptoms are most strongly implicated. This study examines self-reported adherence in relation to demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics among 302 adults living with HIV. Only 12% reported missing medication during the 3-day assessment, but 75% gave at least one reason for missing medication in the prior month. Poor adherence was associated with higher viral load and greater symptom burden. Trouble sleeping and difficulty concentrating were strongly associated with poor adherence. Given that “forgetting” was the most common reason for missing medication and nearly one third reported sleeping through dose time, future research should examine the influence of sleep disturbance on adherence. Effective management of common symptoms, such as sleep disturbance, fatigue, and gastrointestinal side effects of medications may result in better adherence, as well as improved clinical outcomes and quality of life.
Gay, Caryl; Portillo, Carmen J.; Kelly, Ryan; Coggins, Traci; Davis, Harvey; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Pullinger, Clive R.; Lee, Kathryn A.
Treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia is a priority, but is approaching stagnation, due in part to the methods used to assess change in these symptoms. Traditional methods for assessing negative symptoms employ subjective self-report and/or clinician-rated scales, both of which are contaminated by considerable measurement error. The purpose of this article is to highlight the limitations in current assessment measures for negative symptoms and discuss the advantages of quantitative objective measurement, particularly in the context of clinical trial research. Recent research from psychology, neuroscience and computer technology has produced objective quantitative measures such as facial analysis and virtual reality that are more precise and sensitive to change; these objective measures are poised to revolutionize the measurement of this critical symptom. PMID:24976136
Gupta, Maya; Holshausen, Katherine; Gou, Lisa; Bowie, Christopher
Many community-residing older adults in the United States report past year mistreatment; however, little is known about mental health correlates of abuse. This study investigated whether a recent history of emotional, physical, or sexual abuse is associated with self-reported emotional symptoms (e.g., anxiety, depression) among a representative sample of older adults. Results demonstrated that each abuse type increased likelihood of reporting emotional symptoms; when other known correlates were controlled, only emotional abuse remained a significant predictor. Additional study of mistreatment-related correlates of depression and anxiety is needed, with a focus on the often overlooked category of emotional mistreatment. PMID:22737973
Cisler, Josh M; Begle, Angela M; Amstadter, Ananda B; Acierno, Ron
Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work has reported that training attention away from negative stimuli reduced this bias and reduced depressive symptoms. However, the effect of attention training on subsequent learning has yet to be explored. In the present study, participants were required to learn to maximize reward during decision making. Undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision-making task (n = 20; active training). The active-training group was compared to two other groups: undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms who received placebo training (n = 22; placebo training) and a control group with low levels of depressive symptoms (n = 33; nondepressive control). The placebo-training depressive group performed worse and switched between options more than did the nondepressive controls on the reward maximization task. However, depressives that received active training performed as well as the nondepressive controls. Computational modeling indicated that the placebo-trained group learned more from negative than from positive prediction errors, leading to more frequent switching. The nondepressive control and active-training depressive groups showed similar learning from positive and negative prediction errors, leading to less-frequent switching and better performance. Our results indicate that individuals with elevated depressive symptoms are impaired at reward maximization, but that the deficit can be improved with attention training toward positive stimuli. PMID:24197612
Cooper, Jessica A; Gorlick, Marissa A; Denny, Taylor; Worthy, Darrell A; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd
Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work reported that training attention away from negative stimuli reduced this bias and reduced depressive symptoms. However, the effect of attention training on subsequent learning has yet to be explored. In the current study, participants were required to learn to maximize reward during decision-making. Undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision-making task (n=20; active training). The active training group was compared to two groups: undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms who received placebo training (n=22; placebo training) and control subjects with low levels of depressive symptoms (n=33; non-depressive control). The placebo-training depressive group performed worse and switched between options more than non-depressive controls on the reward maximization task. However, depressives that received active training performed as well as non-depressive controls. Computational modeling indicated that the placebo-trained group learned more from negative than from positive prediction errors, leading to more frequent switching. The non-depressive control and active training depressive groups showed similar learning from positive and negative prediction errors, leading to less frequent switching and better performance. Our results indicate that individuals with elevated depressive symptoms are impaired at reward maximization, but that the deficit can be improved with attention training toward positive stimuli.
Cooper, Jessica A.; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Denny, Taylor; Worthy, Darrell A.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Maddox, W. Todd
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) uses the Neurobehavioral SymptomInventory (NSI) to measure postconcussive symptoms in its comprehensive traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluation. This study examined the NSI's item properties, internal consistency, and external validity. Data were obtained from a federally funded study of the experiences of combat veterans. Participants included 500 Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom veterans, 219 of whom sustained at least one TBI. Data were collected at five VA medical centers and one VA outpatient clinic across upstate New York. Measures included neuropsychological interview, NSI, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Military Version. The NSI demonstrated high internal consistency (total alpha = 0.95; subscale alpha = 0.88 to 0.92). Subscale totals based on Caplan et al.'s factor analysis correlated highly with the NSI total score (r = 0.88 to 0.93). NSI scores differentiated veterans with TBI history from those without but were strongly influenced by variance associated with probable posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and generalized anxiety. Results suggest that the NSI is a reliable and valid measure of postconcussive symptoms. Scale validity is evident in the differentiation of TBI and non-TBI classifications. The scale domain is not limited to TBI, however, and extends to detection of probable effects of additional affective disorders prevalent in the veteran population. PMID:23299259
King, Paul R; Donnelly, Kerry T; Donnelly, James P; Dunnam, Mina; Warner, Gary; Kittleson, C J; Bradshaw, Charles B; Alt, Michelle; Meier, Scott T
This paper illustrates a sequential item development process to create a new self-report instrument of depression refined with Rasch analysis from a larger pool of potential diagnostic items elicited through a consensus approach by clinical experts according to the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for major depression. A 51-item pool was administered to a sample of 529 subjects (300 healthy community-dwelling adults and 229 psychiatric outpatients). Item selection resulted in a 21-item set, named the Teate Depression Inventory, with an excellent Person Separation Index and no evidence of bias due to an item–trait interaction (?2=147.71; df =168; P=0.48). Additional support for the unidimensionality, local independence, appropriateness of the response format, and discrimination ability between clinical and nonclinical subjects was provided. No substantial differential item functioning by sex was observed. The Teate Depression Inventory shows considerable promise as a unidimensional tool for the screening of depression. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of this methodology will be discussed in terms of subsequent possible mathematical analyses, statistical tests, and implications for clinical investigations.
The associations between a polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), dental mercury exposure, and self-reportedsymptoms were evaluated among 157 male dentists and 84 female dental assistants. Self-reportedsymptoms and detailed work histories were obtained by computerized questionnaire. Spot urine samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentrations to evaluate recent exposures, whereas a chronic mercury exposure index was
Nicholas J. Heyer; Diana Echeverria; Federico M. Farin; James S. Woods
Associations were evaluated between a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (Val158Met) in the gene encoding the catecholamine catabolic enzyme catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), dental mercury exposure, and self-reportedsymptoms and mood among 183 male dentists and 213 female dental assistants. Self-reportedsymptoms, mood, and detailed work histories were obtained by computerized questionnaire. Spot urine samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentrations
Nicholas J. Heyer; Diana Echeverria; Michael D. Martin; Federico M. Farin; James S. Woods
Objectives Occupational exposure of organophosphorus pesticides, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), in adolescents is of particular concern because of the potential vulnerability of the developing neurological system. The objectives of this study were to examine how neurological symptoms reported over the application season vary across time, whether these effects are reversible postapplication and if there are associations between CPF biomarkers and neurological symptoms in an adolescent study population. Setting The longitudinal study was conducted in two agricultural districts of Menoufia Governorate, Egypt between April 2010 and January 2011. Participants Male adolescent participants, including CPF applicators (n=57) and non-applicators (n=38), were recruited. Primary and secondary outcome measures Self-reported data for 25 neurological symptoms were collected at 32 time points over the 8-month period before, during and after the application season. Additionally, urine and blood samples were collected to measure urine trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), a CPF-specific biomarker and blood cholinesterase activity. Results Applicators and non-applicators report the highest numbers of symptoms during the application season, followed by a reduction in symptoms after the application ended. Applicators reported a greater percentage of neurological symptoms, relative to baseline, than non-applicators after accounting for potential covariates. Among the applicators, cumulative TCPy was positively and significantly associated with the average percentage of symptoms (B=4.56, 95% CI 3.29 to 5.84; p<0.001). Significant associations (p=0.03–0.07) between the change in butyrylcholinesterase activity from the preapplication to the postapplication season and several domains of neurological symptoms were also found, even after adjusting for potential covariates. Conclusions These observations demonstrate changes in the reporting of symptoms across the application season, showing an increase in symptom reporting during application and recovery following the end of pesticide application. These findings reinforce the growing concern regarding the neurotoxic health effects of CPF in adolescent applicators in developing countries and the need for developing and implementing intervention programmes.
Khan, Khalid; Ismail, Ahmed A; Abdel Rasoul, Gaafar; Bonner, Matthew R; Lasarev, Michael R; Hendy, Olfat; Al-Batanony, Manal; Crane, Alice L; Singleton, Steven T; Olson, James R; Rohlman, Diane S
Significant numbers of community-residing older adults in the United States report some form of past year mistreatment; however, little is known about mental health correlates of elder abuse. The present study represents an initial investigation of whether a recent history of emotional, physical, or sexual abuse is associated with self-reported emotional symptoms (e.g., anxiety and depression) among a nationally representative sample of 5,777 older adults residing in the continental United States. Results demonstrated that each abuse type independently increased likelihood of reporting emotional symptoms; however, when other known correlates (social support, physical health, traumatic event exposure) were controlled only emotional abuse remained a significant predictor. These results indicate a need for additional study of mistreatment-related correlates of depression and anxiety, with a particular focus on the often overlooked category of emotional mistreatment.
Cisler, Josh M.; Begle, Angela M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Acierno, Ron
Background Data from primary care and community samples suggest higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Objective This study investigated the co-occurrence of CFS, PTSD, and trauma symptoms and assessed the contribution of familial factors to the association of CFS with lifetime PTSD and current traumatic symptoms. Method Data on lifetime CFS and PTSD, as measured by selfreport of a doctor’s diagnosis of the disorder, and standardized questionnaire data on traumatic symptoms, using the Impact of Events Scale (IES), were obtained from 8,544 female and male twins from the community-based University of Washington Twin Registry. Results Lifetime prevalence of CFS was 2% and lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 4%. Participants who reported a history of PTSD were over 8 times more likely to report a history of CFS. Participants with scores ? 26 on the IES were over 4 times more likely to report CFS than those who had scores ? 25. These associations were attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for familial factors through within-twin pair analyses. Conclusion These results support similar findings that a lifetime diagnosis of CFS is strongly associated with both lifetime PTSD and current traumatic symptoms, although familial factors such as shared genetic and environmental contributions played a limited role in the relationship between CFS, PTSD, and traumatic symptoms. These findings suggest that future research should investigate both the familial and the unique environmental factors that may give rise to both CFS and PTSD.
Background US military engagements have consistently raised concern over the array of health outcomes experienced by service members postdeployment. Exploratory factor analysis has been used in studies of 1991 Gulf War-related illnesses, and may increase understanding of symptoms and health outcomes associated with current military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The objective of this study was to use exploratory factor analysis to describe the correlations among numerous physical and psychological symptoms in terms of a smaller number of unobserved variables or factors. Methods The Millennium Cohort Study collects extensive self-reported health data from a large, population-based military cohort, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the interrelationships of numerous physical and psychological symptoms among US military personnel. This study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a large, population-based military cohort. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the covariance structure of symptoms reported by approximately 50,000 cohort members during 2004-2006. Analyses incorporated 89 symptoms, including responses to several validated instruments embedded in the questionnaire. Techniques accommodated the categorical and sometimes incomplete nature of the survey data. Results A 14-factor model accounted for 60 percent of the total variance in symptoms data and included factors related to several physical, psychological, and behavioral constructs. A notable finding was that many factors appeared to load in accordance with symptom co-location within the survey instrument, highlighting the difficulty in disassociating the effects of question content, location, and response format on factor structure. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential strengths and weaknesses of exploratory factor analysis to heighten understanding of the complex associations among symptoms. Further research is needed to investigate the relationship between factor analytic results and survey structure, as well as to assess the relationship between factor scores and key exposure variables.
BACKGROUND: On 4 October 1992, an El Al Boeing 747-F cargo aeroplane crashed on two apartment buildings in Amsterdam. Thirty-nine residents on the ground and the four crew members of the plane died. In the years after, a gradually increasing number of people attributed physical signs and symptoms to their presence at the disaster scene. AIM: To investigate the consistency
G. A. Donker; C. J. IJzermans; P. Spreeuwenberg; J. van der Zee
Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease characterized by multiple disease-related symptoms. Chemoradiation therapy is a standard of treatment for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Although shown to prolong survival, there is little information about treatment-related symptoms or the palliative benefits of chemoradiation. We assessed symptoms of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer receiving chemoradiation to determine the prevalence, and co-occurrence, of symptoms and to identify the extent to which symptoms interfered with function. Forty-eight patients were treated with chemoradiation on a Phase I protocol. Patients received radiotherapy (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions), capecitabine (median dose 825 mg/m2 twice daily), and bevacizumab (2.5–10 mg/kg). Symptom severity and its interference with function were prospectively assessed (at presentation, during, and after chemoradiation) in 43 consenting patients using the M.D. Anderson SymptomInventory. Results showed that 95% of patients reported at least one of the 13 symptoms assessed at presentation. The most commonly reported symptoms of moderate to severe (?5 on a 0–10 scale) intensity at presentation were lack of appetite (24%), pain (19%), fatigue (19%), and sleep disturbance (10%). We observed an increase in patients reporting moderate to severe fatigue, nausea, and sleep disturbance during chemoradiation. McNemar tests for paired binary observations showed the proportion of patients reporting moderate to severe symptoms significantly (P < 0.001) decreased after chemoradiation at 94 days follow-up (lack of appetite = 7%, pain = 7%, fatigue = 13%, sleep disturbance = 7%). This study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of symptom assessment in chemoradiation protocols. Future studies with larger cohorts are needed to further characterize multiple symptoms associated with chemoradiation.
Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C.; Chan, Wenyaw; Abbruzzese, James L.; Xiong, Henry Q.; Ho, Linus; Evans, Douglas B.; Varadhachary, Gauri; Bhat, Samrat; Wolff, Robert A.; Crane, Christopher
Background: When lactose malabsorption gives rise to symptoms, the result is called 'lactose intolerance'. Although lactose intolerance is often bothersome for patients, once recognized it may be managed by simple dietary adjustments. However, diagnosing lactose intolerance is not straightforward, especially in primary care. Aim: To summarize available evidence on the diagnostic performance of gastrointestinal symptoms and self-reported milk (lactose) intolerance
P. Jellema; F. G. Schellevis; D. A. W. M. van der Windt; C. M. F. Kneepkens; H. E. van der Horst
The purpose of this cross-sectional observational study was to explore depressive symptoms, among 377 women, during hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Women were screened for depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Pearson chi-squared tests for independence were used for comparisons between categorical variables and t-tests for independent samples were used for comparisons between continuous variables. Tukey's honestly significant difference test along with one-way anova test was used to conduct multiple comparisons between the three defined age groups ranging from 29-49, 50-64 to ?65 years. A total of 118 women screened positive for depression (BDI-II score ? 14). The percentage of women that met the criteria for a positive depression screening was significantly different between the three age groups. The proportion of depressed women who reported feelings of sadness, past failures, punishment, self-dislike, agitation, worthlessness, sleep disturbances and irritability varied significantly by age group. Study findings indicate that symptom experience and severity may differ across a lifetime. These results support the need to understand the complexity of depressive symptoms experienced by women. The ability to understand and recognize depressive symptoms in women, with ACS, may assist healthcare professionals with the management of a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:23379757
Background Reduced total brain volume is a consistent finding in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In order to get a better understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD, we take the first step in studying the dimensionality of current self-reported adult ADHD symptoms, by looking at its relation with total brain volume. Methodology/Principal Findings In a sample of 652 highly educated adults, the association between total brain volume, assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, and current number of self-reported ADHD symptoms was studied. The results showed an association between these self-reported ADHD symptoms and total brain volume. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the symptom domain of inattention had the strongest association with total brain volume. In addition, the threshold for impairment coincides with the threshold for brain volume reduction. Conclusions/Significance This finding improves our understanding of the biological substrates of self-reported ADHD symptoms, and suggests total brain volume as a target intermediate phenotype for future gene-finding in ADHD.
PurposeThe benefits of utilizing computerized assessment in clinical settings have been reported in studies over the last three decades and more recently in the oncology settings. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of using an electronic selfreportsymptom assessment tool among Chinese oncology patients.
Carmen W. H. Chan; Wilson Tam; Karis K. F. Cheng; Ying Yu Chui; Winnie K. W. So; Tony Mok; Connie Wong; Justin McReynolds; Donna L. Berry
We examined the relationship between personality pathology and the frequency of self-reported psychological and physical partner aggression in a community sample of 872 adults aged 55-64. Previous research suggests that antisocial and borderline personality disorder (PD) symptoms are associated with partner aggression. Controlling for gender, education, alcohol dependence, and other personality pathology, we found that borderline PD symptoms, which include abandonment fears, unstable identity, and affective instability, were significantly related to the frequency of self-reported aggression toward one's partner. This relationship was observed regardless of whether the participant's personality was described by a clinical interviewer, the participant themselves, or an informant chosen by the participant. Further, the relationship between borderline PD symptoms and self-reported partner aggression was moderated by gender such that women were driving the association. Conversely, antisocial PD symptoms, which include deceitfulness, irresponsibility, disregard for rules, and lack of remorse did not significantly account for variance in self-reported partner aggression. PMID:22732005
Weinstein, Yana; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F
Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder has been associated with poor outcome in studies of substance use disorders. This study aimed to assess the course of self-reportedsymptoms of both attention deficit and hyperactivity among adults presenting for treatment for substance use disorders. A sample of 75 substance abusers were assessed after they were admitted to a centralized intake unit, and
The associations between a polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), dental mercury exposure, and self-reportedsymptoms were evaluated among 157 male dentists and 84 female dental assistants. Self-reportedsymptoms and detailed work histories were obtained by computerized questionnaire. Spot urine samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentrations to evaluate recent exposures, whereas a chronic mercury exposure index was created from the work histories. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism status was determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Scores for current, recent, and chronic self-reportedsymptom groups were evaluated with respect to recent and chronic mercury exposure and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism status. Multiple regression analysis controlled for age, socioeconomic status, tobacco and alcohol use, self-reported health problems, and medications. Analyses were restricted to Caucasian subjects due to the highly skewed distribution of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Separate evaluations were conducted for dentists and dental assistants. In contrast to previous reports, no consistent associations were found between either urinary mercury concentration or the chronic index of mercury exposure and any category of symptoms. However, both significant and consistent associations were observed between increased symptoms and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism involving two copies of the short or "s" allele (full mutation), but not with the polymorphism involving only one copy (heterozygous), demonstrating a gene-dose relationship for symptom reporting. These findings suggest that within this restricted population increased symptoms of depression, anxiety, and memory are associated with the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism among both males and females. PMID:18686203
Heyer, Nicholas J; Echeverria, Diana; Farin, Federico M; Woods, James S
Self-report measures are often used in research and clinical practise as they efficiently gather a large amount of information. With growing numbers of self-report measures available to target single constructs, it is important to revisit one's choice of instrument to be sure that the most valid and reliable measure is employed. The Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) and the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) were administered to 223 female participants: 30 inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN), 62 community cases with AN, 69 community cases weight restored from AN and 62 healthy controls. Both measures distinguished between clinical and healthy groups; however, the OCI-R showed superior internal reliability. Additionally, the OCI-R measures six (to the MOCI's four) obsessive-compulsive constructs, and uses a more sensitive response format (likert scale vs. categorical). It is recommended that the OCI-R be employed as the self-report instrument of choice for assessing obsessive-compulsive pathology in those with AN. PMID:22021125
Psychometric characteristics of the Postconcussion SymptomInventory (PCSI) were examined in both concussed (n = 633) and uninjured (n = 1,273) 5 to 18 year olds. Parent- and self-report forms were created with developmentally appropriate wording and content. Factor analyses identified physical, cognitive, emotional, and sleep factors; that did not load strongly or discriminate between groups were eliminated. Internal consistency was strong for the total scales (? = 0.8-0.9). Test-retest reliability for the self-report forms was moderate to strong (intraclass coeffecients, ICCs = 0.65-0.89). Parent and self-report concordance was moderate (r = .44-.65), underscoring the importance of both perspectives. Convergent validity with another symptom measure was good (r = .8). Classification analyses indicated greater discriminability from parent report, but caveats to this are presented. With strong psychometric characteristics, the four versions of the PCSI capture important postconcussion symptoms and can be utilized to track recovery from pediatric concussion and guide treatment recommendations. PMID:24739735
Sady, Maegan D; Vaughan, Christopher G; Gioia, Gerard A
"Breachers" are a unique military and law enforcement population because they are routinely exposed to low-level blast (LLB) during training and operations. This repeated exposure has been associated with symptoms similar to that of sports concussion. This study examined effects of repeated exposure to LLB during an explosive entry course. Twenty-one members of the New Zealand Defence Force volunteered for this study. Serum samples, neurocognitive performance, and self-reportedsymptoms were periodically measured before, during, and after a 2-week course. Serum concentrations of three biomarkers, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1, ?II-spectrin breakdown product, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, were determined with sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and rank scores were derived using the area under the curve (relative to baseline) for each subject. Neurocognitive performance was measured with a computer-based test battery, and symptoms were assessed by paper-based inventory. There was a significant relationship (p<0.05) between composite biomarker and neurocognitive performance and between neurocognitive performance and symptoms. The individuals with the five highest (Top 5) and lowest (Bottom 5) composite biomarker scores were identified and compared using Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. The Top 5 had significantly longer reaction times and lower percent correct on neurocognitive performance and an increase in symptom reporting. The difference between individuals expressing the highest biomarker load during breacher training (Top 5) and those with the lowest biomarker load (Bottom 5) is reflected in neurocognitive performance deficits and self-reportedsymptoms. This suggests a measureable degree of brain perturbation linked to LLB exposure. Follow-up studies are underway to expand upon these results. PMID:23687938
Tate, Charmaine M; Wang, Kevin K W; Eonta, Stephanie; Zhang, Yang; Carr, Walter; Tortella, Frank C; Hayes, Ronald L; Kamimori, Gary H
The Neurobehavioral SymptomInventory (NSI) is a self-report measure of symptoms commonly associated with Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) that may emerge after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Despite frequent clinical use, no NSI norms have been developed. Thus, the main objective of this study was to establish NSI normative data using the four NSI factors (i.e., vestibular, somatic, cognitive, and affective) identified by Vanderploeg, Silva, et al. ( 2014 ) among nonclinical epidemiological samples of deployed and non-deployed Florida National Guard members as well as a reference sample of Guard members with combat-related mTBI. In addition, NSI subscale profile patterns were compared across four distinct subgroups (i.e., non-deployed-nonclinical, deployed-nonclinical, deployed-mTBI, and deployed-PTSD). The deployed-nonclinical group endorsed greater PCS symptom severity than the non-deployed group, and the mTBI group uniformly endorsed more symptoms than both nonclinical groups. However, the PTSD group endorsed higher symptom severity relative to the other three subgroups. As such, this highlights the non-specificity of PCS symptoms and suggests that PTSD is associated with higher symptom endorsement than mTBI. PMID:24625213
Soble, Jason R; Silva, Marc A; Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Curtiss, Glenn; Belanger, Heather G; Donnell, Alison J; Scott, Steven G
Self-report post-concussion symptom scales have been a key method for monitoring recovery from sport-related concussion, to assist in medical management, and return-to-play decision-making. To date, however, item selection and scaling metrics for these instruments have been based solely upon clinical judgment, and no one scale has been identified as the “gold standard”. We analyzed a large set of data from existing scales obtained from three separate case–control studies in order to derive a sensitive and efficient scale for this application by eliminating items that were found to be insensitive to concussion. Baseline data from symptom checklists including a total of 27 symptom variables were collected from a total of 16,350 high school and college athletes. Follow-up data were obtained from 641 athletes who subsequently incurred a concussion. Symptom checklists were administered at baseline (preseason), immediately post-concussion, post-game, and at 1, 3, and 5 days post-injury. Effect-size analyses resulted in the retention of only 12 of the 27 variables. Receiver-operating characteristic analyses were used to confirm that the reduction in items did not reduce sensitivity or specificity. The newly derived Concussion SymptomInventory is presented and recommended as a research and clinical tool for monitoring recovery from sport-related concussion.
Randolph, Christopher; Millis, Scott; Barr, William B.; McCrea, Michael; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Hammeke, Thomas A.; Kelly, James P.
This study aims to translate and validate Early Trauma InventorySelfReport -Short Form (ETISR-SF) to Brazilian Portuguese. 253 adult subjects answered the ETISR-SF, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). The instrument showed good internal consistency (0.83). Correlations with the PHQ-9 and BAI were moderate (r=0.26-0.47) and showed the expected associations with psychiatric constructs. No associations were found for FTND and FAST. Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed that a correlated four-factor model as well as a second order model subsuming four lower order components presented the best model fit. Test-retest reliability was also excellent (ICC=0.78-0.90). ETISR-SF is suitable for assessing traumatic experiences in a Brazilian community sample. Given the importance of trauma as a public health problem, tools such as ETISR-SF may help clinicians/ researchers to better evaluate and measure such events and further advance clinical care of trauma victims.
Osorio, Flavia L.; Salum, Giovanni Abrahao; Donadon, Mariana Fortunata; Forni-dos-Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, Jose Alexandre S.
This study describes the development and validation of the Neuropathic Pain SymptomInventory (NPSI), a new self-questionnaire specifically designed to evaluate the different symptoms of neuropathic pain. Following a development phase and a pilot study, we generated a list of descriptors reflecting spontaneous ongoing or paroxysmal pain, evoked pain (i.e. mechanical and thermal allodynia\\/hyperalgesia) and dysesthesia\\/paresthesia. Each of these items
Didier Bouhassira; Nadine Attal; Jacques Fermanian; Haiel Alchaar; Michèle Gautron; Etienne Masquelier; Sylvie Rostaing; Michel Lanteri-Minet; Elisabeth Collin; Jacques Grisart; François Boureau
Mental health problems are underrecognized in medical settings, leading to inadequate treatment. The present paper describes the development of the Health Dynamics Inventory (HDI), a brief, self-report questionnaire developed to evaluate mental health functioning. The HDI was written to evaluate the three aspects of mental disorders as described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM): (1) the
Objectives: The present study reports on the development and initial psychometric properties of the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), a web-based self-report measure of child maltreatment history, including sexual and physical abuse, exposure to interparental violence, psychological abuse, and neglect. Methods: The CAMI was…
DiLillo, David; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A.; Fortier, Michelle A.; Perry, Andrea R.; Evans, Sarah E.; Messman Moore, Terri L.; Walsh, Kate; Nash, Cindy; Fauchier, Angele
Summary.Background: Anecdotal\\u000areports suggest that bovine\\u000acolostrum may prevent upper respiratory\\u000atract infection (URTI).\\u000aThere is scant evidence to support\\u000asuch claims, although salivary IgA\\u000aprotects against URTI, and it was\\u000arecently shown that bovine\\u000acolostrum increases salivary IgA.Aim of the study: The present invesigation examined whether concentrated\\u000abovine colostrum protein\\u000a(CBC) affected the incidence or duration\\u000aof self-reportedsymptoms
This paper describes a cross-sectional study which examines musculoskeletal symptoms in nurses working in two similar units in a residential care centre for the developmentally disabled. Amongst the 30 nurses who were administered the Nordic Questionnaire, neck and upper limb symptoms had resulted in considerable inability to perform work. In contrast, a similar incidence of reported back symptoms in these
M. J. Lusted; C. L. Carrasco; J. A. Mandryk; S. Healey
Longitudinal validity of Brief SymptomInventory subscales was examined in a sample (N = 318) with schizophrenia-related illness measured at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years. Nonlinear factor analysis of items was used to test graded response models (GRMs) for subscales in isolation. The models varied in their within-time and between-times…
Long, Jeffrey D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, John S.; Test, Mary Ann; Greenberg, Jan
The study aim is to establish Israeli norms for the Brief SymptomInventory (BSI). A nationwide representative sample of 510 community respondents (age range 35–65, 51.4% women) completed the Hebrew version of the BSI. The data showed high internal reliabilities for the 9 BSI scales, as well as for their total score, indicated by the General Severity Index (GSI). Higher
Objective Little is known about the mental health outcomes of young children who experience developmental delay. The objective of this study was to assess whether delay in attaining developmental milestones was related to depressive and anxious symptoms in adolescence. Method The sample included 3508 Canadian children who participated in a nationally representative prospective cohort study. The person most knowledgeable about the child reported on attainment of developmental milestones spanning several developmental domains at ages 2–3. The children were followed into adolescence and self-reported depressive and anxious symptoms were used from adolescents ages 12–13. An overall assessment of developmental milestones as well as a supplementary analysis of specific categories of developmental milestones was conducted. Results Cohort members who displayed delayed developmental milestones in early childhood were more likely to experience higher levels of depressive and anxious symptoms as adolescents. However, there was no interaction between delayed developmental milestones and stressful life events. In the supplementary analysis, two developmental domains (self-care and speech/communication) were associated with higher levels of depressive and anxious symptoms in adolescence. Conclusion Delay in attainment of early developmental milestones is significantly associated with adolescent depressive and anxious symptoms.
North, C. Rebecca; Wild, T. Cam; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Colman, Ian
Research thus far links depressive symptoms in children to one type of control-related belief: low levels of perceived personal competence. However, child research, unlike adult research, has not supported a linkage between depressive symptoms and another theoretically important control-related belief: perceived noncontingency of outcomes. Here we reexamined the issue, adjusting for limitations in previous methodology by using (a) psychometrically stronger
John R. Weisz; Lynne Sweeney; Valerie Proffitt; Tom Carr
We examined the associations of emotional eating and depressive symptoms with the consumption of sweet and non-sweet energy-dense foods and vegetables/fruit, also focusing on the possible interplay between emotional eating and depressive symptoms. The participants were 25-64-year-old Finnish men (n=1679) and women (n=2035) from the FINRISK 2007 Study (DILGOM substudy). The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and a 132-item Food Frequency Questionnaire were used. Emotional eating and depressive symptoms correlated positively (r=0.31 among men and women), and both were related to a higher body mass. Emotional eating was related to a higher consumption of sweet foods in both genders and non-sweet foods in men independently of depressive symptoms and restrained eating. The positive associations of depressive symptoms with sweet foods became non-significant after adjustment for emotional eating, but this was not the case for non-sweet foods. Depressive symptoms, but not emotional eating, were related to a lower consumption of vegetables/fruit. These findings suggest that emotional eating and depressive symptoms both affect unhealthy food choices. Emotional eating could be one factor explaining the association between depressive symptoms and consumption of sweet foods, while other factors may be more important with respect to non-sweet foods and vegetables/fruit. PMID:20138944
Konttinen, Hanna; Männistö, Satu; Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Silventoinen, Karri; Haukkala, Ari
Children with experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) are at risk. Not all children, however, display symptoms, and differences connected to gender and age have been demonstrated. In this exploratory study, children's own reports of symptoms were used. The 41 recruited children, between 7 and 19 years old, were entered into a group program…
Georgsson, Anna; Almqvist, Kjerstin; Broberg, Anders G.
The study aims were to estimate the prevalence of Post-partum Depressive Symptoms (PDS) in Italy.Cross-sectional data from the survey “Health and use of health care in Italy” were analyzed. We focused on 5,812 women, pregnant some time during 5 years before the survey. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate risk factors independently associated with post partum depressive symptoms. Evaluation
Pamela Barbadoro; Giordano Cotichelli; Carlos Chiatti; Maria Luisa Simonetti; Anna Marigliano; Francesco Di Stanislao; Emilia Prospero
Background Semi-structured interview scales for psychosis are the gold standard approach to assessing psychotic and other symptoms. However, such assessments have limitations such as recall bias, averaging, insensitivity to change and variable interrater reliability. Ambulant, real-time self-report assessment devices may hold advantages over interview measures, but it needs to be shown that the data thus collected are valid, and the collection method is acceptable, feasible and safe. We report on a monitoring system for the assessment of psychosis using smartphone technology. The primary aims were to: i) assess validity through correlations of item responses with those on widely accepted interview assessments of psychosis, and ii) examine compliance to the procedure in individuals with psychosis of varying severity. Methods A total of 44 participants (acute or remitted DSM-4 schizophrenia and related disorders, and prodromal) completed 14 branching self-report items concerning key psychotic symptoms on a touch-screen mobile phone when prompted by an alarm at six pseudo-random times, each day, for one week. Face to face PANSS and CDS interviews were conducted before and after the assessment period blind to the ambulant data. Results Compliance as defined by completion of at least 33% of all possible data-points over seven days was 82%. In the 36 compliant participants, 5 items (delusions, hallucinations, suspiciousness, anxiety, hopelessness) showed moderate to strong (rho 0.6-0.8) associations with corresponding items from interview rating scales. Four items showed no significant correlation with rating scales: each was an item based on observable behaviour. Ambulant ratings showed excellent test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change. Conclusions Ambulatory monitoring of symptoms several times daily using smartphone software applications represents a feasible and valid way of assessing psychotic phenomena for research and clinical management purposes. Further evaluation required over longer assessment periods, in clinical trials and service settings.
Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was firstly to assess the overall frequency of subjectively experienced symptomsself-reported by patients receiving endocrine therapy and secondly to compare these symptoms with side effects assessed by clinicians in pivotal trials. Methods: Unselected patients with early and advanced breast cancer receiving endocrine therapy were approached consecutively during a routine outpatient visit. They received
Thomas Ruhstaller; Roger von Moos; Kaspar Rufibach; Karin Ribi; Agnes Glaus; Bruno Spaeti; Dieter Koeberle; Urs Mueller; Markus Hoefliger; Dagmar Hess; Christel Boehme; Beat Thuerlimann
Sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common cause of pain in HIV-infected people. Establishing a diagnosis of HIV-SN is important, especially when contemplating opioid use in high risk populations. However physical findings of HIV-SN may be subtle, and sensitive diagnostic tools require specialized expertise. We investigated the association between self-report of distal neuropathic pain and/or paresthesias (DNPP) and objective signs of HIV-SN. Data were obtained from the Central Nervous System HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study. Out of 237 participants, 101 (43%) reported DNPP. Signs of HIV-SN were measured by a modified Total Neuropathy Score (TNS), composed of 6 objective sensory subscores (pin sensibility, vibration sensibility, deep tendon reflexes, quantitative sensory testing for cooling and vibration, and sural sensory amplitude). Self-report of DNPP was associated with all 6 TNS items in univariate analysis and with 4 TNS items in multivariate analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of self-report of DNPP in detecting the presence of a sensory abnormality was 52% and 92% respectively with a PPV of 96% and a NPV of 34%. Increasing intensity of pain measured on a visual analog scale was associated with increasing severity of sensory abnormality. In summary, our results suggest that HIV-infected patients reporting symptoms consistent with HIV-SN, such as tingling, pins and needles, or aching or stabbing pain in the distal lower extremities, usually have objective evidence of HIV-SN on neurologic examination or with neurophysiologic testing. This finding holds true regardless of demographic factors, depression or substance use history.
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact, fighting sport that has risen in popularity over recent years, resulting in an increase in both training facilities and sport participants. To date, little research has examined the complications and vulnerability to head trauma, or concussive symptomatology, in MMA athletes. In this study, we assessed relationships between training routines and concussive symptoms, as well as medical care, in MMA athletes. A sample (N?=?119) of MMA athletes reported concussive symptoms, training routines, and medical histories through an online survey. Nearly 15% of the MMA athletes reported history of a knockout, and nearly one-third reported a technical knockout. Subjective ratings of concussive symptoms were high for these athletes, with many of them waiting only a brief time after such incidents to return to competition. These findings have important implications for informing the medical treatment and safety decision for returning to participation for these athletes. PMID:23777375
The aim of our work was to study the physical symptoms of upper- and lower-level white-collar workers using a questionnaire. The study was cross-sectional with a questionnaire posted to 15 000 working-age persons. The responses (6121) included 970 upper- and 1150 lower-level white-collar workers. In the upper- and lower-level white-collar worker groups, 45.7 and 56.0%, respectively, had experienced pain, numbness and aches in the neck either pretty often or more frequently. When comparing daily computer users and nonusers, there were significant differences in pain, numbness and aches in the neck or in the shoulders. In addition, age and gender influenced some physical symptoms. In the future, it is essential to take into account that working with computers can be especially associated with physical symptoms in the neck and in the shoulders when workers use computers daily. PMID:22721533
Objective: Individuals with ADHD often report sleep problems. Though most studies on ADHD and sleep examined children or nonclinically diagnosed adults, the present study specifically examines nonmedicated adults with ADHD to determine whether inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are associated with sleep problems. Method: A total of 22…
Background: On October 4th, 1992, an El Al Boeing 747-F cargo crashed on two apartment buildings in Amsterdam. Thirty nine residents on the ground and the four crew members of the plane died. In the years after more and more people, attributed physical signs and symptoms to their presence at the disaster scene. Aim: To investigate the consistency between patient's
Background There are insufficient data to make firm dietary recommendations for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Yet patients frequently report that specific food items influence their symptoms. In this study, we describe patients’ perceptions about the benefits and harms of selected foods and patients’ dietary patterns. Methods CCFA Partners is an ongoing internet-based cohort study of patients with IBD. We used a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to measure dietary consumption patterns and open-ended questions to elicit responses from patients about food items they believe ameliorate or exacerbate IBD. We categorized patients into four mutually exclusive disease categories: CD without an ostomy or pouch (CD), UC without an ostomy or pouch (UC), CD with an ostomy (CD-ostomy), and UC with a pouch (UC-pouch). Results Yogurt, rice, and bananas were more frequently reported to improve symptoms whereas non-leafy vegetables, spicy foods, fruit, nuts, leafy vegetables, fried foods, milk, red meat, soda, popcorn, dairy, alcohol, high-fiber foods, corn, fatty foods, seeds, coffee, and beans were more frequently reported to worsen symptoms. Compared to CD patients, CD-ostomy patients reported significantly greater consumption of cheese (odds ratio (OR) 1.56, 95% CI 1.03–2.36), sweetened beverages (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.02–1.03), milk (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.35–2.52), pizza (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.12–2.20), and processed meats (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.04–1.89). Conclusions Patients identified foods that they believe worsen symptoms and restricted their diet. Patients with ostomies ate a more liberal diet. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether diet influences disease course.
Cohen, Aaron B.; Lee, Dale; Long, Millie D.; Kappelman, Michael D.; Martin, Christopher F.; Sandler, Robert S.; Lewis, James D.
Introduction Continuous typing is likely to induce mental and\\/or muscular fatigue, which contributes to musculoskeletal discomfort. Our\\u000a goals were to describe the temporal changes in symptoms and interkeypress intervals (IKIs) of each hand during continuous\\u000a typing. The effects of demographic characteristics and time on the IKI were examined. Methods Twenty-four healthy and skilled typists volunteered to participate in this repeated-measurement
In British Columbia, some tree planting operations require workers to fertilize planted seedlings with polymer-coated nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) fertilizers. This study examined respiratory and dermal health associated with fertilizer exposure among tree planters. We interviewed 223 tree planters using an adapted version of the American Thoracic Society questionnaire supplemented with questions on dermal health. Subjects were grouped by categories of increasing duration of exposure, with workers who had not worked with fertilizer as a reference group. The relationship between exposure and reported work-related symptoms was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for age, cumulative tobacco cigarettes smoked, marijuana smoking status, sex, and exposure to abrasive spruce needles. An elevated odds ratio was seen for work-related cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, nosebleed, and skin rash in the highest exposure group (>37 days of fertilizer use in the past 2 years) but was significant only for phlegm (odds ratio = 3.59, 95% confidence interval = 1.10-11.70). Trends of increasing odds ratios with increasing exposure were seen for cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, and skin rash. The results suggest a weak association between respiratory and dermal irritation and work with fertilizer. Results highlight the need for further exposure monitoring within the tree planting industry, and larger studies to investigate the relationship between work with fertilizer and respiratory and dermal health symptoms. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a PDF file containing a respiratory and dermal health questionnaire.]. PMID:23194098
Gorman Ng, Melanie; Stjernberg, Ernst; Koehoorn, Mieke; Demers, Paul A; Winters, Meghan; Davies, Hugh W
Pregnancy represents a unique period of time when women are at an increased risk of developing depression. Although the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) is one of the most widely used self-report measures of depression symptomology, its psychometric properties and underlying factor structures have not been determined for antenatal women and among Latinas. The current study evaluated the latent symptom structure of the BDI-II in a community-based sample of Latina pregnant women (N = 217) identified to be at high risk for depression. Exploratory factor analyses were used to identify underlying salient individual item loadings for two- and three-factor models. Confirmatory factor analyses then examined several different indices to determine the best model fit. Examination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supports a three-factor oblique structure of the BDI-II composed of Cognitive-Affective, Somatic, and Pregnancy Symptoms. The three-factor model provides clinicians with the ability to target specific constellations of depressive symptoms instead of relying on the BDI-II total score that represents the overall severity of depression in this population. PMID:23929560
Alexander, Lisa A; de la Fey Rodríguez Muñoz, Maria; Perry, Deborah F; Le, Huynh-Nhu
Occupationally exposed workers, farm workers and plant protection agents in the Sahel region of Burkina Faso were interviewed to assess adverse health effects of insecticides. The subjects were also examined for changes in both hematological and biochemical parameters. The prevalence of liver and kidney dysfunction was found to be quite high among insecticide applicators, especially among plant protection agents. The prevalence of biochemical alterations seems to be correlated to the frequency of insecticide use. However, no significant differences were found between the hematological parameters among farm workers and plant protection agents. The hematological parameters of all the insecticide applicators were normal. The great majority of insecticide applicators (85%) reported symptoms related to insecticide exposure. The use of insecticides in the agriculture of Burkina Faso is threatening to human health.
Toe, Adama M.; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Ouedraogo, Moustapha; Guissou, Pierre I.
Background Whether long-term, low-level hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas is a cause of health effects, including asthma, is uncertain. Rotorua city, New Zealand, has the largest population exposed, from geothermal sources, to relatively high ambient levels of H2S. In a cross-sectional study, the authors investigated associations with asthma in this population. Methods A total of 1,637 adults, aged 18-65 years, were enrolled during 2008-2010. Residences and workplaces were geocoded. H2S exposures at homes and workplaces were estimated using city-wide networks of passive H2S samplers and kriging to create exposure surfaces. Exposure metrics were based on (1) time-weighted exposures at home and work; and (2) the maximum exposure (home or work). Exposure estimates were entered as quartiles into log-binomial regression models, with covariate data. Results Neither exposure metric showed evidence of increased asthma risk from H2S. However, some suggestion of exposure-related reduced risks for diagnosed asthma and asthma symptoms, particularly wheezing during the last 12 months, emerged. With the maximum exposure metric, the prevalence ratio for wheeze in the highest exposure quartile was 0.80 (0.65, 0.99) and, for current asthma treatment, 0.75 (0.52, 1.08). There was no evidence that this was caused by a “survivor effect”. Conclusions The study provided no evidence that asthma risk increases with H2S exposure. Suggestions of a reduced risk in the higher exposure areas are consistent with recent evidence that H2S has signaling functions in the body, including induction of smooth muscle relaxation and reduction of inflammation. Study limitations, including possible confounding, preclude definitive conclusions.
Bates, Michael N; Garrett, Nick; Crane, Julian; Balmes, John
BACKGROUND: Despite the last years of rapid increase in use of wireless phones little data on the use of these devices has been systematically assessed among young persons. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to assess use of wireless phones and to study such use in relation to explanatory factors and self-reported health symptoms. METHODS: A postal questionnaire
Fredrik Söderqvist; Michael Carlberg; Lennart Hardell
This study investigated the relation between the regulative trait of effortful control, and in particular attention control, and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of 207 non-clinical children aged 8-12 years. For this purpose, children completed self-report scales for measuring regulative traits and various types of psychopathological…
Muris, Peter; van der Pennen, Els; Sigmond, Rianne; Mayer, Birgit
The aim of this study was to evaluate neurocognition and self-reportedsymptoms in long-term recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mild TBI). Participants' time since injury ranged from 3 to 72 (M = 36.75) months. Relative to orthopedic injury controls (n = 63), mild TBI participants (n = 63) did not demonstrate cognitive impairment in any domains examined, or differences
Objective: To evaluate the factorial and construct validity of the Head Injury Scale (HIS) among a sample of male and female collegiate athletes. Design and Setting: Using a cross-sectional design, we established the factorial validity of the HIS scale with confirmatory factor analysis and the construct validity of the HIS with Pearson product moment correlation analyses. Using an experimental design, we compared scores on the HIS between concussed and nonconcussed groups with a 2 (groups) × 5 (time) mixed-model analysis of variance. Subjects: Participants (N = 279) in the cross-sectional analyses were predominately male (n = 223) collegiate athletes with a mean age of 19.49 ± 1.63 years. Participants (N = 33) in the experimental analyses were concussed (n = 17) and nonconcussed control (n = 16) collegiate athletes with a mean age of 19.76 ± 1.49 years. Measurements: All participants completed baseline measures for the 16-item HIS, neuropsychological testing battery, and posturography. Concussed individuals and paired controls were evaluated on days 1, 2, 3, and 10 postinjury on the same testing battery. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a theoretically derived, 3-factor model provided a good but not excellent fit to the 16-item HIS. Hence, the 16-item HIS was modified on the basis of substantive arguments about item-content validity. The subsequent analysis indicated that the 3-factor model provided an excellent fit to the modified 9-item HIS. The 3 factors were best described by a single second-order factor: concussion symptoms. Scores from the 16-item HIS and 9-item HIS were strongly correlated, but there were few significant correlations between HIS scores and scores from the neuropsychological and balance measures. A significant group-by-day interaction was noted on both the 9-item HIS and 16-item HIS, with significant differences seen between groups on days 1 and 2 postconcussion. Conclusions: We provide evidence for the factorial and construct validity of the HIS among collegiate athletes. This scale might aid in return-to-play decisions by physicians and athletic trainers.
Motl, Robert W.; Ferrara, Michael S.; Peterson, Connie L.
This study investigated the relation between the regulative trait of effortful control, and in particular attention control,\\u000a and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of 207 non-clinical children aged 8–12 years. For this purpose, children completed\\u000a self-report scales for measuring regulative traits and various types of psychopathological symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression,\\u000a and aggression) and were tested with a neuropsychological battery for
Peter Muris; Els van der Pennen; Rianne Sigmond; Birgit Mayer
Based on cognitive concepts of personality disorders as well as on the bio-social model of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a 34-item instrument, the questionnaire of thoughts and feelings (QTF) was developed for the assessment of feelings, strategic cognitions, and assumptions characteristic for BPD. In different studies, item- and factor analyses were conducted with a dataset of N=646 clinical and non-clinical participants. Cross-sectional data as well as longitudinal data are available including several other measures on personality and personality disorders: DSM-IV SCID II dimensional score, a personality inventory (PSSI), the German version of the personality disorder beliefs questionnaire (PBQ), as well as overall severity of symptoms (GSI) of the SCL-90-R. Internal consistency of the scale is excellent, Cronbach's alpha=0.91. One-week test-retest reliability was also high r(tt)=0.81. Good convergent and discriminant validity was obtained for correlation with SCID dimensional scores and discrimination of BDP patients and other clinical and non-clinical groups. A comparison of scores in a sample of 26 patients with BPD during crisis intervention and 8 months later indicated the sensitivity of the QTF to measure change over time. Overall, the questionnaire appears to be a methodologically sound measure, valuable for research purposes as well as in clinical practice. PMID:15950176
Renneberg, Babette; Schmidt-Rathjens, Claudia; Hippin, Robert; Backenstrass, Matthias; Fydrich, Thomas
Background Potential links between eczema and obstructive pulmonary diseases have been postulated. Previously we have reported the prevalence of upper and lower respiratory diseases and the relation to environmental and socio-economic factors in a randomly selected adult population in southern Sweden using a postal questionnaire. In the present study we wanted to analyse the prevalence of eczema and its relation to socio-economic status, heredity factors and environmental factors in an adult population. Methods Self-reported eczema, upper and lower respiratory symptoms, asthma and Chronic Bronchitis Emphysema (CBE) were examined in 12,071 adults, aged 20–59 years, living in southern Sweden by using a postal questionnaire. There were comparable numbers of males and females in all age groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis (forward conditional) was applied to estimate the association between the proposed risk factors (heredity, self-reported asthma and CBE, nasal symptoms, socio-economic group, environmental factors, age, gender and smoking habits) and self-reported eczema. Results The response rate was 70.1%. In all, 1240 subjects (14.6%) stated that they had eczema. In all age cohorts self-reported eczema was more frequently reported by women than by men (p < 0.05). The prevalence of self-reported eczema among the economically active population varied from 17.1% to 8.2% with the highest rates among assistant non-manual employees. However, when controlling for age, gender and risk occupation there was no association between low social position and eczema. Living close to heavy traffic (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.25–1.67) and living seaside (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.01–1.35) but not urban/suburban living was associated with eczema. Heredity of eczema (OR = 5.77, 95% CI 5.02–6.64), selfreported allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.31, 95% CI 2.00–2.68), selfreported asthma (OR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.56–2.51) and selfreported CBE (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08–1.87) were all associated with eczema. Conclusions In this epidemiological study we see that self-reported eczema is a common disease in an adult population especially among women. Eczema seems to be linked to environment factors, obstructive pulmonary diseases and rhinitis.
Objectives: To assess the performance of four self-report measures of anxiety in an older adult population.Method: Forty older adults with current or previous anxiety symptoms completed four self-report measures of anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Visual Analogue Scale) and received an independent diagnostic assessment and rating of anxiety severity. After a
The 1990 Clean Air Act mandated oxygenation of gasoline in regions where carbon monoxide standards were not met. To achieve this standard, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was increased to 15% by volume during winter months in many locations. Subsequent to the increase of MTBE in gasoline, commuters reported increases in symptoms such as headache, nausea, and eye, nose, and throat irritation. The present study compared 12 individuals selected based on self-report of symptoms (self-reported sensitives; SRSs) associated with MTBE to 19 controls without self-reported sensitivities. In a double-blind, repeated measures, controlled exposure, subjects were exposed for 15 min to clean air, gasoline, gasoline with 11% MTBE, and gasoline with 15% MTBE. Symptoms, odor ratings, neurobehavioral performance on a task of driving simulation, and psychophysiologic responses (heart and respiration rate, end-tidal CO(2), finger pulse volume, electromyograph, finger temperature) were measured before, during, and immediately after exposure. Relative to controls, SRSs reported significantly more total symptoms when exposed to gasoline with 15% MTBE than when exposed to gasoline with 11% MTBE or to clean air. However, these differences in symptoms were not accompanied by significant differences in neurobehavioral performance or psychophysiologic responses. No significant differences in symptoms or neurobehavioral or psychophysiologic responses were observed when exposure to gasoline with 11% MTBE was compared to clean air or to gasoline. Thus, the present study, although showing increased total symptoms among SRSs when exposed to gasoline with 15% MTBE, did not support a dose-response relationship for MTBE exposure nor the symptom specificity associated with MTBE in epidemiologic studies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2
Administered inventories designed to assess self-reported psychopathology, other-deception (lying), and self-deception to a group of 250 undergraduates. The inventories included the Beck Depression Inventory, the Neuroticism and Lie scales of the Eysenck Personality Inventory, the Manifest Symptom Questionnaire, the Other-Deception Questionnaire, and the Self-Deception Questionnaire. Substantial negative correlations were found between self-deception and psychopathology scores, and the relationships between the
Many current measures of eating disorder (ED) symptoms have 1 or more serious limitations, such as inconsistent factor structures or poor discriminant validity. The goal of this study was to overcome these limitations through the development of a comprehensive multidimensional measure of eating pathology. An initial pool of 160 items was developed to assess 20 dimensions of eating pathology. The initial item pool was administered to a student sample (N = 433) and community sample (N = 407) to determine the preliminary structure of the measure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The revised measure was administered to independent samples of patients recruited from specialty ED treatment centers (N = 158), outpatient psychiatric clinics (N = 303), and students (N = 227). Analyses revealed an 8-factor structure characterized by Body Dissatisfaction, Binge Eating, Cognitive Restraint, Excessive Exercise, Restricting, Purging, Muscle Building, and Negative Attitudes Toward Obesity. Scale scores showed excellent convergent and discriminant validity; other analyses demonstrated that the majority of scales were invariant across sex and weight categories. Eating Pathology SymptomsInventory scale scores had excellent internal consistency (median coefficient alphas ranged from .84-.89) and reliability over a 2- to 4-week period (mean retest r = .73). The current study represents one of the most comprehensive scale development projects ever conducted in the field of EDs and will enhance future basic and treatment research focused on EDs. PMID:23815116
The Padua Inventory (PI), a self-report measure of obsessive and compulsive symptoms, is increasingly used in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) research. Freeston, Ladouceur, Rheaume, Letarte, Gagnon and Thibodeau (1994) [Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 29-36], however, recently showed that the PI measures worry in addition to obsessions. In an attempt to solve this measurement problem, this study used a content distinction between obsessions and worry to revise the PI. The revision was constructed to measure five content dimensions relevant to OCD i.e. (1) obsessional thoughts about harm to oneself or others; (2) obsessional impulses to harm oneself or others; (3) contamination obsessions and washing compulsions; (4) checking compulsions; and (5) dressing/grooming compulsions. A total of 5010 individuals participated in the study, 2970 individuals completing the PI and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and an additional 2040 individuals completing only the PI. The results provided support for the reliability and validity of the revision. In addition, the revision of the PI was more independent of worry, as measured by the PSWQ, than the original PI. Support was thus found for the validity of the content distinction between obsessions and worry. The importance of this content distinction is also discussed for the evaluation of other hypothesized distinctions between obsessions and worry. PMID:8741724
Burns, G L; Keortge, S G; Formea, G M; Sternberger, L G
The current study examined the potentially moderating influence of post-migration living difficulties on the relationship between pre-migration traumatic exposure and self-reported symptomatology in a sample of 74 adult Somali refugees residing in the United States. Results suggest that post-migration psychosocial stressors exacerbate depressive symptoms (?R = .068, p = .017) for those exposed to low levels of trauma relative to other posttraumatic psychological
Jacob A. Bentley; John W. Thoburn; David G. Stewart; Lorin D. Boynton
Background Foulds’ Delusions-Symptoms-State Inventory (DSSI) has been purported to be a reliable, systematic categorical measure to assess the patients with schizophrenia according to the degree of illness. However, further cross-validations using other clinical measures and diverse samples from other cultures have not been advanced recently. We aimed to examine the validity of the DSSI hierarchical class model using both Korean non-patient and patient (schizophrenia and depression) groups. Method The hypothesis of inclusive, non-reflexive relationships among the DSSI classes was tested. The power of DSSI to detect presence of symptoms was assessed via cross-validation with other clinical measures, and the differences between the clinical features among the DSSI classes were examined using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Results The high rate of model conformity (91.1%) across the samples and cross-validation with other criterion measures provided further support for the validity of DSSI. Conclusions DSSI is a reliable self-report measure that can be applied to both patient and non-patients to assess the presence and severity of psychiatric illness. Future studies that include more diverse clinical groups are necessary to lend further support for its utility in clinical practice.
The Teaching Perspectives Inventory (TPI) measures teachers' profiles on five contrasting views of what it means "to teach." The inventory can be used in aiding self-reflection, developing statements of teaching philosophy, engendering conversations about teaching, and recognizing legitimate variations on excellence in teaching. Available at…
Providers of mental health services need tools to screen for acute psychosis and ultrahigh risk (UHR) for transition to psychosis in help-seeking individuals. In this study, the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI) was examined as a screening tool and for its ability to correctly predict diagnostic group membership (e.g., help seeking, mild…
Niessen, Maurice A. J.; Dingemans, Peter M. A. J.; van de Fliert, Reinaud; Becker, Hiske E.; Nieman, Dorien H.; Linszen, Don
The presence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male war veterans has been linked with family dysfunction and psychopathology in their children [1, 2]. This study aimed to evaluate self-reported emotional and behavioral symptoms, parent-adolescent bonding and family functioning in clinically referred adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD war veterans and determine the degree that parent-child bonding and family functioning contributed to adolescent behavior problems. Internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, parent-child bonding and family functioning were assessed in a sample of clinically referred Croatian PTSD veterans adolescent offspring (N = 122) and non-PTSD veteran adolescent offspring (N = 122) matched for age, sex, educational level, family income, parental employment status, ethnicity, and residential area. Youth Self-Report, Parental Bonding Instrument, Family Assessment Device were used. Adolescent offspring of PTSD veterans reported having significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems than non-PTSD veteran offspring, and also more difficulties in their family functioning, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and more impaired mother-child and father-child bonding than control subjects. Internalizing symptoms were associated with family dysfunction, while externalizing symptoms were associated with paternal overcontrol/overprotection, and low maternal and paternal care. In conclusion, the increase in internalizing and externalizing symptoms as well as family and parental dysfunction among clinically referred adolescent offspring of PTSD veterans compared to their non-PTSD veteran counterparts indicates a need for early detection and interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships. PMID:23949102
This study examined the direction of effects and age and sex differences between adolescents’ perceptions of parental behavioral\\u000a and psychological control and adolescents’ self-reports of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder\\u000a (SAD) symptoms. The study focused on 1,313 Dutch adolescents (early-to-middle cohort n = 923, 70.3%; middle-to-late cohort n = 390, 29.7%) from the general population. A multi-group, structural equation model was
Saskia A. M. WijsbroekWilliam; William W. Hale III; Quinten A. W. Raaijmakers; Wim H. J. Meeus
Background Recent epidemiological studies in Afghanistan using mental health questionnaires yielded high prevalence rates for anxiety\\u000a and depression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives To explore the validity in the Afghan cultural context of two mental health questionnaires, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25\\u000a (HSCL-25) and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The two mental health questionnaires were compared against a ‘gold standard’ semi-structured psychiatric interview, the Psychiatric\\u000a Assessment Schedule (PAS).
Peter Ventevogel; Gieljan De Vries; Willem F. Scholte; Nasratullah Rasa Shinwari; Hafizullah Faiz; Ruhullah Nassery; Wim van den Brink; Miranda Olff
Background Arsenic, a common groundwater pollutant, is associated with adverse reproductive health but few studies have examined its effect on maternal health. Methods A prospective cohort was recruited in Bangladesh from 2008–2011 (N?=?1,458). At enrollment (<16 weeks gestational age [WGA]), arsenic was measured in personal drinking water using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Questionnaires collected health data at enrollment, at 28 WGA, and within one month of delivery. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for self-reported health symptoms were estimated for each arsenic quartile using logistic regression. Results Overall, the mean concentration of arsenic was 38 ?g/L (Standard deviation, 92.7 ?g/L). A total of 795 women reported one or more of the following symptoms during pregnancy (cold/flu/infection, nausea/vomiting, abdominal cramping, headache, vaginal bleeding, or swollen ankles). Compared to participants exposed to the lowest quartile of arsenic (?0.9 ?g/L), the aOR for reporting any symptom during pregnancy was 0.62 (95% CI?=?0.44-0.88) in the second quartile, 1.83 (95% CI?=?1.25-2.69) in the third quartile, and 2.11 (95% CI?=?1.42-3.13) in the fourth quartile where the mean arsenic concentration in each quartile was 1.5 ?g/L, 12.0 ?g/L and 144.7 ?g/L, respectively. Upon examining individual symptoms, only nausea/vomiting and abdominal cramping showed consistent associations with arsenic exposure. The odds of self-reported nausea/vomiting was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.41), 1.52 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.18), and 1.81 (95% CI: 1.26, 2.60) in the second, third and fourth quartile of arsenic relative to the lowest quartile after adjusting for age, body mass index, second-hand tobacco smoke exposure, educational status, parity, anemia, ferritin, medication usage, type of sanitation at home, and household income. A positive trend was also observed for abdominal cramping (P for trend <0.0001). A marginal negative association was observed between arsenic quartiles and odds of self-reported cold/flu/infection (P for trend?=?0.08). No association was observed between arsenic and self-reported headache (P for trend?=?0.19). Conclusion Moderate exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water early in pregnancy was associated with increased odds of experiencing nausea/vomiting and abdominal cramping. Preventing exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water during pregnancy could improve maternal health.
Background: Home and garden pesticide use has been linked to cancer and other health outcomes in numerous epidemiological studies. Exposure has generally been self-reported, so the assessment is potentially limited by recall bias and lack of information on specific chemicals. Objectives: As part of an integrated assessment of residential pesticide exposure, we identified active ingredients and described patterns of storage and use. Methods: During a home interview of 500 residentially stable households enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study during 2001–2006, trained interviewers inventoried residential pesticide products and queried participants about their storage and use. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency registration numbers, recorded from pesticide product labels, and pesticide chemical codes were matched to public databases to obtain information on active ingredients and chemical class. Poisson regression was used to identify independent predictors of pesticide storage. Analyses were restricted to 259 participating control households. Results: Ninety-five percent (246 of 259) of the control households stored at least one pesticide product (median, 4). Indicators of higher sociodemographic status predicted more products in storage. We identified the most common characteristics: storage areas (garage, 40%; kitchen, 20%), pests treated (ants, 33%; weeds, 20%), pesticide types (insecticides, 46%; herbicides, 24%), chemical classes (pyrethroids, 77%; botanicals, 50%), active ingredients (pyrethrins, 43%) and synergists (piperonyl butoxide, 42%). Products could contain multiple active ingredients. Conclusions: Our data on specific active ingredients and patterns of storage and use will inform future etiologic analyses of residential pesticide exposures from self-reported data, particularly among households with young children.
Guha, Neela; Ward, Mary H.; Gunier, Robert; Colt, Joanne S.; Lea, C. Suzanne; Buffler, Patricia A.
This study examines the relationship between toner-handling work and its health effects on self-reported respiratory symptoms. The subjects were 1,504 male workers in a Japanese toner and photocopier manufacturing company. Personal exposure measurement, pulmonary function tests, chest X-ray examination, measurement of biomarkers, and a questionnaire about self-reported respiratory symptoms were performed annually. This study discusses the questionnaire results. We found that the toner-handling group showed significantly higher prevalence of breathlessness than the never-toner-handling group. The significant reduction of pulmonary function and fibrosis change in the chest X-ray examination associated with breathlessness were not observed. However the morbidity of asthma was higher compared to the Japanese population in both of the toner-handling group and the never-toner handling group, the effect of toner exposure was not clarified. Nevertheless, while the toner exposure levels in the current well-controlled working environment may be sufficiently low to prevent adverse health effects, further studies are needed to assess the more long-term latent health effects of toner exposure.
Psychological symptoms of somatoform disorders will be part of their new definition in DSM-5. We developed the Somatic Symptoms Experiences Questionnaire (SSEQ) as a self-report questionnaire to assess important psychological characteristics of patients with somatoform disorders. Item selection and identification of factor structure, as well as reliability and validity have been checked in a sample of N=453 psychsomatic outpatients. Results of a principal components analysis with Promax-rotation suggested 4 factors (health worries, illness experience, difficulties in interaction with doctors, impact of illness). Validity analyses confirmed associations between the SSEQ-Scores and the physical disability of patients. Although further assessments of psychometric qualities are needed, the questionnaire appears to be well-suited for future assessment of relevant psychological features of somatoform disorders. PMID:23864304
Evidence indicates acute sleep deprivation affects negative mood states. The present study experimentally tested the effects of acute sleep deprivation on self-reportedsymptoms of state anxiety and depression as well as general distress among 88 physically and psychologically healthy adults. As hypothesized, the effects of acute sleep deprivation increased state anxiety and depression, as well as general distress, relative to a normal night of sleep control condition. Based on the tripartite model of anxiety and depression, these findings replicate and extend prior research by suggesting sleep deprivation among individuals without current Axis I disorders increases both state symptoms of anxiety and depression specifically, and general distress more broadly. Extending this work to clinical samples and prospectively testing mechanisms underlying these effects are important future directions in this area of research.
The 25-item Clark-Beck Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (CBOCI) was developed to assess the frequency and severity of obsessive and compulsive symptoms. The measure uses a graded-response format to assess core symptom features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American…
Clark, David A.; Antony, Martin M.; Beck, Aaron T.; Swinson, Richard P.; Steer, Robert A.
Background Foodborne Yersinia enterocolitica infections continue to be a public health problem in many countries. Consumption of raw or undercooked pork is the main risk factor for yersiniosis in Germany. Small children are most frequently affected by yersiniosis. In older children and young adults, symptoms of disease may resemble those of appendicitis and may lead to hospitalization and potentially unnecessary appendectomies. Y. enterocolitica infections may also cause sequelae such as reactive arthritis (ReA), erythema nodosum (EN), and conjunctivitis. Methods We studied clinical aspects of yersiniosis, antimicrobial use, and self-reported occurrence of appendectomies, reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and conjunctivitis. To assess post-infectious sequelae participants of a large population-based case–control study on laboratory-confirmed Y. enterocolitica infections conducted in Germany in 2009–2010 were followed for 4 weeks. Results Diarrhea occurred most frequently in children ?4 years (95%); abdominal pain in the lower right quadrant was most common in children 5–14 years of age (63%). Twenty-seven per cent of patients were hospitalized, 37% were treated with antimicrobials. In 6% of yersiniosis patients ?5 years of age, appendectomies were performed. Self-reportedsymptoms consistent with ReA were reported by 12% of yersiniosis patients compared to 5% in a reference group not exposed to yersiniosis. Symptoms consistent with EN were reported by 3% of yersiniosis patients compared to 0.1% in the reference group. Symptoms of conjunctivitis occurred with the same frequency in yersiniosis patients and the reference group. Conclusions Acute Y. enterocolitica infections cause considerable burden of illness with symptoms lasting for about 10 days and hospitalizations in more than a quarter of patients. The proportion of yersiniosis patients treated with antimicrobial drugs appears to be relatively high despite guidelines recommending their use only in severe cases. Appendectomies and post-infectious complications (ReA and EN) are more frequently reported in yersiniosis patients than in the reference group suggesting that they can be attributed to infections with Y. enterocolitica. Physicians should keep recent Y. enterocolitica infection in mind in patients with symptoms resembling appendicitis as well as in patients with symptoms of unclear arthritis.
Background Associations between traffic pollution on the street of residence and a range of respiratory and allergic outcomes in children have been reported in developed countries, but little is known about such associations in developing countries. Methods The third phase of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was carried out in 13- to 14-year-old and 6- to 7-year-old children across the world. A question about frequency of truck traffic on the street of residence was included in an additional questionnaire. We investigated the association between self-reported truck traffic on the street of residence and symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema with logistic regression. Adjustments were made for sex, region of the world, language, gross national income, and 10 other subject-specific covariates. Results Frequency of truck traffic on the street of residence was positively associated with the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema with an exposure–response relationship. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for “current wheeze” and “almost the whole day” versus “never” truck traffic were 1.35 (1.23–1.49) for 13- to 14-year-olds and 1.35 (1.22–1.48) for 6- to 7-year-olds. Conclusions Higher exposure to self-reported truck traffic on the street of residence is associated with increased reports of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema in many locations in the world. These findings require further investigation in view of increasing exposure of the world’s children to traffic.
Brunekreef, Bert; Stewart, Alistair W.; Anderson, H. Ross; Lai, Christopher K.W.; Strachan, David P.; Pearce, Neil
A large sample (N = 425) of young adult males from the Pittsburg Youth Study (PYS; Loeber, Farrington, Stouthamer-Loeber, & Van Kammen, 1998) was used to test the item-level structure of the short-form version of the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (SRP; Paulhus, Neumann, & Hare, in press) and the standard version of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI; Andershed, Kerr, Stattin, & Levander, 2002). Also, structural equation modeling analyses examined how the SRP and YPI factors were linked to external correlates involving criminal offenses and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. The modeling results indicated acceptable fit for the latent structure of both instruments and the SRP and YPI factor correlations were strong, particularly for conceptually-related scales. Finally, both instruments showed similar patterns in predicting externalizing and internalizing psychopathology, as well as criminal offenses. Taken together, the results provide evidence of convergent and construct validity across the two instruments. New insights into the link between psychopathy and the external correlates in young adult males are discussed. PMID:22984856
Research on adolescent well-being has shown that students with depression have an increased risk of facing academic failure, yet few studies have looked at the implications of adolescent depression in the process of school dropout. This study examined mediation processes linking depression symptoms, self-perceived academic competence, and…
Quiroga, Cintia V.; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Morin, Alexandre J. S.
Through differences in family socialization between indigenous and non-indigenous youth, there may be cultural differences in the impact of family factors on mental health outcome. Using structural equation modelling, this population-based study explored the relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression and family factors in indigenous…
Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) is a brief, well-validated parent-report questionnaire designed to detect psychosocial dysfunction in school-age. Study assessed the utility of the PSC when completed by children ages nine to fourteen (PSC-Y) when parents were not available. Results show the PSC-Y to potentially be a rapid, easily administered…
Pagano, Maria E.; Cassidy, Linden J.; Little, Michelle; Murphy, J. Michael; Jellinek, Michael S.
PURPOSE While depression has been associated with infertility treatments, it is not routinely assessed in women prior to undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Findings are mixed regarding the degree to which women report depression prior to IVF. The purpose of this study was to: 1) examine response profiles in women preparing for IVF, and 2) compare responses to those of postpartum, primary care, and general population groups. METHODS Female IVF patients (n=321; 19 – 45 years) completed the PHQ-9 at their first visit. Clinical, demographic characteristics, and incidence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other depressive disorder (ODD) were examined. Overall score distributions of the IVF group were compared to those of local postpartum patients, and published primary care and general populations. RESULTS Demographic or clinical characteristics did not account for response differences within the IVF group. The IVF group had lower incidences of MDD and ODD than a PHQ-9 normative group. Women in the IVF group reported no depressive symptoms significantly more than postpartum, primary care, and general population groups. CONCLUSIONS Women preparing to undergo IVF report fewer symptoms of depression than multiple comparison groups. Specific quality of life measures may be needed to assess distress in this population.
Lewis, Adam M.; Liu, Dawei; Stuart, Scott P.; Ryan, Ginny
Purpose Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms experienced by persons with chronic illness, including cancer. The effective management\\u000a of fatigue hinges in part on the accuracy and reliability of its measurement. The purpose of this study was to review and\\u000a characterize the use of the 14-item Fatigue SymptomInventory (FSI) in published studies and to evaluate the available evidence
Objective: The M.D. Anderson SymptomInventory (MDASI) is a brief assessment of the severity and impact of cancer-related symptoms. The purpose of this study was the translation and validation of the questionnaire in Greek (G-MDASI). Methods: The translation and validation of the assessment took place at a Pain Relief and Palliative Care Unit. The final validation sample included 150 cancer
Objectives: The Brief SymptomInventory (BSI) is widely used in juvenile justice settings; however, little is known regarding its factor structure in antisocial youth. The authors evaluated the BSI factor structure in a state residential treatment population. Methods: 707 adolescents completed the BSI. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses…
The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) has become a popular measure in anxiety assessment and the BAI does not overlap in content with measures of depression. There is also some factor analytic evidence to support this distinction. However, an inspection of the BAI's content indicates that many of its items resemble, or are identical to, the symptoms of panic attacks listed
Brian J. Cox; Eva Cohen; David M. Direnfeld; Richard P. Swinson
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the cross-ethnic construct validity of the Brief SymptomInventory (BSI). Method: The sample consisted of 1,166 individuals diagnosed with severe and persistent mental illness who were receiving treatment in community-based mental health programs. Multiple-group confirmatory factor…
Background High concomitant intolerance attributed to odorous/pungent chemicals, certain buildings, electromagnetic fields (EMF), and everyday sounds calls for a questionnaire instrument that can assess symptom prevalence in various environmental intolerances. The Environmental Hypersensitivity SymptomInventory (EHSI) was therefore developed and metrically evaluated, and normative data were established. The EHSI consists of 34 symptom items, requires limited time to respond to, and provides a detailed and broad description of the individual’s symptomology. Methods Data from 3406 individuals who took part in the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study were used. The participants constitute a random sample of inhabitants in the county of Västerbotten in Sweden, aged 18 to 79 years, stratified for age and gender. Results Exploratory factor analysis identified five significant factors: airway symptoms (9 items; Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 coefficient, KR-20, of internal consistency?=?0.74), skin and eye symptoms (6 items; KR-20?=?0.60), cardiac, dizziness and nausea symptoms (4 items; KR-20?=?0.55), head-related and gastrointestinal symptoms (5 items; KR-20?=?0.55), and cognitive and affective symptoms (10 items; KR-20?=?0.80). The KR-20 was 0.85 for the entire 34-item EHSI. Symptom prevalence rates in percentage for having the specific symptoms every week over the preceding three months constitute normative data. Conclusions The EHSI can be recommended for assessment of symptom prevalence in various types of environmental hypersensitivity, and with the advantage of comparing prevalence rates with normality.
The Trauma SymptomInventory (TSI), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) were administered to 71 women who reported histories of childhood and/or adult sexual maltreatment and 25 women who did not report a history of victimization. The TSI validity scales were not effective in identifying…
Arbisi, Paul A.; Erbes, Christopher R.; Polusny, Melissa A.; Nelson, Nathaniel W.
Background The symptom burden associated with multiple myeloma (MM) is often severe. Presently, no instrument comprehensively assesses disease-related and treatment-related symptoms in patients with MM. We sought to validate a module of the M. D. Anderson SymptomInventory (MDASI) developed specifically for patients with MM (MDASI-MM). Methods The MDASI-MM was developed with clinician input, cognitive debriefing, and literature review, and administered to 132 patients undergoing induction chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. We demonstrated the MDASI-MM’s reliability (Cronbach ? values); criterion validity (item and subscale correlations between the MDASI-MM and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the EORTC MM module (QLQ-MY20)), and construct validity (differences between groups by performance status). Ratings from transplant patients were examined to demonstrate the MDASI-MM’s sensitivity in detecting the acute worsening of symptoms post-transplantation. Results The MDASI-MM demonstrated excellent correlations with subscales of the 2 EORTC instruments, strong ability to distinguish clinically different patient groups, high sensitivity in detecting change in patients’ performance status, and high reliability. Cognitive debriefing confirmed that the MDASI-MM encompasses the breadth of symptoms relevant to patients with MM. Conclusion The MDASI-MM is a valid, reliable, comprehensive-yet-concise tool that is recommended as a uniform symptom assessment instrument for patients with MM.
Background The relative performance of local and international assessment instruments is subject to ongoing discussion in transcultural research on mental health and psychosocial support. We examined the construct and external validity of two instruments, one developed for use in Afghanistan, the other developed by the World Health Organization for use in resource-poor settings. Methods We used data collected on 1003 Afghan adults (500 men, 503 women) randomly sampled at three sites in Afghanistan. We compared the 22-item Afghan Symptom Checklist (ASCL), a culturally-grounded assessment of psychosocial wellbeing, with Pashto and Dari versions of the 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). We derived subscales using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) and tested total and subscale scores for external validity with respect to lifetime trauma and household wealth using block model regressions. Results EFA suggested a three-factor structure for SRQ-20 - somatic complaints, negative affect, and emotional numbing - and a two-factor structure for ASCL - jigar khun (dysphoria) and aggression. Both factor models were supported by CFA in separate subsamples. Women had higher scores for each of the five subscales than men (p?0.001), and larger bivariate associations with trauma (rs .24 to .29, and .10 to .19, women and men respectively) and household wealth (rs -.27 to -.39, and .05 to -.22, respectively). The three SRQ-20 subscales and the ASCL jigar khun subscale were equally associated with variance in trauma exposures. However, interactions between gender and jigar khun suggested that, relative to SRQ-20, the jigar khun subscale was more strongly associated with household wealth for women; similarly, gender interactions with aggression indicated that the aggression subscale was more strongly associated with trauma and wealth. Conclusions Two central elements of Afghan conceptualizations of mental distress - aggression and the syndrome jigar khun – were captured by the ASCL and not by the SRQ-20. The appropriateness of the culturally-grounded instrument was more salient for women, indicating that the validity of instruments may be gender-differentiated. Transcultural validation processes for tools measuring mental distress need to explicitly take gender into account. Culturally relevant measures are worth developing for long-term psychosocial programming.
Background There is a lack of knowledge on the influence of different levels of physical activity (PA) on unintentional injuries among those with depressive symptoms (DS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PA categories and unintentional injuries among participants with and without DS based on a cross-sectional population–based FIN-D2D survey conducted in 2007. Methods Out of 4500, 2682 participants (60%) aged 45–74?years attended in this study. The unintentional injuries over the past year were captured in a questionnaire. DS were determined with the Beck Depression Inventory (? 10 points) and PA with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The statistical significance between DS and unintentional injury categories was evaluated by using t-test, chi-square test, or permutation test, analysis of covariance, or regression models. The factors related to unintentional injuries were estimated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results The proportion of subjects with unintentional injuries was higher among those with DS (17%) compared to those without DS (10%) (age- and gender-adjusted p?=?0.023). The median (range) number of activity-loss days after injury was 22 (0–365) in participants with DS and 7 (0–120) in participants without DS ( p?=?0.009). The percentage of subjects with unintentional injuries was not significantly different between PA categories in participants with DS and without DS. A stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that DS, functional ability, and musculoskeletal diseases were related to unintentional injuries. Conclusions PA level was not related to unintentional injuries, whereas those with DS had a higher prevalence of unintentional injuries and prolonged activity-loss after injury. These results underline the importance of injury prevention, especially among those who have DS and additional risk factors.
This study identified the trauma symptoms and life skill needs of 84 domestic violence victims from three domestic violence programs. Women completed two self-report tools: Trauma SymptomInventory (TSI) and Occupational Self Assessment (OSA). Staff members participated in focus groups regarding their perceptions of the womens needs. Women scored…
Gorde, Mrugaya W.; Helfrich, Christine A.; Finlayson, Marcia L.
Although the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the Padua Inventory-Revised (PI-R) are the most widely used instruments for assessing presence and severity of symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the correlation between the two instruments is surprisingly low. The aim of the present investigation was to test two possible explanations for the discrepancy between these instruments by comparing both scales in 120 OCD patients. The tested hypotheses included: (1) differences in the way the measures are administered, i.e. observer-rated vs. self-rated; and (2) differences in the way severity is calculated, i.e. the PI-R measures severity by aggregating symptoms, while the Y-BOCS measures severity unrelated to the number of symptoms. Results indicated that neither hypothesis satisfactorily explains the differences between the measures. The investigation concludes that the Y-BOCS and PI-R measure relatively unrelated features of OCD, and the combined use of multiple measures is recommended to assess the complexity of OCD phenomena. PMID:19443176
Anholt, Gideon E; van Oppen, Patricia; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Cath, Danielle C; Smit, Johannes H; van Dyck, Richard; van Balkom, Anton J L M
Overlap between depression scale item content and medical symptoms may exaggerate depression estimates for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We reconsider Mohr and co-workers' (1997) recommendation to omit Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) items assessing work ability (item 15), fatigue (17), and health concerns (20) for MS patients. Subjects were medical patients with either MS (n = 105) or a medical
J. E. Aikens; M. A. Reinecke; N. H. Pliskin; J. S. Fischer; J. S. Wiebe; L. M. McCracken; J. L. Taylor
The authors examined the Trauma SymptomInventorys (TSI) ability to discriminate 88 student post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) simulators screened for genuine PTSD from 48 clinical PTSD-diagnosed outpatients. Results demonstrated between-group differences on several TSI clinical scales and the Atypical Response (ATR) validity scale.…
Elhai, Jon D.; Gray, Matthew J.; Naifeh, James A.; Butcher, Jimmie J.; Davis, Joanne L.; Falsetti, Sherry A.; Best, Connie L.
The diagnosis of depression is based on the presence of symptoms along with functional impairment. One might therefore expect the definition of remission of depressive disorder to be based on the resolution of both symptoms and functional impairments. This, however, is not how the field has been defining remission. Rather, in treatment studies of depression, remission has been defined in
Mark Zimmerman; Joseph B. McGlinchey; Michael A. Posternak; Michael Friedman; Daniela Boerescu; Naureen Attiullah
To determine whether self-reported anxious symptoms differentiated elderly medical and psychiatric outpatients, the Beck Anxiety Inventory was administered to 45 medical outpatients and 117 psychiatric inpatients. Only two symptoms, fear of the worst happening and unsteady, contributed unique variance to the differentiation of the two groups. (SLD)
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met single nucleotide polymorphism may be associated with clinical and subsyndromal depression, but physical activity improves mood and increases BDNF expression. The aim of the study was to examine whether the BDNF polymorphism moderates an effect of physical activity on depressive symptoms. BDNF genotype, physical activity measured by the Paffenbarger Questionnaire, and depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiology Depression Scale (CES-D) were collected on 1072 participants (mean age=44). Multiple linear regression was used to examine the association between BDNF genotype, physical activity, and depressive symptoms. After adjusting for family income, age, and education, depressive symptoms were higher in Met carriers compared to Val homozygotes (p=0.03), but this was only significant in men. Physical activity was associated with fewer depressive symptoms, but only in women (p=0.01). BDNF genotype did not moderate the effect of physical activity on depressive symptoms (p=0.94). In midlife, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism neither attenuates nor magnifies the effect of physical activity on depressive symptoms. PMID:24745471
Gujral, Swathi; Manuck, Stephen B; Ferrell, Robert E; Flory, Janine D; Erickson, Kirk I
This study sought to determine which Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised (DSM-III-R), symptoms of alcohol dependence were most sensitive to under-reporting by 78 inpatients from alcohol treatment programs. We hypothesized that patients would be more reluctant to report social\\/behavioral symptoms (lost time, hazardous behavior or major role interference, and reduced activities) than psychological or physiological
Depressive symptomatology can proceed from altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortex (HPA)-axis function. Some authors stress the role that early life stress (ELS) may play in the pathophysiology of depressive symptoms. However, the involvement of the HPA-axis in linking prenatal ELS with depressive symptoms has not been tested in a prospective-longitudinal study extending until after puberty in humans. Therefore, we examined whether antenatal maternal
Bea R H Van den Bergh; Ben Van Calster; Tim Smits; Sabine Van Huffel; Lieven Lagae; BRH Van den Bergh
Aims: To identify prognostic ergonomic and work technique factors for musculoskeletal symptoms among office workers and in a subgroup with highly monotonous repetitive computer work. Methods: A baseline questionnaire was delivered to 5033 office workers in 11 Danish companies in the first months of 1999, and a follow up questionnaire was mailed in the last months of 2000 to 3361 respondents. A subgroup with highly monotonous repetitive computer work was formed including those that were repeating the same movements and/or tasks for at least 75% of the work time. The questionnaire contained questions on ergonomic factors and factors related to work technique. The outcome variables were based on the frequency of musculoskeletal symptoms during the last 12 months. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify prognostic factors for symptoms in the three body regions. Results: In total, 39%, 47%, and 51% of the symptomatic subjects had a reduced frequency of symptom days in the neck/shoulder, low back, or elbow/hand region, respectively. In all regions more men than women had reduced symptoms. In the multivariate logistic regression analyses, working no more than 75% of the work time with the computer was a prognostic factor for musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck/shoulder and elbow/hand, and a high influence on the speed of work was a prognostic factor for symptoms in the low back. In the subgroup with highly monotonous repetitive computer work, the odds ratios of the prognostic factors were similar to those for the whole group of office workers. Conclusion: When organising computer work it is important to allow for physical variation with other work tasks, thereby avoiding working with the computer during all the work time, and further to consider the worker's own influence on the speed of work.
Background Our goal is to linguistically validate the Greek translation of the M.D. Anderson SymptomInventory Index – Head and Neck Module. Patients & Methods Following forward and backward translation of the previously validated head and neck cancer specific items of the English MDASI-HN into Greek (G-MDASI-HN), it was administered along with a cognitive debriefing to head and neck cancer patients able to read and understand Greek. Individual and group responses are presented using descriptive statistics. Results From 02/2009 through 06/2009 30 subjects with head and neck cancer completed the G-MDASI-HN followed by completion of the accompanying cognitive debriefing. Ninety-eight percent of the individual G-MDASI-HN items were completed. “Voice” item was not completed by 5 patients. Average time to complete the G-MDASI-HN was 13.3 minutes. Average ease of completion was rated at 1.21 on a 0 to 10 scale with “0” being “very easy” and “10” being “very hard”. Only 10% of patients reported trouble completing any item, namely “distress” and “numbness”. Conclusions The Greek-MDASI-HN is linguistically valid and a patient-reported instrument that can be used both in outcomes research and as a clinical tool.
Gunn, G. Brandon; Koukourakis, Michael I.; Mendoza, Tito R.; Cleeland, Charles S.; Rosenthal, David I.
The current prospective study investigated transactional relations between maternal depressive symptoms and children’s depressive\\u000a and externalizing symptoms. Participants included 240 children (M age?=?11.86 years, SD?=?0.56; 53.9% female) and their mothers who were part of a 6-year longitudinal study. Measures of maternal depression (Beck\\u000a Depression Inventory), child depression (Children’s Depression Inventory), and children’s externalizing symptoms (Youth Self-Report\\u000a Form) were assessed annually. Data
The Child Development Inventory (CDI), a restandardized version of the Minnesota Child Development Inventory, is completed by parents to measure the developmental progress of their children ages 15 months to 6 years or children judged to be functioning in that age range. It measures present development in eight areas: social, self-help, gross…
Patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism experience a variety of clinical symptoms which may adversely affect physical and mental function. As part of a multicenter, open-label clinical trial, subjects completed a questionnaire that included the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 and 14 kidney disease-related symptoms at multiple time points during the study. Out of the 567 subjects who received at least one dose of cinacalcet, 528 to 535 (93.8-94.4%) completed all or portions of the questionnaire at baseline. The median bioactive parathyroid hormone (PTH) was 294 pg/mL (10%, 90% range, 172-655 pg/mL). Following treatment with cinacalcet and low-dose vitamin D sterols, subjects reported significant improvement in the frequency of pain in muscles, joints and bones, stiff joints, dry skin, itchy skin, excessive thirst, and trouble with memory. At end of the efficacy assessment phase (Weeks 16 to 22), the magnitude of improvement was the greatest in joint pain, bone pain, dry skin, and excessive thirst (>5 on a 0-100 scale; P < 0.001). There were no clinically or statistically significant changes in any of the Short Form-36 subscales or in the physical or mental health composite scores. Among patients on hemodialysis with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, treatment with cinacalcet and low-dose vitamin D sterols results in significant improvement in pain in the muscles, joints and bones, joint stiffness, dry and itchy skin, excessive thirst, and trouble with memory. PMID:22118402
Chertow, Glenn M; Lu, Z John; Xu, Xiao; Knight, Tyler G; Goodman, William G; Bushinsky, David A; Block, Geoffrey A
This study tested the German translation of the Trauma SymptomInventory (TSI) by Briere . The TSI aims at assessing complex posttraumatic symptoms. TSI was part of a large test battery, among which the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Short Screening Scale, Short Form Health Survey, Geriatric Depression Scale and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview were part of. A sample of N=116 elderly people (range of age: 59-98 years; 40.5% women) with childhood traumatization were studied. The German version of the TSI presents with adequate internal consistency, mainly good discriminability and facility indices, and good criterion and construct validity. With reference to factorial validity, a European validation model  replicated the data more accurate than the original American model. TSI proved to be a reliable, economic and--to some extent--valid instrument for the assessment of complex posttraumatic stress symptoms. PMID:23382032
Krammer, Sandy; Simmen-Janevska, Keti; Maercker, Andreas
This study examined anxiety and depressive symptoms among 115 mothers of children undergoing bone marrow transplant and evaluated the ability of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; A. T. Beck, N. Epstein, et al., 1988) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; A. T. Beck, 1978) to serve as screening tools for assessing generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and major
Sharon Manne; Nancy Nereo; Katherine DuHamel; Jamie Ostroff; Susan Parsons; Richard Martini; Sharon Williams; Laura Mee; Sandra Sexson; Julie Lewis; Suzanne J. Vickberg; William H. Redd
The authors examined the comparative predictive capacity of the Trauma SymptomInventory (TSI) Atypical Response Scale (ATR) and the standard set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) fake-bad validity scales (i.e., F, F[subscript B[prime
Efendov, Adele A.; Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael
In recent years, employees at the three headquarters buildings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the Washington, D.C. area have expressed concerns about air quality and work environment discomforts. As part of a large-scale study of health and comfort concerns, environmental monitoring was carried out in March 1989 at approximately 100 sites (rooms) within these buildings. Employees in the vicinity of the monitors were administered a brief questionnaire to elicit information regarding their work environment, comfort levels, odors noticed, health symptoms, mood states, and perceptions of overall air quality. Statistical analyses were carried out for the 191 males and the 192 females for whom both questionnaire and monitoring data were available. The analyses entailed estimation of linear regression and logistic regression models aimed at testing for associations between the employees' responses and the environmental measurements, which included temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide, and particlate concentrations (100 sites), and various microbiologic and volatile organic compound concentrations (subset of 56 sites). Principal component analyses were used to develop some of the outcome and explanatory variables used in the models. In the paper, the authors describe the study design, the study limitations, the statistical models and methods, and the results and implications of the data analysis.
Nelson, C.J.; Clayton, C.A.; Wallace, L.A.; Highsmith, V.R.; Kollander, M.
Background The effects of multiple exposures on active tuberculosis (TB) are largely undetermined. We sought to establish a dose-response relationship for smoking, drinking, and body mass index (BMI) and to investigate the independent and joint effects of these and diabetes on the risk of self-reportedsymptoms of active TB disease. Methods and Findings We analyzed 14 national studies in 14 high TB-burden countries using self-reports of blood in cough/phlegm and cough lasting >?=?3 weeks in the last year as the measures of symptoms of active TB. The random effect estimates of the relative risks (RR) between active TB and smoking, drinking, diabetes, and BMI<18.5 kg/m2 were reported for each gender. Floating absolute risks were used to examine dyads of exposure. Adjusted for age and education, the risks of active TB were significantly associated with diabetes and BMI<18.5 kg/m2 in both sexes, with ever drinking in men and with ever smoking in women. Stronger dose-response relationships were seen in women than in men for smoking amount, smoking duration and drinking amount but BMI<18.5 kg/m2 showed a stronger dose-response relationship in men. In men, the risks from joint exposures were statistically significant for diabetics with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 (RR?=?6.4), diabetics who smoked (RR?=?3.8), and diabetics who drank alcohol (RR?=?3.2). The risks from joint risk factors were generally larger in women than in men, with statistically significant risks for diabetics with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 (RR?=?10.0), diabetics who smoked (RR?=?5.4) and women with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 who smoked (RR?=?5.0). These risk factors account for 61% of male and 34% of female estimated TB incidents in these 14 countries. Conclusions Tobacco, alcohol, diabetes, and low BMI are significant individual risk factors but in combination are associated with triple or quadruple the risk of development of recent active TB. These risk factors might help to explain the wide variation in TB across countries.
Patra, Jayadeep; Jha, Prabhat; Rehm, Jurgen; Suraweera, Wilson
ABSTRACT Background: Few empirical studies compare the ability of prominent measures of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) to explain key caregiver outcomes. We compared the respective abilities of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist (RMBPC) to detect associations between BPSD and caregiver depressive symptoms. Our results may facilitate measurement decisions for researchers and clinicians. Methods: The NPI and the RMBPC, which measure BPSD frequency and corresponding caregiver appraisals, were administered to 164 caregivers of persons with dementia to compare the measures' ability to explain caregiver depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and caregiver burden was measured (using the Zarit Burden Interview) as a mediator between BPSD frequency/appraisal and caregiver depressive symptoms. Path analysis using Mplus facilitated the comparison between the RMBPC and the NPI. Results: Significant indirect associations were present when NPI frequency, NPI appraisal, RMBPC frequency, and RMBPC appraisal were modeled separately with burden and depressive symptoms, although indirect relationships are not associated with increases in R2. Only RMBPC appraisal produced both a significant direct association with depressive symptoms and a significant increase in R2 when modeled separately (? = 0.24, p < 0.01; ?R2 = 0.04, p < 0.05). When all independent variables were modeled together, only RMBPC appraisal demonstrated significant direct (? = 0.23, p < 0.01) and indirect associations. Conclusion: The RMBPC might be more suitable than the NPI in studies measuring BPSD to explain key caregiver outcomes such as depressive symptoms. PMID:24423578
Jackson, Mark A; Fauth, Elizabeth B; Geiser, Christian
Study Objectives: Prior research suggests that sleep deprivation is associated with declines in some aspects of emotional intelligence and increased severity on indices of psychological disturbance. Sleep deprivation is also associated with reduced prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity, potentially reflecting impaired top-down modulation of emotion. It remains unknown whether this modified connectivity may be observed in relation to more typical levels of sleep curtailment. We examined whether self-reported sleep duration the night before an assessment would be associated with these effects. Design: Participants documented their hours of sleep from the previous night, completed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Setting: Outpatient neuroimaging center at a private psychiatric hospital. Participants: Sixty-five healthy adults (33 men, 32 women), ranging in age from 18-45 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Greater self-reported sleep the preceding night was associated with higher scores on all scales of the EQ-i but not the MSCEIT, and with lower symptom severity scores on half of the psychopathology scales of the PAI. Longer sleep was also associated with stronger negative functional connectivity between the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Moreover, greater negative connectivity between these regions was associated with higher EQ-i and lower symptom severity on the PAI. Conclusions: Self-reported sleep duration from the preceding night was negatively correlated with prefrontal-amygdala connectivity and the severity of subjective psychological distress, while positively correlated with higher perceived emotional intelligence. More sleep was associated with higher emotional and psychological strength. Citation: Killgore WDS. Self-reported sleep correlates with prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity and emotional functioning. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1597-1608.
The Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory (HAPPI; W. Mansell, 2006) was developed to assess multiple, extreme, self-relevant appraisals of internal states. The present study aimed to validate the HAPPI in a clinical sample. Participants (N = 50) with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (confirmed by a structured clinical interview)…
Dodd, Alyson L.; Mansell, Warren; Morrison, Anthony P.; Tai, Sara
Administered year and month versions of the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview (PERI). Found mean values and variances of scale scores consistently larger for the year than for the month time frame for all 14 symptom scales, and the covariance pattern different for four scales. Neither version was consistently better in distinguishing…
This study examined (a) the stability of the personality and symptom scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) for a sample of university undergraduates and (b) the correspondence between MCMI scores from self-report versus scores obtained from knowledgeable others who responded by describing the subject rather than themselves. The MCMI was administered to subjects during their freshman year and
This study used data from 3 sites to examine the invariance and psychometric characteristics of the Brief SymptomInventory-18 across Black, Hispanic, and White mothers of 5th graders (N = 4,711; M = 38.07 years of age, SD = 7.16). Internal consistencies were satisfactory for all subscale scores of the instrument regardless of ethnic group…
Wiesner, Margit; Chen, Vincent; Windle, Michael; Elliott, Marc N.; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kanouse, David E.; Schuster, Mark A.
The psychometric structure of the Brief SymptomInventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and…
Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent
The factor structure of the Brief SymptomInventory--18 (BSI-18; L. R. Derogatis, 2000) was investigated in a sample of adult survivors of childhood cancer enrolled in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS; N = 8,945). An exploratory factor analysis with a randomly chosen subsample supported a 3-factor structure closely corresponding to the 3…
Recklitis, Christopher J.; Parsons, Susan K.; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Mertens, Ann; Robison, Leslie L.; Zeltzer, Lonnie
The etiology of selective mutism (SM) in children is unknown but is regarded as multifactorial. SM is frequently associated with social anxiety and language disorder or delay. The present study addresses SM and social anxiety as a familial phenomenon by comparing self-reported personality traits and symptom traits (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory; T. Millon, 1987) in parents of 50 SM children
To ascertain whether self-reported psychopathology differentiated sexually and nonsexually abused adolescents, the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Achenbach Youth Self-Report were administered to 111 psychiatric inpatients between 13 and 17 years of age who were diagnosed with various psychiatric disorders. Data about 14 background and clinical characteristics that were purported to be associated with sexual abuse were
ABSTRACT Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are highly prevalent in dementia. The recently developed Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Clinician rating scale (NPI-C) includes clinical judgment and new symptom domains. Our objective was to evaluate NPI-C reliability and to compare caregiver and clinician ratings across the range of mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study. Participants were geriatric memory clinic patients and nursing-home residents (n = 30) with an established diagnosis of dementia or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). A psychiatrist (MK) interviewed caregiver-patient dyads using the NPI-C. Neuropsychological tests and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were used to assess cognitive impairment. Two NPI-C caregiver interviews were videotaped and rated by psychologists and geriatricians. Intra-class correlations (ICCs) were used to examine inter-rater agreement. Correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate caregiver and psychiatrist NPI-C ratings. Disagreement between caregiver and clinician was expressed in delta scores and examined across the range of mild to severe cognitive impairment, using Levene's homogeneity of variances tests. Results: Inter-rater agreement on ratings of two caregiver videos was high (ICC = 0.99-1.0). Clinician-caregiver concordance on NPI-C total severity ratings was high (r = 0.77). Variability in clinician-caregiver concordance was associated with cognitive impairment: MMSE (P = 0.02), CAMCOG-R (Cambridge Cognitive Examination-revised) total scores (P = 0.02), CAMCOG-R Memory scores (P = 0.04) and Language scores (P = 0.01). Conclusions: The NPI-C is a reliable measure of NPS in patients with MCI or dementia. Clinician-caregiver agreement on NPS severity may vary with cognitive impairment, underlining the importance of clinician-based measures of NPS. PMID:24622334
The objective of this study was to assess the level, impact, and predictors of fatigue in patients with moderate to severe irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). One hundred seventy five patients meeting Rome III criteria for IBS completed a variety of measures including the vitality scale of the SF-12, IBS-Symptom Severity Scale, IBS-QOL, Brief SymptomInventory-18, Screening for Somatoform Symptoms (SOMS-7), and a semi structured clinical interview (IBS-PRO) as part of a pretreatment evaluation of an NIH funded clinical trial of cognitive behavior therapy for IBS. Fatigue was the third most common somatic complaint, reported by 61% of the patients. Levels of fatigue were associated with both somatic (more severe IBS symptoms, greater number of unexplained medical symptoms), behavioral (frequency of restorative experiences) and psychological (e.g., trait anxiety, depression) outcomes after holding constant confounding variables. The final model in multiple regression analyses accounted for 41.6% of the variance in self-reported fatigue scores with significant predictors including anxiety sensitivity, perceived stress, IBS symptom severity, restorative activities and depression. The clinical implications of data as they relate to both IBS and CBT in general are discussed in the context of attention restoration theory.
Lackner, Jeffrey M.; Gudleski, Gregory D.; DiMuro, Jennifer; Keefer, Laurie; Brenner, Darren M.
The idea that traumatic experiences cause dissociative symptoms is a recurrent theme in clinical literature. The present article summarizes evidence that cast doubts on the commonly voiced view that the connection between self-reported trauma and dissociation is a simple and robust one. It is argued that: (1) the correlations between self-reported traumatic experiences and dissociative symptoms reported in the literature
The recent accumulation of self-report measures of borderline personality disorder (BPD) affords the opportunity to evaluate both the construct validity of the concept and the quality of these measures. This study examines the relationship among three recently developed self-report instruments for assessing BPD from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991), the MMPI Personality Disorders Scales (MPD; Morey, Waugh, &
John E. Kurtz; Leslie C. Morey; Andrew J. Tomarken
Objective Homebound older adults are at high risk for depression and anxiety. Systematic screening may increase identification of these difficulties and facilitate service usage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure, internal consistency, and concurrent validity of the Brief SymptomInventory—18 (BSI-18) for use as a screening instrument for depression and anxiety with homebound older adults and to examine if the BSI-18 could be shortened further and exhibit comparable psychometric properties. Methods A sample of 142 older adults receiving in-home aging services completed interviews that included the BSI-18 and the depression and anxiety modules of the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV. Results Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the theorized three-factor, second-order model of the BSI-18 fit the data well (S-B X2 = 136.17; p = 0.36). The depression and anxiety subscales exhibited high internal consistency (? >0.81), whereas the somatic subscale exhibited lower internal consistency (? = 0.69). Receiver operator curve (ROC) analyses suggest that the BSI-18 depression and anxiety subscales were able to predict those with DSM-IV diagnoses (Depression AUC = 0.89 p <0.001; Anxiety AUC = 0.80, p <0.001). The ROC results suggested adapting a cut score of T = 50 to achieve optimal sensitivity and specificity. The short three-item depression scale exhibited comparable psychometric properties to the full scale, while the three-item somatic and anxiety scales exhibited lower internal consistency and sensitivity. Conclusions These findings provide initial evidence that the BSI-18 is valid for use with homebound older adults.
Petkus, Andrew J.; Gum, Amber M.; Small, Brent; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Stein, Murray B.; Wetherell, Julie Loebach
To ascertain how effective the Beck Depression Inventory for Primary Care (BDI-PC) was for differentiating medical inpatients who were and were not diagnosed with DSM-IV major depression disorders (MDD), this 7-item self-report instrument composed of cognitive and affective symptoms was administered to 50 medical inpatients along with the Depression subscale (HDS) from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond &
Aaron T. Beck; David Guth; Robert A. Steer; Roberta Ball
Abstract Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE.
Seichepine, Daniel R.; Stamm, Julie M.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Riley, David O.; Baugh, Christine M.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C.; Nowinski, Christopher J.
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE. PMID:23421745
Seichepine, Daniel R; Stamm, Julie M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Riley, David O; Baugh, Christine M; Gavett, Brandon E; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A
Using emotionally intelligent leadership (EIL) as the model, the authors identify behaviors that three levels of leaders engage in based on a self-reportinventory (Emotionally Intelligent Leadership for Students-Inventory). Three clusters of students are identified: those that are "Less-involved, Less Others-oriented," "Self-Improvers," and…
Background: Self-reportinventories trying to measure strategic processing at a global level have been much used in both basic and applied research. However, the validity of global strategy scores is open to question because such inventories assess strategy perceptions outside the context of specific task performance. Aims: The primary aim was to…
Behavioral symptoms are frequently observed in Alzheimer's disease patients and are associated to higher distress for patients and caregivers, early institutionalization, worst prognosis and increased care. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms in a sample of Alzheimer's disease patients and to analyze association between caregiver demographic characteristics and patient symptoms. Methods:
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is associated with suicide, violence, and risk-taking behavior and can slow response to first-line treatment for Axis I disorders. ASPD may be assessed infrequently because few efficient diagnostic tools are available. This study evaluated 2 promising self-report measures for assessing ASPD--the ASPD scale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4; S. E. Hyler, 1994) and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; L. Morey, 1991, 2007)--as well as the ASPD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II (SCID-II; M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, M. Gibbon, J. B. W. Williams, & L. S. Benjamin, 1997). The measures were administered to 1,345 offenders in court-mandated residential substance abuse treatment programs and prisons. PDQ-4 and PAI scores related strongly to SCID-II symptom counts (rs = .67 and .51, respectively), indicating these measures convey useful clinical information about the severity of offenders' ASPD pathology. The dimensional association between the measures was relatively invariant across gender, race, and site, although differences in mean scores were observed. Levels of agreement of the SCID-II with the PDQ-4 (kappa = .31) and PAI (kappa = .32) in classifying participants as ASPD was limited. Alternative thresholds for both self-report measures were identified and cross-validated. PMID:18315398
Guy, Laura S; Poythress, Norman G; Douglas, Kevin S; Skeem, Jennifer L; Edens, John F
This study compared self-reported incidence and prevalence of dysphagia in inflammatory myopathy diseases with instrumental data from videofluoroscopy in a cohort of 18 patients with inflammatory myopathies (inclusion body myositis, polymyositis, and dermatomyositis). We found a high self-report of incidence of dysphagia and demonstrated that symptoms described by the patients follow a characteristic pattern. We conclude that there is a high incidence of dysphagia in all three of the inflammatory myopathies. Questions about swallowing should routinely be included in inflammatory myopathy patient examinations in order to appropriately refer patients for further investigation of their swallowing function and avoid the complications associated with dysphagia. PMID:21442390
Mulcahy, Kylie Patricia; Langdon, Patricia Claire; Mastaglia, Francis
The psychometric structure of the Brief SymptomInventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and prisoners, indicating strong unidimensionality. For students, only the depression and anxiety items formed a medium Mokken scale. Parametric item response theory analyses showed that the best discriminating items came from the depression and anxiety subscales. PMID:21280957
Meijer, Rob R; de Vries, Rivka M; van Bruggen, Vincent
Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI). This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.). ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009), social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011), and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048) predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = < 0.0001) was also associated with ILI reporting. Older age was associated with less self-reported ILI (OR = 0.98, P = 0.017). Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-reportsymptom measures.
Smolderen, Kim GE; Vingerhoets, Ad JJM; Croon, Marcel A; Denollet, Johan
The Millon Multidimensional Adolescent Inventory (MMAI) is a brief, 150-item group administered self-reportinventory. Here it is used as an instructional tool within the context of psychology and health classes. (Author/RK)
In response to general press assertions that training emotionally intelligent children will lead to great rewards, this study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and academic achievement in college students, using both self-report and ability-based measures of EI. Specifically, the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT, an ability-based measure) and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i, a self-report
We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression). PMID:23644673
Purpose: To compare the M. D. Anderson SymptomInventory-Head and Neck (MDASI-HN) module, a symptom burden instrument, with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-HN) module, a quality-of-life instrument, for the assessment of mucositis in patients with head-and-neck cancer treated with radiotherapy and to identify the most distressing symptoms from the patient's perspective. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with head-and-neck cancer (n = 134) completed the MDASI-HN and FACT-HN before radiotherapy (time 1) and after 6 weeks of radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (time 2). The mean global and subscale scores for each instrument were compared with the objective mucositis scores determined from the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Results: The global and subscale scores for each instrument showed highly significant changes from time 1 to time 2 and a significant correlation with the objective mucositis scores at time 2. Only the MDASI scores, however, were significant predictors of objective Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events mucositis scores on multivariate regression analysis (standardized regression coefficient, 0.355 for the global score and 0.310 for the head-and-neck cancer-specific score). Most of the moderate and severe symptoms associated with mucositis as identified on the MDASI-HN are not present on the FACT-HN. Conclusion: Both the MDASI-HN and FACT-HN modules can predict the mucositis scores. However, the MDASI-HN, a symptom burden instrument, was more closely associated with the severity of radiation-induced mucositis than the FACT-HN on multivariate regression analysis. This greater association was most likely related to the inclusion of a greater number of face-valid mucositis-related items in the MDASI-HN compared with the FACT-HN.
Rosenthal, David I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com; Mendoza, Tito R. [Department of Symptom Research, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chambers, Mark [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Burkett, V. Shannon [Department of Symptom Research, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hessell, Amy C.; Lewin, Jan S. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ang, K. Kian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kies, Merrill S. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gning, Ibrahima; Wang, Xin S.; Cleeland, Charles S. [Department of Symptom Research, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)
The cultural equivalence of psychological outcome measures remains a major area of investigation. The current study sought to test the factor structure and factorial invariance of the Brief SymptomInventory-18 (BSI-18) with a sample of adult individuals of Mexican descent (N = 923) across nativity status (U.S. vs. Foreign-born), language format (English vs. Spanish), and gender. The results show that one factor and three factor measurement models provided a good fit to the data; however, a single factor model was deemed more appropriate and parsimonious. Tests of measurement invariance and invariance of factor variances (i.e., structural invariance) indicated at least partial measurement invariance across gender, nativity status, and language format. These findings suggest that the BSI-18 operates in a similar fashion among adults of Mexican descent regardless of nativity status, language format of the survey, and gender. Clinical and practical implications for use of the BSI-18 with Latino populations are discussed.
Torres, Lucas; Miller, Matthew J.; Moore, Kelly M.
The Externalizing Spectrum Inventory (ESI; Krueger, Markon, Patrick, Benning, & Kramer, 2007) provides a self-report based method for indexing a range of correlated problem behaviors and traits in the domain of deficient impulse control. The ESI organizes lower-order behaviors and traits of this kind around higher-order factors encompassing general disinhibitory proneness, callous-aggression, and substance abuse. The current study used data from a male prisoner sample (N = 235) to evaluate the validity of ESI total and factor scores in relation to external criterion measures consisting of externalizing disorder symptoms (including child and adult antisocial deviance and substance-related problems) assessed via diagnostic interview, personality traits assessed by self-report, and psychopathic features as assessed by both interview and self-report. Results provide evidence for the validity of the ESI measurement model and point to its potential utility as a referent for research on the neurobiological correlates and etiological bases of externalizing proneness.
Associations among parents’, teachers’, and children’s self-reports of internalizing and externalizing child behavior problems were examined in two studies. In the first, both teachers’ and parents’ reports were modestly and independently associated with children’s self-reported behavior problems. In the second, mothers’ and fathers’ reports of their children’s behavior problems were moderately associated with parents’ self-reports of their own psychological symptoms
Background The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) was designed to evaluate the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in both clinical and non-clinical samples. The aim of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of this scale. Methods The Chinese version of the OCI-R was administered to both a non-clinical sample (209 undergraduate students) and a clinical sample (56 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients). Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the construct validity of the OCI-R in the non-clinical sample. The internal consistency at baseline and test-retest reliabilities at 4-week interval was examined in both the non-clinical and clinical samples. Results The confirmatory factor analysis of the non-clinical sample confirmed a 6-factor model suggested by the original authors of the instrument (df = 120, RMSEA = 0.068, CFI = 0.88, NNFI = 0.85, GFI = 0.89). The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were at an acceptable range for both the non-clinical and clinical samples. The OCI-R also showed good clinical discrimination for patients with OCD from healthy controls. Conclusions The Chinese version of the OCI-R is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring OCD symptoms in the Chinese context.
Objective This study examined the effects of chronic focal lesions to the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) on neuropsychological test performance and self-reported executive functioning in everyday living. Methods Fourteen adults with OFC lesions were compared to 10 patients with LPFC injuries and 21 healthy controls. Neuropsychological tests with emphasis on measures of cognitive executive function were administered along with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-A) and a psychiatric screening instrument. Results The LPFC group differed from healthy controls on neuropsychological tests of sustained mental effort, response inhibition, working memory and mental switching, while the BRIEF-A provided more clinically important information on deficits in everyday life in the OFC group compared to the LPFC group. Correlations between neuropsychological test results and BRIEF-A were weak, while the BRIEF-A correlated strongly with emotional distress. Conclusions It was demonstrated that LPFC damage is particularly prone to cause cognitive executive deficit, while OFC injury is more strongly associated with self-reported dysexecutive symptoms in everyday living. The study illustrates the challenge of identifying executive deficit in individual patients and the lack of strong anatomical specificity of the currently employed methods. There is a need for an integrative methodological approach where standard testing batteries are supplemented with neuropsychiatric and frontal-specific rating scales.
L?VSTAD, M.; FUNDERUD, I.; ENDESTAD, T.; DUE-T?NNESSEN, P.; MELING, T. R.; LINDGREN, M.; KNIGHT, R. T.; SOLBAKK, A. K.
PURPOSE. This study explored the relationship between self-reported mental health symptoms and help-seeking behaviors of active-duty Air Force members. DESIGN AND METHODS. Mixed-methods approach reviewed 200 postdeployment surveys from active-duty members assigned to Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, USA. Chi-square analysis examined significance between self-reporting mental health problems and accessing treatment. FINDINGS. As the rate of self-reported mental health symptoms increased, active-duty members were less inclined to seek help. There were inconsistencies among gender for self-reporting and accessing services. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. Air Force psychiatric nurses need to be at the forefront of outreach services when treating combat-stressed troops. PMID:19780997
The present study examined the relationship between self-reported behavioural inhibition and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of 152 children aged 12-14 years. Children were provided with a definition of behavioural inhibition and then asked to classify themselves as low, middle or high on behavioural inhibition. Furthermore, children completed questionnaires of worry, depression and anxiety symptoms. Results showed that children who
P. Muris; H. Merckelbach; I. Wessel; M. van de Ven
This study seeks to develop a reliable self-report instrument to assess obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in young people. The children's Obsessional Compulsive Inventory had good internal consistency, criterion validity and was significantly correlated with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. This preliminary new measure could…
Brief self-reportsymptom checklists are often used to screen for postconcussional disorder (PCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are highly susceptible to symptom exaggeration. This study examined the utility of the five-item Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms Scale (mBIAS) designed for use with the Neurobehavioral SymptomInventory (NSI) and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C). Participants were 85 Australian undergraduate students who completed a battery of self-report measures under one of three experimental conditions: control (i.e., honest responding, n?=?24), feign PCD (n?=?29), and feign PTSD (n?=?32). Measures were the mBIAS, NSI, PCL-C, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), and the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS). Participants instructed to feign PTSD and PCD had significantly higher scores on the mBIAS, NSI, PCL-C, and MMPI-2-RF than did controls. Few differences were found between the feign PCD and feign PTSD groups, with the exception of scores on the NSI (feign PCD > feign PTSD) and PCL-C (feign PTSD > feign PCD). Optimal cutoff scores on the mBIAS of ?8 and ?6 were found to reflect "probable exaggeration" (sensitivity = .34; specificity = 1.0; positive predictive power, PPP = 1.0; negative predictive power, NPP = .74) and "possible exaggeration" (sensitivity = .72; specificity = .88; PPP = .76; NPP = .85), respectively. Findings provide preliminary support for the use of the mBIAS as a tool to detect symptom exaggeration when administering the NSI and PCL-C. PMID:23419145
Lange, Rael T; Edmed, Shannon L; Sullivan, Karen A; French, Louis M; Cooper, Douglas B
This manual is a guide to the Work Temperament Inventory (WTI), a self-report measure of 12 work temperaments that were originally identified and defined by the U.S. Department of Labor. The WTI consists of 134 items requiring a simple "like" or "dislike" response and a reading level of seventh grade. It can be completed in 15 to 20 minutes using…
The validity of self-report binge eating instruments among individuals with limited literacy is uncertain. This study aims to evaluate reading grade level and multiple domains of comprehension of 13 commonly used self-report assessments of binge eating for use in low-literacy populations. We evaluated self-report binge eating measures with respect to reading grade levels, measure length, formatting and linguistic problems. Results: All measures were written at a reading grade level higher than is recommended for patient materials (above the 5th to 6th grade level), and contained several challenging elements related to comprehension. Correlational analyses suggested that readability and comprehension elements were distinct contributors to measure difficulty. Individuals with binge eating who have low levels of educational attainment or limited literacy are often underrepresented in measure validation studies. Validity of measures and accurate assessment of symptoms depends on an individual's ability to read and comprehend instructions and items, and these may be compromised in populations with lower levels of literacy.
Richards, Lauren K.; McHugh, R. Kathryn; Pratt, Elizabeth M.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather
The convergent validity of select clinical scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist-Youth Self-report was evaluated in a sample of 188 adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Clinical scales of the MMPI (Scales 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 0) and of the Youth Self-report subscales of Somatic Complaints, Depressed, Aggressive, Delinquent, Thought Disorder, and Unpopular were selected for comparison based on their conceptual similarity. The extent to which scores for self-reported behavior on the Youth Self-report converged with scores on related clinical scales of the MMPI was evaluated by correlations and multiple regression. Concurrent validity for most comparisons between similar scales of the two measures was indicated and support the validity of the Youth Self-report as a self-report measure with an heterogeneous clinical sample of adolescents. The results establish a clear link between self-reported behaviors on the Youth Self-report and scores obtained on the select MMPI clinical scales which would conceptually be associated with those behaviors. PMID:9009754
The quality of life (QOL) of individuals with well-controlled epilepsy (WCE) is often not considered. We therefore investigated predictors determining QOL in patients who had been seizure free at least 1 year on stable antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy. They were asked to complete self-report health questionnaires, including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Adverse Event Profile (AEP), and Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-31 (QOLIE-31). We looked for predictors of QOLIE-31 scores among the various demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors and BDI, and AEP scores. Depression symptoms were manifested by 18.7% of patients. People with depression symptoms were more likely to report adverse events than those without depression symptoms. The strongest predictor of QOL was BDI score, followed by AEP total score, years of education, and income. BDI score had 3.37 times the effect of AEP total score. In conclusion, QOL of patients with WCE is determined mainly by depressive symptoms. PMID:21354863
Background Given ecstasy’s (MDMA) potential serotonergic neurotoxicity, it is plausible that regular ecstasy users would have an elevated prevalence of behavioral executive dysfunction or mood symptoms. However, recent studies have found that the relationship between ecstasy use and psychological symptoms was no longer significant after controlling for marijuana use (e.g., Morgan et al., 2002). The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between ecstasy exposure and self-reported executive functioning and psychological symptoms after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and other drug use. Methods Data were collected from 65 men and women with a wide range of ecstasy use (including 17 marijuana-using controls). Participants were administered the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for adults, and the Beck Depression Inventory-2nd Edition. Results Although 19–63% of the ecstasy users demonstrated clinically elevated psychological symptoms, frequency of ecstasy use did not predict the psychological symptoms. No gender differences or interactions were observed. Conclusions These results revealed that, although ecstasy users demonstrate elevated levels of psychological symptoms and executive dysfunction, these symptoms are not statistically associated with their ecstasy consumption. Instead, other drug use (alcohol, marijuana, opioids, and inhalants) significantly predict psychological symptoms in this sample of polydrug users.
Understanding and prediction of veridical somatic complaints not caused by disease, dysfunction, trauma, or toxin, requires the assessment of at least two critical variables: predisposition to respond to stressors with peripheral physiological activation; and intensity/frequency/duration of stressors. The Autonomic Nervous System Response Inventory (ANSRI) and the Daily Stress Inventory (DSI) were used to assess these variables, and somatic complaints were recorded using the Wahler Physical SymptomsInventory (WPSI). Subjects were 72 healthy undergraduates who completed the inventories and reported illness and medication usage over a 2 week period. Regression analyses showed that ANSRI, DSI, illness, and medication accounted for 35% of the variance in somatic complaints, though only ANSRI and DSI contributed significantly. Neuroticism (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire) did not add to R2, but did influence stressors' subjective impact. The correlation between regression equation-generated WPSI scores (derivation sample) and actual WPSI scores (holdout sample) was 0.59. A discriminant function analysis equation (derivation sample) applied to the holdout sample correctly classified 80% of the upper and lower third WPSI subjects. It was concluded that the ANSRI and DSI, and the variables they assess, are substantially related to the self-report of somatic complaints. PMID:8463988
The objective of this study was to determine associations between displayed depression symptoms on Facebook and self-reported depression symptoms using a clinical screen. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduates from two universities were examined for displayed depression references. Profiles were categorized as depression symptom displayers or non-displayers. Participants completed an online PHQ-9 depression scale. Analyses examined associations between PHQ-9 score and depression symptom displayers versus non-displayers. The mean PHQ-9 score for non-displayers was 4.7 (SD?=?4.0), the mean PHQ-9 score for depression symptom displayers was 6.4 (SD?=?5.1; p?=?0.018). A trend approaching significance was noted that participants who scored into a depression category by their PHQ-9 score were more likely to display depression symptom references. Displayed references to depression symptoms were associated with self-reported depression symptoms. PMID:21863354
This study investigates the relationship between perceived motivational climates and self-reported emotional and behavioural problems (EBP: symptoms of depression, lack of on-task-orientation and disruptive behaviour), among 1171 Norwegian 8th grade secondary school students from 65 school classes. Statistical analyses showed significant…
We investigated whether symptom overreporting affects the dose-response relationship between self-reported abuse severity and psychiatric symptoms in two samples. The first sample (N=599) consisted of adults who had previously reported to a public commission that they had been witnesses to or victims of childhood sexual abuse by Roman Catholic Church representatives. The second sample (N=1756) consisted of general population respondents who indicated that they had been victims of non-familial childhood sexual abuse. Using a web-based data collection procedure, both samples completed the Brief SymptomInventory (BSI-18), items addressing abuse severity, and items flagging symptom overreporting. Adjusting for overreporting reduced the proportion of participants with clinically raised BSI-18 scores from 60% to 47% in sample 1 and from 26% to 22% in sample 2. Also, in both samples, normal range reporting participants exhibited the typical dose-response relationship between trauma severity and BSI-18 scores, whereas this pattern was largely non-significant in overreporting participants. Our findings show that symptom overreporting has a psychometric impact that may obscure relationships between clinically relevant variables and should therefore preferably be monitored in surveys. PMID:24704260
Merckelbach, Harald; Langeland, Willie; de Vries, Gerard; Draijer, Nel
Assessment of workplace physical exposures by self-reported questionnaires has logistical advantages in population studies but is subject to exposure misclassification. This study measured agreement between eight self-reported and observer-rated physical exposures to the hands and wrists, and evaluated predictors of inter-method agreement. Workers (n=341) from three occupational categories (clerical/technical, construction, and service) completed self-administered questionnaires and worksite assessments. Analyses compared self-reported and observed ratings using a weighted kappa coefficient. Personal and psychosocial factors, presence of upper extremity symptoms and job type were evaluated as predictors of agreement. Weighted kappa values were substantial for lifting (0.67) and holding vibrating tools (0.61), moderate for forceful grip (0.58) and fair to poor for all other exposures. Upper extremity symptoms did not predict greater disagreement between self-reported and observed exposures. Occupational category was the only significant predictor of inter-method agreement. Self-reported exposures may provide a useful estimate of some work exposures for population studies.
An interest in early identification of youth who may be at risk of psychopathy has generated measures for age-appropriate screening and assessment. This study examines the structural, concurrent, and divergent validity of the Psychopathy Content Scale, a 20-item self-report instrument derived from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). Data for 481 youths who had taken the MACI, the Child Behavior
Objectives: To present the prevalence of selfreported musculoskeletal diseases, the coexistence of these diseases, the test-retest reliability with six months in between, and the association with musculoskeletal pain symptoms. Methods: Twelve layman descriptions of common musculoskeletal diseases were part of the questionnaires of a prospective cohort study of a random sample in the general Dutch population aged 25 years or more (baseline: n=3664, follow up after six months: n=2338). Data collection also included information about pain relating to five different anatomical areas. Results: Osteoarthritis of the knee (men 10.1%, women 13.6%) was amongst the most reported musculoskeletal diseases, whereas the figures for selfreported rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were 1.6% and 4.6% for men and women, respectively. The coexistence of these diseases is high: 47 of the 66 combinations were reported more often than would be expected if they were independent of each other (p<0.05). For most diseases the test-retest reliability was good (? between 0.6 and 0.8), but for repetitive strain injury (?=0.37) and chronic arthritis other than RA (?=0.44) the agreement was fair to moderate. All complaints of pain were more often reported by those with musculoskeletal diseases than those without those diseases, and the pain pattern was disease-specific. Conclusions: Selfreported musculoskeletal diseases are highly prevalent, with a fair to good reliability and a disease-specific pain pattern. Health surveys are a limited but valuable source of information for this group of health problems, which is not available from most other sources of information.
Construal of the self as independent or interdependent in relation to others has been found to correlate significantly with social anxiety symptom ratings, raising concerns about possible cultural bias in these measures for Asian Americans. To investigate the validity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms, we examined the role of ethnicity in the associations among social anxiety, self-construal, and adaptive social
Objective Although several self-report versions of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) have been developed and used widely, few psychometric studies have established the construct validity of this measure. Therefore, we developed Korean self-report version of the Y-BOCS and evaluated its factor structure, reliability, and validity. Methods A non-clinical student sample (n=206) and a clinical OCD sample (n=199) completed the Korean self-report version and other measures of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, and anxiety. Results Consistent with the originally proposed structure, confirmatory factor analyses supported a factor structure comprised of Obsessions and Compulsions factors in the Korean self-report version. Two subscale scores and the total score of the Korean self-report version showed good internal consistency and convergent validity, but relatively poor discriminant validity. Applying a cutoff score of 16, 84% of OCD patients and 93% of the non-clinical sample were classified correctly. Conclusion Korean self-report version of the Y-BOCS is a psychometrically sound and valid measure for assessing OCD symptoms as compared with the clinician-administered version. The originally proposed division of OCD severity into obsessions and compulsions appears accurate in the Korean self-report version. The cutoff score for the Korean self-report version needs adjustment based on further researches.
This study explored the personality correlates of substance use by administering a questionnaire consisting of the Mini Markers Scale and items assessing substance abuse to 108 high school students and 155 college students. The Mini Markers Scale is a 40 item self-reportinventory that measures basic dimensions of personality, including…
This study examined the relationship between 4 self-report multicultural counseling competence measures and a general index of social desirability. The authors also investigated the association between these 4 multicultural scales and multicultural case conceptualization ability. Results revealed significant positive relationships between 3 of the 4 multicultural counseling competence inventories and a measure of social desirability attitudes. Additionally, after controlling for
This paper examines empirical links between sexual orientation and self-reported lying using data collected in several waves\\u000a of Georgia Institute of Technology’s World Wide Web Users Survey. The data include questions about sexual orientation, lying\\u000a in cyberspace, and a broad range of demographic information. According to the theoretical framework of Gneezy (Am Econ Rev\\u000a 95: 384–395, 2005) on the economics
The scientific investigation of the relationship between resources and retirement well-being is impeded by the lack of proper measurement of resources. This study reports on the development of an inventory that assesses resources relevant to retirement well-being. The 35-item Retirement Resources Inventory (RRI) is a self-report measure consisting…
The Academic Skills Inventory (Kruger and Zechmeister, 2001) was developed at Loyola University of Chicago and originally designed for use with psychology majors. It was later extended for use in a variety of academic programs. The Academic Skills Inventory (ASI) assesses student self-reports of behaviors in 10 skill areas: (1) written and oral…
Seifert, Kyle; Hurney, Carol A.; Wigtil, Clifton J.; Sundre, Donna L.
Background Maternal periodontal disease diagnosed by a detailed oral health examination is associated with preeclampsia. Our objective was to measure the association between maternal self-report of oral symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, and/or dental service utilization prior to or during pregnancy and severe preeclampsia. Methods A written questionnaire was administered to pregnant women at the time of prenatal ultrasound, and outcomes ascertained by chart abstraction. Chi square test compared maternal oral symptoms/problems, hygiene practices, and dental service utilization between women with severe preeclampsia versus normotensive women. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for severe preeclampsia. Results: 48 (10%) of 470 women reported ? 2 oral symptoms/problems in the 6 months prior to pregnancy and 77 (16%) since pregnancy. 51(11%) reported prior periodontal treatment. 28 (6%) of 470 developed severe preeclampsia. Women with a history of periodontal treatment were more likely to develop severe preeclampsia (aOR, 95%CI: 3.71, 1.40-9.83) than women without a prior history of periodontal treatment. Self-reported oral health symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, or dental service utilization prior to or during pregnancy were not associated with severe preeclampsia when considered in the context of other maternal risk factors. Conclusion: Maternal selfreport of previous periodontal treatment prior to pregnancy is associated with severe preeclampsia.
Boggess, Kim A.; Berggren, Erica K.; Koskenoja, Viktoria; Urlaub, Diana; Lorenz, Carol
Background Fibromyalgia is a syndrome with heterogeneous symptoms. The evaluation in the clinical setting usually fails to cover the complexity of the syndrome. This study aims to determine how different aspects of fibromyalgia are inter-related when measured by means of a self-reporting tool. The objective is to develop a more complete evaluation model adjusted to the complexity and multi-dimensional nature of the syndrome. Methods Application was made of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Brief Pain Inventory, the Fatigue Assessment Scale, the Health Assessment Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory, the Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale and the Sleep Quality Scale. An assessment was made, on the basis of clinical interviews, case histories and specific tests, of the patient sociodemographic data, comorbidity, physical exploration and other clinical indexes. An exploratory factor analysis was made, with comparisons of the clinical index scores in extreme groups of patients. Results The ICAF composed of 59 items was obtained, offering four factors that explain 64% of the variance, and referred to as Emotional Factor (33.7%), Physical-Activity (15%), Active Coping (9%) and Passive Coping (6.3%). A t-test between the extreme scores of these factors in the 301 patients revealed statistically significant differences in occupational status, medically unexplained syndromes, number of tender points, the six-minutes walk test, comorbidity and health care costs. Conclusions This study offers a tool allowing more complete and rapid evaluation of patients with fibromyalgia. The test intrinsically evaluates the emotional aspects: anxiety and depression, and their impact upon social aspects. It also evaluates patient functional capacity, fatigue, sleep quality, pain, and the way in which the patient copes with the disease. This is achieved by means of a self-assessment questionnaire based on elements from well known tests.
The current study investigated the 18-month stability of self-reported psychopathic traits measured through the Youth Psychopathic\\u000a traits Inventory–Child Version (YPI-CV) and their concurrent and prospective associations with conduct problems and aggression\\u000a in a sample of 9–12 year olds (n?=?159, 52% boys) from the community. Self-reported psychopathy scores were moderately to highly stable and traits were positively\\u000a related to conduct problems both
Yoast van Baardewijk; Robert Vermeiren; Hedy Stegge; Theo Doreleijers
The authors describe the development and preliminary validation of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory, a self-report measurement of math-related stereotype threat among women. A preliminary version of the instrument was administered to 308 undergraduate women. Principal component analysis yielded a 3-factor solution. Convergent and…
Pseekos, A. Chantelle; Dahlen, Eric R.; Levy, Jacob J.
Objective?To examine heart rate (HR) responses to and coping with stress in children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), anxiety, and healthy controls.?Methods?A clinical sample (children with RAP and children with anxiety) was compared to control children on self-reported and HR responses to stress and a laboratory test of pain tolerance and intensity (cold pressor).?Results?Children in the clinical sample had elevated HRs compared to healthy controls before, during, and after laboratory tasks. Self-reported stress reactivity to social stress was positively correlated with HR at all study time intervals. Secondary control coping with social stress was negatively correlated with HR at most study time intervals. Internalizing symptoms were positively correlated with HR and self-reported stress reactivity.?Conclusions?Stress reactivity, as reflected in both self-reported and HR responses to laboratory stressors, is related to the presence of both RAP and anxiety in children.
Dunn, Madeleine J.; Slosky, Laura S.; Compas, Bruce E.
The present research expands our understanding of cognitive and affective morality by exploring associations with callous-unemotional (CU) traits and externalizing symptoms. Participants were 46 8- to 12-year-old boys from the community who completed the Affective Morality Index, the Youth Self-Report, and the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits. A pattern of results was found indicating that in particular the combination of high CU traits and high externalizing symptoms was associated with lack of affective morality, and an increased perceived likelihood of recommitting antisocial acts (recidivism). The implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:23378186
Feilhauer, Johanna; Cima, Maaike; Benjamins, Caroline; Muris, Peter
Juvenile sex offenders (JSO) are a specific subset of delinquent adolescents that are receiving more attention because of the crimes they commit and the issues surrounding how to successfully treat their deviant behaviors. Given JSO are such predominant treatment concerns in society, it is essential to identify and target key risk factors. One sexual behavior, bestiality, may be of particular importance to address in treatment. In a meta-analysis conducted by Seto and Lalumiere, a 14% rate of bestiality among JSO was reported. This current study examined the differences in JSO (n = 32) who admitted bestiality based upon a self-report measure, the Multiphasic Sexual Inventory-II (MSI-II), compared to information elicited by polygraphs. The results indicated extensive underreporting of bestiality behaviors between these two sources of information (MSI-II = 37.5%; polygraph = 81.25%). These findings are important given the reliance treatment programs place on information elicited from self-report tools. PMID:24502368
Schenk, Allison M; Cooper-Lehki, Christi; Keelan, Colleen M; Fremouw, William J
An interest in early identification of youth who may be at risk of psychopathy has generated measures for age-appropriate screening and assessment. This study examines the structural, concurrent, and divergent validity of the Psychopathy Content Scale, a 20-item self-report instrument derived from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). Data for 481 youths who had taken the MACI, the Child Behavior Checklist Youth Self-Report (YSR), and the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument, Second Version (MAYSI-2), were analyzed. Results showed that the PCS is best described by a two-factor model and that analyses of the two factors offer limited support for convergent and divergent validity. High scores on both factors were associated with high YSR and MAYSI-2 scales, suggesting that the measure identified youth who were distressed on several measures of emotional, psychological, and behavioral disorder. PMID:14963881
Lexcen, Frances J; Vincent, Gina M; Grisso, Thomas
To further investigate the long-term impact of pre-adoption adversity on international adoptees, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a self-report measure at school-age in addition to mothers' reports. The sample consisted of 95 adopted children and their mothers. Children's health and developmental status were assessed soon after arrival in their adoptive family. At age 7, the Dominic Interactive, a self-report measure, was used to evaluate externalizing and internalizing symptoms while mothers completed the CBCL. Children's self-reports were compared to their non-adopted peers'. Adopted children reported more symptoms of specific phobia than their peers. A significant correlation was found between mothers' and children's reports but only for externalizing symptoms. Self-reportedsymptoms were related to indices of nutritional and psychosocial deprivation at arrival, such as low height/age and weight/height ratios. Our results emphasize the importance of considering international adoptees' perception of their psychological adjustment and the long-term impact of early risk factors. PMID:22222488
The objective of this study was to assess the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and the relation between psychological symptoms and drug use severity, among 117 Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment. Psychological symptoms were assessed via both adolescent self-report and parent report. Drug use was assessed using both adolescent self-report and urinalysis. Results showed that 58%
Gary M. Diamond; Miriam C. Izzard; Tami Kedar; Anat Hutlzer; Haim Mell
Background: This study examined parent\\/youth self-report agreement on emotional and behavioral symptoms among adolescents with eating disorders (ED). Sampling and Methods: Eighty-three parent-adolescent pairs participated. All adolescents (age 11–18 years) were females and met diagnostic criteria according to the DSM-IV for anorexia nervosa restricting type (n = 53) or bulimia nervosa (n = 30). Diagnoses were confirmed using the Structured
Harriet Salbach-Andrae; Nora Klinkowski; Klaus Lenz; Ernst Pfeiffer; Ulrike Lehmkuhl; Stefan Ehrlich
Little is known about the quantity or quality of residual depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who have responded but not remitted with antidepressant treatment. This report describes the residual symptom domains and individual depressive symptoms in a large representative sample of outpatients with nonpsychotic MDD who responded without remitting after up to 12 weeks of citalopram treatment in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Response was defined as 50% or greater reduction in baseline 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology—Self-Report (QIDS-SR16) by treatment exit, and remission as a final QIDS-SR16 of less than 6. Residual symptom domains and individual symptoms were based on the QIDS-SR16 and classified as either persisting from baseline or emerging during treatment. Most responders who did not remit endorsed approximately 5 residual symptom domains and 6 to 7 residual depressive symptoms. The most common domains were insomnia (94.6%), sad mood (70.8%), and decreased concentration (69.6%). The most common individual symptoms were midnocturnal insomnia (79.0%), sad mood (70.8%), and decreased concentration/decision making (69.6%). The most common treatment-emergent symptoms were midnocturnal insomnia (51.4%) and decreased general interest (40.0%). The most common persistent symptoms were midnocturnal insomnia (81.6%), sad mood (70.8%), and decreased concentration/decision making (70.6%). Suicidal ideation was the least common treatment-emergent symptom (0.7%) and the least common persistent residual symptom (17.1%). These findings suggest that depressed outpatients who respond by 50% without remitting to citalopram treatment have a broad range of residual symptoms. Individualized treatments are warranted to specifically address each patient's residual depressive symptoms.
McClintock, Shawn M.; Husain, Mustafa M.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Cook, Ian; Morris, David; Warden, Diane; Rush, Augustus John
To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72-2.67) among ill group compared to controls (0.58-1.59). We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series. PMID:24431987
Li, Mian; Xu, Changqing; Yao, Wenguo; Mahan, Clare M; Kang, Han K; Sandbrink, Friedhelm; Zhai, Ping; Karasik, Pamela A
To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72–2.67) among ill group compared to controls (0.58–1.59). We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series.
Li, Mian; Xu, Changqing; Yao, Wenguo; Mahan, Clare M.; Kang, Han K.; Sandbrink, Friedhelm; Zhai, Ping; Karasik, Pamela A.
Relationships among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and adult personality traits have not been examined in larger clinically diagnosed samples. We collected multisource ADHD symptom and self-report NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Costa and McCrae [Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc, 1992) data from 117 adults with ADHD and tested symptom-trait associations using structural equation modeling. The final model fit the data. Inattention was positively associated with neuroticism and negatively associated with conscientiousness. On the basis of ADHD expression in adulthood, hyperactivity and impulsivity were estimated as separate constructs and showed differential relationships to extraversion and agreeableness. A significant positive relationship between hyperactivity and conscientiousness arose in the context of other pathways. ADHD symptoms are reliably associated with personality traits, suggesting a complex interplay across development that warrants prospective study into adulthood. PMID:24080671
Knouse, Laura E; Traeger, Lara; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A
The present study assessed the relationship between impulsivity as measured by the Matching Familiar Figures test (MFF) and by the impulsivity (IMP) factor derived from the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory (JEPI) items identified by S. N. Bennet in 1973. (Author/RK)
Impulsivity, often defined as a human behavior characterized by the inclination of an individual to act on urge rather than thought, with diminished regard to consequences, encompasses a range of maladaptive behaviors, which are in turn affected by distinct neural systems. Congruent with the above definition, behavioral studies have consistently shown that the underlying construct of impulsivity is multidimensional in nature. However, research to date has been inconclusive regarding the different domains or constructs that constitute this behavior. In addition there is also no clear consensus as to whether self-report and laboratory based measures of impulsivity measure the same or different domains. This study aimed to: (i) characterize the underlying multidimensional construct of impulsivity using a sample with varying degrees of putative impulsivity related to substance misuse, including subjects who were at-risk of substance use or addicted (ARA), and (ii) assess relationships between self-report and laboratory measures of impulsivity, using a principal component-based factor analysis. In addition, our supplementary goal was to evaluate the structural constructs of impulsivity within each group separately (healthy and ARA). We used five self-report measures (Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System, Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11, Padua Inventory, Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale, and Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire) and two computer-based laboratory tasks (Balloon Analog Risk Task and the Experiential Discounting Task) to measure the aspects of impulsivity in a total of 176 adult subjects. Subjects included healthy controls (n = 89), nonalcoholic subjects with family histories of alcoholism (family history positive; n = 36) and both former (n = 20) and current (n = 31) cocaine users. Subjects with a family history of alcoholism and cocaine abusers were grouped together as 'at-risk/addicted' (ARA) to evaluate our supplementary goal. Our overall results revealed the multidimensional nature of the impulsivity construct as captured optimally through a five-factor solution that accounted for nearly 70% of the total variance. The five factors/components were imputed as follows 'Self-Reported Behavioral Activation', 'Self-Reported Compulsivity and Reward/Punishment', 'Self-Reported Impulsivity', 'Behavioral Temporal Discounting', and 'Behavioral Risk-Taking'. We also found that contrary to previously published reports, there was significant overlap between certain laboratory and self-report measures, indicating that they might be measuring the same impulsivity domain. In addition, our supplemental analysis also suggested that the impulsivity constructs were largely, but not entirely the same within the healthy and ARA groups. PMID:19724194
Meda, Shashwath A; Stevens, Michael C; Potenza, Marc N; Pittman, Brian; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Andrews, Melissa M; Thomas, Andre D; Muska, Christine; Hylton, Jennifer L; Pearlson, Godfrey D
Mobile phones are popular devices that may generate problems for a section of the community. A previous study using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire found that extraverts with low self-esteem reported more problems with their mobile phone use. The present study used the NEO FI and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to predict the selfreported mobile phone use of 112 participants. Multiple regression found that people low on agreeableness were more likely to use their mobile phones to play games. The findings imply an interplay between personality traits and excessive or problematic use on mobile phones that is relevant to proposed innovations such as gambling on mobile phones. PMID:17201601
Phillips, James G; Butt, Sarah; Blaszczynski, Alex
Objective:Longitudinal studies have rarely investigated changes in depressive symptoms and indicators of obesity simultaneously, although it is often proposed that the positive relationship between depression and obesity is bidirectional. The present study examined the reciprocal nature of the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in a 20-year follow-up survey.Methods:Participants of a Finnish cohort study in 1989 at 22 years (N=1656) were followed up at ages 32 (N=1262) and 42 (N=1155) with postal questionnaires. BMI was calculated on the basis of self-reported weight and height, and depressive symptoms were assessed using the short form of the Beck Depression Inventory. Latent growth models (LGM) and cross-lagged autoregressive models were used to determine prospective associations between depressive symptoms and BMI.Results:LGM analyses indicated that men with higher initial levels of depressive symptoms experienced a faster rate of increase in BMI (?=0.20, P<0.01). Among women, change in BMI or depressive symptoms was not predicted by the other construct, but initial levels of BMI and depressive symptoms as well as their rate of change correlated positively with each other (r=0.15 and 0.37, respectively). In cross-lagged models, depressive symptoms at age 32 predicted greater BMI at 42 (?=0.10, P<0.001) among men, whereas women with higher BMI at age 32 were more likely to have more depressive symptoms at 42 (?=0.08, P<0.05).Conclusions:Elevated depressive symptoms predicted weight gain in men, while changes in depressive symptoms and body weight occurred concurrently in women. Tentative evidence showed that women with excess body weight were more likely to have increased symptoms of depression 10 years later. More emphasis should be placed on depressive symptoms in weight control programs as well as on reducing weight-based stigmatization and discrimination in society. PMID:23949617
Failures of episodic retrospective memory (RetM) are among the most frequently reported cognitive complaints endorsed by individuals living with HIV infection. The present study sought to examine the nature, frequency, and determinants of self-reported complaints of prospective memory (ProM) in HIV, which is a singly dissociable and ecologically relevant aspect of episodic memory involving the execution of future intentions. Seventy-five HIV seropositive individuals and 60 seronegative volunteers were administered the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PMRQ) as part of extensive neuropsychological, psychiatric, and medical research assessments. The HIV sample endorsed more frequent ProM complaints in daily life than the seronegative group, particularly on items requiring self-initiated cue detection and retrieval. Within both study groups, ProM complaints were significantly more frequent than RetM complaints. Although the HIV sample was impaired relative to the seronegative group on an objective, performance-based ProM test, self-reported ProM complaints did not correspond to actual ProM abilities. However, greater frequency of self-reported ProM complaints was moderately associated with increased fatigue, as well as with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Consistent with prior research on RetM in HIV, results indicate that affective distress contributes to a metamemory deficit for HIV-associated ProM impairment, which highlights the potential importance of assessing both self-reported and performance-based ProM in clinical and research neuroAIDS evaluations.
Woods, Steven Paul; Carey, Catherine L.; Moran, Lisa M.; Dawson, Matthew S.; Letendre, Scott L.; Grant, Igor
Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) remains poor among heroin users, even after being treated with methadone. Evidence regarding self-reported psychopathology and HRQoL in heroin users is also limited. The present study aimed to investigate the association between self-reported psychopathology and HRQoL in Asian heroin users treated with methadone. Methods Thirty-nine heroin users treated with methadone and 39 healthy controls were recruited. Both groups self-reported on demographic data, the Brief Symptom Rating Scale, EuroQoL-5D, and World Health Organization Questionnaire on Quality of Life: Short Form. We compared clinical characteristics, psychopathology, and HRQoL between the two study groups. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to explore the association between psychopathology and HRQoL in the heroin user group. Results Heroin users had more psychopathology and worse HRQoL than healthy controls. The HRQoL of heroin users had significant correlations with Brief Symptom Rating Scale scores. HRQoL could be predicted by depression, anxiety, paranoia, and additional symptoms (ie, poor appetite and sleep difficulties) independently. Conclusion Self-reported psychopathology, depression, anxiety, paranoia, poor appetite, and sleep difficulties had a negative impact on each domain of HRQoL among heroin users treated with methadone. The importance of the environmental domain of HRQoL is discussed. Clinicians should recognize comorbid psychiatric symptoms early on to improve HRQoL in heroin users.
To further investigate the long-term impact of pre-adoption adversity on international adoptees, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a self-report measure at school-age in addition to mothers' reports. The sample consisted of 95 adopted children and their mothers. Children's health and developmental status were assessed…
Objective: This article evaluates the diagnostic utility of a self-report screening tool for adults based on "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV") ADHD criteria. Method: Children with speech/language (S/L) impairment and typically developing controls had ADHD symptoms rated by parents and teachers at ages 5…
The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate
The series of "Resource Inventories" is designed to encourage wider use of available information and services in the field of special education technology. A resource inventory is provided for each of 46 states of the United States. Each inventory includes directory information on public and private agencies and organizations that offer…
Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Center for Special Education Technology.
Known as MRO for Maintenance, Repair and Operating supplies, Tropicana Products, Inc.'s automated inventory management system is an adaptation of the Shuttle Inventory Management System (SIMS) developed by NASA to assure adequate supply of every item used in support of the Space Shuttle. The Tropicana version monitors inventory control, purchasing receiving and departmental costs for eight major areas of the company's operation.
Self-report continues to be one of the most widely used measurement strategies in psychology despite longstanding concerns about its validity and scientific rigor. In this article, the merits of self-report are examined from a philosophy of science perspective. A framework is also provided for evaluating self-report measures. Specifically, four issues are presented that can be used as a decision aid when making choices about measurement. PMID:20518434
There is a high prevalence of depression in Germany and all over the world. Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been shown in some studies to be associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and low birth weight. The influence of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy on preterm delivery and fetal birth weight was investigated in a prospective single-centre study. A sample of 273 healthy pregnant women was assessed for symptoms of antepartum depression. Symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Symptoms of anxiety were assessed using the State/Trait Anxiety Inventory. Patients who scored above the cutoff were contacted by phone for a Structured Clinical Diagnostic interview. Neonatal measurements were obtained from the birth registry of the Department of Obstetrics. Baseline data were assessed with a self-styled data sheet. Prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was 13.2% when measured with the EPDS and 8.4% with the PHQ. According to DSM-IV criteria, only four (EPDS) respective two (PHQ-D) of these patients could be diagnosed with a depressive disorder and ten (EPDS) respective seven (PHQ) with an anxiety disorder. There was no significant influence on preterm birth or birth weight. Maternal depressive symptoms are self-reported. Elevated subclinical symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy are common. However, this study showed no evidence that these symptoms are associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:23263748
Gawlik, S; Waldeier, L; Müller, M; Szabo, A; Sohn, C; Reck, C
There is a growing appetite for mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that can inform clinical practice at individual and service levels, including use for local and national benchmarking. Despite a varied literature on child mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that focus on psychometric properties alone, no reviews exist that appraise the availability of psychometric evidence and suitability for use in routine practice in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) including key implementation issues. This paper aimed to present the findings of the first review that evaluates existing broadband measures of mental health and wellbeing outcomes in terms of these criteria. The following steps were implemented in order to select measures suitable for use in routine practice: literature database searches, consultation with stakeholders, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, secondary searches and filtering. Subsequently, detailed reviews of the retained measures’ psychometric properties and implementation features were carried out. 11 measures were identified as having potential for use in routine practice and meeting most of the key criteria: 1) Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, 2) Beck Youth Inventories, 3) Behavior Assessment System for Children, 4) Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, 5) Child Health Questionnaire, 6) Child SymptomInventories, 7) Health of the National Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents, 8) Kidscreen, 9) Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 10) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, 11) Youth Outcome Questionnaire. However, all existing measures identified had limitations as well as strengths. Furthermore, none had sufficient psychometric evidence available to demonstrate that they could reliably measure both severity and change over time in key groups. The review suggests a way of rigorously evaluating the growing number of broadband self-report mental health outcome measures against standards of feasibility and psychometric credibility in relation to use for practice and policy.
This study compared rates of self-reported childhood maltreatment in three groups diagnosed using semi-structured interviews: binge eating disorder (BED; n=176), night eating syndrome (NES, n=57), and overweight\\/obese comparison (OC, n=38). We used the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) to assess childhood maltreatment and the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess depression levels. Reports of maltreatment were common in patients with BED (82%),
Kelly C. Allison; Carlos M. Grilo; Robin M. Masheb; Albert J. Stunkard
Self-report methods are commonly applied in medicine and psychology. However, their diagnostic value in assessment of patients with acquired brain damage can be limited due to a number of various difficulties encountered by these patients, including cognitive disorders, fatigue, similarity of psychopathological and somatic symptoms, psychological reaction to the disease and limited or lack of insight (anosognosia). In our article we highlight the most important limitations of application of popular frequently used questionnaires in evaluation of brain-injured patients. We also discuss the possible ways of adjusting self-report techniques to requirements of diagnostic process in this clinical population. Proposed modifications refer to, among others, specific construction of diagnostic tools (appropriate content and number of questions, methods of measuring responses), collecting information from relatives, using questionnaires along with more objective measures, and controlling conditions in which the assessment is carried out. Although relying only on self-report methods can be misleading, for an aware clinician it is still an important source of data on patient's subjective opinion and on the way they experience their symptoms. PMID:23885540
Access to pediatric surgical care is limited in low- and middle-income countries. Barriers must be identified before improvements can be made. This pilot study aimed to identify self-reported barriers to pediatric surgical care in Guatemala. We surveyed 78 families of Guatemalan children with surgical conditions who were seen at a pediatric surgical clinic in Guatemala City. Spanish translators were used to complete questionnaires regarding perceived barriers to surgical care. Surgical conditions included hernias, rectal prolapse, anorectal malformations, congenital heart defects, cryptorchidism, soft tissue masses, and vestibulourethral reflux. Average patient age was 8.2 years (range, 1 month to 17 years) with male predominance (62%). Families reported an average symptom duration of 3.7 years before clinic evaluation. Families traveled a variety of distances to obtain surgical care: 36 per cent were local (less than 10 km), 17 per cent traveled 10 to 50 km, and 47 per cent traveled greater than 50 km. Other barriers to surgery included financial (58.9%), excessive wait time in the national healthcare system (10. 2%), distrust of local surgeons (37.2%), and geographic inaccessibility to surgical care (10.2%). The majority of study patients required outpatient procedures, which could improve their quality of life. Many barriers to pediatric surgical care exist in Guatemala. Interventions to remove these obstacles may enhance access to surgery and benefit children in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24069982
Nguyen, Karissa; Bhattacharya, Syamal D; Maloney, Megan J; Figueroa, Ligia; Taicher, Brad M; Ross, Sherry; Rice, Henry E
This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…
There are multiple approaches to measuring physical activity. Among these are direct observation, electronic monitoring, direct and indirect calorimetry, and self-report instruments. Self-report instruments are the most practical and cost effective option for use with a large group. In a study by Motl, Dishman, Dowda, and Pate (2004), two groups…
Sleep insufficiency is a major public health concern, yet the accuracy of self-reported sleep measures is often poor. Self-report may be useful when direct measurement of nonverbal behavior is impossible, infeasible, or undesirable, as it may be with sleep measurement. We used feedback and positive reinforcement within a small-n multiple-baseline…
St. Peter, Claire C.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.; Massullo, Joel P.
Self-reports figure prominently in organizational and management research, but there are several problems associated with their use. This article identifies six categories of self-reports and discusses such problems as common method variance, the consistency motif, and social desirability. Statistical and post hoc remedies and some procedural methods for dealing with artifactual bias are presented and evaluated. Recommendations for future research
How Accurate are Perceptions of Learning. * Adult Learning Theory: Engage in self-assessment - Direct own learning * Past research on self-report skills and ability * Current study is a meta-analysis to assess the meaning of self-reported learning data.
Background This study examined the effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on quality of life (QOL) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and clinically significant executive function deficits (EFD). Methods This report highlights QOL findings from a 10-week randomized placebo-controlled trial of LDX (30–70 mg/d) in adults (18–55 years) with ADHD and EFD (Behavior Rating Inventory of EF-Adult, Global Executive Composite [BRIEF-A GEC] ?65). The primary efficacy measure was the self-reported BRIEF-A; a key secondary measure was self-reported QOL on the Adult ADHD Impact Module (AIM-A). The clinician-completed ADHD Rating Scale version IV (ADHD-RS-IV) with adult prompts and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) were also employed. The Adult ADHD QoL (AAQoL) was added while the study was in progress. A post hoc analysis examined the subgroup having evaluable results from both AIM-A and AAQoL. Results Of 161 randomized (placebo, 81; LDX, 80), 159 were included in the safety population. LDX improved AIM-A multi-item domain scores versus placebo; LS mean difference for Performance and Daily Functioning was 21.6 (ES, 0.93, P<.0001); Impact of Symptoms: Daily Interference was 14.9 (ES, 0.62, P<.0001); Impact of Symptoms: Bother/Concern was 13.5 (ES, 0.57, P=.0003); Relationships/Communication was 7.8 (ES, 0.31, P=.0302); Living With ADHD was 9.1 (ES, 0.79, P<.0001); and General Well-Being was 10.8 (ES, 0.70, P<.0001). AAQoL LS mean difference for total score was 21.0; for subscale: Life Productivity was 21.0; Psychological Health was 12.1; Life Outlook was 12.5; and Relationships was 7.3. In a post hoc analysis of participants with both AIM-A and AAQoL scores, AIM-A multi-item subgroup analysis scores numerically improved with LDX, with smaller difference for Impact of Symptoms: Daily Interference. The safety profile of LDX was consistent with amphetamine use in previous studies. Conclusions Overall, adults with ADHD/EFD exhibited self-reported improvement on QOL, using the AIM-A and AAQoL scales in line with medium/large ES; these improvements were paralleled by improvements in EF and ADHD symptoms. The safety profile of LDX was similar to previous studies. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01101022
Several previous studies have examined the correspondence between self-reports and the delayed identity match-to-sample performance they supposedly described. The present two experiments used similar procedures to explore different characteristics of the self-reports. In both studies, match-to-sample responses were successful (earned points) if they were both correct and faster than a time limit. Following each response, a computer-presented query asked whether the response had been successful, and subjects replied by pressing a “Yes” or “No” button. Experiment 1 analyzed self-report latencies from a previously-published study (Critchfield, 1993a). Latencies generally were longer for self-reports of failure than for self-reports of success. In Experiment 1, a “Yes” or “No” self-report was required to advance the session. In Experiment 2, self-reports were optional. In addition to “Yes” and “No” buttons, subjects could press a third button (a “nondisclosure” option) to remove the self-report query without providing a “Yes” or “No” answer. Across a range of conditions, nondisclosures always occurred more frequently after match-to-sample failures than after successes (i.e., under conditions in which a self-report of failure would be appropriate). The effects observed in the two experiments are consistent with a history of differential punishment for uncomplimentary self-reports, which casual observation and some descriptive studies suggest is a common experience in United States culture. The research necessary to explore this notion should produce data that are of interest to psychologists both within and outside of Behavior Analysis.
The Work Personality Profile-SelfReport (WPP-SR) is a self-report work behavior instrument for use in situational assessment in work centers, comprehensive facilities, and employment settings. The WPP-SR assesses work attitudes, values, habits, and behaviors that are essential to the achievement and maintenance of employment. It consists of 58…
The authors evaluated the association between lead burden and psychiatric symptoms and its potential modification by a ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism. Lead measurements in blood or bone and self-reported ratings on the Brief SymptomInventory from 1991 to 2002 were available for 1,075 US men participating in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Normative Aging Study. The authors estimated the prevalence odds ratio for the association between interquartile-range lead and abnormal symptom score, adjusting for potential confounders. An interquartile increment in tibia lead (14 µg/g) was associated with 21% higher odds of somatization (95% confidence interval of the odds ratio: 1.01, 1.46). An interquartile increment in patella lead (20 µg/g) corresponded to a 23% increase in the odds of global distress (95% confidence interval of the odds ratio: 1.02, 1.47). An interquartile increment in blood lead (2.8 µg/dl) was associated with 14% higher odds of hostility (95% confidence interval of the odds ratio: 1.02, 1.27). In all other analyses, lead was nonsignificantly associated with psychiatric symptoms. The adverse association of lead with abnormal mood scores was generally stronger among ALAD 1-1 carriers than 1-2/2-2 carriers, particularly regarding phobic anxiety symptoms (pinteraction= 0.004). These results augment evidence of a deleterious association between lead and psychiatric symptoms.
Rajan, Pradeep; Kelsey, Karl T.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Bellinger, David C.; Weuve, Jennifer; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Smith, Thomas J.; Nie, Huiling; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) and Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) are frequently used objective personality self-report measures. Given their widespread use, the purpose of the current study was to examine and compare the literature base for the two instruments. A comprehensive review of the…
Baum, Linda J.; Archer, Robert P.; Forbey, Johnathan D.; Handel, Richard W.
A science kit inventory introduces students to tools and vocabulary, paving the way for successful science experiences. While it is an effective strategy for all students, it is especially useful for English Learners. This article describes how kit inventories are conducted and what role each step plays in both conceptual development and the internalization of academic vocabulary.
Garrison, Leslie; Duron-Flores, Mercedes; Amaral, Olga
Patients with schizophrenia often present sleep complaints, but its relationship with general satisfaction with life (SWL) and burden for caregivers has been understudied. We aimed to assess the differences in SWL between patients with and without self-reported sleep disturbances and that of their caregivers. In a noninterventional study, 811 schizophrenia adult outpatients were screened for their subjective perception of having (or not) sleep disturbances and evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Patients self-reporting sleep disturbances were significantly more symptomatic (P < 0.001), presented significantly worse family support (P = 0.0236), and self-reported worse SWL in all domains. Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia self-reporting sleep disturbances also reported worse SWL in all domains, as compared to caregivers of patients without subjective sleep disturbances. Patient and caregivers' SWL was significantly correlated to patients' quality of sleep (P < 0.0001 for all domains). Patient' and caregivers' SWL was negatively affected by patients' poor quality of sleep. We found that patients self-reporting sleep disturbances showed greater symptom severity, worse quality of sleep, worse SWL, and less caregiver support. SWL was also worse for caregivers of patients with schizophrenia reporting sleep disturbances.
Ascertaining the symptom experience of chronically critically ill (CCI) patients is difficult because of communication impairment and fluctuations in patient cognition and physiologic conditions. The use of checklist self-report ratings is hampered by the inability of most CCI patients to respond verbally to symptom queries. In addition to the communication problems caused by mechanical ventilation, the apparently diverse idioms of symptom expression add to the potential for miscommunication regarding symptom experience. Although patient communication impairment is a major barrier to symptom identification, symptom assessment and treatment are fundamental components of nursing care for CCI. This article reviews and describes the unique constellation of symptoms experienced by many critically ill patients. We report our observations of symptom communication among CCI patients and nurses and discuss inconsistency in the language of symptom expression among nurses and patients. Clinically applicable strategies to improve nurse-patient symptom communication and suggestions for refinement of symptom assessment in chronic critical illness are provided. PMID:20118706
There is growing interest in the use of the Internet for interacting with patients, both in terms of healthcare information provision and information gathering. In this article, we examine the issues in designing healthcare websites for elderly users. In particular, this article uses a year-long case study of the development of a web-based system for self-reporting of symptoms and quality of life with a view to examine the issues relating to website design for elderly users. The issues identified included the technical, social and medical aspects of website design for elderly users. The web-based system developed was based on the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions health-status questionnaire, a commonly used tool for patient self-reporting of quality of life, and the more specific coronary revascularisation outcome questionnaire. Currently, self-reporting is generally administered in the form of paper-based questionnaires to be completed in the outpatient clinic or at home. There are a variety of issues relating to elderly users, which imply that websites for elderly patients may involve different design considerations to other types of websites. PMID:24047573
Taylor, Mark J; Stables, Rod; Matata, Bashir; Lisboa, Paulo Jg; Laws, Andy; Almond, Peter
By establishing clear inventory ordering targets and following the guidelines outlined in this column, the staff member handling the process will understand the high and low levels of inventory control and be able to maintain an accurate system. Inventory control represents approximately 6 to 8 percent of practice purchasing. The main goal of the advice in this column is not to reduce the cost, unless there is waste involved, but rather to establish a process that allows the practice to purchase supplies on a regular basis, avoid mistakes and maintain a steady expense level. PMID:15493397
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is increasingly being studied in nonclinical samples. The self-report instruments used to select these samples, however, have not been validated with a diagnostic interview. This study thus investigated the predictive validity of the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (ADIS), a semi-structured interview created according to DSM-III guidelines. Four sections of the ADIS--generalized anxiety disorder, simple phobia, social phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder--were administered to 11 individuals who scored in the top 2% and 11 individuals who scored in the normal range of the MOCI 6-7 months prior to the interview. High nonclinical MOCI scorers reported more frequent and severe obsessions and compulsions as well as greater disturbance by these symptoms. In addition, the high MOCI group experienced more general worry and interference from worry, and more frequent and severe physiological symptoms when they worry. However, the two groups did not differ in terms of simple and social phobia symptoms. High MOCI scorers thus did not report a broad range of anxiety symptoms or fears, but specific obsessions and compulsions. These results provide further support for the validity of the MOCI in nonclinical samples over a 6-7 month interval. PMID:2222391
Examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in an African American female college student sample (n=78) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI2) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). MMPI-2 was a more conservative scale than BDI in identifying depressive symptom levels. Discusses stress inoculation methods to assist…
Beck Depression Inventory (BD1) has become a commonly used instrument in multicentre and International clinical trials to assess depression. Existing self- report measures of depression such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) has been widely used In Western countries and therefore a translated version of the Instrument Is required for the assessment of the local population study since the study
This review focused on the Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment (BYI) [Beck, J., Beck, A., & Jolly, J. (2001). Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment manual. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation]. The BYI were designed as self-report instruments for assessing maladaptive cognitions and behaviors of…
The goal of this study was to develop a self-reportinventory that measures individual differences in the perceived value of mathematical literacy for general education students. The Mathematics Value Inventory (MVI) is grounded in the Eccles et al. model of achievement-related choices and surveys students' beliefs in four areas: interest, general…
Luttrell, Vickie R.; Callen, Bruce W.; Allen, Charles S.; Wood, Mark D.; Deeds, Donald G.; Richard, David C. S.
Memory complaints have not correlated well with tests of memory. However, given self-report questions, which tap processes of everyday remembering. sixty volunteers aged 21-84 years adequately rated their memory competence. Categorized into four memory processes, self-report and six tests of verbal, faces, story and nonverbal auditory, visual, and tactual memory ,were canonically correlated (r = 0.67) and both sets of
The use of behavioural self-reports of drug users is widespread among studies of illicit drug use. Despite widespread use, concerns about the accuracy of these reports continue to be raised. The current paper critically reviews the literature on the reliability and validity of self-reported drug use, criminality and HIV risk-taking among injecting drug users. The literature shows respectable reliability and
Self-report is an efficient and accepted means of assessing many population characteristics, risk factors, and diseases, but has rarely been used for periodontal disease (chronic periodontitis). The availability of valid self-reported measures of periodontal disease would facilitate epidemiologic studies on a much larger scale, allow for integration of new studies of periodontal disease within large ongoing studies, and facilitate lower-cost
The aim of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of self-reports of juvenile offenders on physical factors (e.g. sleep difficulties, weight-related behaviours and weight perceptions), health risk behaviours (e.g. alcohol use), trauma history (e.g. physical and sexual abuse) and psychological factors (e.g. anxiety, suicidal and self-harm behaviours). Self-reports obtained via a Health Questionnaire from 242 incarcerated juvenile offenders
A two-dimensional framework is proposed as a basis for assessing users' self-report responses to website designs. This incorporates two features that have been consistently identified in the psychology and design literatures: (a) a processing sequence and (b) a distinction between cognition and affect. Suggested advantages include increased clarity with regard to the identification of self-report constructs, stronger links to relevant
Steve J. Westerman; Samuel Shaerf; Gareth C. Tuck; Peter H. Gardner
A two-dimensional framework is proposed as a basis for assessing users' self-report responses to web site designs. This incorporates two features that have been consistently identified in the psychology and design literatures: i) a processing sequence; and, ii) a distinction between cognition and affect. Suggested advantages include increased clarity with regard to the identification of self-report constructs, stronger links to
S. J. Westerman; S. Shaerf; G. C. Tuck; P. H. Gardner
This article describes the models and methods that cognitive psychologists and survey researchers use to evaluate and experimentally test cognitive issues in questionnaire design and subsequently improve self-report instruments. These models and methods assess the cognitive processes underlying how respondents comprehend and generate answers to self-report questions. Cognitive processing models are briefly described. Non-experimental methods – expert cognitive review, cognitive
Background and Aim Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is one of the most common skeletal disorders, yet little data are available in Asian populations. We sought to assess the prevalence and pattern of radiographic OA of the knee, and its relationship to self-reported pain in a Vietnamese population. Methods The study was based on a sample of 170 men and 488 women aged ?40 years who were randomly sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). Radiographs of the knee were graded from 0 to 4 according to the Kellgren and Lawrence scale. Osteoarthritis was defined as being present in a knee if radiographic grades of 2 or higher were detected. Knee pain and symptoms were ascertained by direct interview using a structured questionnaire. Results The point prevalence of radiographic OA of the knee was 34.2%, with women having higher rate than men (35.3% vs 31.2%). The prevalence of knee OA increased with advancing age: 8% among those aged 40–49 years, 30% in those aged 50–59 years, and 61.1% in those aged ?60 years. Greater BMI was associated with higher risk of knee OA. Self-reported knee pain was found in 35% of men and 62% of women. There was a statistically significant association between self-reported knee pain and knee OA (prevalence ratio 3.1; 95% CI 2.0 to 4.6). Conclusions These data indicate that approximately a third of Vietnamese men and women have radiographic OA in the knee, and that self-reported knee pain may be used as an indicator of knee osteoarthritis.
Ho-Pham, Lan T.; Lai, Thai Q.; Mai, Linh D.; Doan, Minh C.; Pham, Hoa N.; Nguyen, Tuan V.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of self-reported measures in predicting periodontitis in a representative US adult population, based on 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Self-reported gum health and treatment history, loose teeth, bone loss around teeth, tooth not looking right, and use of dental floss and mouthwash were obtained during in-home interviews and validated against full-mouth clinically assessed periodontitis in 3,743 US adults 30 years and older. All self-reported measures (> 95% item response rates) were associated with periodontitis, and bivariate correlations between responses to these questions were weak, indicating low redundancy. In multivariable logistic regression modeling, the combined effects of demographic measures and responses to 5 self-reported questions in predicting periodontitis of mild or greater severity were 85% sensitive and 58% specific and produced an 'area under the receiver operator characteristic curve' (AUROCC) of 0.81. Four questions were 95% sensitive and 30% specific, with an AUROCC of 0.82 in predicting prevalence of clinical attachment loss ? 3 mm at one or more sites. In conclusion, self-reported measures performed well in predicting periodontitis in US adults. Where preferred clinically based surveillance is unattainable, locally adapted variations of these self-reported measures may be a promising alternative for surveillance of periodontitis. PMID:24065636
Eke, P I; Dye, B A; Wei, L; Slade, G D; Thornton-Evans, G O; Beck, J D; Taylor, G W; Borgnakke, W S; Page, R C; Genco, R J
Background We examined adolescents' differentiation of their self-reported physical and mental health status, the relative importance of these variables and five important life domains (satisfaction with family, friends, living environment, school and self) with respect to adolescents' global quality of life (QOL), and the extent to which the five life domains mediate the relationships between self-reported physical and mental health status and global QOL. Methods The data were obtained via a cross-sectional health survey of 8,225 adolescents in 49 schools in British Columbia, Canada. Structural equation modeling was applied to test the implied latent variable mediation model. The Pratt index (d) was used to evaluate variable importance. Results Relative to one another, self-reported mental health status was found to be more strongly associated with depressive symptoms, and self-reported physical health status more strongly associated with physical activity. Self-reported physical and mental health status and the five life domains explained 76% of the variance in global QOL. Relatively poorer mental health and physical health were significantly associated with lower satisfaction in each of the life domains. Global QOL was predominantly explained by three of the variables: mental health status (d = 30%), satisfaction with self (d = 42%), and satisfaction with family (d = 20%). Satisfaction with self and family were the predominant mediators of mental health and global QOL (45% total mediation), and of physical health and global QOL (68% total mediation). Conclusions This study provides support for the validity and relevance of differentiating self-reported physical and mental health status in adolescent health surveys. Self-reported mental health status and, to a lesser extent, self-reported physical health status were associated with significant differences in the adolescents' satisfaction with their family, friends, living environment, school experiences, self, and their global QOL. Questions about adolescents' self-reported physical and mental health status and their experiences with these life domains require more research attention so as to target appropriate supportive services, particularly for adolescents with mental or physical health challenges.
This article, part of Biodiversity Counts, reports on the process of doing a plant inventory. The article discusses how scientists begin by marking out the plot, using colored flagging and permanent marker, why you may need to divide a plot into smaller subplots if the plants you're inventorying are smaller than trees, and some of the difficulties scientists face in the field when they're working in particularly dense areas.
Issues concerning use of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for the self-report of depressive symptomatology are raised and considered. Discussion includes the stability of depression and the need for multiple assessment periods, specificity and the need for multiple assessment measures, and selection cut scores and the need for terminological accuracy. Recommendations for the continued use of the BDI, designed to
Philip C. Kendall; Steven D. Hollon; Aaron T. Beck; Constance L. Hammen; Rick E. Ingram
Traffic behaviour questionnaires as self-reports of behaviour are easily biased by Socially Desirable Responding (SDR), especially in investigating ‘normal’ behaviour rather than maximum performance. Despite this fact no instruments are available for measuring traffic related SDR. The present study introduces a new inventory, the Driver Social Desirability Scale (DSDS), for measuring driver impression management (DIM) and Driver Self-Deception (DSD). The
Timo Lajunen; Angela Corry; Heikki Summala; Laurence Hartley
This annotated bibliography contains a record of the evolution of a system for evaluating children in the classroom setting. The Barclay Classroom Climate Inventory is a needs assessment system in the affective-social domain. It is unique in that it taps three inputs, self-report, peer judgements and teacher expectations. These inputs are blended…
A three-phase study was conducted to develop and validate the Penn Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a 26-item self-report measure. Results with 83 and 98 combat veterans and with 76 general population patients and disaster survivors support usefulness of the measure. (SLD)
Objective: The primary aim of this study was to develop and validate the Food-Craving Inventory (FCI), a self-report measure of specific food cravings.Research Methods and Procedures: In a preliminary study, participants (n = 474) completed the initial version of the FCI. The results from this study were used in developing the revised FCI. Participants (n = 379) completed the revised
Marney A. White; Brooke L. Whisenhunt; Donald A. Williamson; Frank L. Greenway; Richard G. Netemeyer
Construal of the self as independent or interdependent in relation to others has been found to correlate significantly with social anxiety symptom ratings, raising concerns about possible cultural bias in these measures for Asian Americans. To investigate the validity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms, we examined the role of ethnicity in the associations among social anxiety, self-construal, and adaptive social functioning in a sample of 229 Asian- and European American college students. Results revealed that ethnicity moderated the relationship between self-construal and social anxiety such that interdependent self-construal was associated with higher social anxiety only for first generation Asian Americans. However, there were no significant ethnic differences in the associations between social anxiety self-reports and several measures of social functioning. PMID:21341897
This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. PMID:19932143
Background Doctors, lawyers and criminal justice agencies need methods to assess vulnerability to violent radicalization. In synergy, public health interventions aim to prevent the emergence of risk behaviours as well as prevent and treat new illness events. This paper describes a new method of assessing vulnerability to violent radicalization, and then investigates the role of previously reported causes, including poor self-reported health, anxiety and depression, adverse life events, poverty, and migration and socio-political factors. The aim is to identify foci for preventive intervention. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a representative population sample of men and women aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage and recruited by quota sampling by age, gender, working status, in two English cities. The main outcomes include self-reported health, symptoms of anxiety and depression (common mental disorders), and vulnerability to violent radicalization assessed by sympathies for violent protest and terrorist acts. Results 2.4% of people showed some sympathy for violent protest and terrorist acts. Sympathy was more likely to be articulated by the under 20s, those in full time education rather than employment, those born in the UK, those speaking English at home, and high earners (>£75,000 a year). People with poor self-reported health were less likely to show sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, adverse life events and socio-political attitudes showed no associations. Conclusions Sympathies for violent protest and terrorism were uncommon among men and women, aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage living in two English cities. Youth, wealth, and being in education rather than employment were risk factors.
Purpose To understand the validity of self-reported recent drug use in men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods We obtained a probability sample of Chicago men who have sex with men(MSM; n=216) and administered urine and saliva drug testing following a self-administered interview. Analyses examined participation in drug testing, the agreement between self-reported past month drug use and drug test results, correlates of underreporting, and the relative utility of drug testing vs. self-reports in identifying recent marijuana and cocaine use. For marijuana and cocaine, findings were compared with those obtained from a general population sample of men (n=241). Results Over three quarters of the participants in both samples provided at least one specimen for drug testing. Selfreports in both samples showed a high degree of correspondence with drug tests for marijuana, but not for cocaine. Sensitivity for cocaine use reporting was 60% for the MSM sample and 40% for the general population males. Conditional kappa and sensitivity statistics for marijuana, cocaine, MDMA and methamphetamine suggested that selfreports among MSMare provided with a high degree of validity. Underreporting was a correlate of social class (education, income and employment) in the general population, but not in the MSM sample. The utility of drug testing was dependent on social class in the general population sample. Conclusions Drug testing is feasible in epidemiological surveys of drug use. Selfreports among MSM are at least as valid as those provided by a general population sample of males. In some instances (e. g. , cocaine use), they may actually be of higher quality. Although the findings support the merit of epidemiological studies of MSM drug use that have relied completely on self-report, drug tests may be useful for clarifying club drug ingestion patterns.
Fendrich, Michael; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Johnson, Timothy P.
INTRODUCTION: A number of variables reflecting attentional and emotional mechanisms of processing pain-related information have recently attracted interest, ie, fear of pain, pain catastrophizing, hypervigilance and attentional bias to pain. These variables can be assessed by explicit measures based on conscious self-report, or by implicit measures assessing mainly preconscious stages of information processing such as behavioural or electrophysiological tests. Convergent validity within implicit measures was assumed to be high, as was the discriminant validity between implicit and explicit measures. METHOD: In the present study, two implicit measures (the dot-probe task for pain words and a word-processing task for pain words allowing event-related brain potential recordings) and three self-report measures (Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale, and Pain Hypervigilance and Awareness Questionnaire) were administered to 27 healthy participants. RESULTS: No significant associations were found between the implicit measures, or between the event-related brain potentials of pain words and the explicit measures. A single significant positive correlation was found between the dot-probe pain bias and the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale. CONCLUSION: All variables appeared to be only weakly associated. The attempt to organize the field of variables targeting attentional and emotional mechanisms of processing pain-related information using concepts such as implicit and explicit measures failed as far as the present test on convergent/discriminant validity proved.
Dittmar, Oliver; Krehl, Rudiger; Lautenbacher, Stefan
Impulsivity is considered a core feature of problem gambling; however, self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control may reflect disparate constructs. We examined self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in 39 treatment-seeking problem gamblers and 41 matched controls using a range of self-report questionnaires and laboratory inhibitory control tasks. We also investigated differences between treatment-seeking problem gamblers who prefer strategic (e.g., sports betting) and nonstrategic (e.g., electronic gaming machines) gambling activities. Treatment-seeking problem gamblers demonstrated elevated self-reported impulsivity, more go errors on the Stop Signal Task, and a lower gap score on the Random Number Generation task than matched controls. However, overall we did not find strong evidence that treatment-seeking problem gamblers are more impulsive on laboratory inhibitory control measures. Furthermore, strategic and nonstrategic problem gamblers did not differ from their respective controls on either self-reported impulsivity questionnaires or laboratory inhibitory control measures. Contrary to expectations, our results suggest that inhibitory dyscontrol may not be a key component for some treatment-seeking problem gamblers. PMID:24479640
Lorains, Felicity K; Stout, Julie C; Bradshaw, John L; Dowling, Nicki A; Enticott, Peter G
The current study examines the self-reports of 227 community support clients using a paper and pencil questionnaire that included the South Shore Problem Inventory-revised (a brief multidimensional psychosocial distress scale), a one-item index of self-rated substance abuse (SRSA), a quantity-frequency index for alcohol consumption (QFI), and a one-item index measuring the frequency of marijuana use. Results support the factor structure and internal consistency of the SSPI-r, and show significant correlations among the substance use indices. Implications for including brief mental health and substance abuse measures are discussed within the context of routine assessment and practice evaluation. PMID:11504141
O'Hare, T; Cutler, J; Sherrer, M V; McCall, T M; Dominique, K N; Garlick, K
The present study examined the relations between self-reported reactive and regulative temperament factors and psychopathological symptoms and personality traits in a group of non-clinical youths aged 9-13 years (N=208). Results showed that the reactive temperament factor of negative affectivity was positively associated with internalizing and…
Adolescents in junior high school (n ? \\/237), completed a questionnaire on bullying as it relates to victim and to perpetrator status, suicidality and biographical data. Psychological symptoms were assessed by the Youth SelfReport (YSR) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) supplemented by school health officers blind assessments. Bullying was common: bully only (18%), victim only (10%) and victim
Tord Ivarsson; Anders G. Broberg; Tomas Arvidsson; Christopher Gillberg
BACKGROUND: Depression assessment in population studies is usually based on depressive symptoms scales. However, the use of scales could lead to the choice of an arbitrary cut-off point depending on the sample characteristics and on the patient diagnosis. Thus, the use of a medical diagnosis of depression could be a more appropriate approach. OBJECTIVE: To validate a self-reported physician diagnosis
Almudena Sanchez-Villegas; Javier Schlatter; Felipe Ortuno; Francisca Lahortiga; Jorge Pla; Silvia Benito; Miguel A Martinez-Gonzalez
The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Valued Activity Inventory for Adults With Cancer (VAI-AC), a self-report instrument that measures activity limitations. Participants included 50 older adults undergoing chemotherapy who completed the VAI-AC and measures of physical and mental function, symptom intensity, and mood 3 days before and the day of chemotherapy. Test-retest reliability was assessed by determining the average number of items for which the importance of an activity was rated consistently and by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the first and second VAI-AC scores. Convergent validity was assessed by correlating the VAI-AC scores with the other measures. Participants consistently rated the importance of 90% of the items. The 72-hour test-retest reliability ICC was 0.67. Participants with fewer activity limitations indicated better physical function (r = 0.58, p < .001), better mental function (r = 0.55, p < .001), lower symptom intensity (r = -0.57, p < .001), and fewer depressive symptoms (r = -0.68, p < .001). The VAI-AC demonstrated evidence of test-retest reliability and convergent validity in this convenience sample of older adults undergoing chemotherapy for cancer. PMID:22826691
Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T; Hull, Jay G; Li, Zhongze; Balan, Stefan; Bartels, Stephen
Objective To assess the psychometric properties of the Valued Activity Inventory for Adults with Cancer (VAI-AC), a self-report instrument measuring activity limitations. Participants Fifty older adults undergoing chemotherapy. Methods Participants completed the VAI-AC and measures of physical and mental function, symptom intensity, and mood three days before and on the day of chemotherapy. Test-retest reliability was assessed by determining the average number of items for which the importance of an activity was rated consistently and by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the first and second VAI-AC scores. Convergent validity was assessed by correlating the VAI-AC scores with the other measures. Results Participants consistently rated the importance of 90% of the items. Seventy-two hour test-retest reliability was ICC = 0.67. Participants with fewer activity limitations indicated better physical function (r = 0.58, p< 0.001), better mental function (r = 0.55, p< 0.001), lower symptom intensity (r = ?0.57, p< 0.001), and fewer depressive symptoms (r = ?0.68, p< 0.001). Conclusion The VAI-AC demonstrated evidence of test-retest reliability and convergent validity in this convenience sample of older adults undergoing chemotherapy for cancer.
Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T.; Hull, Jay G.; Li, Zhongze; Balan, Stefan; Bartels, Stephen
We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD.
Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff
A chemical spill from an oil refinery in Texas City, Texas, exposed the community to more than 40 000 lbs (18 144 kg) of highly toxic and corrosive hydrofluoric acid. A symptom prevalence study indicated an association between symptom reports, most notably breathing symptoms, and hydrofluoric acid exposure. Although verification of self-reportedsymptoms by checking medical records or performing clinical
Hari H. Dayal; Yi-Hwei Li; Vivek Dayal; Chandra K. Mittal; Wayne Snodgrass
The present study reports on the prevalence of the DSM-IV symptoms for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 720 adults applying for or renewing their driver's licenses in central Massachusetts (ages 17-84 years). Symptoms were assessed using two self- report rating scales: One for current symptoms and a second for retrospective recall of child hood symptoms (ages
Background Patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) suffer from several health complaints, including fatigue. The aim of the present study was to validate a Norwegian translation of the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS), and to assess the impact of fatigue in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, as compared with healthy controls. Methods Thirty-eight patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, who participated in the validation of the FIS completed the following additional questionnaires: the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index for assessment of quality of life, the Subjective Health Complaint Inventory, and questionnaires for diagnosis and severity of IBS. Impact of fatigue was studied in 43 patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity, 70% diagnosed with IBS, and 42 healthy controls. Results Cronbach’s ? for the FIS was 0.98, indicating excellent agreement between individual items. Scores on the FIS correlated with scores on the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index (r = 0.50, P = 0.001), indicating good convergent validity, and were higher in patients (median 85.0, interquartile range 36.8–105.3) than in controls (median 14.0, interquartile range 3.0–29.0, P ? 0.0001). Conclusion The Norwegian translation of the FIS performed excellently in patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, with patients reporting significantly more impact of chronic fatigue than healthy controls.
The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education. PMID:24232917
The Anxiety SelfReport (ASR 1,2,3,4) is provided, followed by information about the report. The ASR is discussed as to its development, description, response bias, scoring procedures, reliability, stability, validity, and correlation between the ASR and the Manifest Anxiety Scale. (For related documents, see TM 002 928, 929.) (DB)
Reviews and evaluates the extent of gender differences in academic cheating behaviors based on previous studies that used self-report data. Findings from 21 studies suggest that substantial proportions of students cheat in high school and college, with only small differences between males and females. (SLD)
Projective (TAT) and direct self-report measures of achievement (n Ach) and affiliative motivation (n Aff) were compared as predictors of behavior in 2 studies with 67 and 80 Ss. For n Ach, there was no significant difference in the predictive validities of the 2 measures, but both measures together predicted better than either one alone. For n Aff, the projective
The authors analyzed self-reported SAT scores and actual SAT scores for five different samples of college students (N = 650). Students overestimated their actual SAT scores by an average of 25 points (SD = 81, d = 0.31), with 10% under-reporting, 51% reporting accurately, and 39% over-reporting, indicating a systematic bias towards over-reporting.…
Mayer, Richard E.; Stull, Andrew T.; Campbell, Julie; Almeroth, Kevin; Bimber, Bruce; Chun, Dorothy; Knight, Allan
Despite an increase in the number of food handlers receiving food hygiene training, a high proportion of food poisoning outbreaks still occur as a result of poor food handling practices. This paper uses elements of social cognitive theory to examine the beliefs of food handlers towards food safety and to determine food handlers' self-reported practices. Questionnaires were completed by 137
Deborah A. Clayton; Christopher J. Griffith; Patricia Price; Adrian C. Peters
Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) represent an important occupational health issue in dentistry. Given the significance of this topic, we considered it necessary to investigate the prevalence and impact of MSD among Australian dentists. Methods: In 2004, a self-reporting questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 400 dentists registered with the Queensland Branch of the Australian Dental Association. Results: A
The frequent use of self-report student surveys in higher education calls into question the possibility of social desirability having an unwanted influence on responses. This research explores the potential presence of social desirability bias with the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), a widely used assessment of student behaviors.…
Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. Results: The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (p<0.001). Adjusted by age and gender, frequent bruxers were more than two times more likely to report severe stress (odds ratio 2.5; 95% confidence interval 1.5-4.2) and anxiety (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6) than non-or-mild bruxers. Conclusions: Present findings suggest that self-reported bruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects. Key words:Bruxism, self-report, anxiety, stress, adult.
Self-report data on the physiological/behavioral response associated with embarrassment were collected by questionnaire in Greece, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and West Germany. Blushing/increased temperature and smiling/grinning were reported consistently, with considerable variation, across nations. Understatement and overstatement of…
The maturational reform hypothesis and the Easterlin cohort size hypothesis are used to specify models in which age, period, and cohort effects on self-reported crime and delinquency are estimated. Curvilinear effects, logarithmic transformations, and the distinction between prevalence and frequency of offending are considered. The maturational reform hypothesis is supported for general delinquency but not for serious (Index) delinquency, for
This paper focuses on the geographic locale settings reported in two surveys conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). The two surveys are the School Universe component of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey and the Public School component of the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). Instances where the self-reported locale…
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between self-reported sleep bruxism and the age, gender, clinical subtypes of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), pain intensity and grade of chronic pain in patients previously diagnosed with TMD. Thousand two-hundred and twenty patients of the Andalusian Health Service were examined using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) questionnaire. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were those included in the RDC/TMD criteria. The bruxism diagnosis was drawn from the question, 'Have you been told, or do you notice that you grind your teeth or clench your jaw while sleeping at night?' in the anamnestic portion of the questionnaire. A bivariate analysis was conducted, comparing the presence of perceived parafunctional activity with age (over age 60 and under age 60), gender, different subtypes of TMD, pain intensity, grade of chronic pain and presence of self-perceived locked joints. The overall prevalence of self-reported sleep bruxism (SB) was 54·51%. A statistically significant association was found between the presence of SB and patients under age 60, women, greater pain intensity, greater pain interference with activities of daily living, and the axis-I groups affected by both muscular and articular pathology. There is a statistically significant association between self-reported sleep bruxism and women under age 60 who have painful symptoms of TMD. There is also a positive association between this parafunctional habit and the presence of chronic pain. However, more studies that cover larger samples and differentiate between sleep bruxism and awake bruxism are needed. PMID:24750430
Blanco Aguilera, A; Gonzalez Lopez, L; Blanco Aguilera, E; De la Hoz Aizpurua, J L; Rodriguez Torronteras, A; Segura Saint-Gerons, R; Blanco Hungría, A
Background Comorbidity is an important adjustment measure in research focusing on outcomes such as health status and mortality. One recurrent methodological issue concerns the concordance of comorbidity data obtained from different reporting sources. The purpose of these prospectively planned analyses was to examine the concordance of comorbidity data obtained from patient self-report survey interviews and hospital medical record documentation. Methods Comorbidity data were obtained using survey interviews and medical record entries from 525 hospitalized Acute Coronary Syndrome patients. Frequencies and descriptive statistics of individual and composite comorbidity data from both sources were completed. Individual item agreement was evaluated with simple and weighted kappas, Spearman Rho coefficients for composite scores. Results On average, patients reported more comorbidities during their patient survey interviews (mean = 1.78, SD = 1.99) than providers had documented in medical records (mean = 1.27, SD = 1.43). Higher proportions of positive responses were obtained from self-reports compared to medical records for all conditions except congestive heart failure and renal disease. Older age and higher depressive symptom levels were significantly associated with poorer levels of data concordance. Conclusion These results demonstrate that survey comorbidity data from ACS patients may not be entirely concordat with medical record documentation. In the absence of a gold standard, it is possible that hospital records did not include all pre-admission comorbidities and these patient survey interview methods may need to be refined. Self-report methods to facilitate some patients' complete recall of comorbid conditions may need to be refined by health services researchers. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00416026.
This study examined the internal consistency, diagnostic efficiency, and validity of selected scales of the Millon adolescent clinical inventory (MACI; Millon et al., Manual for the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory, National Computer Systems, Minneapolis, MN, 1993). 241 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents were administered the MACI and a battery of established self-report measures and a multidisciplinary team independently assigned DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses
The purpose of the inventory abstraction as directed by the development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999b) is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 1999c, 1999d). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and
The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof,
As dentistry continues to evolve, the best management systems of the business world need to be incorporated into each practice. As always, my goal in these columns is to bring and modify the best business principles available to readers of The Journal of the American Dental Association. Just in Time ordering and inventory control is one of the best, as evidenced by the fact that top-performing companies worldwide have adopted it. PMID:15270164
Schizotypal personality disorder shares some attenuated phenotypic features with schizophrenia, but represents an independent syndrome. In contrast, prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia represent early warning signs of the impending onset of schizophrenia. Although these constructs are intended to reflect independent syndromes, self-report instruments measuring these constructs assess similar symptoms. It does not appear that existing research has examined the relative discriminant
The authors used an integrative conceptual model to examine the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 568 elementary school-age children 3 months after Hurricane An- drew. The model included 4 primary factors: Exposure to Traumatic Events, Child Characteristics, Access to Social Support, and Children's Coping. Overall, 62% of the variance in children's self- reported PTSD symptoms was accounted
Eric M. Vernberg; Annette M. La Greca; Wendy K. Silverman; Mitchell J. Prinstein
The association of pubertal maturation with internalizing and externalizing symptoms was examined with a sample of 867 African-American 10-12-year-old children. Children reported their pubertal development status and timing using a self-report questionnaire, and symptoms were assessed through diagnostic interviews with the children and their…
Ge, Xiaojia; Brody, Gene H.; Conger, Rand D.; Simons, Ronald L.
Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents with varying drug use histories, self-reported physical health problems were not related to inhalant use history, but blood analyses indicated a relationship between extensive inhalant use and liver problems. Psychological distress symptoms were related to inhalant use and physical symptoms. Contains 23…
Dietary intervention trials aim to change dietary patterns of individuals. Participating in such trials could impact dietary self-report in divergent ways: Dietary counseling and training on portion-size estimation could improve self-report accuracy; participant burden could increase systematic error. Such intervention-associated biases could complicate interpretation of trial results. The authors investigated intervention-associated biases in reported total carotenoid intake using data on 3,088 breast cancer survivors recruited between 1995 and 2000 and followed through 2006 in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study, a randomized intervention trial. Longitudinal data from 2 self-report methods (24-hour recalls and food frequency questionnaires) and a plasma carotenoid biomarker were collected. A flexible measurement error model was postulated. Parameters were estimated in a Bayesian framework by using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Results indicated that the validity (i.e., correlation with “true” intake) of both self-report methods was significantly higher during follow-up for intervention versus nonintervention participants (4-year validity estimates: intervention = 0.57 for food frequency questionnaires and 0.58 for 24-hour recalls; nonintervention = 0.42 for food frequency questionnaires and 0.48 for 24-hour recalls). However, within- and between-instrument error correlations during follow-up were higher among intervention participants, indicating an increase in systematic error. Diet interventions can impact measurement errors of dietary self-report. Appropriate statistical methods should be applied to examine intervention-associated biases when interpreting results of diet trials.
Natarajan, Loki; Pu, Minya; Fan, Juanjuan; Levine, Richard A.; Patterson, Ruth E.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Rock, Cheryl L.; Pierce, John P.
In a short-term experimental study about one-third of subjects exposed to noise shows both increases and decreases in blood pressure. While the association of noise with hypertension is established it is not yet known whether hypotension is associated with noise in field studies. In a cross-sectional study the association of self-reported hypotension and low blood pressure readings with traffic noise was examined in adults (age 25-65, N = 1989, participation = 62%). Noise exposure was based on both, short and long-term day/night recordings and standard noise mapping. Questionnaire data on socio-demographics, housing, life-style, noise and weather sensitivity, health status, mental and physical symptoms were available to adjust for potential confounding and testing for moderation. Non-linear multiple regression was applied to estimate the association between the two outcomes and overall noise exposure. We did not observe a stable relation between noise and low blood pressure readings since the number of subjects based on the recommended cut-off points (5 th percentile or 110 (100)/60 mmHg) was too small. However, self-reported hypotension was non-linearly associated with noise exposure ( P = 0.044) in the presence of a strong sex × age effect modification ( P < 0.0001). Another significant moderation by noise were observed with reported symptoms of exhaustion ( P = 0.03). Weather sensitivity showed a significant interaction with noise sensitivity ( P = 0.02) and also a non-linear interaction with age ( P = 0.02). The results remained stable after adjustment for variables known to be associated with constitutional hypotension. The exposure-effect curve ascends around sound levels of 55 dBA. The results suggest a novel moderated association of noise with self-reported hypotension, predominantly in weather sensitive women with symptoms of exhaustion. Further and larger studies are needed to replicate the potential moderating effect of noise on persons with constitutional hypotension. PMID:23771418
The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI) is a new self-report measure that was developed to assess traits associated with grandiose and vulnerable narcissism from a Five-factor model (FFM) perspective. In a sample of undergraduates (N = 283), the relations among the FFNI scales, grandiose and vulnerable dimensions, and an array of relevant criteria were examined including self- and informant reports of the Big Five domains, measures of the Dark Triad, ratings of the interpersonal circumplex, externalizing and internalizing behaviors and symptoms, and romantic and attachment styles. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable dimensions demonstrated good convergent and criterion validity. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable dimensions manifested converging (e.g., disagreeableness, low love/communion, psychopathy, Machiavellianism, Ludus/Manic love styles) and diverging (e.g., neuroticism, extraversion, dominance, externalizing, internalizing, attachment anxiety) relations in a manner largely consistent with predictions. The FFNI joins the Pathological Narcissism Inventory as a measure that can simultaneously assess both grandiose and vulnerable dimensions of narcissism. PMID:23186210
Miller, Joshua D; Gentile, Brittany; Campbell, W Keith
Both scientists and the general public assume that physical activity (PA) is an effective, non-pharmacological approach to improvement in sleep quality. However, objective and reliable data on this relationship are scarce, particularly for adolescents. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to test the relationship by assessing both PA and sleep subjectively and objectively. A total of 56 adolescent vocational school students (Mean age=17.98, SD=1.36; 28 males, 28 females) participated in the study. Sleep and PA were subjectively assessed via questionnaires. Accelerometers objectively assessed PA, while sleep-EEG devices objectively assessed sleep. The data supported our prediction that adolescents with high PA levels would have longer TST, fewer wakening at night (WASO), fewer symptoms of insomnia, and higher sleep quality. However, gender influenced this pattern of results in that significant findings were only found between high self-reported PA levels and shorter perceived sleep onset latency (SOL). Though self-reported PA levels were a better predictor of good sleep than objectively assessed PA levels, gender was associated with sleep complaints; females reported more sleep complaints. Results indicate that among a non-clinical sample of adolescents increased PA is favorably associated with restoring sleep. Therefore, PA seems beneficial not only for physical and mental health, but also for sleep restoration. PMID:23851332
Lang, Christin; Brand, Serge; Feldmeth, Anne Karina; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus
This study assesses the reliability of a self-reported health questionnaire completed by 413 subjects aged 25-74 yr in the Erie County Periodontal Disease (ECPD) Study. Specific questions on general and oral health conditions were completed by each subject during a first visit and at a follow-up examination 2 yr later, and the two compared. Results showed that the overall measure of agreement between the two visits is substantial (average kappa, kappa = 0.80). Variation by gender and age were minimal. Questions regarding allergy to medications, oral treatment, reason for tooth extraction, health symptoms and history of systemic diseases exhibited high levels of agreement (kappa ranged from 0.71-0.90). Information on vitamin and mineral intake yielded kappa = 0.63. Oral conditions scored the lowest but were still acceptable (kappa = 0.57). These findings indicate that there were no significant discrepancies in self-reported responses to the health questionnaire used in the ECPD Study. Although the information provided by the subject may not be as accurate as compared to laboratory testing, it is nevertheless a reliable source of information which can be utilized cost-effectively in research studies. PMID:9409459
Objectives. We investigated whether, and under what conditions, informal caregiving is associated with improved self-reported physical and mental health, most notably in terms of cognitive functioning. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2008 data from the Gazel Cohort Study, which involved 10 687 men and women aged 54 to 70 years. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between self-reported health and caregiving status and burden. Results. Regular caregivers with the highest burden scores reported significantly worse health status than did noncaregivers for almost all of the physical and mental outcomes evaluated after adjustment for potential confounding factors. In particular, they reported more cognitive complaints (odds ratio [OR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21, 1.73). Conversely, caregivers with the lowest burden scores reported better perceived health status, less physical and mental tiredness, and fewer depressive symptoms (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.37, 0.68) than did noncaregivers; however, they did not report decreases in cognitive difficulties (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.81, 1.18). Conclusions. Our findings support the hypothesis that caregiving can have positive effects on health, provided that caregiving activities themselves are not too heavy a burden.
The present investigation was performed in a population of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and it was designed to assess the correlation between self-reported questionnaire-based bruxism diagnosis and a diagnosis based on history taking plus clinical examination. One-hundred-fifty-nine patients with TMD underwent an assessment including a questionnaire investigating five bruxism-related items (i.e. sleep grinding, sleep grinding referral by bed partner, sleep clenching, awake clenching, awake grinding) and an interview (i.e. oral history taking with specific focus on bruxism habits) plus a clinical examination to evaluate bruxism signs and symptoms. The correlation between findings of the questionnaire, viz., patients' report, and findings of the interview/oral history taking plus clinical examination, viz., clinicians' diagnosis, was assessed by means of ? coefficient. The highest correlations were achieved for the sleep grinding referral item (? = 0·932) and for the awake clenching item (? = 0·811), whilst lower correlation values were found for the other items (? values ranging from 0·363 to 0·641). The percentage of disagreement between the two diagnostic approaches ranged between 1·8% and 18·2%. Within the limits of the present investigation, it can be suggested that a strong positive correlation between a self-reported and a clinically based approach to bruxism diagnosis can be achieved as for awake clenching, whilst lower levels of correlation were detected for sleep-time activities. PMID:24112029
Paesani, D A; Lobbezoo, F; Gelos, C; Guarda-Nardini, L; Ahlberg, J; Manfredini, D
Background In recent years, the understanding of concussion has evolved in the research and medical communities to include more subtle and transient symptoms. The accepted definition of concussion in these communities has reflected this change. However, it is unclear whether this shift is also reflected in the understanding of the athletic community. What is known about the subject Self-reported concussion history is an inaccurate assessment of someone’s lifetime exposure to concussive brain trauma. However, unfortunately, in many cases it is the only available tool. Hypothesis/purpose We hypothesize that athletes’ self-reported concussion histories will be significantly greater after reading them the current definition of concussion, relative to the reporting when no definition was provided. An increase from baseline to post-definition response will suggest that athletes are unaware of the currently accepted medical definition. Study design Cross-sectional study of 472 current and former athletes. Methods Investigators conducted structured telephone interviews with current and former athletes between January 2010 and January 2013, asking participants to report how many concussions they had received in their lives. Interviewers then read participants a current definition of concussion, and asked them to re-estimate based on that definition. Results The two estimates were significantly different (Wilcoxon signed rank test: z=15.636, P<0.001). Comparison of the baseline and post-definition medians (7 and 15, respectively) indicated that the post-definition estimate was approximately twice the baseline. Follow-up analyses indicated that this effect was consistent across all levels of competition examined and across type of sport (contact versus non-contact). Conclusion Our results indicate that athletes’ current understandings of concussions are not consistent with a currently accepted medical definition. We strongly recommend that clinicians and researchers preface requests for self-reported concussion history with a definition. In addition, it is extremely important that researchers report the definition they used in published manuscripts of their work. What this study adds to existing knowledge Our study shows that unprompted reporting of concussion history produces results that are significantly different from those provided after a definition has been given, suggesting one possible mechanism to improve the reliability of self-reported concussion history across multiple individuals.
Robbins, Clifford A; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Picano, John D; Gavett, Brandon E; Baugh, Christine M; Riley, David O; Nowinski, Christopher J; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; Stern, Robert A
The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the accessible environment. The inventory abstraction is important in assessing system performance because radionuclide screening determines the scope for several TSPA models, and the abstraction provides input to the TSPA.
The purpose of the inventory abstraction as directed by the development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999b) is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 1999c, 1999d). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) (NRC 1999) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [Spent Nuclear Fuel] are released from the EBS [Engineered Barrier System] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the accessible environment. The inventory abstraction is important in assessing system performance because radionuclide screening determines the scope for several TSPA models, and the abstraction provides input to the TSPA..
Florida's Charlotte County Property Appraiser is using an aerial color infrared mapping system for inventorying citrus trees for valuation purposes. The ACIR system has significantly reduced the time and manpower required for appraisal. Aerial photographs are taken and interpreted by a video system which makes it possible to detect changes from previous years. Potential problems can be identified. KSC's TU Office has awarded a contract to the Citrus Research and Education Center to adapt a prototype system which would automatically count trees and report totals.
Body dysmorphic disorder by proxy (BDDBP), a preoccupation with a perceived defect in another person’s appearance may represent a variant of BDD. However, BDDBP has received little empirical attention. We present here the phenomenology of 11 individuals with self-reported BDDBP. Participants completed an internet-based survey that assessed symptoms, psychosocial impact, and treatment history. Participants (8 females, 3 males) reported preoccupation with a wide array of individuals (e.g., spouse, stranger). Body parts of concern most commonly involved the face and head. Most participants spent several (e.g., 3–8) hours per day preoccupied by perceived defects in the person of concern (POC). All participants engaged in rituals to try to alleviate distress or improve the POC’s appearance. Most avoided social/occupational activities, including contact with the POC. The impact of BDDBP was profound, particularly on relationships. Findings may help elucidate diagnostic criteria, course, and treatment.
A study investigated how 15 children (ages 6 to 10) who identified themselves as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) would differ from 74 adult-identified boys (ages 6 to 10). Although no significant differences were found in observed disruptive behavior, the child self-identified group endorsed significantly more internalizing…
Volpe, Robert J.; DuPaul, George J.; Loney, Jan; Salisbury, Helen
The study examined the consistency between retrospective self-reported drug use and urinalysis data among 281 male opioid dependent subjects attending out patient clinic of National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre from January 2001 to December 2001 at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Preliminary analysis indicated that there was moderate to high concordance between the two measures among different drug types. On an average 85% of urine test results matched with self-report. Subject's over-reported drug use as indicated by the low positive predictive value. In contrast, subjects were more accurate when they were reporting no drug use as suggested by the high negative predictive value. The study suggests that urine analysis is a critical variable in substance abuse treatment programs. Clinicians should be cautious while prescribing agonist drug due to frequent over-reporting of drug use by patients in our setting. This will make the substance abuse program more meaningful. PMID:15270376
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory—Adolescent (MMPI-A) and Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) are frequently used objective personality self-report measures. Given their widespread use, the purpose of the current study was to examine and compare the literature base for the two instruments. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted between the years 1992 and 2007 using the PsycINFO Database. Results
Linda J. Baum; Robert P. Archer; Johnathan D. Forbey; Richard W. Handel
The present study tested the reliability of a self-report diagnostic measure of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) based on DSM criteria. Among two samples of undergraduate students, 47–80% of the GAD diagnoses by questionnaire were confirmed by diagnostic interview, with the higher rate being associated with DSM-IV criteria. Categorization of a participant as Non-GAD by questionnaire was found to be 100%
Lizabeth Roemer; Mary Borkovec; Sharon Posa; T. D. Borkovec
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the interplay of workplace exercising on self-reported workplace performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A mixed methods design combined a randomised cross-over trial with concurrent focus groups. Three workplaces (two private companies, one public service organisation) were purposefully selected for their provision of on-site exercise facilities, size (>250 employees) and large proportion of
Psychopathy has long been identified as a central personality correlate of criminal and violent behaviour yet remains relatively unexplored in Australia. The present study utilised the recently developed Self-Report Psychopathy Scale – III (SRP-III) with an Australian community sample (N = 327). As expected, males reported higher levels of psychopathy across the four SRP-III facets, callous-affect (CA), interpersonally manipulative (IPM), erratic life-style
Psychopathy has long been identified as a central personality correlate of criminal and violent behaviour yet remains relatively unexplored in Australia. The present study utilised the recently developed Self-Report Psychopathy Scale – III (SRP-III) with an Australian community sample (N = 327). As expected, males reported higher levels of psychopathy across the four SRP-III facets, callous-affect (CA), interpersonally manipulative (IPM), erratic life-style
This chapter reviews 24 standardized self-report measures for traumatic stress that are suitable, with some modification, for use with adults by professional or lay interviewers or in paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Each scale is de- scribed in terms of its content, number of items, and response formats and is evaluated in terms of the available evidence regarding its reliability and valid- ity.
Hyperarousal Scale scores for certain self-reported behaviors reportedly correlate with EEG arousal measures. We tested whether an insomnia subject group had different Hyperarousal Scale scores compared with hypersomnia, delayed sleep phase syndrome, procrastinator or normal subject groups. Compared with 139 normal subjects, mean scores for a group of 256 insomnia subjects was significantly 1.2 S.D. higher on Hyperarousal total scale
Milena Pavlova; Oliver Berg; Ray Gleason; Fran Walker; Susan Roberts; Quentin Regestein
The aims of this study were to quantify and describe the variations in respiratory symptoms and diagnosis prevalence across regions of the world according to national income. In 2002 and 2003, the World Health Organization implemented the World Health Survey (WHS), which used a standardised survey instrument to compile comprehensive baseline information on health and healthcare expenditure. We analysed the WHS data to assess the global patterns of self-reported wheeze and doctor-diagnosed asthma, two commonly reported measures of respiratory health. In total there were 308,218 participants with complete records, from 64 countries. The weighted mean age of the survey population was 43 yrs. Global prevalence of current wheezing symptoms ranged from 2.4% in Vietnam to 24% in Brazil; the prevalence of diagnosed asthma ranged from 1.8% in Vietnam to 32.8% in Australia. Overall, the prevalence of symptoms and diagnosis showed a U-shaped pattern with the largest prevalence reported in low- and high-income countries. The smallest prevalence was consistently found in middle-income countries. These WHS analyses have provided global prevalence estimates of wheeze and doctor-diagnosed asthma using data gathered simultaneously and consistently across six continents. These findings support the need for continued global respiratory illness surveillance for disease prevention, health policy and management. PMID:19741032
Sembajwe, G; Cifuentes, M; Tak, S W; Kriebel, D; Gore, R; Punnett, L
... Benefits for Family and Friends Make a Financial Inventory—My Financial Inventory List A financial inventory is a list of: Your financial assets and ... where you keep them. Financial Worksheets Make an inventory of your finances My Financial Inventory Worksheet [PDF] ...
Objective To describe symptoms, physical exam findings, and set point viral load associated with acute HIV seroconversion in a heterosexual cohort of discordant couples in Zambia. Design We followed HIV serodiscordant couples in Lusaka, Zambia from 1995–2009 with HIV testing of negative partners and symptominventories 3-monthly, and physical examinations annually. Methods We compared prevalence of self-reported or treated symptoms (malaria syndrome, chronic diarrhea, asthenia, night sweats, and oral candidiasis) and annual physical exam [PE] findings (unilateral or bilateral neck, axillary, or inguinal adenopathy; and dermatosis) in seroconverting versus HIV-negative or HIV-positive intervals, controlling for repeated observations, age, and sex. A composite score comprised of significant symptoms and PE findings predictive of seroconversion versus HIV-negative intervals was constructed. We modeled the relationship between number of symptoms and PE findings at seroconversion and log set-point viral load [VL] using linear regression. Results 2,388 HIV-negative partners were followed for a median of 18 months; 429 seroconversions occurred. Neither symptoms nor PE findings were reported for most seroconverters. Seroconversion was significantly associated with malaria syndrome among non-diarrheic patients (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=4.0) night sweats (aOR=1.4), and bilateral axillary (aOR = 1.6), inguinal (aOR=2.2), and neck (aOR=2.2) adenopathy relative to HIV-negative intervals. Median number of symptoms was positively associated with set-point VL (p<0.001). Conclusions Though most acute and early infections were asymptomatic, malaria syndrome was more common and more severe during seroconversion compared with HIV-negative and HIV-positive intervals. When present, symptoms and physical exam findings were non-specific and associated with higher set point viremia.
Sullivan, Patrick S.; Fideli, Ulgen; Wall, Kristin M.; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Kilembe, William; Tichacek, Amanda; Luisi, Nicole; Mulenga, Joseph; Hunter, Eric; Boeras, Debrah; Allen, Susan
The goal of this study was to test the internal reliability of a Spanish translation of the CDI, (i.e., CDI-LA), a potentially useful screening instrument for Hispanic youngsters in their native language at a primary-care level. Self-reportedsymptoms of depression were assessed with the CDI-LA in a school sample of 205 Hispanic students. Girls…
Associations of children's daily stressful events and their parents' daily hassles and psychological symptoms with children's emotional\\/behavioral problems were examined in a sample of fourth- and fifth-grade children and their parents. Correlational analyses indicated that children's self-reports of depressive symptoms were associated with children's daily stressors and mothers' daily hassles, and children's selfreports of anxiety symptoms were associated with children's
Most information on the prevalence of drug use comes from self-report surveys. The sensitivity of such information is cause for concern about the accuracy of self-report measures. In this study, self-reported drug use in the last 48 hr is compared to results from biological assays of saliva samples from 371 young adults entering clubs. The…
Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert A.; Miller, Brenda A.; Holder, Harold D.
This study investigated the associations between internalized stigma, depressive symptoms, and temperament dimension Harm avoidance. One hundred and seventeen stable outpatients with schizophrenia completed a battery of self-report instruments. Internalized stigma was significantly positively related to depressive symptoms, while Harm avoidance moderated the internalized stigma-depressive symptoms relationship. PMID:24857565
The objective of this study was to assess the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and the relation between psychological symptoms and drug use severity, among 117 Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment. Psychological symptoms were assessed via both adolescent self-report and parent report. Drug use was…
Diamond, G.M.; Izzard, M.C.; Kedar, T.; Hutlzer, A.; Mell, H.
Background and purposeThe aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) symptoms in the US adult population and to relate frequency of RLS symptoms to self-reported general health, depressive and anxiety symptoms, daytime sleepiness, and cardiovascular disease.
Inventory Control Related Sites is a straightforward index of Websites dealing with inventory control, created by Kyle Thill, a 20-year veteran of inventory control. The sites are fully annotated and cover Census Bureau information, articles, and other metasites.
The original Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) has been widely used and is considered to be one of the best available self-report instruments for measuring observable obsessive-compulsive problems such as washing and checking. However, it has several limitations and requires updating. Our revision of the MOCI, the Vancouver Obsessional Compulsive Inventory (VOCI), was designed to provide assessment of a range of obsessions, compulsions, avoidance behaviour, and personality characteristics of known or theoretical importance in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The development of the VOCI is described, and we provide evidence of its reliability and validity. Our findings in samples of people with OCD, people with other anxiety disorders or depression, community adults, and undergraduate students suggest that the VOCI is a promising new measure. We anticipate that, like its predecessor, the VOCI will have widespread use in both research and clinical settings. PMID:15381439
Thordarson, Dana S; Radomsky, Adam S; Rachman, S; Shafran, Roz; Sawchuk, Craig N; Ralph Hakstian, A
The present study investigated the ability of the General Behavior Inventory (GBI) to discriminate between diagnostic groups using youth self-report. One hundred and ninety-seven youths ages 10–17 years presenting at a midwestern urban outpatient clinic specializing in mood disorders completed the GBI as part of the intake process. Diagnoses were determined by a structured clinical interview (K-SADS) administered by either
Carla Kmett Danielson; Eric A. Youngstrom; Robert L. Findling; Joseph R. Calabrese
Background The Me and My School Questionnaire (M&MS) is a self-report measure for children aged eight years and above that measures emotional difficulties and behavioural difficulties, and has been previously validated in a community sample. The present study aimed to assess its clinical sensitivity to justify its utility as a screening tool in schools. Methods Data were collected from service-users (n?=?91, 8–15 years) and accompanying parent/carer in outpatient mental health services in England. A matched community sample (N?=?91) were used to assess the measure’s ability to discriminate between low- and high-risk samples. Results Receiver operating curves (area under the curve, emotional difficulties?=?.79; behavioural difficulties?=?.78), mean comparisons (effect size, emotional difficulties d?=?1.17, behavioural difficulties?=?1.12) and proportions above clinical thresholds indicate that the measure satisfactorily discriminates between the samples. The scales have good internal reliability (emotional difficulties ??=?.84; behavioural difficulties ??=?.82) and cross-informant agreement with parent-reported symptoms is comparable to existing measures (r?=?.30). Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that the M&MS sufficiently discriminates between high-risk (clinic) and low-risk (community) samples, has good internal reliability, compares favourably with existing self-report measures of mental health and has comparable levels of agreement between parent-report and self-report to other measures. Alongside existing validation of the M&MS, these findings justify the measures use as a self-report screening tool for mental health problems in community settings for children aged as young as 8 years.
A high incidence of obsessions and compulsions is documented in basal ganglia disorders, especially in patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS). A comparison of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), TS, and Parkinson's disease (PD) revealed significantly higher total scores in both OCD and TS patients than in a healthy control group on the Maudsley obsessive-compulsive inventory (MOCI) and the Hamburg obsessive-compulsive inventory (HZI-K), two self-report measures of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. On most subscales (especially Checking, Ordering, and Counting/touching), TS patients scored higher than controls. Patients with Parkinson's disease merely scored higher on the subscale 'Ordering' of the HZI-K. Differences between OCD patients and TS patients were evident on the MOCI subscales 'Checking' and 'Slowness/Repetition' as well as on the MOCI total score and on the HZI subscales 'Cleaning' and 'Obsessive Thoughts'. On these scales, TS patients reported fewer symptoms than OCD patients. Stepwise discriminant analysis with preselected single items as variables was used to look for specific symptom patterns of OCD and TS. Seventy-eight percent of the patients could be correctly classified with respect to their diagnoses on the basis of only two items of the HZI-K. One item asks for fearful obsessive thoughts, which was found in 90% of the OCD patients; the second item represented echo phenomena, found in 56% of the TS patients. It is concluded that considering specific patterns of obsessive-compulsive psychopathology may contribute to a more reliable differential diagnosis in OCD and TS and help to avoid misdiagnosis of OCD in TS patients. PMID:9194204
... TBI Educational Materials Research DVBIC Locations Press Symptom Management A brain injury can affect a person physically ... Diagnosis and Assessment Treatment and Recovery Caregiving Symptom Management Life After TBI Defense and Veterans Brain Injury ...
Aim In this retrospective survey women with and without self-reported postpartum depression (PPD) were compared in regards to consumption-frequency of foods and supplements rich in nutrients beneficial to nervous system (NS) health, in regards to consumption-frequency of compounds which may counteract the effect of the above and in regards to nutritional support provided to them during a pregnancy between 2003 and 2008. Background Postpartum depression (PPD) is defined as a major depressive episode that begins within 1 month of delivery and is experienced by roughly 13% of mothers. Patients and methods Four Hundred participants were recruited through the internet. Data gathered via multiple choice questionnaires was statistically analyzed using SPSS and Statistical software; statistical procedures included discriminant analysis, Pearson's product moment correlation, independent t-test and cross-tabulations. Results Out of 400 participants 83 (20.8%) were affected by self-reported depression after a pregnancy between 2003 and 2008. Depressed subjects consumed oily fish and offal significantly more often than non depressed subjects. Depression was more prevalent among women with vegetarian diets. No significant difference concerning food group intake or the ratios between foods rich in nutrients beneficial to NS health and foods rich in compounds antagonising their effect were found between depressed and non depressed subjects. Iron supplementation correlated positively with zinc supplementation in both groups. Roughly 70% of women reported to have received no information about n-3 fatty acid fish oils during pregnancy; informed subjects consumed fish oils more often. The majority of subjects with self-reported depression described nutritional support during pregnancy as inadequate. Conclusion Within this Austrian sample, the prevalence rate of postpartum depression was high; while the consumption of oily fish and vegetarian diets negatively correlated with depression, Patient information positively correlated with the consumption of fish oil supplements. These results indicate that further studies will be required in order to establish the exact relationship between nutrition and mental health during and after pregnancy.
Accurate data on sexual behavior have become increasingly important for demographers and epidemiologists, but self-reported data are widely regarded as unreliable. We examined the consistency in the number of sexual partners reported by participants in seven population-based surveys of adults in the U.S. Differences between studies were quite modest and much smaller than those associated with demographic attributes. Surprisingly, the mode of survey administration did not appear to influence disclosure when the questions were similar. We conclude that there is more consistency in sexual partnership reporting than is commonly believed.
The influence of statistical outliers among older children's self-reports was investigated in the context of a multitrait-multimethod validation of the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (Weinberger, 1991). Self, teacher, and peer ratings in 6th-grade classrooms (N = 155) provided evidence of the convergent and discriminant validity of distress (i.e., anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and low well-being) and self-restraint (i.e., impulse control, suppression of aggression, consideration of others, and responsibility) as superordinate dimensions of adjustment. However, a few children were statistical outliers whose self-reports starkly contradicted others' perceptions. These nonrepresentative cases notably affected the validity coefficients for the entire sample and seemed to identify children with potentially clinically significant distortions in their self-perceptions. PMID:8576827
Information on prevalence and risk factors associated with self-reported hearing health among mass transit riders is extremely limited, even though evidence suggests mass transit may be a source of excessive exposure to noise. Data on mass transit ridership were collected from 756 study participants using a self-administered questionnaire. Hearing health was measured using two symptom items (tinnitus and temporary audiometric threshold shift), two subjective measures (self-rated hearing and hearing ability), and two medical-related questions (hearing testing and physician-diagnosed hearing loss). In logistic regression analyses that controlled for possible confounders, including demographic variables, occupational noise exposure, nonoccupational noise exposure (including MP3 player use) and use of hearing protection, frequent and lengthy mass transit (all forms) ridership (1,100 min or more per week vs. 350 min or less per week) was the strongest predictor of temporary threshold shift symptoms. Noise abatement strategies, such as engineering controls, and the promotion of hearing protection use should be encouraged to reduce the risk of adverse impacts on the hearing health of mass transit users. PMID:22711170
Gershon, Robyn R M; Sherman, Martin F; Magda, Lori A; Riley, Halley E; McAlexander, Tara P; Neitzel, Richard
Typologies of sleep problems have usually relied on identifying underlying causes or symptom clusters. In this study the value of using the patient's own reasons for sleep disturbance are explored. Using secondary data analysis of a nationally representative psychiatric survey the patterning of the various reasons respondents provided for self-reported sleep problems were examined. Over two thirds (69.3%) of respondents could identify a specific reason for their sleep problem with worry (37.9%) and illness (20.1%) representing the most commonly reported reasons. And while women reported more sleep problems for almost every reason compared with men, the patterning of reasons by age showed marked variability. Sleep problem symptoms such as difficulty getting to sleep or waking early also showed variability by different reasons as did the association with major correlates such as worry, depression, anxiety and poor health. While prevalence surveys of ‘insomnia’ or ‘poor sleep’ often assume the identification of an underlying homogeneous construct there may be grounds for recognising the existence of different sleep problem types particularly in the context of the patient's perceived reason for the problem.
Self-report measures of depression differ in their construction and scoring rules. In the present study from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project we tested the hypothesis that the loss of information due to scoring rules or rating formats reduces the validity of depression severity assessment. One hundred fifty-three outpatients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) who presented for treatment or who were in ongoing treatment and had their medication changed due to lack of efficacy completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) and Remission from Depression Questionnaire (RDQ) at the initiation of treatment and 4 month follow-up. The patients were evaluated with the 17-item Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD). The CUDOS and RDQ were equally highly correlated with the HAMD at baseline and follow-up. There was no significant difference in the correlations between the modified and original scoring algorithms of the QIDS with the HAMD at baseline and the follow-up. On each scale, the patients showed significant levels of improvement from baseline to 4 months, and the effect sizes were similar. These findings suggest that the loss of information due to the scoring rules of the QIDS or the rating format of the RDQ did not reduce the validity of depression severity assessment. PMID:24745466
Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the long-term prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology in patients following secondary peritonitis and to determine whether the prevalence of PTSD-related symptoms differed between patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and patients admitted only to the surgical ward. Method A retrospective cohort of consecutive patients treated for secondary peritonitis was sent a postal survey containing a self-report questionnaire, namely the Post-traumatic Stress Syndrome 10-question inventory (PTSS-10). From a database of 278 patients undergoing surgery for secondary peritonitis between 1994 and 2000, 131 patients were long-term survivors (follow-up period at least four years) and were eligible for inclusion in our study, conducted at a tertiary referral hospital in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Results The response rate was 86%, yielding a cohort of 100 patients; 61% of these patients had been admitted to the ICU. PTSD-related symptoms were found in 24% (95% confidence interval 17% to 33%) of patients when a PTSS-10 score of 35 was chosen as the cutoff, whereas the prevalence of PTSD symptomology when borderline patients scoring 27 points or more were included was 38% (95% confidence interval 29% to 48%). In a multivariate analyses controlling for age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, number of relaparotomies and length of hospital stay, the likelihood of ICU-admitted patients having PTSD symptomology was 4.3 times higher (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 16.5) than patients not admitted to the ICU, using a PTSS-10 score cutoff of 35 or greater. Older patients and males were less likely to report PTSD symptoms. Conclusion Nearly a quarter of patients receiving surgical treatment for secondary peritonitis developed PTSD symptoms. Patients admitted to the ICU were at significantly greater risk for having PTSD symptoms after adjusting for baseline differences, in particular age.
Boer, Kimberly R; Mahler, Cecilia W; Unlu, Cagdas; Lamme, Bas; Vroom, Margreeth B; Sprangers, Mirjam A; Gouma, Dirk J; Reitsma, Johannes B; De Borgie, Corianne A; Boermeester, Marja A
BACKGROUND: Validity of self-reported height and weight has not been adequately evaluated in diverse adolescent populations. In fact there are no reported validity studies conducted in Asian children and adolescents. This study aims to examine the accuracy of self-reported weight, height, and resultant BMI values in Chinese adolescents, and of the adolescents' subsequent classification into overweight categories. METHODS: Weight and
Xiaoyan Zhou; Michael J Dibley; Yue Cheng; Xue Ouyang; Hong Yan
Objective To study the relationship between self-reported childhood maltreatment and cerebral gray matter in adolescents without psychiatric diagnoses. Design Associations between childhood maltreatment (measured by a childhood trauma self-report questionnaire for physical, emotional and sexual abuse, and physical and emotional neglect) and regional gray matter were examined. Setting University hospital. Participants 42 adolescents without psychiatric disorders. Outcome Measures Correlations between childhood trauma questionnaire scores and regional gray matter volume were assessed in voxel-based analyses of structural magnetic resonance scans. Relationships between gray matter volume and childhood maltreatment subtypes and gender where explored. Results Total childhood trauma questionnaire scores correlated negatively (p<0.005) with gray matter volumes in prefrontal cortex, striatum, amygdala, sensory association cortices and cerebellum. Physical abuse, physical neglect and emotional neglect were associated with rostral prefrontal reductions. Additionally, decreases in dorsolateral and orbitofrontal cortices, insula, and ventral striatum were associated with physical abuse, in cerebellum with physical neglect, and in dorsolateral, orbitofrontal and subgenual prefrontal cortices, striatum, amygdala, hippocampus and cerebellum with emotional neglect. These latter emotion regulation regions were also associated with childhood trauma questionnaire scores in females, while caudate reductions, which may relate to impulse dyscontrol, were seen in males. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment was associated with corticostriatal-limbic gray matter reductions in adolescents. These findings suggest that even if adolescents reporting childhood maltreatment exposure do not present with symptoms that meet full criteria for psychiatric disorders, they may have corticostriatal-limbic changes that place them at risk for behavioral difficulties. Vulnerabilities may be moderated by gender and maltreatment subtype.
Edmiston, Erin E.; Wang, Fei; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Guiney, Joanne; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.; Blumberg, Hilary P.
A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 216 men and 191 women attending a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic was undertaken to explore the relationship between sexual symptoms and quality of sexual life, and to test the psychometric validity of a pilot self-report measure of Sexual Function and Quality of Sexual Life (SFQoSL). Statistical comparisons were made with three reference groups: volunteers attending
BACKGROUND: Cold sensitivity is a common and disabling complaint following hand injuries. The main purpose of this study was to describe self-reported consequences of cold sensitivity and the association with disability and health-related quality of life in patients with hand injuries or hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) and in normal subjects. METHODS: Responses to the Cold Intolerance Symptom Severity (CISS) questionnaire,
Objective To determine if baseline functional health status, as measured by SF-36 (veterans), predicts new onset symptoms or diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder among deployed US military personnel with combat exposure.Design Prospective cohort analysis.Setting Millennium Cohort.Participants Combat deployed members who completed baseline (2001-3) and follow-up (2004-6) questionnaires. Selfreported and electronic data used to examine the relation between functional health
Cynthia A LeardMann; Tyler C Smith; Besa Smith; Timothy S Wells; Margaret A K Ryan
Infant-directed (ID) speech produced by fathers who varied in their number of self-reportedsymptoms of depressed was analyzed for differences its ability to promote infant voice-face associative learning. Infants of fathers with elevated scores on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) showed significantly poorer learning than did infants of fathers with non-elevated BDI-II scores when their fathers’ ID speech served as a conditioned stimulus for a face reinforcer in a conditioned-attention paradigm. Fathers with elevated BDI-II scores produced ID speech with marginally significantly lower F0 variability than fathers with non-elevated BDI-II scores. However, F0-related cues were uncorrelated with infant learning. Overall, fathers’ ID speech contained significantly less F0 modulation than did mothers’ ID speech. These findings show that paternal depression, like maternal depression, adversely affects infant learning in a conditioned-attention paradigm.
Kaplan, Peter S.; Sliter, Jessica K; Burgess, Aaron P.
This population-based cross-sectional survey assessed the prevalence of work-aggravated asthma symptoms and the effect of the work environment on the aggravation of symptoms of established asthma. A questionnaire was sent to 2,613 persons (aged 20-65 yrs) with asthma. The analyses were restricted to the 969 respondents who were currently employed. The effect of occupational exposure on the aggravation of asthma symptoms at work was assessed according to both self-reported and expert-evaluated exposure. Approximately 21% of the respondents reported work-aggravated asthma symptoms at least weekly during the past month. The prevalence of those with work-aggravated symptoms increased by age, self-reported occupational exposure to dusts, abnormal temperatures or poor indoor air quality, physically strenuous work, and chemicals, and expert-evaluated probability of daily occupational exposure to airborne dusts, gases or fumes. Aggravation of asthma symptoms at work is common among employed adults with asthma. Both self-reported and expert-evaluated exposure to dusts, abnormal temperatures or poor indoor air quality, physically strenuous work, and chemicals explained the significant worsening of symptoms. The findings suggest a marked role of the work environment in the aggravation of symptoms of established asthma. PMID:12952265
Context It has been reported that childhood psychotic symptoms are common in the general population and may signal neurodevelopmental processes that lead to schizophrenia. However, it is not clear whether these symptoms are associated with the same extensive risk factors established for adult schizophrenia. Objective To examine the construct validity of children’s self-reported psychotic symptoms by testing whether these symptoms share the risk factors and clinical features of adult schizophrenia. Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort study of a nationally representative birth cohort in Great Britain. Participants A total of 2232 twelve-year-old children followed up since age 5 years (retention, 96%). Main Outcome Measure Children’s self-reported hallucinations and delusions. Results Children’s psychotic symptoms are familial and heritable and are associated with social risk factors (eg, urbanicity); cognitive impairments at age 5; home-rearing risk factors (eg, maternal expressed emotion); behavioral, emotional, and educational problems at age 5; and comorbid conditions, including self-harm. Conclusions The results provide a comprehensive picture of the construct validity of children’s self-reported psychotic symptoms. For researchers, the findings indicate that children who have psychotic symptoms can be recruited for neuroscience research to determine the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. For clinicians, the findings indicate that psychotic symptoms in childhood are often a marker of an impaired developmental process and should be actively assessed.
Psychometric properties of the Inventory of Drug Use Consequences (InDUC; W. M. Miller, J. S. Tonigan, & R. Longabaugh, 1995), a self-report assessment of negative consequences associated with alcohol and other drug use, were investigated. The InDUC demonstrated sound psychometric characteristics and can be a valuable clinical tool for chemical…
The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), a new self-report measure for determining the diagnosis and severity of obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD), was validated with 141 patients with OCD, 58 with social phobia, 44 with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 194 nonpatients. The OCI exhibited satisfactory reliability and validity with all four…
Foa, Edna B.; Kozak, Michael J.; Salkovskis, Paul M.; Coles, Meredith E.; Amir, Nader
Custody evaluation likely induces a motivation for parents to distort self-reports of parenting behavior. This study examined thesusceptibility of the Parent–Child Relationship Inventory (PCRI) to exaggeration of positive parenting in an instructional manipulation simulating a custody evaluation versus research study in 64 university students who were parents of children between the ages of 3 and 15. Results suggested that the
Natalie L. Tobin; Robert W. Seals; John P. Vincent
Objective: To examine the reliability of the ecSatter Inventory (ecSI), a measure of eating competence. Design: Self-report questionnaires were administered in person or by mail. Retesting occurred 2 to 6 weeks after completion of the first questionnaire. Participants: Both administrations of the questionnaire were completed by 259 participants…
Subjects read a situation description and rated the likelihood of their taking the response designated as appropriate. Regression analyses revealed the contributions of sex and the traits of instrumentality and emotional expressiveness (as measures earlier by the Bem Sex Role Inventory) to self-reported instrumentality and emotional…
The Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI; Nichols & Molinder, 1984) is a self-report measure frequently used in the assessment of sex offenders. Scores on the MSI are often used to assess levels of pedophilic interest. However, the question of whether men with pedophilia represent a unique group distinguished by their sexual interests, or whether they…
Mackaronis, Julia E.; Strassberg, Donald S.; Marcus, David K.
The range of response options has been shown to influence the answers given in self-report instruments that measure behaviors ranging from television viewing to sexual partners. The current research extends this line of inquiry to 36 quantitative items extracted from a biographical inventory used in personnel selection. A total of 92…
Kirnan, Jean Powell; Edler, Erin; Carpenter, Allison
The purpose of this study was to develop and gather initial psychometric information on the Self-Regulated Learning Inventory for Teachers (SRLIT). The SRLIT is a self-report scale with 23 items measuring primary school teachers' realisations of self-regulated learning (SRL) practices. Information regarding the instrument's factor structure,…
Objective: To develop a youth form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory (MB-HSBI--Youth) for use in identifying self-reported motivators of and barriers to the following health-promoting behaviors (called "health-smart" behaviors): eating a healthy breakfast, eating healthy foods and snacks, drinking healthy…
Tucker, Carolyn M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Desmond, Frederic F.; Hou, Wei; Kaye, Lillian B.; Smith, Tasia M.
The Academic Success Inventory for College Students (ASICS) is a newly-developed, self-report instrument designed to evaluate academic success in college students. The 50-item instrument has 10 factors that measure general academic skills, career decidedness, internal and external motivation, anxiety, concentration, socializing, personal…
The White Bear Suppression Inventory [WBSI; Wegner, D. M. & Zanakos, S. (1994), Journal of Personality, 62, 615–640] is a self-report questionnaire measuring people's general tendency to suppress unwanted negative thoughts. The current article describes two studies investigating the reliability, factor structure, validity, and correlates of the WBSI. Study 1 (n = 172) showed that the WBSI is a reliable
Peter Muris; Harald Merckelbach; Robert Horselenberg
Previous research involving cluster analysis of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) profiles among persons with chronic low back pain has suggested the existence of four distinct profile clusters. The present study had two goals: (1) to replicate the previous finding independently and (2) to investigate the relationship of the profiles to the subjects' self-reported pain history and response to treatment.
Jerry C. McGill; G. Frank Lawlis; David Selby; Vert Mooney; C. E. McCoy
Peer relationships play a critical role in the development of social skills and personal feelings essential for personal growth. The Teenage Inventory of Social Skills is a self-report designed exclusively to reflect behaviors functionally related to peer acceptance in adolescence. The aim of the present work was to determine the reliability and…
Ingles, Candido J.; Hidalgo, Maria D.; Mendez, F. Xavier; Inderbitzen, Heidi, M.
Self-deception has become a construct of great interest in individual differences research because it has been associated with levels of resilience and mental health. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) is a self-report measure used for quantifying self-deception. In this study we used Rasch modeling to examine the properties of…
Cervellione, Kelly L.; Lee, Young-Sun; Bonanno, George A.
Objective: The Casey Foster Applicant Inventory-Applicant Version (CFAI-A) is a new standardized self-report measure designed to assess the potential to foster parent successfully. The CFAI-A is described, and results concerning its psychometric properties are presented. Method: Data from a sample of 304 foster mothers from 35 states are analyzed.…
Orme, John G.; Cuddeback, Gary S.; Buehler, Cheryl; Cox, Mary Ellen; Le Prohn, Nicole S.
Resilience has been associated with a markedly decreased chance for risky behaviors following a trauma or other negative life event. This study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of a self-report measure of resilience, the Suicide Resilience Inventory–25 (SRI–25; Osman et al., 2004), among psychiatric inpatient adolescents. In Study 1, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis to provide additional empirical
Peter M. Gutierrez; Stacey Freedenthal; Jane L. Wong; Augustine Osman; Tamami Norizuki
This paper describes the development of the fourth and latest version of the Teacher Variance Inventory-IV (TVI-IV). It was designed to improve the psychometric properties of the TVI and explore other characteristics that enable the TVI to be used for teacher consultation. The TVI-IV is a self-report measure based on Teacher Variance theory, a…
Little is known about how the miscarriage rate has changed over the past few decades in the United States. Data from Cycles IV to VI of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were used to examine trends from 1970 to 2000. After accounting for abortion availability and the characteristics of pregnant women, the rate of reported miscarriages increased by about 1.0% per year. This upward trend is strongest in the first seven weeks and absent after 12 weeks of pregnancy. African American and Hispanic women report lower rates of early miscarriage than do whites. The probability of reporting a miscarriage rises by about 5% per year of completed schooling. The upward trend, especially in early miscarriages, suggests awareness of pregnancy rather than prenatal care to be a key factor in explaining the evolution of self-reported miscarriages. Any beneficial effects of prenatal care on early miscarriage are obscured by this factor. Differences in adoption of early-awareness technology, such as home pregnancy tests, should be taken into account when analyzing results from self-reports or clinical trials relying on awareness of pregnancy in its early weeks.
Self-reported disability in performing daily life activities was assessed in adults with severe obesity (BMI ??35?kg/m2) using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). 262 participants were recruited into three BMI groups: Group I: 35–39.99?kg/m2; Group II: 40–44.99?kg/m2; Group III: ?45.0?kg/m2. Progressively increasing HAQ scores were documented with higher BMI; Group I HAQ score: 0.125 (median) (range: 0–1.75); Group II HAQ score: 0.375 (0–2.5); Group III HAQ score: 0.75 (0–2.65) (Group III versus II P < 0.001; Group III versus I P < 0.001; Group II versus I P = 0.004). HAQ score strongly correlated with BMI and age. Nearly three-fourths of the study participants reported some degree of disability (HAQ score > 0). The prevalence of this degree of disability increased with increasing BMI and age. It also correlated to type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and clinical depression, but not to gender. Our data suggest that severe obesity is associated with self-reported disability in performing common daily life activities, with increasing degree of disability as BMI increases over 35?kg/m2. Functional assessment is crucial in obesity management, and establishing the disability profiles of obese patients is integral to both meet the specific healthcare needs of individuals and develop evidence-based public health programs, interventions, and priorities.
The aim of the current analysis was to examine the determinates of lipid-adjusted body levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) from occupational histories, age, body mass index, and self-reported information from a questionnaire. We collected serum from 346 workers at a New Zealand chemical plant that manufactured and formulated the herbicide, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). Age, body mass index, and employment history were significant determinates of TCDD. The self-reported data on occupation, residence, and general diet were not predictive of serum levels and we observed no evidence of increased TCDD levels from living close to the site. For participants with putative occupational exposure, employment history and personal factors were important to understand the range of TCDD serum levels. For employees without direct occupational exposure, and resulting lower dioxin levels, we recommend further efforts to develop and validate questionnaires to better evaluate environmental sources of dioxins. PMID:20018278
Burns, C J; Collins, J J; Humphry, N; Bodner, K M; Aylward, L L; McBride, D
Research has revealed negative associations between religiosity and alcohol consumption. Given these associations, the aim of the current research was to evaluate whether the order of assessing each construct might affect subsequent reports of the other. The present research provided an experimental evaluation of response biases of self-reported religiosity and alcohol consumption based on order of assessment. Participants (N = 301 undergraduate students) completed an online survey. Based on random assignment, religiosity was assessed either before or after questions regarding recent alcohol consumption. Social desirability bias was also measured. Results revealed a priming effect such that participants who answered questions about their religiosity prior to their alcohol consumption reported fewer drinks on their peak drinking occasions, drinking less on typical occasions, and drinking less frequently, even when controlling for social desirability and for the significant negative associations between their own religiosity and drinking. In contrast, assessment order was not significantly associated with religiosity. Results indicate priming religion results in reporting lower, but potentially more accurate, levels of health risk behaviors and that these effects are not simply the result of socially desirable responding. Results are interpreted utilizing several social–cognitive theories and suggest that retrospective self-reports of drinking may be more malleable than self-descriptions of religiosity. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Foster, Dawn W.
Background and Purpose Levetiracetam (LEV) is a new antiepileptic drug that has been found to be effective as an adjunctive therapy for uncontrolled partial seizures. However, the results of several studies suggested that LEV has negative psychotropic effects, including irritability, aggressiveness, suicidality, and mood disorders. We investigated the impact of adjunctive LEV on psychiatric symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in patients with drug-refractory epilepsy (DRE) and determined the risk factors provoking psychiatric adverse events. Methods A 24-week, prospective, open-label study was conducted. At enrollment, we interviewed patients and reviewed their medical charts to collect demographic and clinical information. They were asked to complete self-report health questionnaires designed to measure various psychiatric symptoms and QOL at enrollment and 24 weeks later. Results Seventy-one patients were included in the study, 12 patients (16.9%) of whom discontinued LEV therapy due to serious adverse events including suicidality. The risk factor for premature withdrawal was a previous history of psychiatric diseases (odds ratio 4.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-17.32). LEV intake resulted in significant improvements in Beck Anxiety Inventory score (p<0.01) and some domains of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, such as somatization (p<0.05), obsessive-compulsiveness (p<0.05), depression (p<0.05), and anxiety (p<0.05). These improvements were not related to the occurrence of seizure freedom. The Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-31 overall score and subscale scores, such as seizure worry (p<0.01), overall QOL (p<0.05), emotional well-being (p<0.05), energy-fatigue (p<0.05), and social function (p<0.05), also improved. Conclusions Adjunctive LEV in patients with DRE is likely to improve psychiatric symptoms and QOL. Clinicians should be well aware of the psychiatric histories of patients to prevent them from developing serious adverse events related to LEV.
Background: Patients with end-stage renal insufficiency undergoing hemodialysis show important psychiatric morbidity, particularly increased depression and anxiety. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, however, are much less frequently investigated. The purpose of the present study was thus to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms in hemodialysis patients. Method: Patients treated at an outpatient hospital hemodialysis unit (July 2007) were compared with controls on scores on the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) and its checking, cleaning, slowness, and doubting components as well as on measures of emotional (Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory), and cognitive (Trail Making Test) status. Student t tests, analyses of covariance, or nonparametric tests were used. Correlations were applied between behavioral outcomes and demographic, clinical, and laboratory data of patients. Results: Patients showed more obsessive traits than controls on the MOCI total score (P < .001) and on the checking, cleaning, and doubting subscales. Significant differences between groups occurred also in Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (P ? .001). The MOCI total score did not correlate with marital status, education level, duration of hemodialysis, or the other psychological instrument scores in patients. By contrast, the MOCI total score was associated with the level of creatinine, and it showed an inverse correlation with the urea reduction ratio in patients (P < .05). Conclusions: Obsessive-compulsive symptoms may constitute an important aspect of the psychiatric profile of patients undergoing hemodialysis. Potential interpretation involves disease- and treatment-associated factors or adaptive responses to emergence of otherwise uncontrollable stress.
Translational biomarkers, such as prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, are playing an increasingly important role in the development of antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia and related conditions. However, attempts to reliably induce a PPI deficit by psychotomimetic drugs have not been successful, leaving an unmet need for a cross-species psychosis model sensitive to this widely studied surrogate treatment target. Sleep deprivation (SD) might be such a model as it has previously been shown to induce PPI deficits in rats, which could be selectively prevented with antipsychotic but not anxiolytic or antidepressant compounds. Here, in a first proof-of-concept study we tested whether SD induces a deficit in PPI and an increase in psychosis-like symptoms in healthy humans. In two counterbalanced sessions, acoustic PPI and self-reported psychosis-like symptoms (Psychotomimetic States Inventory) were measured in 24 healthy human volunteers after a normal night's sleep and after a night of total SD. SD decreased PPI (p = 0.001) without affecting the magnitude or habituation of the startle response (all p > 0.13). SD also induced perceptual distortions, cognitive disorganization, and anhedonia (all p < 0.02). Thus, extending previous rodent work, we conclude that SD, in combination with the PPI biomarker, might be a promising translational surrogate model for psychosis as this method represents a possibility to partially and reversibly mimic the pathogenesis of psychotic states. PMID:24990933
The present study assessed the rate of depressive personality (DP), as measured by the self-report instrument depressive personality disorder inventory (DPDI), among 159 clients entering psychotherapy at an outpatient university clinic. The presenting clinical profile was evaluated for those with and without DP, including levels of depressed mood, other psychological symptoms, and global severity of psychopathology. Clients were followed naturalistically over the course of therapy, up to 40 weeks, and reassessed on these variables again after treatment. Results indicated that 44 percent of the sample qualified for DP prior to treatment, and these individuals had a comparatively more severe and complex presenting disposition than those without DP. Mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine between-groups changes on mood and global severity over time, with those with DP demonstrating larger reductions on both outcome variables, although still showing more symptoms after treatment, than those without DP. Only eleven percent of the sample continued to endorse DP following treatment. These findings suggest that in routine clinical situations, psychotherapy may benefit individuals with DP.
Background The evaluation of smoke-free legislation (SFL) in the UK examined the impacts on exposure to second-hand smoke, workers’ attitudes and changes in respiratory health. Studies that investigate changes in the health of groups of people often use self-reportedsymptoms. Due to the subjective nature it is of interest to determine whether workers’ attitudes towards the change in their working conditions may be linked to the change in health they report. Methods Bar workers were recruited before the introduction of the SFL in Scotland and England with the aim of investigating their changes to health, attitudes and exposure as a result of the SFL. They were asked about their attitudes towards SFL and the presence of respiratory and sensory symptoms both before SFL and one year later. Here we examine the possibility of a relationship between initial attitudes and changes in reported symptoms, through the use of regression analyses. Results There was no difference in the initial attitudes towards SFL between those working in Scotland and England. Bar workers who were educated to a higher level tended to be more positive towards SFL. Attitude towards SFL was not found to be related to change in reported symptoms for bar workers in England (Respiratory, p?=?0.755; Sensory, p?=?0.910). In Scotland there was suggestion of a relationship with reporting of respiratory symptoms (p?=?0.042), where those who were initially more negative to SFL experienced a greater improvement in self-reported health. Conclusions There was no evidence that workers who were more positive towards SFL reported greater improvements in respiratory and sensory symptoms. This may not be the case in all interventions and we recommend examining subjects’ attitudes towards the proposed intervention when evaluating possible health benefits using self-reported methods.
The relationship between quality of life (QoL) and skin lesion improvement due to psoriasis treatment has been recently underlined. Our objective was to study the self-reported disease severity reduction and QoL during spa treatments and identify predictors of psoriasis improvement. Patients were assessed before and after spa treatment with a disease-specific QoL questionnaire (Skindex-17) and self-administered psoriasis area and severity index (SAPASI). Their correlations were tested. Factors predicting a reduction in Skindex-17 or in SAPASI score were evaluated through regression analysis. Significant mean overall reductions in SAPASI (27%) and Skindex-17 scores (psychosocial: 6%; symptoms: 2%) were achieved. However, 51% of patients reporting SAPASI improvement also reported a worsened QoL. Pearson's correlation between the SAPASI and Skindex-17 scores was poor (r=0.26 for SAPASI-symptoms and r=0.40 for SAPASI-psychosocial). Logistic regression analysis identified the age of psoriasis onset before 30 years (OR=3.81, 95% CI 1.22-11.95, p=0.02) and a basal Skindex-17 symptoms value greater than 5 (OR=3.37, 95% CI 1.12-10.08, p=0.03) as predictive of both SAPASI and Skindex-17 score reductions. Age-of-onset-based stratification identifies the subset most likely to respond to spa treatment. Combining the Skindex-17 with SAPASI provides a more comprehensive patient-centered assessment. We recommend this assessment for psoriasis patients undergoing spa treatment. PMID:22063458
Pagliarello, Calogero; Calza, Anna; Di Pietro, Cristina; Tabolli, Stefano
Relations were examined among the CPI Creativity Scale (CPI-CT), the MBTI Creativity Index (MBTI-CI), and the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI; a style measure of behavioral preference) for samples of 431 to 12,115 managers. KAI scores were related to CPI-CT and MBTI-CI creativity levels. (SLD)
Background Around 9% to 20% of bereaved individuals experience symptoms of complicated grief (CG) that are associated with significant distress and impairment. A major issue is whether CG represents a distinctive nosographic entity, independent from other mental disorders, particularly major depression (MD), and the role of symptoms of adult separation anxiety. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with CG versus a sample of healthy control subjects, with particular focus on adult separation anxiety and lifetime mood spectrum symptoms. Methods A total of 53 patients with CG and 50 healthy control subjects were consecutively recruited and assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I/P), Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire (ASA-27), Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) and Mood Spectrum-SelfReport (MOODS-SR) lifetime version. Results Patients with CG reported significantly higher scores on the MOODS-SR, ASA-27, and WSAS with respect to healthy control subjects. The scores on the ASA-27 were significantly associated with the MOODS-SR depressive and manic components amongst both patients and healthy control subjects, with a stronger association in the latter. Conclusions A major limitation of the present study is the small sample size that may reduce the generalizability of the results. Moreover, lifetime MOODS-SR does not provide information about the temporal sequence of the manic or depressive symptoms and the loss. The frequent comorbidity with MD and the association with both depressive and manic lifetime symptoms do not support the independence of CG from mood disorders. In our patients, CG is associated with high levels of separation anxiety in adulthood. However, the presence of lifetime mood instability, as measured by the frequent presence of depressive and hypomanic lifetime symptoms, suggests that cyclothymia might represent the common underlying feature characterizing the vulnerability to both adult separation anxiety and CG.
OBJECTIVE. We examined agreement of data between self-reported and objectively assessed exercise adherence among women with systemic lupus erythematosus. METHOD. Eleven participants completed weekly exercise logs on date and duration of exercise during a 10-wk Wii Fit™ home-based program. Afterward, exercise data from the log were compared with those recorded in the Wii console. RESULTS. Of the paired data, the mean duration of exercise recorded in the Wii was 29.5 min and that recorded in the log was 33.3 min. The composite intraclass correlation for exercise duration between exercise log and the Wii Fit was 0.4. The 95% limits of agreement indicated large between-subjects variability. CONCLUSION. Exercise logs exhibit a marginally acceptable agreement with Wii estimation of exercise duration at a group level. However, caution should be applied when using the exercise log as a measure of a person’s exercise behavior because of the tendency to overreport.
Wang, Ed; Holthaus, Katy; Vogtle, Laura K.; Sword, David; Breland, Hazel L.; Kamen, Diane L.
Direct assessment of capability to function may be useful in healthcare settings, but poses many challenges. This paper reports a first investigation of the feasibility of individuals self-reporting their capabilities and the meaning of the responses. The study was conducted in 2010, using think-aloud interviews with participants in the UK. The findings of the study suggest that the majority of participants were able to comprehend questions about their capabilities, felt able to judge their own capability wellbeing and provided responses in line with this judgement. In a number of cases, for example in relation to ‘autonomy’, participants highlighted that their capability was potentially greater than their functioning. The findings also show varying interpretations of the capability concept, with some participants finding the capability concept unintuitive in relation to specific aspects of life (in particular, ‘attachment’). The findings suggest that guiding individuals in the process of identifying their capabilities may be important in generating consistent responses to capability questions.
Background Poor sleep quality (SQ) and daytime sleepiness (DS) are common in renal transplant (RTx) recipients; however, related data are rare. This study describes the prevalence and frequency of self-reported sleep disturbances in RTx recipients. Methods This cross-sectional study included 249 RTx recipients transplanted at three Swiss transplant centers. All had reported poor SQ and / or DS in a previous study. With the Survey of Sleep (SOS) self-report questionnaire, we screened for sleep and health habits, sleep history, main sleep problems and sleep-related disturbances. To determine a basis for preliminary sleep diagnoses according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), 164 subjects were interviewed (48 in person, 116 via telephone and 85 refused). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data and to determine the frequencies and prevalences of specific sleep disorders. Results The sample had a mean age of 59.1?±?11.6 years (60.2% male); mean time since Tx was 11.1?±?7.0 years. The most frequent sleep problem was difficulty staying asleep (49.4%), followed by problems falling asleep (32.1%). The most prevalent sleep disturbance was the need to urinate (62.9%), and 27% reported reduced daytime functionality. Interview data showed that most suffered from the first ICSD category: insomnias. Conclusion Though often disregarded in RTx recipients, sleep is an essential factor of wellbeing. Our findings show high prevalences and incidences of insomnias, with negative impacts on daytime functionality. This indicates a need for further research on the clinical consequences of sleep disturbances and the benefits of insomnia treatment in RTx recipients.
Self-reported short or long sleep duration has been repeatedly found to be associated with increased mortality and health risks. However, there is still an insufficient amount of detailed knowledge available to characterize the short and long sleep duration groups in general population. Consequently, the underlying mechanisms potentially explaining the health risks associated with short and long sleep duration are unclear. In the present study, the self-reported sleep duration in a sample of Finnish general population was studied, and its possible associations with such factors as self-perceived health, sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, sleep difficulties and daytime concomitants were analyzed. In particular, an effort was made to define mutually statistically-independent determinants of sleep duration. In the Finnish Health 2000 Survey, a representative sample of 8,028 subjects of 30 years of age or older and a sample of 1,894 subjects of 18-29 years of age were invited to take part in the health interview and health examination. The participation rate of the study was over 80%. The most important and statistically-independent determinants of short and long sleep duration were gender, physical tiredness, sleep problems, marital status, main occupation and physical activity. However, in the multivariable model they only accounted for approximately 16% of the variance in sleep duration in short and long sleepers, suggesting multiple sources of variance. The present study also suggests a dose-response like relationship between the sleep duration and many of its determinants within both short and long sleepers. A more detailed analysis of the clinical status of the short and long sleep duration groups is needed to evaluate the possible importance of these findings for health risks associated with sleep duration. PMID:16911030
This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to “conventional” property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11–18 years old in 1976–77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36–44) in 2002–2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002–2003 (total age range 11–88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes.
Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G.; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C.
Objectives Heightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct. Data sources PubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database. Review methods Abstracts were screened; potentially relevant instruments were obtained and systematically reviewed. Instruments were excluded if they exclusively measured anxiety, covered emotions without related physical sensations, used observer ratings only, or were unobtainable. We restricted our study to the proprioceptive and interoceptive channels of body awareness. The psychometric properties of each scale were rated using a structured evaluation according to the method of McDowell. Following a working definition of the multi-dimensional construct, an inter-disciplinary team systematically examined the items of existing body awareness instruments, identified the dimensions queried and used an iterative qualitative process to refine the dimensions of the construct. Results From 1,825 abstracts, 39 instruments were screened. 12 were included for psychometric evaluation. Only two were rated as high standard for reliability, four for validity. Four domains of body awareness with 11 sub-domains emerged. Neither a single nor a compilation of several instruments covered all dimensions. Key domains that might potentially differentiate adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness were missing in the reviewed instruments. Conclusion Existing self-report instruments do not address important domains of the construct of body awareness, are unable to discern between adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness, or exhibit other psychometric limitations. Restricting the construct to its proprio- and interoceptive channels, we explore the current understanding of the multi-dimensional construct and suggest next steps for further research.
Mehling, Wolf E.; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Price, Cynthia J.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Stewart, Anita
Major depressive disorder (MDD) co-occurs frequently with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and both disorders are linked to suicidal ideation. An emergent literature examines suicidal ideation in U.S. Afghanistan/Iraq-era veterans. Little research, however, has studied the role of PTSD and comorbid MDD on suicidal ideation across service eras. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the impact of depression on suicidal ideation in Afghanistan/Iraq-era and Vietnam-era veterans with PTSD. The sample included 164 Vietnam and 98 Afghanistan/Iraq veterans diagnosed with PTSD at a VA outpatient PTSD Clinic. Using structured interviews, 63% of the Vietnam sample and 45% of the Afghanistan/Iraq sample were diagnosed with comorbid current MDD. Measures included self-report assessments of PTSD and depressive symptoms and the Personality Assessment Inventory. Results of analyses suggested that in veterans of both eras, PTSD, MDD, and their interaction were significantly related to suicidal ideation (PTSD: ?(2) = .01; MDD: ?(2) = .10; PTSD × MDD: ?(2) = .02). For veterans reporting greater depressive symptoms, there was a stronger relationship between PTSD symptoms and suicidal ideation. These results suggest that veterans from both eras display a similar clinical presentation and highlight the need to consider depressive symptoms when assessing veterans with PTSD. Future research should examine suicidal ideation and behaviors as they change over time in these two cohorts. PMID:23047458
Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Pontoski, Kristin E; Maxwell, Melissa A; Calhoun, Patrick S; Dutton, Courtney E; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Collie, Claire F; Beckham, Jean C
Daughter's early childhood stress, conflict in the family environment, childhood behavioral symptoms, early puberty, and early dating behavior are related to mothers' early menarche and sexual involvement by a retrospective self-report survey (21 mothers; 28 daughters). Intended as a test of Belsky's theory, alternative explanations for findings…
A study compared 31 abused and 21 non-abused Latino children on measures of depression, anxiety, behavior problems, and dissociation. Abused children had higher levels of symptoms on most measures. Scores of the abused children on self-report measures were not in the clinical range, but results of parent measures were in the clinical range.…
The current study examined relationships between attachment style, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety disorders symptoms not only relying on youths' self-report but also including the parents' point of view. A large group of young adolescents aged 11–15 years and their parents (N = 280) completed measures of attachment style and behavioral inhibition and the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale, a
Prospective analysis was performed of self-reported and biochemically confirmed tobacco use in 50 head and neck cancer patients during treatment. With 93.5% compliance to complete weekly self-report and biochemical confirmatory tests, 29.4% of smokers required biochemical assessment for identification. Accuracy increased by 14.9% with weekly vs. baseline self-reported assessments. Data confirm that head and neck cancer patients misrepresent true tobacco use during treatment. PMID:22119370
Warren, Graham W; Arnold, Susanne M; Valentino, Joseph P; Gal, Thomas J; Hyland, Andrew J; Singh, Anurag K; Rangnekar, Vivek M; Cummings, K Michael; Marshall, James R; Kudrimoti, Mahesh R
This study examined differences in self-reported coping strategies across children classified according to Weinberger et al.'s (1979) adaptive style paradigm. Consistent with the larger literature, it was hypothesized that repressors (i.e. characterized by high self-reported defensiveness and low self-reported distress) would endorse fewer behaviorally and cognitively avoidant coping strategies than other adaptive style groups. Participants included 134 children, ranging in
Data from a survey questionnaire and from water utility billing records are used to compare self-reported and actual water savings for 471 households during a conservation campaign. Self-reports are only weakly related to actual changes in water consumption. Errors are widespread, and not wholly random: The accuracy of self-reports increases with household socioeconomic status and with the extent of conservation
Background Eliciting symptom and quality of life information from patients is an important component of medical and nursing care processes. Traditionally, this information has been collected with paper and pencil. However, this approach presents several barriers, including delays in receiving information, difficulty integrating responses with electronic records and the time required to manual score questionnaires for measurement purposes. One solution that addresses many of these barriers is the adoption of computerized screening for symptom and quality of life information. Objective This research explored the acceptability of asking symptom and quality of life questions using the Electronic SelfReport Assessment – Cancer program on wireless laptops equipped with touch screen format. Methods Acceptability data was explored with respect to whether any differences may be attributed to demographics, and symptom and quality of life levels such as depression, cognitive and emotional functioning. This evaluation utilized descriptive and univariate statistics to examine data from 342 participants from the ongoing ESRA-C randomized clinical trial. Research participants for the ESRA-C study were recruited from the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA), a consortium between the University of Washington Medical Center, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center in Seattle, Washington. Results The sample consisted of 342 adult participants who completed both baseline and follow-up survey sessions. Medical Oncology represented the largest recruitment group (45.3%), followed by Stem Cell Transplant (34.5%) and Radiation Oncology (20.2%). The primary finding was that patients were generally able to utilize ESRA-C quickly and without difficulty in a real-world clinical setting and that they were overall quite satisfied with the ESRA-C program. Significant differences were found in several acceptability areas with respect to demographics and quality of life measures, such as age, gender, and severe distress. Conclusions This analysis confirms that the ESRA-C application for collecting symptom and quality of life information is easy for patients to use and acceptable across a range of user characteristics. We intend to build on our work by using the survey platform in other modalities while ensuring that the patient’s preferences are considered at all times.
The Cancer Care Monitor (CCM) is a tablet computer-based multidimensional measure of symptom burden and quality of life. This study examined individual item validity for 42 items measuring general physical symptoms and treatment side effects. Patients (40 females and 20 males) completed the CCM and a blinded nurse interview. In general, patient self-reportedsymptoms on the CCM corresponded well to
Barry Fortner; Scott Baldwin; Lee Schwartzberg; Arthur C. Houts
The Cancer Care Monitor (CCM) is a tablet computer-based multidimensional measure of symptom burden and quality of life. This study examined individual item validity for 42 items measuring general physical symptoms and treatment side effects. Patients (40 females and 20 males) completed the CCM and a blinded nurse interview. In general, patient self- reportedsymptoms on the CCM corresponded well
Barry Fortner; Scott Baldwin; Lee Schwartzberg; Arthur C. Houts
Eating disorders (EDs) are common, complex psychiatric disorders thought to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. They share many symptoms, behaviors, and personality traits, which may have overlapping heritability. The aim of the present study is to perform a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) of six ED phenotypes comprising three symptom traits from the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 [Drive for Thinness (DT), Body Dissatisfaction (BD), and Bulimia], Weight Fluctuation symptom, Breakfast Skipping behavior and Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder trait (CHIRP). Investigated traits were derived from standardized self-report questionnaires completed by the TwinsUK population-based cohort. We tested 283,744 directly typed SNPs across six phenotypes of interest in the TwinsUK discovery dataset and followed-up signals from various strata using a two-stage replication strategy in two independent cohorts of European ancestry. We meta-analyzed a total of 2,698 individuals for DT, 2,680 for BD, 2,789 (821 cases/1,968 controls) for Bulimia, 1,360 (633 cases/727 controls) for Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder trait, 2,773 (761 cases/2,012 controls) for Breakfast Skipping, and 2,967 (798 cases/2,169 controls) for Weight Fluctuation symptom. In this GWAS analysis of six ED-related phenotypes, we detected association of eight genetic variants with P?10(-5) . Genetic variants that showed suggestive evidence of association were previously associated with several psychiatric disorders and ED-related phenotypes. Our study indicates that larger-scale collaborative studies will be needed to achieve the necessary power to detect loci underlying ED-related traits. PMID:22911880
Boraska, Vesna; Davis, Oliver S P; Cherkas, Lynn F; Helder, Sietske G; Harris, Juliette; Krug, Isabel; Liao, Thomas Pei-Chi; Treasure, Janet; Ntalla, Ioanna; Karhunen, Leila; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Christakopoulou, Danai; Raevuori, Anu; Shin, So-Youn; Dedoussis, George V; Kaprio, Jaakko; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D; Collier, David A; Zeggini, Eleftheria
Traditional, open-ended provider questions regarding patient symptoms are insensitive. Better methods are needed to measure symptoms for clinical management, patient-oriented research, and adverse drug-event reporting. Our objective was to develop and initially validate a brief, self-reported HIV symptom index tailored to patients exposed to multidrug antiretroviral therapies and protease inhibitors, and to compare the new index to existing symptom measures.
A. C Justice; W Holmes; A. L Gifford; L Rabeneck; R Zackin; G Sinclair; S Weissman; J Neidig; C Marcus; M Chesney; S. E Cohn; A. W Wu
We explored the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Peters et al. delusions inventory-21 (PDI-21) and evaluated the item characteristics of the PDI-21 compared with the Magical Ideation Scale (MIS) in Korean community adolescents. Survey participants comprised 310 Year 10 students who were assessed with the following instruments: the PDI-21, the MIS, the Schizotypal Personality Scale (STA) and the symptom checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R). The item characteristics of the PDI-21 and MIS were also explored using item response theory (IRT). The PDI-21 exhibited good internal consistency and demonstrated significant correlations with the MIS, STA and all subscale scores of the SCL-90-R, indicating psychological distress in adolescents with high PDI-21 scores. We also found through IRT analysis that the PDI-21 provides more information at the lower range and the MIS at the higher range of delusion proneness. Our findings suggest that the PDI-21 is an effective and reliable self-report measure for assessment of delusion proneness and that the PDI-21 and the MIS may be used complementarily to assess a broad range of delusion proneness among community adolescents. PMID:23122557
Kim, Yeni; Chang, Jae Seung; Hwang, Samuel; Yi, Jung Seo; Cho, In Hee; Jung, Hee Yeon
Using logistic and multiple regression, we examined the association between hostility, level of depressive symptoms, and smoking in a sample of 1699 ethnically diverse students in California. Self-reports were collected twice from each student, at the beginning of the 6th and 7th grade years. Among 6th graders who had not smoked, depressive symptoms and hostility were associated with smoking initiation
Jie Wu Weiss; Michele Mouttapa; Chih-Ping Chou; Elahe Nezami; C. Anderson Johnson; Paula H. Palmer; Steven Cen; Peggy Gallaher; Anamara Ritt-Olson; Jennifer B. Unger
Background Plantar heel pain is a common disorder of the foot for which patients seek medical treatment. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between duration of symptoms in plantar fasciitis patients and demographic factors, the intensity and location of pain, extent of previous treatment and selfreported pain and function. Methods The charts of patients presenting with plantar heel pain between June 2008 and October 2010 were reviewed retrospectively and 182 patients with a primary diagnosis of plantar fasciitis were identified. Patients with symptoms less than 6 months were identified as acute and patients with symptoms greater than or equal to six months were defined as having chronic symptoms. Comparisons based on duration of symptoms were performed for age, gender, BMI, comorbidities, pain location and intensity, and a functional score measured by the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM). Results The two groups were similar in age, BMI, gender, and comorbidities. Pain severity, as measured by a VAS, was not statistically significant between the two groups (6.6 and 6.2). The acute and chronic groups of patients reported similar levels of function on both the activity of daily living (62 and 65) and sports (47 and 45) subscales of the FAAM. Patients in the chronic group were more likely to have seen more providers and tried more treatment options for this condition. Conclusion As plantar fasciitis symptoms extend beyond 6 months, patients do not experience increasing pain intensity or functional limitation. No specific risk factors have been identified to indicate a risk of developing chronic symptoms.
Klein, Sandra E.; Dale, Ann Marie; Hayes, Marcie Harris; Johnson, Jeffrey E.; McCormick, Jeremy J.; Racette, Brad A.
The authors examined siblings' reports of children's depression, anxiety, and aggression, and their reports of the sibling relationship, and compared them with children's self-reports. In two samples, including 169 sibling pairs (age M = 9.98 years, SD = 1.51), no significant differences emerged in the levels of depression and anxiety found in siblings' reports of children's behavior and children's self-reports,
Background Schizophrenia and alcohol dependence (AD) are both major risk factors for a variety of medical problems, yet little is known about the medical status of patients in whom both conditions coexist. Objective To assess accuracy of self-reported medical problems and to compare the accuracy reports in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and co-occurring AD compared to patients with AD only and to controls. Our hypothesis was that medical problems are under-reported in patients with co-occurring disorders, possibly due to the combination of alcohol use and symptoms of schizophrenia. Methods Self-reported medical diagnoses were recorded and compared to medical records obtained from all area hospitals in 42 patients with schizophrenia and AD, 44 patients with schizoaffective disorder and AD, 41 patients with AD only, and 15 control subjects. Patients underwent a medical history, physical examination, and review of medical records. Results Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and co-occurring AD underreported their medical problems significantly more than patients with AD only and controls. Accuracy of selfreport was significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders plus co-occurring alcohol dependence than in AD alone or in controls. The most commonly underreported diagnoses included coronary artery disease, chronic renal failure, seizure disorder, hyperlipidemia, asthma and hypertension. Discussion In order to detect potentially unreported medical conditions in patients with co-occurring schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and alcohol dependence, the use of targeted screening questionnaires is recommended in addition to physical examination and thorough review of medical records.
Meszaros, Zsuzsa Szombathyne; Dimmock, Jacqueline A.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Chauhan, Sumerendra Vir Singh; Abdul-Malak, Ynesse; Middleton, Frank A.; Batki, Steven L.
Objective: There have been repeated calls from health professionals and policy-makers to clarify the side-effects of the increasingly popular consumption trend of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). There is a dearth of research assessing the differential effects of AmED relative to alcohol by comparing self-reported psychological and physiological outcomes whilst under the influence of these substances. The aim of the present study was to examine the acute effects of a moderate alcohol and energy drink (ED) dose on self-reported psychological and physiological outcomes. Method: Using a single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 28 adults completed four sessions where they were administered: (i) 0.50g/kg alcohol, (ii) 3.57mL/kg ED, (iii) AmED, and (iv) placebo. Participants independently completed the Profile of Mood States and a Somatic Symptom Scale at baseline and at 30 and 125min after beverage administration. Results: Breath alcohol concentration peaked at .068% and .067% in the alcohol and AmED conditions, respectively. There were no interactive alcohol and ED effects on self-reported psychological outcomes. Treatment effects for physiological outcomes generally only related to alcohol or ED administration, with the exception of a moderate magnitude decrease in heart palpitation ratings following alcohol relative to AmED. Decreased muscular tension ratings were evident when the two constituents were consumed separately relative to placebo. Conclusions: The results provide evidence of few subjective changes in physiological and psychological state after consuming AmED relative to alcohol. The majority of treatment-based changes arose from the independent effects of alcohol or ED, rather than being modified by their interaction. However, research extending into higher dosage domains is required to increase outcome generalisability for consumers in the night-time economy. PMID:24462484
Peacock, Amy; Bruno, Raimondo; Martin, Frances H; Carr, Andrea
Noise-induced loss of hearing has been recognized as an occupational health problem since the 18th century. Occupational deafness is an irreversible, sensorineural condition that results from damage to the nerve cells of the inner ear. Recent estimates from surveys indicate that between 7.4 and 10.2 million people work at sites where the level of noise presents an increased risk of hearing loss (85 decibels (dBA) or higher). During the period of 1978-1987, an estimated $835 million was paid in workers' compensation claims for occupationally induced hearing impairment. To assess the prevalence of hearing-loss symptoms among adult workers in the United States, investigators from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recently analyzed data collected during the 1971 and 1977 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). For this study, the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss was obtained for all persons over 17 years of age who were in the labor force at the time of interview. Data from the 1972-1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS) were used to classify worksites by noise level. NOHS was conducted by NIOSH from 1972 to 1974 on a probability sample of approximately 5000 workplaces across the United States. The survey provides information on potential exposures of workers to chemical and physical agents. These data identified industries and occupations in which employees are exposed to continuous noise.
Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and currently the only one legally available to children and adolescents. The sale and use of caffeinated beverages has increased markedly among adolescents during the last decade. However, research on caffeine use and behaviors among adolescents is scarce. We investigate the relationship between adolescent caffeine use and self-reported violent behaviors and conduct disorders in a population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,747 10th grade students (15-16 years of age, 50.2 % girls) who were enrolled in the Icelandic national education system during February 2012. Through a series of multiple regression models, while controlling for background factors, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and current medication and peer delinquency, and including measures on substance use, our findings show robust additive explanatory power of caffeine for both violent behaviors and conduct disorders. In addition, the association of caffeine to the outcomes is significantly stronger for girls than boys for both violent behaviors and conduct disorders. Future studies are needed to examine to what extent, if at all, these relationships are causal. Indication of causal connections between caffeine consumption and negative outcomes such as those reported here would call into question the acceptability of current policies concerning the availability of caffeine to adolescents and the targeting of adolescence in the marketing of caffeine products. PMID:23358888
Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Frost, Stephanie S; James, Jack E
This manual, which provides extensive new instructions for administering the Functional Assessment Inventory (FAI), is intended to enable counselors to begin using the inventory without undergoing any special training. The first two sections deal with the need for functional assessment and issues in the development and use of the inventory. The…
Physical fitness measures indicate health status and could be used to improve management of overall health. Purpose To describe the development of a Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) survey intended to estimate fitness in adults aged ?40 years across four domains; 1) muscular strength and endurance, 2) cardiovascular fitness, 3) flexibility, and 4) body composition. Methods SRFit items were developed from the previously validated Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test battery of physical tests. Face-to-face participant interviews were used to refine SRFit item wording. Data from a pilot administration of the SRFit survey were used to guide further revisions of SRFit items. The Senior Fitness Test battery was used to evaluate the four fitness domains. The BodPod was used to measure body composition. Height, weight, and resting blood pressure were measured and the revised SRFit survey was administered to 108 participants. Results Forty-five percent of the participants were female and 37% reported being Black or in the “other” race category. Mean age was 53.5±8.0 years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 30.6±8.8 kg/m2. SRFit summary score means (SD) and correlations found between summary score means (SD) and fitness test scores were: Upper body strength m=12.8 (2.4), r=0.59, p<0.001; lower body strength m=12.6 (2.6), r=0.68, p<0.001; upper body flexibility left-side m=12.3 (2.8), r=0.47, p<0.001; right-side m=12.4 (2.8), r=0.67, p<0.001; lower body flexibility m=17.4 (3.8), r = 0.55, p<0.001; cardiovascular endurance m=12.9 (2.6), r=0.66, p<0.001; BMI m=7.7 (2.23), r=0.79, p<0.001; and percent body fat m=7.7 (2.2), r=0.78, p<0.001. Conclusion SRFit survey items in each fitness domain were correlated with analogous Senior Fitness Test items indicating that participants could accurately use the SRFit survey to self-report physical fitness.
Keith, NiCole R.; Stump, Timothy E.; Clark, Daniel O.
... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rotavirus Facebook Reccomend Twitter Tweet Share Compartir Add this ... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Symptoms Español: Síntomas Rotavirus disease is most common in infants and young ...
Objective: To investigate the possible association between untreated ADHD symptoms (as measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale) and persistent nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Method: Multinomial regression modeling was used to compare ADHD symptoms among three groups of college students enrolled in a longitudinal study over 4…
Arria, Amelia M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.
The current study examined the temporal stability of threat perception abnormalities and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children. One-hundred-and-thirteen primary school children aged 9 to 13 years completed a self-report measure of anxiety disorder symptoms, and were interviewed individually using an ambiguous story paradigm from which…
The purpose of this study was: (i) to characterize the school indoor environment; (ii) to evaluate self-reported prevalence of disease symptoms among Portuguese teachers; and (iii) to evaluate, as far as we know for the first time in Portugal, the impact of the indoor air quality of schools on the prevalence of disease symptoms among teachers. The study was performed
J. Madureira; M. C. M. Alvim-Ferraz; S. Rodrigues; C. Gonçalves; M. C. Azevedo; E. Pinto; O. Mayan
Prospective vs. retrospective self-reports of menstrual cycle symptoms and moods in users and nonusers of oral contraceptives were investigated. Subjects, aged from 17 to 27 years, included 56 women on the pill and 47 nonusers. The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) quantified physical symptomatology, while the Differential Emotions Scale (DES-IV) measured emotional states. Prospective reports suggested less discernible symptom and mood
Adolescent substance abusers demonstrate numerous emotional and behavioral difficulties in conjunction with drug problems. In this study, 236 clinically referred substance abusing adolescents were grouped on level of self-reported and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms and compared on important variables. Three groups emerged: Externalizers, Exclusive Substance Abusers, and Mixed (adolescents with both internalizing and externalizing symptoms). Exclusive Substance Abusers showed
Because it is often impractical or impossible to obtain school transcripts or records on subjects, many researchers rely on college students to accurately self-report their academic record as part of their data collection procedures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the validity and reliability of student self-reported academic…
The validity of self-reported crack cocaine use among 131 homeless persons participating in an outpatient substance abuse treatment research demonstration project was assessed by comparing the concordance of self-report and urinalysis results. The subjects were participants in either a Usual Care outpatient program or an Enhanced Care day treatment program that included drug free contingent work therapy and housing. For
Joseph E. Schumacher; Jesse B. Milby; James M. Raczynski; Ellen Caldwell; Molly Engle; James Carr; Max Michael
Responding to international concerns regarding childhood bullying and a need to identify a common bullying measure, this study examines the comparability of children's self-reports of bullying across five countries. The Pacific-Rim Bullying Measure, a self-report measure of students' experiences with six different types of bullying behaviour and…
The purpose of the current study was to test the ability of adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD to reliably self-report delinquency history. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD between 1987 and 1996. Self-report of lifetime delinquency history was…
Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Babinski, Dara E.; Biswas, Aparajita
Although researchers using parental self-report data have questioned its validity (Holden, 2001) and called for more work in this area (Krevans & Gibbs, 1996; Locke & Prinz, 2002), methodological concerns regarding self-report about parenting practices have not been addressed adequately. The susceptibility of parental report to systematic…
Epistemic beliefs are notoriously difficult to measure with self-report instruments. In this study, the authors used large samples to assess the factor structure and internal consistency of 3 self-report measures of domain-general epistemic beliefs to draw conclusions about the trustworthiness of findings reported in the literature. College…
DeBacker, Teresa K.; Crowson, H. Michael; Beesley, Andrea D.; Thoma, Stephen J.; Hestevold, Nita L.
Self-report measures of physical activity have attractive features for epidemiologists and behavior change specialists. An information processing model is proposed to understand the encoding, storage, and retrieval processes, and to identify necessary skills for accurate self-reporting identified at each step in the process. (JD)
The aim of the present study is to investigate the predictive validity of the Danish Safety Culture Questionnaire on retrospective and prospective self-reported occupational injuries in a sample of workers in the manufacturing industry. A total of 765 workers at 3 different manufacturing plants completed the questionnaire comprised of leadership, organizational and worker factors. The occurrence of self-reported injuries was
Global self-esteem, appearance satisfaction, and self-reported dieting are interrelated. This study examines the temporal ordering of global self-esteem and appearance satisfaction across the early adolescence transition, from age 10 to age 14, as well as the independent associations of self-esteem and appearance satisfaction on self-reported…