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Sample records for self-report symptom inventory

  1. Subtyping patients with heroin addiction at treatment entry: factor derived from the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Methods Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90), we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females) aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. Results A total of 150 (14.2%) patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4%) had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4%) interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3%) panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7%) violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. Conclusions This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology. PMID:20388223

  2. The Self-Report Family Inventory: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Selig, James P.; Trahan, Don P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers explored the factor structure of the Self-Report Family Inventory with a sample of heterosexual parents who have a son or daughter who self-identifies as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Results suggest that a two-factor solution is appropriate. Research and clinical implications are offered. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  3. Pedagogical, Psychological, and Literary Applications of Self-Report Inventories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlak, Richard E.; Kerber, Kenneth W.

    To determine whether self-report psychological inventories could be used to better understand characters in literature, a psychology instructor and an English instructor arranged their courses so that they both focused on interpersonal relationships. The psychology course emphasized research on attraction, romantic love, and interpersonal…

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Early Trauma Inventory–Self Report

    PubMed Central

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Bolus, Roger; Mayer, Emeran A.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood trauma is an important public health problem, but there are limitations in our ability to measure childhood abuse. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-report instrument for the assessment of childhood trauma that is valid but simple to administer. A total of 288 subjects with and without trauma and psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Early Trauma InventorySelf Report (ETI-SR), an instrument for the assessment of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, as well as general traumas, which measures frequency, onset, emotional impact, and other variables. Validity and consistency of the ETI-SR using different methods of scoring was assessed. The ETI-SR was found to have good validity and internal consistency. No method was found to be superior to the simple method of counting the number of items endorsed as having ever occurred in terms of validity. Some items were found to be redundant or not necessary for the accurate measurement of trauma severity within specific domains. Subsequent analyses with a shortened checklist of items showed acceptable validity and internal consistency. These findings suggest that the ETI-SR is a valid measure of early trauma, and suggest future directions for a shortened version of the ETI-SR that could be more easily incorporated into clinical research studies and practice settings. PMID:17468680

  5. Normative Data for the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory.

    PubMed

    Meyers, John E; English, James; Miller, Ronald M; Lee, Amy Junghyun

    2015-01-01

    The demographically diverse populations served by large health care systems (Veterans Affairs, Department of Defense, Medicare, Medicaid) are routinely screened with the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI). The extent to which a patient's report of symptoms either initially and/or across time is affected by demographic variables-gender, ethnicity, age, or education-has not been investigated despite widespread use of the NSI. In practice, the effectiveness of this tool might be improved with demographically based norms. A large data set of normal community-dwelling individuals was collected using the NSI. Emphasis was made to collect data from individuals of diverse ethnic backgrounds. It was hypothesized that ethnic/cultural backgrounds would have an impact on NSI scores. The results provide normative data for the NSI applicable to a wide variety of individuals of various ages and ethnic backgrounds. An analysis of variance indicated there was no significant difference in NSI responses based on ethnic/cultural background; however, age and gender were found to contribute significantly to the variance associated with symptom endorsement. The NSI appears to be a reliable measure of self-report postconcussive symptoms. Age is a variable associated with differential symptom endorsement on the NSI. Follow-up studies are needed to provide a measure of the sensitivity and specificity of this measure. PMID:25874907

  6. Symptom attribution after a plane crash: comparison between self-reported symptoms and GP records.

    PubMed Central

    Donker, G A; Yzermans, C J; Spreeuwenberg, P; van der Zee, J

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On 4 October 1992, an El Al Boeing 747-F cargo aeroplane crashed on two apartment buildings in Amsterdam. Thirty-nine residents on the ground and the four crew members of the plane died. In the years after, a gradually increasing number of people attributed physical signs and symptoms to their presence at the disaster scene. AIM: To investigate the consistency between patients' symptoms attributed to the crash and GPs' diagnoses and perception of the association with the crash. DESIGN OF STUDY: Comparison between self-reported symptoms to a call centre and GPs' medical records on onset and type of symptoms, diagnoses, and GPs' perception of association with the disaster, assessed by questionnaire. SETTING: Consenting patients (n = 621) contacting the call centre and their GPs. METHOD: Patients were interviewed by the call centre staff and interview data were recorded on a database. Questionnaires were sent to the consenting patients' GPs, requesting their opinions on whether or not their patients' symptoms were attributable to the effects of disaster. Baseline differences and differences in reported symptoms between interviewed patients and their GP records were tested using the chi2 test. RESULTS: The 553 responders reported on average 4.3 symptoms to the call centre. The majority of these symptoms (74%) were reported to the GP. Of the ten most commonly reported symptoms, fatigue, skin complaints, feeling anxious or nervous, dyspnoea, and backache featured in 80% of symptoms reported to the GP. One out of four symptoms was either reported to the GP before the disaster took place, or six or more years after (1998/1999, during a period of much media attention). Depression (7%), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (5%) and eczema (5%) were most frequently diagnosed by GPs. They related 6% of all reported symptoms to the disaster. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the symptoms attributed to a disaster by patients have been reported to their GP, who related only a small proportion of these to the disaster. PMID:12434961

  7. Self-Report of ADHD Symptoms in College Students and Repetition Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marczinski, Cecile A.

    2005-01-01

    The research in this article focuses on the relation between self-report of attention deficit disorder (ADD) symptoms and performance on a two-alternative forced-choice task that measures repetition effects. The ADD/Hyperactive Adolescent Self-Report Scale--Short Form is administered to college students after they completed the repetition effects…

  8. Development and Validation of the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David; O'Hara, Michael W.; Simms, Leonard J.; Kotov, Roman; Chmielewski, Michael; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth A.; Gamez, Wakiza; Stuart, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe a new self-report instrument, the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS), which was designed to assess specific symptom dimensions of major depression and related anxiety disorders. They created the IDAS by conducting principal factor analyses in 3 large samples (college students, psychiatric patients, community…

  9. Validation of a self-reported shelf inventory to measure food purchase behavior. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    A mailed, self-reported shelf inventory was validated for use as a tool in assessing the impact of a community nutrition intervention that included a point-of-purchase component. The self-reported inventory was evaluated for overall accuracy as well as for the effects of gender, age, and shopping responsibility on accuracy. In addition, the food-shelf inventory was compared with a specific food frequency questionnaire. Specificity and sensitivity were calculated for self-reported inventories using an interviewer-completed, same-day inventory as the gold standard.

  10. Antenatal Maternal Anxiety is Related to HPA-Axis Dysregulation and Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms

    E-print Network

    Antenatal Maternal Anxiety is Related to HPA-Axis Dysregulation and Self-Reported Depressive Depressive symptomatology can proceed from altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortex (HPA)-axis function symptoms. However, the involvement of the HPA-axis in linking prenatal ELS with depressive symptoms has

  11. The Relationship between ADHD Symptoms, Mood Instability, and Self-Reported Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:…

  12. Self-Reported versus Informant-Reported Depressive Symptoms in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mileviciute, I.; Hartley, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Virtually nothing is known about potential differences in the types of depression symptoms reported by adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) on self-reported questionnaires as compared with the types of symptoms reported by caregivers on informant questionnaires. Moreover, little is known about how the presentation of…

  13. The Child Concentration Inventory (CCI): Initial validation of a child self-report measure of sluggish cognitive tempo.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Joyce, Ann Marie

    2015-09-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is characterized by excessive daydreaming, mental confusion, slowness, and low motivation. Several teacher- and parent-report measures of SCT have recently been developed but a child self-report measure of SCT does not yet exist despite clear links between SCT and internalizing psychopathology (for which self-report is often desired). This study examined the initial reliability and validity of the Child Concentration Inventory (CCI), a child self-report measure of SCT symptoms, in a school-based sample of 124 children (ages 8-13; 55% female). Children completed the CCI and measures of academic/social functioning, emotion regulation, and self-esteem. Teachers completed measures of psychopathology symptoms (including SCT) and academic/social functioning. Although exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) supported a 3-factor model of the CCI (consisting of slow, sleepy, and daydreamer scales closely resembling the factor structure of the parent-report version of this measure), bifactor modeling and omega reliability indices indicated that the CCI is best conceptualized as unidimensional. CCI scores were significantly correlated with teacher-rated SCT and were statistically distinct from teacher-rated ADHD and child-rated anxiety/depression. After controlling for sex, grade, and other psychopathology symptoms, the CCI total score was significantly associated with poorer child-reported academic/social functioning and self-worth in addition to increased loneliness and emotion dysregulation. Child ratings on the CCI were moderately to strongly correlated with poorer teacher-rated academic/social functioning but these associations were reduced to nonsignificance after controlling for demographics and other psychopathology symptoms. Findings provide preliminary support for the CCI, and future directions include replication with adolescents and clinical samples in order to further examine the CCI's factor structure, reliability, validity, and clinical utility. PMID:25642932

  14. Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms in Lesbian Birth Mothers and Comothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccio, Elaine M.; Pangburn, Jaimee A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the frequency of postpartum depression, little is known about the experiences of lesbian birth mothers and their female partners, or comothers. In this modest yet important exploratory investigation, 20 lesbian mothers completed a survey of self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and related risk factors. Results indicate that…

  15. Concordance between Composite International Diagnostic Interview and self-reports of depressive symptoms: a re-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosenström, Tom; Elovainio, Marko; Jokela, Markus; Pirkola, Sami; Koskinen, Seppo; Lindfors, Olavi; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2015-09-01

    Concordance between sum scores of self-reported depressive symptoms and structured interview diagnoses has been studied extensively, but are these the best attainable self-report-based predictions for interview diagnoses? We maximized the cross-validated concordance between World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) diagnosis and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), from the viewpoint of exploratory statistics, re-analysing Health 2000 general-population sample of adults over 30 years in mainland Finland (N = 5200-5435). BDI sum-score prediction of CIDI diagnosis could be superseded by using (1) weighted sums of items, (2) classification trees constructed from items, or (3) a single item. Best solution (2) yielded cross-validated Youden's Index 0.757 [standard error (SE) = 0.001, sensitivity = 0.907, specificity = 0.851], improving the concordance to 1.07-fold (1.18-fold for 12-month diagnosis). A single-item solution was best for the GHQ. All positive predictive values remained low (0.09-0.31). Thus, CIDI-to-questionnaire concordance can be improved by using all information in the questionnaires instead of just sum scores, but latent-trait theory for questionnaires is incompatible with interview diagnoses (single item achieved better concordance than summing all). Self-reports have low predictive value for CIDI diagnoses in the general population, but better in settings with higher major depressive disorder (MDD) base rates. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26140369

  16. Women's college physical activity and self-reports of physician-diagnosed depression and of current symptoms of psychiatric distress.

    PubMed

    Wyshak, G

    2001-05-01

    It is believed that physical activity is protective against depression. This paper investigates the association between women's athletic activity in the college and precollege years and physician-diagnosed depression in postcollege years. College alumnae (n = 3940), former college athletes and nonathletes, completed a detailed self-administered questionnaire that sought information on health histories up to the present time, including questions on history of physician-diagnosed depression and current symptoms of psychiatric distress. A negative association between college athletic activity and self-reported physician-diagnosed depression in the last 10 years was observed (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.664, with 95% confidence limits [CL] 0.545, 0.808, p < 0.0001). Other factors significantly associated with depression are living with a spouse, at time of reporting-protective; self-rated current health good to poor compared with very good or excellent; alcoholism; and having a doctoral degree-risk factors. Current state variables based on the Rand Mental Health Inventory-5 (RMHI-5) were also more favorable among athletes. This is the first study to report a long-term beneficial association between women's college athletic activity and self-reported physician-diagnosed depression in the postcollege years and current symptoms of psychiatric distress. The findings support the Surgeon General's promotion of the health benefits of physical activity. PMID:11445027

  17. Training Attention Improves Decision Making in Individuals with Elevated Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jessica A.; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Denny, Taylor; Worthy, Darrell A.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2013-01-01

    Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work reported that training attention away from negative stimuli reduced this bias and reduced depressive symptoms. However, the effect of attention training on subsequent learning has yet to be explored. In the current study, participants were required to learn to maximize reward during decision-making. Undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision-making task (n=20; active training). The active training group was compared to two groups: undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms who received placebo training (n=22; placebo training) and control subjects with low levels of depressive symptoms (n=33; non-depressive control). The placebo-training depressive group performed worse and switched between options more than non-depressive controls on the reward maximization task. However, depressives that received active training performed as well as non-depressive controls. Computational modeling indicated that the placebo-trained group learned more from negative than from positive prediction errors, leading to more frequent switching. The non-depressive control and active training depressive groups showed similar learning from positive and negative prediction errors, leading to less frequent switching and better performance. Our results indicate that individuals with elevated depressive symptoms are impaired at reward maximization, but that the deficit can be improved with attention training toward positive stimuli. PMID:24197612

  18. Depressive Symptoms: The Interaction between Rumination and Self-Reported Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Malmberg, Monique; Larsen, Junilla K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Prior research has found consistent support that rumination and insomnia are important risk factors for depressive symptoms. The aim of the present cross-sectional study is to examine the interaction between these two previously well-established risk factors (i.e., rumination and insomnia) in the explanation of depressive symptoms. Design. A total of 417 participants (277 women) with a mean age of 39 (SD = 17.59; range 18–85) completed a cross-sectional survey. Main Outcome Measures. Participants filled out the Response Rumination Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale, and the short version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results. It was predicted and found that self-reported insomnia moderated the relationship between rumination and depressive symptoms. We found that particularly participants who reported higher levels of rumination as well as insomnia had the highest depressive symptoms. Conclusion. This study is the first to suggest that particularly individuals exhibiting both self-reported insomnia and higher levels of rumination also report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Health professionals screening for mental problems should be aware of this specific combination of insomnia and rumination. Explanations for this moderation effect were discussed in light of study's limitations. PMID:26617999

  19. Self-Reported Knee Symptoms Assessed by KOOS Questionnaire in Downhill Runners (Skyrunners)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The knee is the weight-bearing joint most commonly associated with sports injuries, and therefore is most at risk of developing degenerative changes, including osteoarthritis. Skyrunners can be considered to be at risk of developing symptoms of post-traumatic osteoarthritis due to downhill running. Aim The aim of this study was to analyze the health of the knee joints of a large group of these athletes via a specific self-report questionnaire. Methods This study was carried out by asking the participants of seven official Skyraces (22.4±3.1 km length; 1596±393 m elevation) to fill out a questionnaire. Information regarding age, sex, downhill elevation (m) during training and competitions over the last month, and history of previous knee injury was also collected before the participants filled out the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), which is a reliable and validated instrument designed to assess patients’ opinions about their knees and associated problems that can result in post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Athletes were divided into six age groups (from 17 to 70 years) and 12 groups based on the downhill gradient they had covered over the last month (from 1,000 to 40,000 m). Results Six hundred twenty-one questionnaires were collected from 45% of the participants in the seven races. Multivariate analysis revealed that self-reported KOOS scores were unrelated to age, sex and monthly downhill gradient. Only 74 (12%) of the participants reported previous knee injuries. Significant differences in the five subscales of the KOOS were found between skyrunners with and without previous knee injuries (P<0.01). Conclusions In the studied population, regular training for downhill running and participation in Skyraces could not be considered risk factors for subjective knee symptoms. Skyrunners with self-reported histories of knee injuries scored worse on all five subscales of the KOOS. PMID:25902316

  20. Patterns of uptake of treatment for self reported sexually transmitted infection symptoms in rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, J; Garnett, G; Nyamukapa, C; Donnelly, C; Mason, P; Gregson, S

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the extent of self reported symptoms perceived to be related to sexually transmitted infections and the patterns of subsequent treatment seeking behaviour in a predominantly rural population of Zimbabwe. Methods: A population based survey of 4331 men and 5149 women was conducted in rural Zimbabwe during 1998–2000. Structured confidential interviews collected data on self reported sexually transmitted infection symptoms, treatment seeking behaviour, sociodemographic characteristics, and sexual behaviour. Results: 25% of men aged 17–54 years report experiencing genital sores and 25% of men report experiencing urethral discharge; 30% of women aged 15–44 years report experiencing vaginal discharge. The lifetime number of sexual partners, age, and years of sexual activity were all significant predictors of symptoms for both men and women (all p values <0.001). 92% of men and 62% of women had sought treatment for their symptoms in the past year (p value <0.001). Men and women were equally likely to have sought treatment at a local hospital or clinic, but women were much less likely than men to have sought treatment at a different hospital or clinic. Among those who had sought treatment, men sought treatment faster than women and were more likely to report being "very satisfied" with their treatment than women. Conclusions: The gender differences in treatment seeking are of major concern for control efforts and further work on determining the reasons for these should be a priority. This would inform the likely impact of both increasing availability of local services and further reducing the stigma faced by those wishing to access such services. PMID:16061541

  1. Exploratory factor analysis of self-reported symptoms in a large, population-based military cohort

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background US military engagements have consistently raised concern over the array of health outcomes experienced by service members postdeployment. Exploratory factor analysis has been used in studies of 1991 Gulf War-related illnesses, and may increase understanding of symptoms and health outcomes associated with current military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The objective of this study was to use exploratory factor analysis to describe the correlations among numerous physical and psychological symptoms in terms of a smaller number of unobserved variables or factors. Methods The Millennium Cohort Study collects extensive self-reported health data from a large, population-based military cohort, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the interrelationships of numerous physical and psychological symptoms among US military personnel. This study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a large, population-based military cohort. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the covariance structure of symptoms reported by approximately 50,000 cohort members during 2004-2006. Analyses incorporated 89 symptoms, including responses to several validated instruments embedded in the questionnaire. Techniques accommodated the categorical and sometimes incomplete nature of the survey data. Results A 14-factor model accounted for 60 percent of the total variance in symptoms data and included factors related to several physical, psychological, and behavioral constructs. A notable finding was that many factors appeared to load in accordance with symptom co-location within the survey instrument, highlighting the difficulty in disassociating the effects of question content, location, and response format on factor structure. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential strengths and weaknesses of exploratory factor analysis to heighten understanding of the complex associations among symptoms. Further research is needed to investigate the relationship between factor analytic results and survey structure, as well as to assess the relationship between factor scores and key exposure variables. PMID:20950474

  2. Building a new Rasch-based self-report inventory of depression

    PubMed Central

    Balsamo, Michela; Giampaglia, Giuseppe; Saggino, Aristide

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates a sequential item development process to create a new self-report instrument of depression refined with Rasch analysis from a larger pool of potential diagnostic items elicited through a consensus approach by clinical experts according to the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for major depression. A 51-item pool was administered to a sample of 529 subjects (300 healthy community-dwelling adults and 229 psychiatric outpatients). Item selection resulted in a 21-item set, named the Teate Depression Inventory, with an excellent Person Separation Index and no evidence of bias due to an item–trait interaction (?2=147.71; df =168; P=0.48). Additional support for the unidimensionality, local independence, appropriateness of the response format, and discrimination ability between clinical and nonclinical subjects was provided. No substantial differential item functioning by sex was observed. The Teate Depression Inventory shows considerable promise as a unidimensional tool for the screening of depression. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of this methodology will be discussed in terms of subsequent possible mathematical analyses, statistical tests, and implications for clinical investigations. PMID:24511231

  3. Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms and Interhemispheric Interaction in Adults: A Dimensional Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Saleh M. H.; Börger, Norbert A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied the dimensional approach to test whether self-reported symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults are associated with the speed of interhemispheric interaction. A sample of first grade students (N = 112) completed Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales and letter matching reaction time tasks. In the tasks, participants had to match a single target letter displayed below the fixation cross, either on left or right visual field, with one of two letters displayed above the fixation cross, one letter on each visual field. For each task, identical letters were presented either within the same visual field (within hemisphere condition) or across visual fields (across hemisphere condition). Interhemispheric interaction was indexed as the difference in mean reaction time between within and across hemisphere conditions. Comorbid problems such as depression, anxiety, and stress may affect task performance and are controlled for in this study. Findings indicated that self-reported ADHD symptomology, especially hyperactivity, in the presence of stress was weakly but significantly associated with fast interhemispheric interaction. PMID:26089596

  4. Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms and Interhemispheric Interaction in Adults: A Dimensional Approach.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh M H; Börger, Norbert A; Geuze, Reint H; van der Meere, Jaap J

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied the dimensional approach to test whether self-reported symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults are associated with the speed of interhemispheric interaction. A sample of first grade students (N = 112) completed Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales and letter matching reaction time tasks. In the tasks, participants had to match a single target letter displayed below the fixation cross, either on left or right visual field, with one of two letters displayed above the fixation cross, one letter on each visual field. For each task, identical letters were presented either within the same visual field (within hemisphere condition) or across visual fields (across hemisphere condition). Interhemispheric interaction was indexed as the difference in mean reaction time between within and across hemisphere conditions. Comorbid problems such as depression, anxiety, and stress may affect task performance and are controlled for in this study. Findings indicated that self-reported ADHD symptomology, especially hyperactivity, in the presence of stress was weakly but significantly associated with fast interhemispheric interaction. PMID:26089596

  5. Self-reported adherence to oral cancer therapy: relationships with symptom distress, depression, and personal characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Donna L; Blonquist, Traci M; Hong, Fangxin; Halpenny, Barbara; Partridge, Ann H

    2015-01-01

    Background Therapeutic cancer chemotherapy is most successful when complete dosing is achieved. Because many newer therapeutic agents are oral and self-administered by the patient, adherence is a concern. The purpose of our analysis was to explore relationships between adherence, patient characteristics, and barriers to adherence. Methods This secondary analysis utilized self-reported data from a randomized trial of self-care management conducted at two cancer centers in the US. Symptom distress was measured using the 15-item Symptom Distress Scale (SDS-15) and depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Adherence to oral medication was self-reported using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Measures were collected via Web-based, study-specific software ~8 weeks after treatment start date. Odds of low/medium adherence (score <8) were explored using univariate logistic regression. Given the number of factors and possible relationships among factors, a classification tree was built in lieu of a multivariable logistic regression model. Results Of the eligible participants enrolled, 77 were on oral therapy and 70 had an MMAS score. Forty-nine (70%) reported a high adherence score (=8). Higher odds of low/medium adherence were associated with greater symptom distress (P=0.09), more depression (P=0.05), chemotherapy vs hormonal oral medication (P=0.03), being female (P=0.02), and being randomized to the control group in the parent trial (P=0.09). Conversely, high adherence was associated with working (P=0.08), being married/partnered (P=0.004), and being older (P=0.02). Factors identified as significantly related to low/medium adherence from the univariate logistic regression analyses were supported by the classification tree results. Conclusion Nonadherence to therapeutic oral medications in patients with cancer was associated with being unmarried/unpartnered, symptom distress, younger age, not working, and female sex. These findings may help to identify patients at risk for nonadherence and for whom supportive interventions to enhance adherence may be needed. PMID:26604712

  6. Relationship between medication beliefs, self-reported and refill adherence, and symptoms in patients with asthma using inhaled corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Van Steenis, MNA; Driesenaar, JA; Bensing, JM; Van Hulten, R; Souverein, PC; Van Dijk, L; De Smet, PAGM; Van Dulmen, AM

    2014-01-01

    Background Beliefs play a crucial role in medication adherence. Interestingly, the relationship between beliefs and adherence varies when different adherence measures are used. How adherence, in turn, is related to asthma symptoms is still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between beliefs (ie, necessities and concerns) about inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and subjectively as well as objectively measure adherence and the agreement between these measures. Further, the relationship between adherence and asthma symptoms was examined. Methods A total of 280 patients aged 18–80 years who filled at least two ICS prescriptions in the preceding year were recruited to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire to assess necessity beliefs and concerns about ICS, four questions about ICS use to measure self-reported adherence, and the Asthma Control Questionnaire to assess asthma symptoms. Proportion of days covered was used to determine pharmacy refill adherence. Results Data from 93 patients with asthma were analyzed. Necessities were positively related to self-reported adherence (P = 0.01). No other associations were found between beliefs and subjective or objective adherence. There was no correlation between self-reported and refill adherence. Participants were significantly (P < 0.001) less adherent according to self-report data (24.4%) than according to pharmacy data (57.8%). No relationship was found between adherence and asthma symptoms. Conclusion Higher necessities are associated with higher self-reported adherence, suggesting that it could be more important to focus on necessities than on concerns in an attempt to improve adherence. Self-reported and refill adherence measurements cannot be used interchangeably. No relationship between adherence and asthma symptoms was found. PMID:24470757

  7. Agreement Rates between Parent and Self-Report on Past ADHD Symptoms in an Adult Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Gabriela; Mattos, Paulo; Coutinho, Gabriel; Segenreich, Daniel; Saboya, Eloisa; Ayrao, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate agreement rates between parent and self-report on childhood symptoms of ADHD. Method: Sixty-eight self-referred treatment-naive adults (33 men, 35 women) were interviewed with a modified version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E) and asked about past ADHD…

  8. The Effect of Music-Assisted Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Self-Reported Symptoms of Women with Primary Dysmenorrhoea

    E-print Network

    Memmott, Jenny

    2009-06-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of music-assisted progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) on the self-reported symptom scores of women suffering from primary dysmenorrhoea. Twenty-four women with a mean age of 22.7 years participated...

  9. Daily and Retrospective Mood and Physical Symptom Self-Reports and Their Relationship to the Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swandby, Janet R.

    The literature on the relationships between changes in mood and the menstrual cycle reveals many inconsistencies due to the absence of certain control procedures. Daily self-reports of moods and physical symptoms were collected from women with normal cycles, women using oral contraceptives, and men for 35 days in a camouflaged study. Retrospective…

  10. The effects of childhood abuse on self-reported psychotic symptoms in severe mental illness: Mediating effects of posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Dong Woo; Gim, Min Sook; Park, Soo Hyun

    2015-09-30

    The present study examined the role of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the relationship between childhood abuse and self-reported psychotic symptoms in severe mental illness. A total of 126 patients diagnosed with major psychiatric conditions with comorbid symptoms of psychosis participated in the present study. The representative psychiatric diagnoses included schizophrenia, bipolar disorder with psychotic features, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, and delusional disorder. The Korean Child Trauma Questionnaire measured the type and degree of childhood abuse including emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Korean version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessed posttraumatic stress symptoms, and PSYC subscale of the PSY-5 Factor Scale of the MMPI-2 was used as a measure of self-reported psychotic symptoms. There was a significant relationship between childhood physical, emotional, sexual abuse and psychotic symptoms. Posttraumatic stress symptoms partially mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and psychotic symptoms. This implies that childhood abuse is significantly associated with the experience of chronic posttraumatic stress symptoms, and that such symptoms in turn increases the likelihood of experiencing psychotic symptoms. The results highlight the need for appropriate assessment and intervention concerning childhood abuse and posttraumatic stress symptoms in severe mental illness. PMID:26144585

  11. Job Strain and Self-Reported Insomnia Symptoms among Nurses: What about the Influence of Emotional Demands and Social Support?

    PubMed Central

    Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Kröning Luna, Caroline; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Silva-Costa, Aline; Toivanen, Susanna; Araújo, Tania; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2015-01-01

    Job strain, derived from high psychological demands and low job control, is associated with insomnia, but information on the role of emotional demands and social support in this relationship is scarce. The aims of this study were (i) to test the association between job strain and self-reported insomnia symptoms, (ii) to evaluate the combination of emotional demands and job control regarding insomnia symptoms, and (iii) to analyze the influence of social support in these relationships. This cross-sectional study refers to a sample of nurses (N = 3,013 and N = 3,035 for Job Strain and Emotional demand-control model, resp.) working at public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected through a self-report questionnaire. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 34.3%. Job strain was associated with increased odds for insomnia symptoms (OR: 2.20); the same result was observed with the combination of emotional demands and low job control (OR: 1.99). In both models, the inclusion of low social support combined with high demands and low job control led to increased odds for insomnia symptoms, compared to groups with high social support from coworkers and supervisors. Besides job strain, the study of emotional demands and social support are promising with regards to insomnia symptoms, particularly among nurses. PMID:26557699

  12. explored the impact of a single massage session on self-reported symptoms in an outpatient setting at a large academic cancer

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Eric L.

    explored the impact of a single massage session on self-reported symptoms in an outpatient setting at a large academic cancer center. Methods: Data were reviewed from massage sessions (30 or 60 minute. Participants completed a pre- and post-massage symptom assessment in- strument, the Edmonton Symptom Assessment

  13. British community norms for the Brief Symptom Inventory.

    PubMed

    Francis, V M; Rajan, P; Turner, N

    1990-02-01

    British community norms (N = 376) for the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis & Spencer, 1982) are presented. Means are significantly higher than previously published US norms for all symptom dimensions, and show variability according to age, sex and work status. The proportion of 'cases' in the sample is similar to other British estimates. It is recommended that culturally relevant norms should be established and used in future work with this instrument. PMID:2310864

  14. Short-term change in self-reported COPD symptoms after smoking cessation in an internet sample.

    PubMed

    Etter, J-F

    2010-06-01

    Smoking is the first risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Some recent reports suggest that, unexpectedly, some respiratory symptoms may increase transiently after smoking cessation, but there is a dearth of short-term data to test this hypothesis. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of an online screening tool and to describe short-term associations between smoking behaviour and self-reported respiratory symptoms, in cross-sectional and longitudinal data. An internet survey was conducted in 2003-2009, on a smoking cessation website, with a follow-up survey after 30 days. There were 15,916 participants at baseline and 1,831 at follow-up. In the 252 baseline smokers who had quit smoking at 30-day follow-up, there was a substantial decrease in the proportion of participants who declared that they often coughed even without a cold (from 51.6% at baseline to 15.5% at follow-up), expectorated when they coughed in the morning (from 47.6% to 19.4%), were out of breath after climbing stairs or after a quick walk (from 75.0% to 48.4%), and who had a wheezing respiration (from 33.7% to 10.3%) (p<0.001 for all before/after comparisons). In participants who did not change their smoking behaviour between assessments, the test-retest reliability was r = 0.87 for a score summing these four symptoms. Smoking cessation was followed by a rapid and substantial improvement in self-reported respiratory symptoms. COPD is largely underdiagnosed and undertreated. Internet screening is reliable and may allow for the early detection of COPD symptoms at a large scale, in patients who may otherwise have no access to COPD case-finding efforts. PMID:19926745

  15. Self reported symptoms and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity among Kenyan agricultural workers

    PubMed Central

    Ohayo-Mitoko, G.; Kromhout, H.; Simwa, J.; Boleij, J.; Heederik, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—This study was part of the East African pesticides project. The general objective was to assess health hazards posed by handling, storage, and use of pesticides, on agricultural estates and small farms with a view to developing strategies for prevention and control of pesticide poisoning. The aim of this paper is to describe the prevalence of symptoms in this population, to relate levels of inhibition to reported symptoms and evaluate at which levels of inhibition symptoms become increased.?METHODS—Complete data were available for 256 exposed subjects and 152 controls from four regions in Kenya. A structured questionnaire on symptoms experienced at the time of interview was given to all subjects and controls. Information was also obtained on sex, age, main occupation, and level of education. Symptoms reported during the high exposure period, were initially clustered in broader symptom categories from reference literature on health effects of pesticides that inhibit cholinesterase (organophosphate and carbamate). Prevalence ratios were estimated for symptoms with changes in cholinesterase activity in serum.?RESULTS—Symptom prevalence in exposed subjects was higher during the high exposure period than the low exposure period, although these differences were not significant. Interestingly, a clear and significant change in symptoms prevalence was found in the controls with a higher prevalence in the low exposure period. Analysis of the relation between cholinesterase inhibition and symptoms showed that prevalence ratios were significantly >1 for respiratory, eye, and central nervous system symptoms for workers with >30% inhibition. Similar results were found for analyses with the actual level of acetylcholinesterase activity.?CONCLUSION—The results suggest the presence of a relation between exposure and acetylcholinesterase inhibition, acetylcholinesterase activity, and respiratory, eye, and central nervous system symptoms. Increased symptom prevalence was found at acetylcholinesterase activities generally considered to be non-adverse.???Keywords: cholinesterase inhibition; symptoms; health effects; Kenya; agricultural workers PMID:10810102

  16. Development and Initial Psychometric Properties of the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI): A Comprehensive Self-Report Measure of Child Maltreatment History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLillo, David; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A.; Fortier, Michelle A.; Perry, Andrea R.; Evans, Sarah E.; Messman Moore, Terri L.; Walsh, Kate; Nash, Cindy; Fauchier, Angele

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The present study reports on the development and initial psychometric properties of the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), a web-based self-report measure of child maltreatment history, including sexual and physical abuse, exposure to interparental violence, psychological abuse, and neglect. Methods: The CAMI was…

  17. The feasibility and validity of ambulatory self-report of psychotic symptoms using a smartphone software application

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Semi-structured interview scales for psychosis are the gold standard approach to assessing psychotic and other symptoms. However, such assessments have limitations such as recall bias, averaging, insensitivity to change and variable interrater reliability. Ambulant, real-time self-report assessment devices may hold advantages over interview measures, but it needs to be shown that the data thus collected are valid, and the collection method is acceptable, feasible and safe. We report on a monitoring system for the assessment of psychosis using smartphone technology. The primary aims were to: i) assess validity through correlations of item responses with those on widely accepted interview assessments of psychosis, and ii) examine compliance to the procedure in individuals with psychosis of varying severity. Methods A total of 44 participants (acute or remitted DSM-4 schizophrenia and related disorders, and prodromal) completed 14 branching self-report items concerning key psychotic symptoms on a touch-screen mobile phone when prompted by an alarm at six pseudo-random times, each day, for one week. Face to face PANSS and CDS interviews were conducted before and after the assessment period blind to the ambulant data. Results Compliance as defined by completion of at least 33% of all possible data-points over seven days was 82%. In the 36 compliant participants, 5 items (delusions, hallucinations, suspiciousness, anxiety, hopelessness) showed moderate to strong (rho 0.6-0.8) associations with corresponding items from interview rating scales. Four items showed no significant correlation with rating scales: each was an item based on observable behaviour. Ambulant ratings showed excellent test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change. Conclusions Ambulatory monitoring of symptoms several times daily using smartphone software applications represents a feasible and valid way of assessing psychotic phenomena for research and clinical management purposes. Further evaluation required over longer assessment periods, in clinical trials and service settings. PMID:23075387

  18. Self-reported symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: rate of endorsement and association with neuropsychological performance in an adult psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Brooke C; Thoering, Teresa; Cludius, Barbara; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    The lack of specificity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms represents a diagnostic challenge, especially when assessing psychiatric patients reporting a wide range of complaints. Rate of endorsement of ADHD symptoms, and their association with neuropsychological performance, was examined in a psychiatric sample of 71 adults, who had been referred for a neuropsychological evaluation. Patients completed two self-report measures of ADHD symptoms, the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ADHD-SR) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale-Short Form, as well as measures of attention, executive functioning, visuoconstructional ability, and verbal learning and memory. On the ADHD-SR, 74.6% of the sample met the cutoff for inattention or hyperactivity, while 81.7% met the cutoff for impulsivity. Neuropsychological performance was weakly associated with self-reported symptoms. Our results suggest that psychiatric patients commonly report symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Assessment utilizing multiple sources is necessary to confirm whether self-reported symptoms are indicative of ADHD or reflect other causes. PMID:25851625

  19. Self-reported concussion symptoms and training routines in mixed martial arts athletes.

    PubMed

    Heath, Christopher J; Callahan, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact, fighting sport that has risen in popularity over recent years, resulting in an increase in both training facilities and sport participants. To date, little research has examined the complications and vulnerability to head trauma, or concussive symptomatology, in MMA athletes. In this study, we assessed relationships between training routines and concussive symptoms, as well as medical care, in MMA athletes. A sample (N?=?119) of MMA athletes reported concussive symptoms, training routines, and medical histories through an online survey. Nearly 15% of the MMA athletes reported history of a knockout, and nearly one-third reported a technical knockout. Subjective ratings of concussive symptoms were high for these athletes, with many of them waiting only a brief time after such incidents to return to competition. These findings have important implications for informing the medical treatment and safety decision for returning to participation for these athletes. PMID:23777375

  20. Hyperactive-Impulsive Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Sleep Quality in Nonmedicated Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahajan, Neha; Hong, Nuong; Wigal, Timothy L.; Gehricke, Jean-G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with ADHD often report sleep problems. Though most studies on ADHD and sleep examined children or nonclinically diagnosed adults, the present study specifically examines nonmedicated adults with ADHD to determine whether inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are associated with sleep problems. Method: A total of 22…

  1. Self-Reported Autism Symptoms in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Somer L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2012-01-01

    Scores on the autism spectrum quotient (AQ) were examined in 65 adults with ASD. Maternal reports of symptoms were collected simultaneously using the autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R) and the Vineland Screener. A slightly revised AQ administration procedure was used to accommodate adults with below average IQ. AQ scores were lower than…

  2. Fertilizer use and self-reported respiratory and dermal symptoms among tree planters.

    PubMed

    Gorman Ng, Melanie; Stjernberg, Ernst; Koehoorn, Mieke; Demers, Paul A; Winters, Meghan; Davies, Hugh W

    2013-01-01

    In British Columbia, some tree planting operations require workers to fertilize planted seedlings with polymer-coated nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) fertilizers. This study examined respiratory and dermal health associated with fertilizer exposure among tree planters. We interviewed 223 tree planters using an adapted version of the American Thoracic Society questionnaire supplemented with questions on dermal health. Subjects were grouped by categories of increasing duration of exposure, with workers who had not worked with fertilizer as a reference group. The relationship between exposure and reported work-related symptoms was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for age, cumulative tobacco cigarettes smoked, marijuana smoking status, sex, and exposure to abrasive spruce needles. An elevated odds ratio was seen for work-related cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, nosebleed, and skin rash in the highest exposure group (>37 days of fertilizer use in the past 2 years) but was significant only for phlegm (odds ratio = 3.59, 95% confidence interval = 1.10-11.70). Trends of increasing odds ratios with increasing exposure were seen for cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, and skin rash. The results suggest a weak association between respiratory and dermal irritation and work with fertilizer. Results highlight the need for further exposure monitoring within the tree planting industry, and larger studies to investigate the relationship between work with fertilizer and respiratory and dermal health symptoms. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a PDF file containing a respiratory and dermal health questionnaire.]. PMID:23194098

  3. Brain lateralization and self-reported symptoms of ADHD in a population sample of adults: a dimensional approach

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Saleh M. H.; Börger, Norbert A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    2015-01-01

    Many clinical studies reported a compromised brain lateralization in patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) without being conclusive about whether the deficit existed in the left or right hemisphere. It is well-recognized that studying ADHD dimensionally is more controlled for comorbid problems and medication effects, and provides more accurate assessment of the symptoms. Therefore, the present study applied the dimensional approach to test the relationship between brain lateralization and self-reported ADHD symptoms in a population sample. Eighty-five right-handed university students filled in the Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales and performed a lateralization reaction time task. The task consists of two matching conditions: one condition requires nominal identification for letters tapping left hemisphere specialization (Letter Name-Identity condition) and the other one requires physical and visuospatial identification for shapes tapping right hemisphere specialization (Shape Physical-Identity condition). The letters or shapes to be matched are presented in left or right visual field of a fixation cross. For both task conditions, brain lateralization was indexed as the difference in mean reaction time between left and right visual field. Linear regression analyses, controlled for mood symptoms reported by a depression, anxiety, and stress scale, showed no relationship between the variables. These findings from a population sample of adults do not support the dimensionality of lateralized information processing deficit in ADHD symptomatology. However, group comparison analyses showed that subjects with high level of inattention symptoms close to or above the clinical cut-off had a reduced right hemisphere processing in the Shape Physical-Identity condition. PMID:26441789

  4. Brain lateralization and self-reported symptoms of ADHD in a population sample of adults: a dimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh M H; Börger, Norbert A; Geuze, Reint H; van der Meere, Jaap J

    2015-01-01

    Many clinical studies reported a compromised brain lateralization in patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) without being conclusive about whether the deficit existed in the left or right hemisphere. It is well-recognized that studying ADHD dimensionally is more controlled for comorbid problems and medication effects, and provides more accurate assessment of the symptoms. Therefore, the present study applied the dimensional approach to test the relationship between brain lateralization and self-reported ADHD symptoms in a population sample. Eighty-five right-handed university students filled in the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales and performed a lateralization reaction time task. The task consists of two matching conditions: one condition requires nominal identification for letters tapping left hemisphere specialization (Letter Name-Identity condition) and the other one requires physical and visuospatial identification for shapes tapping right hemisphere specialization (Shape Physical-Identity condition). The letters or shapes to be matched are presented in left or right visual field of a fixation cross. For both task conditions, brain lateralization was indexed as the difference in mean reaction time between left and right visual field. Linear regression analyses, controlled for mood symptoms reported by a depression, anxiety, and stress scale, showed no relationship between the variables. These findings from a population sample of adults do not support the dimensionality of lateralized information processing deficit in ADHD symptomatology. However, group comparison analyses showed that subjects with high level of inattention symptoms close to or above the clinical cut-off had a reduced right hemisphere processing in the Shape Physical-Identity condition. PMID:26441789

  5. Are self-reported symptoms of executive dysfunction associated with objective executive function performance following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury?

    PubMed Central

    Schiehser, Dawn M.; Delis, Dean C.; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Han, S. Duke; Jak, Amy J.; Drake, Angela I.; Bondi, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective We examined the relationship between self-reported pre- and post-injury changes in executive dysfunction, apathy, disinhibition, and depression, and performance on neuropsychological tests of executive function, attention/processing speed, and memory in relation to mood levels and effort test performance in individuals in the early stages of recovery from mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). Method Participants were 71 noncombat military personnel who were in a semiacute stage of recovery (<3 months post injury) from mild to moderate TBI. Pre- and post-TBI behaviors were assessed with the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe; Grace & Malloy, 2001) and correlated with levels of depressive symptoms, effort test performance, and performance on objective measures of attention, executive function, and memory. Results Self-reported symptoms of executive dysfunction generally failed to predict performance on objective measures of executive function and memory, although they predicted poorer performance on measures of attention/processing speed. Instead, higher levels of depressive symptomatology best predicted poorer performance on measures of executive function and memory. However, the relationship between memory performance and TBI symptoms was no longer significant when effort performance was controlled. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, among individuals in early recovery from mild to moderate TBI, self-reported depressive symptoms, rather than patients’ cognitive complaints, are associated with objective executive function. However, self-reported cognitive complaints may be associated with objectively measured inattention and slow processing speed. PMID:21958432

  6. Examining the Effects of Self-Reported Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Positive Relations with Others on Self-Regulated Learning for Student Service Members/Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Bryan M.; Middleton, Michael J.; Hildebrandt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationships between self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, perceived positive relations with others, self-regulation strategy use, and academic motivation among student service members/veterans (SSM/V) enrolled in postsecondary education. Participants: SSM/V (N = 214), defined as veterans, active…

  7. Brief Report: The Use of Self-Report Measures in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder to Access Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression and Negative Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozsivadjian, Ann; Hibberd, Charlotte; Hollocks, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were two-fold; firstly, to investigate whether self-report measures are useful and reflect parent-reported psychiatric symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and secondly, to investigate whether children with ASD are able to access and report their cognitions, a prerequisite skill for cognitive behavior…

  8. Mechanisms of Resilience in Children of Mothers Who Self-Report with Depressive Symptoms in the First Postnatal Year

    PubMed Central

    Savage-McGlynn, Emily; Redshaw, Maggie; Heron, Jon; Stein, Alan; Quigley, Maria A.; Evans, Jonathan; Ramchandani, Paul; Gray, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptoms of maternal postnatal depression are associated with an increased risk of adverse effects on child development. However, some children exposed to postnatal depression have outcomes similar to unexposed children, and can be referred to as resilient. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms of resilience in children exposed to depressive symptoms postnatally. Method Data are from a prospective cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Self-report questionnaire data were collected during pregnancy and the child’s first 2 years regarding maternal views of parenting and her perception of the child. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was completed postnatally at 8 months and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at age 11 years. Exposed children who scored above the median score of non-exposed children were defined as resilient. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the development of resilience. Results From the core ALSPAC cohort, 1,009 children (6.9%) were exposed to maternal depression at 8 months postnatally. The SDQ total difficulties scores at 11 years of age indicated that 325 (32.2%) were resilient, 684 were non-resilient. Maternal positive feelings about parenting and child non-verbal communication at 15 months increased the likelihood of later resilience. Conclusions In this study, resilience was associated with two factors: the child’s nonverbal communication at 15 months and by maternal positive feelings about parenting. Early intervention to support mother-child interaction and foster child development in women identified with postnatal depressive symptoms may benefit later child resilience. PMID:26618860

  9. The Latent Symptom Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Outpatients with Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilty, Lena C.; Zhang, K. Anne; Bagby, R. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a self-report instrument frequently used in clinical and research settings to assess depression severity. Although investigators have examined the factor structure of the BDI-II, a clear consensus on the best fitting model has not yet emerged, resulting in different recommendations regarding how to best…

  10. Self-Reported Menopausal Symptoms, Coronary Artery Calcification and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Recently Menopausal Women Screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS)

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Erin Foran; He, Yunxiao; Black, Dennis M.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Budoff, Mathew J.; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Hodis, Howard N.; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Merriam, George R.; Miller, Virginia M.; Naftolin, Fredrick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Harman, S. Mitchell; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether self-reported menopausal symptoms are associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Setting Multi-center, randomized controlled trial. Patients Recently menopausal women (n=868) screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Design Cross sectional analysis. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Baseline menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, night sweats, palpitations, mood swings, depression, insomnia, irritability), serum estradiol (E2) levels and measures of atherosclerosis were assessed. Atherosclerosis was quantified using Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) Agatston scores (n=771) and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT). Logistic regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CAC. Linear regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CIMT. Correlation between length of time in menopause with menopausal symptoms, estradiol (E2), CAC, and CIMT were assessed. Results In early menopausal women screened for KEEPS, neither E2 nor climacteric symptoms predicted the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis. Palpitations (p=0.09) and depression (p=0.07) approached significance as predictors of CAC. Other symptoms of insomnia, irritability, dyspareunia, hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, and vaginal dryness were not associated with CAC. Women with significantly elevated CAC scores were excluded from further participation in KEEPS; in women meeting inclusion criteria, neither baseline menopausal symptoms nor E2 predicted CIMT. Years since menopause onset correlated with CIMT, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness and E2. Conclusions Self-reported symptoms in recently menopausal women are not strong predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. Continued follow-up of this population will be performed to determine if baseline or persistent symptoms in the early menopause are associated with progression of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23312232

  11. Examination of categorical approach to symptom assessment: cross-validation of foulds’ Delusions-Symptoms-States Inventory with Korean non-patient and patient groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Foulds’ Delusions-Symptoms-State Inventory (DSSI) has been purported to be a reliable, systematic categorical measure to assess the patients with schizophrenia according to the degree of illness. However, further cross-validations using other clinical measures and diverse samples from other cultures have not been advanced recently. We aimed to examine the validity of the DSSI hierarchical class model using both Korean non-patient and patient (schizophrenia and depression) groups. Method The hypothesis of inclusive, non-reflexive relationships among the DSSI classes was tested. The power of DSSI to detect presence of symptoms was assessed via cross-validation with other clinical measures, and the differences between the clinical features among the DSSI classes were examined using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Results The high rate of model conformity (91.1%) across the samples and cross-validation with other criterion measures provided further support for the validity of DSSI. Conclusions DSSI is a reliable self-report measure that can be applied to both patient and non-patients to assess the presence and severity of psychiatric illness. Future studies that include more diverse clinical groups are necessary to lend further support for its utility in clinical practice. PMID:24103322

  12. Negative Cognitive Errors in Children: Questionnaire Development, Normative Data, and Comparisons between Children with and without Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression, Low Self-Esteem, and Evaluation Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitenberg, Harold; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire was constructed to measure in children four types of negative cognitive errors derived from Beck's cognitive theory of adult depression. Children with self-reported symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, and evaluation anxiety endorsed each type of negative cognitive error significantly more than did their lower…

  13. Assessing Older Adults’ Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms: Psychometric Characteristics of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised

    PubMed Central

    Calamari, John E.; Woodard, John L.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Molino, Alma; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Socha, Jami; Longley, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The lack of Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom measures validated for use with older adults has hindered research and treatment development for the age group. We evaluated the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R; Foa et al., 2002) with participants aged 65 and older (N = 180) to determine if the measure was an effective tool for evaluating obsessional symptoms. Participants completed the OCI-R and a comprehensive assessment battery up to four times over approximately 18 months. Results supported the well-replicated latent structure of the OCI-R (i.e., Washing, Checking, Ordering, Obsessing, Hoarding, and Neutralizing.). OCI-R total score was robustly associated with OCD symptoms assessed 18 months later by clinical interview, while scores on self-report measures of worry, general anxiety, and depression were not. Results indicate the OCI-R is an effective OCD symptom measure for older adults, although replication with additional older adult samples is needed. PMID:24949284

  14. Utilization of the Brief Symptom inventory to discriminate between violent and nonviolent male relationship partners.

    PubMed

    Gavazzi, S M; Julian, T W; McKenry, P C

    1996-12-01

    This study reports on the use of the Brief Symptom Inventory, a shortened version of the Symptom Check List-90-Revised, to measure psychopathological symptoms that predict male domestic violence. A sample of 152 men and their partners reported on the severity of violent behavior present in their relationship. Discriminant analysis indicated variation in men's violent status as a function of psychopathological symptoms. Violent men evidenced higher scores on 7 of the 9 subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory, namely, Depression, Anxiety, Hostility, Phobia, Paranoid Ideation, Interpersonal Sensitivity, and Psychoticism. PMID:8969115

  15. The Teaching Perspectives Inventory at 10 Years and 100,000 Respondents: Reliability and Validity of a Teacher Self-Report Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John B.; Pratt, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    The Teaching Perspectives Inventory (TPI) measures teachers' profiles on five contrasting views of what it means "to teach." The inventory can be used in aiding self-reflection, developing statements of teaching philosophy, engendering conversations about teaching, and recognizing legitimate variations on excellence in teaching. Available at…

  16. A test of the effects of acute sleep deprivation on general and specific self-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms: an experimental extension.

    PubMed

    Babson, Kimberly A; Trainor, Casey D; Feldner, Matthew T; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

    2010-09-01

    Evidence indicates acute sleep deprivation affects negative mood states. The present study experimentally tested the effects of acute sleep deprivation on self-reported symptoms of state anxiety and depression as well as general distress among 88 physically and psychologically healthy adults. As hypothesized, the effects of acute sleep deprivation increased state anxiety and depression, as well as general distress, relative to a normal night of sleep control condition. Based on the tripartite model of anxiety and depression, these findings replicate and extend prior research by suggesting sleep deprivation among individuals without current Axis I disorders increases both state symptoms of anxiety and depression specifically, and general distress more broadly. Extending this work to clinical samples and prospectively testing mechanisms underlying these effects are important future directions in this area of research. PMID:20231014

  17. Postpartum Depressive Symptoms Across Time and Place: Structural Invariance of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire Among Women from the International, Multi-Site MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Svensen, Erling; Tofail, Fahmida; Koshy, Beena; Kosek, Margaret; Rasheed, Muneera A.; Roshan, Reeba; Maphula, Angelina; Shrestha, Rita; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) is a screening instrument that has been shown to be an effective measure of depression in postpartum women and is widely used in developing nations. Methods The SRQ was administered to 2,028 mothers from eight nations at two time points: one and six months postpartum. All data were obtained from the Interactions of Malnutrition and Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study. The sample included women from MAL-ED sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. This study examined three aspects of validity of SRQ scores including (a) structural validity, (b) cross-cultural invariance, and (c) invariance over time. Results A 16-item, one-factor structure with items reflecting somatic symptoms removed was deemed to be superior to the original structure in this postpartum population. Although differential item functioning (DIF) across sites was evident, the one-factor model was a good fit to the data from seven sites, and the structure was invariant across the one- and six-month time points. Limitations Findings are based on data from self-report scales. No information about the clinical status of the participants was available. Conclusions Overall, findings support the validity of a modified model of the SRQ among postpartum women. Somatic symptoms (e.g., headaches, not sleeping well) may not reflect internalizing problems in a postpartum population. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed. PMID:24981251

  18. Diagnostic Validity of the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI): A Self-Report Screen for Ultrahigh Risk and Acute Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niessen, Maurice A. J.; Dingemans, Peter M. A. J.; van de Fliert, Reinaud; Becker, Hiske E.; Nieman, Dorien H.; Linszen, Don

    2010-01-01

    Providers of mental health services need tools to screen for acute psychosis and ultrahigh risk (UHR) for transition to psychosis in help-seeking individuals. In this study, the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI) was examined as a screening tool and for its ability to correctly predict diagnostic group membership (e.g., help seeking, mild…

  19. Clinical utility of the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory validity scales to screen for symptom exaggeration following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Brickell, Tracey A; Lippa, Sara M; French, Louis M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical utility of three recently developed validity scales (Validity-10, NIM5, and LOW6) designed to screen for symptom exaggeration using the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI). Participants were 272 U.S. military service members who sustained a mild, moderate, severe, or penetrating traumatic brain injury (TBI) and who were evaluated by the neuropsychology service at Walter Reed Army Medical Center within 199 weeks post injury. Participants were divided into two groups based on the Negative Impression Management scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory: (a) those who failed symptom validity testing (SVT-fail; n = 27) and (b) those who passed symptom validity testing (SVT-pass; n = 245). Participants in the SVT-fail group had significantly higher scores (p<.001) on the Validity-10, NIM5, LOW6, NSI total, and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) clinical scales (range: d = 0.76 to 2.34). Similarly high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power (PPP), and negative predictive (NPP) values were found when using all three validity scales to differentiate SVT-fail versus SVT-pass groups. However, the Validity-10 scale consistently had the highest overall values. The optimal cutoff score for the Validity-10 scale to identify possible symptom exaggeration was ?19 (sensitivity = .59, specificity = .89, PPP = .74, NPP = .80). For the majority of people, these findings provide support for the use of the Validity-10 scale as a screening tool for possible symptom exaggeration. When scores on the Validity-10 exceed the cutoff score, it is recommended that (a) researchers and clinicians do not interpret responses on the NSI, and (b) clinicians follow up with a more detailed evaluation, using well-validated symptom validity measures (e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form, MMPI-2-RF, validity scales), to seek confirmatory evidence to support an hypothesis of symptom exaggeration. PMID:26245293

  20. Performance and comparison of self-reported STI symptoms among high-risk populations - MSM, sex workers, persons living with HIV/AIDS - in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neha S; Kim, Evelyn; de Maria Hernández Ayala, Flor; Guardado Escobar, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Kim, Andrea A; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2014-12-01

    Resource-limited countries have limited laboratory capability and rely on syndromic management to diagnose sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We aimed to estimate the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of STI syndromic management when used as a screening method within a study setting. Men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSWs) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) participated in a behavioural surveillance study. Data were obtained on demographics, sexual behaviours, STI history and service utilisation. Biological specimens were tested for genital inflammatory infections (Neisseria gonorrhoeae [GC], Chlamydia trachomatis [CT], Mycoplasma genitalium [MG], Trichomonas vaginalis [TV]) and genital ulcerative infection (syphilis and Herpes simplex virus-2). There was a high prevalence of Herpes simplex virus-2 (MSM 48.1%, FSW 82.0% and PLWHA 84.4%). Most participants reported no ulcerative symptoms and the majority of men reported no inflammatory symptoms. Sensitivity and PPV were poor for inflammatory infections among PLWHA and MSM. Sensitivity in FSWs for inflammatory infections was 75%. For ulcerative infections, sensitivity was poor, but specificity and PPV were high. Reliance on self-reported symptoms may not be an effective screening strategy for these populations. STI prevention studies should focus on symptom recognition and consider routine screening and referral for high-risk populations. PMID:24616119

  1. Self-reported physical exposure and musculoskeletal symptoms of the forearm-hand among automobile assembly-line workers.

    PubMed

    Fransson-Hall, C; Byström, S; Kilbom, A

    1995-09-01

    The aim was to study the prevalence of physical exposures and symptoms of the forearm-hand in a population with highly repetitive jobs. Automobile assembly-line workers (ALWs) (n = 521) and a control group (CG) from the general population answered a questionnaire. Consistent differences were found between the groups. ALWs reported more symptoms from the forearm-hand and higher exposure to repetitive movements, precision movements, and manual handling (< or = 15 kg) than the CG. Female ALWs reported more symptoms and higher exposure to known risk factors for work-related forearm-hand disorders than their male colleagues. In conclusion, automobile assembly-line workers appear to be a high-risk group for work-related symptoms from the forearm-hand. Also, exposure to physical load should be conscientiously analyzed, since women may perform different tasks than men. PMID:8528723

  2. Proxy and self-reported Quality of Life in adults with intellectual disabilities: Impact of psychiatric symptoms, problem behaviour, psychotropic medication and unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Koch, Andrea D; Vogel, Anke; Becker, Thomas; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Voss, Elke; Werner, Amelie; Arnold, Katrin; Schützwohl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Proxies often underestimate the subjective Quality of Life (QoL) of adults with intellectual disability (ID). However, little is known about the reasons for these differences. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study is to, firstly, compare the self-reported QoL of adults with ID with proxy reports from staff of sheltered working and housing facilities, and, secondly, to identify possible differences of the impact of four potential predictor variables. Data of 102 adults with ID were collected as part of the MEMENTA study ('Mental health care provision for adults with ID and a mental disorder'). Results show that self-report QoL scores ranged from 72.6 to 86.8. Both proxies consistently reported lower QoL scores and agreement between self and proxy ratings was predominantly poor. Unmet needs and psychotropic medication were identified as the most important predictors of reduced self-rated QoL, whereas an increase of psychiatric symptoms, problem behaviours, and psychotropic medication best predicted the reduced QoL proxy ratings. To conclude, proxies still have to strive for a more holistic approach in surrogate QoL assessments and according to adults with ID, service providers should focus on a reduction of unmet needs and psychotropic medication to further improve QoL. PMID:26233765

  3. Screening of Tanzanian women of childbearing age for urinary schistosomiasis: validity of urine reagent strip readings and self-reported symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Poggensee, G.; Krantz, I.; Kiwelu, I.; Feldmeier, H.

    2000-01-01

    The screening of women of childbearing age for haematuria, leukocyturia and proteinuria to detect urinary schistosomiasis can be confounded by several factors such as menstruation, pregnancy and genitourinary infections. We therefore undertook a study in an area endemic for Schistosoma haematobium in the United Republic of Tanzania to carry out the following: assess the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values--in women of childbearing age--of indirect indicators of urinary schistosomiasis, as measured by urine reagent strip readings; assess the predictive values of self-reported symptoms; and finally to estimate the morbidity attributable to S. haematobium. A total of 303 women (128 and 175, respectively, living in high- and low-risk sites) participated in the study. Haematuria was more frequent among women excreting S. haematobium eggs than among those who did not (65% versus 32%). The predictive potential of all indirect disease markers was poor in the highly endemic site, while in the sites with low endemicity the negative predictive values were high. Among infected women, 54% of haematuria could be attributed to S. haematobium, but for patients with more than 10 eggs/10 ml the attributable fraction rose to 70%. Symptoms of "bloody urine" and "pain while urinating" were recalled significantly more often by women living in the highly endemic site. On a population level, one-third of the self-reported cases with bloody urine could be attributed to urinary schistosomiasis. Screening of women of childbearing age for urinary schistosomiasis using urine reagent strips can be biased in two directions. The prevalence of S. haematobium will be overestimated if other causes of haematuria, such as reproductive tract infections, are highly endemic. On the other hand, women with light or very light infections will be missed and will not be treated. This is of concern because genital schistosomiasis, a possible risk factor for the transmission of HIV, occurs among women even with light infections. PMID:10885183

  4. Reliability, Validity, and Utility of Instruments for Self-Report and Informant Report Concerning Symptoms of ADHD in Adult Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swinkels, S. H. N.; Bekker, Evelijne M.; de Noord, Ineke; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between symptoms of ADHD in adults, obtained with different methods and from different sources. Method: Information was obtained from 120 adults with ADHD, their partners, and their parents, using the ADHD Rating Scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale…

  5. Self-Reported Internalization Symptoms and Family Factors in Indigenous Sami and Non-Sami Adolescents in North Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bals, Margrethe; Turi, Anne Lene; Vitterso, Joar; Skre, Ingunn; Kvernmo, Siv

    2011-01-01

    Through differences in family socialization between indigenous and non-indigenous youth, there may be cultural differences in the impact of family factors on mental health outcome. Using structural equation modelling, this population-based study explored the relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression and family factors in indigenous…

  6. Early Adolescent Depression Symptoms and School Dropout: Mediating Processes Involving Self-Reported Academic Competence and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroga, Cintia V.; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Morin, Alexandre J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Research on adolescent well-being has shown that students with depression have an increased risk of facing academic failure, yet few studies have looked at the implications of adolescent depression in the process of school dropout. This study examined mediation processes linking depression symptoms, self-perceived academic competence, and…

  7. Parental Reports of Global Physical Health at Ages 3 and 6 Predict Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms 17 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raikkonen, Katri; Schubert, Carla; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2004-01-01

    Research studies testing longitudinal relations between childhood physical health measures and adulthood sub-clinical depressive symptoms are rare. In the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, longitudinal relations of parental reports of the global physical health of the child (1 = good, 2 = moderately good, 3 = average/not good) and of…

  8. Somatic symptoms beyond those generally associated with a whiplash injury are increased in self-reported chronic whiplash. A population-based cross sectional study: the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic whiplash leads to considerable patient suffering and substantial societal costs. There are two competing hypothesis on the etiology of chronic whiplash. The traditional organic hypothesis considers chronic whiplash and related symptoms a result of a specific injury. In opposition is the hypothesis that chronic whiplash is a functional somatic syndrome, and related symptoms a result of society-induced expectations and amplification of symptoms. According to both hypotheses, patients reporting chronic whiplash are expected to have more neck pain, headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression than the general population. Increased prevalence of somatic symptoms beyond those directly related to a whiplash neck injury is less investigated. The aim of this study was to test an implication derived from the functional hypothesis: Is the prevalence of somatic symptoms as seen in somatization disorder, beyond symptoms related to a whiplash neck injury, increased in individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash? We further aimed to explore recall bias by comparing the symptom profile displayed by individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash to that among those self-reporting a non-functional injury: fractures of the hand or wrist. We explored symptom load, etiologic origin could not be investigated in this study. Methods Data from the Norwegian population-based “Hordaland Health Study” (HUSK, 1997–99); N?=?13,986 was employed. Chronic whiplash was self-reported by 403 individuals and fractures by 1,746. Somatization tendency was measured using a list of 17 somatic symptoms arising from different body parts and organ systems, derived from the research criteria for somatization disorder (ICD-10, F45). Results Chronic whiplash was associated with an increased level of all 17 somatic symptoms investigated (p<0.05). The association was moderately strong (group difference of 0.60 standard deviation), only partly accounted for by confounding. For self-reported fractures symptoms were only slightly elevated. Recent whiplash was more commonly reported than whiplash-injury a long time ago, and the association of interest weakly increased with time since whiplash (r?=?0.016, p?=?0.032). Conclusions The increased prevalence of somatic symptoms beyond symptoms expected according to the organic injury model for chronic whiplash, challenges the standard injury model for whiplash, and is indicative evidence of chronic whiplash being a functional somatic syndrome. PMID:22935146

  9. Less depressed or less forthcoming? Self-report of depression symptoms in women preparing for in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Adam M; Liu, Dawei; Stuart, Scott P; Ryan, Ginny

    2013-04-01

    While depression has been associated with infertility treatments, it is not routinely assessed in women prior to undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Findings are mixed regarding the degree to which women report depression prior to IVF. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine response profiles in women preparing for IVF and (2) compare responses to those of postpartum, primary care, and general population groups. Female IVF patients (n = 321; 19-45 years) completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at their first visit. Clinical and demographic characteristics and incidence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other depressive disorders (ODD) were examined. Overall score distributions of the IVF group were compared to those of local postpartum patients and published primary care and general populations. Demographic or clinical characteristics did not account for response differences within the IVF group. The IVF group had lower incidences of MDD and ODD than a PHQ-9 normative group. Women in the IVF group reported no depressive symptoms significantly more than postpartum, primary care, and general population groups. Women preparing to undergo IVF report fewer symptoms of depression than multiple comparison groups. Specific quality of life measures may be needed to assess distress in this population. PMID:23138273

  10. A Review of the Factorial Structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI): Greek Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loutsiou-Ladd, Anthi; Panayiotou, Georgia; Kokkinos, Costantinos M.

    2008-01-01

    This study extends the psychometric evidence on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) in a sample of Greek-speaking adults (N = 818). Alpha coefficients for the nine dimensions indicated high consistency among the comprising items of each scale. The convergent and discriminant validity of the Greek-BSI were checked against the personality constructs…

  11. Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish-Language Trauma Symptom Inventory in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez Wang, Lisa; Cosden, Merith; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This research was conducted to assess the Spanish-language Trauma Symptom Inventory's (Briere, 1995) suitability for use with a Puerto Rican sample. Minor revisions were made to the original instrument following a comprehensive appraisal involving a bilingual committee and pilot focus group. The present study outlines the review and…

  12. Testing the Cross-Ethnic Construct Validity of the Brief Symptom Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the cross-ethnic construct validity of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Method: The sample consisted of 1,166 individuals diagnosed with severe and persistent mental illness who were receiving treatment in community-based mental health programs. Multiple-group confirmatory factor…

  13. Do Web-Based and Clinic Samples of Gay Men Living With HIV Differ on Self-Reported Physical and Psychological Symptoms? A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Fiona; Molloy, Tim; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the Internet is commonly used to recruit samples in studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors, it has not been used to measure patient-reported well-being. As the burden of long-term chronic HIV infection rises, the Internet may offer enormous potential for recruitment to research and interventions. Objective This study aimed to compare two samples of gay men living with HIV, one recruited via the Web and the other recruited in outpatient settings, in terms of self-reported physical and psychological symptom burden. Methods The Internet sample was recruited from a UK-wide Web-based survey of gay men with diagnosed HIV. Of these, 154 respondents identified themselves as resident in London and were included in this analysis. The HIV clinic sample was recruited from five HIV outpatient clinics. Of these participants, 400 gay men recruited in London clinics were included in this analysis. Results The Web-based sample was younger than the clinic sample (37.3 years, SD 7.0 vs 40.9 years, SD 8.3), more likely to be in paid employment (72.8%, 99/136 vs 60.1%, 227/378), less likely to be on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (58.4%, 90/154 vs 68.0%, 266/391), and had worse mean psychological symptom burden compared to the clinic sample (mean scores: 1.61, SD 1.09 vs 1.36, SD 0.96) but similar physical symptom burden (mean scores: 0.78, SD 0.65 vs 0.70, SD 0.74). In multivariable logistic regression, for the physical symptom burden model, adjusted for age, ethnicity, employment status, and ART use, the recruitment setting (ie, Web-based vs clinic) was not significantly associated with high physical symptom score. The only variable that remained significantly associated with high physical symptom score was employment status, with those in employment being less likely to report being in the upper (worst) physical symptom tertile versus the other two tertiles (adjusted OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.28-0.62, P<.001). For the psychological symptom burden model, those recruited via the Web were significantly more likely to report being in the upper (worst) tertile (adjusted OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.41-3.44, P=.001). In addition, those in employment were less likely to report being in the upper (worst) psychological symptom tertile compared to those not in employment (adjusted OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.21-0.49, P<.001). Conclusions Our data have revealed a number of differences. Compared to the clinic sample, the Web-based sample had worse psychological symptom burden, younger average age, higher prevalence of employment, and a lower proportion on ART. For future research, we recommend that Web-based data collection should include the demographic variables that we note differed between samples. In addition, we recognize that each recruitment method may bring inherent sampling bias, with clinic populations differing by geographical location and reflecting those accessing regular medical care, and Web-based sampling recruiting those with greater Internet access and identifying survey materials through specific searches and contact with specific websites. PMID:25793749

  14. Psychometric Validation of the Japanese Version of the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Matsubayashi, Yoshitaka; Takeshita, Katsushi; Sumitani, Masahiko; Oshima, Yasushi; Tonosu, Juichi; Kato, So; Ohya, Junichi; Oichi, Takeshi; Okamoto, Naoki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI-J). Design Cross-sectional study design. Subjects and Methods The original Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) was translated into Japanese according to published guidelines. Subsequently, an observational study of 60 Japanese patients suffering from neuropathic pain was performed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the NPSI-J. Results The NPSI-J exhibited a statistically significant correlation with pain intensity (Numerical Rating Scale). The Cronbach alpha value for Likert items was 0.86. Using the test–retest analysis method, the intraclass correlation coefficient between the two scores was 0.81. Factor analysis revealed that the main component of NPSI-J comprised three determinative factors. Conclusions The NPSI-J is a reliable and valid pain assessment tool. PMID:26600240

  15. Trauma Symptoms and Life Skill Needs of Domestic Violence Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorde, Mrugaya W.; Helfrich, Christine A.; Finlayson, Marcia L.

    2004-01-01

    This study identified the trauma symptoms and life skill needs of 84 domestic violence victims from three domestic violence programs. Women completed two self-report tools: Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) and Occupational Self Assessment (OSA). Staff members participated in focus groups regarding their perceptions of the womens needs. Women scored…

  16. Comparing the validity of the self reporting questionnaire and the Afghan symptom checklist: dysphoria, aggression, and gender in transcultural assessment of mental health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relative performance of local and international assessment instruments is subject to ongoing discussion in transcultural research on mental health and psychosocial support. We examined the construct and external validity of two instruments, one developed for use in Afghanistan, the other developed by the World Health Organization for use in resource-poor settings. Methods We used data collected on 1003 Afghan adults (500 men, 503 women) randomly sampled at three sites in Afghanistan. We compared the 22-item Afghan Symptom Checklist (ASCL), a culturally-grounded assessment of psychosocial wellbeing, with Pashto and Dari versions of the 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). We derived subscales using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) and tested total and subscale scores for external validity with respect to lifetime trauma and household wealth using block model regressions. Results EFA suggested a three-factor structure for SRQ-20 - somatic complaints, negative affect, and emotional numbing - and a two-factor structure for ASCL - jigar khun (dysphoria) and aggression. Both factor models were supported by CFA in separate subsamples. Women had higher scores for each of the five subscales than men (p?

  17. Incremental Validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised with Mental Health Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonds, Elise C.; Handel, Richard W.; Archer, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the incremental validity of scores from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) in a sample of mental health inpatients originally published by Archer, Griffin, and Aiduk (1995). The incremental validity of scores from the SCL-90-R primary symptom dimensions…

  18. Differentiating Elderly Medical and Psychiatric Outpatients with the Beck Anxiety Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steer, Robert A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    To determine whether self-reported anxious symptoms differentiated elderly medical and psychiatric outpatients, the Beck Anxiety Inventory was administered to 45 medical outpatients and 117 psychiatric inpatients. Only two symptoms, fear of the worst happening and unsteady, contributed unique variance to the differentiation of the two groups. (SLD)

  19. Development of the family symptom inventory: a psychosocial screener for children with hematology/oncology conditions.

    PubMed

    Karlson, Cynthia W; Haynes, Stacey; Faith, Melissa A; Elkin, Thomas D; Smith, Maria L; Megason, Gail

    2015-03-01

    A growing body of literature has begun to underscore the importance of integrating family-based comprehensive psychological screening into standard medical care for children with oncology and hematology conditions. There are no known family-based measures designed to screen for clinically significant emotional and behavioral concerns in pediatric oncology and hematology patients. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the Family Symptom Inventory (FSI), a brief screener of patient and family member psychological symptoms. The FSI also screens for common comorbid physical symptoms (pain and sleep disturbance) and is designed for use at any point during treatment and follow-up. A total of 488 caregivers completed the FSI during regular hematology/oncology visits for 193 cancer, 219 sickle cell disease, and 76 hematology pediatric patients. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and tests of reliability and preliminary validity were conducted. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a 34-item, 4-factor solution, which was confirmed in an independent sample using confirmatory factor analysis (factor loadings=0.49 to 0.88). The FSI demonstrated good internal reliability (?'s=0.86 to 0.92) and good preliminary validity. Regular psychosocial screening throughout the course of treatment and follow-up may lead to improved quality of care for children with oncology and hematology conditions. PMID:25692615

  20. Dynamic Associations between Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Adolescents’ Depressive and Externalizing Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The current prospective study investigated transactional relations between maternal depressive symptoms and children’s depressive and externalizing symptoms. Participants included 240 children (M age = 11.86 years, SD = 0.56; 53.9 % female) and their mothers who were part of a 6-year longitudinal study. Measures of maternal depression (Beck Depression Inventory), child depression (Children’s Depression Inventory), and children’s externalizing symptoms (Youth Self-Report Form) were assessed annually. Data analyses using dynamic latent difference score structural equation models indicated that the observed relations between mothers’ and adolescents’ symptoms were stable across the 6 years. Higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms predicted subsequent elevations in children’s depressive symptoms and in their externalizing problems over time. Among mothers with high initial levels of depression, children’s depressive symptoms predicted subsequent declines in mothers’ depressive symptoms. Children’s externalizing problems were not related to subsequent change in maternal symptoms. PMID:20607385

  1. Dynamic associations between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescents' depressive and externalizing symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kouros, Chrystyna D; Garber, Judy

    2010-11-01

    The current prospective study investigated transactional relations between maternal depressive symptoms and children's depressive and externalizing symptoms. Participants included 240 children (M age = 11.86 years, SD = 0.56; 53.9% female) and their mothers who were part of a 6-year longitudinal study. Measures of maternal depression (Beck Depression Inventory), child depression (Children's Depression Inventory), and children's externalizing symptoms (Youth Self-Report Form) were assessed annually. Data analyses using dynamic latent difference score structural equation models indicated that the observed relations between mothers' and adolescents' symptoms were stable across the 6 years. Higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms predicted subsequent elevations in children's depressive symptoms and in their externalizing problems over time. Among mothers with high initial levels of depression, children's depressive symptoms predicted subsequent declines in mothers' depressive symptoms. Children's externalizing problems were not related to subsequent change in maternal symptoms. PMID:20607385

  2. A latent trait analysis of an inventory designed to detect symptoms of anxiety and depression using an elderly community sample.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, A; Christensen, H; Jorm, A F; Henderson, A S; Scott, R; Korten, A E

    1994-11-01

    An 18-item inventory designed by Goldberg et al. (1987) to detect symptoms of anxiety and depression was administered to an elderly general population sample. Latent trait analysis was used to assess the dimensionality of the inventory and the location and discriminatory ability of the symptoms. The items showed different patterns of discrimination in this group compared to the sample of general practice attenders on which the inventory was developed. Overall, the items did define two correlated dimensions of anxiety and depression. In addition, a third dimension of sleep disturbance was detected. Both individual scales and the total symptom scores were sensitive and relatively specific detectors of depressive disorders assessed according to ICD-10 and DSM-III-R criteria. The retention of sleep items on their original scales did not affect the sensitivity of the scales to detect depressive disorders. A two-step administration procedure suggested for use in the administration of the scales was investigated but found to be sensitive to differences between the current sample and the sample on which the inventory was developed. This symptom inventory can be recommended for use in epidemiological investigations as a brief, valid and acceptable method of detecting elevated levels of anxiety and depression in elderly persons. PMID:7892365

  3. Utility of the Trauma Symptom Inventory's Atypical Response Scale in Detecting Malingered Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elhai, Jon D.; Gray, Matthew J.; Naifeh, James A.; Butcher, Jimmie J.; Davis, Joanne L.; Falsetti, Sherry A.; Best, Connie L.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the Trauma Symptom Inventorys (TSI) ability to discriminate 88 student post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) simulators screened for genuine PTSD from 48 clinical PTSD-diagnosed outpatients. Results demonstrated between-group differences on several TSI clinical scales and the Atypical Response (ATR) validity scale.…

  4. Cross-Ethnic Measurement Invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory for Individuals with Severe and Persistent Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the measurement invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory's (BSI) secondary factor model across African, white, and Latino Americans using multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses. This study provides an examination of the BSI's validity for use in mental health service research for people with severe and…

  5. Self-reported workplace related ergonomic conditions as prognostic factors for musculoskeletal symptoms: the "BIT" follow up study on office workers

    PubMed Central

    Juul-Kristensen, B; Jensen, C

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To identify prognostic ergonomic and work technique factors for musculoskeletal symptoms among office workers and in a subgroup with highly monotonous repetitive computer work. Methods: A baseline questionnaire was delivered to 5033 office workers in 11 Danish companies in the first months of 1999, and a follow up questionnaire was mailed in the last months of 2000 to 3361 respondents. A subgroup with highly monotonous repetitive computer work was formed including those that were repeating the same movements and/or tasks for at least 75% of the work time. The questionnaire contained questions on ergonomic factors and factors related to work technique. The outcome variables were based on the frequency of musculoskeletal symptoms during the last 12 months. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify prognostic factors for symptoms in the three body regions. Results: In total, 39%, 47%, and 51% of the symptomatic subjects had a reduced frequency of symptom days in the neck/shoulder, low back, or elbow/hand region, respectively. In all regions more men than women had reduced symptoms. In the multivariate logistic regression analyses, working no more than 75% of the work time with the computer was a prognostic factor for musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck/shoulder and elbow/hand, and a high influence on the speed of work was a prognostic factor for symptoms in the low back. In the subgroup with highly monotonous repetitive computer work, the odds ratios of the prognostic factors were similar to those for the whole group of office workers. Conclusion: When organising computer work it is important to allow for physical variation with other work tasks, thereby avoiding working with the computer during all the work time, and further to consider the worker's own influence on the speed of work. PMID:15723884

  6. Depressive symptoms and observed eating in youth.

    PubMed

    Mooreville, Mira; Shomaker, Lauren B; Reina, Samantha A; Hannallah, Louise M; Adelyn Cohen, L; Courville, Amber B; Kozlosky, Merel; Brady, Sheila M; Condarco, Tania; Yanovski, Susan Z; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2014-04-01

    Depressive symptoms in youth may be a risk factor for obesity, with altered eating behaviors as one possible mechanism. We tested whether depressive symptoms were associated with observed eating patterns expected to promote excessive weight gain in two separate samples. In Study 1, 228 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 12-17y (15.3±1.4y; 54.7% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 10,934-kcal buffet meal served at 11:00am after an overnight fast. In Study 2, 204 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 8-17y (13.0±2.8y; 49.5% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children's Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 9835-kcal buffet meal served at 2:30pm after a standard breakfast. In Study 1, controlling for body composition and other relevant covariates, depressive symptoms were positively related to total energy intake in girls and boys. In Study 2, adjusting for the same covariates, depressive symptoms among girls only were positively associated with total energy intake. Youth high in depressive symptoms and dietary restraint consumed the most energy from sweets. In both studies, the effects of depressive symptoms on intake were small. Nevertheless, depressive symptoms were associated with significantly greater consumption of total energy and energy from sweet snack foods, which, over time, could be anticipated to promote excess weight gain. PMID:24424352

  7. Differences in the Prevalence, Severity and Symptom Profiles of Depression in Boys and Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder versus Normally Developing Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, severity and symptom profiles for major depressive disorder (MDD) were compared in samples of boys and adolescents with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Self-reports were obtained on the Depression subscale of the Child and Adolescent Symptoms Inventory (CASI-D) with 70 ASD and 50 non-ASD male participants between the…

  8. Self-Reported Executive Functioning in Everyday Life in Parkinson's Disease after Three Months of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Uyen Ha Gia; Andersson, Stein; Toft, Mathias; Pripp, Are Hugo; Konglund, Ane Eidahl; Dietrichs, Espen; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik; Skogseid, Inger Marie; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebolt; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Studies on the effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on executive functioning in Parkinson's disease (PD) are still controversial. In this study we compared self-reported daily executive functioning in PD patients before and after three months of STN-DBS. We also examined whether executive functioning in everyday life was associated with motor symptoms, apathy, and psychiatric symptoms. Method. 40 PD patients were examined with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-S). Results. PD patients reported significant improvement in daily life executive functioning after 3 months of STN-DBS. Anxiety scores significantly declined, while other psychiatric symptoms remained unchanged. The improvement of self-reported executive functioning did not correlate with motor improvement after STN-DBS. Apathy scores remained unchanged after surgery. Only preoperative depressed mood had predictive value to the improvement of executive function and appears to prevent potentially favorable outcomes from STN-DBS on some aspects of executive function. Conclusion. PD patients being screened for STN-DBS surgery should be evaluated with regard to self-reported executive functioning. Depressive symptoms in presurgical PD patients should be treated. Complementary information about daily life executive functioning in PD patients might enhance further treatment planning of STN-DBS. PMID:26167329

  9. The Utility and Comparative Incremental Validity of the MMPI-2 and Trauma Symptom Inventory Validity Scales in the Detection of Feigned PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efendov, Adele A.; Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the comparative predictive capacity of the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) Atypical Response Scale (ATR) and the standard set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) fake-bad validity scales (i.e., F, F[subscript B[prime

  10. Tobacco Smoking, Alcohol Drinking, Diabetes, Low Body Mass Index and the Risk of Self-Reported Symptoms of Active Tuberculosis: Individual Participant Data (IPD) Meta-Analyses of 72,684 Individuals in 14 High Tuberculosis Burden Countries

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Jayadeep; Jha, Prabhat; Rehm, Jürgen; Suraweera, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of multiple exposures on active tuberculosis (TB) are largely undetermined. We sought to establish a dose-response relationship for smoking, drinking, and body mass index (BMI) and to investigate the independent and joint effects of these and diabetes on the risk of self-reported symptoms of active TB disease. Methods and Findings We analyzed 14 national studies in 14 high TB-burden countries using self-reports of blood in cough/phlegm and cough lasting >?=?3 weeks in the last year as the measures of symptoms of active TB. The random effect estimates of the relative risks (RR) between active TB and smoking, drinking, diabetes, and BMI<18.5 kg/m2 were reported for each gender. Floating absolute risks were used to examine dyads of exposure. Adjusted for age and education, the risks of active TB were significantly associated with diabetes and BMI<18.5 kg/m2 in both sexes, with ever drinking in men and with ever smoking in women. Stronger dose-response relationships were seen in women than in men for smoking amount, smoking duration and drinking amount but BMI<18.5 kg/m2 showed a stronger dose-response relationship in men. In men, the risks from joint exposures were statistically significant for diabetics with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 (RR?=?6.4), diabetics who smoked (RR?=?3.8), and diabetics who drank alcohol (RR?=?3.2). The risks from joint risk factors were generally larger in women than in men, with statistically significant risks for diabetics with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 (RR?=?10.0), diabetics who smoked (RR?=?5.4) and women with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 who smoked (RR?=?5.0). These risk factors account for 61% of male and 34% of female estimated TB incidents in these 14 countries. Conclusions Tobacco, alcohol, diabetes, and low BMI are significant individual risk factors but in combination are associated with triple or quadruple the risk of development of recent active TB. These risk factors might help to explain the wide variation in TB across countries. PMID:24789311

  11. The prevalence of self-reported symptoms of respiratory disease and community belief about the severity of pollution from various sources.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Paul R; Davies, Maria A; Hill, Hill; Whittaker, Mike; Sufi, Farzana

    2003-09-01

    It is postulated that health effects of air pollution may be direct and indirect through people's perception about the severity of pollution and concerns over its impact on their health. A cross sectional postal survey of some 6,559 households was conducted in the area of Ellesmere Port and Neston Borough Council. A total of 3,402 (51.9%) usable questionnaires were returned and included in the subsequent analyses. Childhood asthma was associated with central heating. Adult asthma was associated with the number of people in the house who had ever smoked and 'crowding'. General adult respiratory symptoms were associated with perception of industrial air pollution and neighbour noise in univariable but not multivariable analyses. In the multivariable model number of people in the household who had ever smoked, exposure to traffic fume pollution, crowding and living in rented accommodation. This suggests a complex relationship between actual levels of pollution (though not directly measured in this study), social deprivation, socio-behavioural factors and people's perceptions about pollution. A model of the relationship of these factors is proposed and it is argued that studies of the health impact of air pollution that concentrate only on chemical exposure will be flawed unless they are placed in the context of perception and socio-behavioural factors. PMID:12909554

  12. Self-Report Differentiation of Anxiety and Depression in an Anxiety Disorders Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Brian J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    To study the distinction between self-reports of anxiety and depression, a factor analysis was conducted using responses of 298 anxiety disorder patients on the Beck Depression Inventory and the State Anxiety subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that the two conditions can be reliably differentiated in self-reports. (SLD)

  13. The Prevalence, Risk Factors and Changes in Symptoms of Self Reported Asthma, Rhinitis and Eczema Among Pregnant Women in Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemi, Adewale Samson; Adebayo, Philip Babatunde; Tanimowo, Moses O.; Ayodele, Olugbenga Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergic disorders have become a major public health concern worldwide. No Nigerian study has examined the epidemiology of allergic diseases among women. Aim To document the prevalence, risk factors and the changes in the symptoms of allergic disorders during pregnancy. Settings and Design Cross-sectional study conducted at the booking and antenatal clinics of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Clinic of the Comprehensive Health Center, Oja Igbo, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Materials and Methods Study enrolled 432 women from two public hospitals. Sociodemographic and clinical history were obtained and allergic disorders were diagnosed using ISAAC questionnaires. Results The prevalence of wheezing, eczema and rhinitis in pregnancy are 7.5%, 4.0% and 5.8% respectively. The prevalence of wheezing and eczema was slightly higher among the pregnant in past 12 months. Wheeze worsened in 70% (18/26), improved in 15% (2/26), and stable in 15% (2/26). Eczema worsened in 50% (7/14), improved in 7.1% (1/14) and stable in 42.9% (6/14), while allergic rhinitis worsened in 50% (11/22), improved in 22.7% (5/22) and stabilized in 27.3 % (6/22). In multivariate analysis, the risk of allergic diseases in pregnancy was increase 2 times by low income earning (CI: 1.2 – 2.1, p = 0.002), low level education (OR = 0.6, CI: 0.3 – 0.9, p = 0.011) and by family history of asthma, OR-4.3, CI – 1.3 – 13.9, p = 0.015. Family history of asthma increase the chances of asthma by 18.7 times, CI-2.3 – 152.2, p = 0.006, while the odd of eczema was increased 9.1 times (CI-2.7 – 30.6, p<0.001) and 2.4 times (CI: 1.2 – 4.7, p = 0.008) by second hand home smoking and low-family income respectively. The risk of allergic rhinitis were raised 1.8 times by low family income (CI 1.1 – 2.8, p = 0.013) and 3.9 times by family history of rhinitis (OR = 3.9, CI 1.2 – 12.7, p = 0.024). Conclusion Prevalence of wheezing and eczema are higher in pregnancy probably due to exacerbation induced by pregnancy. Social and genetic factors are important risk factors for allergic disorders in pregnancy. PMID:26500933

  14. Pain Phenotype in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: Classification and Measurement Properties of painDETECT and Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Scale in a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreton, Bryan J; Tew, Victoria; das Nair, Roshan; Wheeler, Maggie; Walsh, David A; Lincoln, Nadina B

    2015-01-01

    Objective Multiple mechanisms are involved in pain associated with osteoarthritis (OA). The painDETECT and Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) questionnaires screen for neuropathic pain and may also identify individuals with musculoskeletal pain who exhibit abnormal central pain processing. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate painDETECT and S-LANSS for classification agreement and fit to the Rasch model, and to explore their relationship to pain severity and pain mechanisms in OA. Methods A total of 192 patients with knee OA completed questionnaires covering different aspects of pain. Another group of 77 patients with knee OA completed questionnaires and underwent quantitative sensory testing for pressure–pain thresholds (PPTs). Agreement between painDETECT and S-LANSS was evaluated using kappa coefficients and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Rasch analysis of both questionnaires was conducted. Relationships between screening questionnaires and measures of pain severity or PPTs were calculated using correlations. Results PainDETECT and S-LANSS shared a stronger correlation with each other than with measures of pain severity. ROC curves identified optimal cutoff scores for painDETECT and S-LANSS to maximize agreement, but the kappa coefficient was low (? = 0.33–0.46). Rasch analysis supported the measurement properties of painDETECT but not those of S-LANSS. Higher painDETECT scores were associated with widespread reductions in PPTs. Conclusion The data suggest that painDETECT assesses pain quality associated with augmented central pain processing in patients with OA. Although developed as a screening questionnaire, painDETECT may also function as a measure of characteristics that indicate augmented central pain processing. Agreement between painDETECT and S-LANSS for pain classification was low, and it is currently unknown which tool may best predict treatment outcome. PMID:25155472

  15. The Diabetes Symptom Self-Care Inventory: Development and Psychometric Testing with Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    García, Alexandra A.

    2010-01-01

    Context Type 2 diabetes is prevalent throughout the world. In previous studies of Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes, 95-97% of those sampled reported having symptoms they believe were caused by diabetes and most self-treated their symptoms. To more accurately capture Mexican Americans’ symptom prevalence and their self-treatments, the Diabetes Symptom Self-Care Instrument (DSSCI) was adapted from the Diabetes Self-Care Instrument. Objectives This paper describes the modification process used to perfect the DSSCI for use in improving self-care among people with Type 2 diabetes. Methods This instrumentation study used qualitative and quantitative methods. The study was completed in four phases that used focus groups, cognitive interviews, and survey administration. Four convenience samples were drawn from community-based Mexican American adults, aged 25-75, with type 2 diabetes in an urban area and a rural location in Texas. Results Phase I: Seven focus groups (n=45) generated data for revising items. Phase II: Cognitive interviews with 16 participants were used to evaluate four revisions of the questionnaire. Phase III: Surveys were administered to 81 participants. Total number of symptoms on the DSSCI correlated with scores on the Centers for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (r=.65, p < .001), Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised Diabetes symptom subscale (r=.57, p < .001), and Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life scale (r= -.42, p < .001). Minor revisions followed. Phase IV: Test-retest stability was demonstrated (n = 44). Conclusion The DSSCI is a culturally-relevant, sound measure of Mexican Americans’ diabetes symptoms and the actions they take to address them. PMID:21276705

  16. Utility of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) in Psychiatric Outpatients with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, J.; Wardenaar, K. J.; Fontein, E.; Zitman, F. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diagnostics and care for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and psychiatric disorders need to be improved. This can be done by using assessment instruments to routinely measure the nature and severity of psychiatric symptoms. Up until now, in the Netherlands, assessment measures are seldom used in the psychiatric care for this…

  17. Psychosocial predictors of self-reported fatigue in patients with moderate to severe irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; Gudleski, Gregory D.; DiMuro, Jennifer; Keefer, Laurie; Brenner, Darren M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the level, impact, and predictors of fatigue in patients with moderate to severe irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). One hundred seventy five patients meeting Rome III criteria for IBS completed a variety of measures including the vitality scale of the SF-12, IBS-Symptom Severity Scale, IBS-QOL, Brief Symptom Inventory-18, Screening for Somatoform Symptoms (SOMS-7), and a semi structured clinical interview (IBS-PRO) as part of a pretreatment evaluation of an NIH funded clinical trial of cognitive behavior therapy for IBS. Fatigue was the third most common somatic complaint, reported by 61% of the patients. Levels of fatigue were associated with both somatic (more severe IBS symptoms, greater number of unexplained medical symptoms), behavioral (frequency of restorative experiences) and psychological (e.g., trait anxiety, depression) outcomes after holding constant confounding variables. The final model in multiple regression analyses accounted for 41.6% of the variance in self-reported fatigue scores with significant predictors including anxiety sensitivity, perceived stress, IBS symptom severity, restorative activities and depression. The clinical implications of data as they relate to both IBS and CBT in general are discussed in the context of attention restoration theory. PMID:23578499

  18. An Evaluation of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 Using Item Response Theory: Which Items Are Most Strongly Related to Psychological Distress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and…

  19. Factorial Invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) for Adults of Mexican Descent across Nativity Status, Language Format, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Lucas; Miller, Matthew J.; Moore, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    The cultural equivalence of psychological outcome measures remains a major area of investigation. The current study sought to test the factor structure and factorial invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) with a sample of adult individuals of Mexican descent (N = 923) across nativity status (U.S.- vs. foreign-born), language format…

  20. A Preliminary Investigation of the Validity and Reliability of the Brief-Symptom Inventory-18 in Economically Disadvantaged Latina American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Swenson, Rebecca R.; Bowman, Marvella A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the construct validity and reliability of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) in 1,115 low-income Latina mothers. Exploratory factor analyses conducted in half of the sample supported a one-factor solution, which was subsequently confirmed in the remainder of the sample using confirmatory factor…

  1. Factor Structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory--18 in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Results from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recklitis, Christopher J.; Parsons, Susan K.; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Mertens, Ann; Robison, Leslie L.; Zeltzer, Lonnie

    2006-01-01

    The factor structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory--18 (BSI-18; L. R. Derogatis, 2000) was investigated in a sample of adult survivors of childhood cancer enrolled in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS; N = 8,945). An exploratory factor analysis with a randomly chosen subsample supported a 3-factor structure closely corresponding to the 3…

  2. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 in Women: A MACS Approach to Testing for Invariance across Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiesner, Margit; Chen, Vincent; Windle, Michael; Elliott, Marc N.; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kanouse, David E.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    This study used data from 3 sites to examine the invariance and psychometric characteristics of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 across Black, Hispanic, and White mothers of 5th graders (N = 4,711; M = 38.07 years of age, SD = 7.16). Internal consistencies were satisfactory for all subscale scores of the instrument regardless of ethnic group…

  3. Cognitive Abilities Relate to Self-Reported Hearing Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; George, Erwin L. J.; Houtgast, Tammo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1996) and…

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Self-Reports: Testing Validity and Reliability Using the NEO-PI-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesselmark, Eva; Eriksson, Jonna M.; Westerlund, Joakim; Bejerot, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Although self-reported measures are frequently used to assess adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the validity of self-reports is under-researched in ASD. The core symptoms of ASD may negatively affect the psychometric properties of self-reported measures. The aim of the present study was to test the validity and reliability of…

  5. Concordance of the Mini-Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults Who Have Developmental Disabilities (PASADD) and the Brief Symptom Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beail, N.; Mitchell, K.; Vlissides, N.; Jackson, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: When assessing the mental health needs of people who have intellectual disabilities (ID) it is important to use measures that have good validity and reliability to ensure accurate case recognition and reliable and valid outcome data. Measures developed for this purpose tend to be self-report or by informant report. Multi-trait…

  6. Profile of Self-Reported Problems with Executive Functioning in College and Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Seichepine, Daniel R.; Stamm, Julie M.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Riley, David O.; Baugh, Christine M.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C.; Nowinski, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE. PMID:23421745

  7. Assessing posttraumatic stress related impairment and well-being: The Posttraumatic Stress Related Functioning Inventory (PRFI).

    PubMed

    McCaslin, Shannon E; Maguen, Shira; Metzler, Thomas; Bosch, Jeane; Neylan, Thomas C; Marmar, Charles R

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress symptoms are associated with poorer social and occupational functioning and quality of life. However, general assessments of functioning do not determine the extent to which these difficulties are directly related to PTSD symptoms. This study examines the psychometric properties of a self-report measure, the 27-item Posttraumatic Stress Related Functioning Inventory (PRFI), which was developed to provide a self-report tool for clinicians and researchers to better understand the perceived impact of PTSD symptoms on functioning. The psychometric properties of the PRFI were examined utilizing data collected within a larger study examining quality of life and functioning in 251 veterans who had served in OEF/OIF/OND and endorsed the presence of subsyndromal or greater levels of PTSD symptoms at screening. One-year test-retest reliability of the measure was examined in a subset of the baseline sample who received a second administration of the PRFI (n = 109). Higher levels of PTSD symptoms were associated with poorer functioning in all domains. The PRFI demonstrated convergent validity with a measure of PTSD symptoms and was less correlated with measures of alcohol and drug use, good internal consistency and test-retest reliability from baseline to one-year follow-up. The PRFI provides self-report information regarding several domains of functioning. This initial examination of psychometric properties of the scale indicated that it may be useful for efficiently eliciting information about the ways in which PTSD symptoms in veterans impact everyday functioning. PMID:26615453

  8. Using Cluster Analysis to Segment Students Based on Self-Reported Emotionally Intelligent Leadership Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facca, Tina M.; Allen, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    Using emotionally intelligent leadership (EIL) as the model, the authors identify behaviors that three levels of leaders engage in based on a self-report inventory (Emotionally Intelligent Leadership for Students-Inventory). Three clusters of students are identified: those that are "Less-involved, Less Others-oriented," "Self-Improvers," and…

  9. Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Smolderen, Kim GE; Vingerhoets, Ad JJM; Croon, Marcel A; Denollet, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI). This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.). ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009), social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011), and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048) predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = < 0.0001) was also associated with ILI reporting. Older age was associated with less self-reported ILI (OR = 0.98, P = 0.017). Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures. PMID:18036207

  10. Diagnostic accuracy for major depression in multiple sclerosis using self-report questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Anja; Fischer, Marcus; Nicholls, Robert A; Lau, Stephanie; Poettgen, Jana; Patas, Kostas; Heesen, Christoph; Gold, Stefan M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Multiple sclerosis and major depressive disorder frequently co-occur but depression often remains undiagnosed in this population. Self-rated depression questionnaires are a good option where clinician-based standardized diagnostics are not feasible. However, there is a paucity of data on diagnostic accuracy of self-report measures for depression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Moreover, head-to-head comparisons of common questionnaires are largely lacking. This could be particularly relevant for high-risk patients with depressive symptoms. Here, we compare the diagnostic accuracy of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and 30-item version of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Rated (IDS-SR30) for major depressive disorder (MSS) against diagnosis by a structured clinical interview. Methods Patients reporting depressive symptoms completed the BDI, the IDS-SR30 and underwent diagnostic assessment (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, M.I.N.I.). Receiver-Operating Characteristic analyses were performed, providing error estimates and false-positive/negative rates of suggested thresholds. Results Data from n = 31 MS patients were available. BDI and IDS-SR30 total score were significantly correlated (r = 0.82). The IDS-SR30total score, cognitive subscore, and BDI showed excellent to good accuracy (area under the curve (AUC) 0.86, 0.91, and 0.85, respectively). Conclusion Both the IDS-SR30 and the BDI are useful to quantify depressive symptoms showing good sensitivity and specificity. The IDS-SR30 cognitive subscale may be useful as a screening tool and to quantify affective/cognitive depressive symptomatology. PMID:26445703

  11. Validity of the Externalizing Spectrum Inventory in a Criminal Offender Sample: Relations with Disinhibitory Psychopathology, Personality, and Psychopathic Features

    PubMed Central

    Venables, Noah C.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The Externalizing Spectrum Inventory (ESI; Krueger, Markon, Patrick, Benning, & Kramer, 2007) provides a self-report based method for indexing a range of correlated problem behaviors and traits in the domain of deficient impulse control. The ESI organizes lower-order behaviors and traits of this kind around higher-order factors encompassing general disinhibitory proneness, callous-aggression, and substance abuse. The current study used data from a male prisoner sample (N = 235) to evaluate the validity of ESI total and factor scores in relation to external criterion measures consisting of externalizing disorder symptoms (including child and adult antisocial deviance and substance-related problems) assessed via diagnostic interview, personality traits assessed by self-report, and psychopathic features as assessed by both interview and self-report. Results provide evidence for the validity of the ESI measurement model and point to its potential utility as a referent for research on the neurobiological correlates and etiological bases of externalizing proneness. PMID:21787091

  12. The M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck Module, a Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument, Accurately Predicts the Severity of Radiation-Induced Mucositis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, David I. Mendoza, Tito R.; Chambers, Mark; Burkett, V. Shannon; Garden, Adam S.; Hessell, Amy C.; Lewin, Jan S.; Ang, K. Kian; Kies, Merrill S.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck (MDASI-HN) module, a symptom burden instrument, with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-HN) module, a quality-of-life instrument, for the assessment of mucositis in patients with head-and-neck cancer treated with radiotherapy and to identify the most distressing symptoms from the patient's perspective. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with head-and-neck cancer (n = 134) completed the MDASI-HN and FACT-HN before radiotherapy (time 1) and after 6 weeks of radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (time 2). The mean global and subscale scores for each instrument were compared with the objective mucositis scores determined from the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Results: The global and subscale scores for each instrument showed highly significant changes from time 1 to time 2 and a significant correlation with the objective mucositis scores at time 2. Only the MDASI scores, however, were significant predictors of objective Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events mucositis scores on multivariate regression analysis (standardized regression coefficient, 0.355 for the global score and 0.310 for the head-and-neck cancer-specific score). Most of the moderate and severe symptoms associated with mucositis as identified on the MDASI-HN are not present on the FACT-HN. Conclusion: Both the MDASI-HN and FACT-HN modules can predict the mucositis scores. However, the MDASI-HN, a symptom burden instrument, was more closely associated with the severity of radiation-induced mucositis than the FACT-HN on multivariate regression analysis. This greater association was most likely related to the inclusion of a greater number of face-valid mucositis-related items in the MDASI-HN compared with the FACT-HN.

  13. The relationship of PTSD to key somatic complaints and cultural syndromes among Cambodian refugees attending a psychiatric clinic: the Cambodian Somatic Symptom and Syndrome Inventory (CSSI).

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Kredlow, M Alexandra; Pich, Vuth; Bui, Eric; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2013-06-01

    This article describes a culturally sensitive questionnaire for the assessment of the effects of trauma in the Cambodian refugee population, the Cambodian Somatic Symptom and Syndrome Inventory (CSSI), and gives the results of a survey with the instrument. The survey examined the relationship of the CSSI, the two CSSI subscales, and the CSSI items to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity and self-perceived functioning. A total of 226 traumatized Cambodian refugees were assessed at a psychiatric clinic in Lowell, MA, USA. There was a high correlation of the CSSI, the CSSI somatic and syndrome scales, and all the CSSI items to the PTSD Checklist (PCL), a measure of PTSD severity. All the CSSI items varied greatly across three levels of PTSD severity, and patients with higher levels of PTSD had very high scores on certain CSSI-assessed somatic items such as dizziness, orthostatic dizziness (upon standing), and headache, and on certain CSSI-assessed cultural syndromes such as khyâl attacks, "fear of fainting and dying upon standing up," and "thinking a lot." The CSSI was more highly correlated than the PCL to self-perceived disability assessed by the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12). The study demonstrates that the somatic symptoms and cultural syndromes described by the CSSI form a central part of the Cambodian refugee trauma ontology. The survey indicates that locally salient somatic symptoms and cultural syndromes need be profiled to adequately assess the effects of trauma. PMID:23630226

  14. A comparison of self-reported emotional and trauma-related concerns among sexually abused children with and without sexual behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Allen, Brian; Thorn, Brian L; Gully, Kevin J

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies document concomitant features of sexual behavior problems (SBPs) among children 12 years of age or younger, but rarely does research involve child self-report assessments. This study provides the most comprehensive examination to date of self-reported concerns among children with SBP, using a large sample (N = 392) of clinically referred participants who reported sexual abuse histories. Children between the ages of 8 and 12 were categorized as demonstrating SBP (n = 203) or not demonstrating SBP (n = 189) as determined by scores on the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Children completed the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children, and caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Self-reports of children showed that those with SBP reported significantly greater concerns in all areas, including sexual preoccupation and sexual distress, than their peers not demonstrating SBP. Caregivers of children in the SBP group reported greater concerns of internalizing and externalizing problems than the caregivers of children who did not have SBP. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. Specifically, it is recommended that future research improve on the manner in which sexual abuse and SBPs were defined and assessed. PMID:25601939

  15. Reliability and Validity of Two Self-Report Measures of Psychopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkenbach, Diana; Poythress, Norman; Falki, Marielle; Manchak, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The present study assessed the psychometric properties and construct validity of two self-report measures of psychopathy in a male-college sample: the Levenson Psychopathy scales (LPS; Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996). Both the LPS and the PPI demonstrated good…

  16. Facial cues to depressive symptoms and their associated personality attributions.

    PubMed

    Scott, Naomi Jane; Kramer, Robin Stewart Samuel; Jones, Alex Lee; Ward, Robert

    2013-06-30

    Depression is a common mental health disorder, with 12% of the UK population diagnosed at any one time. We assessed whether there are cues to depressive symptoms within the static, non-expressive face, and if other socially relevant impressions might be made by these cues. Composite "average" face images were created from students scoring high and low on self-report measures of depressive symptoms, capturing potential correlations between facial appearance and symptoms of depression. These were then used in a warping procedure, creating two versions of individual faces, one warped towards the high symptom composite, and the other towards the low. In Experiment 1, we first found observers were able to identify images representing high and low symptom occurrence at levels significantly greater than chance. Secondly, we collected observer impressions of the two versions of each face. The faces reflecting high levels of depressive symptoms were picked as less socially desirable over a broad range of personality trait estimates compared to low symptom images. In Experiment 2, we replicated the key finding that the static face contains cues to levels of depression symptoms, using composites created from a new database of student photos and depression inventory scores. PMID:23521901

  17. Subtle Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Mild Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lawson, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 1,345 high school students and 2,321 university students found that 30-37% reported having experienced a head injury, with 12-15% reporting loss of consciousness. Significant relationships were found between mild head injury incidence and gender; sleep difficulties; social difficulties; handedness pattern; and diagnoses of attention…

  18. Impact of Deployment-Related Sexual Stressors on Psychiatric Symptoms After Accounting for Predeployment Stressors: Findings From a U.S. National Guard Cohort.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Ethan B; Murdoch, Maureen; Erbes, Christopher R; Arbisi, Paul; Polusny, Melissa A

    2015-08-01

    This study used a longitudinal research design to examine the impact of predeployment stressors and deployment-related sexual stressors on self-reported psychiatric symptoms of U.S. National Guard soldiers returning from deployments to Iraq or Afghanistan. Prior to deployment, participants completed measures of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms, along with an inventory of predeployment stressor experiences. At 3-months postdeployment, participants (468 men, 60 women) again completed self-report measures of psychiatric symptoms, along with an inventory of sexual stressors experienced during deployment. We compared a cross-sectional model of sexual stressors' impact on psychiatric symptoms, in which only postdeployment reports were considered, to a longitudinal model in which we adjusted for participants' predeployment stressors and psychiatric symptoms. No participants reported sexual assault during deployment, though sexual harassment was common. The cross-sectional model suggested that deployment-related sexual stressors were significantly associated with postdeployment depression (R(2) = .11) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (R(2) = .10). Once predeployment factors were taken into consideration, however, sexual stressors were no longer significant. The results did not support the notion of lasting negative impact for low-level sexual stressors (e.g., sexual harassment) during deployment after predeployment stressors are accounted for. Future studies of sexual stressors should consider longitudinal designs. PMID:26184776

  19. A pilot evaluation of associations between displayed depression references on Facebook and self-reported depression using a clinical scale.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan Andreas; Christakis, Dimitri A; Egan, Katie G; Jelenchick, Lauren A; Cox, Elizabeth; Young, Henry; Villiard, Hope; Becker, Tara

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine associations between displayed depression symptoms on Facebook and self-reported depression symptoms using a clinical screen. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduates from two universities were examined for displayed depression references. Profiles were categorized as depression symptom displayers or non-displayers. Participants completed an online PHQ-9 depression scale. Analyses examined associations between PHQ-9 score and depression symptom displayers versus non-displayers. The mean PHQ-9 score for non-displayers was 4.7 (SD?=?4.0), the mean PHQ-9 score for depression symptom displayers was 6.4 (SD?=?5.1; p?=?0.018). A trend approaching significance was noted that participants who scored into a depression category by their PHQ-9 score were more likely to display depression symptom references. Displayed references to depression symptoms were associated with self-reported depression symptoms. PMID:21863354

  20. Self-report problem scales and subscales and behavioral ratings provided by peers: unique evidence of test validity.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Nancy Howells; Lachar, David; Wrobel, Thomas A

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between children's self-reported problems on the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY) and peer descriptors derived from the Pupil Evaluation Inventory was examined in a regular education sample of 156 children in fourth through eighth grade. The relative contributions of the PIY scales and subscales to the prediction of peer ratings were compared. Peer ratings of withdrawn, disruptive, and prosocial behaviors were substantially correlated to self-report problem scales made up of logically related content. The addition of more content-specific PIY subscales contributed to the prediction made by PIY scales of peer-reported disruptive behaviors and withdrawal. PMID:16123247

  1. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Does Self-Report with the OCI-R Tell Us?

    PubMed

    Cadman, Tim; Spain, Debbie; Johnston, Patrick; Russell, Ailsa; Mataix-Cols, David; Craig, Michael; Deeley, Quinton; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Clodagh; Gillan, Nicola; Wilson, C Ellie; Mendez, Maria; Ecker, Christine; Daly, Eileen; Findon, James; Glaser, Karen; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the symptom profile of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals who have autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is also unknown whether self-report questionnaires are useful in measuring OCD in ASD. We sought to describe the symptom profiles of adults with ASD, OCD, and ASD?+?OCD using the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), and to assess the utility of the OCI-R as a screening measure in a high-functioning adult ASD sample. Individuals with ASD (n?=?171), OCD (n?=?108), ASD?+?OCD (n?=?54) and control participants (n?=?92) completed the OCI-R. Individuals with ASD?+?OCD reported significantly higher levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than those with ASD alone. OCD symptoms were not significantly correlated with core ASD repetitive behaviors as measured on the ADI-R or ADOS-G. The OCI-R showed good psychometric properties and corresponded well with clinician diagnosis of OCD. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested cut-offs for OCI-R Total and Checking scores that discriminated well between ASD?+?versus -OCD, and fairly well between ASD-alone and OCD-alone. OCD manifests separately from ASD and is characterized by a different profile of repetitive thoughts and behaviors. The OCI-R appears to be useful as a screening tool in the ASD adult population. Autism Res 2015, 8: 477-485. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25663563

  2. Perceived Motivational Climates and Self-Reported Emotional and Behavioural Problems among Norwegian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stornes, Tor; Bru, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between perceived motivational climates and self-reported emotional and behavioural problems (EBP: symptoms of depression, lack of on-task-orientation and disruptive behaviour), among 1171 Norwegian 8th grade secondary school students from 65 school classes. Statistical analyses showed significant…

  3. Assessing AD/HD in College Students: Psychometric Properties of the Barkley Self-Report Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladner, Jennifer M.; Schulenberg, Stefan E.; Smith, C. Veronica; Dunaway, Marcella H.

    2011-01-01

    The Barkley Current Symptoms Scale (BCSS)--Self-Report Form was designed to assess attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The purpose of the current study was to add to BCSS psychometric literature in a sample of university students. Comparisons with normative data are provided, and implications for these findings are offered. (Contains 5…

  4. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Dominic Interactive Assessment: A Computerized Self-Report for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Teresa J. Linares; Short, Elizabeth J.; Singer, Lynn T.; Russ, Sandra W.; Minnes, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    The reliability and validity of the Dominic Interactive (DI) assessment were evaluated. The DI is a computerized self-report measure for children, which assesses symptom presence for seven DSM-IV diagnoses. The participants were 322 children (169 cocaine exposed, 153 noncocaine exposed) who were recruited at birth for a prospective longitudinal…

  6. Should Unexplained Painful Physical Symptoms be Considered within the Spectrum of Depressive Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jihyung; Novick, Diego; Montgomery, William; Aguado, Jaume; Dueñas, Héctor; Peng, Xiaomei; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether painful physical symptoms (PPS) can be considered within the spectrum of depressive symptoms. Methods: Data for this post-hoc analysis were taken from a 6-month observational study mostly conducted in East Asia, Mexico, and the Middle East of 1,549 depressed patients without sexual dysfunction at baseline. Both explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) were performed on the combined items of the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report and the Somatic Symptom Inventory (seven pain-related items only). An additional second-order CFA was also conducted to examine an association between retained factors and the overall “depressive symptoms” factor. In addition, Spearman’s correlation was used to assess levels of correlation between retained factors and depression severity as well as quality of life. Results: Both EFA and CFA suggested and validated a four-factor solution, which included a pain factor. The other three factors identified were a mood/cognitive factor, a sleep disturbance factor, and an appetite/weight disturbance factor. All four factors were significantly associated with the overall factor of depression. They were also highly correlated to depression severity and quality of life (p<0.001 for all). The levels of correlations with the pain factor were generally greater than those with the appetite/weight factor and similar to those with the sleep factor. Conclusion: It may be reasonable to consider PPS within a broad spectrum of depressive symptoms. At least, they should be routinely assessed in patients with depression. Further research is warranted to validate these preliminary findings. PMID:25870649

  7. Effects of an integrated Yoga Program on Self-reported Depression Scores in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Conventional Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Raghavendra Mohan; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Nagendra, HR; Usharani, MR; Gopinath, KS; Diwakar, Ravi B; Patil, Shekar; Bilimagga, Ramesh S; Rao, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of yoga program with supportive therapy on self-reported symptoms of depression in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment. Patients and Methods: Ninety-eight breast cancer patients with stage II and III disease from a cancer center were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 45) and supportive therapy (n = 53) over a 24-week period during which they underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or chemotherapy (CT) or both. The study stoppage criteria was progressive disease rendering the patient bedridden or any physical musculoskeletal injury resulting from intervention or less than 60% attendance to yoga intervention. Subjects underwent yoga intervention for 60 min daily with control group undergoing supportive therapy during their hospital visits. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and symptom checklist were assessed at baseline, after surgery, before, during, and after RT and six cycles of CT. We used analysis of covariance (intent-to-treat) to study the effects of intervention on depression scores and Pearson correlation analyses to evaluate the bivariate relationships. Results: A total of 69 participants contributed data to the current analysis (yoga, n = 33, and controls, n = 36). There was 29% attrition in this study. The results suggest an overall decrease in self-reported depression with time in both the groups. There was a significant decrease in depression scores in the yoga group as compared to controls following surgery, RT, and CT (P < 0.01). There was a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between depression scores with symptom severity and distress during surgery, RT, and CT. Conclusion: The results suggest possible antidepressant effects with yoga intervention in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment. PMID:26009671

  8. Korean Self-Report Version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Soon-Ho; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although several self-report versions of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) have been developed and used widely, few psychometric studies have established the construct validity of this measure. Therefore, we developed Korean self-report version of the Y-BOCS and evaluated its factor structure, reliability, and validity. Methods A non-clinical student sample (n=206) and a clinical OCD sample (n=199) completed the Korean self-report version and other measures of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, and anxiety. Results Consistent with the originally proposed structure, confirmatory factor analyses supported a factor structure comprised of Obsessions and Compulsions factors in the Korean self-report version. Two subscale scores and the total score of the Korean self-report version showed good internal consistency and convergent validity, but relatively poor discriminant validity. Applying a cutoff score of 16, 84% of OCD patients and 93% of the non-clinical sample were classified correctly. Conclusion Korean self-report version of the Y-BOCS is a psychometrically sound and valid measure for assessing OCD symptoms as compared with the clinician-administered version. The originally proposed division of OCD severity into obsessions and compulsions appears accurate in the Korean self-report version. The cutoff score for the Korean self-report version needs adjustment based on further researches. PMID:23482407

  9. Self-reported SAT scores 1 Some Shortcomings of Soliciting Students' Self-Reported SAT Scores

    E-print Network

    Almeroth, Kevin C.

    , and was equivalent for men and women. There was a strong correlation between self-reported and actual SAT scores (r of the sample, sometimes to use achievement as a main factor in a study, and sometimes to statistically control in the literature. We explore three possible cognitive mechanisms underlying the accuracy of self- reported SAT

  10. Social desirability and self-reported health risk behaviors in web-based research: three longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background These studies sought to investigate the relation between social desirability and self-reported health risk behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, drug use, smoking) in web-based research. Methods Three longitudinal studies (Study 1: N = 5612, 51% women; Study 2: N = 619, 60%; Study 3: N = 846, 59%) among randomly selected members of two online panels (Dutch; German) using several social desirability measures (Marlowe-Crowne Scale; Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding; The Social Desirability Scale-17) were conducted. Results Social desirability was not associated with self-reported current behavior or behavior frequency. Socio-demographics (age; sex; education) did not moderate the effect of social desirability on self-reported measures regarding health risk behaviors. Conclusions The studies at hand provided no convincing evidence to throw doubt on the usefulness of the Internet as a medium to collect self-reports on health risk behaviors. PMID:21092267

  11. Using the PCL-R to Help Estimate the Validity of Two Self-Report Measures of Psychopathy with Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Edens, John F.; Epstein, Monica; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Two self-report measures of psychopathy, Levenson's Primary and Secondary Psychopathy scales (LPSP) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), were administered to a large sample of 1,603 offenders. The most widely researched measure of criminal psychopathy, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), served as a provisional referent…

  12. [Symptom specificity of adolescents with self-injurious behavior].

    PubMed

    Csorba, János; Szélesné, Edit Ferencz; Steiner, Péter; Farkas, Lajos; Németh, Agnes

    2005-01-01

    As an introductory part of the paper, authors give a short overview of existing results in the literature related to self-injurious behaviour and adolescents' deliberate self-harm. In their own random sample study, authors organized a self-report screen (provincial town, 3 educational facilities, 470 pupils aged between 14 and 18 years) by means of the translated version of Ottawa Self Injury Inventory (OSI) used widely in community-based studies in Canada. The Beck Depression Inventory was introduced to measure the key symptoms of depression among youngsters. 26 youngsters were found to have had at least one self-injurious action in their life-time. The authors describe the characteristics of these subjects on the basis of symptom occurrence statistics. Although the depressive symptoms have an expected correlation with the self-injurious ideas, depression does not seem to have the same relationships with the actual self-harm action. The authors attempt to give an explanation of this contradiction. PMID:16479022

  13. Alcohol Misuse among College Athletes: Self-Medication for Psychiatric Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, B. E.; Miller, M. N.; Verhegge, R.; Linville, H. H.; Pumariega, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    Surveys a collegiate athlete population for alcohol abuse as well as self-reported depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric symptoms. Significant correlations were found between reported alcohol abuse and self-reported symptoms of depression and general psychiatric symptoms. Findings suggest a possible link between psychopathology and serious…

  14. Not all coping strategies are created equal: a mixed methods study exploring physicians' self reported coping strategies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Physicians experience workplace stress and draw on different coping strategies. The primary goal of this paper is to use interview data to explore physicians' self reported coping strategies. In addition, questionnaire data is utilized to explore the degree to which the coping strategies are used and are associated with feelings of emotional exhaustion, a key symptom of burnout. Methods This mixed methods study explores factors related to physician wellness within a large health region in Western Canada. This paper focuses on the coping strategies that physicians use in response to work-related stress. The qualitative component explores physicians' self reported coping strategies through open ended interviews of 42 physicians representing diverse medical specialties and settings (91% response rate). The major themes extracted from the qualitative interviews were used to construct 12 survey items that were included in the comprehensive quantitative questionnaire. Questionnaires were sent to all eligible physicians in the health region with 1178 completed surveys (40% response rate.) Questionnaire items were used to measure how often physicians draw on the various coping strategies. Feelings of burnout were also measured in the survey by 5 items from the Emotional Exhaustion subscale of the revised Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results Major themes identified from the interviews include coping strategies used at work (e.g., working through stress, talking with co-workers, taking a time out, using humor) and after work (e.g., exercise, quiet time, spending time with family). Analysis of the questionnaire data showed three often used workplace coping strategies were positively correlated with feeling emotionally exhausted (i.e., keeping stress to oneself (r = .23), concentrating on what to do next (r = .16), and going on as if nothing happened (r = .07)). Some less often used workplace coping strategies (e.g., taking a time out) and all those used after work were negatively correlated with frequency of emotional exhaustion. Conclusions Physicians' self reported coping strategies are not all created equal in terms of frequency of use and correlation with feeling emotionally exhausted from one's work. This knowledge may be integrated into practical physician stress reduction interventions. PMID:20630091

  15. The Credibility of Student Self-Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, C. Robert; And Others

    This report shows that there are many ways to confirm the accuracy, reliability, and validity of student self-reports. Examples from higher education and from public opinion polls and general surveys demonstrate some of the common sources of measurement errors and errors of substance. Part 1 of the report summarizes a few highlights from the…

  16. Interformat Reliability of Digital Psychiatric Self-Report Questionnaires: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hursti, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on Internet-based interventions typically use digital versions of pen and paper self-report symptom scales. However, adaptation into the digital format could affect the psychometric properties of established self-report scales. Several studies have investigated differences between digital and pen and paper versions of instruments, but no systematic review of the results has yet been done. Objective This review aims to assess the interformat reliability of self-report symptom scales used in digital or online psychotherapy research. Methods Three databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO) were systematically reviewed for studies investigating the reliability between digital and pen and paper versions of psychiatric symptom scales. Results From a total of 1504 publications, 33 were included in the review, and interformat reliability of 40 different symptom scales was assessed. Significant differences in mean total scores between formats were found in 10 of 62 analyses. These differences were found in just a few studies, which indicates that the results were due to study effects and sample effects rather than unreliable instruments. The interformat reliability ranged from r=.35 to r=.99; however, the majority of instruments showed a strong correlation between format scores. The quality of the included studies varied, and several studies had insufficient power to detect small differences between formats. Conclusions When digital versions of self-report symptom scales are compared to pen and paper versions, most scales show high interformat reliability. This supports the reliability of results obtained in psychotherapy research on the Internet and the comparability of the results to traditional psychotherapy research. There are, however, some instruments that consistently show low interformat reliability, suggesting that these conclusions cannot be generalized to all questionnaires. Most studies had at least some methodological issues with insufficient statistical power being the most common issue. Future studies should preferably provide information about the transformation of the instrument into digital format and the procedure for data collection in more detail. PMID:25472463

  17. Depressive Symptoms in Youth with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Compared to a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Reed-Knight, Bonney; Lobato, Debra; Hagin, Sarah; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Seifer, Ronald; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Boergers, Julie; Nassau, Jack H.; Suorsa, Kristina; Bancroft, Barbara; Shapiro, Jason; LeLeiko, Neal S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous investigations have produced mixed findings on whether youth with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) experience elevated rates of depressive symptoms. Our first aim was to compare self-report of depressive symptoms by youth with IBD to a community sample. The second aim was to examine the relationship between symptoms of depression and measures of disease activity. Methods Item-level responses on the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) among a sample of 78 youth diagnosed with IBD were compared to responses from a community sample using one-sample t-tests. Particular attention was given to items assessing somatic symptoms of depression given the potential overlap with IBD disease symptoms. The relationship between depressive symptoms and IBD disease activity was evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and linear regression. Results Youth with IBD reported lower levels of depressive symptoms compared to the community sample on the CDI Total Score, and similar or lower levels of difficulty on items assessing somatic symptoms. The majority of the sample had inactive or mild disease activity at the time of participation, with 14% experiencing moderate/severe disease activity. Higher ratings of disease activity were related to greater depressive symptoms. Responses on somatic items from the CDI were not differentially related to disease activity. Conclusions As a group, pediatric patients with IBD did not experience clinical levels of depressive symptoms or elevations in depressive symptoms when compared to a community sample. Somatic symptoms of depression do not differentiate youth with IBD experiencing elevations in disease activity from youth experiencing non-somatic symptoms of depression. PMID:24518604

  18. Development of a self-reporting tool to obtain a Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF*)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia is a syndrome with heterogeneous symptoms. The evaluation in the clinical setting usually fails to cover the complexity of the syndrome. This study aims to determine how different aspects of fibromyalgia are inter-related when measured by means of a self-reporting tool. The objective is to develop a more complete evaluation model adjusted to the complexity and multi-dimensional nature of the syndrome. Methods Application was made of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Brief Pain Inventory, the Fatigue Assessment Scale, the Health Assessment Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory, the Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale and the Sleep Quality Scale. An assessment was made, on the basis of clinical interviews, case histories and specific tests, of the patient sociodemographic data, comorbidity, physical exploration and other clinical indexes. An exploratory factor analysis was made, with comparisons of the clinical index scores in extreme groups of patients. Results The ICAF composed of 59 items was obtained, offering four factors that explain 64% of the variance, and referred to as Emotional Factor (33.7%), Physical-Activity (15%), Active Coping (9%) and Passive Coping (6.3%). A t-test between the extreme scores of these factors in the 301 patients revealed statistically significant differences in occupational status, medically unexplained syndromes, number of tender points, the six-minutes walk test, comorbidity and health care costs. Conclusions This study offers a tool allowing more complete and rapid evaluation of patients with fibromyalgia. The test intrinsically evaluates the emotional aspects: anxiety and depression, and their impact upon social aspects. It also evaluates patient functional capacity, fatigue, sleep quality, pain, and the way in which the patient copes with the disease. This is achieved by means of a self-assessment questionnaire based on elements from well known tests. PMID:20055985

  19. The Relationship between Parental Depressive Symptoms, Family Type, and Adolescent Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01) than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01) and externalizing problems (p<.05) than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001). Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05). Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of family type and parental depressive symptoms on adolescent functioning. Older and female adolescents deserve particular attention. PMID:24260457

  20. Using the Academic Skills Inventory to Assess the Biology Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Kyle; Hurney, Carol A.; Wigtil, Clifton J.; Sundre, Donna L.

    2009-01-01

    The Academic Skills Inventory (Kruger and Zechmeister, 2001) was developed at Loyola University of Chicago and originally designed for use with psychology majors. It was later extended for use in a variety of academic programs. The Academic Skills Inventory (ASI) assesses student self-reports of behaviors in 10 skill areas: (1) written and oral…

  1. Original Article Self-Reported And Objectively Recorded

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    of medical records may contribute to discrepancies between self-reported and recorded screening participationOriginal Article Self-Reported And Objectively Recorded Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation: To compare self-reported with objectively recorded participation in Faecal Occult Blood testing (FOBt

  2. Self-reported dietary fructose intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome: Proposed diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Leif Kyrre; Fagerli, Erik; Myhre, Arnt-Otto; Florholmen, Jon; Goll, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the criteria for self-reported dietary fructose intolerance (DFI) and to evaluate subjective global assessment (SGA) as outcome measure. METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients were randomized in an open study design with a 2 wk run-in on a habitual IBS diet, followed by 12 wk with/without additional fructose-reduced diet (FRD). Daily registrations of stool frequency and consistency, and symptoms on a visual analog scale (VAS) were performed during the first 4 wk. SGA was used for weekly registrations during the whole study period. Provocation with high-fructose diet was done at the end of the registration period. Fructose breath tests (FBTs) were performed. A total of 182 subjects performed the study according to the protocol (88 FRD, 94 controls). RESULTS: We propose a new clinically feasible diagnostic standard for self-reported fructose intolerance. The instrument is based on VAS registrations of symptom relief on FRD combined with symptom aggravation upon provocation with fructose-rich diet. Using these criteria 43 of 77 patients (56%) in the present cohort of IBS patients had self-reported DFI. To improve the concept for clinical evaluation, we translated the SGA scale instrument to Norwegian and validated it in the context of the IBS diet regimen. The validation procedures showed a sensitivity, specificity and ? value for SGA detecting the self-reported DFI group by FRD response within the IBS patients of 0.79, 0.75 and 0.53, respectively. Addition of the provocation test yielded values of 0.84, 0.76 and 0.61, respectively. The corresponding validation results for FBT were 0.57, 0.34 and -0.13, respectively. CONCLUSION: FRD improves symptoms in a subgroup of IBS patients. A diet trial followed by a provocation test evaluated by SGA can identify most responders to FRD. PMID:25987795

  3. Self-reported post-exertional fatigue in Gulf War veterans: roles of autonomic testing.

    PubMed

    Li, Mian; Xu, Changqing; Yao, Wenguo; Mahan, Clare M; Kang, Han K; Sandbrink, Friedhelm; Zhai, Ping; Karasik, Pamela A

    2014-01-01

    To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72-2.67) among ill group compared to controls (0.58-1.59). We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series. PMID:24431987

  4. Self-reported post-exertional fatigue in Gulf War veterans: roles of autonomic testing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mian; Xu, Changqing; Yao, Wenguo; Mahan, Clare M.; Kang, Han K.; Sandbrink, Friedhelm; Zhai, Ping; Karasik, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72–2.67) among ill group compared to controls (0.58–1.59). We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series. PMID:24431987

  5. The Myelofibrosis Symptom Assessment Form (MFSAF): An Evidence-based Brief Inventory to Measure Quality of Life and Symptomatic Response to Treatment in Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Ruben A.; Schwager, Susan; Radia, Deepti; Cheville, Andrea; Hussein, Kebede; Niblack, Joyce; Pardanani, Animesh D.; Steensma, David P.; Litzow, Mark R.; Rivera, Candido E.; Camoriano, John; Verstovsek, Srdan; Sloan, Jeffrey; Harrison, Claire; Kantarjian, Hagop; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2015-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) in patients with myelofibrosis (MF) is severely compromised by severe constitutional symptoms (i.e. fatigue, night sweats, fever, weight loss), pruritus, and symptoms from frequently massive hepatosplenomegaly. Given that no current instrument of patient reported outcomes (PRO) exists that covers the unique spectrum of symptomatology seen in MF patients, we sought to develop a new PRO instrument for MF patients for use in therapeutic clinical trials. Utilizing data from an international internet based survey of 458 patients with MF we created a 20 item instrument (MFSAF: Myelofibrosis Symptom Assessment Form) which measures the symptoms reported by >10% of MF patients, and includes a measure of QoL. We subsequently validated the MFSAF in a prospective trial of MF patients involving patient and provider feedback, as well as comparison to other validated instruments used in cancer patients. The MFSAF results were highly correlated with other instruments, judged comprehensive and understandable by patients, and should be considered for evaluation of MF symptoms in therapeutic trials. PMID:19250674

  6. The structure and correlates of self-reported DSM-5 maladaptive personality traits: findings from two German-speaking samples.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Johannes; Altenstein, David; Krieger, Tobias; Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Pretsch, Johanna; Alexopoulos, Johanna; Spitzer, Carsten; Benecke, Cord; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Leising, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    The authors investigated the structure and correlates of DSM-5 maladaptive personality traits in two samples of 577 students and 212 inpatients using the German self-report form of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. They found that (a) the factor structure of DSM-5 trait facets is largely in line with the proposed trait domains of Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism; (b) all DSM-5 trait domains except Psychoticism are highly related to the respective domains of the Five-Factor Model of personality; (c) the trait facets are positively associated with a self-report measure of general personality dysfunction; and (d) the DSM-5 trait facets show differential associations with a range of self-reported DSM-IV Axis I disorders. These findings give further support to the new DSM-5 trait model and suggest that it may generalize to other languages and cultures. PMID:24511899

  7. Longitudinal Changes in Self-Reported Walking Ability in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Motl, Robert W.; Putzki, Norman; Pilutti, Lara A.; Cadavid, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcomes are increasingly used to understand the clinical meaningfulness of multiple sclerosis disability and its treatments. For example, the 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12) measures the patient-reported impact of the disease on walking ability. Objective We studied longitudinal changes in walking ability using the MSWS-12 in a cohort of 108 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and moderate-to-severe disability from a single US center cohort study investigating multiple sclerosis symptoms and physical activity. Methods The MSWS-12 was completed every 6 months over 2 years together with self-reported measures of disease impact on daily life (Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale) and walking disability (Patient Determined Disease Steps scale). Results The results revealed a high frequency of self-reported changes in walking ability at the individual level, affecting approximately 80% of patients for all four time periods. MSWS-12 scores remained stable at the group level for all four time periods. The magnitude of observed changes at the individual level was higher than the proposed minimal clinically important differences of 4 or 6 points and correlated better with Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale physical scores than psychological scores, but little with self-reported Patient Determined Disease Steps Scale scores. Conclusions This novel finding of frequent fluctuations in self-reported walking ability is new and requires further investigation. PMID:25932911

  8. “Let’s Talk about OA Pain”: A Qualitative Analysis of the Perceptions of People Suffering from OA. Towards the Development of a Specific Pain OA-Related Questionnaire, the Osteoarthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS)

    PubMed Central

    Cedraschi, Christine; Delézay, Sylvie; Marty, Marc; Berenbaum, Francis; Bouhassira, Didier; Henrotin, Yves; Laroche, Françoise; Perrot, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pain is the primary outcome measurement in osteoarthritis, and its assessment is mostly based on its intensity. The management of this difficult chronic condition could be improved by using pain descriptors to improve analyses of painful sensations. This should help to define subgroups of patients based on pain phenotype, for more adapted treatment. This study draws upon patients’ descriptions of their pain, to identify and understand their perception of osteoarthritis pain and to categorize pain dimensions. Methods This qualitative study was conducted with representative types of patients suffering from osteoarthritis. Two focus groups were conducted with a sample of 14 participants, with either recent or chronic OA, at one or multiple sites. Focus groups were semi-structured and used open-ended questions addressing personal experiences to explore the experiences of patients with OA pain and the meanings they attributed to these pains. Results Two main points emerged from content analyses: -A major difficulty in getting patients to describe their osteoarthritis pain: perception that nobody wants to hear about it; necessity to preserve one’s self and social image; notion of self-imposed stoicism; and perception of osteoarthritis as a complex, changing, illogical disease associated with aging. -Osteoarthritis pains were numerous and differed in intensity, duration, depth, type of occurrence, impact and rhythm, but also in painful sensations and associated symptoms. Based on analyses of the verbatim interviews, seven dimensions of OA pain emerged: pain sensory description, OA-related symptoms, pain variability profile, pain-triggering factors, pain and physical activity, mood and image, general physical symptoms. Summary In osteoarthritis, pain analysis should not be restricted to intensity. Our qualitative study identified pain descriptors and defined seven dimensions of osteoarthritis pain. Based on these dimensions, we aim to develop a specific questionnaire on osteoarthritis pain quality for osteoarthritis pain phenotyping: the OsteoArthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS). PMID:24244589

  9. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Walid El; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students' nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI). Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms). Multiple linear regression tested the association of students' eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints. PMID:26473918

  10. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland

    PubMed Central

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students’ nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI). Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms). Multiple linear regression tested the association of students’ eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints. PMID:26473918

  11. The Relationship among Self-Report and Measured Report of Psychological Abuse, and Depression for a Sample of Women Involved in Intimate Relationships with Male Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory

  12. Relationships between self-report and cognitive measures of hearing aid outcome

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning; Rudner, Mary; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2013-01-01

    This present study examined the relationship between cognitive measures and self-report hearing aid outcome. A sentence-final word identification and recall (SWIR) test was used to investigate how hearing aid use may relate to experienced explicit cognitive processing. A visually based cognitive test battery was also administered. To measure self-report hearing aid outcome, the International Outcome Inventory – Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) and the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ) were employed. Twenty-six experienced hearing aid users (mean age of 59 years) with symmetrical moderate-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Free recall performance in the SWIR test correlated negatively with item 3 of IOI-HA, which measures residual difficulty in adverse listening situations. Cognitive abilities related to verbal information processing were correlated positively with self-reported hearing aid use and overall success. The present study showed that reported residual difficulty with hearing aid may relate to experienced explicit processing in difficult listening conditions, such that individuals with better cognitive capacity tended to report more remaining difficulty in challenging listening situations. The possibility of using cognitive measures to predict hearing aid outcome in real life should be explored in future research. PMID:26213622

  13. Reliability and validity of the Thai self-report version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale-Second Edition

    PubMed Central

    Hiranyatheb, Thanita; Saipanish, Ratana; Lotrakul, Manote; Prasertchai, Rungthip; Ketkaew, Wanwisa; Jullagate, Sudawan; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Kusalaruk, Pichaya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The self-report version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) has been developed to overcome the limitations of the clinician-administered version, which needs to be executed by trained personnel and is time consuming. The second edition of the Y-BOCS (Y-BOCS-II) was developed to address some limitations of the original version. However, there is no self-report version of the Y-BOCS-II at the moment. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the developed Thai self-report version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale-Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II-SR-T). Patients and methods Y-BOCS-II-SR-T was developed from the Thai version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale-Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II-T). The Y-BOCS-II-SR-T, the Y-BOCS-II-T, the Thai version of the Florida Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory (FOCI-T), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life (PTQL) instrument were administered to 52 obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. Internal consistency for the Y-BOCS-II-SR-T was calculated with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (?), and the factor analyses were completed. Pearson’s correlation was used in determining convergent and divergent validity among the other measures. Results The mean score of the Y-BOCS-II-SR-T total score was 20.71±11.16. The internal consistencies of the Y-BOCS-II-SR-T total scores, the obsession subscale, and the compulsion subscale scores were excellent (?=0.94, ?=0.90, and ?=0.89, respectively). The correlation between each item and the Y-BOCS-II-SR-T total score showed strong correlation for all items. Confirmatory factor analysis with model modification showed adequate fit for obsession and compulsion factor models. The Y-BOCS-II-SR-T had strong correlation with the YBOCS-II-T and the FOCI-T (rs>0.90) and weaker correlation with the HAM-D, PHQ-9, and PTQL (rs<0.60), which implied good convergent and divergent validity. Conclusion The Y-BOCS-II-SR-T is a psychometrically sound and valid measure for assessing obsessive–compulsive symptoms. PMID:26604766

  14. A Self-Report Measure of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Donald

    2005-01-01

    There are multiple approaches to measuring physical activity. Among these are direct observation, electronic monitoring, direct and indirect calorimetry, and self-report instruments. Self-report instruments are the most practical and cost effective option for use with a large group. In a study by Motl, Dishman, Dowda, and Pate (2004), two groups…

  15. Improving Accuracy of Sleep Self-Reports through Correspondence Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Peter, Claire C.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.; Massullo, Joel P.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep insufficiency is a major public health concern, yet the accuracy of self-reported sleep measures is often poor. Self-report may be useful when direct measurement of nonverbal behavior is impossible, infeasible, or undesirable, as it may be with sleep measurement. We used feedback and positive reinforcement within a small-n multiple-baseline…

  16. Frontolimbic Brain Networks Predict Depressive Symptoms in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Kucukboyaci, N. Erkut; Leyden, Kelly M.; Cheng, Christopher E.; Girard, Holly M.; Iragui, Vicente J.; Tecoma, Evelyn S.; McDonald, Carrie R.

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric co-morbidities in epilepsy are of great concern. The current study investigated the relative contribution of structural and functional connectivity (FC) between medial temporal (MT) and prefrontal regions in predicting levels of depressive symptoms in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Twenty-one patients with TLE [11 left TLE (LTLE); 10 right TLE (RTLE)] and 20 controls participated. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) of the uncinate fasciculus (UF), and mean diffusivity (MD) of the amygdala (AM) and hippocampus (HC). Functional MRI was performed to obtain FC strengths between the AM and HC and prefrontal regions of interest including anterior prefrontal (APF), orbitofrontal, and inferior frontal regions. Participants self-reported depression symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Greater depressive symptoms were associated with stronger FC of ipsilateral HC-APF, lower FA of the bilateral UF, and higher MD of the ipsilateral HC in LTLE, and with lower FA of the contralateral UF in RTLE. Regression analyses indicated that FC of the ipsilateral HC-APF was the strongest contributor to depression in LTLE, explaining 68.7 % of the variance in depression scores. Both functional and microstructural measures of frontolimbic dysfunction were associated with depressive symptoms. These connectivity variables may be moderating which patients present with depression symptoms. In particular, FC MRI may provide a more sensitive measure of depression-related dysfunction, at least in patients with LTLE. Employing sensitive measures of frontolimbic network dysfunction in TLE may help provide new insight into mood disorders in epilepsy that could eventually guide treatment planning. PMID:25223729

  17. Frontolimbic brain networks predict depressive symptoms in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Kucukboyaci, N Erkut; Leyden, Kelly M; Cheng, Christopher E; Girard, Holly M; Iragui, Vicente J; Tecoma, Evelyn S; McDonald, Carrie R

    2014-11-01

    Psychiatric co-morbidities in epilepsy are of great concern. The current study investigated the relative contribution of structural and functional connectivity (FC) between medial temporal (MT) and prefrontal regions in predicting levels of depressive symptoms in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Twenty-one patients with TLE [11 left TLE (LTLE); 10 right TLE (RTLE)] and 20 controls participated. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) of the uncinate fasciculus (UF), and mean diffusivity (MD) of the amygdala (AM) and hippocampus (HC). Functional MRI was performed to obtain FC strengths between the AM and HC and prefrontal regions of interest including anterior prefrontal (APF), orbitofrontal, and inferior frontal regions. Participants self-reported depression symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Greater depressive symptoms were associated with stronger FC of ipsilateral HC-APF, lower FA of the bilateral UF, and higher MD of the ipsilateral HC in LTLE, and with lower FA of the contralateral UF in RTLE. Regression analyses indicated that FC of the ipsilateral HC-APF was the strongest contributor to depression in LTLE, explaining 68.7% of the variance in depression scores. Both functional and microstructural measures of frontolimbic dysfunction were associated with depressive symptoms. These connectivity variables may be moderating which patients present with depression symptoms. In particular, FC MRI may provide a more sensitive measure of depression-related dysfunction, at least in patients with LTLE. Employing sensitive measures of frontolimbic network dysfunction in TLE may help provide new insight into mood disorders in epilepsy that could eventually guide treatment planning. PMID:25223729

  18. Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Known as MRO for Maintenance, Repair and Operating supplies, Tropicana Products, Inc.'s automated inventory management system is an adaptation of the Shuttle Inventory Management System (SIMS) developed by NASA to assure adequate supply of every item used in support of the Space Shuttle. The Tropicana version monitors inventory control, purchasing receiving and departmental costs for eight major areas of the company's operation.

  19. Child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese adult community sample: the harmful effects of emotional abuse.

    PubMed

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J

    2015-07-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7% of the sample, and 67% was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8% of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse. PMID:25270111

  20. Differential latency and selective nondisclosure in verbal self-reports

    PubMed Central

    Critchfield, Thomas S.

    1996-01-01

    Several previous studies have examined the correspondence between self-reports and the delayed identity match-to-sample performance they supposedly described. The present two experiments used similar procedures to explore different characteristics of the self-reports. In both studies, match-to-sample responses were successful (earned points) if they were both correct and faster than a time limit. Following each response, a computer-presented query asked whether the response had been successful, and subjects replied by pressing a “Yes” or “No” button. Experiment 1 analyzed self-report latencies from a previously-published study (Critchfield, 1993a). Latencies generally were longer for self-reports of failure than for self-reports of success. In Experiment 1, a “Yes” or “No” self-report was required to advance the session. In Experiment 2, self-reports were optional. In addition to “Yes” and “No” buttons, subjects could press a third button (a “nondisclosure” option) to remove the self-report query without providing a “Yes” or “No” answer. Across a range of conditions, nondisclosures always occurred more frequently after match-to-sample failures than after successes (i.e., under conditions in which a self-report of failure would be appropriate). The effects observed in the two experiments are consistent with a history of differential punishment for uncomplimentary self-reports, which casual observation and some descriptive studies suggest is a common experience in United States culture. The research necessary to explore this notion should produce data that are of interest to psychologists both within and outside of Behavior Analysis. PMID:22477110

  1. Utility of the Leyton Obsessional Inventory to distinguish OCD and OCPD.

    PubMed

    Wellen, David; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Grados, Marco; Cullen, Bernadette; Riddle, Mark; Liang, Kung-Yee; Nestadt, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The Leyton Obsessional Inventory (LOI) is a self-report questionnaire that assesses obsessional symptoms. The ability of the LOI to distinguish between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has not been adequately addressed. Our purpose is to identify dimensions of obsessional symptoms from the LOI and determine how well they distinguish between OCD and OCPD. The LOI was completed by 488 participants diagnosed by trained clinicians. Factor analysis was performed on responses to the interference items of the LOI. The relationship between the factors, OCD and OCPD was evaluated using logistic regression. Five factors underlying the LOI were identified: (I) obsessional ruminations and compulsions, (II) ordering and arranging, (III) organizing activities, (IV) contamination, and (V) parsimony. Factors I, III, and IV were strongly associated with OCD. Only Factor II was associated with OCPD. Factor IV was negatively associated with obsessive-compulsive personality traits. LOI factors are useful in discriminating between OCD and OCPD. Obsessional ruminations and compulsions, organizing activities, and contamination fears may indicate OCD, and ordering and arranging symptoms may indicate OCPD rather than OCD. Parsimony may indicate neither disorder, and contamination, the absence of OCPD traits compared with the other LOI factors. These findings may contribute to effective diagnosis and treatment by allowing the LOI to screen for OCD and OCPD in a population exhibiting obsessional symptoms and traits. PMID:17099877

  2. Self-reported physical work exposures and incident carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bethany T.; Zeringue, Angelique; Strickland, Jaime; Descatha, Alexis; Franzblau, Alfred; Evanoff, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Background To prospectively evaluate associations between self-reported physical work exposures and incident carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods Newly employed workers (n=1,107) underwent repeated nerve conduction studies (NCS), and periodic surveys on hand symptoms and physical work exposures including average daily duration of wrist bending, forearm rotation, finger pinching, using vibrating tools, finger/thumb pressing, forceful gripping, and lifting >2 pounds. Multiple logistic regression models examined relationships between peak, most recent, and time-weighted average exposures and incident CTS, adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index. Results 710 subjects (64.1%) completed follow-up NCS; 31 incident cases of CTS occurred over 3 year follow-up. All models describing lifting or forceful gripping exposures predicted future CTS. Vibrating tool use was predictive in some models. Conclusions Self-reported exposures showed consistent risks across different exposure models in this prospective study. Workers’ self-reported job demands can provide useful information for targeting work interventions. PMID:25223617

  3. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Clinician rating scale (NPI-C): reliability and validity of a revised assessment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, K.; Robert, P.; Gauthier, S.; Stella, F.; Politis, A.; Leoutsakos, J.; Taragano, F.; Kremer, J.; Brugnolo, A.; Porsteinsson, A. P.; Geda, Y. E.; Brodaty, H.; Gazdag, G.; Cummings, J.; Lyketsos, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) affect almost all patients with dementia and are a major focus of study and treatment. Accurate assessment of NPS through valid, sensitive and reliable measures is crucial. Although current NPS measures have many strengths, they also have some limitations (e.g. acquisition of data is limited to informants or caregivers as respondents, limited depth of items specific to moderate dementia). Therefore, we developed a revised version of the NPI, known as the NPI-C. The NPI-C includes expanded domains and items, and a clinician-rating methodology. This study evaluated the reliability and convergent validity of the NPI-C at ten international sites (seven languages). Methods Face validity for 78 new items was obtained through a Delphi panel. A total of 128 dyads (caregivers/patients) from three severity categories of dementia (mild = 58, moderate = 49, severe = 21) were interviewed separately by two trained raters using two rating methods: the original NPI interview and a clinician-rated method. Rater 1 also administered four additional, established measures: the Apathy Evaluation Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Index, and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Intraclass correlations were used to determine inter-rater reliability. Pearson correlations between the four relevant NPI-C domains and their corresponding outside measures were used for convergent validity. Results Inter-rater reliability was strong for most items. Convergent validity was moderate (apathy and agitation) to strong (hallucinations and delusions; agitation and aberrant vocalization; and depression) for clinician ratings in NPI-C domains. Conclusion Overall, the NPI-C shows promise as a versatile tool which can accurately measure NPS and which uses a uniform scale system to facilitate data comparisons across studies. PMID:20594384

  4. Web-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Depressive Symptoms With Minimal Support: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Päivi; Langrial, Sitwat; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Tolvanen, Asko; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2015-11-01

    Low-intensity interventions for people suffering from depressive symptoms are highly desirable. The aim of the present study was to investigate the outcomes of a web-based acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)-based intervention without face-to-face contact for people suffering from depressive symptoms. Participants (N = 39) with depressive symptoms were randomly assigned to an Internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (iACT) intervention or a waiting list control condition (WLC). Participants were evaluated with standardized self-reporting measures (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI-II], Symptom Checklist-90 [SCL-90], Acceptance and Action Questionnaire [AAQ-2], Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire [FFMQ], Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire [ATQ], and White Bear Suppression Inventory [WBSI]) at pre- and post-measurement. Long-term effects in the iACT group were examined using a 12-month follow-up. The iACT program comprised home assignments, online feedback given by master's-level students of psychology over a 7-week intervention period, and automated email-based reminders. Significant effects were observed in favor of the iACT group on depression symptomatology (between effect sizes [ESs] at post-treatment, iACT/WLC, g = .83), psychological and physiological symptoms (g = .60), psychological flexibility (g = .67), mindfulness skills (g = .53), and frequency of automatic thoughts (g = .57) as well as thought suppression (g = .53). The treatment effects in the iACT group were maintained over the 12-month follow-up period (within-iACT ES: BDI-II, g = 1.33; SCL-90, g = 1.04; ATQF/B [Frequency/Believability], FFMQ, WBSI, AAQ-II, g = .74-1.08). The iACT participants stated that they would be happy to recommend the same intervention to others with depressive symptoms. We conclude that an ACT-based guided Internet-delivered treatment with minimal contact can be effective for people with depressive symptoms. PMID:26253644

  5. HIV medication adherence and HIV symptom severity: the roles of sleep quality and memory.

    PubMed

    Babson, Kimberly A; Heinz, Adrienne J; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the extent to which self-reported sleep quality, a clinically malleable factor, is associated with both HIV medication adherence and self-reported HIV symptom severity. In addition, we sought to examine whether sleep quality may explain the association between HIV medication adherence and symptom severity, as well as the role of self-reported memory functioning in terms of the above relations. This study took place from April 2010 to March 2012. Participants were 129 HIV-positive individuals who completed an ART pill count and series of structured clinical interviews and self-report questionnaires on sleep, memory, and HIV symptom severity. A series of regressions were conducted to test study hypotheses. After accounting for covariates (i.e., problematic alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis use, and mood disorder diagnosis), results indicated that self-reported sleep quality was associated with HIV medication adherence and self-reported HIV symptom severity, and that sleep quality partially mediated the relation between medication adherence and self-reported HIV symptom severity. In addition, memory functioning moderated the relation between self-reported sleep quality and HIV symptom severity, such that the interaction of poor sleep quality and relatively good memory functioning was associated with heightened self-reported HIV symptom severity. This study highlights the importance of assessing sleep and memory among HIV-infected individuals as they may represent treatment targets for those experiencing poor medication adherence or particularly severe HIV symptoms. Such information could lead to the inclusion of adjunct brief interventions to target sleep and memory functioning in order to reduce symptom severity among HIV-positive individuals with poor medication adherence. PMID:24032625

  6. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) Reduces the Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Cognitions in Patients With a History of Suicidal Depression

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In patients with a history of suicidal depression, recurrence of depressive symptoms can easily reactivate suicidal thinking. In this study, we investigated whether training in mindfulness, which is aimed at helping patients “decenter” from negative thinking, could help weaken the link between depressive symptoms and suicidal cognitions. Method: Analyses were based on data from a recent randomized controlled trial, in which previously suicidal patients were allocated to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), an active control treatment, cognitive psychoeducation (CPE), which did not include any meditation practice, or treatment as usual (TAU). After the end of the treatment phase, we compared the associations between depressive symptoms, as assessed through self-reports on the Beck Depression Inventory–II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996), and suicidal thinking, as assessed through the Suicidal Cognitions Scale (Rudd et al., 2001). Results: In patients with minimal to moderate symptoms at the time of assessment, comparisons of the correlations between depressive symptoms and suicidal cognitions showed significant differences between the groups. Although suicidal cognitions were significantly related to levels of symptoms in the 2 control groups, there was no such relation in the MBCT group. Conclusion: The findings suggest that, in patients with a history of suicidal depression, training in mindfulness can help to weaken the association between depressive symptoms and suicidal thinking, and thus reduce an important vulnerability for relapse to suicidal depression. PMID:26302249

  7. Initial Severity Effects on Residual Symptoms in Response and Remission: A STAR*D Study During and After Failed Citalopram Treatment.

    PubMed

    Madhoo, Manisha; Levine, Stephen Z

    2015-08-01

    The effects of initial severity on the time to and course of residual symptoms based on response or remission periods, and during and after failed response to citalopram in major depressive disorder are unknown. STAR*D data during and after failed citalopram treatment were reanalyzed to examine the effect of initial severity on the time to and course of residual symptoms using the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR). During and after failed citalopram treatment, Cox regression and Generalized Estimating Equation models were computed to examine mild and moderate residual symptoms during (1) response based on at least a 50% QIDS-SR reduction, as well as (2) remission based on a QIDS-SR score below 6. Generally, initial severity significantly (P < 0.05) increased the time to and course of residual symptoms at the time of response and remission. The course of select mild and moderate residual symptoms was significantly (P < 0.05) more likely to persist in the presence of initial severity during response than remission (eg, energy) across treatment levels. It is concluded that initial severity is a predictor of the time to and course of residual symptoms. The presence of residual symptoms is more likely during response than remission, thereby directing their definition as a treatment target. PMID:26066336

  8. Sex Differences in Patterns of Self-Reported Psychopathology in the Married Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, W. Daniel; Cochran, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    Administered the Brief Symptom Inventory to married residents (N=106) of a retirement community. Three scales (Anxiety, Interpersonal Sensitivity, and Paranoid Ideation) provided maximum separation between males and females. Concludes that with marital status, education, and health controlled, male and female elderly show distinct patterns of…

  9. Prevalence of Radiographic Osteoarthritis of the Knee and Its Relationship to Self-Reported Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ho-Pham, Lan T.; Lai, Thai Q.; Mai, Linh D.; Doan, Minh C.; Pham, Hoa N.; Nguyen, Tuan V.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is one of the most common skeletal disorders, yet little data are available in Asian populations. We sought to assess the prevalence and pattern of radiographic OA of the knee, and its relationship to self-reported pain in a Vietnamese population. Methods The study was based on a sample of 170 men and 488 women aged ?40 years who were randomly sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). Radiographs of the knee were graded from 0 to 4 according to the Kellgren and Lawrence scale. Osteoarthritis was defined as being present in a knee if radiographic grades of 2 or higher were detected. Knee pain and symptoms were ascertained by direct interview using a structured questionnaire. Results The point prevalence of radiographic OA of the knee was 34.2%, with women having higher rate than men (35.3% vs 31.2%). The prevalence of knee OA increased with advancing age: 8% among those aged 40–49 years, 30% in those aged 50–59 years, and 61.1% in those aged ?60 years. Greater BMI was associated with higher risk of knee OA. Self-reported knee pain was found in 35% of men and 62% of women. There was a statistically significant association between self-reported knee pain and knee OA (prevalence ratio 3.1; 95% CI 2.0 to 4.6). Conclusions These data indicate that approximately a third of Vietnamese men and women have radiographic OA in the knee, and that self-reported knee pain may be used as an indicator of knee osteoarthritis. PMID:24722559

  10. Anxiety control and metacognitive beliefs mediate the relationship between inflated responsibility and obsessive compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sassaroli, Sandra; Centorame, Francesco; Caselli, Gabriele; Favaretto, Ettore; Fiore, Francesca; Gallucci, Marcello; Sarracino, Diego; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Spada, Marcantonio M; Rapee, Ronald M

    2015-08-30

    Research has indicated that beliefs about inflated responsibility, beliefs about perceived control over anxiety-related events and reactions (anxiety control) and metacognitive beliefs about the need to control thoughts are associated with obsessive compulsive symptoms. In the current study we tested a mediation model of the interactions between these variables in predicting obsessive compulsive symptoms. Thirty-seven individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder and 31 controls completed the following self-report instruments: the Responsibility Attitude Scale, the Anxiety Control Scale, the Beliefs about Need to Control Thoughts sub-scale of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30, and the Padua Inventory. Mann-Whitney U tests revealed that participants in the clinical group scored significantly higher than those in the non-clinical group on all variables. In the mediation model we found that the relationship between beliefs about inflated responsibility and obsessive compulsive symptoms was fully mediated by anxiety control and beliefs about the need to control thoughts. These findings provide support for the significant role played by beliefs about control in predicting the severity of obsessive compulsive symptoms. PMID:26141603

  11. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2012-12-30

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD. PMID:22766012

  12. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder

    PubMed Central

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD. PMID:22766012

  13. A Review of the Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose-Deakins, Jillayne E.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2004-01-01

    This review focused on the Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment (BYI) [Beck, J., Beck, A., & Jolly, J. (2001). Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment manual. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation]. The BYI were designed as self-report instruments for assessing maladaptive cognitions and behaviors of…

  14. Designing and Implementing an Ergonomics Inventory to Improve Management of Human Factors Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kenneth A.

    Self-report ergometric inventories can provide valuable information to employers and can serve as a means of intervention to improve employee attributes. Based on the science of ergonomics (a science that studies the natural laws of work in order to maximize human efficiency in job performance), such an inventory focuses on the interaction of the…

  15. The Mathematics Value Inventory for General Education Students: Development and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luttrell, Vickie R.; Callen, Bruce W.; Allen, Charles S.; Wood, Mark D.; Deeds, Donald G.; Richard, David C. S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a self-report inventory that measures individual differences in the perceived value of mathematical literacy for general education students. The Mathematics Value Inventory (MVI) is grounded in the Eccles et al. model of achievement-related choices and surveys students' beliefs in four areas: interest, general…

  16. Toward the development of a self-report envy scale 

    E-print Network

    Montaldi, Daniel F

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to begin the development of a self-report envy scale, and to investigate possible associations between envy and self-deception, impression management, antisocial behavior, and cynical attitudes. ...

  17. Sweet taste threshold for sucrose inversely correlates with depression symptoms in female college students in the luteal phase.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masanori; Matsumoto, Sayaka; Endo, Junko; Sakamoto, Reiko; Wada, Maki

    2015-03-15

    Influences of depression symptoms on the sweet taste threshold were investigated in healthy college students (30 males and 40 females). Depression symptoms were scored by SDS (Self-Rating Depression Scale), and anxiety levels by STAI (State- and Trait-Anxiety Inventory). Recognition thresholds for sucrose were determined. In female students, the menstrual phase on the day of the experiment was self-reported. Depression symptoms, anxiety levels, and the recognition threshold for sucrose were not different among the 3 groups, i.e. males, females in the follicular phase, and females in the luteal phase. Depression symptoms were positively correlated with state and trait anxiety in all groups. The sweet taste threshold was inversely correlated with depression symptoms (r=-0.472, p=0.031) and trait anxiety (r=-0.506, p=0.019) in females in the luteal phase. In males as well as females in the follicular phase, however, no correlation between sweet taste threshold and depression was found. The results show that the recognition threshold for sucrose reduces with increased depression in females with a higher anxiety trait, but only in the luteal phase. It is hypothesized that brain regions, which spatially overlap and are responsible for both aversive emotions and gustatory processing, are susceptible to periodic changes in gonadal hormones due to the menstrual cycle. PMID:25576640

  18. College students with depressive symptoms with and without fatigue: Differences in functioning, suicidality, anxiety, and depressive severity

    PubMed Central

    Nyer, Maren; Mischoulon, David; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Holt, Daphne J.; Brill, Charlotte D.; Yeung, Albert; Pedrelli, Paola; Baer, Lee; Dording, Christina; Huz, Ilana; Fisher, Lauren; Fava, Maurizio; Farabaugh, Amy

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND We examined whether fatigue was associated with greater symptomatic burden and functional impairment in college students with depressive symptoms. METHODS Using data from the self-report Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), we stratified a group of 287 students endorsing significant symptoms of depression (BDI score ?13) into 3 levels: no fatigue, mild fatigue, or moderate/severe fatigue. We then compared the 3 levels of fatigue across a battery of psychiatric and functional outcome measures. RESULTS Approximately 87% of students endorsed at least mild fatigue. Students with moderate/severe fatigue had significantly greater depressive symptom severity compared with those with mild or no fatigue and scored higher on a suicide risk measure than those with mild fatigue. Students with severe fatigue evidenced greater frequency and intensity of anxiety than those with mild or no fatigue. Reported cognitive and functional impairment increased significantly as fatigue worsened. CONCLUSIONS Depressed college students with symptoms of fatigue demonstrated functional impairment and symptomatic burden that worsened with increasing levels of fatigue. Assessing and treating symptoms of fatigue appears warranted within this population. PMID:25954936

  19. Is Violent Radicalisation Associated with Poverty, Migration, Poor Self-Reported Health and Common Mental Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Warfa, Nasir; Jones, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Background Doctors, lawyers and criminal justice agencies need methods to assess vulnerability to violent radicalization. In synergy, public health interventions aim to prevent the emergence of risk behaviours as well as prevent and treat new illness events. This paper describes a new method of assessing vulnerability to violent radicalization, and then investigates the role of previously reported causes, including poor self-reported health, anxiety and depression, adverse life events, poverty, and migration and socio-political factors. The aim is to identify foci for preventive intervention. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a representative population sample of men and women aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage and recruited by quota sampling by age, gender, working status, in two English cities. The main outcomes include self-reported health, symptoms of anxiety and depression (common mental disorders), and vulnerability to violent radicalization assessed by sympathies for violent protest and terrorist acts. Results 2.4% of people showed some sympathy for violent protest and terrorist acts. Sympathy was more likely to be articulated by the under 20s, those in full time education rather than employment, those born in the UK, those speaking English at home, and high earners (>£75,000 a year). People with poor self-reported health were less likely to show sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, adverse life events and socio-political attitudes showed no associations. Conclusions Sympathies for violent protest and terrorism were uncommon among men and women, aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage living in two English cities. Youth, wealth, and being in education rather than employment were risk factors. PMID:24599058

  20. Physical Symptoms and Psychological Distress among Inhalant Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, George W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents with varying drug use histories, self-reported physical health problems were not related to inhalant use history, but blood analyses indicated a relationship between extensive inhalant use and liver problems. Psychological distress symptoms were related to inhalant use and physical symptoms. Contains 23…

  1. Construction and Development of the Academic Motivations Inventory (AMI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Ross; Doyle, Kenneth O., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The early development of the Academic Motivations Inventory, a self-report measure of the academic motivations of college students, is described. Validation and reliability studies suggest that, at present, the instrument could be used to assess motivation of a group or class of students, but not yet as individuals. (Author/JKS)

  2. An Annotated Bibliography for the Barclay Classroom Climate Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, James R.

    This annotated bibliography contains a record of the evolution of a system for evaluating children in the classroom setting. The Barclay Classroom Climate Inventory is a needs assessment system in the affective-social domain. It is unique in that it taps three inputs, self-report, peer judgements and teacher expectations. These inputs are blended…

  3. The Differentiation of Self Inventory: Development and Initial Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Friedlander, Myrna L.

    The development and initial validation of a new self-report instrument, the Differentiation of Self Inventory (DSI), are presented. The DSI represents the first attempt to create a multidimensional measure of differentiation based on Bowen Theory, focusing specifically on adults (aged over 25 years), their current significant relationships, and…

  4. Development and Initial Validation of the Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffel, Erin; Watson, David

    2010-01-01

    The Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory (ISDI) is a new measure of self-reported sleep difficulties, which was designed to help facilitate research on the overlap of sleep disturbances and psychopathology. This instrument was developed in two large student samples using principal factor analyses; the psychometric properties of the scales were then…

  5. Reliability and validity of the valued activity inventory for adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T; Hull, Jay G; Li, Zhongze; Balan, Stefan; Bartels, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Valued Activity Inventory for Adults With Cancer (VAI-AC), a self-report instrument that measures activity limitations. Participants included 50 older adults undergoing chemotherapy who completed the VAI-AC and measures of physical and mental function, symptom intensity, and mood 3 days before and the day of chemotherapy. Test-retest reliability was assessed by determining the average number of items for which the importance of an activity was rated consistently and by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the first and second VAI-AC scores. Convergent validity was assessed by correlating the VAI-AC scores with the other measures. Participants consistently rated the importance of 90% of the items. The 72-hour test-retest reliability ICC was 0.67. Participants with fewer activity limitations indicated better physical function (r = 0.58, p < .001), better mental function (r = 0.55, p < .001), lower symptom intensity (r = -0.57, p < .001), and fewer depressive symptoms (r = -0.68, p < .001). The VAI-AC demonstrated evidence of test-retest reliability and convergent validity in this convenience sample of older adults undergoing chemotherapy for cancer. PMID:22826691

  6. Reliability and Validity of the Valued Activity Inventory for Adults with Cancer (VAI-AC)

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T.; Hull, Jay G.; Li, Zhongze; Balan, Stefan; Bartels, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the psychometric properties of the Valued Activity Inventory for Adults with Cancer (VAI-AC), a self-report instrument measuring activity limitations. Participants Fifty older adults undergoing chemotherapy. Methods Participants completed the VAI-AC and measures of physical and mental function, symptom intensity, and mood three days before and on the day of chemotherapy. Test-retest reliability was assessed by determining the average number of items for which the importance of an activity was rated consistently and by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the first and second VAI-AC scores. Convergent validity was assessed by correlating the VAI-AC scores with the other measures. Results Participants consistently rated the importance of 90% of the items. Seventy-two hour test-retest reliability was ICC = 0.67. Participants with fewer activity limitations indicated better physical function (r = 0.58, p< 0.001), better mental function (r = 0.55, p< 0.001), lower symptom intensity (r = ?0.57, p< 0.001), and fewer depressive symptoms (r = ?0.68, p< 0.001). Conclusion The VAI-AC demonstrated evidence of test-retest reliability and convergent validity in this convenience sample of older adults undergoing chemotherapy for cancer. PMID:22826691

  7. Moderators of the effect of peer victimization during fifth grade on subsequent symptoms of (anxious) depression: the roles of engagement in bullying and baseline symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Christopher C; Shahar, Golan

    2014-12-01

    Two hypothesized moderators of the effect of peer victimization during fifth grade on subsequent symptoms of (anxious) depression in sixth grade were examined: engagement in bullying and baseline fifth grade symptoms of (anxious) depression. Analyses were conducted on longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Interview data from 1,081 fifth grade participants assessed peer victimization and engagement in bullying classmates during the school year. Self-reported symptoms of depression were measured in fifth and sixth grade with the Child Depression Inventory Short form. Additionally, maternal reports of child anxious depression were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist. Engagement in bullying and concurrent depression symptoms moderated the effect of peer victimization in fifth grade on child-reported symptoms of depression in sixth grade. The adverse effect of peer victimization was stronger for children with high levels of concurrent depression symptoms or engagement in bullying. Concurrent symptomatology also moderated the effects of peer victimization on mother-reported child anxious depression 1 year later. PMID:24395472

  8. Self-reported oral health behavior and attitudes of dental and technology students in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Pacauskiene, Ingrida M; Smailiene, Dalia; Siudikien?, Jolanta; Savanevskyte, Julija; Nedzelskiene, Irena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess self-reported oral health habits, attitudes, lifestyle between the sample groups of preclinical and clinical dental and technology students in Lithuania using the Hiroshima University Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI), and to evaluate the impact of education on their behavior and self-reported oral health. A sample of 183 dental and 75 technology students at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Medical Academy, Faculty of Odontology, and Kaunas University of Technology completed the Lithuanian version the HU-DBI questionnaire with 11 additional items. The data were analyzed using the "SPSS 19.0 for Windows" software package. The mean HU-DBI score of clinical final-year dentistry students was significantly higher (p=0.001) than the score of the preclinical group (6.81 (1.2) and 5.96 (1.5), respectively). The mean scores of both groups of dental students were significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of the technology group (5.37 (1.8)). Oral health behaviors and knowledge were superior in dental students. Dental education had a significant positive impact on the oral health and behavior improvement. The attitudes of the Lithuanian dental students should be further improved by initiating a comprehensive program that would emphasize the importance of oral hygiene before the clinical program starts. PMID:25209229

  9. The Effect of Response Bias on the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5).

    PubMed

    McGee Ng, Sarah A; Bagby, R Michael; Goodwin, Brandee E; Burchett, Danielle; Sellbom, Martin; Ayearst, Lindsay E; Dhillon, Sonya; Yiu, Shirley; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Baker, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    Valid self-report assessment of psychopathology relies on accurate and credible responses to test questions. There are some individuals who, in certain assessment contexts, cannot or choose not to answer in a manner typically representative of their traits or symptoms. This is referred to, most broadly, as test response bias. In this investigation, we explore the effect of response bias on the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2013 ), a self-report instrument designed to assess the pathological personality traits used to inform diagnosis of the personality disorders in Section III of DSM-5. A set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 / 2011 ) validity scales, which are used to assess and identify response bias, were employed to identify individuals who engaged in either noncredible overreporting (OR) or underreporting (UR), or who were deemed to be reporting or responding to the items in a "credible" manner-credible responding (CR). A total of 2,022 research participants (1,587 students, 435 psychiatric patients) completed the MMPI-2-RF and PID-5; following protocol screening, these participants were classified into OR, UR, or CR response groups based on MMPI-2-RF validity scale scores. Groups of students and patients in the OR group scored significantly higher on the PID-5 than those students and patients in the CR group, whereas those in the UR group scored significantly lower than those in the CR group. Although future research is needed to explore the effects of response bias on the PID-5, results from this investigation provide initial evidence suggesting that response bias influences scale elevations on this instrument. PMID:26583767

  10. Self-report outcome in new hearing-aid users: Longitudinal trends and relationships between subjective measures of benefit and satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Vestergaard, Martin D.

    2008-01-01

    This study focussed on self-report outcome in new hearing-aid users. The objectives of the experiment were changes in self-report outcome over time, and relationships between different subjective measures of benefit and satisfaction. Four outcome inventories and a questionnaire on auditory lifestyle were administered to 25 hearing-aid users repeatedly after hearing-aid fitting, and assessments took place one week, four weeks, and 13 weeks after hearing-aid provision. The results showed that, for first-time users who used their hearing aids more than four hours per day, self-reported outcome increased over 13 weeks in some scales, although there was no change in amplification during this time. Furthermore, it was found that, for data collected immediately post-fitting, some subscales were much less face valid than for data collected later. This result indicates that the way in which hearing-aid users assess outcome changes over time. The practical consequence of the results is that early self-report outcome assessment may be misleading for some self-report outcome schemes. PMID:16938796

  11. Byproduct inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelwright, E.J.

    1983-03-01

    An inventory of potentially available nuclear byproducts from defense production activities and from the commercial fuel cycle has been prepared for inclusion in the DOE document, Department of Energy Plan for Recovery and Utilization of Nuclear Byproducts from Defense Wastes, which should be issued in 1983. The byproduct materials included in the inventory are strontium-90, cesium-137, krypton-85, xenon, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, technetium-99, americium-241, promethium-147, neptunium-237, and curium. The inventory summarizes the amounts of these materials in current wastes and projects the quantities contained in future wastes. 2 figures, 7 tables.

  12. The Nomological Network of Self-Reported Distress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kiselica, Andrew M; Rojas, Elizabeth; Bornovalova, Marina A; Dube, Chad

    2015-12-01

    Distress tolerance (DT), or the ability to withstand psychological distress, is a popular construct in the psychological literature. However, research has not specified the nomological network of DT across self-report measures. The purpose of the current investigation was to understand what personality features, environmental stressors, current affective states, and behaviors contribute to DT in two different samples: college students and those in residential substance use treatment. Correlations revealed that self-reported DT was most strongly associated with trait negative emotionality, state negative affect, impulsivity, and perceived stress. In comparisons across samples, self-harm exhibited a stronger relationship with self-reported DT in the drug treatment than in the student sample, whereas perceived stress had a stronger association in the student sample. Correlations between self-report and behavioral measures of DT were nonsignificant. To understand this lack of associations, associations of outcomes with behavioral measures were assessed. In contrast to self-reported DT, behavioral DT was more closely related to achievement orientation, state negative affect, and state positive affect, but was not significantly related to psychopathology and maladaptive behaviors. It is necessary to continue investigating the construct validity of behavioral DT measures via the use of incremental utility analyses and experimental approaches. PMID:25475104

  13. SELF-REPORTS OF ILLEGAL ACTIVITY, SCL-90-R PERSONALITY SCALES, AND URINE TESTS IN METHADONE PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Cernovsky, Zack; Sadek, Gamal; Chiu, Simon

    2015-12-01

    -In routine work, medical staff usually has to rely on the patient's self-reports of criminal activity and of recent involvement in fights. This study examines how these self-reports of crime correlate with the patients' routine urine tests and personality measures. Pearson correlations of these self-reports by 55 methadone patients (M age = 34.1 yr., SD = 9.1; 35 men, 20 women) were calculated to their urine screening tests (those for opiates, benzodiazepines, and cocaine) and to personality scores on the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Patients who reported being involved in recent illegal activities to obtain drugs had significantly higher scores on the SCL-90-R scale assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms (r = .28) and had more frequent positive urine tests for cocaine (r = .35). Those who reported having engaged in fights within the last 12 mo. had higher scores on SCL-90-R measures of somatic complaints (r = .32), anxiety (r = .31), and depression (r = .29), and of overall psychopathology (r = .29), and they also had more often positive urine tests for cocaine (r = .28) than other patients. Studies on larger samples are needed to help clinicians to predict criminal or hostile behavior during methadone treatment. PMID:26595299

  14. Somatic, but not cognitive–affective, symptoms are associated with reduced heart rate variability in individuals with dysphoria

    PubMed Central

    Benvenuti, Simone Messerotti; Buodo, Giulia; Mennella, Rocco; Palomba, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Somatic, but not cognitive–affective, symptoms of depression have been associated with reduced heart rate variability (HRV), and with poor prognosis in cardiovascular patients. However, factors concomitant with cardiovascular diseases may confound the relationship between somatic symptoms of depression and reduced HRV. Therefore, this study examined whether reduced HRV was differentially associated with cognitive–affective and somatic symptoms of depression in medically healthy individuals with and without dysphoria. Methods: Self-reported cognitive–affective and somatic symptoms as measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II questionnaire and time and frequency domain parameters of HRV were collected in 62 medically healthy individuals, of whom 25 with and 37 without dysphoria. Results: Somatic, but not cognitive–affective, symptoms of depression were inversely associated with SD of NN intervals (? = -0.476, p < 0.05), number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 ms (NN50; ? = -0.498, p < 0.03), and HRV total power (? = -0.494, p < 0.04) in the group with dysphoria, after controlling for sex, anxiety, and lifestyle factors. Cognitive–affective and somatic symptoms were not related to any of the HRV parameters in the group without dysphoria (all ps > 0.24). Conclusion: By showing that the relationship between somatic depressive symptoms and reduced HRV extends to medically healthy individuals with dysphoria, the present findings suggest that this association is independent of factors concomitant with cardiovascular diseases. The present study also suggests that individuals with somatic rather than cognitive–affective subsets of depressive symptoms may be at greater risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25999905

  15. Psychological Symptoms and Drug Use Severity among Israeli Adolescents Presenting for Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, G.M.; Izzard, M.C.; Kedar, T.; Hutlzer, A.; Mell, H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and the relation between psychological symptoms and drug use severity, among 117 Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment. Psychological symptoms were assessed via both adolescent self-report and parent report. Drug use was…

  16. Multiwave Associations Between Depressive Symptoms and Endothelial Function in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    PubMed Central

    Tomfohr, Lianne M.; Murphy, Michael L.M.; Miller, Gregory E.; Puterman, Eli

    2011-01-01

    Objective Depression has been linked to endothelial dysfunction, and some research suggests that past depressive episodes are associated with a lasting, negative impact on the endothelium. However, investigations in this area have been predominantly cross-sectional, raising questions about the direction of these associations. Using a multiwave design, we sought to extend previous research in this area by examining whether depressive symptoms have a lasting negative influence on endothelial function. Methods A total of 135 adolescent and young adult females with no known or suspected major health problems were followed for 2½ years. Endothelial function was assessed at three time points throughout the study. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered, and information about health practices was collected every 6 months. Results Self-reported depressive symptoms covaried with endothelial functioning on a within-person basis (? = ?0.23, p < .05). As a participant’s depression symptoms rose beyond her typical level, her endothelial function declined commensurately. This association persisted after controlling for health practices and adiposity. There was no evidence that depressive symptoms predicted endothelial function at later time points or interacted with time to predict the trajectories of endothelial function over the follow-up period. Conclusions Depressive symptoms were concurrently associated with endothelial function in this cohort of healthy adolescent girls and young women. On visits when participants endorsed depressive symptoms that were higher than their mean level of depression, they tended to have worse endothelial function. We did not observe a lasting negative effect of depression on endothelial function. PMID:21715299

  17. Treatment With Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Improves Self- and Informant-Rated Executive Function Behaviors and Clinician- and Informant-Rated ADHD Symptoms in Adults: Data From a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Weisler, Richard; Ginsberg, Lawrence; Dirks, Bryan; Deas, Patrick; Adeyi, Ben; Adler, Lenard A

    2014-01-24

    Objective: To examine the level of agreement between self- and observer-reported ratings of ADHD symptoms and executive function (EF) behaviors in adults with moderate to severe ADHD and EF deficits. Method: During a 10-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effect of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on EF was assessed by self-report and informant report (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version), and ADHD symptoms were assessed by clinician- and informant-rated scales (ADHD Rating Scale IV with adult prompts and Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Observer Report: Short Version, respectively). Post hoc analysis used Pearson correlations to assess relationships between self- and informant-rated EF and clinician- and informant-rated ADHD symptoms. Results: Correlations between self-ratings versus informant ratings and clinician versus informant ratings were greater at Week 10/early termination (EF: placebo [0.5231-0.6085], LDX [0.3543-0.5167]; ADHD symptoms: placebo [0.4169], LDX [0.4004]) versus baseline (EF: placebo [0.3208-0.5023], LDX [0.2852-0.3439]; ADHD symptoms: placebo [0.1511], LDX [-0.0408]). Conclusion: LDX improved EF and ADHD symptoms, based on participant, informant, and clinician ratings. Increased rater agreement over time may reflect improved symptom awareness. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24464328

  18. The bothersomeness of sciatica: patients’ self-report of paresthesia, weakness and leg pain

    PubMed Central

    Haugen, Anne Julsrud; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens Ivar; Grotle, Margreth

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate how patients with sciatica due to disc herniation rate the bothersomeness of paresthesia and weakness as compared to leg pain, and how these symptoms are associated with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 411 patients with clinical signs of radiculopathy. Items from the Sciatica Bothersomeness Index (0 = none to 6 = extremely) were used to establish values for paresthesia, weakness and leg pain. Associations with socio-demographic and clinical variables were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Mean scores (SD) were 4.5 (1.5) for leg pain, 3.4 (1.8) for paresthesia and 2.6 (2.0) for weakness. Women reported higher levels of bothersomeness for all three symptoms with mean scores approximately 10% higher than men. In the multivariate models, more severe symptoms were associated with lower physical function and higher emotional distress. Muscular paresis explained 19% of the variability in self-reported weakness, sensory findings explained 10% of the variability in paresthesia, and straight leg raising test explained 9% of the variability in leg pain. In addition to leg pain, paresthesia and weakness should be assessed when measuring symptom severity in sciatica. PMID:19488793

  19. The bothersomeness of sciatica: patients' self-report of paresthesia, weakness and leg pain.

    PubMed

    Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne Julsrud; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens Ivar; Grotle, Margreth

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate how patients with sciatica due to disc herniation rate the bothersomeness of paresthesia and weakness as compared to leg pain, and how these symptoms are associated with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 411 patients with clinical signs of radiculopathy. Items from the Sciatica Bothersomeness Index (0 = none to 6 = extremely) were used to establish values for paresthesia, weakness and leg pain. Associations with socio-demographic and clinical variables were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Mean scores (SD) were 4.5 (1.5) for leg pain, 3.4 (1.8) for paresthesia and 2.6 (2.0) for weakness. Women reported higher levels of bothersomeness for all three symptoms with mean scores approximately 10% higher than men. In the multivariate models, more severe symptoms were associated with lower physical function and higher emotional distress. Muscular paresis explained 19% of the variability in self-reported weakness, sensory findings explained 10% of the variability in paresthesia, and straight leg raising test explained 9% of the variability in leg pain. In addition to leg pain, paresthesia and weakness should be assessed when measuring symptom severity in sciatica. PMID:19488793

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of the Major Depression Inventory in outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Cuijpers, Pim; Dekker, Jack; Noteboom, Annemieke; Smits, Niels; Peen, Jaap

    2007-01-01

    Background The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) is a new, brief, self-report measure for depression based on the DSM-system, which allows clinicians to assess the presence of a depressive disorder according to the DSM-IV, but also to assess the severity of the depressive symptoms. Methods We examined the sensitivity, specificity, and psychometric qualities of the MDI in a consecutive sample of 258 psychiatric outpatients. Of these patients, 120 had a mood disorder (70 major depression, 49 dysthymia). A total of 139 subjects had a comorbid axis-I diagnosis, and 91 subjects had a comorbid personality disorder. Results Crohnbach's alpha of the MDI was a satisfactory 0.89, and the correlation between the MDI and the depression subscale of the SCL-90 was 0.79 (p < .001). Subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) had a significantly higher MDI score than subjects with anxiety disorders (but no MDD), dysthymias, bipolar, psychotic, other neurotic disorders, and subjects with relational problems. In ROC analysis we found that the area under the curve was 0.68 for the MDI. A good cut-off point for the MDI seems to be 26, with a sensitivity of 0.66, and a specificity of 0.63. The indication of the presence of MDD based on the MDI had a moderate agreement with the diagnosis made by a psychiatrist (kappa: 0.26). Conclusion The MDI is an attractive, brief depression inventory, which seems to be a reliable tool for assessing depression in psychiatric outpatients. PMID:17688685

  1. Genetic moderation of child maltreatment effects on depression and internalizing symptoms by 5-HTTLPR, BDNF, NET, and CRHR1 genes in African-American children

    PubMed Central

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic moderation of the effects of child maltreatment on depression and internalizing symptoms was investigated in a sample of low-income maltreated and nonmaltreated African-American children (N = 1,096). Lifetime child maltreatment experiences were independently coded from Child Protective Services records and maternal report. Child depression and internalizing problems were assessed in the context of a summer research camp by self-report (Children’s Depression Inventory, CDI) and adult counselor-report (Teacher Report Form, TRF). DNA was obtained from buccal cell or saliva samples and genotyped for polymorphisms of the following genes: 5-HTTLPR, BDNF, NET, and CRHR1. ANCOVAs with age and gender as covariates were conducted, with maltreatment status and respective polymorphism as main effects and their GxE interactions. Maltreatment consistently was associated with higher CDI and TRF symptoms. Results for child self-report symptoms indicated a GxE interaction for BDNF and maltreatment. Additionally, BDNF and tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR interacted with child maltreatment in a GxGxE interaction. Analyses for counselor-report of child anxiety/depression symptoms on the TRF indicated moderation of child maltreatment effects by tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR. These effects were elaborated based on variation in developmental timing of maltreatment experiences. NET was found to further moderate the GxE interaction of 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment status revealing a GxGxE interaction. This GxGxE was extended by consideration of variation in maltreatment subtype experiences. Finally, GxGxE effects were observed for the co-action of BDNF and the CRHR1 haplotype. The findings illustrate the variable influence of specific genotypes in GxE interactions based on variation in maltreatment experiences and the importance of a multi-genic approach for understanding influences on depression and internalizing symptoms among African-American children. PMID:25422957

  2. Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C Dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (? > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (? between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (? > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures. PMID:25348356

  3. Weight Misperception, Self-Reported Physical Fitness, Dieting and Some Psychological Variables as Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Ezquerra-Cabrera, Mercedes; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education. PMID:24232917

  4. Increased self-reported and objectively assessed physical activity predict sleep quality among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lang, Christin; Brand, Serge; Feldmeth, Anne Karina; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2013-08-15

    Both scientists and the general public assume that physical activity (PA) is an effective, non-pharmacological approach to improvement in sleep quality. However, objective and reliable data on this relationship are scarce, particularly for adolescents. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to test the relationship by assessing both PA and sleep subjectively and objectively. A total of 56 adolescent vocational school students (Mean age=17.98, SD=1.36; 28 males, 28 females) participated in the study. Sleep and PA were subjectively assessed via questionnaires. Accelerometers objectively assessed PA, while sleep-EEG devices objectively assessed sleep. The data supported our prediction that adolescents with high PA levels would have longer TST, fewer wakening at night (WASO), fewer symptoms of insomnia, and higher sleep quality. However, gender influenced this pattern of results in that significant findings were only found between high self-reported PA levels and shorter perceived sleep onset latency (SOL). Though self-reported PA levels were a better predictor of good sleep than objectively assessed PA levels, gender was associated with sleep complaints; females reported more sleep complaints. Results indicate that among a non-clinical sample of adolescents increased PA is favorably associated with restoring sleep. Therefore, PA seems beneficial not only for physical and mental health, but also for sleep restoration. PMID:23851332

  5. Stress in crisis managers: evidence from self-report and psychophysiological assessments.

    PubMed

    Janka, A; Adler, C; Fischer, L; Perakakis, P; Guerra, P; Duschek, S

    2015-12-01

    Directing disaster operations represents a major professional challenge. Despite its importance to health and professional performance, research on stress in crisis management remains scarce. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported stress and psychophysiological stress responses in crisis managers. For this purpose, 30 crisis managers were compared with 30 managers from other disciplines, in terms of self-reported stress, health status and psychophysiological reactivity to crisis-related and non-specific visual and acoustic aversive stimuli and cognitive challenge. Crisis managers reported lower stress levels, a more positive strain-recuperation-balance, greater social resources, reduced physical symptoms, as well as more physical exercise and less alcohol consumption. They exhibited diminished electrodermal and heart rate responses to crisis-related and non-specific stressors. The results indicate reduced stress and physical complaints, diminished psychophysiological stress reactivity, and a healthier life-style in crisis managers. Improved stress resistance may limit vulnerability to stress-related performance decline and facilitate preparedness for major incidents. PMID:26156118

  6. Self-Report and Psychophysiological Responses to Fear Appeals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonana, Juan R.; Gonzalez-Javier, Francisca; Espin-Lopez, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relationship between self-report and psychophysiological responses to fear appeals and behavioral changes elicited by these. Ninety-two subjects watched one of four messages that varied in level of threat (high vs. low) and efficacy (high vs. low). Concomitantly, psychophysiological measures (heart rate and…

  7. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    PubMed Central

    Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. Results: The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (p<0.001). Adjusted by age and gender, frequent bruxers were more than two times more likely to report severe stress (odds ratio 2.5; 95% confidence interval 1.5-4.2) and anxiety (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6) than non-or-mild bruxers. Conclusions: Present findings suggest that self-reported bruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects. Key words:Bruxism, self-report, anxiety, stress, adult. PMID:22926484

  8. Can Assertiveness be Distinguished From Aggressiveness Using Self Report Data?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauger, Paul A.; And Others

    The differences between aggressiveness and assertiveness were examined using the Interpersonal Behavior Survey (IBS), a 136-item self-report questionnaire which was developed to distinguish between assertive and aggressive behaviors. Item level factor analysis was used in scale construction. Results indicated that: (1) the correlation between the…

  9. Software-recorded and self-reported duration of computer use in relation to the onset of severe arm–wrist–hand pain and neck–shoulder pain

    PubMed Central

    IJmker, Stefan; Huysmans, Maaike A; van der Beek, Allard J; Knol, Dirk L; van Mechelen, Willem; Bongers, Paulien M

    2010-01-01

    Objectives In both science and media, the adverse effects of a long duration of computer use at work on musculoskeletal health have long been debated. Until recently, the duration of computer use was mainly measured by self-reports, and studies using more objective measures, such as software-recorded computer duration, were lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the association between duration of computer use at work, measured with software and self-reports, and the onset of severe arm–wrist–hand and neck–shoulder symptoms. Methods A 2-year follow-up study was conducted between 2004 and 2006 among 1951 office workers in The Netherlands. Self-reported computer duration and other risk factors were collected at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Computer use at work was recorded continuously with computer software for 1009 participants. Outcome questionnaires were obtained at baseline and every 3?months during follow-up. Cases were identified based on the transition within 3?months of no or minor symptoms to severe symptoms. Results Self-reported duration of computer use was positively associated with the onset of both arm–wrist–hand (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.1 for more than 4?h/day of total computer use at work) and neck–shoulder symptoms (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0 for more than 4?h/day of mouse use at work). The recorded duration of computer use did not show any statistically significant association with the outcomes. Conclusions In the present study, no association was found between the software-recorded duration of computer use at work and the onset of severe arm–wrist–hand and neck–shoulder symptoms using an exposure window of 3?months. In contrast, a positive association was found between the self-reported duration of computer use at work and the onset of severe arm–wrist–hand and neck–shoulder symptoms. The different findings for recorded and self-reported computer duration could not be explained satisfactorily. PMID:21045214

  10. Enhancing self-report assessment of PTSD: development of an item bank.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Nicole; Elwy, A Rani; Smith, Eric; Bottonari, Kathryn A; Eisen, Susan V

    2011-04-01

    The authors report results of work to enhance self-report posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessment by developing an item bank for use in a computer-adapted test. Computer-adapted tests have great potential to decrease the burden of PTSD assessment and outcomes monitoring. The authors conducted a systematic literature review of PTSD instruments, created a database of items, performed qualitative review and readability analysis, and conducted cognitive interviews with veterans diagnosed with PTSD. The systematic review yielded 480 studies in which 41 PTSD instruments comprising 993 items met inclusion criteria. The final PTSD item bank includes 104 items representing each of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994), PTSD symptom clusters (reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal), and 3 additional subdomains (depersonalization, guilt, and sexual problems) that expanded the assessment item pool. PMID:21351175

  11. Assessing the accuracy of self-reported self-talk

    PubMed Central

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Benson, Scott A.; Kang, Minsoo; Moore, Zaver D.

    2015-01-01

    As with most kinds of inner experience, it is difficult to assess actual self-talk frequency beyond self-reports, given the often hidden and subjective nature of the phenomenon. The Self-Talk Scale (STS; Brinthaupt et al., 2009) is a self-report measure of self-talk frequency that has been shown to possess acceptable reliability and validity. However, no research using the STS has examined the accuracy of respondents’ self-reports. In the present paper, we report a series of studies directly examining the measurement of self-talk frequency and functions using the STS. The studies examine ways to validate self-reported self-talk by (1) comparing STS responses from 6 weeks earlier to recent experiences that might precipitate self-talk, (2) using experience sampling methods to determine whether STS scores are related to recent reports of self-talk over a period of a week, and (3) comparing self-reported STS scores to those provided by a significant other who rated the target on the STS. Results showed that (1) overall self-talk scores, particularly self-critical and self-reinforcing self-talk, were significantly related to reports of context-specific self-talk; (2) high STS scorers reported talking to themselves significantly more often during recent events compared to low STS scorers, and, contrary to expectations, (3) friends reported less agreement than strangers in their self-other self-talk ratings. Implications of the results for the validity of the STS and for measuring self-talk are presented. PMID:25999887

  12. Psychometric properties of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Inventory in a Canadian sample.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Leigh C; Antony, Martin M; Koerner, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Inventory is a recently developed self-report measure that assesses symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder. Its psychometric properties have not been investigated further since its original development. The current study investigated its psychometric properties in a Canadian student/community sample. Exploratory principal component analysis replicated the original three-component structure. The total scale and subscales demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability (? = 0.84-0.94) and correlated strongly with the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (r = 0.41-0.74, all ps <0.001) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (r = 0.55-0.84, all ps <0.001). However, only the total scale and cognitive subscale (r = 0.48-0.49, all ps <0.05) significantly predicted generalized anxiety disorder diagnosis established by diagnostic interview. The somatic subscale in particular may require revision to improve predictive validity. Revision may also be necessary given changes in required somatic symptoms for generalized anxiety disorder diagnostic criteria in more recent versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (i.e. although major changes occurred from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-R to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, changes in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 were minimal) and the possibility of changes in the upcoming 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases. PMID:24621984

  13. Genetic moderation of child maltreatment effects on depression and internalizing symptoms by serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) genes in African American children.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2014-11-01

    Genetic moderation of the effects of child maltreatment on depression and internalizing symptoms was investigated in a sample of low-income maltreated and nonmaltreated African American children (N = 1,096). Lifetime child maltreatment experiences were independently coded from Child Protective Services records and maternal report. Child depression and internalizing problems were assessed in the context of a summer research camp by self-report on the Children's Depression Inventory and adult counselor report on the Teacher Report Form. DNA was obtained from buccal cell or saliva samples and genotyped for polymorphisms of the following genes: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter, and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1. Analyses of covariance with age and gender as covariates were conducted, with maltreatment status and respective polymorphism as main effects and their Gene × Environment (G × E) interactions. Maltreatment consistently was associated with higher Children's Depression Inventory and Teacher Report Form symptoms. The results for child self-report symptoms indicated a G × E interaction for BDNF and maltreatment. In addition, BDNF and triallelic 5-HTTLPR interacted with child maltreatment in a G × G × E interaction. Analyses for counselor report of child anxiety/depression symptoms on the Teacher Report Form indicated moderation of child maltreatment effects by triallelic 5-HTTLPR. These effects were elaborated based on variation in developmental timing of maltreatment experiences. Norepinephrine transporter was found to further moderate the G × E interaction of 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment status, revealing a G × G × E interaction. This G × G × E was extended by consideration of variation in maltreatment subtype experiences. Finally, G × G × E effects were observed for the co-action of BDNF and the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 haplotype. The findings illustrate the variable influence of specific genotypes in G × E interactions based on variation in maltreatment experiences and the importance of a multigenic approach for understanding influences on depression and internalizing symptoms among African American children. PMID:25422957

  14. Spanish Translation and Reliability Testing of the Child Depression Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davanzo, Pablo; Kerwin, Lauren; Nikore, Vipan; Esparza, Claudia; Forness, Steve; Murrelle, Lenn

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the internal reliability of a Spanish translation of the CDI, (i.e., CDI-LA), a potentially useful screening instrument for Hispanic youngsters in their native language at a primary-care level. Self-reported symptoms of depression were assessed with the CDI-LA in a school sample of 205 Hispanic students. Girls…

  15. Recognizing Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact Us Donate Recognizing Symptoms An attack of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can happen at any time. It ... factors. Get the Symptom Diary Attack of the Irritable Bowel From " The Art of IBS " © IFFGD Pain or ...

  16. Evaluation of Cognitive Symptoms Following Concussion.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Myron; Madathil, Renee

    2015-09-01

    The assessment of cognitive symptoms following concussion has evolved over the last several decades as a distinct focus in research and an essential component of clinical decision making and management. The aims of this paper are to (1) identify issues related to assessment of postconcussion cognitive functioning and (2) provide a review of common self-report and performance-based measures, including computerized-based assessments (CBAs), and, more traditional, comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. We conclude that (1) there has yet to emerge one cognitive-symptom measurement method that can be considered the "gold standard" for all settings, (2) the usefulness of cognitive symptoms assessment findings in the clinical management decisions rests a great deal on the background of the practitioner, and (3) cognitive-symptom assessment needs to be considered in the context of a broader evaluation of other postconcussion symptoms. PMID:26224031

  17. Challenges in Evaluating Relationships Between Quantitative Data (Carbon Dioxide) and Qualitative Data (Self-Reported Visual Changes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, C. M.; Foy, M.; Mason, S.; Wear, M. L.; Meyers, V.; Law, J.; Alexander, D.; Van Baalen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nuances in clinical data is critical in developing a successful data analysis plan. Carbon dioxide (CO2) data are collected on board the International Space Station (ISS) in a continuous stream. Clinical data on ISS are primarily collected via conversations between individual crewmembers and NASA Flight Surgeons during weekly Private Medical Conferences (PMC). Law, et.al, 20141 demonstrated a statistically significant association between weekly average CO2 levels on ISS and self-reported headaches over the reporting period from March 14, 2001 to May 31, 2012. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the evaluation of a possible association between visual changes and CO2 levels on ISS and to discuss challenges in developing an appropriate analysis plan. METHODS & PRELIMINARY RESULTS: A first analysis was conducted following the same study design as the published work on CO2 and self-reported headaches1; substituting self-reported changes in visual acuity in place of self-reported headaches. The analysis demonstrated no statistically significant association between visual impairment characterized by vision symptoms self-reported during PMCs and ISS average CO2 levels over ISS missions. Closer review of the PMC records showed that vision outcomes are not well-documented in terms of clinical severity, timing of onset, or timing of resolution, perhaps due to the incipient nature of vision changes. Vision has been monitored in ISS crewmembers, pre- and post-flight, using standard optometry evaluations. In-flight visual assessments were limited early in the ISS program, primarily consisting of self-perceived changes reported by crewmembers. Recently, on-orbit capabilities have greatly improved. Vision data ranges from self-reported post-flight changes in visual acuity, pre- to postflight changes identified during fundoscopic examination, and in-flight progression measured by advanced on-orbit clinical imaging capabilities at predetermined testing intervals. In contrast, CO2 data are recorded in a continuous stream over time; however, for the initial analysis this data was categorized into weekly averages.

  18. Perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit are core symptoms in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Lopez, Régis; Vaillant, Florence; Richieri, Raphaëlle; El-Kaim, Alexandre; Bioulac, Stéphanie; Philip, Pierre; Boyer, Laurent; Lancon, Christophe

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated and compared perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit in adult patients with Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (A-ADHD) and adult patients with schizophrenia. Subjects were evaluated with the Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI). We compared SGI scores between patients with A-ADHD, patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects. We also assessed the relationship between SGI scores and clinical symptoms, and evaluated the ability of the SGI to detect perceptual abnormalities in A-ADHD. Seventy adult patients with ADHD reported higher SGI scores than the 70 healthy subjects and the 70 patients with schizophrenia. The inattention factor of the ASRS correlated significantly with the overall SGI score. The ROC AUC for the overall SGI score in the A-ADHD group (versus the healthy group) illustrated good performance. The findings suggest that i) perceptual abnormalities are core symptoms of adult patients with ADHD and ii) the attention of patients with A-ADHD may be involuntarily drowned by many irrelevant environmental stimuli leading to their impaired attention on relevant stimuli. They also confirm that the SGI could be a useful self-report instrument to diagnose the clinical features of A-ADHD. PMID:26416589

  19. Sleep deprivation disrupts prepulse inhibition and induces psychosis-like symptoms in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Petrovsky, Nadine; Ettinger, Ulrich; Hill, Antje; Frenzel, Leonie; Meyhöfer, Inga; Wagner, Michael; Backhaus, Jutta; Kumari, Veena

    2014-07-01

    Translational biomarkers, such as prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, are playing an increasingly important role in the development of antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia and related conditions. However, attempts to reliably induce a PPI deficit by psychotomimetic drugs have not been successful, leaving an unmet need for a cross-species psychosis model sensitive to this widely studied surrogate treatment target. Sleep deprivation (SD) might be such a model as it has previously been shown to induce PPI deficits in rats, which could be selectively prevented with antipsychotic but not anxiolytic or antidepressant compounds. Here, in a first proof-of-concept study we tested whether SD induces a deficit in PPI and an increase in psychosis-like symptoms in healthy humans. In two counterbalanced sessions, acoustic PPI and self-reported psychosis-like symptoms (Psychotomimetic States Inventory) were measured in 24 healthy human volunteers after a normal night's sleep and after a night of total SD. SD decreased PPI (p = 0.001) without affecting the magnitude or habituation of the startle response (all p > 0.13). SD also induced perceptual distortions, cognitive disorganization, and anhedonia (all p < 0.02). Thus, extending previous rodent work, we conclude that SD, in combination with the PPI biomarker, might be a promising translational surrogate model for psychosis as this method represents a possibility to partially and reversibly mimic the pathogenesis of psychotic states. PMID:24990933

  20. Obsessive compulsive symptom dimensions and neuroticism: An examination of shared genetic and environmental risk.

    PubMed

    Bergin, Jocilyn; Verhulst, Brad; Aggen, Steven H; Neale, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Bienvenu, Oscar J; Hettema, John M

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder can display diverse and heterogeneous patterns of symptoms. Little is known about the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom (OCS) dimensions and normal personality traits, particularly those that increase risk for other internalizing disorders. In this study of 1,382 individuals from female-female twin pairs, we examined the relationship between self-report OCS dimensions derived from the Padua Inventory and Eysenck's personality traits neuroticism and extraversion. We conducted factor analysis to determine their phenotypic structure followed by twin analyses to determine their genetic and environmental sources of covariation. A three-factor solution, with dimensions corresponding to checking, aggressive obsessions, and contamination, was the best fit for the Padua OCS items. These dimensions were significantly and somewhat variably associated with neuroticism but negligibly associated with extraversion. The genetic correlations between neuroticism and these three OCS dimensions were moderate to high (0.66 with checking, 0.89 with aggressive obsessions, and 0.40 with contamination). However, the estimated genetic correlation between neuroticism and a unified latent OCS construct was smaller (0.32). Overall this study suggests that genetic, and to a smaller extent environmental, factors underlying neuroticism may act differentially as risk factors for OCS dimensions. PMID:25231027

  1. Monitoring Athletes Through Self-Report: Factors Influencing Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Anna E.; Main, Luana C.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete’s response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key points Effective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment. A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff. A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level. PMID:25729301

  2. THE SELF-REPORT OF OFFENDING AMONG SERIOUS JUVENILE OFFENDERS

    PubMed Central

    Knight, George P.; Little, Michelle; Losoya, Sandra H.; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates the measurement equivalence of a self-report of offending measure among female and male juveniles, as well as Hispanic, African American, and White male juveniles. The findings indicate (a) considerable functional equivalence across gender and ethnically/racially diverse groups of juvenile offenders, and (b) scalar equivalence across Hispanic and White male juvenile offenders, but (c) that researchers should be careful making either mean difference or association comparisons across genders or African American/White boys. PMID:20119516

  3. Predicting Drug Use at Electronic Music Dance Events: Self-Reports and Biological Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert A.; Miller, Brenda A.; Holder, Harold D.

    2009-01-01

    Most information on the prevalence of drug use comes from self-report surveys. The sensitivity of such information is cause for concern about the accuracy of self-report measures. In this study, self-reported drug use in the last 48 hr is compared to results from biological assays of saliva samples from 371 young adults entering clubs. The…

  4. Correction for faking in self-report personality tests.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Lennart

    2015-10-01

    Faking is a common problem in testing with self-report personality tests, especially in high-stakes situations. A possible way to correct for it is statistical control on the basis of social desirability scales. Two such scales were developed and applied in the present paper. It was stressed that the statistical models of faking need to be adapted to different properties of the personality scales, since such scales correlate with faking to different extents. In four empirical studies of self-report personality tests, correction for faking was investigated. One of the studies was experimental, and asked participants to fake or to be honest. In the other studies, job or school applicants were investigated. It was found that the approach to correct for effects of faking in self-report personality tests advocated in the paper removed a large share of the effects, about 90%. It was found in one study that faking varied as a function of degree of how important the consequences of test results could be expected to be, more high-stakes situations being associated with more faking. The latter finding is incompatible with the claim that social desirability scales measure a general personality trait. It is concluded that faking can be measured and that correction for faking, based on such measures, can be expected to remove about 90% of its effects. PMID:26043667

  5. Long-term symptom relief after septoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sundh, Carolina; Sunnergren, Ola

    2015-10-01

    The results for long-term symptom relief after septoplasty are contradictory in reviewed publications but the findings suggest that results are unsatisfactory. In this study, we analyzed and compared short- and long-term symptom relief after septoplasty and factors possibly associated with symptom relief. 111 patients that underwent septoplasty between 2008 and 2010 were included in the study. Medical charts were reviewed for preoperative characteristics and assessments. Data on short-term symptom relief (6 months) were retrieved from the Swedish National Quality Registry for Septoplasty; data on long-term symptom relief (34-70 months) were collected through a questionnaire. Upon the 34-70 month follow-up, 53% of the patients reported that symptoms either remained or had worsened and 83% reported nasal obstruction. Degree of symptom relief was significantly higher among patients not reporting nasal obstruction than among patients reporting nasal obstruction at long-term follow-up. The proportion of patients that reported "my symptoms are gone" declined from 53% after 6 months to 18% after 34-70 months. None of the factors taken into consideration, age at surgery, gender, follow-up time, primary operation/reoperation, history of nasal trauma, self-reported allergy, rhinometric obstruction, or same sided rhinometric, clinical and subjective nasal obstruction were associated with symptom relief. The long-term results after septoplasty are unsatisfactory. A majority of patients report that their symptoms remain after septoplasty. PMID:25432640

  6. Self-reported sleep duration is associated with reduced glomerular filtration rate among adults with hypertension: a population-based study from rural northeast China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Li, Zhao; Guo, Liang; Zheng, Liqiang; Yang, Hongmei; Zou, Lu; Hu, Wenyu; Zhou, Ying; Zhu, Luoning; Zhang, Yonghong; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-06-01

    Short sleep duration has been found recently to be a predictor of proteinuria. However, population-based investigations addressing the association between self-reported sleep duration and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among hypertensive patients are lacking. We therefore sought to investigate the extent to which self-reported sleep duration might be associated with reduced GFR in a large hypertensive population in rural northeast China. A total of 5555 hypertensive participants, aged ?35 years, in rural areas of Liaoning Province, China, were screened between January 2012 and August 2013, using a stratified, cluster multi-stage sampling scheme. Anthropometric measurements, self-reported sleep duration, blood biochemical indexes and other health-related variables were collected by medically trained personnel. Reduced GFR was defined as the estimated GFR (eGFR) < 60 mL min(-1) 1.73 m(2). On average, participants slept for 6.9 ± 1.6 h per night. Mean self-reported sleep duration decreased with eGFR (P < 0.001). For both genders, a lower prevalence of reduced GFR was observed among participants who slept ?6 h per night in total. In the multivariable regression model, after adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, lifestyle factors, clinical correlates, depressive symptoms and general quality of life, participants who slept for 6 h or less per night were associated with a higher risk of reduced GFR [odds ratio (OR: 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-2.73] compared with the reference group (self-reported sleep duration >7 and ?8 h day(-1) ). We concluded that short self-reported sleep duration (?6 h per night) was related significantly to an increased risk of reduced GFR in a hypertensive population. This novel risk factor should be taken into consideration during daily management of hypertension to prevent chronic kidney disease. PMID:25626914

  7. Life after Adolescent and Adult Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Self-Reported Executive, Emotional, and Behavioural Function 2–5 Years after Injury

    PubMed Central

    Finnanger, Torun Gangaune; Olsen, Alexander; Skandsen, Toril; Lydersen, Stian; Vik, Anne; Evensen, Kari Anne I.; Catroppa, Cathy; Håberg, Asta K.; Andersson, Stein; Indredavik, Marit S.

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of moderate-severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) are at risk for long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioural problems. This prospective cohort study investigated self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural problems in the late chronic phase of moderate and severe TBI, if demographic characteristics (i.e., age, years of education), injury characteristics (Glasgow Coma Scale score, MRI findings such as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), or duration of posttraumatic amnesia), symptoms of depression, or neuropsychological variables in the first year after injury predicted long-term self-reported function. Self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural functioning were assessed among individuals with moderate and severe TBI (N = 67, age range 15–65 years at time of injury) 2–5 years after TBI, compared to a healthy matched control group (N = 72). Results revealed significantly more attentional, emotional regulation, and psychological difficulties in the TBI group than controls. Demographic and early clinical variables were associated with poorer cognitive and emotional outcome. Fewer years of education and depressive symptoms predicted greater executive dysfunction. Younger age at injury predicted more aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. TAI and depressive symptoms predicted Internalizing problems and greater executive dysfunction. In conclusion, age, education, TAI, and depression appear to elevate risk for poor long-term outcome, emphasising the need for long-term follow-up of patients presenting with risk factors. PMID:26549936

  8. Long-term ambient air pollution exposure and self-reported morbidity in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lazarevic, Nina; Dobson, Annette J; Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to assess the effect of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on the prevalence of self-reported health outcomes in Australian women. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants The geocoded residential addresses of 26?991 women across 3 age cohorts in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health between 2006 and 2011 were linked to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure estimates from a land-use regression model. Annual average NO2 concentrations and residential proximity to roads were used as proxies of exposure to ambient air pollution. Outcome measures Self-reported disease presence for diabetes mellitus, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and self-reported symptoms of allergies, breathing difficulties, chest pain and palpitations. Methods Disease prevalence was modelled by population-averaged Poisson regression models estimated by generalised estimating equations. Associations between symptoms and ambient air pollution were modelled by multilevel mixed logistic regression. Spatial clustering was accounted for at the postcode level. Results No associations were observed between any of the outcome and exposure variables considered at the 1% significance level after adjusting for known risk factors and confounders. Conclusions Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was not associated with self-reported disease prevalence in Australian women. The observed results may have been due to exposure and outcome misclassification, lack of power to detect weak associations or an actual absence of associations with self-reported outcomes at the relatively low annual average air pollution exposure levels across Australia. PMID:26503387

  9. Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Eating Disorder-Related Symptoms, Behaviors, and Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Boraska, Vesna; Davis, Oliver SP; Cherkas, Lynn F; Helder, Sietske G; Harris, Juliette; Krug, Isabel; Pei-Chi Liao, Thomas; Treasure, Janet; Ntalla, Ioanna; Karhunen, Leila; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Christakopoulou, Danai; Raevuori, Anu; Shin, So-Youn; Dedoussis, George V; Kaprio, Jaakko; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D; Collier, David A; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are common, complex psychiatric disorders thought to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. They share many symptoms, behaviors, and personality traits, which may have overlapping heritability. The aim of the present study is to perform a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) of six ED phenotypes comprising three symptom traits from the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 [Drive for Thinness (DT), Body Dissatisfaction (BD), and Bulimia], Weight Fluctuation symptom, Breakfast Skipping behavior and Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder trait (CHIRP). Investigated traits were derived from standardized self-report questionnaires completed by the TwinsUK population-based cohort. We tested 283,744 directly typed SNPs across six phenotypes of interest in the TwinsUK discovery dataset and followed-up signals from various strata using a two-stage replication strategy in two independent cohorts of European ancestry. We meta-analyzed a total of 2,698 individuals for DT, 2,680 for BD, 2,789 (821 cases/1,968 controls) for Bulimia, 1,360 (633 cases/727 controls) for Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder trait, 2,773 (761 cases/2,012 controls) for Breakfast Skipping, and 2,967 (798 cases/2,169 controls) for Weight Fluctuation symptom. In this GWAS analysis of six ED-related phenotypes, we detected association of eight genetic variants with P < 10?5. Genetic variants that showed suggestive evidence of association were previously associated with several psychiatric disorders and ED-related phenotypes. Our study indicates that larger-scale collaborative studies will be needed to achieve the necessary power to detect loci underlying ED-related traits. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22911880

  10. A Population-Based Investigation into the Self-Reported Reasons for Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, David; Dregan, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Typologies of sleep problems have usually relied on identifying underlying causes or symptom clusters. In this study the value of using the patient's own reasons for sleep disturbance are explored. Using secondary data analysis of a nationally representative psychiatric survey the patterning of the various reasons respondents provided for self-reported sleep problems were examined. Over two thirds (69.3%) of respondents could identify a specific reason for their sleep problem with worry (37.9%) and illness (20.1%) representing the most commonly reported reasons. And while women reported more sleep problems for almost every reason compared with men, the patterning of reasons by age showed marked variability. Sleep problem symptoms such as difficulty getting to sleep or waking early also showed variability by different reasons as did the association with major correlates such as worry, depression, anxiety and poor health. While prevalence surveys of ‘insomnia’ or ‘poor sleep’ often assume the identification of an underlying homogeneous construct there may be grounds for recognising the existence of different sleep problem types particularly in the context of the patient's perceived reason for the problem. PMID:24983754

  11. An Ecological Risk/Protective Factor Approach to Understanding Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jonathan; Goddard, H. Wallace

    2010-01-01

    We applied an ecological multiple risk/protective factor model to study factors related to depressive symptoms among adolescents. Participants were 39,740 adolescents who self-reported risk factors, protective factors, and depressive symptoms on a school-based survey. Results indicate that an index of multiple risk was related to increased…

  12. Persistent Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants among College Students: Possible Association with ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arria, Amelia M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible association between untreated ADHD symptoms (as measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale) and persistent nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Method: Multinomial regression modeling was used to compare ADHD symptoms among three groups of college students enrolled in a longitudinal study over 4…

  13. Depression as a Moderator of Sociocultural Influences on Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Females and Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…

  14. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: association with personal characteristics and self reported health conditions

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, C; Friedman, G; Klatsky, A; Eisner, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To examine the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and demographic, lifestyle, occupational characteristics and self reported health conditions.?DESIGN—Cross sectional study, using data from multiphasic health checkups between 1979 and 1985.?SETTING—Large health plan in Northern California, USA.?PARTICIPANTS—16 524 men aged 15-89 years and 26 197 women aged 15-105 years who never smoked.?RESULTS—Sixty eight per cent of men and 64 per cent of women reported any current ETS exposure (at home, in small spaces other than home or in large indoor areas). The exposure time from all three sources of ETS exposure correlated negatively with age. Men and women reporting high level ETS exposure were more likely to be black and never married or separated/divorced, to have no college or partial college education, to consume three alcoholic drink/day or more and to report exposure to several occupational hazards. Consistent independent relations across sexes were found between any current exposure to ETS and a positive history of hay fever/asthma (odds ratio (OR)=1.22 in men, 1.14 in women), hearing loss (OR=1.30 in men, 1.27 in women), severe headache (OR=1.22 in men, 1.17 in women), and cold/flu symptoms (OR=1.52 in men, 1.57 in women). Any current ETS exposure was also associated with chronic cough (OR=1.22) in men and with heart disease (OR=1.10) in women. Self reported stroke was inversely associated with any current ETS exposure in men (OR=0.27). No associations were noted for cancer or tumour and for migraine.?CONCLUSION—ETS exposure correlated with several personal characteristics potentially associated with adverse health outcomes. Although the study design precluded causal inference, ETS exposure was associated with several self reported acute and chronic medical conditions.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; smoking PMID:11553655

  15. Citrus Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Florida's Charlotte County Property Appraiser is using an aerial color infrared mapping system for inventorying citrus trees for valuation purposes. The ACIR system has significantly reduced the time and manpower required for appraisal. Aerial photographs are taken and interpreted by a video system which makes it possible to detect changes from previous years. Potential problems can be identified. KSC's TU Office has awarded a contract to the Citrus Research and Education Center to adapt a prototype system which would automatically count trees and report totals.

  16. HIV Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov Facing AIDS ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  17. Effect of the Range of Response Options on Answers to Biographical Inventory Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirnan, Jean Powell; Edler, Erin; Carpenter, Allison

    2007-01-01

    The range of response options has been shown to influence the answers given in self-report instruments that measure behaviors ranging from television viewing to sexual partners. The current research extends this line of inquiry to 36 quantitative items extracted from a biographical inventory used in personnel selection. A total of 92…

  18. The Teenage Inventory of Social Skills: Reliability and Validity of the Spanish Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Hidalgo, Maria D.; Mendez, F. Xavier; Inderbitzen, Heidi, M.

    2003-01-01

    Peer relationships play a critical role in the development of social skills and personal feelings essential for personal growth. The Teenage Inventory of Social Skills is a self-report designed exclusively to reflect behaviors functionally related to peer acceptance in adolescence. The aim of the present work was to determine the reliability and…

  19. Concurrent Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory with Offender and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malterer, Melanie B.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Neumann, Craig S.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is a frequently used and well-validated measure of psychopathy but is relatively time-intensive and expensive to administer. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) is a self-report measure that provides a less time-intensive and less expensive method for identifying psychopathic individuals. Using…

  20. Measuring Personal Growth Attributed to a Semester of College Life Using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Walter P., Jr.; Lopez-Baez, Sandra I.

    2011-01-01

    In this descriptive exploratory study, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996) was used to measure levels of personal growth attributed by college students (N = 117) to a semester of university life in retrospective self-reports. Results reflect attributions of substantial total growth in the range reported in the…

  1. Development of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Carolyn M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Hou, Wei; Kaye, Lillian B.; Nolan, Sarah E. M.; Grandoit, Delphia J.; Gonzales, Lucia; Smith, Mary B.; Desmond, Frederic F.

    2011-01-01

    The Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory (MB-HSBI) was developed for use in identifying self-reported motivators of and barriers to the following health-promoting behaviors (called "health-smart behaviors") that should occur daily to help promote health and overcome illnesses/diseases: eating a healthy breakfast, eating…

  2. The Latent Structure of Multiphasic Sex Inventory-Assessed Pedophilic Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackaronis, Julia E.; Strassberg, Donald S.; Marcus, David K.

    2011-01-01

    The Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI; Nichols & Molinder, 1984) is a self-report measure frequently used in the assessment of sex offenders. Scores on the MSI are often used to assess levels of pedophilic interest. However, the question of whether men with pedophilia represent a unique group distinguished by their sexual interests, or whether they…

  3. The Youth Form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Carolyn M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Desmond, Frederic F.; Hou, Wei; Kaye, Lillian B.; Smith, Tasia M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop a youth form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory (MB-HSBI--Youth) for use in identifying self-reported motivators of and barriers to the following health-promoting behaviors (called "health-smart" behaviors): eating a healthy breakfast, eating healthy foods and snacks, drinking healthy…

  4. Are estimates of socioeconomic inequalities in chronic disease artefactually narrowed by self-reported measures of prevalence in low-income and middle-income countries? Findings from the WHO-SAGE survey

    PubMed Central

    Vellakkal, Sukumar; Millett, Christopher; Basu, Sanjay; Khan, Zaky; Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Stuckler, David; Ebrahim, Shah

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of self-reported measures of chronic disease may substantially underestimate prevalence in low-income and middle-income country settings, especially in groups with lower socioeconomic status (SES). We sought to determine whether socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) differ if estimated by using symptom-based or criterion-based measures compared with self-reported physician diagnoses. Methods Using population-representative data sets of the WHO Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE), 2007–2010 (n=42?464), we calculated wealth-related and education-related concentration indices of self-reported diagnoses and symptom-based measures of angina, hypertension, asthma/chronic lung disease, visual impairment and depression in three ‘low-income and lower middle-income countries’—China, Ghana and India—and three ‘upper-middle-income countries’—Mexico, Russia and South Africa. Results SES gradients in NCD prevalence tended to be positive for self-reported diagnoses compared with symptom-based/criterion-based measures. In China, Ghana and India, SES gradients were positive for hypertension, angina, visual impairment and depression when using self-reported diagnoses, but were attenuated or became negative when using symptom-based/criterion-based measures. In Mexico, Russia and South Africa, this distinction was not observed consistently. For example, concentration index of self-reported versus symptom-based angina were: in China: 0.07 vs ?0.11, Ghana: 0.04 vs ?0.21, India: 0.02 vs ?0.16, Mexico: 0.19 vs ?0.22, Russia: ?0.01 vs ?0.02 and South Africa: 0.37 vs 0.02. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities in NCD prevalence tend to be artefactually positive when using self-report compared with symptom-based or criterion-based diagnostic criteria, with greater bias occurring in low-income countries. Using standardised, symptom-based measures would provide more valid estimates of NCD inequalities. PMID:25550454

  5. Self-reported cognitive inconsistency in older adults.

    PubMed

    Vanderhill, Susan; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A; Strauss, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Insight into one's own cognitive abilities, or metacognition, has been widely studied in developmental psychology. Relevance to the clinician is high, as memory complaints in older adults show an association with impending dementia, even after controlling for likely confounds. Another candidate marker of impending dementia under study is inconsistency in cognitive performance over short time intervals. Although there has been a recent proliferation of studies of cognitive inconsistency in older adults, to date, no one has examined adults' self-perceptions of cognitive inconsistency. Ninety-four community-dwelling older adults (aged 70-91) were randomly selected from a parent longitudinal study of short-term inconsistency and long-term cognitive change in aging. Participants completed a novel 40-item self-report measure of everyday cognitive inconsistency, including parallel scales indexing perceived inconsistency 5 years ago and at present, yielding measures of past, present, and 5-year change in inconsistency. The questionnaire showed acceptable psychometric characteristics. The sample reported an increase in perceived inconsistency over time. Higher reported present inconsistency and greater 5-year increase in inconsistency were associated with noncognitive (e.g., older age, poorer ADLs, poorer health, higher depression), metacognitive (e.g., poorer self-rated memory) and neuropsychological (e.g., poorer performance and greater 5-year decline in global cognitive status, vocabulary, and memory) measures. Correlations between self-reported inconsistency and neuropsychological performance were attenuated, but largely persisted when self-rated memory and age were controlled. Observed relationships between self-reported inconsistency and measures of neuropsychological (including memory) status and decline suggest that self-perceived inconsistency may be an area of relevance in evaluating older adults for memory disorders. PMID:19851899

  6. Parenting-Related Stressors and Self-Reported Mental Health of Mothers With Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Ritesh; Stevens, Gregory D.; Sareen, Harvinder; De Vogli, Roberto; Halfon, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether there were associations between maternal mental health and individual and co-occurring parenting stressors related to social and financial factors and child health care access. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from the 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health. The 5-item Mental Health Inventory was used to measure self-reported mental health. Results. After we controlled for demographic covariates, we found that the following stressors increased the risk of poor maternal mental health: lack of emotional (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0, 5.9) or functional (OR=2.2; 95% CI=1.3, 3.7) social support for parenting, too much time spent with child (OR=3.5; 95% CI=2.0, 6.1), and difficulty paying for child care (OR=2.3; 95% CI=1.4, 3.9). In comparison with mothers without any parenting stressors, mothers reporting 1 stressor had 3 times the odds of poor mental health (OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.1, 4.8), and mothers reporting 2 or more stressors had nearly 12 times the odds (OR = 11.7; 95% CI = 7.1, 19.3). Conclusions. If parenting stressors such as those examined here are to be addressed, changes may be required in community support systems, and improvements in relevant social policies may be needed. PMID:17538058

  7. Scientists’ Perceptions of Organizational Justice and Self-Reported Misbehaviors

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Brian C.; Anderson, Melissa S.; Crain, A. Lauren; De Vries, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    policymakers concerned about maintaining the integrity of science have recently expanded their attention from a focus on misbehaving individuals to characteristics of the environments in which scientists work. Little empirical evidence exists about the role of organizational justice in promoting or hindering scientific integrity. Our findings indicate that when scientists believe they are being treated unfairly they are more likely to behave in ways that compromise the integrity of science. Perceived violations of distributive and procedural justice were positively associated with self-reports of misbehavior among scientists. PMID:16810337

  8. Self-Reported Experiences of Discrimination and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Tené T.; Williams, David R.; Tamene, Mahader; Clark, Cheryl R.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have long speculated that exposure to discrimination may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk but compared to other psychosocial risk factors, large-scale epidemiologic and community based studies examining associations between reports of discrimination and CVD risk have only emerged fairly recently. This review summarizes findings from studies of self-reported experiences of discrimination and CVD risk published between 2011–2013. We document the innovative advances in recent work, the notable heterogeneity in these studies, and the considerable need for additional work with objective clinical endpoints other than blood pressure. Implications for the study of racial disparities in CVD and clinical practice are also discussed. PMID:24729825

  9. The Contribution of Pain and Depression to Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nicassio, Perry M.; Ormseth, Sarah R.; Kay, Morgan; Custodio, Mara; Irwin, Michael R.; Olmstead, Richard; Weisman, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the contribution of disease activity, pain, and psychological factors to self-reported sleep disturbance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to evaluate whether depression mediates the effects of pain on sleep disturbance. The sample included 106 patients with confirmed RA participated in an assessment of their disease activity, pain, psychological functioning, and sleep disturbance during a baseline evaluation prior to participating in a prospective study to help them manage their RA. Self-measures included the Rapid Assessment of Disease Activity in Rheumatology (RADAR), the SF-36 Pain Scale, the Helplessness and Internality Subscales of the Arthritis Helplessness Index (AHI), the Active and Passive Pain Coping Scales of the Pain Management Inventory (PMI), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis confirmed that higher income, pain, internality, and depression contributed independently to higher sleep disturbance. A mediational analysis demonstrated that depression acted as a significant mechanism through which pain contributed to sleep disturbance. Cross-sectional findings indicate that pain and depression play significant roles in self-reported sleep disturbance among patients with RA. The data suggest the importance of interventions that target pain and depression to improve sleep in this medical condition. PMID:22051047

  10. The contribution of pain and depression to self-reported sleep disturbance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nicassio, Perry M; Ormseth, Sarah R; Kay, Morgan; Custodio, Mara; Irwin, Michael R; Olmstead, Richard; Weisman, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the contribution of disease activity, pain, and psychological factors to self-reported sleep disturbance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to evaluate whether depression mediates the effects of pain on sleep disturbance. The sample included 106 patients with confirmed RA who participated in an assessment of their disease activity, pain, psychological functioning, and sleep disturbance during a baseline evaluation prior to participating in a prospective study to help them manage their RA. Self-measures included the Rapid Assessment of Disease Activity in Rheumatology, the SF-36 Pain Scale, the Helplessness and Internality Subscales of the Arthritis Helplessness Index, the Active and Passive Pain Coping Scales of the Pain Management Inventory, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis confirmed that higher income, pain, internality, and depression contributed independently to higher sleep disturbance. A mediational analysis demonstrated that depression acted as a significant mechanism through which pain contributed to sleep disturbance. Cross-sectional findings indicate that pain and depression play significant roles in self-reported sleep disturbance among patients with RA. The data suggest the importance of interventions that target pain and depression to improve sleep in this medical condition. PMID:22051047

  11. Competitive Inventory Models

    E-print Network

    Shenoy, Prakash P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the question of optimal inventory sizes in a competitive environment in which demand for a product at a vendor depends on the inventory level of the product at that vendor relative to the inventories ...

  12. Self-reported emotional intelligence, burnout and engagement among staff in services for people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Durán, Auxiliadora; Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes

    2004-10-01

    This study examined the relationship among dimensions of self-reported Emotional Intelligence, Engagement and Burnout, using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale in a sample of Spanish professionals who work at institutions for people with intellectual disabilities. The results showed that Emotional Clarity was significantly associated with Personal Accomplishment (r=.25) and Dedication (r=.25). Further, Repair to moods was significantly correlated with all Engagement dimensions (.20 Vigor, .30 Dedication, .36 Absorption) and with Personal Accomplishment (.31). These findings extend previous research with college students in which Clarity and Repair to moods subscales were relevant predictors of well-being indexes and interpersonal functioning and suggest that the Trait Meta-Mood Scale subscales also show significant relationships with emotional functioning and work-related variables in a professional sample. PMID:15587197

  13. Self-reports of meaning in life matter.

    PubMed

    Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A

    2015-09-01

    Replies to the comments made by Friedman (see record 2015-39598-012), Jeffery & Shackelford (see record 2015-39598-013), Brown & Wong (see record 2015-39598-014), Fowers & Lefevor (see record 2015-39598-015), Hill et al. (see record 2015-39598-016) on the current authors' original article, "Life is pretty meaningful," (see record 2014-03265-001). The current authors thank the comment authors for their efforts, and acknowledge their dedication to what is often a difficult and inscrutable construct, meaning in life. One lesson the current authors have learned from these reactions is that a review of self-report responses to items like "My life is purposeful and meaningful" cannot encompass the entirety of the meaning-in-life landscape. In this reply, the current authors reflect on aspects of the commentaries, highlighting what they can garner about meaning in life from the portion of it that is reflected in phenomenological experience and represented in self-reports: These are the data they have. The current authors first consider three methodological concerns that bear on whether these data are informative (at all) and then they consider more conceptual critiques. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348348

  14. Rotavirus Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... PATH's Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  15. Norovirus Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How ...

  16. Symptom Management

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Studies DVBIC Publications Concussion Literature Information Papers Study Manuals DVBIC Locations Service Members & Veterans Family & Caregivers Medical ... event like combat, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, or car crashes. Thinking / Cognitive Symptoms After a brain injury ...

  17. Plague Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Modified Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale among Women with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders Receiving Outpatient Group Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Ruglass, Lesia M; Papini, Santiago; Trub, Leora; Hien, Denise A

    2015-01-01

    Objective The use of psychometrically sound measures to assess and monitor PTSD treatment response over time is critical for better understanding the relationship between PTSD symptoms and Substance Use Disorder (SUD) symptoms throughout treatment. We examined the psychometric properties of the Modified Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptom Scale, Self-Report (MPSS-SR). Methods Three hundred fifty three women diagnosed with co-occurring PTSD (full or sub-threshold) and SUD who participated in a multisite treatment trial completed the MPSS-SR at pre-treatment, weekly during treatment, and posttreatment. Reliability and validity analyses were applied to the data. Results Internal consistency was excellent throughout the course of the trial demonstrating the MPSS-SR's high reliability. Strong correlations between MPSS-SR scores and the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) severity scores demonstrated the MPSS-SR's convergent and concurrent validity. We conducted a classification analysis at posttreatment and compared the MPSS-SR at various cutoff scores with the CAPS diagnosis. A cutoff score of 29 on the MPSS-SR yielded a sensitivity rate of 89%, a specificity rate of 77%, and an overall classification rate of 80%, indicating the measure's robust ability to accurately identify individuals with PTSD in our sample at posttreatment. Conclusions Findings support the use of the MPSS-SR as a reliable and valid tool to assess and monitor changes in PTSD symptoms over the course of treatment and as an alternative to structured clinical interviews to assess PTSD symptoms among populations with SUDs. PMID:26543877

  19. Personality traits influencing somatization symptoms and social inhibition in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Somatization is a common symptom among the elderly, and even though personality disorders have been found to be associated with somatization, personality traits have not yet been explored with regard to this symptom. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between personality traits and somatization, and social inhibition. Patients and methods As part of a cross-sectional study of a community sample, 126 elderly Thais aged 60 years or over completed self-reporting questionnaires related to somatization and personality traits. Somatization was elicited from the somatization subscale when using the Symptom Checklist SCL-90 instrument. Personality traits were drawn from the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire and social inhibition was identified when using the inventory of interpersonal problems. In addition, path analysis was used to establish the influence of personality traits on somatization and social inhibition. Results Of the 126 participants, 51% were male, 55% were married, and 25% were retired. The average number of years in education was 7.6 (standard deviation =5.2). “Emotional stability” and “dominance” were found to have a direct effect on somatization, as were age and number of years in education, but not sex. Also, 35% of the total variance could be explained by the model, with excellent fit statistics. Dominance was found to have an indirect effect, via vigilance, on social inhibition, which was also influenced by number of years in education and emotional stability. Social inhibition was not found to have any effect on somatization, although hypothetically it should. Conclusion “Emotional stability”, “dominance”, and “vigilance”, as well as age and the number of years in education, were found to have an effect on somatization. Attention should be paid to these factors in the elderly with somatization. PMID:24477217

  20. Contributions of Social Desirability to Self-Reported Ageism.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Allen, Priscilla D; Denver, Jenny Y; Holland, Kayla R

    2015-09-01

    The authors examined the role of social desirability in 445 participants' responses to self-reported measures of ageism across two studies. In Study 1, college students and community adults completed the Relating to Older People Evaluation (ROPE) and a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-C SDS). Study 2 was a conceptual replication that included the Fraboni Scale of Ageism (FSA). Correlation analyses confirmed a small but significant relationship between scores on the positive ageist items and the social desirability scale in both studies. Ageist attitudes were correlated with negative ageist behaviors in Study 2. Implications for current views on ageism and strategies for reducing ageist attitudes and behaviors in everyday life are discussed. PMID:24652882

  1. The Healthy Aging Brain Care (HABC) Monitor: validation of the Patient Self-Report Version of the clinical tool designed to measure and monitor cognitive, functional, and psychological health

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Patrick O; Alder, Catherine A; Khan, Babar A; Stump, Timothy; Boustani, Malaz A

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary care providers need an inexpensive, simple, user-friendly, easily standardized, sensitive to change, and widely available multidomain instrument to measure the cognitive, functional, and psychological symptoms of patients suffering from multiple chronic conditions. We previously validated the Caregiver Report Version of the Healthy Aging Brain Care Monitor (HABC Monitor) for measuring and monitoring the severity of symptoms through caregiver reports. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Patient Self-Report Version of the HABC Monitor (Self-Report HABC Monitor). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Primary care clinics affiliated with a safety net urban health care system in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Subjects A total of 291 subjects aged ?65 years with a mean age of 72.7 (standard deviation 6.2) years, 76% female, and 56% African Americans. Analysis Psychometric validity and reliability of the Self-Report HABC Monitor. Results Among 291 patients analyzed, the Self-Report HABC Monitor demonstrated excellent fit for the confirmatory factor analysis model (root mean square error of approximation =0.030, comparative fit index =0.974, weighted root mean square residual =0.837) and good internal consistency (0.78–0.92). Adequate convergent–divergent validity (differences between the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status test-based cognitive function impairment versus nonimpairment groups) was demonstrated only when patients were removed from analysis if they had both cognitive function test impairment and suspiciously perfect self-report HABC Monitor cognitive floor scores of 0. Conclusion The Self-Report HABC Monitor demonstrates good reliability and validity as a clinically practical multidimensional tool for measuring symptoms. The tool can be used along with its caregiver version to provide useful feedback (via monitoring of symptoms) for modifying care plans. Determining the validity of HABC Monitor scores from patients who self-report a perfect cognitive score of 0 requires cognitive function test results (eg, Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status or Mini Mental State Examination) or Caregiver Report HABC Monitor scores or further clinical examination to rule out the possibility that the patient is denying or unaware of their cognitive symptoms. PMID:25584024

  2. Distribution and Correlates of Self-Reported Crimes of Trust

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G.; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to “conventional” property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11–18 years old in 1976–77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36–44) in 2002–2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002–2003 (total age range 11–88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes. PMID:22347761

  3. Patient and provider priorities for self-reported domains of HIV clinical care.

    PubMed

    Fredericksen, Rob J; Edwards, Todd C; Merlin, Jessica S; Gibbons, Laura E; Rao, Deepa; Batey, D Scott; Dant, Lydia; Páez, Edgar; Church, Anna; Crane, Paul K; Crane, Heidi M; Patrick, Donald L

    2015-10-01

    We sought to understand how HIV-infected patients, their providers, and HIV care researchers prioritize self-reported domains of clinical care. Participants rank-ordered two lists of domains. A modified Delphi process was used for providers and researchers. Approximately 25% of patients were interviewed to discuss rationale for rank order choices. List 1 included anger, anxiety, depression, fatigue, physical function, pain, and sleep disturbance. List 2 included alcohol abuse, cognitive function, HIV stigma, HIV and treatment symptoms, medication adherence, positive affect, sexual risk behavior, sexual function, social roles, spirituality/meaning of life, and substance abuse. Seventy-four providers, 80 HIV care researchers, and 66 patients participated. Patients ranked context-based domains, such as HIV stigma, more highly than providers, while health behaviors, such as drug or alcohol use, ranked lower. Patients described a need to address wider-context challenges such as HIV stigma in order to positively impact health behaviors. Divergent patient and provider priorities highlight the importance of incorporating views from all stakeholders and suggests the need for a care approach that more effectively addresses contextual barriers to adverse health behaviors. PMID:26304263

  4. Self-reported quality care for knee osteoarthritis: comparisons across Denmark, Norway, Portugal and the UK

    PubMed Central

    Østerås, N; Jordan, K P; Clausen, B; Cordeiro, C; Dziedzic, K; Edwards, J; Grønhaug, G; Higginbottom, A; Lund, H; Pacheco, G; Pais, S; Hagen, K B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess and compare patient perceived quality of osteoarthritis (OA) management in primary healthcare in Denmark, Norway, Portugal and the UK. Methods Participants consulting with clinical signs and symptoms of knee OA were identified in 30 general practices and invited to complete a cross-sectional survey including quality indicators (QI) for OA care. A QI was considered as eligible if the participant had checked ‘Yes’ or ‘No’, and as achieved if the participant had checked ‘Yes’ to the indicator. The median percentage (with IQR and range) of eligible QIs achieved by country was determined and compared in negative binominal regression analysis. Achievement of individual QIs by country was determined and compared using logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 354 participants self-reported QI achievement. The median percentage of eligible QIs achieved (checked ‘Yes’) was 48% (IQR 28%, 64%; range 0–100%) for the total sample with relatively similar medians across three of four countries. Achievement rates on individual QIs showed a large variation ranging from 11% (referral to services for losing weight) to 67% (information about the importance of exercise) with significant differences in achievement rates between the countries. Conclusions The results indicated a potential for improvement in OA care in all four countries, but for somewhat different aspects of OA care. By exploring these differences and comparing healthcare services, ideas may be generated on how the quality might be improved across nations. Larger studies are needed to confirm and further explore the findings. PMID:26535147

  5. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Converse, Alexander K; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Travers, Brittany G; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD. PMID:24478679

  6. Assessment of self-reported negative affect in the NIH Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Pilkonis, Paul A.; Choi, Seung W.; Salsman, John; Butt, Zeeshan; Moore, Tara L.; Lawrence, Suzanne M.; Zill, Nicholas; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Kelly, Morgen A. R.; Knox, Sarah S.; Cella, David

    2012-01-01

    We report on the selection of self-report measures for inclusion in the NIH Toolbox that are suitable for assessing the full range of negative affect including sadness, fear, and anger. The Toolbox is intended to serve as a “core battery” of assessment tools for cognition, sensation, motor function, and emotional health that will help to overcome the lack of consistency in measures used across epidemiological, observational, and intervention studies. A secondary goal of the NIH Toolbox is the identification of measures that are flexible, efficient, and precise, an agenda best fulfilled by the use of item banks calibrated with models from item response theory (IRT) and suitable for adaptive testing. Results from a sample of 1,763 respondents supported use of the adult and pediatric item banks for emotional distress from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) as a starting point for capturing the full range of negative affect in healthy individuals. Content coverage for the adult Toolbox was also enhanced by the development of a scale for somatic arousal using items from the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ) and scales for hostility and physical aggression using items from the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ). PMID:23083918

  7. Self-reported hearing loss among workers potentially exposed to industrial noise-United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-15

    Noise-induced loss of hearing has been recognized as an occupational health problem since the 18th century. Occupational deafness is an irreversible, sensorineural condition that results from damage to the nerve cells of the inner ear. Recent estimates from surveys indicate that between 7.4 and 10.2 million people work at sites where the level of noise presents an increased risk of hearing loss (85 decibels (dBA) or higher). During the period of 1978-1987, an estimated $835 million was paid in workers' compensation claims for occupationally induced hearing impairment. To assess the prevalence of hearing-loss symptoms among adult workers in the United States, investigators from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recently analyzed data collected during the 1971 and 1977 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). For this study, the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss was obtained for all persons over 17 years of age who were in the labor force at the time of interview. Data from the 1972-1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS) were used to classify worksites by noise level. NOHS was conducted by NIOSH from 1972 to 1974 on a probability sample of approximately 5000 workplaces across the United States. The survey provides information on potential exposures of workers to chemical and physical agents. These data identified industries and occupations in which employees are exposed to continuous noise.

  8. Time-course of the DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal symptoms in poly-substance abusers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence is accumulating that a cannabis withdrawal syndrome is common, of clinical significance, and has a clear time course. Up till now, very limited data exist on the cannabis withdrawal symptoms in patients with co-morbid substance use disorders, other than cannabis use and tobacco use. Methods Symptoms of withdrawal were assessed through patient self-reports during detoxification in Danish residential rehabilitation centers. Patients (n?=?90) completed booklets three times during their first month at the treatment centre. Self-reported withdrawal symptoms was rated using the DSM-5 Withdrawal Symptom Check List with withdrawal symptoms from all classes of substances, with no indication that the described symptoms should be attributed to withdrawal. Self-reported time since last use of cannabis was used as a predictor of cannabis withdrawal severity. Results With the exception of loss of appetite, time since last use of cannabis was associated with all types of withdrawal symptoms listed in the DSM-5. Only four of 19 symptoms intended to measure withdrawal from other substances were related to time since last use of cannabis, including vivid, unpleasant dreams. Conclusions The findings yield strong support to the notion of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and gives further evidence for the inclusion of the criterion of vivid, unpleasant dreams. Further, the findings speak against the significance of demand characteristics in determining the course of the symptoms of cannabis withdrawal. PMID:24118963

  9. Core OCD Symptoms: Exploration of Specificity and Relations with Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Stasik, Sara M.; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Chmielewski, Michael; Watson, David

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, comprised of multiple symptom domains. This study used aggregate composite scales representing three core OCD dimensions (Checking, Cleaning, Rituals), as well as Hoarding, to examine the discriminant validity, diagnostic specificity, and predictive ability of OCD symptom scales. The core OCD scales demonstrated strong patterns of convergent and discriminant validity – suggesting that these dimensions are distinct from other self-reported symptoms – whereas hoarding symptoms correlated just as strongly with OCD and non-OCD symptoms in most analyses. Across analyses, our results indicated that Checking is a particularly strong, specific marker of OCD diagnosis, whereas the specificity of Cleaning and Hoarding to OCD was less strong. Finally, the OCD Checking scale was the only significant predictor of OCD diagnosis in logistic regression analyses. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of assessing OCD symptom dimensions separately and implications for classification. PMID:23026094

  10. Self-reported efficacy of cannabis and other complementary medicine modalities by Parkinson's disease patients in colorado.

    PubMed

    Finseth, Taylor Andrew; Hedeman, Jessica Louise; Brown, Robert Preston; Johnson, Kristina I; Binder, Matthew Sean; Kluger, Benzi M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We sought to provide information on CAM use and efficacy in PD patients in the Denver metro area with particular attention to cannabis use given its recent change in legal status. Methods. Self-administered surveys on CAM use and efficacy were completed by PD patients identified in clinics and support groups across the Denver metro area between 2012 and 2013. Results. 207 patients (age 69 ± 11; 60% male) completed the survey. Responses to individual CAM therapy items showed that 85% of respondents used at least one form of CAM. The most frequently reported CAMs were vitamins (66%), prayer (59%), massage (45%), and relaxation (32%). Self-reported improvement related to the use of CAM was highest for massage, art therapy, music therapy, and cannabis. While only 4.3% of our survey responders reported use of cannabis, it ranked among the most effective CAM therapies. Conclusions. Overall, our cross-sectional study was notable for a high rate of CAM utilization amongst PD patients and high rates of self-reported efficacy across most CAM modalities. Cannabis was rarely used in our population but users reported high efficacy, mainly for nonmotor symptoms. PMID:25821504

  11. Self-Reported Efficacy of Cannabis and Other Complementary Medicine Modalities by Parkinson's Disease Patients in Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Finseth, Taylor Andrew; Hedeman, Jessica Louise; Brown, Robert Preston; Johnson, Kristina I.; Binder, Matthew Sean; Kluger, Benzi M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We sought to provide information on CAM use and efficacy in PD patients in the Denver metro area with particular attention to cannabis use given its recent change in legal status. Methods. Self-administered surveys on CAM use and efficacy were completed by PD patients identified in clinics and support groups across the Denver metro area between 2012 and 2013. Results. 207 patients (age 69 ± 11; 60% male) completed the survey. Responses to individual CAM therapy items showed that 85% of respondents used at least one form of CAM. The most frequently reported CAMs were vitamins (66%), prayer (59%), massage (45%), and relaxation (32%). Self-reported improvement related to the use of CAM was highest for massage, art therapy, music therapy, and cannabis. While only 4.3% of our survey responders reported use of cannabis, it ranked among the most effective CAM therapies. Conclusions. Overall, our cross-sectional study was notable for a high rate of CAM utilization amongst PD patients and high rates of self-reported efficacy across most CAM modalities. Cannabis was rarely used in our population but users reported high efficacy, mainly for nonmotor symptoms. PMID:25821504

  12. Reduction in menopause-related symptoms associated with use of a noninvasive neurotechnology for autocalibration of neural oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Tegeler, Charles H.; Tegeler, Catherine L.; Cook, Jared F.; Lee, Sung W.; Pajewski, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective Increased amplitudes in high-frequency brain electrical activity are reported with menopausal hot flashes. We report outcomes associated with the use of High-resolution, relational, resonance-based, electroencephalic mirroring—a noninvasive neurotechnology for autocalibration of neural oscillations—by women with perimenopausal and postmenopausal hot flashes. Methods Twelve women with hot flashes (median age, 56 y; range, 46-69 y) underwent a median of 13 (range, 8-23) intervention sessions for a median of 9.5 days (range, 4-32). This intervention uses algorithmic analysis of brain electrical activity and near real-time translation of brain frequencies into variable tones for acoustic stimulation. Hot flash frequency and severity were recorded by daily diary. Primary outcomes included hot flash severity score, sleep, and depressive symptoms. High-frequency amplitudes (23-36 Hz) from bilateral temporal scalp recordings were measured at baseline and during serial sessions. Self-reported symptom inventories for sleep and depressive symptoms were collected. Results The median change in hot flash severity score was ?0.97 (range, ?3.00 to 1.00; P = 0.015). Sleep and depression scores decreased by ?8.5 points (range, ?20 to ?1; P = 0.022) and ?5.5 points (range, ?32 to 8; P = 0.015), respectively. The median sum of amplitudes for the right and left temporal high-frequency brain electrical activity was 8.44 ?V (range, 6.27-16.66) at baseline and decreased by a median of ?2.96 ?V (range, ?11.05 to ?0.65; P = 0.0005) by the final session. Conclusions Hot flash frequency and severity, symptoms of insomnia and depression, and temporal high-frequency brain electrical activity decrease after High-resolution, relational, resonance-based, electroencephalic mirroring. Larger controlled trials with longer follow-up are warranted. PMID:25668305

  13. Stress-Reactive Rumination, Negative Cognitive Style, and Stressors in Relationship to Depressive Symptoms in Non-Clinical Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bogels, Susan M.; Meesters, Cor

    2012-01-01

    The role of cognitive vulnerability in the development of depressive symptoms in youth might depend on age and gender. The current study examined cognitive vulnerability models in relationship to depressive symptoms from a developmental perspective. For that purpose, 805 youth (aged 10-18, 59.9% female) completed self-report measures.…

  14. Validation of Self-Report on Smoking among University Students in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chung Yul; Shin, Sunmi; Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Hong, Yoon Mi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To validate the self-reported smoking status of Korean university students. Methods: Subjects included 322 Korean university in Korea, who participated in an annual health screening. Data on smoking were collected through a self-reported questionnaire and urine test. The data were analyzed by the McNemar test. Results: In the…

  15. Trends in Ambulatory Self-Report: The Role of Momentary Experience in Psychosomatic Medicine

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    with biologic processes. Key words: ecological momentary assessment, Positive and Negative Affect ScheduleTrends in Ambulatory Self-Report: The Role of Momentary Experience in Psychosomatic Medicine TAMLIN momentary, retrospective, and trait self-report techniques and discuss the unique role that ambulatory

  16. Self-Reported versus Professionally Assessed Functional Limitations in Community-Dwelling Very Old Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson, Gunilla; Haak, Maria; Nygren, Carita; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported and professionally assessed functional limitations in community-dwelling very old individuals. In total, 306 single-living adults aged 81-90 years were included in this cross-sectional study. The main outcome measure was the presence and absence of self-reported and…

  17. Reliability and Validity of a New Physical Activity Self-Report Measure for Younger Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belton, Sarahjane; Mac Donncha, Ciaran

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability and validity of a new Youth Physical Activity Self-Report measure. Heart rate and direct observation were employed as criterion measures with a sample of 79 children (aged 7-9 years). Spearman's rho correlation between self reported activity intensity and heart rate was 0.87 for…

  18. Agreement between Parent- and Self-Reports of Algerian Adolescents' Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petot, Djaouida; Rescorla, Leslie; Petot, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined agreement between scores obtained from self-reports of behavioral and emotional problems obtained from 513 Algerian adolescents on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) with scores obtained from reports provided by their parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The correlations between self- and parent-report were larger…

  19. Inconsistent Self-Report of Delinquency by Adolescents and Young Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Babinski, Dara E.; Biswas, Aparajita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the ability of adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD to reliably self-report delinquency history. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD between 1987 and 1996. Self-report of lifetime delinquency history was…

  20. The 20-item prosopagnosia index (PI20): a self-report instrument for identifying developmental prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Punit; Gaule, Anne; Sowden, Sophie; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Self-report plays a key role in the identification of developmental prosopagnosia (DP), providing complementary evidence to computer-based tests of face recognition ability, aiding interpretation of scores. However, the lack of standardized self-report instruments has contributed to heterogeneous reporting standards for self-report evidence in DP research. The lack of standardization prevents comparison across samples and limits investigation of the relationship between objective tests of face processing and self-report measures. To address these issues, this paper introduces the PI20; a 20-item self-report measure for quantifying prosopagnosic traits. The new instrument successfully distinguishes suspected prosopagnosics from typically developed adults. Strong correlations were also observed between PI20 scores and performance on objective tests of familiar and unfamiliar face recognition ability, confirming that people have the necessary insight into their own face recognition ability required by a self-report instrument. Importantly, PI20 scores did not correlate with recognition of non-face objects, indicating that the instrument measures face recognition, and not a general perceptual impairment. These results suggest that the PI20 can play a valuable role in identifying DP. A freely available self-report instrument will permit more effective description of self-report diagnostic evidence, thereby facilitating greater comparison of prosopagnosic samples, and more reliable classification. PMID:26543567

  1. Recommendations to improve the accuracy of estimates of physical activity derived from self report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of physical activity using self-report has the potential for measurement error that can lead to incorrect inferences about physical activity behaviors and bias study results. To provide recommendations to improve the accuracy of physical activity derived from self report. We provide an ov...

  2. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Symptomatology and Working Memory in College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kercood, Suneeta; Lineweaver, Tara T.; Kugler, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in self-reported symptomatology and working memory (visuospatial and auditory) in college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Forty-seven college students with ADHD and 44 non-affected control participants completed two self-report questionnaires and six tests…

  3. Congruence of Self-Reported Medications with Pharmacy Prescription Records in Low-Income Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskie, Grace I. L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the congruence of self-reported medications with computerized pharmacy records. Design and Methods: Pharmacy records and self-reported medications were obtained for 294 members of a state pharmaceutical assistance program who also participated in ACTIVE, a clinical trial on cognitive training in nondemented elderly…

  4. Development and Validation of the Cultural Competence of Program Evaluators (CCPE) Self-Report Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunaway, Krystall E.; Morrow, Jennifer A.; Porter, Bryan E.

    2012-01-01

    No self-report measure of cultural competence currently exists in program evaluation. Adapting items from cultural competence measures in fields such as counseling and nursing, the researchers developed the Cultural Competence of Program Evaluators (CCPE) self-report scale. The goals of this study were to validate the CCPE and to assess…

  5. Validating the Factor Structure of the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmut, Mehmet K.; Menictas, Con; Stevenson, Richard J.; Homewood, Judi

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there is no standard self-report measure of psychopathy in community-dwelling samples that parallels the most commonly used measure of psychopathy in forensic and clinical samples, the Psychopathy Checklist. A promising instrument is the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP), which was derived from the original version the Psychopathy…

  6. Collegiate Swimmers: Sex Differences in Self-Reports and Indices of Physiological Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gackenbach, Jayne

    1982-01-01

    Psychological and physiological stress indices were taken from collegiate swimmers of both sexes. Later a scale of self-reported masculinity and femininity was administered. Males had higher systolic blood pressure but lower self-reported anxiety and hostility with the stress of competition. Differences in relative masculinity/femininity allow…

  7. Correction Equations to Adjust Self-Reported Height and Weight for Obesity Estimates among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to generate correction equations for self-reported height and weight quartiles and to test the accuracy of the body mass index (BMI) classification based on corrected self-reported height and weight among 739 male and 434 female college students. The BMIqc (from height and weight quartile-specific, corrected…

  8. Global Self-Esteem, Appearance Satisfaction, and Self-Reported Dieting in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Erin T.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2010-01-01

    Global self-esteem, appearance satisfaction, and self-reported dieting are interrelated. This study examines the temporal ordering of global self-esteem and appearance satisfaction across the early adolescence transition, from age 10 to age 14, as well as the independent associations of self-esteem and appearance satisfaction on self-reported

  9. Using College Students' Self-Reported Learning Outcomes in Scholarly Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the author examines the adequacy and appropriateness of self-report data using the lens of construct validity (Kane, 2006; Messick, 1989). Because construct validity focuses on the appropriateness of data for specific uses or interpretations, he limits his discussion to the use of self-report data in scholarly research. Other…

  10. Self-Reported Learning Gains: A Theory and Test of College Student Survey Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have asserted that self-reported learning gains (SRLG) are valid measures of learning, because gains in specific content areas vary across academic disciplines as theoretically predicted. In contrast, other studies find no relationship between actual and self-reported gains in learning, calling into question the validity of SRLG. I…

  11. Life events, self-reported psychopathology and sense of coherence among young men--a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ristkari, T; Sourander, A; Rønning, J A; Nikolakaros, G; Helenius, H

    2008-01-01

    The aim is to study the associations between sense of coherence (SOC), and psychopathology and major life events among adolescent boys. The study population consisted of 2314 Finnish boys born during 1981 who attended military call-up (79% of the original sample). At military call-up in 1999, the boys filled in the Young Adult Self-Report (YASR) and Antonovsky's Orientation to Life Questionnaire (SOC-13), which measure SOC. In univariate analysis, low parental education level, death and serious illness of parent, parental divorce and high symptom level in all YASR scales were associated with poor SOC. In multivariate analysis, most YASR syndrome scales and father's education level were independently associated with SOC. The study demonstrates the sensitivity of the SOC-13 scale to a wide range of mental health problems. The results offer additional support to the argument that SOC may be an important global measure for use in both clinical and research purposes in adolescent psychiatry. PMID:18846443

  12. Personality Assessment Inventory Internalizing and Externalizing Structure in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Associations with Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dennis, Paul A.; Elbogen, Eric B.; Clancy, Carolina P.; Hertzberg, Michael A.; Beckham, Jean C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n’s = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. PMID:25131806

  13. Convergent Validity of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI): Association with the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andershed, Henrik; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Tengstrom, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the self-report Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) and the clinician-rated Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV). A representative sample of 92 girls and 70 boys, 12 to 20 years of age (mean age, 17 years), who received services at a clinic for adolescents with substance misuse…

  14. Assessing the Affective Features of Psychopathy in Adolescence: A Further Validation of the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roose, Annelore; Bijttebier, Patricia; Decoene, Stefaan; Claes, Laurence; Frick, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    To provide an extended assessment of the affective features of psychopathy, Frick developed the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits (ICU), which is a multi-informant questionnaire. Previous studies have provided initial support for the self-report version. The aim of the present study is to investigate the validity of self- as well as…

  15. Norms and Screening Utility of the Dutch Version of the Children's Depression Inventory in Clinical and Nonclinical Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Jeffrey; Braet, Caroline; Rood, Lea; Timbremont, Benedikte; van Vlierberghe, Leen; Goossens, Lien; van Breukelen, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to (a) assess relationships between the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and "DSM"-oriented depression and anxiety scales of the Youth Self Report, (b) develop reliable norms for the CDI, and (c) determine CDI cutoff scores for selecting youngsters at risk for depression and anxiety. A total of 3,073 nonclinical and 511…

  16. Construction and Validation of the Clinical Judgment Skill Inventory: Clinical Judgment Skill Competencies That Measure Counselor Debiasing Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bryan S.; Leahy, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To construct and validate a new self-report instrument, the Clinical Judgment Skill Inventory (CJSI), inclusive of clinical judgment skill competencies that address counselor biases and evidence-based strategies. Method: An Internet-based survey design was used and an exploratory factor analysis was performed on a sample of rehabilitation…

  17. Test Review: Ruff, R. M., & Hibbard, K. M. (2003). "Ruff Neurobehavioral Inventory." Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorske, Tad T.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the Ruff Neurobehavioral Inventory (RNBI), a self-report questionnaire designed to assess an individual's ability to function in cognitive, emotional, physical, and psychosocial domains, before and after a major illness or injury. The measure is designed to be used with men and women ages 18 to 75 who have at…

  18. Further Validation of the Learning Alliance Inventory: The Roles of Working Alliance, Rapport, and Immediacy in Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    This study further examined the reliability and validity of the Learning Alliance Inventory (LAI), a self-report measure designed to assess the working alliance between a student and a teacher. The LAI was found to have good internal consistency and test--retest reliability, and it demonstrated the predicted convergence with measures of immediacy…

  19. Prevalence and associated features of self-reported freezing of gait in Parkinson disease: The DEEP FOG study.

    PubMed

    Amboni, M; Stocchi, F; Abbruzzese, G; Morgante, L; Onofrj, M; Ruggieri, S; Tinazzi, M; Zappia, M; Attar, M; Colombo, D; Simoni, L; Ori, A; Barone, P; Antonini, A

    2015-06-01

    Freezing of Gait (FOG) is a common and disabling symptom in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The relationship between FOG and dopaminergic medication is complex. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported FOG, its associated clinical features, and its relationship with wearing-off in a wide PD population. This is an observational multicenter study of 634 consecutive non-demented PD patients. Patients were identified either as freezers or non-freezers based on item-3 of the Freezing of Gait-Questionnaire. FOG was then classified as on, off and onoff freezing based on its relationship with wearing-off. Patients were assessed with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Hoehn and Yahr scale, 8-item Parkinson's disease Questionnaire, Mini-Mental State Examination. Data from 593 patients were analyzed, 325 (54.3%) were freezers of whom 200 (61.6%) experienced FOG only during off state (off-freezers), 6 (1.8%) only during on state and 119 (36.6%) either in on and off states or independently of dopaminergic response-related symptoms (onoff-freezers). Overall, freezers vs non-freezers had longer disease duration, more advanced disease and greater disability. Moreover, freezers more frequently reported wearing-off and experienced worse quality of life. Onoff-freezers vs off-freezers were older, more severely disabled, less likely to experience wearing-off, treated with lower levodopa equivalent daily dose and with poorer cognitive performance. Self-reported FOG is mainly recognizable in advanced PD and is associated with more disability and worse quality of life. Onoff-FOG may represent the result of under-treatment or rather interpretable as a distinct clinical entity. PMID:25899545

  20. Psychosocial and physiological correlates of self-reported hearing problems in male and female musicians in symphony orchestras.

    PubMed

    Hasson, Dan; Theorell, Töres; Liljeholm-Johansson, Yvonne; Canlon, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    Experimental and epidemiological research indicate an association between long-term stress and hearing problems, yet the mechanisms underlying these disorders are not yet fully established. Thus, in order to better understand the pathogenesis of stress-related hearing problems, the present study explored the symptoms and general physiological and psychosocial status of musicians in symphony orchestras. Orchestral musicians are an ideal group to study since physical, psychosocial, work-environmental and acoustic stressors are highly prevalent. The subjects where obtained from two different studies. The first group included 250 participants from 12 orchestras and is entitled "the epidemiological study". The second group, entitled "the longitudinal study", included 47 musicians who were assessed at five occasions (every half year) during two years. Thirty-one of the 47 participants were selected for sampling of physiological variables, i.e. 24-hour ECG to assess heart rate variability to evaluate the synergistic action of the autonomic system as well as saliva cortisol and testosterone levels. The results indicate that self-reported hearing problems are associated with perceived poorer psychosocial environment, as well as mental health symptoms and stress. High-frequency power of heart rate variability (parasympathetic activity) showed a negative relationship to hearing problems, implying a poorer ability to "unwind" from stress. Cortisol levels were not correlated to hearing problems whereas testosterone levels showed a tendency to be lower in subjects with hearing problems than in others. These findings provide evidence for a relationship between long-term stress and self-reported hearing problems and demonstrate a protective role of parasympathetic and anabolic activity on hearing status. PMID:19666059

  1. Predictors and Consequences of Developmental Changes in Adolescent Girls’ Self-Reported Quality of Attachment to their Primary Caregiver

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Lori N.; Whalen, Diana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Beeney, Joseph E.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.

    2013-01-01

    In an at-risk community sample of 2,101 girls, we examined trajectories, predictors, and consequences of changes in a central aspect of adolescents’ perceived quality of attachment (QOA), i.e., their reported trust in the availability and supportiveness of the primary caregiver. Results demonstrated two distinct epochs of change in this aspect of girls’ perceived QOA, with a significant linear decrease in early adolescence (ages 11 to 14) followed by a plateau from 14 to 16. Baseline parent-reported harsh punishment, low parental involvement, single parent status, and child-reported depression symptoms predicted steeper decreases in attachment during early adolescence, which in turn predicted greater child-reported depression and conduct disorder symptoms in later adolescence. Results suggest that both parent and child factors contribute to trajectories of self-reported QOA in adolescence, and a faster rate of decrease in girls’ perceived QOA to caregivers during early adolescence may increase risk for both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. PMID:24011095

  2. Physiological Sleep Propensity Might Be Unaffected by Significant Variations in Self-Reported Well-Being, Activity, and Mood

    PubMed Central

    Putilov, Arcady A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Depressive state is often associated with such physical symptoms as general weakness, fatigue, tiredness, slowness, reduced activity, low energy, and sleepiness. The involvement of the sleep-wake regulating mechanisms has been proposed as one of the plausible explanations of this association. Both physical depressive symptoms and increased physiological sleep propensity can result from disordered and insufficient sleep. In order to avoid the influence of disordered and insufficient sleep, daytime and nighttime sleepiness were tested in winter depression characterized by normal night sleep duration and architecture. Materials and Methods. A total sample consisted of 6 healthy controls and 9 patients suffered from depression in the previous winter season. Sleep latency was determined across 5 daytime and 4 nighttime 20-min attempts to nap in summer as well as in winter before and after a week of 2-hour evening treatment with bright light. Results and Conclusions. Patients self-reported abnormally lowered well-being, activity, and mood only in winter before the treatment. Physiological sleep propensity was neither abnormal nor linked to significant changes in well-being, activity, and mood following the treatment and change in season. It seems unlikely that the mechanisms regulating the sleep-wake cycle contributed to the development of the physical depressive symptoms. PMID:26294978

  3. Short-Term Effects of a Web-Based Guided Self-Help Intervention for Employees With Depressive Symptoms: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Depressive disorders are highly prevalent in the working population and are associated with excessive costs. The evidence for effective worker-directed interventions for employees with depressive symptoms is limited. Treating employees with depressive symptoms before sick leave via the Internet could be beneficial and cost saving. Objective In this study, we developed and tested the effectiveness of a Web-based guided self-help course for employees with depressive symptoms. We report on the posttreatment effectiveness of the intervention. Methods This study is a two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a Web-based guided self-help course to care as usual (CAU). We recruited employees from 6 different companies via the companies’ intranet and posters. The main inclusion criterion was elevated depressive symptoms as measured by a score of ?16 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D). The intervention (Happy@Work) was based on problem-solving treatment and cognitive therapy and consisted of 6 weekly lessons. Participants were asked to submit their weekly assignment via the website after completion. They subsequently received feedback from a coach via the website. Self-report questionnaires on depressive symptoms (CES-D; primary outcome), anxiety measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), burnout measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and work performance measured by the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ; secondary outcomes) were completed at baseline and at posttreatment. Results A total of 231 employees were randomized to either the intervention group (n=116) or CAU (n=115).The posttreatment assessment was completed by 171 (74.0%) participants. Both the intervention and the CAU group showed significant improvements in the primary outcome of depressive symptoms, but no differences between the conditions was found (d=0.16, 95% CI –0.10 to 0.41, P=.29). Significant but small effects in favor of the intervention group were found for anxiety symptoms (d=0.16, 95% CI –0.09 to 0.42, P=.04) and exhaustion (d=0.17, 95% CI –0.09 to 0.43, P=.02). Conclusions This study showed that a Web-based guided self-help course for employees with depressive symptoms was not more effective in reducing depressive symptoms among employees than CAU. Large improvements in depressive symptoms in the CAU group were unforeseen and potential explanations are discussed. PMID:24800966

  4. Premenstrual symptoms.

    PubMed

    1973-03-24

    Data is reviewed on premenstrual symptoms which have been related to high suicide and accident rates, employment absentee rates, poor academic performance and acute psychiatric problems. A recent study of healthy young women indicated that 39% had troublesome premenstrual symptoms, 54% passed clots in their menses, 70% had cyclical localized acneiform eruptions and only 17% failed to experience menstrual pain. Common menstrual disorders are classified as either dysmenorrhea or the premenstrual syndrome. Symptoms for the latter usually begin 2-12 days prior to menstruation and include nervous tension, irritability, anxiety, depression, bloated breasts and abdomen, swollen fingers and legs, headaches, dizziness, occasional hypersomia, excessive thirst and appetite. Some women may display an increased susceptibility to migraine, vasomotor rhinitis, asthma, urticaria and epilepsy. Symptoms are usually relieved with the onset of menses. While a definitive etiological theory remains to be substantiated, symptomatic relief has been reported with salt and water restriction and simple diuretics used 7 to 10 days premenstrually. Diazapam or chlordiazepoxide treatment is recommended before oral contraceptive therapy. The premenstrual syndrome may persist after menopause, is unaffected by parity, and sufferers score highly on neuroticism tests. Primary or spasmodic dysmenorrhea occurs in young women, tends to decline with age and parity and has no correlation with premenstrual symptoms or neuroticism. Spasmodic or colicky pain begins and is most severe on the first day of menstruation and may continue for 2-3 days. Treatment of dysmenorrhea with psychotropic drugs or narcotics is discouraged due to the risk of dependence and abuse. Temporary relief for disabling pain may be obtained with oral contraceptives containing synthetic estrogen and progestogen but the inherent risks should be acknowledged. Both disorders have been correlated to menstrual irregularity. Amenorrhea in many women may be precipitated by simple psychological events such as leaving home, while severely stressful events produce a higher incidence. Unless a physiological factor such as malnutrition is operating, menses usually recur spontaneously within a few months. Amenorrhea is a constant feature of anorexia nervosa and may precede related attitudes toward eating and body weight. This syndrome is best regarded as a chronic and often severe neurotic disorder requiring combined physiological and psychological treatment, although some evidence exists to indicate an endocrine disorder. Extensive basic research is needed on the complex relationship between the neuroendocrine system and emotion. PMID:4735136

  5. Leadership: validation of a self-report scale.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Marc; Frenette, Eric; Fernet, Claude

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to propose and test the factor structure of a new self-report questionnaire on leadership. A sample of 373 school principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada completed the initial 46-item version of the questionnaire. In order to obtain a questionnaire of minimal length, a four-step procedure was retained. First, items analysis was performed using Classical Test Theory. Second, Rasch analysis was used to identify non-fitting or overlapping items. Third, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modelling was performed on the 21 remaining items to verify the factor structure of the scale. Results show that the model with a single third-order dimension (leadership), two second-order dimensions (transactional and transformational leadership), and one first-order dimension (laissez-faire leadership) provides a good fit to the data. Finally, invariance of factor structure was assessed with a second sample of 222 vice-principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada. This model is in agreement with the theoretical model developed by Bass (1985), upon which the questionnaire is based. PMID:23833872

  6. Sustainability Research Inventory

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    Sustainability Research Inventory #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS ABOUT THE SUSTAINABILITY RESEARCH INVENTORY .......................................... 3 RESEARCH CENTERS, INSTITUTES, AND PROGRAMS ENGAGED IN SUSTAINABILITY RESEARCH, DEPARTMENTS, AND PROGRAMS IN WHICH SUSTAINABILITY RESEARCH TAKES PLACE

  7. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Self-Reported Smell and Taste Alterations: Results from the 2011-2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    PubMed

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J; Bainbridge, Kathleen E; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Duffy, Valerie B

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory problems challenge health through diminished ability to detect warning odors, consume a healthy diet, and maintain quality of life. We examined the prevalence and associated risk factors of self-reported chemosensory alterations in 3603 community-dwelling adults (aged 40+ years), from the nationally representative, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. In this new NHANES component, technicians surveyed adults in the home about perceived smell and taste problems, distortions, and diminished abilities since age 25 (termed "alterations"), and chemosensory-related health risks and behaviors. The prevalence of self-reported smell alteration was 23%, including phantosmia at 6%; taste was 19%, including dysgeusia at 5%. Prevalence rates increased progressively with age, highest in those aged 80+ years (smell, 32%; taste, 27%). In multivariable logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and chemosensory-related conditions, the strongest independent risk factor for smell alteration was sinonasal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63-2.61), followed by heavy drinking, loss of consciousness from head injury, family income ?110% poverty threshold, and xerostomia. For taste, the strongest risk factor was xerostomia (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.97-3.56), followed by nose/facial injury, lower educational attainment, and fair/poor health. Self-reported chemosensory alterations are prevalent in US adults, supporting increased attention to decreasing their modifiable risks, managing safety/health consequences, and expanding chemosensory screening/testing and treatments. PMID:26487703

  9. Dynamics of positive emotion regulation: associations with youth depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Fussner, Lauren M; Luebbe, Aaron M; Bell, Debora J

    2015-04-01

    Depression is frequently considered a disorder of impaired affect regulation with deficits across both positive and negative affective systems. However, where deficits in emotion regulation occur in youth, specifically regarding regulation of positive emotions, is relatively unknown. The current study tested whether deficits in broad (felt and expressed) and specific (up-regulation and maintenance) positive emotion processes are associated with youth depressive symptoms. Adolescents (n?=?134; 65 girls) in grades 7 to 9 completed a self-report measure of depressive symptoms prior to participating in two parent-child interactions tasks, a rewarding trivia task and a problem-solving conflict task. During the interaction tasks, adolescent's overall self-reported experience and observed expression of positive affect (PA) was examined. Following the reward task, youth's ability to up-regulate PA (PA response) and maintain PA while buffering against NA (PA persistence) was explored observationally. Results suggested that reduced experience and expression of PA was associated with depression symptoms, but only in a context that elicited negative emotions. No association was found between PA response and depression symptoms; however, shorter PA persistence was associated with elevated depressive symptoms. Youth higher in depressive symptoms appear able to respond similarly to rewarding events, but fail to maintain PA and ward off NA when transitioning from a positive to negative task. PMID:25070360

  10. Depressive Symptoms, Antidepressant Medication Use, and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Pyykkönen, Antti-Jussi; Räikkönen, Katri; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Eriksson, Johan G.; Groop, Leif; Isomaa, Bo

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although insulin resistance (IR) may underlie associations between depressive symptoms and diabetes, previous findings have been contradictory. We examined whether depressive symptoms associate with IR and insulin secretion, and, additionally, whether antidepressant medication use may modulate such associations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 4,419 individuals underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Participants with previously or newly diagnosed diabetes are excluded from this sample. The homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) and corrected insulin response (CIR) were calculated. Depressive symptoms and antidepressant medication use were self-reported. RESULTS After controlling for confounding factors, depressive symptoms were associated with higher fasting and 30-min insulin during the OGTT and higher HOMA-IR but not CIR. Antidepressant medication use failed to modify these associations. CONCLUSIONS Depressive symptoms are associated with IR but not with changes in insulin response when corrected for IR in individuals without previously or newly diagnosed diabetes. PMID:21953801

  11. Langerhans Lab Major Equipment Inventory Major Equipment Inventory

    E-print Network

    Langerhans, Brian

    Langerhans Lab Major Equipment Inventory Major Equipment Inventory pg. 1 Category Item Information with T3i underwater case #12;Langerhans Lab Major Equipment Inventory Major Equipment Inventory pg. 2 Small black SLR camera bag - good #12;Langerhans Lab Major Equipment Inventory Major Equipment Inventory

  12. Self-report measures of medication adherence behavior: recommendations on optimal use.

    PubMed

    Stirratt, Michael J; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Crane, Heidi M; Simoni, Jane M; Czajkowski, Susan; Hilliard, Marisa E; Aikens, James E; Hunter, Christine M; Velligan, Dawn I; Huntley, Kristen; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Rand, Cynthia S; Schron, Eleanor; Nilsen, Wendy J

    2015-12-01

    Medication adherence plays an important role in optimizing the outcomes of many treatment and preventive regimens in chronic illness. Self-report is the most common method for assessing adherence behavior in research and clinical care, but there are questions about its validity and precision. The NIH Adherence Network assembled a panel of adherence research experts working across various chronic illnesses to review self-report medication adherence measures and research on their validity. Self-report medication adherence measures vary substantially in their question phrasing, recall periods, and response items. Self-reports tend to overestimate adherence behavior compared with other assessment methods and generally have high specificity but low sensitivity. Most evidence indicates that self-report adherence measures show moderate correspondence to other adherence measures and can significantly predict clinical outcomes. The quality of self-report adherence measures may be enhanced through efforts to use validated scales, assess the proper construct, improve estimation, facilitate recall, reduce social desirability bias, and employ technologic delivery. Self-report medication adherence measures can provide actionable information despite their limitations. They are preferred when speed, efficiency, and low-cost measures are required, as is often the case in clinical care. PMID:26622919

  13. Accuracy of self-reported arrests among a forensic SPMI population.

    PubMed

    Crisanti, Annette S; Laygo, Ranilo; Claypoole, Keith H; Junginger, John

    2005-01-01

    Self-reports are prone to response error even in the most structured and standardized environment, but the highly stigmatizing nature of illegal behavior and the possible cognitive problems inherent to the SPMI population increase the likelihood of such error. Using administrative data as the gold standard, the validity of self-reported arrests was examined among 85 mentally ill substance-abusing individuals with justice involvement. The overall accuracy of self-reported arrests during a three-month recall period was 84.7%. Validity was higher among individuals who at the time of the follow-up interview were either in a jail diversion program or incarcerated. Individuals with a mood disorder appeared to be somewhat less accurate in their self-reports than subjects with schizophrenia, despite the implication of cognitive distortion accompanying this latter diagnostic category. Further research on issues such as the accuracy of self-reports over longer recall periods, or the accuracy of self-reported frequency of arrest, is necessary, given the reliance on self-report methodology in outcome studies. PMID:15818605

  14. Self-reported data: reliability and role in determining program effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Zaremba, M M; Willhoite, B; Ra, K

    1985-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the reliability of self-reported hospitalization data, as well as the appropriateness of using self-reported data in evaluating the effectiveness of the Maine Ambulatory Diabetes Education and Follow-Up (ADEF) program. A Maine Blue Cross/Blue Shield (BC/BS) inpatient claims file was used as the reference source to verify self-reported hospitalization data. For a sample of 99 BC/BS subscribers who attended the ADEF program, 77% of the study participants accurately self-reported hospitalization patterns over a 12-mo time period before attending the education program, and 81% of the participants accurately self-reported hospitalization patterns during a posteducation follow-up time period. The reference BC/BS claims data documented a reduction in hospitalizations for the study participants similar to that reported using the ADEF self-reported hospitalization data. The Maine Diabetes Control Project used the self-reported hospitalization data in combination with selected reference claims data to secure third-party reimbursement for the Maine ADEF Program. PMID:4053935

  15. Addressing Current Criticism Regarding the Value of Self-Report Dietary Data.

    PubMed

    Subar, Amy F; Freedman, Laurence S; Tooze, Janet A; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Boushey, Carol; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thompson, Frances E; Potischman, Nancy; Guenther, Patricia M; Tarasuk, Valerie; Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Recent reports have asserted that, because of energy underreporting, dietary self-report data suffer from measurement error so great that findings that rely on them are of no value. This commentary considers the amassed evidence that shows that self-report dietary intake data can successfully be used to inform dietary guidance and public health policy. Topics discussed include what is known and what can be done about the measurement error inherent in data collected by using self-report dietary assessment instruments and the extent and magnitude of underreporting energy compared with other nutrients and food groups. Also discussed is the overall impact of energy underreporting on dietary surveillance and nutritional epidemiology. In conclusion, 7 specific recommendations for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting self-report dietary data are provided: 1) continue to collect self-report dietary intake data because they contain valuable, rich, and critical information about foods and beverages consumed by populations that can be used to inform nutrition policy and assess diet-disease associations; 2) do not use self-reported energy intake as a measure of true energy intake; 3) do use self-reported energy intake for energy adjustment of other self-reported dietary constituents to improve risk estimation in studies of diet-health associations; 4) acknowledge the limitations of self-report dietary data and analyze and interpret them appropriately; 5) design studies and conduct analyses that allow adjustment for measurement error; 6) design new epidemiologic studies to collect dietary data from both short-term (recalls or food records) and long-term (food-frequency questionnaires) instruments on the entire study population to allow for maximizing the strengths of each instrument; and 7) continue to develop, evaluate, and further expand methods of dietary assessment, including dietary biomarkers and methods using new technologies. PMID:26468491

  16. Validation of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes in the 1946 British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pastorino, Silvia; Richards, Marcus; Hardy, Rebecca; Abington, Jane; Wills, Andrew; Kuh, Diana; Pierce, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate self-reported diabetes and age at diagnosis among a sample of the British population, using general practitioners (GPs) as the reference standard. Using data from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD), self-reported diabetes was determined either in response to a direct question at five follow-ups between 1977 and 2010, or from other self-reported medical information. A validation questionnaire was sent to the GP for all participants who reported a diagnosis of diabetes and gave permission to contact their GP (172). The validity of self-reported diabetes was assessed by calculating the percentage of self-reported diabetes cases that were confirmed by their GP, i.e. the positive predictive value (PPV). The difference between self-reported and GP-confirmed age at diagnosis was analysed with a Bland–Altman plot. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 157 GPs (91.2%). Of these, 149 confirmed their patient self-reported diabetes diagnosis (PPV = 94.9%). Results were similar when self-reported diabetes was assessed by responses to direct questions only (PPV = 95.4%). The average difference between self-reported and GP-reported age at diagnosis was 0.6 years (95% CI 0.2–1.1). We conclude that among the British population questionnaires are a valid method to assess GP-diagnosed diabetes, as measured by responses to a direct question or by patient-reported medical information. PMID:25037637

  17. Validation of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes in the 1946 British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Pastorino, Silvia; Richards, Marcus; Hardy, Rebecca; Abington, Jane; Wills, Andrew; Kuh, Diana; Pierce, Mary

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to validate self-reported diabetes and age at diagnosis among a sample of the British population, using general practitioners (GPs) as the reference standard. Using data from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD), self-reported diabetes was determined either in response to a direct question at five follow-ups between 1977 and 2010, or from other self-reported medical information. A validation questionnaire was sent to the GP for all participants who reported a diagnosis of diabetes and gave permission to contact their GP (172). The validity of self-reported diabetes was assessed by calculating the percentage of self-reported diabetes cases that were confirmed by their GP, i.e. the positive predictive value (PPV). The difference between self-reported and GP-confirmed age at diagnosis was analysed with a Bland-Altman plot. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 157 GPs (91.2%). Of these, 149 confirmed their patient self-reported diabetes diagnosis (PPV=94.9%). Results were similar when self-reported diabetes was assessed by responses to direct questions only (PPV=95.4%). The average difference between self-reported and GP-reported age at diagnosis was 0.6 years (95% CI 0.2-1.1). We conclude that among the British population questionnaires are a valid method to assess GP-diagnosed diabetes, as measured by responses to a direct question or by patient-reported medical information. PMID:25037637

  18. Transgender Transitioning and Change of Self-Reported Sexual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Höhne, Nina; Stalla, Günter K.; Sievers, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. Methods We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female “MtF” and 45 female-to-male “FtM”) patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. Results In total, 32.9% (n?=? 23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n?=? 10) FtM transsexual persons (p?=? 0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males (?=?androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p ?=? 0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p ?=? 0.05). Conclusion In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon. PMID:25299675

  19. Assessing Dependency using Self-report and Indirect Measures: Examining the Significance of Discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B.; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David

    2011-01-01

    The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. The study was moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to two self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology, and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression. PMID:20552505

  20. Validity of self-reported vaccination status among French healthcare students.

    PubMed

    Loulergue, P; Pulcini, C; Massin, S; Bernhard, M; Fonteneau, L; Levy-Brühl, D; Guthmann, J-P; Launay, O

    2014-12-01

    Data on validity of self-reported vaccinations are scarce. This study, performed on healthcare students in Paris (France), aimed to evaluate this validity for occupational vaccinations. The validity of self-reported vaccination status was compared with written information. A total of 432 students were enrolled. Sensitivity rates for BCG, hepatitis B and measles were over 74%. For diphtheria-tetanus-polio and pertussis, sensitivity was below 50%. Specificity was between 70 and 95% for dTP-pertussis, and below 35% for all others. Overall, the validity of self-reported information was low, meaning that checking medical records remains the preferable strategy for assessing immunization status. PMID:25040583

  1. Depressive Symptoms in Chiropractic Students

    PubMed Central

    Kinsinger, Stuart; Puhl, Aaron Anthony; Reinhart, Christine J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The intensive training associated with health care education has been suggested to have unintended negative consequences on students’ mental or emotional health that may interfere with the development of qualities deemed essential for proficient health care professionals. This longitudinal study examined the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms among students at a chiropractic educational institution. Methods: Chiropractic students at all levels of training were surveyed at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College during the academic years of 2000/2001, 2001/2002, and 2002/2003. The measurement tool employed was the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II). Previously established BDI-II cutoff scores were used to assess the severity of reported depression symptoms, and these were compared by sex and year of training. Results: The survey was completed by 1303 students (70%) over the 3 years of the study. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was nearly 25%, with 13.7% of respondents indicating a rating of mild depression, 7.1% indicating moderate depressive symptoms, and 2.8% indicating severe symptoms. Significant differences were found between years of training, with 2nd-year students having the highest prevalence of depressive symptoms, and sex, with females having a higher rate of symptoms. Conclusions: Chiropractic students surveyed at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College had high rates of depression similar to those measured in other health care profession students. Chiropractic educational institutions should be aware of this situation and are encouraged to emphasize students’ awareness of their own personal health and well-being and their access to appropriate care, in addition to the same concerns for their future patients. PMID:22069339

  2. Electronic Self-Report Assessment for Cancer and Self-Care Support: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Donna L.; Hong, Fangxin; Halpenny, Barbara; Partridge, Ann H.; Fann, Jesse R.; Wolpin, Seth; Lober, William B.; Bush, Nigel E.; Parvathaneni, Upendra; Back, Anthony L.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Ford, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of a Web-based, self-report assessment and educational intervention on symptom distress during cancer therapy. Patients and Methods A total of 752 ambulatory adult participants were randomly assigned to symptom/quality-of-life (SxQOL) screening at four time points (control) versus screening, targeted education, communication coaching, and the opportunity to track/graph SxQOL over time (intervention). A summary of the participant-reported data was delivered to clinicians at each time point in both groups. All participants used the assessment before a new therapeutic regimen, at 3 to 6 weeks and 6 to 8 weeks later, completing the final assessment at the end of therapy. Change in Symptom Distress Scale–15 (SDS-15) score from pretreatment to end of study was compared using analysis of covariance and regression analysis adjusting for selected variables. Results We detected a significant difference between study groups in mean SDS-15 score change from baseline to end of study: 1.27 (standard deviation [SD], 6.7) in the control group (higher distress) versus ?0.04 (SD, 5.8) in the intervention group (lower distress). SDS-15 score was reduced by an estimated 1.21 (95% CI, 0.23 to 2.20; P = .02) in the intervention group. Baseline SDS-15 score (P < .001) and clinical service (P = .01) were predictive. Multivariable analyses suggested an interaction between age and study group (P = .06); in subset analysis, the benefit of intervention was strongest in those age > 50 years (P = .002). Conclusion Web-based self-care support and communication coaching added to SxQOL screening reduced symptom distress in a multicenter sample of participants with various diagnoses during and after active cancer treatment. Participants age > 50 years, in particular, may have benefited from the intervention. PMID:24344222

  3. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ET. CALL NOW Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms Multiple Myeloma Symptoms Multiple myeloma symptoms may vary by patient, ... to be managed or prevented. The most common multiple myeloma symptoms may include: • Bone pain or bone fractures • ...

  4. Traumatic Stress Symptoms of Women Exposed to Different Forms of Childhood Victimization and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Interviews of women with (n = 193) and without (n = 170) recent exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) were used to examine how IPV and past exposure to child abuse influence self-reports of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The measurement of IPV included assessing psychological, physical, escalated physical, and sexual abuse.…

  5. Maternal and Paternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Maladjustment: The Mediating Role of Parental Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgar, Frank J.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Brownridge, Douglas A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined parental behaviors as mediators in links between depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers and child adjustment problems. Participants were 4,184 parents and 6,048 10- to 15-year-olds enrolled in the 1998 and 2000 cycles of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Mothers and fathers self-reported

  6. Parent-Child Agreement of Anxiety Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Reaven, Judy; Ridge, Katherine; Hepburn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Best practice for assessment of anxiety symptoms in children suggests that child self-report is an important element to consider. Yet, it is not known if it is a reliable assessment method for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The present study examines the extent to which verbally fluent children with ASD and their…

  7. Interaction Effects between Maternal Lifetime Depressive/Anxiety Disorders and Correlates of Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piche, Genevieve; Bergeron, Lise; Cyr, Mireille; Berthiaume, Claude

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the interaction effects between mother's lifetime depressive/anxiety disorders and psychosocial correlates of 6 to 11 year-old children's self-reported externalizing symptoms in the Quebec Child Mental Health Survey. A representative subsample of 1,490 Quebec children aged 6 to 11 years was selected from the original sample. We…

  8. Treatment Sensitivity of a Brief Rating Scale for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; Vaesen, Hilde; Roodenrijs, Dorien; Kelgtermans, Lut

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the treatment sensitivity of the ADHD Questionnaire (ADHD-Q), which is a brief rating scale for measuring symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in children. Parent, teacher, and child self-report data of the ADHD-Q were obtained for 17 clinically referred children with ADHD on the three occasions: (1) during…

  9. Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence: Concurrent and Stable Roles and Psychological Health Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menesini, Ersilia; Modena, Marco; Tani, Franca

    2009-01-01

    From an initial sample of 1,278 Italian students, the authors selected 537 on the basis of their responses to a self-report bully and victim questionnaire. Participants' ages ranged from 13 to 20 years (M = 15.12 years, SD = 1.08 years). The authors compared the concurrent psychological symptoms of 4 participant groups (bullies, victims,…

  10. Parenting Style, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use in Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Emily J.; Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Pasch, Lauri A.

    2013-01-01

    This study of 151 Mexican American adolescents ages 12 to 15 examined the relationship between parenting and adolescents' self-reported level of depressive symptoms and substance use 6 months and 1 year later. Adolescents and their parents were recruited from a large health-maintenance organization and interviewed at three time points. Lower…

  11. Comparing Three Measures of Depressive SymptomsS Among American Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrane, Lisa E.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Danny R.; Shelley, Mack C.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the measurement of depressive symptoms among American Indian adolescents as assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Youth Self Report (YSR), and the Tri-Ethnic Center's for Prevention Research Depression Scale (TEDS). This analysis demonstrated that the TEDS had good internal consistency,…

  12. Mental Health Symptoms among Student Service Members/Veterans and Civilian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Sandi D.; Branscum, Adam J.; Bovbjerg, Viktor E.; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if and to what extent student service members/veterans differ from civilian college students in the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of poor mental health. Participants: The Fall 2011 implementation of the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment included 27,774…

  13. ASTHMA AND MENTAL HEALTH SYMPTOMS AMONG ADULT ARAB AMERICANS IN THE DETROIT AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burden of managing chronic health problems such as asthma is often compounded by psychological distress and debilitating mental health problems associated with these conditions. In this study we assessed the relationship between asthma and self-reported mental health symptom...

  14. Auditory symptoms as an unrecognized manifestation of opioid toxicity: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Cran, Alison; Kiely, Fiona; O'Brien, Tony

    2014-12-01

    Neuropsychiatric and gastrointestinal side effects of opioids are well documented, but self-reported hearing disturbance from opioids is often unrecognized. Two cases are presented illustrating a possible association between auditory symptoms and opioid toxicity. Possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:25299483

  15. MsFLASH participants' priorities for alleviating menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, J S; Woods, N F; Otte, J L; Guthrie, K A; Hohensee, C; Newton, K M; Joffe, H; Cohen, L; Sternfeld, B; Lau, R J; Reed, S D; LaCroix, A Z

    2015-12-01

    Objective To describe self-reported menopausal symptom priorities and their association with demographics and other symptoms among participants in an intervention trial for vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Methods Cross-sectional study embedded in the MsFLASH 02 trial, a three-by-two factorial design of yoga vs. exercise vs. usual activity and omega-3-fatty acid vs. placebo. At baseline, women (n?=?354) completed hot flush diaries, a card sort task to prioritize symptoms they would most like to alleviate, and standardized questionnaires. Results The most common symptom priorities were: VMS (n?=?322), sleep (n?=?191), concentration (n?=?140), and fatigue (n?=?116). In multivariate models, women who chose VMS as their top priority symptom (n?=?210) reported significantly greater VMS severity (p?=?0.004) and never smoking (p?=?0.012), and women who chose sleep as their top priority symptom (n?=?100) were more educated (p???0.001) and had worse sleep quality (p?symptom. Conclusions Among women entering an intervention trial for VMS and with relatively low prevalence of depression and anxiety, VMS was the priority symptom for treatment. A card sort may be a valid tool for quickly assessing symptom priorities in clinical practice and research. PMID:26517583

  16. Phenotypic, genetic, and environmental relationships between self-reported talents and measured intelligence.

    PubMed

    Schermer, Julie Aitken; Johnson, Andrew M; Jang, Kerry L; Vernon, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between self-report abilities and measured intelligence was examined at both the phenotypic (zero-order) level as well as at the genetic and environmental levels. Twins and siblings (N = 516) completed a timed intelligence test and a self-report ability questionnaire, which has previously been found to produce 10 factors, including: politics, interpersonal relationships, practical tasks, intellectual pursuits, academic skills, entrepreneur/business, domestic skills, vocal abilities, and creativity. At the phenotypic level, the correlations between the ability factor scores and intelligence ranged from 0.01 to 0.42 (between self-report academic abilities and verbal intelligence). Further analyses found that some of the phenotypic relationships between self-report ability scores and measured intelligence also had significant correlations at the genetic and environmental levels, suggesting that some of the observed relationships may be due to common genetic and/or environmental factors. PMID:25662420

  17. Does social desirability compromise self-reports of physical activity in web-based research?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study investigated the relation between social desirability and self-reported physical activity in web-based research. Findings A longitudinal study (N = 5,495, 54% women) was conducted on a representative sample of the Dutch population using the Marlowe-Crowne Scale as social desirability measure and the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Social desirability was not associated with self-reported physical activity (in MET-minutes/week), nor with its sub-behaviors (i.e., walking, moderate-intensity activity, vigorous-intensity activity, and sedentary behavior). Socio-demographics (i.e., age, sex, income, and education) did not moderate the effect of social desirability on self-reported physical activity and its sub-behaviors. Conclusions This study does not throw doubt on the usefulness of the Internet as a medium to collect self-reports on physical activity. PMID:21492435

  18. OBSERVED, GIS, AND SELF-REPORTED ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES AND ADOLESCENT PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Examine associations among observed, self-reported, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) environmental features and physical activity among adolescent males. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Boy Scout troops and neighborhoods in Houston, Texas. Subjects: Two hundred and ten ...

  19. Immigration transition and depressive symptoms: four major ethnic groups of midlife women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice; Mao, Jun James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between immigration transition and depressive symptoms among 1,054 midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the data from two national Internet survey studies. Questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Depression Index for Midlife Women were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including multiple regressions. Immigrants reported lower numbers of symptoms and less severe symptoms than nonimmigrants (p <.01). When controlling for background characteristics, self-reported racial/ethnic identity and immigration status were significant predictors of depressive symptoms (R(2) =.01, p <.05). PMID:24875592

  20. Are Students’ Symptoms and Health Complaints Associated with Perceived Stress at University? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Haghgoo, Ghollamreza

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively). A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, living arrangements during semester, income sufficiency), lifestyle (tobacco smoking, illicit drug/s use, alcohol consumption frequency), and health variables (subjective health status, health awareness, BMI), along with religiosity, and quality of life. Factor analysis categorized the 21 self-reported symptoms into four components. Correlation analysis and linear regression tested the associations between the self-reported symptoms and stress. Factor analysis of the health symptoms generated four symptom groups for each of the UK and Egypt (psychological; circulatory/breathing; gastrointestinal; and, pains/aches), and factor loadings were quite similar for both countries. Whilst the two samples showed similarities as to the kind of symptoms most frequently reported by students, the Egyptian sample had significantly higher frequency than the UK for every symptom. Frequent complaints (both countries) included difficulties to concentrate, fatigue, headaches, nervousness/anxiety, and back pain (UK) and mood swings (Egypt). Significantly more Egyptian students reported ?4 symptoms over the past year than the UK. For each of the UK and Egypt, across each of the four symptom groups, there was a stepladder appearance whereby the frequency of symptoms increased with increasing quartiles of perceived stress. Not controlling for other variables, for both countries, there were significant positive correlations between each of the four symptom groups and stress; the highest correlation was for psychological symptoms. After controlling for sex, age country, and other symptom groups, stress was highly and significantly associated with psychological symptoms and also with pain & aches symptoms in both countries. UK students were generally less stressed than their counterparts in Egypt. Age and female gender were also associated with stress; the younger the student was the more likely to suffer from stress. Interactions were not significant. Across both countries, the levels of stress among students and the associations between perceived stress and health complaints suggest the need for a multiple approaches in order to understand the sources of stress; how college students experience stress; and, the coping mechanisms that different students employ to mitigate stress. Interventions aimed at both preventing, treating and caring for students’ distress, and also preventive strategies to help minimize the impact of stressful situations are required. Strategies that address both physical and psychological complaints may be beneficial for this population. PMID:25264677

  1. The Risk-Taking and Self-Harm Inventory for Adolescents: Development and Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrouva, Ioanna; Fonagy, Peter; Fearon, Pasco R. M.; Roussow, Trudie

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we report on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Risk-Taking (RT) and Self-Harm (SH) Inventory for Adolescents (RTSHIA), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescent RT and SH in community and clinical settings. 651 young people from secondary schools in England ranging in age from 11.6 years to 18.7 years and…

  2. The accuracy of self-reported drug ingestion histories in emergency department patients.

    PubMed

    Monte, Andrew A; Heard, Kennon J; Hoppe, Jason A; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Inaccuracies in self-reports may lead to duplication of therapy, failure to appreciate non-compliance leading to exacerbation of chronic medical conditions, or inaccurate research conclusions. Our objective is to determine the accuracy of self-reported drug ingestion histories in patients presenting to an urban academic emergency department (ED). We conducted a prospective cohort study in ED patients presenting for pain or nausea. We obtained a structured drug ingestion history including all prescription drugs, over-the-counter medication (OTC) drugs, and illicit drugs for the 48?hours prior to ED presentation. We obtained urine comprehensive drug screens (CDS) and determined self-report/CDS concordance. Fifty-five patients were enrolled. Self-reported drug ingestion histories were poor in these patients; only 17 (30.9%) of histories were concordant with the CDS. For the individual drug classes, prescription drug-CDS was concordant in 32 (58.2%), OTC-CDS was concordant in 33 (60%), and illicit drug-CDS was concordant in 45 (81.8%) of subjects. No demographic factors predicted an accurate self-reported drug history. Sixteen patients had drugs detected by CDS that were unreported by history. Nine of these 16 included an unreported opioid. In conclusion, self-reported drug ingestion histories are often inaccurate and resources are needed to confirm compliance and ensure unreported drugs are not overlooked. PMID:25052325

  3. Self-reported affective traits and current affective experiences of biological relatives of people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Anna R; Sponheim, Scott R; Kerns, John G

    2015-02-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by self-reported trait anhedonia but intact hedonic responses during laboratory experiments. Affective traits of first-degree biological relatives may be similar to those of people with schizophrenia, and measures of hedonic response in relatives may be free of antipsychotic medication or cognitive confounds. Relatives also self-report increased anhedonia, yet it is unclear whether, like in patients, this anhedonia is paired with largely intact hedonic self-report. In this study, first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia (n=33) and nonpsychiatric controls (n=25) completed a wide range of questionnaires and tasks assessing social and physical anhedonia, positive and negative affective experience, and anticipatory and consummatory pleasure. Valence, intensity, frequency, and the arousal of current emotion were assessed. Extraversion and current positive and negative affective state were also examined in relation to self-reported social anhedonia. Relatives evidenced the same disjunction of increased self-reported anhedonia and intact affective response observed in people with schizophrenia. Group differences in anhedonia were not better accounted for by decreased current positive affect, increased current negative affect, or decreased extraversion in relatives. Results suggest that, like people with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives report intact hedonic response on both questionnaire and laboratory measures despite significant elevations in self-reported social anhedonia. PMID:25465411

  4. Self-reported physical activity is associated with cognitive function in lean, but not obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Galioto Wiedemann, R; Calvo, D; Meister, J; Spitznagel, M B

    2014-12-01

    Convergent evidence demonstrates that greater physical activity is associated with better cognitive functioning across many patient and healthy samples. However, this relationship has not been well examined among obese individuals and remains unclear. The present study examined the relationship between performance-based measures of attention/executive function and self-reported physical activity, as measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, among lean (n?=?36) and obese (n?=?36) college students. Lean individuals performed better than obese individuals on measures of attention/executive function. No significant differences in self-reported physical activity emerged between weight groups. Higher self-reported physical activity was related to faster reaction time in lean individuals but slower reaction time in obese individuals. Additionally, in lean individuals, higher levels of self-reported physical activity were related to more errors on a task of speeded inhibitory control. The results are consistent with previous research demonstrating that greater physical activity is associated with faster attention and executive function abilities in healthy samples and highlight the importance of examining reaction time and accuracy indices separately on these measures. The lack of association among obese individuals may be due in part to inaccurate self-report in the current study. Additionally, the cognitive consequences of obesity may outweigh the benefits of physical activity in this group. Future work should investigate these associations in obese individuals using physical activity interventions, as well as a combination of self-report and objective measures to investigate discrepancies in reporting. PMID:25826160

  5. Factors associated with self-reported ill health among older Ugandans: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Golaz, Valerie; Kwagala, Betty; Ntozi, James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is limited research on the prevalence and factors associated with self-reported ill health among older people in Uganda. Objective Therefore, the aim of this paper was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported ill health and to identify associated risk factors among older people (age 50+) in Uganda. Materials and methods We conducted secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey data from a weighted sample of 2382 older persons from the 2010 Uganda National Household survey. We used frequency distributions for descriptive statistics, chi-square tests (significance set at 95%) to identify initial associations and multivariable logistic regressions reporting odds ratios to examine observed associations with self-reported ill health. Results Over half (62%) of the older people reported ill health in the 30 days preceding the survey. Self-reported ill health was positively associated with being a woman, being among the oldest old, living in the eastern region, being a household head, being Catholic, self-reported non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and being disabled. Conclusion Gender differentials exist in self-reported ill health among older persons in Uganda. PMID:26043957

  6. High Training Volumes are Associated with a Low Number of Self-Reported Sick Days in Elite Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, Sandra; Nordebo, Kristina; Malm, Christer

    2014-12-01

    It has been proposed that high exercise loads increase the risk of infection, most frequently reported as upper respiratory tract infections, by suppressing the immune system. Most athletes will not train when experiencing sickness due to the fear of health complications. However, high training volumes are incompatible with high rates of non-training days, regardless of the cause. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the relationship between self-reported, exercise-constraining days of sickness (days when the athlete decided not to train due to symptoms of disease, either self-reported or by a physician) and the volumes of exercise training in elite endurance athletes by analyzing data from training logs kept for several years. The subjects included 11 elite endurance athletes (8 male, 3 female) competing at national and international levels in cross-country skiing, biathlon and long-distance running. Training logs available from these 11 subjects added to a total of 61 training years. The number of training hours per year (462, 79-856; median, range) was significantly and negatively correlated to the reported number of days not training due to sickness (15, 0-164) by a 3(rd) degree polynomial regression (R(2) = 0.48, F ratio = 18, p < 0.0001). We conclude that elite endurance athletes can achieve high training volumes only if they also experience few sick-days. Key pointsTop level performance demands high training volumes and intensities, which may compromise immune function.Elite athletes must have an immune system capable of intact function also when under sever physiological and psychological stress.Elite performance, especially in endurance sports, is therefore incompatible with a high rate of infections.A negative correlation between infections and exercise training load among elite athletes is consequently observed - the less sick you are the more you can train. PMID:25435787

  7. The Association between Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Gastrointestinal Symptoms among Children with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Schreiber, Dana R.; Olino, Thomas M.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the association between gastrointestinal symptoms and a broad set of emotional and behavioral concerns in 95 children with high-functioning autism and IQ scores = 80. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed via the Autism Treatment Network's Gastrointestinal Symptom Inventory, and data were gathered on autism symptom

  8. The Relationships between Negative Life Events, Perceived Support in the School Environment and Depressive Symptoms among Norwegian Senior High School Students: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murberg, Terje A.; Bru, Edvin

    2009-01-01

    The present study prospectively explored the main and interactive effect of negative life events and social support from teachers and classroom peers on depressive symptoms in a sample of 198 (111 females, 87 males) students in a Norwegian senior high school. In the longitudinal multivariate analyses, self-reported depressive symptom levels at…

  9. Validation of a self-reported shelf inventory to measure food purchase behavior. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  10. Exploratory Cross Cultural Descriptions of Self-Report Inventory Data Derived from Teacher Characteristics Schedule (Revised Form G-70).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryans, David G.

    This paper reports the application of factor analysis of a large data matrix involving some 800 variables in determining the principal dimension of teacher characteristics and employs the resulting scales in testing hypotheses about similarities and differences in teacher characteristics across subcultures identified by national/racial lineage,…

  11. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Maulik P.; Wells, Rebecca Erwin; Zafonte, Ross D.; Davis, Roger B.; Phillips, Russell S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by U.S. adults reporting neuropsychiatric symptoms and whether this prevalence changes based on the number of symptoms reported. Additional objectives include identifying patterns of CAM use, reasons for use, and disclosure of use with conventional providers in U.S. adults with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Design Secondary database analysis of a prospective survey. Participants A total of 23,393 U.S. adults from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Methods We compared CAM use between adults with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms. Symptoms included self-reported anxiety, depression, insomnia, headaches, memory deficits, attention deficits, and excessive sleepiness. CAM use was defined as use of mind—body therapies (eg, meditation), biological therapies (eg, herbs), or manipulation therapies (eg, massage) or alternative medical systems (eg, Ayurveda). Statistical analysis included bivariable comparisons and multivariable logistical regression analyses. Main Outcome Measures The prevalence of CAM use among adults with neuropsychiatric symptoms within the previous 12 months and the comparison of CAM use between those with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms. Results Adults with neuropsychiatric symptoms had a greater prevalence of CAM use compared with adults who did not have neuropsychiatric symptoms (43.8% versus 29.7%, P < .001); this prevalence increased with an increasing number of symptoms (trend, P < .001). Differences in the likelihood of CAM use as determined by the number of symptoms persisted after we adjusted for covariates. Twenty percent of patients used CAM because standard treatments were either too expensive or ineffective, and 25% used CAM because it was recommended by a conventional provider. Adults with at least one neuropsychiatric symptom were more likely to disclose the use of CAM to a conventional provider (47.9% versus 39.0%, P < .001). Conclusion More than 40% of adults with neuropsychiatric symptoms commonly observed in many diagnoses use CAM; an increasing number of symptoms was associated with an increased likelihood of CAM use. PMID:23098832

  12. Interactive inventory monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan M. (Inventor); Udoh, Usen E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring present location and/or present status of a target inventory item, where the inventory items are located on one or more inventory shelves or other inventory receptacles that communicate with an inventory base station through use of responders such as RFIDs. A user operates a hand held interrogation and display (IAD) module that communicates with, or is part of, the base station, to provide an initial inquiry. Information on location(s) of the target inventory item is also indicated visibly and/or audibly on the receptacle(s) for the user. Status information includes an assessment of operation readiness and a time, if known, that the specified inventory item or class was last removed or examined or modified. Presentation of a user access level may be required for access to the target inventory item. Another embodiment provides inventory information for a stack as a sight-impaired or hearing-impaired person passes adjacent to that stack.

  13. Daily Collection of Self-Reporting Sleep Disturbance Data via a Smartphone App in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Min, Yul Ha; Shin, Yong-Wook; Jo, Min-Woo; Sohn, Guiyun; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lee, Guna; Jung, Kyung Hae; Sung, Joohon; Ko, Beom Seok; Yu, Jong-Han; Kim, Hee Jeong; Son, Byung Ho; Ahn, Sei Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Improvements in mobile telecommunication technologies have enabled clinicians to collect patient-reported outcome (PRO) data more frequently, but there is as yet limited evidence regarding the frequency with which PRO data can be collected via smartphone applications (apps) in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Objective The primary objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of an app for sleep disturbance-related data collection from breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. A secondary objective was to identify the variables associated with better compliance in order to identify the optimal subgroups to include in future studies of smartphone-based interventions. Methods Between March 2013 and July 2013, patients who planned to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer at Asan Medical Center who had access to a smartphone app were enrolled just before the start of their chemotherapy and asked to self-report their sleep patterns, anxiety severity, and mood status via a smartphone app on a daily basis during the 90-day study period. Push notifications were sent to participants daily at 9 am and 7 pm. Data regarding the patients’ demographics, interval from enrollment to first self-report, baseline Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) score, and health-related quality of life score (as assessed using the EuroQol Five Dimensional [EQ5D-3L] questionnaire) were collected to ascertain the factors associated with compliance with the self-reporting process. Results A total of 30 participants (mean age 45 years, SD 6; range 35-65 years) were analyzed in this study. In total, 2700 daily push notifications were sent to these 30 participants over the 90-day study period via their smartphones, resulting in the collection of 1215 self-reporting sleep-disturbance data items (overall compliance rate=45.0%, 1215/2700). The median value of individual patient-level reporting rates was 41.1% (range 6.7-95.6%). The longitudinal day-level compliance curve fell to 50.0% at day 34 and reached a nadir of 13.3% at day 90. The cumulative longitudinal compliance curve exhibited a steady decrease by about 50% at day 70 and continued to fall to 45% on day 90. Women without any form of employment exhibited the higher compliance rate. There was no association between any of the other patient characteristics (ie, demographics, and BDI and EQ5D-3L scores) and compliance. The mean individual patient-level reporting rate was higher for the subgroup with a 1-day lag time, defined as starting to self-report on the day immediately after enrollment, than for those with a lag of 2 or more days (51.6%, SD 24.0 and 29.6%, SD 25.3, respectively; P=.03). Conclusions The 90-day longitudinal collection of daily self-reporting sleep-disturbance data via a smartphone app was found to be feasible. Further research should focus on how to sustain compliance with this self-reporting for a longer time and select subpopulations with higher rates of compliance for mobile health care. PMID:24860070

  14. Moral Competence and Character Strengths among Adolescents: The Development and Validation of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Nansook; Peterson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Moral competence among adolescents can be approached in terms of good character. Character is a multidimensional construct comprised of a family of positive traits manifest in an individual's thoughts, emotions and behaviours. The Values in Action Inventory for Youth (VIA-Youth) is a self-report questionnaire suitable for adolescents that measures…

  15. The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory: Psychometric Properties and Its Relation to Substance Use and Interpersonal Style in a Dutch Sample of Non-Referred Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillege, Sanne; Das, Jacqueline; de Ruiter, Corine

    2010-01-01

    This study presents evidence on the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI), a self-report instrument for psychopathic traits in adolescent boys and girls. In a sample of 776 Dutch non-referred adolescents, the YPI was found to have good internal consistency. Furthermore, exploratory…

  16. Metric Properties of the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology (NIfETy): An Environmental Assessment Tool for Measuring Indicators of Violence, Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Exposures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furr-Holden, C. D. M.; Campbell, K. D. M.; Milam, A. J.; Smart, M. J.; Ialongo, N. A.; Leaf, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Establish metric properties of the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology (NIfETy). Method: A total of 919 residential block faces were assessed by paired raters using the NIfETy. Reliability was evaluated via interrater and internal consistency reliability; validity by comparing NIfETy data with youth self-reported

  17. The Professional Context as a Predictor for Response Distortion in the Adaption-Innovation Inventory--An Investigation Using Mixture Distribution Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Sebastian; Freund, Philipp Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Adaption-Innovation Inventory (AII), originally developed by Kirton (1976), is a widely used self-report instrument for measuring problem-solving styles at work. The present study investigates how scores on the AII are affected by different response styles. Data are collected from a combined sample (N = 738) of students, employees, and…

  18. The Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA): Examination of the Psychometric Properties of a New Multidimensional Measure of Test Anxiety among Elementary and Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Lee, Steven W.; Witteborg, Kristin M.; Prichard, Keri W.; Luhr, Megan E.; Cullinan, Christopher M.; Mildren, Bethany A.; Raad, Jennifer M.; Cornelius, Rebecca A.; Janik, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA) is a new multidimensional measure used to assess test anxiety in elementary and secondary school students. The TAICA is a 45-item self-report measure consisting of a Total Test Anxiety scale, four debilitating test anxiety subscales (Cognitive Obstruction/Inattention, Physiological…

  19. Self-reported gambling problems and digital traces.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Sargeant, James; Ogeil, Rowan P; Chow, Yang-Wai; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2014-12-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), lists concealment as one of the symptoms of a gambling disorder. However, some transactions are more likely to leave permanent records of gambling transactions (credit, consumer loyalty schemes) than others (cash, Internet cash, Internet cafes, prepaid phones). An online survey of 815 participants recruited through newspaper and online sites elicited consumer preferences for a variety of transactions and communication media. Hierarchical multiple regression accounted for age, gender, housing status, and involvement in gambling before considering relationships between consumer preferences and scores on the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Even after statistically allowing for the contributions of other variables, a greater risk of developing a gambling problem was associated with a preference for cash transactions, prepaid mobile phones, and Internet cafes. Problem gamblers may seek to reduce their digital trace. PMID:25415375

  20. Association of self-reported snoring with carotid artery intima-media thickness and plaque.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Liu, Jing; Wang, Wei; Yong, Qiang; Zhou, Guanghua; Wang, Miao; Sun, Jiayi; Zhao, Dong

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that self-reported snoring is associated with atherosclerotic vascular diseases. However, the role of self-reported snoring as an independent risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis has not been well established. This study aimed to evaluate whether and to what extent self-reported snoring is associated with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Carotid intima-media thickness and plaque were investigated with ultrasonography in 1245 urban Chinese aged 50-79?years between September 2007 and November 2007. Information on self-reported snoring and measurements of traditional cardiovascular risk factors was also collected. A total of 1050 participants were involved in the final analysis. The prevalence of self-reported snoring habitually (snoring frequency ?5?days per week) was 31.5, and 64.3% of the participants in this population had a history of snoring. The mean values of the maximum intima-media thickness of bifurcation and common carotid arteries in snorers were significantly higher than in non-snorers (1.08?±?0.14?mm versus 1.04?±?0.14?mm, P?self-reported snoring habitually for increased intima-media thickness and carotid bifurcation plaque was 1.71 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22-2.39; P?=?0.002] and 3.63 (95% CI: 2.57-5.12; P?self-reported snoring is associated significantly with carotid bifurcation intima-media thickness and the presence of plaque, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:21752134

  1. Validity of self-reported sleep bruxism among myofascial temporomandibular disorder patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Raphael, K G; Janal, M N; Sirois, D A; Dubrovsky, B; Klausner, J J; Krieger, A C; Lavigne, G J

    2015-10-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB), primarily involving rhythmic grinding of the teeth during sleep, has been advanced as a causal or maintenance factor for a variety of oro-facial problems, including temporomandibular disorders (TMD). As laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) assessment is extremely expensive and time-consuming, most research testing this belief has relied on patient self-report of SB. The current case-control study examined the accuracy of those self-reports relative to laboratory-based PSG assessment of SB in a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n = 124) and a demographically matched control group without TMD (n = 46). A clinical research coordinator administered a structured questionnaire to assess self-reported SB. Participants then spent two consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Audiovisual and electromyographic data from the second night were scored to assess whether participants met criteria for the presence of 2 or more (2+) rhythmic masticatory muscle activity episodes accompanied by grinding sounds, moderate SB, or severe SB, using previously validated research scoring standards. Contingency tables were constructed to assess positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity and specificity, and 95% confidence intervals surrounding the point estimates. Results showed that self-report significantly predicted 2+ grinding sounds during sleep for TMD cases. However, self-reported SB failed to significantly predict the presence or absence of either moderate or severe SB as assessed by PSG, for both cases and controls. These data show that self-report of tooth grinding awareness is highly unlikely to be a valid indicator of true SB. Studies relying on self-report to assess SB must be viewed with extreme caution. PMID:26010126

  2. Validity of Diabetes Self-Reports in the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jody M.; DeFor, Terese A.; Crain, A. Lauren; Kerby, Tessa J.; Strayer, Lori S.; Lewis, Cora E.; Whitlock, Evelyn P.; Williams, Selvi B.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Rodabough, Rebecca J.; Larson, Joseph C.; Habermann, Elizabeth B.; Margolis, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine positive and negative predictive values of self-reported diabetes during the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trials. Methods All WHI trial participants from four field centers who self-reported diabetes at baseline or during follow up, as well as a random sample who did not self-report diabetes, were identified. Women were surveyed regarding diagnosis and treatment. Medical records were obtained and reviewed for documented treatment with anti-diabetic medications or physician diagnosis of diabetes supported by laboratory measurements of glucose. Results We identified 1,275 eligible participants; 732 consented and provided survey data. Medical records were obtained for 715 (207 prevalent diabetes, 325 incident diabetes, and 183 no diabetes). Records confirmed 91.8% (95% CI 87.0%-95.0%) of self-reported prevalent diabetes and 82.2% (95% CI 77.5%-86.1%) incident diabetes. Of those who never self-reported diabetes, there was no medical record or laboratory evidence for diabetes in 94.5% (95% CI 89.9%-97.2%). Women with higher BMI were more likely to accurately self-report incident diabetes. In a subgroup of participants enrolled in fee-for-service Medicare, a claims algorithm correctly classified nearly all diabetes cases and non-cases. Conclusions Among WHI clinical trial participants, there was a high positive predictive value of self-reported prevalent (91.8%) and incident diabetes (82.2%) and a high negative predictive value (94.5%) when diabetes was not reported. For participants enrolled in fee-for-service Medicare, a claims algorithm also had a high positive and negative predictive value. PMID:24496083

  3. Validity of Self-Reported Solar UVR Exposure Compared to Objectively Measured UVR Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Glanz, Karen; Gies, Peter; O’Riordan, David L.; Elliott, Tom; Nehl, Eric; McCarty, Frances; Davis, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Background Reliance on verbal self-report of solar exposure in skin cancer prevention and epidemiologic studies may be problematic if self-report data are not valid due to systematic errors in recall, social desirability bias, or other reasons. Methods This study examines the validity of self-reports of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) compared to objectively measured exposure among children and adults in outdoor recreation settings in four regions of the United States. Objective UVR exposures of 515 participants were measured using polysulfone film badge UVR dosimeters on two days. The same subjects provided self-reported UVR exposure data on surveys and 4-day sun exposure diaries, for comparison to their objectively measured exposure. Results Dosimeter data showed that lifeguards had the greatest UVR exposure (24.5% of weekday ambient UVR), children the next highest exposures (10.3% ambient weekday UVR) and parents had the lowest (6.6% ambient weekday UVR). Similar patterns were observed in self-report data. Correlations between diary reports and dosimeter findings were fair to good and were highest for lifeguards (r = 0.38 – 0.57), followed by parents (r = 0.28 – 0.29) and children (r = 0.18 – 0.34). Correlations between survey and diary measures were moderate to good for lifeguards (r = 0.20 – 0.54) and children (r = 0.35 – 0.53). Conclusions This is the largest study of its kind to date, and supports the utility of self-report measures of solar UVR exposure. Impact Overall, self-reports of sun exposure produce valid measures of UVR exposure among parents, children, and lifeguards who work outdoors. PMID:20940277

  4. Prevalence, severity and risk factors for depressive symptoms and insomnia in college undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Gress-Smith, Jenna L; Roubinov, Danielle S; Andreotti, Charissa; Compas, Bruce E; Luecken, Linda J

    2015-02-01

    Although the college years represent a high-risk period for depressive symptoms and insomnia, little research has explored their prevalence, comorbidities and risk factors within this developmental period. Two studies were conducted; the first evaluated the prevalence and comorbidity of depressive symptoms and insomnia in 1338 students (ages 18-23?years) from a large Southwestern University. Mild depressive symptoms were endorsed by 19% of students and 14.5% reported moderate to severe symptoms. Forty-seven percent of students reported mild insomnia and 22.5% endorsed moderate to severe insomnia severity. A second study investigated perceived stress as a potential mediator of the relation between self-reported childhood adversity and concurrent depressive symptoms and insomnia. Undergraduates (N?=?447) from a Southwestern and Southeastern University reported prior childhood adversity, current perceived stress, insomnia and depressive symptoms. Self-reported childhood adversity predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms and insomnia severity, partially mediated by perceived stress. Results support the high prevalence of depressive symptoms and insomnia among undergraduates. The risk for depressive and insomnia symptoms may be increased among students who experienced greater levels of childhood adversity. PMID:23897800

  5. Measuring the accuracy of self-reported height and weight in a community-based sample of young people

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-reported anthropometric data are commonly used to estimate prevalence of obesity in population and community-based studies. We aim to: 1) Determine whether survey participants are able and willing to self-report height and weight; 2) Assess the accuracy of self-reported compared to measured anthropometric data in a community-based sample of young people. Methods Participants (16–29 years) of a behaviour survey, recruited at a Melbourne music festival (January 2011), were asked to self-report height and weight; researchers independently weighed and measured a sub-sample. Body Mass Index was calculated and overweight/obesity classified as ?25kg/m2. Differences between measured and self-reported values were assessed using paired t-test/Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Accurate report of height and weight were defined as <2cm and <2kg difference between self-report and measured values, respectively. Agreement between classification of overweight/obesity by self-report and measured values was assessed using McNemar’s test. Results Of 1405 survey participants, 82% of males and 72% of females self-reported their height and weight. Among 67 participants who were also independently measured, self-reported height and weight were significantly less than measured height (p=0.01) and weight (p<0.01) among females, but no differences were detected among males. Overall, 52% accurately self-reported height, 30% under-reported, and 18% over-reported; 34% accurately self-reported weight, 52% under-reported and 13% over-reported. More females (70%) than males (35%) under-reported weight (p=0.01). Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 33% based on self-report data and 39% based on measured data (p=0.16). Conclusions Self-reported measurements may underestimate weight but accurately identified overweight/obesity in the majority of this sample of young people. PMID:23170838

  6. Measurement matters in the association between early adolescent depressive symptoms and body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Rhew, Isaac C.; Richardson, Laura P.; Lymp, Jim; McTiernan, Anne; McCauley, Elizabeth; Stoep, Ann Vander

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between depressive symptoms and body mass over one year during early adolescence and to assess how the associations might differ depending upon whether self-reported or directly measured height and weight were used. Method Participants were 446 sixth-grade Seattle students. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Regression models were used to examine whether baseline depression status was associated with 12-month BMI (using self-reported height and weight), and whether baseline overweight status was associated with 12-month depressive symptom score. Analyses were re-run among a sub-sample (n = 165) who had height and weight directly measured. Results Using BMI derived from self-reported values, depressed males had a significantly lower BMI than non-depressed males, while depressed females had a significantly higher BMI than non-depressed females, after adjusting for covariates. Among a sub-sample using measured height and weight values, however, depression was no longer associated with BMI in either gender. Baseline overweight status did not predict 12-month depression score. Conclusions Observed associations between depression and subsequent BMI were explained by differential misclassification of self-reported height and weight by depression status and gender. Direct measurement of height and weight may be necessary to ensure validity in studies of adolescent depression and weight-related outcomes. PMID:18774430

  7. Depressive symptoms modify relationship between inflammation and physical symptoms in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Seongkum; Moser, Debra K.; Pressler, Susan J.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Dekker, Rebecca L.; Lennie, Terry A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with heart failure (HF) often have physical symptoms that result in poor health-related quality of life and are antecedents of hospitalization. Inflammation, as part of the pathological response in HF, can produce physical symptoms. Depressive symptoms can affect this relationship. Purpose To examine the relationship between soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-RI) and physical symptoms and the effects of depressive symptoms on this relationship in patients with HF, controlling for covariates (age, body mass index [BMI], social support, comorbidities, and medication). Methods Data on physical symptoms (Symptom Status Questionnaire-Heart Failure), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]-II), and sTNF-RI (blood samples) were collected from 145 patients with HF (age 60±12 years; 51% New York Heart Association class III/IIV). Data on sTNF-RI were square root transformed to achieve normality. Patients were divided into two groups based on their score on the BDI-II (non-depressed < 14 and depressed ? 14). Hierarchical multiple regression was used to analyze the data. Results In the total sample, higher sTNF-RI was significantly related to more severe physical symptoms, controlling for covariates (F = 7.915, p < .001). In subgroup analyses, sTNF-RI was significantly related to physical symptoms only in the non-depressed subgroup, controlling for covariates (F = 3.174, p = .005). Conclusion Depressive symptoms as well as inflammation need to be considered physical symptoms in patients with HF. Further studies are needed to determine the effects of improvement in inflammation on improvement in physical symptoms, taking into consideration the effects of depressive symptoms. PMID:25179036

  8. Sex Differences in Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Yu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Although sex difference in the mean level of depressive symptoms has been well established, the sex difference in genetic and environmental influences on adolescent depressive symptoms is unclear. The current study conducted a meta-analysis of twin studies on sex differences in self- and parent-reported adolescent depressive symptoms. For self-reports, genetic factors influenced adolescent depressive symptoms equally for boys and girls, accounting for 46% of variation, but shared environmental factors had stronger impacts on adolescent girls' versus boys' depressive symptoms (13% versus 1% of the variance). For parent-reports, genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental factors influenced adolescent depressive symptoms equally, with separate estimates of 34%, 35%, and 31%. The implications of sex difference in genetic and environmental etiologies of depressive symptoms are discussed. PMID:26649194

  9. Parent Resources Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Early Childhood Services.

    This resource inventory is for the use of parent groups and others who are concerned with the provision of parent education and suppport services. There are two parts to the inventory. Section 1 contains the titles of articles and standard bibliographic information, as well as annotations of contents. Copies of the articles are available through…

  10. Parent Resources Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education Response Centre, Edmonton.

    This resource inventory is for the use of parent groups and others who are concerned with parent education and support services. The inventory contains the titles of articles, copies of which are available through the Alberta Education Response Centre. The articles and publications listed cover a wide range of topics related to child development…

  11. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Emission Inventory Committee has been pursuing enhancement of the emission inventory program for North American countries--Canada, Mexico, and the United States. With the completion of the NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments, it was recognized that emissio...

  12. Validity of Self-Reported Physical Fitness and Body Mass Index in a Military Population.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robyn C; Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; Bushman, Timothy T; DeGroot, David W; Jones, Bruce H

    2016-01-01

    Martin, RC, Grier, T, Canham-Chervak, M, Anderson, MK, Bushman, TT, DeGroot, DW, and Jones, BH. Validity of self-reported physical fitness and body mass index in a military population. J Strength Cond Res 30(1): 26-32, 2016-Many epidemiological studies rely on valid physical fitness data. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the validity of self-reported Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) data and determine whether men and women recall APFT performance differently. U.S. Army soldiers (N = 1,047) completed a survey, including questions on height, weight, and most recent APFT performance. Height, weight, and APFT performance were also obtained from unit records. The mean ± SDs for unit and self-reported push-up repetitions were 63.5 ± 13.1 and 66.3 ± 14.0 for men and 37.7 ± 12.8 and 40.2 ± 12.8 for women, respectively. The mean ± SD for unit- and self-reported sit-up repetitions were 66.3 ± 11.4 and 68.1 ± 12.1 for men and 64.2 ± 13.6 and 66.5 ± 12.9 for women, respectively. The mean ± SD unit- and self-reported 2-mile run times were 15.2 ± 1.8 and 14.9 ± 1.6 minutes for men, and 18.0 ± 2.9 and 17.4 ± 1.9 minutes for women, respectively. Unit- and self-reported body mass indices (BMIs) (calculated by height and weight) were 26.4 ± 3.4 and 26.3 ± 3.6 for men and 24.6 ± 2.8 and 24.2 ± 3.3 for women. Correlations between unit- and self-reported scores for push-ups, sit-ups, 2-mile run, height, weight, and BMI were 0.82, 0.78, 0.85, 0.87, 0.97, and 0.88 for men and 0.86, 0.84, 0.87, 0.78, 0.98, and 0.78 for women, respectively. On average, men and women slightly overreported performance on the APFT and overestimated height, resulting in underestimated BMI. There was no difference in recall ability between men and women (p > 0.05). The very good to excellent correlations (r = 0.78-0.98) between unit- and self-reported scores indicate that self-reported data are valid for capturing physical fitness performance in this population. PMID:26683633

  13. Evaluating the validity of self-reported smoking in Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Valladolid-López, María del Carmen; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Thrasher, James F; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to evaluate the validity of the self-reported smoking indicator used in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Setting 43 middle and high-school classrooms from 26 schools were selected from Mexico City and Cuernavaca, Morelos. Participants A total of 1257 students provided both a questionnaire and a urine sample. Primary and secondary outcome Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported smoking compared to urinary cotinine. Validity indices were evaluated by subgroups of gender, social acceptability of smoking (ie, smoking parents or friends) and smoking frequency. Results Sensitivity and specificity for current smoking were 93.2% and 81.7%, respectively. Validity indices remained stable across gender. Parental smoking status moderated the validity of self-report, which had lower sensitivity in adolescents with non-smoking parents (86.7%) than in adolescents with smoking parents (96.6%). Sensitivity and specificity increased with smoking frequency. Conclusions This first validation study of self-reported current smoking used in the GYTS among Mexican adolescents suggests that self-reported smoking in the past 30?days is a valid and stable indicator of current smoking behaviour. This measure appears suitable for public health research and surveillance. PMID:26453588

  14. Self-Reported Acceptance of Social Anxiety Symptoms: Development and Validation of the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Meagan B.; Kocovski, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have been used in social anxiety treatments with initial success. Further research requires the psychometrically sound measurement of mechanisms of change associated with these treatments. This research was conducted to develop and evaluate such a measure, the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action…

  15. Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia The symptoms of PCP are fever, dry cough, ... Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Statistics More Resources Pneumocystis pneumonia Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & ...

  16. Perceived attachment: relations to anxiety sensitivity, worry, and GAD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Viana, Andres G; Rabian, Brian

    2008-06-01

    This investigation examined the relation between perceived alienation from parents and peers, anxiety sensitivity (AS), and current worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms with the goal of expanding the knowledge base on factors that may contribute to the development of AS and its role in worry. The mediating role of AS between perceptions of alienation and current worry and GAD symptoms was also examined. Ninety-four non-clinical worriers completed self-report questionnaires assessing their perceptions of attachment, AS levels, and worry and GAD symptoms. Even after controlling for worry and GAD symptoms, greater perceptions of alienation from mothers and peers were significantly associated with higher AS symptoms. AS as a unitary construct mediated the relation between perceptions of alienation from mothers and peers and worry and GAD symptoms. The facets fear of publicly observable symptoms and fear of cognitive dyscontrol also mediated this relation. The role of alienation in relation to AS, worry, and GAD symptoms is discussed along with directions for future research. PMID:18471800

  17. Re-examination of the Controversial Coexistence of Traumatic Brain Injury and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Misdiagnosis and Self-Report Measures.

    PubMed

    Sbordone, Robert J; Ruff, Ronald M

    2010-03-01

    The coexistence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a controversial issue in the literature. To address this controversy, we focused primarily on the civilian-related literature of TBI and PTSD. Some investigators have argued that individuals who had been rendered unconscious or suffered amnesia due to a TBI are unable to develop PTSD because they would be unable to consciously experience the symptoms of fear, helplessness, and horror associated with the development of PTSD. Other investigators have reported that individuals who sustain TBI, regardless of its severity, can develop PTSD even in the context of prolonged unconsciousness. A careful review of the methodologies employed in these studies reveals that investigators who relied on clinical interviews of TBI patients to diagnose PTSD found little or no evidence of PTSD. In contrast, investigators who relied on PTSD questionnaires to diagnose PTSD found considerable evidence of PTSD. Further analysis revealed that many of the TBI patients who were initially diagnosed with PTSD according to self-report questionnaires did not meet the diagnostic criteria for PTSD upon completion of a clinical interview. In particular, patients with severe TBI were often misdiagnosed with PTSD. A number of investigators found that many of the severe TBI patients failed to follow the questionnaire instructions and erroneously endorsed PTSD symptoms because of their cognitive difficulties. Because PTSD questionnaires are not designed to discriminate between PTSD and TBI symptoms or determine whether a patient's responses are accurate or exaggerated, studies that rely on self-report questionnaires to evaluate PTSD in TBI patients are at risk of misdiagnosing PTSD. Further research should evaluate the degree to which misdiagnosis of PTSD occurs in individuals who have sustained mild TBI. PMID:20927197

  18. Concordance of sexual dysfunction and dissatisfaction by self-report and those by partner's perception in young adult couples.

    PubMed

    Gungor, S; Keskin, U; Gülsün, M; Erdem, M; Ceyhan, S T; Ergün, A

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated concordance levels of young adult spouses (N=107 couples, total N=214) with regards to sexual satisfaction by using Golombock-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS). Each spouse of the couples filled out both female and male forms of the GRISS. Self- and spouse-reported scores were analyzed in terms of inter-rater correlation and agreement. The prevalence of overall sexual dissatisfaction was 10.3% and 26.2% in wives and husbands, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) between the self-reported overall sexual satisfaction scores and those assessed by the spouses was 0.25 (P=0.014) and 0.04 (P=0.680) for wives and husbands, respectively. The sensitivity for perception of partner's sexual problems ranged 11% to 47%, and the specificity was around 64% to 100%, except for vaginismus, which had a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 25%. The prevalance-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) value for overall sexual dissatisfaction reported by themselves and that assessed by their spouses was 0.68 and 0.16 for the wives and husbands, respectively. For specific female sexual problems, the PABAK value was the highest in female dissatisfaction (0.81) followed by anorgasmia (0.78), female avoidance (0.44), vaginismus (0.44), infrequency (0.33), non-communication (0.14) and female nonsensuality (0.14). For specific male sexual problems, the PABAK value was the highest in male nonsensuality (1.00), followed by male dissatisfaction (0.78), infrequency (0.46), non-communication (0.42), male avoidance (0.36), impotence (0.27) and premature ejaculation (-0.04). Our findings suggested that in this clinical sample the partner's perception of sexual dysfunction and dissatisfaction did not correlate well with the subject's self-reported sexual problems, and generally male sexual problems were less correctly perceived by the partners than were female sexual problems. This result may provide helpful information for clinicians who take care of patients' sexual problems. PMID:25971858

  19. The relationships between obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and cognitions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Brakoulias, Vlasios; Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony; Martin, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have linked obsessive-compulsive symptoms to specific obsessive-compulsive cognitions, however methodologies have varied, and no study has determined obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the most widely used clinician rating scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Considering that almost all studies that used factor analysis to ascertain OCD symptom dimensions were based on the Y-BOCS and that self-report instruments assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms correlate poorly with the Y-BOCS, there is a need to use the Y-BOCS to examine the relationship between obsessive-compulsive cognitions and obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. This study examined the relationship between five Y-BOCS-derived obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and the three obsessive-compulsive cognitive domains identified by the obsessive-beliefs questionnaire (OBQ). The symmetry/ordering symptom dimension was associated with increased perfectionism/intolerance of uncertainty, the unacceptable/taboo thoughts symptom dimension was associated with increased importance/control of thoughts and the doubt/checking symptom dimension was associated with increased responsibility/threat estimation. There was no statistical evidence of an association between any OBQ belief sub-scale and the hoarding symptom dimension nor the contamination/cleaning symptom dimension. The findings encourage symptom-based approaches to cognitive-behavioural therapy for some OCD symptoms and call for further research on cognitions associated with contamination/cleaning symptoms and hoarding. PMID:24142072

  20. Peer and self-reported victimization: Do non-victimized students give victimization nominations to classmates who are self-reported victims?

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Beau; Barrera, Davide; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meulen, Matty; Vermande, Marjolijn; Aleva, Elisabeth; Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, René

    2015-08-01

    Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age=13.27, SD age=0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who according to their self-reports had been victimized (referred to as receivers). Using a dyadic approach, characteristics of the reporter-receiver dyad (i.e., gender similarity) and of the reporter (i.e., reporters' behavior during bullying episodes) that were possibly associated with reporter-receiver agreement were investigated. Descriptive analyses suggested that numerous students who were self-reported victims were not perceived as victimized by their non-victimized classmates. Three-level logistic regression models (reporter-receiver dyads nested in reporters within classrooms) demonstrated greater reporter-receiver agreement in same-gender dyads, especially when the reporter and the receiver were boys. Furthermore, reporters who behaved as outsiders during bullying episodes (i.e., reporters who actively shied away from the bullying) were less likely to agree on the receiver's self-reported victimization, and in contrast, reporters who behaved as defenders (i.e., reporters who helped and supported victims) were more likely to agree on the victimization. Moreover, the results demonstrated that reporters gave fewer victimization nominations to receivers who reported they had been victimized sometimes than to receivers who reported they had been victimized often/very often. Finally, this study suggested that reporter-receiver agreement may not only depend on characteristics of the reporter-receiver dyad and of the reporter, but on classroom characteristics as well (e.g., the number of students in the classroom). PMID:26270275

  1. Beyond Self-Report: Tools to Compare Estimated and Real-World Smartphone Use

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Sally; Ellis, David A.; Shaw, Heather; Piwek, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists typically rely on self-report data when quantifying mobile phone usage, despite little evidence of its validity. In this paper we explore the accuracy of using self-reported estimates when compared with actual smartphone use. We also include source code to process and visualise these data. We compared 23 participants’ actual smartphone use over a two-week period with self-reported estimates and the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale. Our results indicate that estimated time spent using a smartphone may be an adequate measure of use, unless a greater resolution of data are required. Estimates concerning the number of times an individual used their phone across a typical day did not correlate with actual smartphone use. Neither estimated duration nor number of uses correlated with the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale. We conclude that estimated smartphone use should be interpreted with caution in psychological research. PMID:26509895

  2. Parents' self-reported attachment styles: a review of links with parenting behaviors, emotions, and cognitions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason D; Cassidy, Jude; Shaver, Phillip R

    2015-02-01

    For decades, attachment scholars have been investigating how parents' adult attachment orientations relate to the ways in which they parent. Traditionally, this research has been conducted by developmental and clinical psychologists who typically employ the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to measure adult attachment. However, dating back to the mid-1990s, social and personality psychologists have been investigating how self-reported adult attachment styles relate to various facets of parenting. The literature on self-reported attachment and parenting has received less attention than AAI research on the same topic and, to date, there is no comprehensive review of this literature. In this article, we review more than 60 studies of the links between self-reported attachment styles and parenting, integrate the findings to reach general conclusions, discuss unresolved questions, and suggest future directions. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits to the study of parenting of collaborations among researchers from the developmental and social attachment research traditions. PMID:25024278

  3. Evolution of self-reporting methods for identifying discrete emotions in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Stephen M.; Hudson, Peter; Bellocchi, Alberto; Henderson, Senka; King, Donna; Tobin, Kenneth

    2015-04-01

    Emotion researchers have grappled with challenging methodological issues in capturing emotions of participants in naturalistic settings such as school or university classrooms. Self-reporting methods have been used frequently, yet these methods are inadequate when used alone. We argue that the self-reporting methods of emotion diaries and cogenerative dialogues can be helpful in identifying in-the-moment emotions when used in conjunction with the microanalysis of video recordings of classroom events. We trace the evolution of our use of innovative self-reporting methods through three cases from our research projects, and propose new directions for our ongoing development and application of these methods in both school and university classrooms.

  4. Truth or consequences: the validity of self-report data in health services research on addictions.

    PubMed

    Del Boca, F K; Noll, J A

    2000-11-01

    This paper examines factors that influence the veracity of verbal self-report data in health services research, using a cognitive social-psychological model of the data-gathering process as an organizing framework. It begins by briefly summarizing the consequences that can result from measurement error. Next, a cognitive social-psychological model of the question-answering process is presented. Common assumptions regarding the utility of specific assessment methods are evaluated with particular emphasis on the strengths and weaknesses of alternative data sources. The framework is then applied specifically to understanding the factors that may affect self-report measures in health services research relating to alcohol and other substance use. Overall, self-report procedures can provide useful estimates of consumption in clinical settings when conditions are designed to maximize response accuracy. PMID:11132362

  5. Self-reported Activity and Accelerometry in 2 Behavior-maintenance Trials

    PubMed Central

    Senso, Meghan M.; Anderson, Christopher P.; Crain, A. Lauren; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Martinson, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare accelerometry (MVPA-A) and self-reported activity (MVPA-SR) in activity-maintenance (Keep Active Minnesota; KAM) and weight-loss-maintenance (Keep It Off; KIO) trials. Methods Linear regression estimated moderation of study, treatment, or time on MVPA-A and MVPA-SR associations. Results MVPA-A was similar between studies (KAM 119 minutes, KIO 112 minutes, p = .555), while MVPA-SR differed significantly (KAM 350 minutes, KIO 87 minutes, p < .0001). Only study moderated correlation between MVPA-A and MVPA-SR. MVPA-SR better predicted MVPA-A in KIO relative to KAM (p = .023). Conclusions Results suggest that self-presentation bias may influence validity of self-report in intervention studies with activity as a primary outcome. Researchers should select self-report to assess activity dimensions that objective measures capture poorly. PMID:24629554

  6. Validity of Medication Adherence Self-Reports in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Schneider, Havah E.; Wexler, Deborah J.; Psaros, Christina; Delahanty, Linda M.; Cagliero, Enrico; Safren, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the validity of self-report measures of diabetes medication adherence and evaluate the effect of depression on the validity of these reports. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adults with type 2 diabetes, treated with oral medications, completed a set of medication adherence self-reports that varied response scales and time frames, were administered structured clinical interviews for depression, and provided blood samples for HbA1c as part of a screening for an intervention study. A subsample of participants with HbA1c ?7.0% and clinically significant depression received Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) bottle caps to record adherence. Analyses examined relationships between adherence measures and HbA1c and, in the subsample, MEMS. Moderated linear regression evaluated whether depression severity modified relationships with HbA1c. RESULTS Participant (n = 170, 57% men, 81% white, mean HbA1c 8.3% [SD, 1.7]) adherence self-reports were significantly (r = ?0.18 to ?0.28; P < 0.03) associated with lower HbA1c. In the subsample (n = 88), all self-reports were significantly (r = 0.35 to 0.55; P ? 0.001) associated with MEMS-measured adherence. Depression significantly moderated the relationship between three of six self-reports and HbA1c; at high levels of depression, associations with HbA1c became nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS Results support the validity of easily administered self-reports for diabetes medication adherence. One-month, percentage-based ratings of adherence had the strongest associations with MEMS and HbA1c; those requiring the report of missed doses had weaker associations. One-week self-ratings and measures that require respondents to record the number of missed doses appear to be vulnerable to bias from depression severity. PMID:23204245

  7. Interactive Inventory Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garud, Sumedha

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring present location and/or present status of a target inventory item, where the inventory items are located on one or more inventory shelves or other inventory receptacles that communicate with an inventory base station through use of responders such as RFIDs. A user operates a hand held interrogation and display (lAD) module that communicates with, or is part of the base station to provide an initial inquiry. lnformation on location(s) of the larget invenlory item is also indicated visibly and/or audibly on the receptacle(s) for the user. Status information includes an assessment of operation readiness and a time, if known, that the specified inventory item or class was last removed or examined or modified. Presentation of a user access level may be required for access to the target inventgory item. Another embodiment provides inventory informatin for a stack as a sight-impaired or hearing-impaired person adjacent to that stack.

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Thai Version of the Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Hiranyatheb, Thanita

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the Thai version of the FOCI (FOCI-T), which is a brief self-report questionnaire to assess the symptoms and severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-seven OCD patients completed the FOCI-T, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life (PTQL). They were then interviewed to determine the OCD symptom severity by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Second Edition (YBOCS-II) and depressive symptoms by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), together with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scales (CGI-S). The result showed that the FOCI-T had satisfactory internal consistency reliability on both the Symptom Checklist (KR-20 = 0.86) and the Severity Scale (? = 0.92). Regarding validity analyses, the FOCI-T Severity Scale had stronger correlations with the YBOCS-II and CGI-S than the FOCI-T Symptom Checklist. This implied the independence between the FOCI-T Symptom Checklist and the Severity Scale and good concurrent validity of the FOCI-T Severity Scale. Our results suggested that the FOCI-T was found to be a reliable and valid self-report measure to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms and severity. PMID:25861673

  9. Behavioral Inhibition and Risk for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Latino Children Exposed to Violence

    PubMed Central

    Gudiño, Omar G.

    2013-01-01

    Latino children in urban contexts marked by poverty are at high risk of being exposed to violence and developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nonetheless, there is great variability in individual responses to violence exposure. This study examines risk for developing re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptoms of PTSD as a function of individual differences in behavioral inhibition and exposure to community violence. Participants were 148 Latino students (M age =11.43 years, SD=.69; 55% girls) living in an area marked by poverty and crime. Children completed self-report measures of behavioral inhibition and posttraumatic stress symptoms during a baseline assessment. During a follow-up interview 6 months later, children completed self-report measures of exposure to community violence since the baseline assessment and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Structural equation models revealed that behavioral inhibition at baseline was positively associated with PTSD avoidance and arousal symptoms at follow-up, after controlling for symptoms at baseline. Furthermore, behavioral inhibition moderated the association between violence exposure and symptoms such that violence was more strongly associated with the development of PTSD avoidance symptoms as behavioral inhibition increased. Results suggest that individual differences in behavioral inhibition contribute to risk for specific PTSD symptoms and are important for understanding variation in responses to trauma exposure. By examining diathesis-stress models within a disorder, we may be better able to elucidate the etiology of a disorder and translate this improved understanding into personalized intervention approaches that maximize effectiveness. PMID:23494527

  10. The incremental validity of passive-aggressive personality symptoms rivals or exceeds that of other personality symptoms in suicidal outpatients.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Thomas E; Rudd, M David

    2002-08-01

    We examined the incremental validity of passive-aggressive and other personality symptoms, by determining personality syndromes' ability to account for unique variance in distress and impairment as indexed by several Axis I-related symptoms. Two hundred fifty young adults, referred for suicidal behavior or ideation, completed the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (Millon, 1983) as well as several other symptom measures. The personality syndromes varied considerably in their ability to account for unique variance in Axis I-related symptoms. Several syndromes, including schizoid, schizotypal, and compulsive symptoms, showed relatively low incremental validity, whereas the incremental validity of passive-aggressive symptoms exceeded all others. The criterion of incremental validity represents an inclusive and persuasive means to evaluate personality disorder validity. On this criterion, passive-aggressive symptoms display high validity, and passive-aggressive personality disorder, in some form, may deserve inclusion on Axis II of future editions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association). PMID:12227665

  11. Predictors of self-reported academic performance among undergraduate medical students of Hawassa University, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gedefaw, Abel; Tilahun, Birkneh; Asefa, Anteneh

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. Methods An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA) using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson’s bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. Results The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47) and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71) years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7%) of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2%) had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3%) had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and <1% of the variation, respectively. Students who had never used tobacco, alcohol, or khat after starting university were twice as likely to score a self-reported cumulative GPA above 3.0 (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, 95% confidence interval 1.25–3.02) and less likely to be delayed, have to re-sit an examination, or be warned (adjusted odds ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.29–0.77). Conclusion Only 32.8% of the variation in self-reported academic performance was explained by the studied variables. Hence, efficacious mechanisms should be designed to combat the intervenable determinants of self-reported academic performance, like substance use and a low medical school entrance examination result. Further studies should also be undertaken to gain a better understanding of other unstudied determinants, like personality, learning style, cognitive ability, and the system used for academic evaluation. PMID:25914564

  12. Validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke in hospitality venues.

    PubMed

    Galán, Iñaki; Mayo, Elga; López, María J; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Fu, Marcela; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Schiaffino, Anna; Moncada, Albert; Montes, Agustín; Nebot, Manel; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to assess the validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in 50 hospitality venues of Madrid (Spain) in 2010, taking as a reference vapour-phase nicotine measured by active sampling. The questions posed in the questionnaire permitted distinguishing between the different levels of SHS. However, the moderate relationship found (Spearman?s correlation=0.387, p<0.001) suggests that intensity of exposure to SHS in hospitality venues, based solely on self-reported information, should be used with caution. PMID:24906061

  13. Validation of self-reported height and weight in fifth-grade Korean children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bora; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Yoon, Jihyun

    2013-08-01

    Height and weight are important indicators to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI); measuring height and weight directly is the most exact method to get this information. However, it is ineffective in terms of cost and time on large population samples. The aim of our study was to investigate the validity of self-reported height and weight data compared to our measured data in Korean children to predict obese status. Four hundred twenty-two fifth-grade (mean age 10.5 ± 0.5 years) children who had self-reported and measured height and weight data were final subjects for this study. Overweight/obese was defined as a BMI of or above the 85th percentile of the gender-specific BMI for age in the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts or a BMI of 25 or higher (underweight : < 5th, normal : ? 5th to < 85th, overweight : ? 85th to < 95th). The differences between self-reported and measured data were tested using paired t-test. Differences based on overweight/obese status were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear trends. Pearson's correlation and Cohen's kappa were tested to examine agreements between the self-reported and measured data. Although measured and self-reported height, weight and BMI were significantly different and children tended to overreport their height and underreport their weight, the correlation between the two methods of height, weight and BMI were high (r = 0.956, 0.969, 0.932, respectively; all P < 0.001), and both genders reported their overweight/non-overweight status accurately (Cohen's kappa = 0.792, P < 0.001). Although there were differences between the self-reported and our measured methods, the self-reported weight and height was valid enough to classify overweight/obesity status correctly, especially in non-overweight/obese children. Due to bigger underestimation of weight and overestimation of height in obese children, however, we need to be aware that the self-reported anthropometric data were less accurate in overweight/obese children than in non-overweight/obese children. PMID:23964321

  14. Effects of Self-Objectification on Self-Reported Eating Pathology and Depression.

    PubMed

    Register, Joshua D; Katrevich, Alina V; Aruguete, Mara S; Edman, Jeanne L

    2015-01-01

    Self-objectification occurs when people internalize an observer's perspective onto their own bodies. This study experimentally examined the impacts of self-objectification on 156 male and female college students. We induced a state of self-objectification by having undergraduate students in an experimental condition describe their bodies in writing, from an observer's viewpoint. Participants then completed a questionnaire measuring self-reported eating pathology and depression. When compared with a control group, the self-objectification manipulation caused an increase in self-reported eating pathology in both men and women. The results support previous research finding broad, negative impacts of self-objectification. PMID:26219177

  15. Self-Report Measures of Hand Pain Intensity: Current Evidence and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Castarlenas, Elena; Vega, Rocío de la; Jensen, Mark P; Miró, Jordi

    2016-02-01

    Successful management of problems related to the hands and upper extremities begins with a comprehensive assessment of the pain experience and related factors. Pain intensity is the domain most commonly assessed, and pain relief is often the primary goal of treatment. Because pain is a private and subjective experience, self-report is considered the gold standard of pain measurement. This article describes and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the most commonly used self-report scales used to measure hand pain intensity, and gives recommendations to help clinicians select from among the various options for measuring the intensity of hand pain. PMID:26611384

  16. Timber inventory using Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    The results of recent efforts to apply Landsat MSS imagery, in concert with topological maps, to forestry timber inventories via the FOCIS program are reported. FOCIS (Forests Classification and Inventory System) was defined for inventorying the lumber volume of coniferous tree types in rugged terrain regions. Data from four bands serve as input for unsupervised clustering and iterative labeling of the elevation, slope angle, and subregions of interest. Simulated photographic maps are generated which serve as overlays for regular maps for assessing timber harvests and sales goals. Sample procedures followed in mapping the Eldorado region forests in the Sierra Nevada mountains are discussed.

  17. Depression Dimensions: Integrating Clinical Signs and Symptoms from the Perspectives of Clinicians and Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vares, Edgar Arrua; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Spanemberg, Lucas; Caldieraro, Marco Antônio; Fleck, Marcelo P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have recognized that depression is a multidimensional construct, although the scales that are currently available have been shown to be limited in terms of the ability to investigate the multidimensionality of depression. The objective of this study is to integrate information from instruments that measure depression from different perspectives–a self-report symptomatic scale, a clinician-rated scale, and a clinician-rated scale of depressive signs–in order to investigate the multiple dimensions underlying the depressive construct. Methods A sample of 399 patients from a mood disorders outpatient unit was investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and the Core Assessment of Psychomotor Change (CORE). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were used to investigate underlying dimensions of depression, including item level analysis with factor loadings and item thresholds. Results A solution of six depression dimensions has shown good-fit to the data, with no cross-loading items, and good interpretability. Item-level analysis revealed that the multidimensional depressive construct might be organized into a continuum of severity in the following ascending order: sexual, cognitive, insomnia, appetite, non-interactiveness/motor retardation, and agitation. Conclusion An integration of both signs and symptoms, as well as the perspectives of clinicians and patients, might be a good clinical and research alternative for the investigation of multidimensional issues within the depressive syndrome. As predicted by theoretical models of depression, the melancholic aspects of depression (non-interactiveness/motor retardation and agitation) lie at the severe end of the depressive continuum. PMID:26313556

  18. Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms and Externalizing Behaviors across Adolescence: Associations with Histories of Suicide Attempt and Ideation in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2013-01-01

    We examined associations between adolescent problem trajectories and suicide risk outcomes in 361 community participants. Depressive symptoms (self-report) and externalizing behaviors (parent report) were assessed six times from grades 5 to 10. Parallel process linear growth curves indicated that lifetime suicide attempt history assessed to age 25…

  19. Assessment of Symptoms in Adult Survivors of Incest: A Factor Analytic Study of the Responses to Childhood Incest Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patrick W.; Donaldson, Mary Ann

    1989-01-01

    A study of the construction and factor validity of the Response to Child Incest Questionnaire, a self-report instrument for assessing commonly reported symptoms of adult survivors of incest, is reported. The instrument's usefulness as a pre- and post-treatment measure and further research needs are discussed. (MSE)

  20. Community Violence Victimization and Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The Moderating Effects of Coping and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarpa, Angela; Haden, Sara Chiara; Hurley, Jimmy

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the relationship of community violence (CV) victimization to severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the roles of coping style and perceived social support in moderating that relationship. Three-hundred seventy-two men and women (age 18 to 22 years) self-reported on CV exposure, traumatic experiences, PTSD symptoms,…

  1. Targeted Peer Victimization and the Construction of Positive and Negative Self-Cognitions: Connections to Depressive Symptoms in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David A.; Maxwell, Melissa A.; Dukewich, Tammy L.; Yosick, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The goal was to examine the relation of covert/relational and overt/physical targeted peer victimization (TPV) to each other, to positive and negative self-cognitions, and to symptoms of depression. In a sample of elementary and middle school children, TPV was assessed by self-report, peer-nomination, and parent report in a multitrait-multimethod…

  2. Self-reported immature defense style as a predictor of outcome in short-term and long-term psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Laaksonen, Maarit A; Sirkiä, Carlos; Knekt, Paul; Lindfors, Olavi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Identification of pretreatment patient characteristics predictive of psychotherapy outcome could help to guide treatment choices. This study evaluates patients' initial level of immature defense style as a predictor of the outcome of short-term versus long-term psychotherapy. Method In the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, 326 adult outpatients with mood or anxiety disorder were randomized to individual short-term (psychodynamic or solution-focused) or long-term (psychodynamic) psychotherapy. Their defense style was assessed at baseline using the 88-item Defense Style Questionnaire and classified as low or high around the median value of the respective score. Both specific (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS], Symptom Check List Anxiety Scale [SCL-90-Anx], Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HARS]) and global (Symptom Check List Global Severity Index [SCL-90-GSI], Global Assessment of Functioning Scale [GAF]) psychiatric symptoms were measured at baseline and 3–7 times during a 3-year follow-up. Results Patients with high use of immature defense style experienced greater symptom reduction in long-term than in short-term psychotherapy by the end of the 3-year follow-up (50% vs. 34%). Patients with low use of immature defense style experienced faster symptom reduction in short-term than in long-term psychotherapy during the first year of follow-up (34% vs. 19%). Conclusion Knowledge of patients' initial level of immature defense style may potentially be utilized in tailoring treatments. Further research on defense styles as outcome predictors in psychotherapies of different types is needed. PMID:25161816

  3. NATIONAL HEALTH PROVIDER INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Health Provider Inventory provides data on services, location, staff, capacity, and other characteristics of selected health care providers in the United States. Information is collected via mail questionnaire with telephone follow up to all providers (100% census) o...

  4. Motivation for change as a predictor of eating disorder treatment outcomes using a brief self-report YBC-EDS in a residential eating disorder population.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Mary E; Weltzin, Theodore

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure and psychometric properties of a new brief self-report form of the Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale (YBC-EDS-BSR) in a transdiagnostic eating disorder population, and to determine the predictive ability of motivation for change and ego syntonic subscales on treatment outcome. Self-report measures of the YBC-EDS-BSR, eating pathology, depression, anxiety and obsessive compulsive symptoms were collected from 164 individuals entering residential treatment. Of these, 107 individuals completed identical measures at discharge. The admission items on the YBC-EDS-BSR were examined for factor structure, and subscales were examined for internal, convergent and discriminant validity. Multiple regression analysis was used to investigate predictive value of the motivation and ego syntonic subscales on two measures of treatment outcome. Results indicate that the YBC-EDS-BSR demonstrated a robust factor structure and good psychometric properties in this population. The predicted ego-syntonic subscale did not emerge as an independent factor. The motivation for change subscale significantly predicted treatment outcome on the EDE-Q and the EDI-3 Global Maladjustment Scale. The ego-syntonic items and other psychopathology measures had no predictive value on treatment outcome. Results suggest that motivation for change is a significant predictor of treatment outcome over and above baseline psychopathology. PMID:25064284

  5. Persistent nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among college students: Possible association with ADHD symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible association between untreated Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as measured the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, and persistent nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Method: Multinomial regression modeling was used to compare ADHD symptoms among three groups of college students enrolled in a longitudinal study over four years: 1) persistent nonmedical users of prescription stimulants; 2) persistent users of marijuana who did not use prescription stimulants nonmedically; and, 3) consistent non-users of drugs. Results: ADHD symptoms were associated with being a persistent nonmedical user of prescription stimulants, after adjustment for race/ethnicity, sex, SES, and other illicit drug use. No associations were observed between ADHD symptoms and being a persistent marijuana user or non-user. Conclusions: ADHD symptoms, and in particular inattention symptoms, appear to be associated with nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Future studies are needed to clinically validate these observations. PMID:20484709

  6. A Study on Correlation between Anxiety Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee-Yeon; Yun, Kyu Wol; Kim, Young Chul; Lim, Weon-Jeong; Kim, Eui-Jung; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Objective In South Korea, the number of deaths from suicide has increased in the last two decades, and suicide has become both a social and political problem. In this study, after controlling the variables influencing suicidal ideation, it was expected that it would be determined if anxiety symptoms are independently related to suicidal ideation. Methods Data were obtained from 327 psychiatric outpatients accomplished a self-reported questionnaire that included sociodemographic characteristics and clinical variables as well as self-rating scales for measuring the severity of one's anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. Logistic-regression analyses were used to determine the correlation between anxiety symptoms and significant suicidal ideation, adjusting for covariates. Results The patients with significant suicidal ideation were shown to be less educated, unemployed, never married, divorced, or separated by death, or living alone, and were shown to have a lower income, a drinking habit, a higher number of past suicide attempts, and more family members who committed suicide, than the patients without significant suicidal ideation. After adjusting the covariates influencing significant suicidal ideation, anxiety symptoms were associated with significant suicidal ideation. However, after adjusting for depressive symptoms, only the trait anxiety was associated with significant suicidal ideation. Conclusion These findings suggest that anxiety symptoms are an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation. Clinicians may thus use anxiety symptoms for the screening examination when evaluating suicidal ideation and risk, and will have to actively evaluate and treat the anxiety symptoms of patients with suicidal tendencies. PMID:22216041

  7. COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS OF FOUR SMOKING WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOM SCALES

    PubMed Central

    Javitz, Harold S.; Lerman, Caryn; Swan, Gary E.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Examine the association of person-specific trajectories of withdrawal symptoms of urge-to-smoke, negative affect, physical symptoms, and hunger during the first 7 days after smoking cessation with abstinence at end of treatment (EOT) and 6 months. Design Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to model person-specific trajectory parameters (level, slope, curvature and volatility) for withdrawal symptoms. Setting University-based smoking cessation trials. Participants Treatment seeking smokers in clinical trials of transdermal nicotine versus nicotine spray (n=514) and bupropion versus placebo (n=421) Measurements Self-reported withdrawal symptoms for 7 days after the planned quit date, and 7 day point prevalence and continuous abstinence at EOT and 6 months. Findings In regressions that included trajectory parameters for one group of withdrawal symptoms, both urge-to-smoke and negative affect were predictive of abstinence while physical symptoms and hunger were generally not predictive. In stepwise regressions that included the complete set of trajectory parameters across withdrawal symptoms (for urge-to-smoke, negative affect, physical symptoms, and hunger), with a single exception, only the trajectory parameters for urge-to-smoke were predictive. Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve was 0.594 for covariates alone, and 0.670 for covariates plus urge-to-smoke trajectory parameters. Conclusion Among a number of different withdrawal symptoms (urge-to-smoke, negative affect, physical symptoms, and hunger) urge-to-smoke trajectory parameters (level, slope, and volatility) over the first 7 days of smoking cessation show the strongest prediction of both short and long term relapse. Other withdrawal symptoms increase the predictive ability by negligible amounts. PMID:22321019

  8. Adolescent Self-Reported Health in Relation to School Factors: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Karina; Bergström, Erik; Janlert, Urban; Nygren, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine school-related determinants of self-reported health among adolescents. Questionnaire survey data comprising 4,972 students, Grades 7 through 9, from 20 schools in northern Sweden were used. Also, complimentary data about each school were collected from the Swedish National Agency for Education. Using multilevel…

  9. 77 FR 46010 - Self Reporting of Out-of-State Convictions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the...or on the distribution of power and responsibilities between...mechanisms for tracking or processing driver-reported out-of-State...more accurate and secure than driver self- reporting....

  10. Staff Behavior toward Children and Adolescents in a Residential Facility: A Self-Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huitink, C.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Veerman, J. W.; Verhoeven, L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine psychometric properties of the Staff Behavior toward Clients questionnaire (SBC), a self-report measure for care staff working with children and adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities in residential care. Ninety-nine care staff completed the SBC and the Strengths and…

  11. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Health Problems and Haemoglobin Status of Sudanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moukhyer, M. E.; de Vries, N. K.; Bosma, H.; van Eijk, J. Th. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe self-reported health problems and haemoglobin status among 1200 Sudanese adolescents (53.2% females, 46.8% males). Many adolescents report their general health as excellent and good (84%). A large number, however, report separate physical and psychological complaints. Report of psychological complaints is equal for both…

  12. Does Negative Mood Influence Self-Report Assessment of Individual and Relational Measures? An Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heene, Els; De Raedt, Rudi; Buysse, Ann; Van Oost, Paulette

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the influence of negative mood on the self-report of individual and relational correlates of depression and marital distress. The authors applied a combined experimental mood induction procedure, based on music, autobiographical recall, and environmental manipulation. Results showed that the mood manipulation…

  13. Self-Reported Consumption of Alcohol and Other Drugs in a Spanish University Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaldivar, Flor; Lopez, Francisca; Garcia-Montes, Jose Manuel; Molina, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to explore the consumption of alcohol and other drugs in university students and to verify whether there are gender differences in the consumption of these substances. Method: A descriptive study using self-reports. Drug consumption was evaluated in 506 students from the University of Almeria (60.9% women and 34.6%…

  14. Self-Reported Barriers to Professional Help Seeking among College Students at Elevated Risk for Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czyz, Ewa K.; Horwitz, Adam G.; Eisenberg, Daniel; Kramer, Anne; King, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study sought to describe self-reported barriers to professional help seeking among college students who are at elevated suicide risk and determine if these barriers vary by demographic and clinical characteristics. Participants: Participants were 165 non-treatment seekers recruited as part of a Web-based treatment linkage…

  15. Exploring the Temporal Validity of Self-Reported Marijuana Use among Juvenile Arrestees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Study compared marijuana urinalysis results to self-reported marijuana use from 33,313 juvenile arrestees surveyed through the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program (ADAM) between 1991 and 1997. While strength of agreement between the two measures varied by jurisdiction, intrajurisdictional agreements were consistent over time. Findings suggest…

  16. Self-reported empathy and neural activity during action imitation and observation in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Horan, William P.; Iacoboni, Marco; Cross, Katy A.; Korb, Alex; Lee, Junghee; Nori, Poorang; Quintana, Javier; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Green, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although social cognitive impairments are key determinants of functional outcome in schizophrenia their neural bases are poorly understood. This study investigated neural activity during imitation and observation of finger movements and facial expressions in schizophrenia, and their correlates with self-reported empathy. Methods 23 schizophrenia outpatients and 23 healthy controls were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they imitated, executed, or simply observed finger movements and facial emotional expressions. Between-group activation differences, as well as relationships between activation and self-reported empathy, were evaluated. Results Both patients and controls similarly activated neural systems previously associated with these tasks. We found no significant between-group differences in task-related activations. There were, however, between-group differences in the correlation between self-reported empathy and right inferior frontal (pars opercularis) activity during observation of facial emotional expressions. As in previous studies, controls demonstrated a positive association between brain activity and empathy scores. In contrast, the pattern in the patient group reflected a negative association between brain activity and empathy. Conclusions Although patients with schizophrenia demonstrated largely normal patterns of neural activation across the finger movement and facial expression tasks, they reported decreased self perceived empathy and failed to show the typical relationship between neural activity and self-reported empathy seen in controls. These findings suggest that patients show a disjunction between automatic neural responses to low level social cues and higher level, integrative social cognitive processes involved in self-perceived empathy. PMID:25009771

  17. Self-Report Measures of Juvenile Psychopathic Personality Traits: A Comparative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2005-01-01

    The authors evaluated self-report instruments currently being used to assess children and adolescents with psychopathic personality traits with respect to their reliability, validity, and research utility. Comprehensive searches across multiple computerized bibliographic databases were conducted and supplemented with manual searches. A total of 30…

  18. Psychometric Properties of a Youth Self-Report Measure of Neglectful Behavior by Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubowitz, Howard; Villodas, Miguel T.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Pitts, Steven C.; Hussey, Jon M.; Thompson, Richard; Black, Maureen M.; Runyan, Desmond

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to empirically assess psychometric properties of a multi-dimensional youth self-report measure of neglectful behavior by parents. Method: Data were gathered from 593 12-year-old youth participating in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) consortium; 272 also had data at age 14. Youth responded…

  19. Self-Reported ADHD and Adjustment in College: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blase, Stacey L.; Gilbert, Adrianne N.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Costello, E. Jane; Hoyle, Rick H.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott; Rabiner, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between self-reported ADHD and college adjustment. Participants: Study 1 included nearly 3400 undergraduates attending a public and private university. Study 2 included 846 students who participated during freshman and sophomore year. Method: Students completed a web-based survey that assessed diagnostic…

  20. Comparison of Alcoholics' Self-Reports of Drinking Behavior with Reports of Collateral Informants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisto, Stephen A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Posthospitalization follow-up data were collected from 52 alcoholic subjects and their collateral informants. Findings suggest that alcoholics who have been hospitalized for detoxification generally provide reliable self-reports of their posttreatment drinking behavior, and that gathering data from collateral informants is an effective method for…

  1. A Validity Study of Self-Report and Physiological Measures of Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nighswander, James K.; And Others

    This study was an investigation into the relative predictive abilities of two types of test anxiety measures. Galvanic skin response (GSR) levels obtained during achievement testing and a self-report measure of test anxiety, the Test Anxiety Scale for Children (TASC), were used as predictors of IQ and achievement test performances of 119 fifth and…

  2. Child and Partner Abuse: Self-Reported Prevalence and Attitudes in the North of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Carla; Goncalves, Miguel; Matos, Marlene; Dias, Ana Rita

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the self-reported prevalence of child and partner physical and emotional abuse in the north of Portugal and to investigate attitudes about these forms of family violence. Methods: Data were collected by questionnaire from a representative sample of parents in two-parent families with children under the age of 18 years. A…

  3. "Thou Shalt Not Plagiarise": From Self-Reported Views to Recognition and Avoidance of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risquez, Angelica; O'Dwyer, Michele; Ledwith, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Throughout much of the literature on plagiarism in higher education, there is an implicit assumption that students who understand plagiarism, who have high ethical views and declare not to engage in plagiaristic behaviour are able to recognise it and avoid it in practice. Challenging this supposition, this paper contrasts students' self-reported

  4. Cognitive Control in Adolescence: Neural Underpinnings and Relation to Self-Report Behaviors

    E-print Network

    Banich, Marie T.

    Cognitive Control in Adolescence: Neural Underpinnings and Relation to Self-Report Behaviors, Denver, Colorado, United States of America Abstract Background: Adolescence is commonly characterized that these adolescent behaviors are linked to under-developed proactive control mechanisms, the present study employed

  5. Youth Self-Report of Physical and Sexual Abuse: A Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nooner, Kate B.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Thompson, Richard; Margolis, Benjamin; English, Diana J.; Knight, Elizabeth D.; Everson, Mark D.; Roesch, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if meaningful groups of at-risk pre-adolescent youth could be identified based on their self-report of physical and sexual abuse histories. Methods: Youth participating in a consortium of ongoing longitudinal studies were interviewed using an audio-computer assisted self-interview (A-CASI) when they were approximately 12…

  6. Consistency in Drug Use Self-Reported by Incarcerated Adolescents to Correctional Staff vs. Research Interviewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarvey, Elizabeth L.; Waite, Dennis; Martindale, James R.; Koopman, Cheryl; Brown, Gerald L.; Canterbury, Randolph J.

    2002-01-01

    Tests consistency of self-reports of alcohol and drug use by comparing responses incarcerated youth give to corrections staff and to university research interviewers only weeks apart. Significantly more incarcerated adolescents (n = 894) report lifetime drug and alcohol use to researchers than to correctional staff. Sex and ethnic differences were…

  7. Oppositional Defiance, Moral Reasoning and Moral Value Evaluation as Predictors of Self-Reported Juvenile Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beerthuizen, Marinus G. C. J.; Brugman, Daniel; Basinger, Karen S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among oppositional defiant attitudes, moral reasoning, moral value evaluation and self-reported delinquent behaviour in adolescents ("N" = 351, "M"[subscript AGE] = 13.8 years, "SD"[subscript AGE] = 1.1). Of particular interest were the moderating effects of age, educational…

  8. Methamphetamine Use, Self-Reported Violent Crime, and Recidivism Among Offenders in California Who Abuse Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartier, Jerome; Farabee, David; Prendergast, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses data from 641 state prison parolees in California to examine the associations between methamphetamine use and three measures of criminal behavior: (a) self-reported violent criminal behavior, (b) return to prison for a violent offense, and (c) return to prison for any reason during the first 12 months of parole. Methamphetamine use…

  9. Children’s self-report of pain intensity: What we know, where we are headed

    PubMed Central

    von Baeyer, Carl L

    2009-01-01

    The present paper provides a short, practical introduction to children’s self-report measures of pain intensity, followed by an overview of principles and issues. Details on individual self-report scales were previously reported in a landmark systematic review in 2006 and will not be repeated here. Broader measurement issues discussed here include interpretation of pain scores over time, across individuals and in relation to contextual factors; special considerations affecting children younger than six years of age; social communicative functions of pain reports; cognitive developmental factors in understanding pain scales and their anchors; screening for the ability to use self-report scales and training for children who do not have this skill; level of measurement (interval versus ordinal); estimating clinically significant change for groups and individuals; and measurement of aspects of pain other than intensity. Also highlighted are areas in which there has been progress and a lack of progress since the last time this topic was featured at the International Forum on Pediatric Pain in 1996. The present article closes with an outline of key areas for further research on children’s self-report of pain and a brief summary of recommendations for clinicians. PMID:19262915

  10. Effects of Classroom Acoustics and Self-Reported Noise Exposure on Teachers' Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger; Lund, Soren Peter; Shibuya, Hitomi; Nielsen, Per Moberg

    2013-01-01

    Beyond noise annoyance and voice problems, little is known about the effects that noise and poor classroom acoustics have on teachers' health and well-being. The aim of this field study was therefore to investigate the effects of perceived noise exposure and classroom reverberation on measures of well-being. Data on self-reported noise exposure,…

  11. Patient Safety Competence of Nursing Students in Saudi Arabia: A Self-Reported Survey

    PubMed Central

    Colet, Paolo C.; Cruz, Jonas P.; Cruz, Charlie P.; Al-otaibi, Jazi; Qubeilat, Hikmet; Alquwez, Nahed

    2015-01-01

    Objective With the growing recognition of the significance of patient safety (PS) in educational institutions and health organizations, it is essential to understand the perspective of nursing students on their own PS competence. This study analyzed the self-reported PS competence of nursing students at a government university in Saudi Arabia. Methodology A cross-sectional self-reported survey of 191 respondents, using the Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey (H-PEPSS) was conducted. The survey tool reflected 6 key socio-cultural dimensions assessing competence in classroom and clinical setting. Results Female nursing students reported higher PS competence in both the classroom and clinical settings along the dimensions ‘working in teams’ and ‘communicating effectively’ while males reported higher competence in both settings as to the ‘managing safety risks’ and ‘understanding human and environmental factors’ dimensions. The respondents’ academic level and self–reported PS competence have weak negative correlation in the classroom while a strong negative correlation between the 2 variables existed in the clinical setting. Self-reported PS competence for the dimensions ‘working in teams’, ‘recognize and respond to remove immediate risks of harm’, and ‘culture of safety’ is significantly higher in classroom than in the clinical setting. Conclusion Generally, the Saudi nursing students reported varying levels of competence in the six dimensions of patient safety. Significant gap between the perceived PS competence was observed between learning settings. Educational and training interventions are suggested for implementation to bridge this gap. PMID:26715921

  12. Dispositional Mindfulness Co-varies with Self-Reported Positive Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Adam W.; Garland, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that mindfulness is associated with positive reappraisal and that mindfulness practice may be a means of encouraging positive reappraisal capacities. These findings, linking mindfulness with the promotion of cognitive coping strategies, challenge traditional Western conceptualizations of mindfulness as non-discursive. This study explored the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and self-reported positive reappraisal across five distinct samples: a general sample of American adults, contemplative practitioners, college students chronic pain outpatients, and alcohol dependent inpatient. Results indicate that dispositional mindfulness is positively related with self-reported positive reappraisal in all five studies as well as in an aggregated analysis combining all five studies. Furthermore, a second set of analyses statistically controlling for factors previously associated with positive reappraisal (i.e., psychological well-being, positive affect, and positive refocusing), provided evidence that mindfulness is uniquely associated with self-reported positive reappraisal. While more research is needed to refine our understanding of the relationship between mindfulness and positive reappraisal, the present investigation contributes to the growing evidence base supporting the hypothesized link between dispositional mindfulness and self-reported reappraisal by demonstrating a significant association between these constructs across a variety of samples and in the largest combined dataset on this phenomenon collected to date (N=819). PMID:24904191

  13. Adolescent Alcohol Use Self-Report Stability: A Decade of Panel Study Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.; Reed, Mark B.; Woodruff, Susan I.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed six waves of panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). These analyses were conducted to test the stability of self-reported lifetime use and age of onset. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicated that the stability of age of onset reports decreased with longer time frames between follow-ups.…

  14. Measuring Graduate Students' Teaching and Research Skills through Self-Report: Descriptive Findings and Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Joanna; Feldon, David

    2010-01-01

    This study extends research on graduate student development by examining descriptive findings and validity of a self-report survey designed to capture graduate students' assessments of their teaching and research skills. Descriptive findings provide some information about areas of growth among graduate students' in the first years of their…

  15. Visual Field Asymmetries in Attention Vary with Self-Reported Attention Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poynter, William; Ingram, Paul; Minor, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an index of self-reported attention deficits predicts the pattern of visual field asymmetries observed in behavioral measures of attention. Studies of "normal" subjects do not present a consistent pattern of asymmetry in attention functions, with some studies showing better left visual field (LVF)…

  16. A Closer Look at Self-Reported Suicide Attempts: False Positives and False Negatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing…

  17. Development of a Measure to Assess Youth Self-Reported Experiences of Activity Settings (SEAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Batorowicz, Beata; Rigby, Patty; McMain-Klein, Margot; Thompson, Laura; Pinto, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for psychometrically sound measures of youth experiences of community/home leisure activity settings. The 22-item Self-Reported Experiences of Activity Settings (SEAS) captures the following experiences of youth with a Grade 3 level of language comprehension or more: Personal Growth, Psychological Engagement, Social Belonging,…

  18. Could Patient Self-reported Health Data Complement EHR for Phenotyping?

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Daniel; Wilcox, Adam B.; Weng, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) have been used as a valuable data source for phenotyping. However, this method suffers from inherent data quality issues like data missingness. As patient self-reported health data are increasingly available, it is useful to know how the two data sources compare with each other for phenotyping. This study addresses this research question. We used self-reported diabetes status for 2,249 patients treated at Columbia University Medical Center and the well-known eMERGE EHR phenotyping algorithm for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) to conduct the experiment. The eMERGE algorithm achieved high specificity (.97) but low sensitivity (.32) among this patient cohort. About 87% of the patients with self-reported diabetes had at least one ICD-9 code, one medication, or one lab result supporting a DM2 diagnosis, implying the remaining 13% may have missing or incorrect self-reports. We discuss the tradeoffs in both data sources and in combining them for phenotyping. PMID:25954446

  19. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  20. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. PMID:25381280

  1. Teacher Disapproval, Delinquent Peers, and Self-Reported Delinquency: A Longitudinal Test of Labeling Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mike S.; Evans, T. David

    1996-01-01

    Uses data from the National Youth Survey to assess the effects of individual students' perceptions of teacher disapproval on self-reported delinquency. Results indicate that the perceptions of teacher disapproval are associated with subsequent delinquency. This relationship was significant when controlling for prior delinquency, thus weakening the…

  2. Student Self-Reported Learning Outcomes of Field Trips: The Pedagogical Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alon, Nirit Lavie; Tal, Tali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used the classification and regression trees (CART) method to draw relationships between student self-reported learning outcomes in 26 field trips to natural environments and various characteristics of the field trip that include variables associated with preparation and pedagogy. We wished to examine the extent to which the…

  3. Children's Emotion Regulation: Self-Report and Physiological Response to Peer Provocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Danielle M.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the notion that children's emotion regulation (ER) is a uniform skill by (a) investigating the concordance between self-report of ER and physiological measures and by (b) examining ER in a specific context (e.g., peer provocation) and context-free manner (e.g., during a semistructured interview of ER abilities). Seventy-two…

  4. Self-Consciousness and Body Image: Length and Accuracy of Self-Reports of Physical Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Robert G.; Gilliland, LuNell

    The extent to which private self-consciousness (as defined by Fenigstein, Scheier, and Buss, 1975) is related to the length and accuracy of self-reports concerning physical characteristics was investigated. In the first phase of the experiment subjects (N=87) listed their physical characteristics that they liked, disliked, or toward which they…

  5. From Access to Usage: The Divide of Self-Reported Digital Skills among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Zhi-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Based on the PISA data in 2003 and 2006, this paper develops a hierarchical linear model to identify multi-level explanatory variables of the divide of adolescents' self-reported digital skills. At the country-level, the study finds a generally negative relationship between the ICT penetration rate of a country and adolescents' digital skills,…

  6. Effects of Implementation Intentions on the Self-Reported Frequency of Drivers' Compliance with Speed Limits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Mark A.; Armitage, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of implementation intentions in the context of drivers' speeding behavior. Participants (N = 300) completed self-report measures of goal intention and behavior, and they were randomly assigned to an experimental condition, which required them to specify an implementation intention, or a control condition. One month…

  7. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…

  8. Self-Reported versus Observed Classroom Activities in Elementary General Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Cecilia Chu; Sogin, David W.

    1997-01-01

    Compares self-reported music class activity time use and actual time use of general music teachers. Indicates that teachers' own estimates of time use is greater than is the actual time. Reports additional findings related to general music teaching, teaching intensity, and teaching effectiveness. (DSK)

  9. Correspondence between Self-Report and Interview-Based Assessments of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Laura S.; Poythress, Norman G.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Edens, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is associated with suicide, violence, and risk-taking behavior and can slow response to first-line treatment for Axis I disorders. ASPD may be assessed infrequently because few efficient diagnostic tools are available. This study evaluated 2 promising self-report measures for assessing ASPD--the ASPD scale of…

  10. Self-Reported Use of Different Forms of Aggression in Late Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verona, Edelyn; Sadeh, Naomi; Case, Steve M.; Reed, Americus, II; Bhattacharjee, Amit

    2008-01-01

    Two studies investigated the psychometric properties of a self-report measure of commonly recognized forms of aggression (FOA) that could be used to efficiently gather aggression data in large samples. EFA and CFA in Study 1 suggested that a five-factor model (Physical, Property, Verbal, Relational, and Passive-Rational) best represented the data…

  11. Measuring Cognitive Load: A Comparison of Self-Report and Physiological Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    This study explored three methods to measure cognitive load in a learning environment using four logic puzzles that systematically varied in level of intrinsic cognitive load. Participants' perceived intrinsic load was simultaneously measured with a self-report measure-a traditional subjective measure-and two objective, physiological measures…

  12. Measuring Cognitive Engagement with Self-Report Scales: Reflections from over 20 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Research spanning 20 years is reviewed as it relates to the measurement of cognitive engagement using self-report scales. The author's research program is at the forefront of the review, although the review is couched within the broader context of the research on motivation and cognitive engagement that began in the early 1990s. The…

  13. Self-Reported Intentions and Related Factors for Sexual Onset in Rural Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazar, Barry L.; Zanis, David A.; Melochick, Jennifer Ryan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines early adolescent self-reported intentions about having sex during the next year. A total of 114 variables are investigated for possible associations with lower versus higher levels of intention about having sex. The sample consists of 306 early adolescents from several middle schools in a predominantly white, rural community in…

  14. Comparison of Phosphatidylethanol Results to Self-Reported Alcohol Consumption Among Young Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Jennifer; Evans, Jennifer L.; Briceño, Alya; Page, Kimberly; Hahn, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To test the value of phosphatidylethanol (PEth) as a biomarker for alcohol consumption among injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods: As part of a longitudinal study of young IDUs, dried blood spots and self-reported alcohol by structured interview were collected at baseline. We compared self-reported alcohol use to detectable PEth (?8?ng/ml) in the blood spots as well as the relationships between quantitative PEth results and quantity measures of alcohol consumption. Results: There were strong associations between PEth and self-reported categorical measures of alcohol consumption (all P < 0.01). There was high specificity for reporting abstaining from alcohol; 94% of those who reported not consuming alcohol in the prior month tested negative for PEth. PEth was well correlated with measures of alcohol use (e.g. with reported number of days drinking in the prior month: Spearman r = 0.70 (P < 0.001)). Conclusions: The positive correlation of PEth with reported alcohol consumption suggests that PEth may be a useful marker in settings where alcohol consumption is difficult to assess, or to corroborate or invalidate self-reported measures of alcohol consumption. PMID:24939855

  15. Self-Reported Frequency and Perceived Severity of Being Bullied among Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study reports students' perspectives on the frequency and perceived severity of being bullied. Methods: A sample of 1816 elementary school students completed self-report surveys of perceived severity and frequency of being bullied. A Rasch technique aligned different victimized behaviors on interval logit scales. A 4-fold schema…

  16. Counselor Confirmation of Middle School Student Self-Reports of Bullying Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey; Mehta, Sharmila B.

    2011-01-01

    School counselors frequently use self-report surveys to assess bullying despite little research on their accuracy. In this study, counselor follow-up interviews found that only 24 (56%) of 43 middle school students who self-identified as victims of bullying could be confirmed as actual victims. Other students described peer conflicts that did not…

  17. Relation between Direct Observation of Relaxation and Self-Reported Mindfulness and Relaxation States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Lacey S.; Lundervold, Duane A.

    2013-01-01

    Forty-four individuals, 18-47 (MN 21.8, SD 5.63) years of age, took part in a study examining the magnitude and direction of the relationship between self-report and direct observation measures of relaxation and mindfulness. The Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS), a valid direct observation measure of relaxation, was used to assess relaxed behavior…

  18. Achievement Goal Orientation and Differences in Self-Reported Copying Behaviour across Academic Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songsriwittaya, Alisa; Koul, Ravinder; Kongsuwan, Sak

    2010-01-01

    This survey study investigated the relationship between achievement goal orientation and self-reported copying behaviour among college students (N = 2007) enrolled in five different academic programmes in Thailand. Results of statistical analysis showed several significant findings: performance approach goal orientation, performance avoidance goal…

  19. Suicidal Behavior, Negative Affect, Gender, and Self-Reported Delinquency in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Arata, Catalina; Bowers, David; O'Brien, Natalie; Morgan, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The associations among suicidal behavior, negative affect, and delinquency were assessed via an anonymous self-report survey administered to male and female college students ( N = 383). Contrary to our hypothesized results, there were no gender differences in rates of suicidal ideation and attempts. Confirming our hypotheses about gender…

  20. Computer-Elicited Parental Self-Reports: Reactions to, Reliability, and Behavioral Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, George W.; And Others

    This paper discusses a method of eliciting parental self-reports about child-rearing behavior. The method, called computer-presented social situations (CPSS), uses vignettes that are presented on computers. Several studies examined: (1) what mothers think about the technique; (2) reliability of data collected by the technique; and (3) validity of…

  1. Teacher Attitudes, Perceived Influences, and Self-Reported Classroom Behaviors Related to School Nutrition Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Beverly Lawler

    2010-01-01

    This study determined attitudes of kindergarten through fifth grade teachers about school nutrition environments, their perceived influence on school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors. Specific objectives were to: (a) identify perceived factors that influence the school nutrition environment, according to teachers…

  2. Collegiate Swimmers: Sex Differences in Self Reported and Physiological Stress Indices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gackenbach, Jayne

    Research has suggested that sex role identity is a major factor in sports anxiety across the sexes. Sex and sex role differences in sports anxiety as expressed by collegiate swimmers prior to competition were investigated on both self-report and physiological levels. An hour before practice and competition the blood pressures of 13 female and 14…

  3. Exploration Linking Self-Reported Disordered Eating and Wellness in Undergraduate Health Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Pamela K.

    2009-01-01

    University campus environments are conducive to the development of disordered eating in students. Busy schedules, easy access to fast food, and the transition from high school to college contribute to the development of disordered eating in university students. This researcher explored whether a relationship exists between self-reported disordered…

  4. Exploring Outcomes and Initial Self-Report of Client Motivation in a College Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilagan, Guy; Vinson, Michael L.; Sharp, Julia L.; Ilagan, Jill; Oberman, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the association between college counseling center clients' initial self-report of motivation and counseling outcome. Participants: The sample was composed of 331 student clients who utilized a college counseling center from August 2007 to August 2009. The college is a public, mid-size, urban university in the Southeast.…

  5. The Influence of Exercise Intensity on Frontal Electroencephalographic Asymmetry and Self-Reported Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Minjung; Kim, Sungwoon; Kim, Jingu; Petruzzello, Steven J.; Hatfield, Bradley D.

    2010-01-01

    The "feel better" effect of exercise has been well established, but the optimal intensity needed to elicit a positive affective response is controversial. In addition, the mechanisms underlying such a response are unclear. To clarify these issues, female undergraduate students were monitored for electroencephalographic (EEG) and self-reported

  6. Reliability and Validity of Retrospective Behavioral Self-Report by Narcotics Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, M. Douglas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reliability and validity of self-reported behavior within a deviant population are examined using data from 2 interviews with 323 narcotics addicts conducted 10 years apart (1974-75 and 1985-86). Results complement existing reliability and validity studies of alcohol use, and suggest that quality information can be obtained from heroin users. (SLD)

  7. Internal Consistency Reliability of the Self-Report Antisocial Process Screening Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Falkenbach, Diana; Cruise, Keith; Lee, Zina; Murrie, Daniel C.; Vitacco, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The self-report version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) has become a popular measure for assessing psychopathic features in justice-involved adolescents. However, the internal consistency reliability of its component scales (Narcissism, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsivity) has been questioned in several studies. This study…

  8. Self-Reports of Pap Smear Screening in Women with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin

    2011-01-01

    We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical…

  9. Name (Last, First, Middle Initial): SELF-REPORTED APPLICATION SUPPLEMENT FOR FRESHMEN

    E-print Network

    Name (Last, First, Middle Initial): SELF-REPORTED APPLICATION SUPPLEMENT FOR FRESHMEN Email: Month name: Enter the institution in which the course was completed. For example, if the course was taken or will be taken at a high school, list the high school name. If the course was taken or will be taken

  10. Adults' Strategies for Simple Addition and Multiplication: Verbal Self-Reports and the Operand Recognition Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Arron W. S.; Campbell, Jamie I. D.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate measurement of cognitive strategies is important in diverse areas of psychological research. Strategy self-reports are a common measure, but C. Thevenot, M. Fanget, and M. Fayol (2007) proposed a more objective method to distinguish different strategies in the context of mental arithmetic. In their operand recognition paradigm, speed of…

  11. Effects of Age and Ability on Self-Reported Memory Functioning and Knowledge of Memory Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of age and ability (as measured by education and verbal ability) on self-reported memory functioning in adulthood. In Study 1, the age and ability groups responded similarly to the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (D. E. Broadbent, P. F. Cooper, P. Fitzgerald, & K. R. Parkes, 1982), but differences emerged when the…

  12. Accuracy of Self-Reported Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening by Women with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Esther; Parish, Susan L.; Swaine, Jamie G.; Luken, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the accuracy of self-report of cervical and breast cancer screening by women with intellectual disability ("n" ?=? 155). Data from face-to-face interviews and medical records were analyzed. Total agreement, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. Total…

  13. Self-Reported Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Myelomeningocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller-Godeffroy, E.; Michael, T.; Poster, M.; Seidel, U.; Schwarke, D.; Thyen, U.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents with myelomeningocele (MMC) and to examine the impact of clinical impairments and limitations in activities of daily living (ADL). Fifty patients (28 females, 22 males) between 8 and 16 years of age (mean age 12y 1mo [SD 2y…

  14. Development of a Self-report Measure of Environmental Spatial Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Richardson, Anthony E.; Montello, Daniel R.; Lovelace, Kristin; Subbiah, Ilavanil

    2002-01-01

    Developed a standardized self-report scale of environmental spatial ability, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale and evaluated it in six studies with 544 college students. Results supported the reliability of the scale and suggested that the scale is related to tasks that require one to update location in space as a result of self-motion.…

  15. Negative affect, negative urgency, thought suppression, and bulimic symptoms: a moderated mediation analysis in a sample at-risk for bulimic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Green, Daniel; Anestis, Michael D; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L

    2015-05-01

    Research suggests that negative affect, negative urgency, and thought suppression are related to bulimic symptoms, either directly or indirectly. This study examined associations between these constructs in a sample at-risk for bulimic symptoms. Participants (N = 80) recruited from a residential substance abuse treatment facility completed self-report questionnaires. A regression-based bootstrapping approach was used to examine the indirect effect of negative affect on bulimic symptoms through negative urgency and the moderating role of thought suppression in the association between negative affect and negative urgency. Results revealed a significant indirect effect, significant moderation, and a significant moderated mediation effect, with an indirect effect of negative affect on bulimic symptoms through negative urgency, conditional upon low to moderate (but not high) levels of thought suppression. These findings suggest that negative affect may promote rash actions, particularly in the context of low to moderate thought suppression, leading to increased risk of bulimic symptoms. PMID:25783752

  16. Affective Dispositions and PTSD Symptom Clusters in Female Interpersonal Trauma Survivors.

    PubMed

    Brown, Wilson J; Bruce, Steven E; Buchholz, Katherine R; Artime, Tiffany M; Hu, Emily; Sheline, Yvette I

    2016-02-01

    Interpersonal trauma (IPT) against women can have dire psychological consequences including persistent maladaptive changes in the subjective experience of affect. Contemporary literature has firmly established heightened negative affect (NA) as a risk and maintenance factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the relationship between NA and PTSD symptoms is not well understood within IPT survivors, the majority of whom are female, as much of this research has focused on combat veterans. In addition, the connection between positive affect (PA) and PTSD symptoms has yet to be examined. With increased emphasis on "negative alterations in cognitions and mood . . ." as an independent symptom cluster of PTSD in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5), understanding the relationship between self-reported affectivity and the classic PTSD symptom clusters may be increasingly useful in differentiating symptom presentations of trauma-related psychopathology. The current study directly compared self-reported trait NA and PA with total severity and frequency cluster scores from the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) in 54 female survivors of IPT who met criteria for PTSD. Results identify NA (but not PA) as a consistent predictor of total PTSD symptoms and, specifically, re-experiencing symptoms. PMID:25389192

  17. A self-help behavioral activation treatment for geriatric depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Moss, Kathryn; Scogin, Forrest; Di Napoli, Elizabeth; Presnell, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated behavioral activation (BA) bibliotherapy as a treatment for late-life depressive symptoms. BA bibliotherapy was administered using Addis and Martell's Overcoming depression one step at a time as a stand-alone treatment that was completed by participants (N=26) over a 4-week period [Addis, M.E., & Martell, C.R. (2004). Overcoming depression one step at a time. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.]. Results of an immediate intervention group were compared with those of a delayed treatment control group and treatment response for both groups was evaluated at 1-month follow-up. Primary outcome results showed that symptoms on a clinician-rated measure of depressive symptoms, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, were significantly lower at post-treatment for those who received immediate BA bibliotherapy compared with those who were in the delayed treatment control condition. However, self-reported depressive symptoms (a secondary outcome measured via the Geriatric Depression Scale), were not significantly different at this period. Because study control was lost after the delayed treatment group received the intervention, within-subjects analyses examining both treatment groups combined showed that clinician-rated depressive symptoms significantly decreased from pre-treatment to both post-treatment and 1-month follow-up. Self-reported depressive symptoms were significantly lower from pre-treatment to 1-month follow-up. These findings suggest that BA may be useful in treating mild or subthreshold depressive symptoms in an older adult population. PMID:22304676

  18. What Drives Alignment between Teachers' Survey Self-Reports and Classroom Observations of Standards-Based Mathematics Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Julia; Junker, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Research on whether teachers can give accurate self-reports in surveys about their mathematics instruction is fairly mixed. Some of that research indicates that teachers can provide some general approximation of their mathematics instruction in survey self-reports, while other studies find very little correlation between teachers' survey responses…

  19. The Stability of Self-Reported Marijuana Use across Eight Years of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.; Reed, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined teen marijuana report stability over 8 years. The stability of self-reports refers to the consistency of self-reported use across several years. This study used fives waves of data across 8 years from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Analyses were conducted to examine the internal or within-wave consistency as well as…

  20. Validity of Self-Reported Drug Use among Injection Drug Users and Crack Cocaine Users Recruited through Street Outreach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherby, Norman L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The validity of self-reported drug use as a measure of behavioral change for evaluation of drug use prevention and human immunovirus risk reduction programs was examined, using responses of 154 subjects. Results suggest that self-reports of drug use are accurate enough for measuring risk behavior change in program participants. (SLD)

  1. Accuracy in assessment of self-reported stress and a measure of health from static facial information

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    Accuracy in assessment of self-reported stress and a measure of health from static facial in revised form 1 June 2011 Accepted 6 June 2011 Available online xxxx Keywords: Stress Health Appearance facial appearance and self-reported stress and health. Specifically, we examined (1) within and between

  2. Accuracy of Self-Reported College GPA: Gender-Moderated Differences by Achievement Level and Academic Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskie, Grace I. L.; Sutton, MaryAnn C.; Eckhardt, Amanda G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of college academic achievement tend to rely on self-reported GPA values, yet evidence is limited regarding the accuracy of those values. With a sample of 194 undergraduate college students, the present study examined whether accuracy of self-reported GPA differed based on level of academic performance or level of academic…

  3. Assessing the Validity of Self-Reports by Gang Members: Results from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Vincent J.; Katz, Charles M.; Decker, Scott H.

    2006-01-01

    Scholars who study criminal and delinquent behavior rely on the self-report method for measuring crime and delinquency. Gang researchers also rely on the self-report method for determining gang involvement and measuring criminal and delinquent behavior of gang members. This study examines disclosure rates of recent drug use by gang members in…

  4. Measuring Educational Outcomes for At-Risk Children and Youth: Issues with the Validity of Self-Reported Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teye, Amanda Cleveland; Peaslee, Liliokanaio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Youth programs often rely on self-reported data without clear evidence as to the accuracy of these reports. Although the validity of self-reporting has been confirmed among some high school and college age students, one area that is absent from extant literature is a serious investigation among younger children. Moreover, there is…

  5. Agreement between Self-Report and Archival Public Service Utilization Data among Chronically Homeless Individuals with Severe Alcohol Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifasefi, Seema L.; Collins, Susan E.; Tanzer, Kenneth; Burlingham, Bonnie; Hoang, Sara E.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Public service utilization data are often used as key outcomes in studies on homelessness. Although self-report data on these outcomes are accessible and cost-effective, various factors may affect retrospective recall in homeless populations. It is therefore necessary to establish validity of self-report to ensure the integrity of studies…

  6. Issues Concerning Self-Report Data and Population-Based Data Sets Involving People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric; Felce, David; Stancliffe, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two methodological issues regarding ways of obtaining and analyzing outcome data for people with intellectual disabilities: (a) self-report and proxy-report data and (b) analysis of population-based data sets. Some people with intellectual disabilities have difficulties with self-reporting due to problems of understanding and…

  7. Associations between Peer Victimization, Self-Reported Depression and Social Phobia among Adolescents: The Role of Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Associations of peer victimization with adolescent depression and social phobia (SP), while controlling for comorbidity between them, have not been sufficiently explored in earlier research. A total of 3156 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 years participated in a survey study. Self-reported peer victimization, as well as self-reported depression…

  8. Self-Reported Disciplinary Practices among Women in the Child Welfare System: Association with Domestic Violence Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Kelly J.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Wang, Yun; McGeehan, Jennifer; Kohl, Patricia L.; Gardner, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between physical domestic violence victimization (both recent and more than a year in past measured by self-report) and self-reported disciplinary practices among female parents/caregivers in a national sample of families referred to child welfare. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of more than 3,000 female…

  9. Differences in Allergic Sensitization by Self-reported Race and Genetic Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Yang, James J.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Choudhry, Shweta; Johnson, Christine C.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Favro, David; Chen, Justin; Akana, Matthew; Ha, Connie; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Krajenta, Richard; Havstad, Suzanne L.; Joseph, Christine L.; Seibold, Max A.; Shriver, Mark D.; Williams, L. Keoki

    2010-01-01

    Background Many allergic conditions occur more frequently in African-American patients when compared with white patients; however it is not known whether this represents genetic predisposition or disparate environmental exposures. Objective To assess the relationship of self-reported race and genetic ancestry to allergic sensitization. Methods We included 601 women enrolled in a population-based cohort study whose self-reported race was African-American or white. Genetic ancestry was estimated using markers that differentiate West African and European ancestry. We assessed the relationship between allergic sensitization (defined as ?1 allergen-specific IgE result) and both self-reported race and genetic ancestry. Regression models adjusted for socio-demographic variables, environmental exposures, and location of residence. Results The average proportion of West African ancestry in African-American participants was 0.69, whereas the mean proportion of European ancestry in white participants was 0.79. Self-reported African-American race was associated with allergic sensitization when compared with those who reported being white (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22 – 3.93) even after adjusting for other variables. Genetic ancestry was not significantly associated with allergic sensitization after accounting for location of residence (aOR 2.09 for urban vs. suburban residence, 95% CI 1.32 ?3.31). Conclusion Self-reported race and location of residence appeared to be more important predictors of allergic sensitization when compared with genetic ancestry, suggesting that the disparity in allergic sensitization by race may be primarily due to environmental factors rather than genetic differences. Clinical Implications These data suggest that efforts to eliminate disparities in allergic sensitization should focus on contributing environmental factors. PMID:19014772

  10. Association of Nurses' Self-Reported Empathy and Mu Suppression with Patients' Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Nasser; Azma, Kamran; Tavakolian, Ehsan; Peyvand, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to explore the association between mu suppression and self-reported empathy in nurses with patients’ satisfaction. Methods: For this correlational study, 30 male nurses, as well as 30 patients took care by these nurses during the week before data gathering, were selected via accessible and random sampling method, respectively. The tools included Jefferson's Scale of Empathy-health professionals, and patient’s satisfaction scale of La Monica-Oberst. Activation of Mirror Neurons System (MNS) was investigated by mu suppression. For this purpose, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded in three phases: 1) Watching the video of a non-moving hand, 2) Watching the video of a hand being open and closed, and 3) Opening and closing one-self's hand. EEG recordings were analyzed using Matlab R 2014a software. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regression analyses. Results: There was no significant correlation between mu suppression in nurses with nurses' self-reported empathy and patients' satisfaction, however, a significant correlation was found between nurses' self-reported empathy and patients' satisfaction. Regression analysis outcomes showed that nurses' self-reported empathy could predict 18.5% (nearly one fifth) of patients' satisfaction variance while mu suppression did not forecast patients' satisfaction significantly. Conclusion: These findings suggested that mu rhythm was a good biomarker neither for nurses' self-reported empathy nor for patients' satisfaction. In addition, it was manifested that patients' satisfaction, at least partly, depended on skills that nurses could learn, since showing empathy is highly learnable. PMID:26464836

  11. Emotional reactivity, coping style and cancer trauma symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Laskowska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This article studies the relationship between emotional reactivity and coping style on the one hand and intensity of symptoms of trauma in adult patients with cancer on the other hand. Material and methods The study was conducted on 150 patients, 55 women and 95 men, hospitalized for diagnosed cancer. Temperament was assessed with the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour – Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI). Coping style was assessed with the Polish version of the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC). Intensity of intrusion/hyperarousal and avoidance/numbing was assessed with the Factorial Version Inventory (PTSD), a quantitative measure of trauma-related symptoms. Results The outcomes of this study suggest that individual coping style is what determines the intensity of trauma-related symptoms most strongly. Destructive coping style accounts for 49% of the variance of symptom intensity and emotional reactivity accounts for 6%. Combined, destructive coping style and emotional reactivity account for 55% of the variance of general post-traumatic stress symptoms. Conclusions Destructive coping style (more important determinant of trauma symptoms) and high emotional reactivity as one of temperament traits are conducive to intensification of cancer trauma symptoms in adult patients. Our findings suggest that constructive coping style and low emotional reactivity may act as a specific protector against cancer trauma symptoms in adults. PMID:24701223

  12. Symptoms of Autism in Males with Fragile X Syndrome: A Comparison to Nonsyndromic ASD Using Current ADI-R Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Andrea; Thurman, Angela John; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of autism are frequent in males with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but it is not clear whether symptom profiles differ from those of nonsyndromic ASD. Using individual item scores from the Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, we examined which current symptoms of autism differed in boys with FXS relative to same-aged boys diagnosed with…

  13. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P < 0.05). There was a significant gene × sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P < 0.05), with the interaction occurring on genetic influences that are common to both sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (< 7 h/night) or high (? 9 h/night) range, increased genetic influence on depressive symptoms was observed, particularly at sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  14. Skeletal muscle contractility, self-reported pain and tissue sensitivity in females with neck/shoulder pain and upper Trapezius myofascial trigger points– a randomized intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In relation to Myofascial Triggerpoints (MFTrPs) of the upper Trapezius, this study explored muscle contractility characteristics, the occurrence of post-intervention muscle soreness and the effect of dry needling on muscle contractile characteristics and clinical outcomes. Methods Seventy-seven female office workers (25-46yrs) with and without neck/shoulder pain were observed with respect to self-reported pain (NRS-101), pressure-pain threshold (PPT), maximum voluntary contraction (Fmax) and rate of force development (RFD) at baseline (pre-intervention), immediately post-intervention and 48 hours post-intervention. Symptomatic and asymptomatic participant groups were each randomized into two treatment sub-groups (superficial (SDN) and deep dry needling (DDN)) after baseline testing. At 48 hours post-intervention participants were asked whether delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and/or post-needling soreness had developed. Results Muscle contractile characteristics did not differ between groups at baseline. Forty-six individuals developed muscle soreness (39 from mechanical testing and seven from needling). No inter-group differences were observed post-intervention for Fmax or RFD for the four sub-groups. Over the observation period, symptomatic participants reported less pain from both SDN (p= 0.003) and DDN (p=0.011). However, PPT levels were reduced for all participants (p=0.029). Those reporting DOMS experienced significant decreases in PPT, irrespective of symptom state or intervention (p=0.001). Conclusions In selected female neck/shoulder pain sufferers, maximum voluntary contraction and rapid force generation of the upper Trapezius was not influenced by clinically relevant self-reported pain or the presence of diagnostically relevant MFTrPs. Dry needling, deep or superficial, did not affect measured functional outcomes over the 48-hour observation period. DOMS affected participants uniformly irrespective of pain, MFTrP status or intervention type and therefore is like to act as a modifier. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov- NCT01710735 Significance and Innovations The present investigation is one of the first to examine the hypothesis of gross muscle contractile inhibition due to the presence of diagnostically relevant MFTrPs. Individuals suffering from clinically relevant levels of self-reported pain are able to tolerate maximum voluntary contraction testing, but delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a likely side-effect irrespective of symptom status. As a consequence, its confounding effect during subsequent testing must be taken into account. PMID:23176709

  15. ADHD in girls and boys – gender differences in co-existing symptoms and executive function measures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ADHD is diagnosed and treated more often in males than in females. Research on gender differences suggests that girls may be consistently underidentified and underdiagnosed because of differences in the expression of the disorder among boys and girls. One aim of the present study was to assess in a clinical sample of medication naïve boys and girls with ADHD, whether there were significant gender x diagnosis interactions in co-existing symptom severity and executive function (EF) impairment. The second aim was to delineate specific symptom ratings and measures of EF that were most important in distinguishing ADHD from healthy controls (HC) of the same gender. Methods Thirty-seven females with ADHD, 43 males with ADHD, 18 HC females and 32 HC males between 8 and 17 years were included. Co-existing symptoms were assessed with self-report scales and parent ratings. EF was assessed with parent ratings of executive skills in everyday situations (BRIEF), and neuropsychological tests. The three measurement domains (co-existing symptoms, BRIEF, neuropsychological EF tests) were investigated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and random forest classification. Results ANOVAs revealed only one significant diagnosis x gender interaction, with higher rates of self-reported anxiety symptoms in females with ADHD. Random forest classification indicated that co-existing symptom ratings was substantially better in distinguishing subjects with ADHD from HC in females (93% accuracy) than in males (86% accuracy). The most important distinguishing variable was self-reported anxiety in females, and parent ratings of rule breaking in males. Parent ratings of EF skills were better in distinguishing subjects with ADHD from HC in males (96% accuracy) than in females (92% accuracy). Neuropsychological EF tests had only a modest ability to categorize subjects as ADHD or HC in males (73% accuracy) and females (79% accuracy). Conclusions Our findings emphasize the combination of self-report and parent rating scales for the identification of different comorbid symptom expression in boys and girls already diagnosed with ADHD. Self-report scales may increase awareness of internalizing problems particularly salient in females with ADHD. PMID:24206839

  16. Distinct ADHD Symptom Clusters Differentially Associated with Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Ashley A.; Canu, Will H.; Schneider, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: ADHD has been linked to various constructs, yet there is a lack of focus on how its symptom clusters differentially associate with personality, which this study addresses. Method: The current study examines the relationship between impulsive and inattentive ADHD traits and personality, indexed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory

  17. PedsQL gastrointestinal symptoms module feasibility reliability and validity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to report on the measurement properties of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Module for patients with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders (FGIDs) and organic GI diseases, hereafter referred to as "GI disorders," for pati...

  18. Bedbugs: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments A - D Bedbugs Signs, symptoms Bedbugs: Signs and symptoms Bedbug bites : The bites often ... hiding place. Serious and life-threatening reactions to bedbug bites Although less common, it is possible to ...

  19. Acne: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments A - D Acne Signs, symptoms Acne: Signs and symptoms Blackheads and whiteheads Blackheads and ... sandpaper. View as one page View as slideshow Acne signs Many people think that acne is just ...

  20. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Headaches Seizures Memory Depression Mood Swings & Cognitive Changes Fatigue Other Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us ...