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Despite the widespread use of self-report measures of both job-related stressors and strains, relatively few carefully developed scales for which validity data exist are available. In this article, we discuss 3 job stressor scales (Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale, Organizational Constraints Scale, and Quantitative Workload Inventory) and 1 job strain scale (Physical SymptomsInventory). Using meta-analysis, we combined the results
Background Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Methods Using the Self-ReportSymptomInventory (SCL-90), we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females) aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. Results A total of 150 (14.2%) patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4%) had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4%) interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3%) panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7%) violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. Conclusions This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology.
|This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed…
Storch, Eric A.; Khanna, Muniya; Merlo, Lisa J.; Loew, Benjamin A.; Franklin, Martin; Reid, Jeannette M.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Murphy, Tanya K.
|To determine whether self-report psychological inventories could be used to better understand characters in literature, a psychology instructor and an English instructor arranged their courses so that they both focused on interpersonal relationships. The psychology course emphasized research on attraction, romantic love, and interpersonal…
|To investigate significance and measurement of depressive symptoms in young adolescents, 624 students were asked to complete the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during home interviews. The presence of persistent symptoms varied by both race and sex. Results support the feasibility of using a self-reportsymptom scale…
Childhood trauma is an important public health problem, but there are limitations in our ability to measure childhood abuse. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-report instrument for the assessment of childhood trauma that is valid but simple to administer. A total of 288 subjects with and without trauma and psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Early Trauma Inventory– SelfReport (ETI-SR), an instrument for the assessment of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, as well as general traumas, which measures frequency, onset, emotional impact, and other variables. Validity and consistency of the ETI-SR using different methods of scoring was assessed. The ETI-SR was found to have good validity and internal consistency. No method was found to be superior to the simple method of counting the number of items endorsed as having ever occurred in terms of validity. Some items were found to be redundant or not necessary for the accurate measurement of trauma severity within specific domains. Subsequent analyses with a shortened checklist of items showed acceptable validity and internal consistency. These findings suggest that the ETI-SR is a valid measure of early trauma, and suggest future directions for a shortened version of the ETI-SR that could be more easily incorporated into clinical research studies and practice settings.
Bremner, J. Douglas; Bolus, Roger; Mayer, Emeran A.
workers. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a descriptive questionnaire distributed to 2000 office workers in 54 workplaces. Results A total of 1428 subjects (71%) returned the questionnaire, of whom 1185 were eligible for the study. The annual prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms attributed to work was 63%. Sites of symptoms, in order of prevalence, were head\\/neck (42%), low
Prawit Janwantanakul; Praneet Pensri; Viroj Jiamjarasrangsri; Thanes Sinsongsook
|Examines two issues in the assessment of child sexual abuse victims: sensitivity to trauma-related symptoms and validity of self-reports. The Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) and Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY) were completed by 41 sexually abused children. Results reveal that TSCC validity scales moderately correlate with PIY…
|Objective: The effect of manipulating item positioning on self-reported ADHD symptoms was examined. We assessed whether listing DSM-IV ADHD symptoms serially or interspersed affected (a) the correlation between ADHD symptoms and (b) the rate of symptom endorsement. Method: In Study 1, an undergraduate sample (n = 102) completed a measure that…
Mitchell, John T.; Knouse, Laura E.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Kwapil, Thomas R.
The mediating effects of patient legal status on the accuracy of self-reported psychiatric symptoms have not been systematically explored. Problematically, involuntary hospitalization may be associated with a decreased willingness to accurately report symptoms, which may negatively impact choice of treatment intervention and subsequent treatment outcome. The following study examined the association of patient legal status with self-reported psychiatric symptoms and
Derek R. Hopko; Patricia M. Averill; Katherine Cowan; Nurun Shah
Objective Experiencing traumatic events in childhood is related to various psychiatric problems in adulthood, and a comprehensive tool for measuring childhood trauma is necessary in this field. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties, and factor structure of the Korean version of the Early Trauma InventorySelfReport-Short Form (ETISR-SF). ETISR-SF measures the childhood trauma, including physical, and emotional sexual abuse, as well as general traumas. Methods A clinical and nonclinical samples comprising of 97 subjects from a local community, and 207 patients with the ETISR-SF, were assessed. Other tools, including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used to assess clinical symptoms. Additional data from 69 college students was used to examine the test-retest reliability. Results The original four-factor model was supported by the confirmatory factor analysis scale [?2 (351, n=304)=3374.025, p<0.001, TLI=0.969, CFI=0.972, RMSEA=0.030]. The ETISR-SF was found to be a reliable instrument (Cronbach's ?=0.869). Comparison of the ETISR-SF scores discriminated the clinical group from that of the control group. The measure showed good convergent and divergent validity, in that the scores were correlated higher with the scores on the CTQ-SF (0.691) than with the scores on the BDI or BAI (0.424, 0.397 respectively). The ETISR-SF was found to be temporally stable, showing the moderate to high correlation (0.844). Conclusion These findings suggest that the Korean version of the ETISR-SF appears to be a reliable and valid instrument for the measurement of reported childhood trauma.
A self-reportinventory for the assessment of mindfulness skills was developed, and its psychometric characteristics and relationships with other constructs were examined. Participants included three samples of undergraduate students and a sample of outpatients with borderline personality disorder. Based on discussions of mindfulness in the current literature, four mindfulness skills were specified: observing, describing, acting with awareness, and accepting without
This article presents the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI), a self-report instrument that measures multicultural counseling competencies. Study 1 comprised 604 psychology students, psychologists, and counselors in a midwestern state. In Study 2, respondents were a national random sample of 320 university counselors. Instrument analysis included exploratory principal-axis factor analysis with oblique rotation, assessment of factor congruence between the factor structures
Gargi Roysircar Sodowsky; Richard C. Taffe; Terry B. Gutkin; Steven L. Wise
Objective: Report the distribution of scores from the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and estimate the prevalence of self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as compared to clinical diagnoses. Participants: Participants were 1,080 college students, divided into 3 groups: (1) no ADHD diagnosis (n = 972), (2)…
Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.
BACKGROUND: On 4 October 1992, an El Al Boeing 747-F cargo aeroplane crashed on two apartment buildings in Amsterdam. Thirty-nine residents on the ground and the four crew members of the plane died. In the years after, a gradually increasing number of people attributed physical signs and symptoms to their presence at the disaster scene. AIM: To investigate the consistency between patients' symptoms attributed to the crash and GPs' diagnoses and perception of the association with the crash. DESIGN OF STUDY: Comparison between self-reportedsymptoms to a call centre and GPs' medical records on onset and type of symptoms, diagnoses, and GPs' perception of association with the disaster, assessed by questionnaire. SETTING: Consenting patients (n = 621) contacting the call centre and their GPs. METHOD: Patients were interviewed by the call centre staff and interview data were recorded on a database. Questionnaires were sent to the consenting patients' GPs, requesting their opinions on whether or not their patients' symptoms were attributable to the effects of disaster. Baseline differences and differences in reported symptoms between interviewed patients and their GP records were tested using the chi2 test. RESULTS: The 553 responders reported on average 4.3 symptoms to the call centre. The majority of these symptoms (74%) were reported to the GP. Of the ten most commonly reported symptoms, fatigue, skin complaints, feeling anxious or nervous, dyspnoea, and backache featured in 80% of symptoms reported to the GP. One out of four symptoms was either reported to the GP before the disaster took place, or six or more years after (1998/1999, during a period of much media attention). Depression (7%), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (5%) and eczema (5%) were most frequently diagnosed by GPs. They related 6% of all reported symptoms to the disaster. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the symptoms attributed to a disaster by patients have been reported to their GP, who related only a small proportion of these to the disaster.
Donker, G A; Yzermans, C J; Spreeuwenberg, P; van der Zee, J
It is unclear if functional-somatic symptoms in adolescents increase the risk for future psychiatric disorders. Therefore, the outcome and continuity of adolescent self-reported functional-somatic symptoms in young adulthood were assessed. Self-reported data on functional-somatic symptoms from an ongoing epidemiological study in children started in 1983 were analyzed. Participants were adolescents aged 11-18 who filled out standardized questionnaires in 1989 and 1991 and who were reassessed in 1997 when they were young adults between ages 19 and 26. Outcome measures were research psychiatric diagnoses and self-reported functional-somatic symptoms in 1997. Functional-somatic symptoms were associated with other measures of psychopathology in adolescents. Adolescents with specific functional-somatic symptoms tended to report the same symptom along with other symptoms at follow-up. Adolescent self-reported functional-somatic symptoms did not increase the risk for future psychiatric disorders. Young adults with functional-somatic complaints were diagnosed more often than controls with depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, but not with antisocial personality disorders and substance use disorders. Adolescent self-reported functional-somatic symptoms were common and enduring but were not predictive for psychiatric disorders in young adulthood. Adolescents and young adults who complain of multiple functional-somatic complaints should be assessed for the presence of a psychiatric disorder particularly depression or anxiety. PMID:11958361
Dhossche, D; Ferdinand, R; van der Ende, J; Verhulst, F
|The authors describe a new self-report instrument, the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS), which was designed to assess specific symptom dimensions of major depression and related anxiety disorders. They created the IDAS by conducting principal factor analyses in 3 large samples (college students, psychiatric patients, community…
Watson, David; O'Hara, Michael W.; Simms, Leonard J.; Kotov, Roman; Chmielewski, Michael; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth A.; Gamez, Wakiza; Stuart, Scott
BackgroundThe diagnosis and management of concussion in sport rely heavily on self-report of symptoms by the athlete. However, many symptoms commonly reported after a concussion (headache, nausea, fatigue, etc.) may be influenced by other factors. Fatigue is a frequent complaint, but may actually be a function of level of physical fitness.ObjectiveTo evaluate the role of physical fitness on self-report of
C Lebrun; M Mrazik; D Naidu; J Matthews-White; A Game
Presents two studies designed to examine the self-report of depressive symptoms in low back pain patients (N=134). Both studies found that patients were more likely to report somatic than cognitive symptoms of depression. Patients with multiple physical findings were not more likely to report somatic symptoms than patients with few physical…
ObjectiveThe present study examined the specificity of self-reported childhood attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) in young adults with (1) a previous diagnosis of ADHD, (2) comorbid ADHD and psychological symptoms or diagnoses, (3) psychological diagnoses or symptoms without comorbid ADHD, and (4) controls.
Julie Suhr; Eric Zimak; Melissa Buelow; Laurie Fox
The association between self-reportedsymptoms and diurnal cortisol profiles was studied in post-puberty adolescents (29 boys and 29 girls, Mage=15.06 years). The adolescents completed the Children's Depression Inventory, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an Aggressive behavior scale. The diurnal cortisol profile was derived from three saliva samples, collected at awakening, noon and evening on a week-end day. Univariate repeated measurement regressions
B. R. H. Van den Bergh; B. Van Calster; S. Pinna Puissant; S. Van Huffel
Objective: Report the distribution of scores from the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and estimate the prevalence of self-reported attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as compared to clinical diagnoses. Participants: Participants were 1,080 college students, divided into 3 groups: (1) no ADHD diagnosis (n = 972), (2) diagnosed with ADHD but no current pharmacologic treatment (n = 54), and (3) diagnosed
Laura M. Garnier-Dykstra; Gillian M. Pinchevsky; Kimberly M. Caldeira; Kathryn B. Vincent; Amelia M. Arria
Some researchers have suggested that general self-report depression scales may be inadequate for assessing depression among individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), because many of such items represent MS disease symptoms. However, research has been mixed on this issue: whereas some studies provide support for symptom overlap, others have found opposing evidence. We investigated this issue in two different MS samples
Depression is a multidimensional condition encompassing affective, physiological, and cognitive symptoms. Although depression's high comorbidity with both epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (ES and PNES) has been established, few studies have addressed whether the types of depressive symptoms experienced differ by seizure type (ES and PNES). This study compared the self-reported depressive symptomatology of patients (n=60 ES and 59 PNES)
Sarah B. Asmussen; Kristin A. Kirlin; Shawn D. Gale; Steve S. Chung
PurposeThe aim of this study was to examine how patients recall symptoms at a delayed self-report. Accurate insight into toxicity symptoms during chemotherapy is essential so that nurses and doctors can assess therapeutic tolerance and adjust supportive care accordingly.
Annemarie Coolbrandt; Koen Van den Heede; Ellen Vanhove; Ann De Bom; Koen Milisen; Hans Wildiers
The Padua Inventory (PI), a self-report measure of obsessive and compulsive symptoms, is increasingly used in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) research. Freeston, Ladouceur, Rheaume, Letarte, Gagnon and Thibodeau (1994) [Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 29–36], however, recently showed that the PI measures worry in addition to obsessions. In an attempt to solve this measurement problem, this study used a content
G. Leonard Burns; Susan G. Keortge; Gina M. Formea; Lee G. Sternberger
Despite the frequency of postpartum depression, little is known about the experiences of lesbian birth mothers and their female partners, or comothers. In this modest yet important exploratory investigation, 20 lesbian mothers completed a survey of self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and related risk factors. Results indicate that some lesbian mothers experience PDS, slightly more social support from friends than
|Using a large longitudinal representative community sample, this study identified three groups of subjects who were depressed either in pre-adolescence, late adolescence or early adulthood, and matched by age and gender to controls without depression. The 90th percentile on one or two self-reportedsymptom scales [i. e. the Center for…
|Despite the frequency of postpartum depression, little is known about the experiences of lesbian birth mothers and their female partners, or comothers. In this modest yet important exploratory investigation, 20 lesbian mothers completed a survey of self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and related risk factors. Results indicate that…
Cold intolerance is a well-recognized complication of crushing injuries and amputations in the hand. These symptoms are usually\\u000a thought to resolve within 2 years of injury. The objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence and course over\\u000a time of self-reportedsymptoms of cold intolerance in workers with hand injuries. Files from a large worker’s compensation\\u000a carrier were randomly selected
A study of self-report depressive symptoms as measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was conducted in three Asian countries-Korea, the Philippines, and Taiwan - and in the United States. Mean scores for the 966 college students varied significantly across countries, with Korean students reporting high levels of depressive symptoms. Further, there are marked differences between countries in symptomatic
Kathleen S. Crittenden; Stephen S. Fugita; Hyunjung Bae; Corazon B. Lamug; Chien Un
Background: It has been suggested that psychotic symptoms may be distributed along a continuum that extends from normality through depressive\\u000a states to schizophrenia with increasing level of severity. This study examined the hypothesis that the severity of positive\\u000a psychotic symptoms increases from normality, through depression\\/anxiety states to clinical psychosis. Methods: Consecutive general practice attenders completed a self-report questionnaire of 24
J. van Os; H. Verdoux; S. Maurice-Tison; B. Gay; F. Liraud; R. Salamon; M. Bourgeois
Certain symptoms of grief have been shown 1.(a) to be distinct from bereavement-related depression and anxiety, and2.(b) to predict long-term functional impairments. We termed these symptoms of “complicated grief” and developed the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG) to assess them. Data were derived from 97 conjugally bereaved elders who completed the ICG, along with other self-report scales measuring grief, depression,
Holly G. Prigerson; Paul K. Maciejewski; Charles F. Reynolds; Andrew J. Bierhals; Jason T. Newsom; Amy Fasiczka; Ellen Frank; Jack Doman; Mark Miller
When considering a diagnosis of postconcussion syndrome, clinicians must systematically evaluate and eliminate the possible contribution of many differential diagnoses, comorbidities, and factors that may cause or maintain self-reportedsymptoms long after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). One potentially significant contributing factor is symptom exaggeration. The purpose of the study is to examine the influence of poor effort on self-reported
Rael T. Lange; Grant L. Iverson; Brian L. Brooks; V. Lynn Ashton Rennison
Objective: To examine the longitudinal associations between depressive symptoms and self-reported sexually transmitted disease (STD) diagnosis among adolescents. Setting and Participants: National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data were analyzed for 7th through 12th graders who reported having sexual intercourse be- tween baseline (Wave 1) and 1-year follow-up (Wave 2) in-home interviews (N=4738 (2232 boys, 2506 girls)). The association between
Lydia A. Shrier; Sion Kim Harris; William R. Beardslee
To test the utility of a new self-report measure of trauma in the immediate aftermath of sexual assault, 253 women were interviewed with the 32-item Sexual Assault Symptom Scale (SASS) in a hospital emergency room within 72 hr of assault. Factor analysis with oblique rotation yielded a simple structure with 4 common factors: Disclosure Shame, Safety Fears, Depression, and Self-Blame.
Libby O. Ruch; John W. Gartrell; Stephanie R. Amedeo; Barry J. Coyne
Using a large longitudinal representative community sample, this study identified three groups of subjects who were depressed\\u000a either in pre-adolescence, late adolescence or early adulthood, and matched by age and gender to controls without depression.\\u000a The 90th percentile on one or two self-reportedsymptom scales [i. e. the Center for Epidemilogical Studies Depression Scale\\u000a (CES-D) or the subscale Anxious \\/
The authors examined the correspondence between the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) and a recent revision of this measure, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory—Revised (PPI-R) in a sample of 85 male and female offenders in a community-based residential drug treatment program. Participants completed the PPI and PPI-R along with self-report measures of narcissism, aggression, emotional intelligence, and negative emotionality. Analyses focused on
James V. Ray; John W. Weir; Norman G. Poythress; Angela Rickelm
When considering a diagnosis of postconcussion syndrome, clinicians must systematically evaluate and eliminate the possible contribution of many differential diagnoses, comorbidities, and factors that may cause or maintain self-reportedsymptoms long after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). One potentially significant contributing factor is symptom exaggeration. The purpose of the study is to examine the influence of poor effort on self-reportedsymptoms (postconcussion symptoms and cognitive complaints) and neurocognitive test performance following MTBI. The MTBI sample consisted of 63 referrals to a concussion clinic, evaluated within 5 months post injury (M = 2.0, SD = 1.0, range = 0.6-4.6), who were receiving financial compensation from the Workers' Compensation Board. Participants completed the Post-Concussion Scale (PCS), British Columbia Cognitive Complaints Inventory (BC-CCI), selected tests from the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Screening Module (S-NAB), and the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM). Participants were divided into two groups based on TOMM performance (15 fail, 48 pass). There were significant main effects and large effect sizes for the PCS (p = .002, d = 0.79) and BC-CCI (p = .011, d = 0.98) total scores. Patients in the TOMM fail group scored higher than those in the TOMM pass group on both measures. Similarly, there were significant main effects and/or large effect sizes on the S-NAB. Patients in the TOMM fail group performed more poorly on the Attention (p = .004, d = 1.26), Memory (p = .006, d = 1.16), and Executive Functioning (p > .05, d = 0.70) indexes. These results highlight the importance of considering the influence of poor effort, in conjunction with a growing list of factors that can influence, maintain, and/or mimic the persistent postconcussion syndrome. PMID:20437284
Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L; Brooks, Brian L; Rennison, V Lynn Ashton
Symptom burden has been identified as a predictor of medication adherence, but little is known about which symptoms are most strongly implicated. This study examines self-reported adherence in relation to demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics among 302 adults living with HIV. Only 12% reported missing medication during the 3-day assessment, but 75% gave at least one reason for missing medication in the prior month. Poor adherence was associated with higher viral load and greater symptom burden. Trouble sleeping and difficulty concentrating were strongly associated with poor adherence. Given that “forgetting” was the most common reason for missing medication and nearly one third reported sleeping through dose time, future research should examine the influence of sleep disturbance on adherence. Effective management of common symptoms, such as sleep disturbance, fatigue, and gastrointestinal side effects of medications may result in better adherence, as well as improved clinical outcomes and quality of life.
Gay, Caryl; Portillo, Carmen J.; Kelly, Ryan; Coggins, Traci; Davis, Harvey; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Pullinger, Clive R.; Lee, Kathryn A.
This prospective study examined the association between stressful life events and self-reported health in 72 inner-city, low-income African American women with HIV. Depressive symptoms were examined as a potential mediator of this association. Findings indicated that family stressors predicted deterioration in self-reported health status over the 15-month assessment period. Additionally, the association between family stress and self-reported physical health was
Deborah J. Jones; Steven R. H. Beach; Rex Forehand; Sarah E. Foster
The frequency of psychopathological symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is often underestimated because of the lack of comprehensive evaluation tools. A total of 486 consecutive non-demented PD patients completed the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90R) self-reported questionnaire, a validated tool for the assessment of psychopathological symptoms on nine dimensions. Somatization, depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive behaviors were reported by nearly half of the PD patients. They were more likely to occur in females. Disease-related factors such as duration, severity and daily dosages, but not type of dopaminergic medications, were associated with the occurrence of these symptoms. Psychopathological features are frequent in PD and their occurrence is underlined by disease-related factors. PMID:19806311
Abstract In the last years, it has been discussed frequently whether there are any harmful effects of electromagnetic fields on human health. Electromagnetic fields are generated by several natural and man-made sources. Part of the electromagnetic spectrum called Radiofrequency is used in communication systems such as mobile (cellular) phone and computer. The aim of our study was to explore different self-reportedsymptoms that may be associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields. This survey study was conducted, using a questionnaire, on 350 people aged +9 years in Turkey. The chi-square test was used for data analysis. Self-reportedsymptoms were headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness, sleep disturbance-insomnia, tension-anxiety, joint and bone pain, lacrimation of the eyes, hearing loss and tinnitus. As a result of the survey, the study has shown that users of mobile phone and computer more often complained of headache, joint and bone pain, hearing loss, vertigo/dizziness, tension-anxiety symptoms according to time of daily usage (p?0.05). In users of mobile phone and computer, women significantly (p?0.05) complained more often of headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness and tension-anxiety than men. PMID:23730819
The frequently reported absence of significant correlations between patient rating scales and physiological measures has led to the belief that patients cannot reliably perceive physiological changes that are experienced under conditions of stress. To determine whether or not this conclusion is justified for patients with clinical anxiety, self-reports and psychophysiological recordings were examined and compared in 20 patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder. No systematic correlations were found between patient ratings and physiological measures of somatic symptomatology during periods of rest or psychological stress (Stroop Test). However, parallel directional changes in the two sets of measures were observed upon exposure to stress, indicating that patients could accurately report the direction, but not the degree, of changes in physical symptoms of anxiety. These results suggest that patient reports of physical symptoms such as sweating and rapid heart rate can be useful in clinical evaluation and research settings that do not require quantitative assessment of physiological activity. PMID:3947711
A total of 159 male inmates screened with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) and Level of Service\\u000a Inventory-Revised: Screening Version (LSI-R:SV) were followed for a period of 24 months for evidence of disciplinary infractions\\u000a (incident reports). Eighty-three of these inmates also furnished a self-report of disciplinary infractions occurring during\\u000a the 24-month follow-up. The PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT)
Objectives: To determine the extent of selfreportedsymptoms perceived to be related to sexually transmitted infections and the patterns of subsequent treatment seeking behaviour in a predominantly rural population of Zimbabwe. Methods: A population based survey of 4331 men and 5149 women was conducted in rural Zimbabwe during 1998–2000. Structured confidential interviews collected data on selfreported sexually transmitted infection symptoms, treatment seeking behaviour, sociodemographic characteristics, and sexual behaviour. Results: 25% of men aged 17–54 years report experiencing genital sores and 25% of men report experiencing urethral discharge; 30% of women aged 15–44 years report experiencing vaginal discharge. The lifetime number of sexual partners, age, and years of sexual activity were all significant predictors of symptoms for both men and women (all p values <0.001). 92% of men and 62% of women had sought treatment for their symptoms in the past year (p value <0.001). Men and women were equally likely to have sought treatment at a local hospital or clinic, but women were much less likely than men to have sought treatment at a different hospital or clinic. Among those who had sought treatment, men sought treatment faster than women and were more likely to report being "very satisfied" with their treatment than women. Conclusions: The gender differences in treatment seeking are of major concern for control efforts and further work on determining the reasons for these should be a priority. This would inform the likely impact of both increasing availability of local services and further reducing the stigma faced by those wishing to access such services.
Children with experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) are at risk. Not all children, however, display symptoms, and differences connected to gender and age have been demonstrated. In this exploratory study, children's own reports of symptoms were used. The 41 recruited children, between 7 and 19 years old, were entered into a group program specially directed toward children with experiences of IPV. These children reported experiencing more symptoms overall when compared with non-exposed children. The relationship to the abuser and children's symptoms related differently for boys and for girls. Girls who had continued contact with the abusive father described more mental health problems than did other girls exposed to IPV and more than did boys with continued contact. Among children with experiences of custody disputes or other judicial processes, age rather than gender was connected to differences in self-reportedsymptoms. Younger children with experiences of judicial processes reported more mental health problems than did those with no experience. PMID:21538120
Georgsson, Anna; Almqvist, Kjerstin; Broberg, Anders G
Background US military engagements have consistently raised concern over the array of health outcomes experienced by service members postdeployment. Exploratory factor analysis has been used in studies of 1991 Gulf War-related illnesses, and may increase understanding of symptoms and health outcomes associated with current military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The objective of this study was to use exploratory factor analysis to describe the correlations among numerous physical and psychological symptoms in terms of a smaller number of unobserved variables or factors. Methods The Millennium Cohort Study collects extensive self-reported health data from a large, population-based military cohort, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the interrelationships of numerous physical and psychological symptoms among US military personnel. This study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a large, population-based military cohort. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the covariance structure of symptoms reported by approximately 50,000 cohort members during 2004-2006. Analyses incorporated 89 symptoms, including responses to several validated instruments embedded in the questionnaire. Techniques accommodated the categorical and sometimes incomplete nature of the survey data. Results A 14-factor model accounted for 60 percent of the total variance in symptoms data and included factors related to several physical, psychological, and behavioral constructs. A notable finding was that many factors appeared to load in accordance with symptom co-location within the survey instrument, highlighting the difficulty in disassociating the effects of question content, location, and response format on factor structure. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential strengths and weaknesses of exploratory factor analysis to heighten understanding of the complex associations among symptoms. Further research is needed to investigate the relationship between factor analytic results and survey structure, as well as to assess the relationship between factor scores and key exposure variables.
The current article investigates whether self-reports of children provide reliable and valid information concerning psychopathic personality traits and behaviours. For this purpose, we developed a downward extension of an existing adolescent self-report measure; the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory [YPI; Andershed, H., Kerr, M., Stattin, H., & Levander, S. (2002). Psychopathic traits in non-referred youths: Initial test of a new assessment tool. In E.S. Blaauw, L. (Ed.), Psychopaths: Current international perspectives (pp. 131-158): The Hague: Elsevier], called the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory-Child Version (YPI-CV). The reliability and validity of the YPI-CV were tested in n=360 children from the general population. The YPI-CV had good internal consistency and a three factor structure similar to the original adolescent version. Test-retest reliability over a 6-month period was adequate. In validating the instrument, both self, teacher and peer report were used. The convergent and divergent validity of the three YPI-CV dimensions was examined by relating each of them to an external criterion measures assessing the same construct. It was concluded that psychopathic traits can be measured reliably and meaningfully through self-report in 9 to 12 year olds and that the YPI-CV is potentially a useful instrument for doing so. PMID:18514316
van Baardewijk, Yoast; Stegge, Hedy; Andershed, Henrik; Thomaes, Sander; Scholte, Evert; Vermeiren, Robert
Study Objectives: The objective was to psychometrically evaluate the Insomnia Symptom Questionnaire (ISQ), a self-report instrument designed to establish a clinically relevant case definition of insomnia consistent with widely used insomnia classification criteria, using methods from classical test theory and item response theory (IRT). Methods: The ISQ was evaluated using IRT algorithms in a cohort of 362 pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women recruited for the SWAN (Study of Women's Health Across the Nation) Sleep Study. This yielded a dichotomous outcome consistent with the presence/absence of insomnia. The internal consistency and criterion validity of the dichotomized ISQ were compared to traditional measures of sleep from sleep diaries, polysomnography, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index using kappa statistics, and indices of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV), and likelihood ratio tests (LRs). Results: The ISQ identified 9.8% of the sample as meeting insomnia, consistent with established diagnostic criteria. Reliability was established with Cronbach ? (? = 0.89). The ISQ had high specificity (> 90%), but sensitivity, PPV, NPV, and LRs varied according to which sleep measure was used. Concurrent validity was not confirmed with any of the traditional sleep summary measures (kappas < 0.30). Conclusions: The ISQ captures the multidimensionality of insomnia better than traditional sleep measures as it ascertains symptoms of insomnia that are based on DSM-IV and RDC criteria. The high specificities suggest that the ISQ has a high probability of correctly identifying those without insomnia and would be a cost-effective tool in large observational studies in which the prevalence of insomnia is likely to be about 10%. Further evaluation of the ISQ, including validation against clinical interviews, is warranted. Citation: Okun ML; Kravitz HM; Sowers MF; Moul DE; Buysse DJ; Hall M. Psychometric evaluation of the insomnia symptom questionnaire: a self-report measure to identify chronic insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(1):41–51.
Okun, Michele L.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Sowers, Mary Fran; Moul, Douglas E.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Hall, Martica
Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease characterized by multiple disease-related symptoms. Chemoradiation therapy is a standard of treatment for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Although shown to prolong survival, there is little information about treatment-related symptoms or the palliative benefits of chemoradiation. We assessed symptoms of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer receiving chemoradiation to determine the prevalence, and co-occurrence, of symptoms and to identify the extent to which symptoms interfered with function. Forty-eight patients were treated with chemoradiation on a Phase I protocol. Patients received radiotherapy (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions), capecitabine (median dose 825 mg/m2 twice daily), and bevacizumab (2.5–10 mg/kg). Symptom severity and its interference with function were prospectively assessed (at presentation, during, and after chemoradiation) in 43 consenting patients using the M.D. Anderson SymptomInventory. Results showed that 95% of patients reported at least one of the 13 symptoms assessed at presentation. The most commonly reported symptoms of moderate to severe (?5 on a 0–10 scale) intensity at presentation were lack of appetite (24%), pain (19%), fatigue (19%), and sleep disturbance (10%). We observed an increase in patients reporting moderate to severe fatigue, nausea, and sleep disturbance during chemoradiation. McNemar tests for paired binary observations showed the proportion of patients reporting moderate to severe symptoms significantly (P < 0.001) decreased after chemoradiation at 94 days follow-up (lack of appetite = 7%, pain = 7%, fatigue = 13%, sleep disturbance = 7%). This study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of symptom assessment in chemoradiation protocols. Future studies with larger cohorts are needed to further characterize multiple symptoms associated with chemoradiation.
Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C.; Chan, Wenyaw; Abbruzzese, James L.; Xiong, Henry Q.; Ho, Linus; Evans, Douglas B.; Varadhachary, Gauri; Bhat, Samrat; Wolff, Robert A.; Crane, Christopher
BACKGROUND: On 4 October 1992, an El Al Boeing 747-F cargo aeroplane crashed on two apartment buildings in Amsterdam. Thirty-nine residents on the ground and the four crew members of the plane died. In the years after, a gradually increasing number of people attributed physical signs and symptoms to their presence at the disaster scene. AIM: To investigate the consistency
G. A. Donker; C. J. IJzermans; P. Spreeuwenberg; J. van der Zee
The associations between a polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), dental mercury exposure, and self-reportedsymptoms were evaluated among 157 male dentists and 84 female dental assistants. Self-reportedsymptoms and detailed work histories were obtained by computerized questionnaire. Spot urine samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentrations to evaluate recent exposures, whereas a chronic mercury exposure index was created from the work histories. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism status was determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Scores for current, recent, and chronic self-reportedsymptom groups were evaluated with respect to recent and chronic mercury exposure and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism status. Multiple regression analysis controlled for age, socioeconomic status, tobacco and alcohol use, self-reported health problems, and medications. Analyses were restricted to Caucasian subjects due to the highly skewed distribution of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Separate evaluations were conducted for dentists and dental assistants. In contrast to previous reports, no consistent associations were found between either urinary mercury concentration or the chronic index of mercury exposure and any category of symptoms. However, both significant and consistent associations were observed between increased symptoms and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism involving two copies of the short or “s” allele (full mutation), but not with the polymorphism involving only one copy (heterozygous), demonstrating a gene–dose relationship for symptom reporting. These findings suggest that within this restricted population increased symptoms of depression, anxiety, and memory are associated with the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism among both males and females.
Heyer, Nicholas J.; Echeverria, Diana; Farin, Federico M.; Woods, James S.
Background Reduced total brain volume is a consistent finding in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In order to get a better understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD, we take the first step in studying the dimensionality of current self-reported adult ADHD symptoms, by looking at its relation with total brain volume. Methodology/Principal Findings In a sample of 652 highly educated adults, the association between total brain volume, assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, and current number of self-reported ADHD symptoms was studied. The results showed an association between these self-reported ADHD symptoms and total brain volume. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the symptom domain of inattention had the strongest association with total brain volume. In addition, the threshold for impairment coincides with the threshold for brain volume reduction. Conclusions/Significance This finding improves our understanding of the biological substrates of self-reported ADHD symptoms, and suggests total brain volume as a target intermediate phenotype for future gene-finding in ADHD.
Little research has examined the structure and prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in university students, including whether symptom structure conforms to the bidimensional (i.e., inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity) conceptualization of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSMV-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and whether self-reportedsymptoms vary across gender and country. A sample of 1,209 university students from three countries (Italy, New Zealand, and the United States) completed a 24-item self-report measure (the Young Adult Rating Scale) tapping ADHD symptomatology. Factor analyses within the U.S. and New Zealand samples supported a bidimensional symptom structure, whereas weaker support for this conceptualization was provided by the Italian sample. Participants did not vary significantly by gender in symptom report; however, Italian students reported significantly more inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms than students from the United States, and students from New Zealand reported more inattention symptoms than students from the United States. The prevalence of self-reported ADHD symptoms beyond DSM-IV thresholds for diagnosis ranged from 0% (Italian women) to 8.1% (New Zealand men). The implications of these results for the use of DSM-IV criteria in identifying university students with ADHD are discussed. PMID:15503581
DuPaul, G J; Schaughency, E A; Weyandt, L L; Tripp, G; Kiesner, J; Ota, K; Stanish, H
|Objective: To investigate agreement rates between parent and self-report on childhood symptoms of ADHD. Method: Sixty-eight self-referred treatment-naive adults (33 men, 35 women) were interviewed with a modified version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E) and asked about past ADHD…
We examined the relationship between personality pathology and the frequency of self-reported psychological and physical partner aggression in a community sample of 872 adults aged 55-64. Previous research suggests that antisocial and borderline personality disorder (PD) symptoms are associated with partner aggression. Controlling for gender, education, alcohol dependence, and other personality pathology, we found that borderline PD symptoms, which include abandonment fears, unstable identity, and affective instability, were significantly related to the frequency of self-reported aggression toward one's partner. This relationship was observed regardless of whether the participant's personality was described by a clinical interviewer, the participant themselves, or an informant chosen by the participant. Further, the relationship between borderline PD symptoms and self-reported partner aggression was moderated by gender such that women were driving the association. Conversely, antisocial PD symptoms, which include deceitfulness, irresponsibility, disregard for rules, and lack of remorse did not significantly account for variance in self-reported partner aggression. PMID:22732005
Weinstein, Yana; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F
Fifty-two women who served during the Vietnam era were assessed for war-zone exposure, traumatic life events, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and self-reported health status. Symptoms of PTSD were examined as mediators in the relationship between traumatic exposure and subsequent reports of health problems. Results showed that PTSD symptoms accounted significantly for variance in health problems reported by women with prior
ecent clinic-based and population-based studies have shown evidence of association between ADHD and autistic symptoms in children and adoles- cents as well as evidence for genetic overlap between these disorders. The objective of the current study was to confirm the association between autistic and ADHD symptoms in a young adult twin sample assessed by self-report, and investigate whether shared genetic
Angela M. Reiersen; John N. Constantino; Marisa Grimmer; Nicholas. G Martin; Richard D. Todd
Associations were evaluated between a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (Val158Met) in the gene encoding the catecholamine catabolic enzyme catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), dental mercury exposure, and self-reportedsymptoms and mood among 183 male dentists and 213 female dental assistants. Self-reportedsymptoms, mood, and detailed work histories were obtained by computerized questionnaire. Spot urine samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentrations to evaluate recent exposures, whereas a chronic mercury exposure index for all subjects was created from the work histories. COMT polymorphism status was determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Scores for current, recent, and chronic self-reportedsymptom groups and six self-reported mood factors were evaluated with respect to recent and chronic mercury exposure and COMT polymorphism status. Multiple regression analysis controlled for age, socioeconomic status, tobacco and alcohol use, self-reported health problems, and medications. Separate evaluations were conducted for dentists and dental assistants. No consistent patterns of association between either urinary mercury concentration or the chronic index of mercury exposure and any category of symptoms were observed. However, consistent and significant associations were found between increased symptoms and the COMT polymorphism involving the double allelic substitution (full mutation) compared to subjects with no substitutions. Associations with mood were limited to polymorphism status among female dental assistants, and were observed for four of six mood factors and overall mood score. These findings extend evidence of genetic factors potentially affecting human susceptibility to the toxic effects of mercury and other environmental chemicals.
Heyer, Nicholas J.; Echeverria, Diana; Martin, Michael D.; Farin, Federico M.; Woods, James S.
Abstract "Breachers" are a unique military and law enforcement population because they are routinely exposed to low-level blast (LLB) during training and operations. This repeated exposure has been associated with symptoms similar to that of sports concussion. This study examined effects of repeated exposure to LLB during an explosive entry course. Twenty-one members of the New Zealand Defence Force volunteered for this study. Serum samples, neurocognitive performance, and self-reportedsymptoms were periodically measured before, during, and after a 2-week course. Serum concentrations of three biomarkers, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1, ?II-spectrin breakdown product, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, were determined with sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and rank scores were derived using the area under the curve (relative to baseline) for each subject. Neurocognitive performance was measured with a computer-based test battery, and symptoms were assessed by paper-based inventory. There was a significant relationship (p<0.05) between composite biomarker and neurocognitive performance and between neurocognitive performance and symptoms. The individuals with the five highest (Top 5) and lowest (Bottom 5) composite biomarker scores were identified and compared using Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. The Top 5 had significantly longer reaction times and lower percent correct on neurocognitive performance and an increase in symptom reporting. The difference between individuals expressing the highest biomarker load during breacher training (Top 5) and those with the lowest biomarker load (Bottom 5) is reflected in neurocognitive performance deficits and self-reportedsymptoms. This suggests a measureable degree of brain perturbation linked to LLB exposure. Follow-up studies are underway to expand upon these results. PMID:23687938
Tate, Charmaine M; Wang, Kevin K W; Eonta, Stephanie; Zhang, Yang; Carr, Walter; Tortella, Frank C; Hayes, Ronald L; Kamimori, Gary H
The reliability and validity of the Brief SymptomInventory (BSI) was examined for a group of 501 forensic psychiatric inpatients and outpatients. Alpha coefficients for the 9 primary symptom dimensions revealed a high degree of consistency among the items that compose each scale. Scores on the 9 BSI dimensions were found to correlate with both analogous and nonanalogous measures of
This study aims to translate and validate Early Trauma InventorySelfReport -Short Form (ETISR-SF) to Brazilian Portuguese. 253 adult subjects answered the ETISR-SF, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). The instrument showed good internal consistency (0.83). Correlations with the PHQ-9 and BAI were moderate (r=0.26-0.47) and showed the expected associations with psychiatric constructs. No associations were found for FTND and FAST. Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed that a correlated four-factor model as well as a second order model subsuming four lower order components presented the best model fit. Test-retest reliability was also excellent (ICC=0.78-0.90). ETISR-SF is suitable for assessing traumatic experiences in a Brazilian community sample. Given the importance of trauma as a public health problem, tools such as ETISR-SF may help clinicians/ researchers to better evaluate and measure such events and further advance clinical care of trauma victims.
Osorio, Flavia L.; Salum, Giovanni Abrahao; Donadon, Mariana Fortunata; Forni-dos-Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, Jose Alexandre S.
This study aims to translate and validate Early Trauma InventorySelfReport -Short Form (ETISR-SF) to Brazilian Portuguese. 253 adult subjects answered the ETISR-SF, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). The instrument showed good internal consistency (0.83). Correlations with the PHQ-9 and BAI were moderate (r=0.26-0.47) and showed the expected associations with psychiatric constructs. No associations were found for FTND and FAST. Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed that a correlated four-factor model as well as a second order model subsuming four lower order components presented the best model fit. Test-retest reliability was also excellent (ICC=0.78-0.90). ETISR-SF is suitable for assessing traumatic experiences in a Brazilian community sample. Given the importance of trauma as a public health problem, tools such as ETISR-SF may help clinicians/ researchers to better evaluate and measure such events and further advance clinical care of trauma victims. PMID:24098478
Osório, Flávia L; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Donadon, Mariana Fortunata; Forni-Dos-Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, José Alexandre S
BackgroundReduced total brain volume is a consistent finding in children with Attention Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In order to get a better understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD, we take the first step in studying the dimensionality of current self-reported adult ADHD symptoms, by looking at its relation with total brain volume.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn a sample of 652 highly educated adults, the
Martine Hoogman; Mark Rijpkema; Luc Janss; Han Brunner; Guillen Fernandez; Jan Buitelaar; Barbara Franke; Alejandro Arias-Vásquez
|Objectives: The present study reports on the development and initial psychometric properties of the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), a web-based self-report measure of child maltreatment history, including sexual and physical abuse, exposure to interparental violence, psychological abuse, and neglect. Methods: The CAMI was…
DiLillo, David; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A.; Fortier, Michelle A.; Perry, Andrea R.; Evans, Sarah E.; Messman Moore, Terri L.; Walsh, Kate; Nash, Cindy; Fauchier, Angele
Background Physical symptoms are common in pregnancy and are predominantly associated with normal physiological changes. These symptoms have a social and economic cost, leading to absenteeism from work and additional medical interventions. There is currently no simple method for identifying common pregnancy related problems in the antenatal period. A validated tool, for use by pregnancy care providers would be useful. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a Pregnancy SymptomsInventory for use by health professionals. Methods A list of symptoms was generated via expert consultation with health professionals. Focus groups were conducted with pregnant women. The inventory was tested for face validity and piloted for readability and comprehension. For test-re-test reliability, the tool was administered to the same women 2 to 3 days apart. Finally, midwives trialled the inventory for 1 month and rated its usefulness on a 10cm visual analogue scale (VAS). Results A 41-item Likert inventory assessing how often symptoms occurred and what effect they had, was developed. Individual item test re-test reliability was between .51 to 1, the majority (34 items) scoring ?0.70. The top four “often” reported symptoms were urinary frequency (52.2%), tiredness (45.5%), poor sleep (27.5%) and back pain (19.5%). Among the women surveyed, 16.2% claimed to sometimes or often be incontinent. Referrals to the incontinence nurse increased?>?8 fold during the study period. Conclusions The PSI provides a comprehensive inventory of pregnancy related symptoms, with a mechanism for assessing their effect on function. It was robustly developed, with good test re-test reliability, face validity, comprehension and readability. This provides a validated tool for assessing the impact of interventions in pregnancy.
Our purpose was to determine if an acute bout of heading soccer balls adversely affected postural control and self-reportedsymptoms of cerebral concussion. Thirty-one college-aged soccer players were randomly placed into either a kicking group or a heading group. Subjects either kicked or headed 18 soccer balls over the course of 40 minutes. Subjects had their postural control assessed while standing on a force plate and completed a concussion symptoms checklist on three separate occasions: prior to, immediately following, and 24 hours after kicking or heading. There were no significant differences between the heading and kicking groups on the postural control measures prior to, immediately following, and 24 hours after kicking/heading. The heading group did, however, report significantly more concussion symptoms than the kicking group immediately after heading, but not 24 hours after heading. The number of previous concussions sustained by subjects did not influence the effects of heading. An acute bout of soccer heading appears to cause an increase in self-reportedsymptoms of cerebral concussion lasting less than 24 hours but no quantifiable deficits in postural control. Further research is needed to investigate the cumulative effects of soccer heading on postural control and other objective measures of brain function. PMID:15241710
Schmitt, D M; Hertel, J; Evans, T A; Olmsted, L C; Putukian, M
Longitudinal validity of Brief SymptomInventory subscales was examined in a sample (N = 318) with schizophrenia-related illness measured at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years. Nonlinear factor analysis of items was used to test graded response models (GRMs) for subscales in isolation. The models varied in their within-time and between-times…
Long, Jeffrey D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, John S.; Test, Mary Ann; Greenberg, Jan
Objective:To investigate the effects of weight loss diets on mood, food cravings, and other self-reportedsymptoms.Research Methods and Procedures:Mood and other symptoms were evaluated by participant self-report using the Atkins Health Indicator Test (AHIT) in individuals undergoing weight loss following either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LCKD) or a low-fat diet (LFD). Participants were 119 overweight community volunteers randomized to an
F. Joseph McClernon; William S. Yancy; Jacqueline A. Eberstein; Robert C. Atkins; Eric C. Westman
Summary Background: Natural history of Vasovagal syndrome (Neurocardiogenic; NCS) is unclear. Aim: To examine symptoms in a large cohort with head up tilt diagnosed NCS. Methods: Questionnaires were posted to 485 patients with NCS. Data included demographic details, age at referral, presenting and on-going symptoms (syncope, dizziness and falls), symptom frequency (daily, weekly, monthly) and burden. Results: A total of
Background To investigate the associations of aural symptoms, headache and depression with the presence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms in a young adult population in Japan. Methods A personal interview survey was conducted on first-year university students (n?=?1,930) regarding symptoms of TMD, aural problems, headache, shoulder pain and depression. Logistic regression was applied to assess the associations of these problems with the presence of TMD symptoms after controlling for age and gender. Results Among the 1,930 students, 543 students exhibited TMD symptoms and were classified into 7 groups: clicking only (Group I, n?=?319), pain in the TMJ only (Group II, n?=?21), difficulty in mouth opening only (Group III, n?=?18), clicking and pain (Group IV, n?=?29), clicking and difficulty in mouth opening (Group V, n?=?48), difficulty in mouth opening and pain (Group VI, n?=?11), and combination of three symptoms (Group VII, n?=?97). The control group (n?=?1,387) were subjects without any TMD symptoms. After adjusting for age and gender, a strong association was observed between TMD symptoms (Group II and IV) and tinnitus (OR?=?12.1 and 13.2, respectively). TMD symptoms (Group I, II and III) were also associated with vertigo and headache. Otalgia and depression were significantly associated with the presence of clicking only. Conclusions TMD symptoms were significantly correlated to aural symptoms and headache. A functional evaluation of the stomatognathic system should be considered in subjects with unexplained aural symptoms and headache.
Active duty US Naval mobile construction battalion personnel (Seabees) were surveyed in 1994 for the presence of a variety of symptoms. Questions were drawn from the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and from a collection of symptoms either defining clinical depression or commonly reported by Persian Gulf War veterans. Of those surveyed, 524 were Gulf War veterans and 935 were nondeployed Gulf
James D. Knoke; Tyler C. Smith; Gregory C. Gray; Kevin S. Kaiser; Anthony W. Hawksworth
We conducted an exploratory study comparing 47 college?aged women reporting depressive symptoms but not receiving antidepressant medication to 47 age?matched controls. We examined various dimensions of sexual functioning, including sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, pain, pleasure, and satisfaction. The women with depressive symptoms reported more inhibited sexual arousal, more inhibited orgasm, more sexual pain problems, and less sexual satisfaction and pleasure
Research thus far links depressive symptoms in children to one type of control-related belief: low levels of perceived personal competence. However, child research, unlike adult research, has not supported a linkage between depressive symptoms and another theoretically important control-related belief: perceived noncontingency of outcomes. Here we reexamined the issue, adjusting for limitations in previous methodology by using (a) psychometrically stronger
John R. Weisz; Lynne Sweeney; Valerie Proffitt; Tom Carr
The Postconcussive Symptom Questionnaire (PCSQ) was developed to assess the symptoms associated with the controversial diagnosis of postconcussion syndrome. We examined item endorsement on the PCSQ in two groups. The first group was made up of individuals diagnosed with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. The second group was made up of individuals meeting criteria for mild traumatic brain injury
John Tsanadis; Eduardo Montoya; Robin A. Hanks; Scott R. Millis; Norman L. Fichtenberg; Bradley N. Axelrod
The researchers' aims were to estimate the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms in Italy. Cross-sectional data from the survey, “Health and use of health care in Italy” were analyzed. The authors focused on 5,812 women, pregnant some time during five years before the survey. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate risk factors independently associated with postpartum depressive symptoms. Evaluation
Pamela Barbadoro; Giordano Cotichelli; Carlos Chiatti; Maria Luisa Simonetti; Anna Marigliano; Francesco Di Stanislao; Emilia Prospero
Objective Little is known about the mental health outcomes of young children who experience developmental delay. The objective of this study was to assess whether delay in attaining developmental milestones was related to depressive and anxious symptoms in adolescence. Method The sample included 3508 Canadian children who participated in a nationally representative prospective cohort study. The person most knowledgeable about the child reported on attainment of developmental milestones spanning several developmental domains at ages 2–3. The children were followed into adolescence and self-reported depressive and anxious symptoms were used from adolescents ages 12–13. An overall assessment of developmental milestones as well as a supplementary analysis of specific categories of developmental milestones was conducted. Results Cohort members who displayed delayed developmental milestones in early childhood were more likely to experience higher levels of depressive and anxious symptoms as adolescents. However, there was no interaction between delayed developmental milestones and stressful life events. In the supplementary analysis, two developmental domains (self-care and speech/communication) were associated with higher levels of depressive and anxious symptoms in adolescence. Conclusion Delay in attainment of early developmental milestones is significantly associated with adolescent depressive and anxious symptoms.
North, C. Rebecca; Wild, T. Cam; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Colman, Ian
Self-reported ratings of sleep quality and symptoms of poor sleep have been linked to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), Type 2 diabetes, and hypertension with recent evidence suggesting stronger associations in women. At this time, the mechanisms of action that underlie these gender-specific associations are incompletely defined. The current study examined whether gender moderates the relation of subjective sleep and sleep-related symptoms to indices of inflammation, coagulation, insulin resistance (IR), and psychosocial distress, factors associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Subjects were 210 healthy men and women without a history of sleep disorders. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality and frequency of sleep symptoms. In multivariate-adjusted models, overall poor sleep quality, more frequent problems falling asleep (? 2 night/week), and longer periods to fall asleep (? 30 min) were associated with greater psychosocial distress, higher fasting insulin, fibrinogen and inflammatory biomarkers, but only for women. The data suggest that subjective ratings of poor sleep, greater frequency of sleep-related symptoms, and longer period of time to fall asleep are associated with a mosaic of biobehavioral mechanisms in women and that these gender-specific associations have direct implications to recent observations suggesting gender differences in the association between symptoms of poor sleep and cardiovascular disease.
Toxic or environmental exposures have been suggested as a possible cause of symptoms reported by Gulf War veterans. To further explore this hypothesis, we analyzed findings in 18,495 military personnel evaluated in the Department of Defense Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program. The program was established in 1994 to evaluate Persian Gulf veterans eligible for Department of Defense medical care who had health concerns after service in the Persian Gulf during Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm. The evaluation included a structured clinical assessment, a physician-administered symptom checklist, and a patient questionnaire addressing self-reported exposures, combat experiences, and work loss. Among 18,495 patients examined, the most common symptoms were joint pain, fatigue, headache, memory or concentration difficulties, sleep disturbances, and rash. Symptom onset was often delayed, with two-thirds of symptoms not developing until after individuals returned from the Gulf War and 40% of symptoms having a latency period exceeding one year. There was no association between individual symptoms and patient demographics, specific self-reported exposures, or types of combat experience. Increased symptom counts were associated with work loss, the number of self-reported exposures, the number of types of combat experience, and certain ICD-9 diagnostic categories, particularly psychological disorders. Prolonged latency of symptom onset and the lack of association with any self-reported exposures makes illness related to toxic exposure less likely. PMID:9636932
Sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common cause of pain in HIV-infected people. Establishing a diagnosis of HIV-SN is important, especially when contemplating opioid use in high risk populations. However physical findings of HIV-SN may be subtle, and sensitive diagnostic tools require specialized expertise. We investigated the association between self-report of distal neuropathic pain and/or paresthesias (DNPP) and objective signs of HIV-SN. Data were obtained from the Central Nervous System HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study. Out of 237 participants, 101 (43%) reported DNPP. Signs of HIV-SN were measured by a modified Total Neuropathy Score (TNS), composed of 6 objective sensory subscores (pin sensibility, vibration sensibility, deep tendon reflexes, quantitative sensory testing for cooling and vibration, and sural sensory amplitude). Self-report of DNPP was associated with all 6 TNS items in univariate analysis and with 4 TNS items in multivariate analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of self-report of DNPP in detecting the presence of a sensory abnormality was 52% and 92% respectively with a PPV of 96% and a NPV of 34%. Increasing intensity of pain measured on a visual analog scale was associated with increasing severity of sensory abnormality. In summary, our results suggest that HIV-infected patients reporting symptoms consistent with HIV-SN, such as tingling, pins and needles, or aching or stabbing pain in the distal lower extremities, usually have objective evidence of HIV-SN on neurologic examination or with neurophysiologic testing. This finding holds true regardless of demographic factors, depression or substance use history.
Background The National Cancer Institute’s Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE) reporting system is widely used by clinicians to measure patient symptoms in clinical trials. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer's Quality of Life core questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) enables cancer patients to rate their symptoms related to their quality of life. We examined the extent to which patient and clinician symptom scoring and their agreement could contribute to the estimation of overall survival among cancer patients. Methods We analyzed baseline data regarding six cancer symptoms (pain, fatigue, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and constipation) from a total of 2279 cancer patients from 14 closed EORTC randomized controlled trials. In each trial that was selected for retrospective pooled analysis, both clinician and patient symptom scoring were reported simultaneously at study entry. We assessed the extent of agreement between clinician vs patient symptom scoring using the Spearman and kappa correlation statistics. After adjusting for age, sex, performance status, cancer severity, and cancer site, we used Harrell concordance index (C-index) to compare the potential for clinician-reported and/or patient-reported symptom scores to improve the accuracy of Cox models to predict overall survival. All P values are from two-sided tests. Results Patient-reported scores for some symptoms, particularly fatigue, did differ from clinician-reported scores. For each of the six symptoms that we assessed at baseline, both clinician and patient scorings contributed independently and positively to the predictive accuracy of survival prognostication. Cox models of overall survival that considered both patient and clinician scores gained more predictive accuracy than models that considered clinician scores alone for each of four symptoms: fatigue (C-index = .67 with both patient and clinician data vs C-index = .63 with clinician data only; P <.001), vomiting (C-index = .64 vs .62; P = .01), nausea (C-index = .65 vs .62; P < .001), and constipation (C-index = .62 vs .61; P = .01). Conclusion Patients provide a subjective measure of symptom severity that complements clinician scoring in predicting overall survival.
The study aims were to estimate the prevalence of Post-partum Depressive Symptoms (PDS) in Italy.Cross-sectional data from the survey “Health and use of health care in Italy” were analyzed. We focused on 5,812 women, pregnant some time during 5 years before the survey. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate risk factors independently associated with post partum depressive symptoms. Evaluation
Pamela Barbadoro; Giordano Cotichelli; Carlos Chiatti; Maria Luisa Simonetti; Anna Marigliano; Francesco Di Stanislao; Emilia Prospero
Background Semi-structured interview scales for psychosis are the gold standard approach to assessing psychotic and other symptoms. However, such assessments have limitations such as recall bias, averaging, insensitivity to change and variable interrater reliability. Ambulant, real-time self-report assessment devices may hold advantages over interview measures, but it needs to be shown that the data thus collected are valid, and the collection method is acceptable, feasible and safe. We report on a monitoring system for the assessment of psychosis using smartphone technology. The primary aims were to: i) assess validity through correlations of item responses with those on widely accepted interview assessments of psychosis, and ii) examine compliance to the procedure in individuals with psychosis of varying severity. Methods A total of 44 participants (acute or remitted DSM-4 schizophrenia and related disorders, and prodromal) completed 14 branching self-report items concerning key psychotic symptoms on a touch-screen mobile phone when prompted by an alarm at six pseudo-random times, each day, for one week. Face to face PANSS and CDS interviews were conducted before and after the assessment period blind to the ambulant data. Results Compliance as defined by completion of at least 33% of all possible data-points over seven days was 82%. In the 36 compliant participants, 5 items (delusions, hallucinations, suspiciousness, anxiety, hopelessness) showed moderate to strong (rho 0.6-0.8) associations with corresponding items from interview rating scales. Four items showed no significant correlation with rating scales: each was an item based on observable behaviour. Ambulant ratings showed excellent test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change. Conclusions Ambulatory monitoring of symptoms several times daily using smartphone software applications represents a feasible and valid way of assessing psychotic phenomena for research and clinical management purposes. Further evaluation required over longer assessment periods, in clinical trials and service settings.
The aim was to assess whether self-reported reduced productivity occurred in computer users due to musculoskeletal symptoms and the association to workplace, symptom, and individual factors. The study group consisted of 1283 computer users from different occupations, of whom 498 were men and 785 were women. Reduced productivity was self-assessed by two questions addressing if and how much productivity was
Mats Hagberg; Ewa Wigaeus Tornqvist; Allan Toomingas
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact, fighting sport that has risen in popularity over recent years, resulting in an increase in both training facilities and sport participants. To date, little research has examined the complications and vulnerability to head trauma, or concussive symptomatology, in MMA athletes. In this study, we assessed relationships between training routines and concussive symptoms, as well as medical care, in MMA athletes. A sample (N?=?119) of MMA athletes reported concussive symptoms, training routines, and medical histories through an online survey. Nearly 15% of the MMA athletes reported history of a knockout, and nearly one-third reported a technical knockout. Subjective ratings of concussive symptoms were high for these athletes, with many of them waiting only a brief time after such incidents to return to competition. These findings have important implications for informing the medical treatment and safety decision for returning to participation for these athletes. PMID:23777375
Background: On October 4th, 1992, an El Al Boeing 747-F cargo crashed on two apartment buildings in Amsterdam. Thirty nine residents on the ground and the four crew members of the plane died. In the years after more and more people, attributed physical signs and symptoms to their presence at the disaster scene. Aim: To investigate the consistency between patient's
|Objective: Individuals with ADHD often report sleep problems. Though most studies on ADHD and sleep examined children or nonclinically diagnosed adults, the present study specifically examines nonmedicated adults with ADHD to determine whether inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are associated with sleep problems. Method: A total of 22…
OBJECTIVESThis study was part of the East African pesticides project. The general objective was to assess health hazards posed by handling, storage, and use of pesticides, on agricultural estates and small farms with a view to developing strategies for prevention and control of pesticide poisoning. The aim of this paper is to describe the prevalence of symptoms in this population,
Grace J A Ohayo-Mitoko; Hans Kromhout; James M Simwa; Jan S M Boleij; Dick Heederik
Scores on the autism spectrum quotient (AQ) were examined in 65 adults with ASD. Maternal reports of symptoms were collected simultaneously using the autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R) and the Vineland Screener. A slightly revised AQ administration procedure was used to accommodate adults with below average IQ. AQ scores were lower than…
Background Most studies examining medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) have been performed in primary or secondary care and have examined symptoms for which patients sought medical attention. Disasters are often described as precipitating factors for MUS. However, health consequences of disasters are typically measured by means of questionnaires, and it is not known whether these self-reported physical symptoms are presented to the GP. It is also not known if the self-reportedsymptoms are related to a medical disorder or if they remain medically unexplained. In the present study, three research questions were addressed. Firstly, were self-reportedsymptoms among survivors presented to the GP? Secondly, were the symptoms presented to the GP associated with a high level of functional impairment and distress? Thirdly, what was the GP's clinical judgment of the presented symptoms, i.e. were the symptoms related to a medical diagnosis or could they be labeled MUS? Methods Survivors of a man-made disaster (N = 887) completed a questionnaire 3 weeks (T1) and 18 months (T2) post-disaster. This longitudinal health survey was combined with an ongoing surveillance program of health problems registered by GPs. Results The majority of self-reportedsymptoms was not presented to the GP and survivors were most likely to present persistent symptoms to the GP. For example, survivors with stomachache at both T1 and T2 were more likely to report stomachache to their GP (28%) than survivors with stomachache at only T1 (6%) or only T2 (13%). Presentation of individual symptoms to the GP was not consistently associated with functional impairment and distress. 56 – 91% of symptoms were labeled as MUS after clinical examination. Conclusion These results indicate that the majority of self-reportedsymptoms among survivors of a disaster are not presented to the GP and that the decision to consult with a GP for an individual symptom is not dependent on the level of impairment and distress. Also, self-reported physical symptoms such as headache, back pain and shortness of breath are likely to remain medically unexplained after the clinical judgment of a GP.
van den Berg, Bellis; Yzermans, C Joris; van der Velden, Peter G; Stellato, Rebecca K; Lebret, Erik; Grievink, Linda
Examined the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the self-report ratings of 24 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Children provided ratings of ADHD symptoms, side-effects, and self-esteem in a double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of three MPH doses (.16 mg\\/kg, .29 mg\\/kg, .42 mg\\/kg). Mothers and teachers completed ratings of ADHD symptoms and side-effects. Children reported significant improvements in ADHD symptoms
G. J. DuPaul; A. D. Anastopoulos; D. Kwasnik; R. A. Barkley; M. B. McMurray
Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year\\u000a psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b)\\u000a current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High-\\u000a Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and
Assaf OshriJonathan; Jonathan G. Tubman; James Jaccard
Although fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating symptoms experienced by cancer patients, it has received little systematic attention. This situation is due in large part to the lack of adequate instruments to measure fatigue. The primary aim of this study was to validate a newly developed measure of fatigue for use with cancer patients: the Fatigue SymptomInventory (FSI). This 13 item self-report measure was designed to measure the intensity and duration of fatigue and its impact on quality of life. The psychometric properties of the FSI were assessed in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer, women who had completed treatment for breast cancer and women with no history of cancer. A seven-item interference subscale was found to have good internal consistency, with alpha coefficients above 0.90 in all three groups. The complete FSI was found to have rather weak to moderate test-retest reliability among patients in active treatment and healthy comparison subjects assessed on three separate occasions. Convergent validity was demonstrated using comparisons with existing measures of fatigue. Construct validity was demonstrated using comparisons between and within groups as well as comparisons with measures of anxiety and depression. Overall, the FSI was established as a valid and reliable measure of fatigue in cancer patients and healthy individuals. Suggestions are made for the potential application of the measure in clinical research. PMID:9610214
Hann, D M; Jacobsen, P B; Azzarello, L M; Martin, S C; Curran, S L; Fields, K K; Greenberg, H; Lyman, G
The aim of this study was to evaluate neurocognition and self-reportedsymptoms in long-term recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mild TBI). Participants' time since injury ranged from 3 to 72 (M = 36.75) months. Relative to orthopedic injury controls (n = 63), mild TBI participants (n = 63) did not demonstrate cognitive impairment in any domains examined, or differences
This study investigated the relation between the regulative trait of effortful control, and in particular attention control, and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of 207 non-clinical children aged 8-12 years. For this purpose, children completed self-report scales for measuring regulative traits and various types of psychopathological…
Muris, Peter; van der Pennen, Els; Sigmond, Rianne; Mayer, Birgit
BACKGROUND: Despite the last years of rapid increase in use of wireless phones little data on the use of these devices has been systematically assessed among young persons. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to assess use of wireless phones and to study such use in relation to explanatory factors and self-reported health symptoms. METHODS: A postal questionnaire
Fredrik Söderqvist; Michael Carlberg; Lennart Hardell
The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a self-report instrument frequently used in clinical and research settings to assess depression severity. Although investigators have examined the factor structure of the BDI-II, a clear consensus on the best fitting model has not yet emerged, resulting in different recommendations regarding how to best…
Quilty, Lena C.; Zhang, K. Anne; Bagby, R. Michael
This study investigated the relation between the regulative trait of effortful control, and in particular attention control,\\u000a and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of 207 non-clinical children aged 8–12 years. For this purpose, children completed\\u000a self-report scales for measuring regulative traits and various types of psychopathological symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression,\\u000a and aggression) and were tested with a neuropsychological battery for
Peter Muris; Els van der Pennen; Rianne Sigmond; Birgit Mayer
An analysis of social desirability in personality assessment is presented. Starting with the symptoms, Study 1 showed that mean ratings of graded personality items are moderately to strongly linearly related to social desirability (Self Deception, Impression formation, and the first Principal Component), suggesting that item popularity may be a useful heuristic tool for identifying items which elicit socially desirable responding. We diagnose the cause of socially desirable responding as an interaction between the evaluative content of the item and enhancement motivation in the rater. Study 2 introduced a possible cure; evaluative neutralization of items. To test the feasibility of the method lay psychometricians (undergraduates) reformulated existing personality test items according to written instructions. The new items were indeed lower in social desirability while essentially retaining the five factor structure and reliability of the inventory. We conclude that although neutralization is no miracle cure, it is simple and has beneficial effects. PMID:23252410
Substantially higher mean scores on symptom-negatively versus symptom-positively worded items have consistently been reported in the literature for the balanced Stait-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In this study we aimed at replicating and comparing these findings for the Dutch adaptation of the inventory. Results indicated significantly higher mean subscale scores for symptom-negative as opposed to symptompositive items of both the Trait and
Background Internet-administered self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties are widely used in clinical trials and in clinical routine care, but data loss is a common problem that could render skewed estimates of symptom levels and treatment effects. One way of reducing the negative impact of missing data could be to use telephone administration of self-report measures as a means to complete the data missing from the online data collection. Objective The aim of the study was to compare the convergence of telephone and Internet administration of self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties. Methods The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-Report (LSAS-SR), Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self-Rated (MADRS-S), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were administered over the telephone and via the Internet to a clinical sample (N=82) of psychiatric patients at a clinic specializing in Internet-delivered treatment. Shortened versions of the LSAS-SR and the ISI were used when administered via telephone. Results As predicted, the results showed that the estimates produced by the two administration formats were highly correlated (r=.82-.91; P<.001) and internal consistencies were high in both administration formats (telephone: Cronbach alpha=.76-.86 and Internet: Cronbach alpha=.79-.93). The correlation coefficients were similar across questionnaires and the shorter versions of the questionnaires used in the telephone administration of the LSAS-SR and ISI performed in general equally well compared to when the full scale was used, as was the case with the MADRS-S. Conclusions Telephone administration of self-report questionnaires is a valid method that can be used to reduce data loss in routine psychiatric practice as well as in clinical trials, thereby contributing to more accurate symptom estimates.
Ljotsson, Brjann; Blom, Kerstin; El Alaoui, Samir; Kraepelien, Martin; Ruck, Christian; Andersson, Gerhard; Svanborg, Cecilia; Lindefors, Nils; Kaldo, Viktor
Many current measures of eating disorder (ED) symptoms have 1 or more serious limitations, such as inconsistent factor structures or poor discriminant validity. The goal of this study was to overcome these limitations through the development of a comprehensive multidimensional measure of eating pathology. An initial pool of 160 items was developed to assess 20 dimensions of eating pathology. The initial item pool was administered to a student sample (N = 433) and community sample (N = 407) to determine the preliminary structure of the measure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The revised measure was administered to independent samples of patients recruited from specialty ED treatment centers (N = 158), outpatient psychiatric clinics (N = 303), and students (N = 227). Analyses revealed an 8-factor structure characterized by Body Dissatisfaction, Binge Eating, Cognitive Restraint, Excessive Exercise, Restricting, Purging, Muscle Building, and Negative Attitudes Toward Obesity. Scale scores showed excellent convergent and discriminant validity; other analyses demonstrated that the majority of scales were invariant across sex and weight categories. Eating Pathology SymptomsInventory scale scores had excellent internal consistency (median coefficient alphas ranged from .84-.89) and reliability over a 2- to 4-week period (mean retest r = .73). The current study represents one of the most comprehensive scale development projects ever conducted in the field of EDs and will enhance future basic and treatment research focused on EDs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23815116
|Providers of mental health services need tools to screen for acute psychosis and ultrahigh risk (UHR) for transition to psychosis in help-seeking individuals. In this study, the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI) was examined as a screening tool and for its ability to correctly predict diagnostic group membership (e.g., help seeking, mild…
Niessen, Maurice A. J.; Dingemans, Peter M. A. J.; van de Fliert, Reinaud; Becker, Hiske E.; Nieman, Dorien H.; Linszen, Don
The Brief SymptomInventory is designed to assess symptoms of psychological disorders in adole- scents and adults. The dimensional structure of the inventory, using exploratory and confirmatory fac- tor analyses, was examined with a cross-sectional design in a Spanish sample of college students (N = 1,033, aged between 18 and 30 years old). Two hypotheses were tested: the original distribution
Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population. PMID:21301951
BACKGROUND: The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed in primary care to distinguish non-specific general distress from depression, anxiety and somatization. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate its criterion and construct validity. METHODS: Data from 10 different primary care studies have been used. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the 4DSQ scores
Berend Terluin; Harm WJ van Marwijk; Herman J Adèr; Henrica CW de Vet; Brenda WJH Penninx; Marleen LM Hermens; Christine A van Boeijen; Anton JLM van Balkom; Jac JL van der Klink; Wim AB Stalman
The current study examined the potentially moderating influence of post-migration living difficulties on the relationship between pre-migration traumatic exposure and self-reported symptomatology in a sample of 74 adult Somali refugees residing in the United States. Results suggest that post-migration psychosocial stressors exacerbate depressive symptoms (?R = .068, p = .017) for those exposed to low levels of trauma relative to other posttraumatic psychological
Jacob A. Bentley; John W. Thoburn; David G. Stewart; Lorin D. Boynton
ObjectiveSleep disturbance is highly prevalent among veterans. As an alternative to sleep medications with their undesirable side effects, nonpharmacological mind–body interventions may be beneficial for sleep management in primary care. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether a novel mind–body intervention, mind–body bridging (MBB), focusing on sleep, could improve self-reported sleep disturbance and comorbid symptoms in veterans.
Yoshio Nakamura; David L. Lipschitz; Richard Landward; Renee Kuhn; Gavin West
The authors examined the Trauma SymptomInventory’s (TSI) ability to discriminate 88 student post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) simulators screened for genuine PTSD from 48 clinical PTSD-diagnosed outpatients. Results demonstrated between-group differences on several TSI clinical scales and the Atypical Response (ATR) validity scale. Discriminant function analysis using ATR revealed 75% correct patient classification but only 48% correct simulator classification, with
Jon D. Elhai; Matthew J. Gray; James A. Naifeh; Jimmie J. Butcher; Joanne L. Davis; Sherry A. Falsetti; Connie L. Best
Objectives To examine to what extent exposure to organic solvents during the working life affects general well-being in the long term,\\u000a and to explore the relationship between self-reportedsymptoms and cognitive functioning in previously solvent-exposed floor\\u000a layers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The study included 41 solvent-exposed floor layers and 40 unexposed referents participating in a longitudinal follow-up study\\u000a 18 years after the baseline assessment. Symptom prevalence
L. Nordling Nilson; L. Barregård; G. Sällsten; S. Hagberg
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain results from a nerve lesion or nerve damage. Because it is a subjective experience, patient-reported outcomes may measure both the symptoms and impact on the patient's life. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Neuropathic Pain SymptomInventory (NPSI) adequately assesses neuropathic pain symptoms in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia,
Bruce Crawford; Didier Bouhassira; Audrey Wong; Ellen Dukes
Empirical research increasingly suggests that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is comprised of four factors: re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal. Nonetheless, there remains some inconsistency in the findings of factor analyses that form the bulk of this empirical literature. One source of such inconsistency may be assessment measure idiosyncrasies. To examine this issue, we conducted confirmatory factor analyses of interview and self-report data across three trauma samples. Analyses of the interview data indicated a good fit for a four-factor model across all samples; analyses of the self-report data indicated an adequate fit in two of three samples. Overall, findings suggest that measure idiosyncrasies may account for some of the inconsistency in previous factor analyses of PTSD symptoms.
Scher, Christine D.; McCreary, Donald R.; Asmundson, Gordon J.G.; Resick, Patricia A.
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) affects a significant number of combat veterans returning from Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). Although resolution of mTBI symptoms is expected over time, some individuals continue to report lingering cognitive difficulties. This study examined the contributions of self-reported mTBI injury characteristics (e.g., loss of consciousness, post-traumatic amnesia) and psychiatric symptoms to both subjective and objective cognitive functioning in a sample of 167 OEF/OIF veterans seen in a TBI clinic. Injury characteristics were not associated with performance on neuropsychological tests but were variably related to subjective ratings of cognitive functioning. Psychiatric symptoms were highly prevalent and fully mediated most of the relationships between injury characteristics and cognitive ratings. This indicates that mTBI characteristics such as longer time since injury and loss of consciousness or post-traumatic amnesia can lead to increased perceived cognitive deficits despite having no objective effects on cognitive performance. Psychiatric symptoms were associated with both cognitive ratings and neuropsychological performance, illustrating the important role that psychiatric treatment can potentially play in optimizing functioning. Finally, subjective cognitive ratings were not predictive of neuropsychological performance once psychiatric functioning was statistically controlled, suggesting that neuropsychological assessment provides valuable information that cannot be gleaned from self-report alone. PMID:22390876
Drag, Lauren L; Spencer, Robert J; Walker, Sara J; Pangilinan, Percival H; Bieliauskas, Linas A
We examined the convergent validity of three posttraumatic symptomsinventories, the civilian version of the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD (CM-PTSD), the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and the Response to Childhood Incest Questionnaire (RCIQ), in a sample of 52 adult sexual abuse survivors. The significant and moderate to strong correlations (r = .6 or higher) among these inventories supported their
Aim We aimed to address the impact of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) on self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and depressive symptoms in different age groups of patients to discern a possible need for improved psychosocial support or counseling.Methods In a German clinic for pediatric neurology, we performed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey in a total of 50 patients with DMD (i.e., n = 15 children aged 8 to 12 years; n = 11 adolescents aged 13 to 16 years; n = 24 young adults aged 17 to 23 years). We assessed self-reported HRQOL and symptoms of depression using validated, age-appropriate instruments.Results In children with DMD, virtually all aspects of HRQOL were significantly impaired when compared with published normative data for boys with other chronic illnesses. On the contrary, adolescents and adults with DMD did not differ from published normative data in psychosocial areas of HRQOL, despite significant reductions in physical aspects of HRQOL. Clinically relevant depressive symptoms were not observed in either age group.Interpretation DMD may not always be associated with impaired psychosocial HRQOL and clinical depression, although progressive physical impairment leads to reduced physical aspects of HRQOL. Only children with DMD demonstrated marked impairments in psychosocial aspects of HRQOL calling for psychosocial interventions tailored to this age group. PMID:23794445
Evidence indicates acute sleep deprivation affects negative mood states. The present study experimentally tested the effects of acute sleep deprivation on self-reportedsymptoms of state anxiety and depression as well as general distress among 88 physically and psychologically healthy adults. As hypothesized, the effects of acute sleep deprivation increased state anxiety and depression, as well as general distress, relative to a normal night of sleep control condition. Based on the tripartite model of anxiety and depression, these findings replicate and extend prior research by suggesting sleep deprivation among individuals without current Axis I disorders increases both state symptoms of anxiety and depression specifically, and general distress more broadly. Extending this work to clinical samples and prospectively testing mechanisms underlying these effects are important future directions in this area of research.
Background Ongoing psychiatric symptoms and substance use are common difficulties experienced by clients enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). However, little research to date has evaluated if specific types of current substance use are related to specific types of current psychiatric symptoms. The present study investigated these relationships with a sample of clients enrolled in a low-threshold MMT program (i.e., clients are not expelled if they continue to use substances). Some clients enrolled in low-threshold programs may never achieve complete abstinence from all substances. Thus, understanding the possibly perpetuating relationships between concurrent substance use and psychiatric symptoms is important. Understanding such relationships may aid in developing possible target areas of treatment to reduce substance use and/or related harms in this population. Methods Seventy-seven individuals were interviewed regarding methadone usage and current and past substance use. Current psychiatric symptoms were assessed using a modified version of the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ). Relationships between types of substances used in the past 30 days and the types and number of psychiatric symptoms experienced in the same timeframe were examined. Results The majority of participants (87.0%) reported using alcohol, illicit substances, non-prescribed prescription opioids, or non-prescribed benzodiazepines in the past 30 days and 77.9% of participants reported currently experiencing psychiatric symptoms at levels that would likely warrant diagnosis. Current non-prescribed benzodiazepine use was a predictor for increased severity (i.e., symptom count) of almost all anxiety and mood disorders assessed. Conversely, number and presence of generalized anxiety symptoms and presence of social phobia symptoms predicted current non-prescribed benzodiazepine and alcohol use, respectively. Conclusions Individuals enrolled in the present low-threshold MMT program experience a wide variety of psychiatric symptoms and continue to use a variety of substances, including opioids. There was a particularly consistent pattern of associations between non-prescribed benzodiazepine use and a variety of psychiatric symptoms (particularly anxiety) suggesting that addressing concurrent illicit benzodiazepine use and anxiety symptoms in MMT clients warrants further clinical attention and research.
Background Foodborne Yersinia enterocolitica infections continue to be a public health problem in many countries. Consumption of raw or undercooked pork is the main risk factor for yersiniosis in Germany. Small children are most frequently affected by yersiniosis. In older children and young adults, symptoms of disease may resemble those of appendicitis and may lead to hospitalization and potentially unnecessary appendectomies. Y. enterocolitica infections may also cause sequelae such as reactive arthritis (ReA), erythema nodosum (EN), and conjunctivitis. Methods We studied clinical aspects of yersiniosis, antimicrobial use, and self-reported occurrence of appendectomies, reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and conjunctivitis. To assess post-infectious sequelae participants of a large population-based case–control study on laboratory-confirmed Y. enterocolitica infections conducted in Germany in 2009–2010 were followed for 4 weeks. Results Diarrhea occurred most frequently in children ?4 years (95%); abdominal pain in the lower right quadrant was most common in children 5–14 years of age (63%). Twenty-seven per cent of patients were hospitalized, 37% were treated with antimicrobials. In 6% of yersiniosis patients ?5 years of age, appendectomies were performed. Self-reportedsymptoms consistent with ReA were reported by 12% of yersiniosis patients compared to 5% in a reference group not exposed to yersiniosis. Symptoms consistent with EN were reported by 3% of yersiniosis patients compared to 0.1% in the reference group. Symptoms of conjunctivitis occurred with the same frequency in yersiniosis patients and the reference group. Conclusions Acute Y. enterocolitica infections cause considerable burden of illness with symptoms lasting for about 10 days and hospitalizations in more than a quarter of patients. The proportion of yersiniosis patients treated with antimicrobial drugs appears to be relatively high despite guidelines recommending their use only in severe cases. Appendectomies and post-infectious complications (ReA and EN) are more frequently reported in yersiniosis patients than in the reference group suggesting that they can be attributed to infections with Y. enterocolitica. Physicians should keep recent Y. enterocolitica infection in mind in patients with symptoms resembling appendicitis as well as in patients with symptoms of unclear arthritis.
The aim was to study the prevalence of physical exposures and symptoms of the forearm-hand in a population with highly repetitive jobs. Automobile assembly-line workers (ALWs) (n = 521) and a control group (CG) from the general population answered a questionnaire. Consistent differences were found between the groups. ALWs reported more symptoms from the forearm-hand and higher exposure to repetitive movements, precision movements, and manual handling (< or = 15 kg) than the CG. Female ALWs reported more symptoms and higher exposure to known risk factors for work-related forearm-hand disorders than their male colleagues. In conclusion, automobile assembly-line workers appear to be a high-risk group for work-related symptoms from the forearm-hand. Also, exposure to physical load should be conscientiously analyzed, since women may perform different tasks than men. PMID:8528723
Different prevalence of non-affective psychosis has been reported in general population surveys. The objectives of this study were to describe lifetime prevalence of non-affective psychosis in Catalonia, Spain; and to analyze the use of the CIDI psychosis module as a screening instrument for psychotic disorders. As part of the ESEMeD project in Catalonia, 1645 respondents were assessed with the CIDI. Respondents who scored positively to any of the CIDI psychosis screen questions, who had been hospitalised for a psychiatric reason or had received antipsychotic medication were re-assessed with the SCID-I by a clinician. The results showed that 11.18% people of the sample had lifetime selfreported psychotic symptoms using the CIDI. After a clinical interview with the SCID-I, between 0.85 and 2.37% of the sample had a psychotic disorder, and 0.48%-1.58% had schizophrenia. The most frequent reported psychotic symptoms in individuals without a psychotic disorder were those related with hearing or seeing something missing during a bereavement period. Experiencing mind control, feeling that your mind was being controlled by strange forces, experiencing attempts of communications (CIDI questions) and taking medication were the items that discriminate between non-affective psychosis cases and negatives. Only experiencing mind control was associated with psychotic disorders in a logistic regression analysis. The main conclusions are that the use of lay-administered interviews should only be used as a screening instrument in the detection of psychosis in general population surveys because the majority of selfreported psychotic symptoms have not been found to be associated with a psychotic disorder. PMID:18495432
We examined the convergent validity of three posttraumatic symptomsinventories, the civilian version of the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD (CM-PTSD), the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and the Response to Childhood Incest Questionnaire (RCIQ), in a sample of 52 adult sexual abuse survivors. The significant and moderate to strong correlations (r = .6 or higher) among these inventories supported their convergent validity. Comparison with other studies also suggests that these instruments can adequately discriminate clinical from nonclinical populations. PMID:9479686
|Through differences in family socialization between indigenous and non-indigenous youth, there may be cultural differences in the impact of family factors on mental health outcome. Using structural equation modelling, this population-based study explored the relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression and family factors in indigenous…
Research on adolescent well-being has shown that students with depression have an increased risk of facing academic failure, yet few studies have looked at the implications of adolescent depression in the process of school dropout. This study examined mediation processes linking depression symptoms, self-perceived academic competence, and…
Quiroga, Cintia V.; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Morin, Alexandre J. S.
|Objective: To study the correlation between symptoms of ADHD in adults, obtained with different methods and from different sources. Method: Information was obtained from 120 adults with ADHD, their partners, and their parents, using the ADHD Rating Scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale…
Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swinkels, S. H. N.; Bekker, Evelijne M.; de Noord, Ineke; Buitelaar, Jan K.
Research studies testing longitudinal relations between childhood physical health measures and adulthood sub-clinical depressive symptoms are rare. In the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, longitudinal relations of parental reports of the global physical health of the child (1 = good, 2 = moderately good, 3 = average/not good) and of…
|Research on adolescent well-being has shown that students with depression have an increased risk of facing academic failure, yet few studies have looked at the implications of adolescent depression in the process of school dropout. This study examined mediation processes linking depression symptoms, self-perceived academic competence, and…
Quiroga, Cintia V.; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Morin, Alexandre J. S.
The hypothesis that attendance at indoor chlorinated swimming pool is a risk factor for irritative ocular and respiratory symptoms and bronchial asthma is well known in literature, although epidemiological evidence is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between airborne trichloramine (NCl(3)) levels and irritative symptoms in swimming pool employees in order to obtain detailed data regarding dose-response relationships and to identify the airborne NCl(3) exposure level, if any, without health effects. A total of 20 indoor swimming pools in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy were included in the study. Information about the health status of 128 employees was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Exposure to airborne NCl(3) was evaluated in indoor swimming pools by a modified DPD/KI method. The results of the study evidenced a mean value of airborne NCl(3) of 0.65±0.20?mg/m(3) (ranging from 0.20 to 1.02?mg/m(3)). Both ocular and upper respiratory symptoms, in particular red eyes, runny nose, voice loss and cold symptoms, were declared more frequently by lifeguards and trainers when compared with employees working in other areas of the facility (office, cafe, and so on). Pool attendants exposed to airborne NCl(3) levels of >0.5?mg/m(3) experienced higher risks for runny nose (OR: 2.91; 95% CI: 1.22-6.93) red eyes (OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.46-6.82), voice loss (OR: 3.56; 95% CI: 1.60-7.95) and itchy eyes (OR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.04-4.78) than other employees. Moreover, red eyes, itchy eyes, runny nose and voice loss are related to airborne NCl(3) levels, with strong dose-response relationships. In conclusion, this study shows that lifeguards and trainers experience ocular and respiratory irritative symptoms more frequently than employees not exposed. Irritative symptoms become significant starting from airborne NCl(3) levels of >0.5?mg/m(3), confirming that the WHO-recommended value can be considered protective in occupational exposure to airborne NCl(3) in indoor swimming pools. PMID:22739682
Background:After a concussion, when symptoms have decreased substantially at rest, it is recommended that athletes begin light aerobic exercise before progressing to sport specific exercise. The British Columbia Concussion Rehabilitation Programme (BC-CRP) uses a standardized cognitive and exercise test protocol designed to indicate when an athlete should progress to sport-specific exercise after a concussion.Objective:To document the effects of exercise on
This investigation contrasted the cognitive content or cognitions of 162 inpatient adolescents (M=14.6,SD=1.6) in an effort to differentiate noncognitive anxiety and depressive symptoms. A principal-factors analysis with promax\\u000a rotation of the Cognition Checklist (Beck, Brown, Steer, Eidelson, & Riskind, 1987) revealed that anxiety and depressive cognitions\\u000a consisted of three factors, consistent with the tripartite theory of internalizing affect (Clark &
Purpose Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms experienced by persons with chronic illness, including cancer. The effective management\\u000a of fatigue hinges in part on the accuracy and reliability of its measurement. The purpose of this study was to review and\\u000a characterize the use of the 14-item Fatigue SymptomInventory (FSI) in published studies and to evaluate the available evidence
Objective: The M.D. Anderson SymptomInventory (MDASI) is a brief assessment of the severity and impact of cancer-related symptoms. The purpose of this study was the translation and validation of the questionnaire in Greek (G-MDASI). Methods: The translation and validation of the assessment took place at a Pain Relief and Palliative Care Unit. The final validation sample included 150 cancer
Purpose Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is an important symptom in clinical practice and research. The best way to measure it, however,\\u000a remains unsettled. The SF-36 vitality scale, a general measure of energy\\/fatigue, is a frequently cited measure. With only\\u000a four items, however, its ability to adequately represent multiple CRF facets has been questioned. The 13-item Fatigue Symptom\\u000a Inventory (FSI) was developed to
Linda F. Brown; Kurt Kroenke; Dale E. Theobald; Jingwei Wu
This study included 131 male Vietnam veterans between the ages of 40 and 65 years whose files were provided by the external investigator (Jerry Barnett) assigned by Base Camp, Inc., for this study. The study looked at veterans on five different trauma scales of the Trauma SymptomInventory (Dissociation (DIS), Anxious Arousal (AA), Anger\\/Irritability (AI), Tension Reducing Behavior (TRB) and
A baseline assessment of mental health status was conducted in an Irish third-level student population. In addition to a number of other measures, the Brief SymptomInventory-18 (BSI-18), a relatively new and unexamined measure in the Irish context, was administered. Based on a quota sample, data were collected from a sample of 763 participants. In line with previous findings, females
Frank Houghton; Noreen Keane; Niamh Murphy; Sharon Houghton; Claire Dunne; Christopher Alan Lewis; Michael J. Breslin
|Few studies examine the clinical utility of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rating scales for screening referrals to child psychiatry clinics. Parents/teachers from Long Island, NY, completed the Child SymptomInventory-4, a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 6- to 12-year-old clinical referrals with an ASD (N = 317) or nonASD psychiatric (N =…
Objectives: The Brief SymptomInventory (BSI) is widely used in juvenile justice settings; however, little is known regarding its factor structure in antisocial youth. The authors evaluated the BSI factor structure in a state residential treatment population. Methods: 707 adolescents completed the BSI. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses…
Objective: This research was conducted to assess the Spanish-language Trauma SymptomInventory's (Briere, 1995) suitability for use with a Puerto Rican sample. Minor revisions were made to the original instrument following a comprehensive appraisal involving a bilingual committee and pilot focus group. The present study outlines the review and…
Background Urinary incontinence (UI) continues to affect millions of women worldwide and those living in resource poor settings seem to be more affected. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of UI and factors associated with UI symptom severity (UISS) among women in a selected district in India. Methods A cross-sectional design was used to collect data from a sample of 598 community dwelling women in the age range of 20 to 60 years. Data was collected using a questionnaire survey of participants who were found in their homes. Results The prevalence of UI was 33.8% and the majority of women had negative attitudes about the condition. For instance most women were in agreement with statements such as: UI cannot be prevented or cured (98%); women with UI are cursed (97%); women are not supposed to tell anyone about the problem (90%) and others. Of the 202 women with self-reported UI, the majority reported having moderate UISS (78%) and others rated the symptoms as mild (22%). The woman’s age at first birth (p<.01) was negatively associated with UISS, while the number of pregnancies (p<.01) and weight of the largest baby ever delivered (p<.01), were positively associated with UISS. The weight of the largest baby delivered had the strongest impact on predicting UISS. Conclusions Many community dwelling women are suffering from UI at proportions which warrant significant public health consideration. Therefore public health programs to prevent UI or worsening of symptoms are required and should emphasize health education, because of the pervasive negative attitudes among affected and unaffected women. The predictors reported here can be used to priotize care for affected women and to encourage early uptake of health actions and behaviors that promote pelvic floor strengthening in at risk women who may be reluctant to disclose UI.
Background Chronic whiplash leads to considerable patient suffering and substantial societal costs. There are two competing hypothesis on the etiology of chronic whiplash. The traditional organic hypothesis considers chronic whiplash and related symptoms a result of a specific injury. In opposition is the hypothesis that chronic whiplash is a functional somatic syndrome, and related symptoms a result of society-induced expectations and amplification of symptoms. According to both hypotheses, patients reporting chronic whiplash are expected to have more neck pain, headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression than the general population. Increased prevalence of somatic symptoms beyond those directly related to a whiplash neck injury is less investigated. The aim of this study was to test an implication derived from the functional hypothesis: Is the prevalence of somatic symptoms as seen in somatization disorder, beyond symptoms related to a whiplash neck injury, increased in individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash? We further aimed to explore recall bias by comparing the symptom profile displayed by individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash to that among those self-reporting a non-functional injury: fractures of the hand or wrist. We explored symptom load, etiologic origin could not be investigated in this study. Methods Data from the Norwegian population-based “Hordaland Health Study” (HUSK, 1997–99); N?=?13,986 was employed. Chronic whiplash was self-reported by 403 individuals and fractures by 1,746. Somatization tendency was measured using a list of 17 somatic symptoms arising from different body parts and organ systems, derived from the research criteria for somatization disorder (ICD-10, F45). Results Chronic whiplash was associated with an increased level of all 17 somatic symptoms investigated (p<0.05). The association was moderately strong (group difference of 0.60 standard deviation), only partly accounted for by confounding. For self-reported fractures symptoms were only slightly elevated. Recent whiplash was more commonly reported than whiplash-injury a long time ago, and the association of interest weakly increased with time since whiplash (r?=?0.016, p?=?0.032). Conclusions The increased prevalence of somatic symptoms beyond symptoms expected according to the organic injury model for chronic whiplash, challenges the standard injury model for whiplash, and is indicative evidence of chronic whiplash being a functional somatic syndrome.
Backgroud It has been shown that different symptoms or symptom combinations of neuropathic pain (NeP) may correspond to different mechanistic backgrounds and respond differently to treatment. The Neuropathic Pain SymptomInventory (NPSI) is able to detect distinct clusters of symptoms (i.e. dimensions) with a putative common mechanistic background. The present study described the psychometric validation of the Portuguese version (PV) of the NPSI. Methods Patients were seen in two consecutive visits, three to four weeks apart. They were asked to: (i) rate their mean pain intensity in the last 24 hours on an 11-point (0-10) numerical scale; (ii) complete the PV-NPSI; (iii) provide the list of pain medications and doses currently in use. VAS and Global Impression of Change (GIC) were filled out in the second visit. Results PV-NPSI underwent test-retest reliability, factor analysis, analysis of sensitivity to changes between both visits. The PV-NPSI was reliable in this setting, with a good intra-class correlation for all items. The factorial analysis showed that the PV-NPSI inventory assessed different components of neuropathic pain. Five different factors were found. The PV-NPSI was adequate to evaluate patients with neuropathic pain and to detect clusters of NeP symptoms. Conclusions The psychometric properties of the PV-NPSI rendered it adequate to evaluate patients with both central and peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes and to detect clusters of NeP symptoms.
Background. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a symptominventory for patients with head and neck cancer and to assess the occurrence and severity of symp- toms, the overall symptom burden, and the interference the symptoms cause in daily life. Methods. Items were generated from a comprehensive literature review, our prior work, and focus groups with
David I. Rosenthal; Tito R. Mendoza; Mark S. Chambers; Joshua A. Asper; Ibrahima Gning; Merrill S. Kies; Randal S. Weber; Jan S. Lewin; Adam S. Garden; K. Kian Ang; Xin S. Wang; Charles S. Cleeland
Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a revision of the Symptoms of Stress Inventory (SOSI), the Calgary SOSI\\u000a (C-SOSI), which would be shorter, easier to administer and score, and have excellent factor structure, reliability, and validity\\u000a for use with oncology patients. Methods: The SOSI was administered to 344 cancer patients registered for a stress-management\\u000a program. Exploratory factor
Few studies examine the clinical utility of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rating scales for screening referrals to child\\u000a psychiatry clinics. Parents\\/teachers from Long Island, NY, completed the Child SymptomInventory-4, a DSM-IV-referenced rating\\u000a scale for 6- to 12-year-old clinical referrals with an ASD (N = 317) or nonASD psychiatric (N = 191) diagnosis. Two separate groups of children attending public school, regular education classes
Kenneth D. Gadow; Joseph Schwartz; Carla DeVincent; Greg Strong; Simone Cuva
Background Despite the last years of rapid increase in use of wireless phones little data on the use of these devices has been systematically assessed among young persons. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to assess use of wireless phones and to study such use in relation to explanatory factors and self-reported health symptoms. Methods A postal questionnaire comprising 8 pages of 27 questions with 75 items in total was sent to 2000 Swedish adolescents aged 15–19 years and selected from the population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. Results The questionnaire was answered by 63.5% of the study subjects. Most participants reported access to a mobile phone (99.6%) and use increased with age; 55.6% of the 15-year-olds and 82.2% of the 19-year-olds were regular users. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. Use of wired hands-free equipment 'anytime' was reported by 17.4%. Cordless phones were used by 81.9%, and 67.3% were regular users. Watching TV increased the odds ratio for use of wireless phones, adjusted for age and gender. Some of the most frequently reported health complaints were tiredness, stress, headache, anxiety, concentration difficulties and sleep disturbances. Regular users of wireless phones had health symptoms more often and reported poorer perceived health than less frequent users. Conclusion Almost all adolescence in this study used a wireless phone, girls more than boys. The most frequent use was seen among the older adolescents, and those who watched TV extensively. The study further showed that perceived health and certain health symptoms seemed to be related to the use of wireless phones. However, this part of the investigation was explorative and should therefore be interpreted with caution since bias and chance findings due to multiple testing might have influenced the results. Potentially this study will stimulate more sophisticated studies that may also investigate directions of associations and whether, or to what degree, any mediation factors are involved.
Soderqvist, Fredrik; Carlberg, Michael; Hardell, Lennart
|The Trauma SymptomInventory (TSI), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) were administered to 71 women who reported histories of childhood and/or adult sexual maltreatment and 25 women who did not report a history of victimization. The TSI validity scales were not effective in…
Arbisi, Paul A.; Erbes, Christopher R.; Polusny, Melissa A.; Nelson, Nathaniel W.
Background The symptom burden associated with multiple myeloma (MM) is often severe. Presently, no instrument comprehensively assesses disease-related and treatment-related symptoms in patients with MM. We sought to validate a module of the M. D. Anderson SymptomInventory (MDASI) developed specifically for patients with MM (MDASI-MM). Methods The MDASI-MM was developed with clinician input, cognitive debriefing, and literature review, and administered to 132 patients undergoing induction chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. We demonstrated the MDASI-MM’s reliability (Cronbach ? values); criterion validity (item and subscale correlations between the MDASI-MM and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the EORTC MM module (QLQ-MY20)), and construct validity (differences between groups by performance status). Ratings from transplant patients were examined to demonstrate the MDASI-MM’s sensitivity in detecting the acute worsening of symptoms post-transplantation. Results The MDASI-MM demonstrated excellent correlations with subscales of the 2 EORTC instruments, strong ability to distinguish clinically different patient groups, high sensitivity in detecting change in patients’ performance status, and high reliability. Cognitive debriefing confirmed that the MDASI-MM encompasses the breadth of symptoms relevant to patients with MM. Conclusion The MDASI-MM is a valid, reliable, comprehensive-yet-concise tool that is recommended as a uniform symptom assessment instrument for patients with MM.
Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Psoriasis SymptomInventory (PSI), an eight-item patient-reported outcome measure for assessing severity of plaque psoriasis symptoms. Methods: In this prospective, randomized study using data from adults with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, patients completed the PSI, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), SF-36v2 Acute, and Patient Global Assessment (PtGA). PSI construct validity was assessed using Spearman rank correlations between PSI and DLQI and SF-36; test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change were evaluated using PtGA as an anchor. Daily 24-h and weekly 7-day PSI versions were evaluated. Results: Eight US sites enrolled 143 patients; 139 (97.2%) completed the study. All symptoms (itch, redness, scaling, burning, cracking, stinging, flaking, and pain) were reported across all response options (not at all severe, mild, moderate, severe, very severe). Test-retest reliability was acceptable (intraclass correlation coefficients range = 0.70-0.80). A priori hypotheses of convergent and discriminant validity were confirmed by correlations of PSI with DLQI items and SF-36 domains. The PSI demonstrated good construct validity and was sensitive to within-subject change (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The PSI is brief, valid, reproducible, and responsive to change and has the potential to be a useful PRO measure in psoriasis clinical trials. PMID:23092173
Bushnell, Donald M; Martin, Mona L; McCarrier, Kelly; Gordon, Kenneth; Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Huang, Xingyue; Ortmeier, Brian; Kricorian, Gregory
The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) and the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) are recently developed self-report questionnaires for measuring DSM-IV defined anxiety disorder symptoms in children. The present study examined correlations among these measures in a large sample of Dutch school children (N=1011). Results showed that there was a strong correlation between the total anxiety scores
This study evaluated the incremental validity of scores from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) in a sample of mental health inpatients originally published by Archer, Griffin, and Aiduk (1995). The incremental validity of scores from the SCL-90-R primary symptom dimensions…
Simonds, Elise C.; Handel, Richard W.; Archer, Robert P.
|This study evaluated the incremental validity of scores from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) in a sample of mental health inpatients originally published by Archer, Griffin, and Aiduk (1995). The incremental validity of scores from the SCL-90-R primary symptom dimensions…
Simonds, Elise C.; Handel, Richard W.; Archer, Robert P.
Background There is a lack of knowledge on the influence of different levels of physical activity (PA) on unintentional injuries among those with depressive symptoms (DS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PA categories and unintentional injuries among participants with and without DS based on a cross-sectional population–based FIN-D2D survey conducted in 2007. Methods Out of 4500, 2682 participants (60%) aged 45–74?years attended in this study. The unintentional injuries over the past year were captured in a questionnaire. DS were determined with the Beck Depression Inventory (? 10 points) and PA with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The statistical significance between DS and unintentional injury categories was evaluated by using t-test, chi-square test, or permutation test, analysis of covariance, or regression models. The factors related to unintentional injuries were estimated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results The proportion of subjects with unintentional injuries was higher among those with DS (17%) compared to those without DS (10%) (age- and gender-adjusted p?=?0.023). The median (range) number of activity-loss days after injury was 22 (0–365) in participants with DS and 7 (0–120) in participants without DS ( p?=?0.009). The percentage of subjects with unintentional injuries was not significantly different between PA categories in participants with DS and without DS. A stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that DS, functional ability, and musculoskeletal diseases were related to unintentional injuries. Conclusions PA level was not related to unintentional injuries, whereas those with DS had a higher prevalence of unintentional injuries and prolonged activity-loss after injury. These results underline the importance of injury prevention, especially among those who have DS and additional risk factors.
Background and objective: We examined the relationship between self-reported pre- and post-injury changes in executive dysfunction, apathy, disinhibition, and depression, and performance on neuropsychological tests of executive function, attention\\/processing speed, and memory in relation to mood levels and effort test performance in individuals in the early stages of recovery from mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). Method: Participants were
Dawn M. Schiehser; Dean C. Delis; J. Vincent Filoteo; Lisa Delano-Wood; S. Duke Han; Amy J. Jak; Angela I. Drake; Mark W. Bondi
|This study identified the trauma symptoms and life skill needs of 84 domestic violence victims from three domestic violence programs. Women completed two self-report tools: Trauma SymptomInventory (TSI) and Occupational Self Assessment (OSA). Staff members participated in focus groups regarding their perceptions of the womens needs. Women scored…
Gorde, Mrugaya W.; Helfrich, Christine A.; Finlayson, Marcia L.
Hearing loss is a potentially disabling problem among elderly leading to physical and social dysfunction. Though audiometric assessment of hearing loss is considered as gold standard, it is not feasible in community settings. Several questionnaires measuring hearing handicap have been developed. Knowledge regarding applicability of these questionnaires among rural elderly is limited, hence a study was planned to validate single question and Shortened Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly (HHIE-S) in detecting hearing loss against pure tone-audiometry among rural Indian elderly. A single question 'do you feel you have a hearing loss?' and the HHIE-S was administered to 175 elderly in two rural areas. Hearing ability was assessed using pure tone audiometry. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of both screening tools were compared with pure tone averages (PTAs) greater than 25, 40 and 55 dB hearing level (mild, moderate and severe hearing loss, respectively). The single question yielded low sensitivity (30.9%) and high specificity (93.9%) for mild hearing loss. Similarly HHIE-S yielded a sensitivity of 26.2% and specificity of 95.9%. Sensitivity with single question increased to 76.2% and specificity decreased to 83.1% with severe hearing loss. Sensitivity with HHIE-S also increased to 76.2% and specificity decreased to 87.7% with severe hearing loss. These hearing screening questionnaires will be useful in identifying more disabling hearing losses among rural elderly which helps in rehabilitation services planning. PMID:22898672
Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom combat veterans given definite diagnoses of mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) during the Veteran Health Administration (VHA) Comprehensive TBI evaluation and reporting no post-deployment head injury were examined to assess (a) consistency of self-reported memory impairment and (b) symptom validity test (SVT) performance via a two-part study. Study 1 found that while 49 of 50 veterans reported moderate to very severe memory impairment during the VHA Comprehensive TBI evaluation, only 7 had reported any memory problem at the time of their Department of Defense (DOD) post-deployment health assessment. Study 2 found that of 38 veterans referred for neuropsychological evaluations following a positive VHA Comprehensive TBI evaluation, 68.4% failed the Word Memory Test, a forced choice memory recognition symptom validity task. Together, these studies raise questions concerning the use of veteran symptomself-report for TBI assessments and argue for the inclusion of SVTs and the expanded use of contemporaneous DOD records to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the VHA Comprehensive TBI evaluation. PMID:23059350
|The authors examined the Trauma SymptomInventorys (TSI) ability to discriminate 88 student post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) simulators screened for genuine PTSD from 48 clinical PTSD-diagnosed outpatients. Results demonstrated between-group differences on several TSI clinical scales and the Atypical Response (ATR) validity scale.…
Elhai, Jon D.; Gray, Matthew J.; Naifeh, James A.; Butcher, Jimmie J.; Davis, Joanne L.; Falsetti, Sherry A.; Best, Connie L.
The authors examined the Trauma SymptomInventorys (TSI) ability to discriminate 88 student post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) simulators screened for genuine PTSD from 48 clinical PTSD-diagnosed outpatients. Results demonstrated between-group differences on several TSI clinical scales and the Atypical Response (ATR) validity scale.…
Elhai, Jon D.; Gray, Matthew J.; Naifeh, James A.; Butcher, Jimmie J.; Davis, Joanne L.; Falsetti, Sherry A.; Best, Connie L.
|The involvement of genetic and environmental factors to the development of obsessive compulsion symptoms during the adolescent period is examined. Study revealed that individual differences in OC symptoms are heritable during puberty and shared environmental influences played a role only in the beginning of adolescence but no sex differences in…
Van Grootheest, Daniel S.; Bartels, Meike; Van Beijsterveldt, Catarina E. M.; Cath, Danielle C.; Beekman, Aartjan T.; Hudziak, James J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.
This study examined the relationship between sub?clinical levels of maternal symptoms of attention?deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and parental cognitions and behaviours in a community sample of mothers of young infants. Given the numerous impairments experienced by adults with ADHD, it was hypothesised that mothers with more symptoms of ADHD would report cognitive and behavioural difficulties related to parenting. Ninety?nine mothers of
Objectives: This study assessed gender differences in the frequency of various characteristics of constipation, constipation-specific symptoms, and bowel and dietary habits, as well as the effects of independent but associated risk factors.Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients aged ?18 years with a primary diagnosis of constipation (ie, constipation, slow-transit constipation, outlet dysfunction constipation) was conducted at a tertiary referral center;
G. Lindsay McCrea; Christine Miaskowski; Nancy A. Stotts; Liz Macera; Steven M. Paul; Madhulika G. Varma
\\u000a Abstract Following the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse on September 11, 2001, more than 40,000 people were exposed to a complex mixture\\u000a of inhalable nanoparticles and toxic chemicals. While many developed chronic respiratory symptoms, to what degree olfaction\\u000a was compromised is unclear. A previous WTC Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program study found that olfactory and nasal trigeminal\\u000a thresholds were altered by
Kenneth W. Altman; Shaun C. Desai; Jacqueline Moline; Rafael E. de la Hoz; Robin Herbert; Patrick J. Gannon; Richard L. Doty
Background We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of a hepatitis symptominventory and to identify predictors of hepatitis C (HCV) treatment initiation in a cohort of HIV-infected patients. Methods Prospective clinic based study that enrolled patients referred for HCV therapy consideration. A hepatitis symptominventory and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were administered to HIV/HCV individuals. The symptominventory was factor analyzed and subscale reliability estimated with Cronbach's alpha. Predictive validity was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Predictors of HCV treatment were identified using logistic regression. Results Between April 2008 to July 2010, 126 HIV/HCV co-infected patients were enrolled in the study. Factor analysis using data from 126 patients yielded a three-factor structure explaining 60% of the variance for the inventory. Factor 1 (neuropsychiatric symptoms) had 14 items, factor 2 (somatic symptoms) had eleven items, and factor 3 (sleep symptoms) had two items, explaining 28%, 22% and 11% of the variance, respectively. The three factor subscales demonstrated high intrinsic consistency reliability. GEE modeling of the 32 patients who initiated HCV therapy showed that patients developed worsening neuropsychiatric and somatic symptoms following HCV therapy with stable sleep symptoms. Bivariate analyses identified the following as predictors of HCV therapy initiation: lower HIV log10 RNA, lower scores for neuropsychiatric, somatic and sleep symptoms, lower CES-D scores and white ethnicity. In stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis, low neuropsychiatric symptom score was the strongest independent predictor of HCV therapy initiation and HIV log10 RNA was inversely associated with a decision to initiate HCV treatment. Conclusions A 41-item hepatitis-related symptominventory was found to have a clinically meaningful 3-factor structure with excellent internal consistency reliability and predictive validity. In adjusted analysis, low neuropsychiatric symptom scores and controlled HIV infection were independent predictors of HCV treatment initiation. The usefulness of the HCV symptominventory in monitoring HCV treatment should be evaluated prospectively.
We conducted a study to establish the psychometric properties of a module of the M. D. Anderson SymptomInventory (MDASI) developed specifically for patients with lung cancer (MDASI-LC). The MDASI measures 13 common “core” symptoms of cancer and its treatment. The MDASI-LC includes the 13 core MDASI symptom items and three lung cancer–specific items: coughing, constipation, and sore throat. MDASI-LC items were administered to three cohorts of patients with lung cancer undergoing either chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Known-group validity and criterion (concurrent) validity of the MDASI-LC were evaluated using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the module were adequate, with Cronbach coefficient ?-values of 0.83 or higher for all module items and subscales. The sensitivity of the MDASI-LC to changes in patient performance status (disease progression) and to continuing cancer treatment (effects of treatment) was established. Cognitive debriefing of a subset of participants provided evidence for content validity and indicated that the MDASI core items and three additional lung cancer–specific items were clear, relevant to patients, and easy to understand; only two patients suggested additional symptom items. As expected, the item “sore throat” was sensitive only for patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. The MDASI-LC is a valid, reliable, and sensitive symptom-assessment instrument whose use can enhance clinical studies of symptom status in patients with lung cancer and epidemiological and prevalence studies of symptom severity across various cancer types.
Wang, Xin Shelley; Lu, Charles; Palos, Guadalupe R.; Liao, Zhongxing; Mobley, Gary M.; Kapoor, Shitij; Cleeland, Charles S.
|To study the distinction between self-reports of anxiety and depression, a factor analysis was conducted using responses of 298 anxiety disorder patients on the Beck Depression Inventory and the State Anxiety subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that the two conditions can be reliably differentiated in self-reports.…
|Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…
In recent years, employees at the three headquarters buildings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the Washington, D.C. area have expressed concerns about air quality and work environment discomforts. As part of a large-scale study of health and comfort concerns, environmental monitoring was carried out in March 1989 at approximately 100 sites (rooms) within these buildings. Employees in the vicinity of the monitors were administered a brief questionnaire to elicit information regarding their work environment, comfort levels, odors noticed, health symptoms, mood states, and perceptions of overall air quality. Statistical analyses were carried out for the 191 males and the 192 females for whom both questionnaire and monitoring data were available. The analyses entailed estimation of linear regression and logistic regression models aimed at testing for associations between the employees' responses and the environmental measurements, which included temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide, and particlate concentrations (100 sites), and various microbiologic and volatile organic compound concentrations (subset of 56 sites). Principal component analyses were used to develop some of the outcome and explanatory variables used in the models. In the paper, the authors describe the study design, the study limitations, the statistical models and methods, and the results and implications of the data analysis.
Nelson, C.J.; Clayton, C.A.; Wallace, L.A.; Highsmith, V.R.; Kollander, M.
The Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory (HAPPI; W. Mansell, 2006) was developed to assess multiple, extreme, self-relevant appraisals of internal states. The present study aimed to validate the HAPPI in a clinical sample. Participants (N = 50) with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (confirmed by a structured clinical interview)…
Dodd, Alyson L.; Mansell, Warren; Morrison, Anthony P.; Tai, Sara
|The Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory (HAPPI; W. Mansell, 2006) was developed to assess multiple, extreme, self-relevant appraisals of internal states. The present study aimed to validate the HAPPI in a clinical sample. Participants (N = 50) with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (confirmed by a structured clinical interview)…
Dodd, Alyson L.; Mansell, Warren; Morrison, Anthony P.; Tai, Sara
SummaryBackground Symptom occurrence has been shown to predict treatment course and survival in patients with solid tumors. Primary brain tumor (PBT) patients are unique in the occurrence of neurologic symptoms. Currently, no instrument exists that measures both neurologic and cancer-related symptoms.Methods Patients diagnosed with PBT participated in this study. Data was collected at one point in time and included demographic and clinical
T. S. Armstrong; T. Mendoza; I. Gring; C. Coco; M. Z. Cohen; L. Eriksen; Ming-Ann Hsu; M. R. Gilbert; C. Cleeland
We aimed to determine whether group-based Cogni- tive Strategy Training (CST) for combat veterans with mild cogni- tive disorder and a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has significant posttreatment effects on self-reported compensatory strategy usage, functioning, and psychiatric symptoms. Partici- pants included 21 veterans returning from conflicts in Iraq or Afghanistan with a diagnosis of Cognitive Disorder, Not Other-
Marilyn Huckans; Shital Pavawalla; Theresa Demadura; Michael Kolessar; Adriana Seelye; Noah Roost; Elizabeth W. Twamley; Daniel Storzbach
The aim of study was to estimate the score of symptoms of depression with the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) among\\u000a Estonian schoolchildren aged 7–13-year-old, according to age and gender differences, and to identify the components in factor\\u000a analysis characterising self-reported childhood symptoms of depression. The applicability of the CDI in 7-year-old children\\u000a was also estimated. The number of subjects in
The authors examined the comparative predictive capacity of the Trauma SymptomInventory (TSI) Atypical Response Scale (ATR) and the standard set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory—2 (MMPI–2) fake-bad validity scales (i.e., F, FB, Fp, FBS) to detect feigned posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Remitted trauma victims (n = 60) completed the TSI and MMPI–2 under standard (honest) instructions and then were
Adele A. Efendov; Martin Sellbom; R. Michael Bagby
This study examined (a) the stability of the personality and symptom scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) for a sample of university undergraduates and (b) the correspondence between MCMI scores from self-report versus scores obtained from knowledgeable others who responded by describing the subject rather than themselves. The MCMI was administered to subjects during their freshman year and
Psychopathology and symptom patterns identified among former prisoners of war (POWs) by Sutker, Winstead, Goist, Malow, and Allain (1986) were replicated in an independent sample of 51 former POWs with similar personal backgrounds and military experiences. Data collection instruments included the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), self-report measures of anxiety and depression, and a structured clinical interview including a POW
Patricia B. Sutker; Albert N. Allain; Patrice A. Motsinger
|Background: Diagnostics and care for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and psychiatric disorders need to be improved. This can be done by using assessment instruments to routinely measure the nature and severity of psychiatric symptoms. Up until now, in the Netherlands, assessment measures are seldom used in the psychiatric care for this…
Wieland, J.; Wardenaar, K. J.; Fontein, E.; Zitman, F. G.
|Administered year and month versions of the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview (PERI). Found mean values and variances of scale scores consistently larger for the year than for the month time frame for all 14 symptom scales, and the covariance pattern different for four scales. Neither version was consistently better in distinguishing…
Background: A self-rating inventory has been developed to measure DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnoses of major (moderate to severe) depression by the patients’ self-reportedsymptoms. This Major Depression Inventory (MDI) can be scored both according to the DSM-IV and the ICD-10 algorithms for depressive symptomatology and according to severity scales by the simple total sum of the items. Methods: The Schedule
P. Bech; N.-A. Rasmussen; L. Raabæk Olsen; V. Noerholm; W. Abildgaard
|The psychometric structure of the Brief SymptomInventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and…
Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent
This study used data from 3 sites to examine the invariance and psychometric characteristics of the Brief SymptomInventory-18 across Black, Hispanic, and White mothers of 5th graders (N = 4,711; M = 38.07 years of age, SD = 7.16). Internal consistencies were satisfactory for all subscale scores of the instrument regardless of ethnic group…
Wiesner, Margit; Chen, Vincent; Windle, Michael; Elliott, Marc N.; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kanouse, David E.; Schuster, Mark A.
The cultural equivalence of psychological outcome measures remains a major area of investigation. The current study sought to test the factor structure and factorial invariance of the Brief SymptomInventory-18 (BSI-18) with a sample of adult individuals of Mexican descent (N = 923) across nativity status (U.S.- vs. foreign-born), language format…
Torres, Lucas; Miller, Matthew J.; Moore, Kelly M.
Validation of self-report mindfulness measures has been promising, although comparisons with non-self-report instruments are\\u000a lacking. Because past research suggests that mindfulness training is associated with improved attention, this study predicted\\u000a that higher self-report mindfulness would be positively related to performance on tasks of sustained attention. Fifty undergraduates\\u000a completed the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills
Stefan K. Schmertz; Page L. Anderson; Diana L. Robins
College students (n=150) completed Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire and self-reportinventories of depression, hopelessness, social desirability, and anxiety. Found significant correlations between self-report instruments and suicidal behaviors. Findings may be a result of the fact that anxiety and depression are often found together in clinical…
Background Due to concerns about overlapping symptomatology between medical conditions and depression, the validity of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) has been assessed in various medical populations. Although Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Primary Insomnia (PI) share some daytime symptoms, the BDI-II has not been evaluated for use with insomnia patients. Method Participants (N = 140) were screened for the presence of insomnia using the Duke Structured Clinical Interview for Sleep Disorders (DSISD), and evaluated for diagnosis of MDD using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID). Participants’ mean BDI-II item responses were compared across two groups [insomnia with or without MDD) using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and the accuracy rates of suggested clinical cutoffs for the BDI-II were evaluated using a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results The insomnia with depression group had significantly higher scores on several items; however, the groups did not differ on insomnia, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, libido, increased appetite, and thoughts relating to suicide, self-criticism and punishment items. The ROC curve analysis revealed moderate accuracy for the BDI-II’s identification of depression in those with insomnia. The suggested BDI cutoff of ? 17 had 81% sensitivity and 79% specificity. Use of the mild cutoff for depression (?14) had high sensitivity (91%) but poor specificity (66%). Conclusion Several items on the BDI-II might reflect sleep disturbance symptoms rather than depression per se. The recommended BDI-II cutoffs in this population have some support but a lower cutoff could result in an overclassification of depression in insomnia patients, a documented problem in the clinical literature. Understanding which items discriminate insomnia patients without depression may help address this nosological issue.
Carney, Colleen E.; Ulmer, Christi; Edinger, Jack D.; Krystal, Andrew D.; Knauss, Faye
There is growing evidence that psychiatric disorders maintain hierarchical associations where general and domain-specific factors play prominent roles (see D. Watson, 2005). Standard, unidimensional measurement models can fail to capture the meaningful nuances of such complex latent variable structures. The present study examined the ability of the multidimensional item response theory bifactor model (see R. D. Gibbons & D. R. Hedeker, 1992) to improve construct validity by serving as a bridge between measurement and clinical theories. Archival data consisting of 688 outpatients' psychiatric diagnoses and item-level responses to the Brief SymptomInventory (BSI; L. R. Derogatis, 1993) were extracted from files at a university mental health clinic. The bifactor model demonstrated superior fit for the internal structure of the BSI and improved overall diagnostic accuracy in the sample (73%) compared with unidimensional (61%) and oblique simple structure (65%) models. Consistent with clinical theory, multiple sources of item variance were drawn from individual test items. Test developers and clinical researchers are encouraged to consider model-based measurement in the assessment of psychiatric distress. PMID:21767026
The etiology of selective mutism (SM) in children is unknown but is regarded as multifactorial. SM is frequently associated with social anxiety and language disorder or delay. The present study addresses SM and social anxiety as a familial phenomenon by comparing self-reported personality traits and symptom traits (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory; T. Millon, 1987) in parents of 50 SM children
The objective of this study was to assess the level, impact, and predictors of fatigue in patients with moderate to severe irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). One hundred seventy five patients meeting Rome III criteria for IBS completed a variety of measures including the vitality scale of the SF-12, IBS-Symptom Severity Scale, IBS-QOL, Brief SymptomInventory-18, Screening for Somatoform Symptoms (SOMS-7), and a semi structured clinical interview (IBS-PRO) as part of a pretreatment evaluation of an NIH funded clinical trial of cognitive behavior therapy for IBS. Fatigue was the third most common somatic complaint, reported by 61% of the patients. Levels of fatigue were associated with both somatic (more severe IBS symptoms, greater number of unexplained medical symptoms), behavioral (frequency of restorative experiences) and psychological (e.g., trait anxiety, depression) outcomes after holding constant confounding variables. The final model in multiple regression analyses accounted for 41.6% of the variance in self-reported fatigue scores with significant predictors including anxiety sensitivity, perceived stress, IBS symptom severity, restorative activities and depression. The clinical implications of data as they relate to both IBS and CBT in general are discussed in the context of attention restoration theory. PMID:23578499
Lackner, Jeffrey M; Gudleski, Gregory D; Dimuro, Jennifer; Keefer, Laurie; Brenner, Darren M
... at increased risk for having type 2 diabetes . Gestational Diabetes Women with gestational diabetes often have no symptoms , which is why it's ... the proper time during pregnancy. Learn more about gestational diabetes. Symptoms of Diabetes Complications Have you already been ...
Abstract The aim of this study was to assess stress response,symptoms,in children of parents diagnosed,with cancer 1–5 year prior to study entry. The impact of event scale was used to measure,stress response,symptoms,in terms of intrusion and avoidance; the youth self- report assessed emotional,and behavioural,functioning; the state-trait anxiety inventory for children measured,trait-anxiety. Partic- ipants included 220 adolescents (aged 11–18 years) and
Gea A. Huizinga; Annemieke Visser; Harald J. Hoekstra; Ed C. Klip; Elisabeth Pras
In independent medical examinations, unjustified claims of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are to be expected at an increased\\u000a rate. In a prospective study, consecutive cases of patients claiming PTSD who underwent independent neuropsychiatric evaluation\\u000a were analyzed. For 61 adult patients, results of three symptom validity tests (Morel Emotional Numbing Test, Structured Inventory\\u000a of Malingered Symptomatology, and Word Memory Test) were
Thomas Merten; Elisabeth Thies; Katrin Schneider; Andreas Stevens
The need for a self-report measure of work functioning that is flexible to involvement in work across 3 domains (employment, school, and home) led to the development of the Work History Inventory (WHI). The WHI was administered to 185 patients who participated in psychotherapy studies and to 110 community control respondents who were not in treatment. The WHI Total score and subscales (Performance and Interpersonal) demonstrated adequate to good reliability. WHI scores correlated moderately with symptom measures and strongly with another work functioning measure. Changes across treatment indicated that the WHI Total and Performance scores increased significantly across psychotherapy. The WHI seems to be a reliable and valid instrument for measuring treatment related changes in work functioning. PMID:18852620
Ring-Kurtz, Sarah; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Kurtz, John E; Gallop, Robert; Present, Julie; Crits-Christoph, Paul
To ascertain how effective the Beck Depression Inventory for Primary Care (BDI-PC) was for differentiating medical inpatients who were and were not diagnosed with DSM-IV major depression disorders (MDD), this 7-item self-report instrument composed of cognitive and affective symptoms was administered to 50 medical inpatients along with the Depression subscale (HDS) from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond &
Aaron T. Beck; David Guth; Robert A. Steer; Roberta Ball
... Advanced MS Pediatric MS Related Conditions Symptoms In multiple sclerosis , damage to the myelin in the central nervous ... Depression Depression is common during the course of multiple sclerosis. In fact, studies have suggested that clinical depression, ...
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE. PMID:23421745
Seichepine, Daniel R; Stamm, Julie M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Riley, David O; Baugh, Christine M; Gavett, Brandon E; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A
The psychometric structure of the Brief SymptomInventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and prisoners, indicating strong unidimensionality. For students, only the depression and anxiety items formed a medium Mokken scale. Parametric item response theory analyses showed that the best discriminating items came from the depression and anxiety subscales. PMID:21280957
Meijer, Rob R; de Vries, Rivka M; van Bruggen, Vincent
The Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory (HAPPI; Mansell, 2006) was developed as a theory-driven cognitive measure of extreme, personalised appraisals of internal state. According to an integrative cognitive model of mood swings and bipolar disorder (Mansell, Morrison, Reid, Lowens, & Tai, 2007), these positive and negative appraisals are a key factor in the development of mania and depression. Factor
Alyson L. Dodd; Warren Mansell; Anthony P. Morrison; Sara Tai
Objective The objective of the present study was to examine the temporal sequencing of posttraumatic and depressive symptoms during prolonged exposure (PE) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among children and adolescents. Method Participants were 73 children and adolescents (56.2% female) between the ages of 8 and 18. Participants completed selfreport measures of posttraumatic stress and depression prior to every session. Measures included the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Results Multilevel mediational analyses indicated reciprocal relations during treatment: changes in posttraumatic symptoms led to changes in depressive symptoms and vice versa. Posttraumatic symptoms accounted for 64.1% of the changes in depression, whereas depressive symptoms accounted for 11.0% of the changes in posttraumatic stress. Conclusions PE may work primarily by reducing posttraumatic stress which in turn reduces depression.
Aderka, Idan M.; Foa, Edna B.; Applebaum, Edna; Shafran, Naama; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva
OBJECTIVE--To examine the sensitivity of patient selfreported diagnoses compared with physician diagnoses in a rheumatology outpatient population. METHODS--A mailed survey to 472 rheumatology outpatients (81% response rate) asked about joint symptoms, disabilities, and underlying rheumatic conditions. The self-reported diagnoses were linked with physician diagnoses in the rheumatology clinic computer based diagnostic registry. RESULT--Overall there was an 87% sensitivity for selfreported compared with physician diagnoses when the matching criteria included compatible yet different diagnoses such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). The sensitivity for exact match was 65%, and it varied with the underlying clinical diagnosis, and was greatest for RA (90%) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) (100%), and intermediate for OA (52%) and psoriatic arthritis (50%). The sensitivity of selfreport was primarily related to the type of diagnosis (RA or AS v other rheumatic conditions; odds ratio = 16.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.0 to 29.5), and also to difficulty in activities of daily living (odds ratio = 2.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.6) but not age, gender, duration of disease, or clinic attendance, as shown by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS--This study in a rheumatology outpatient population indicated that most patients report a diagnosis which is compatible with the clinical diagnosis. These findings give an upper limit to the sensitivity of selfreported diagnoses, though further research is needed to assess the extent to which our results may be generalised to other settings.
The current study examined scrupulosity in 352 unselected college students as measured by the 19-item Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity (PIOS). Confirmatory factor analysis yielded support for a two-factor model of the 19-item PIOS. However, item-level analyses provided preliminary support for the validity of a 15-item PIOS (PIOS-R) secondary to the removal of items 2, 6, 15, and 10. The two
Bunmi O. Olatunji; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Nathan L. Williams; Kevin M. Connolly; Jeffrey M. Lohr
The present study examines the relationship among self-reportedsymptoms of social anxiety, anxiety, and depression in the context of Clark and Watson's tripartite theory of anxiety and depression for a sample of adolescents. Four hundred and twentyeight 10th-grade students completed three measures: the Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised, the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and the Children's Depression Inventory. Results
A post hoc analysis examined depressive symptoms in regular marijuana smokers interested in nontreatment, laboratory studies, and marijuana-dependent treatment-seekers considering clinical trial participation. Among marijuana-dependent treatment-seeking patients screened for a clinical trial, the mean Beck Depression Inventory Score (BDI) was significantly higher than for marijuana-using volunteers screened for nontreatment laboratory studies. Mean self-reported baseline marijuana use was not significantly different
John J. Mariani; Margaret Haney; Carl L. Hart; Suzanne K. Vosburg; Frances R. Levin
The Post-concussive Symptom Questionnaire (PCSQ) and its short forms were evaluated to determine their utility in measuring symptom validity as brief self-report measures in 112 individuals referred for a neuropsychological evaluation. First, the relationships between the PCSQ forms and measures of cognitive performance (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Full-Scale IQ, California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition Trials 1-5 Total T-score, Trails B, FAS), general distress (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI]-2 M8), and self-reportsymptom validity (MMPI-2 FBS Symptom Validity Scale [FBS] and Response Bias Scale [RBS]) were investigated to determine construct validity. Measures of self-reportsymptom validity explained the greatest amount of variance. Second, receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were conducted to determine the predictive value of the PCSQ forms in detecting over reporting on the FBS and the RBS in addition to establishing optimal cutoff scores. On the basis of the proposed cutoff scores, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power, negative predictive power, and hit rates were calculated. PMID:20710017
Van Dyke, Sarah A; Axelrod, Bradley N; Schutte, Christian
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition that can be difficult to diagnose in adolescents, since symptoms may vary among patients, evolve over time, and mimic symptoms of other disorders. Various rating scales are helpful to the clinician when evaluating patients for ADHD and should be used as part of a thorough assessment. Clinicians should use both informant- and self-report rating scales to gather as much information as possible, while being aware that informants are subject to rater error and adolescents typically underreport symptoms. Rating scales can establish a baseline measure of the patient's symptom type and frequency, provide a framework for assessing symptom impairment, and aid clinicians in monitoring treatment response. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) Symptom Checklist is a reliable self-report rating scale for adolescents as well as adults. PMID:21733473
This article describes a culturally sensitive questionnaire for the assessment of the effects of trauma in the Cambodian refugee population, the Cambodian Somatic Symptom and Syndrome Inventory (CSSI), and gives the results of a survey with the instrument. The survey examined the relationship of the CSSI, the two CSSI subscales, and the CSSI items to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity and self-perceived functioning. A total of 226 traumatized Cambodian refugees were assessed at a psychiatric clinic in Lowell, MA, USA. There was a high correlation of the CSSI, the CSSI somatic and syndrome scales, and all the CSSI items to the PTSD Checklist (PCL), a measure of PTSD severity. All the CSSI items varied greatly across three levels of PTSD severity, and patients with higher levels of PTSD had very high scores on certain CSSI-assessed somatic items such as dizziness, orthostatic dizziness (upon standing), and headache, and on certain CSSI-assessed cultural syndromes such as khyâl attacks, "fear of fainting and dying upon standing up," and "thinking a lot." The CSSI was more highly correlated than the PCL to self-perceived disability assessed by the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12). The study demonstrates that the somatic symptoms and cultural syndromes described by the CSSI form a central part of the Cambodian refugee trauma ontology. The survey indicates that locally salient somatic symptoms and cultural syndromes need be profiled to adequately assess the effects of trauma. PMID:23630226
Hinton, Devon E; Kredlow, M Alexandra; Pich, Vuth; Bui, Eric; Hofmann, Stefan G
Many self-report measures that are used to identify cases of depression are symptom severity measures that are adopted for diagnostic purposes by use of cutoff scores. A troublesome problem with this approach is that optimal cutoff scores often vary across studies, which increases the difficulty of cross-study comparisons. This study evaluated the performance of a DSM-IV based depression screening scale,
We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression). PMID:23644673
Postconcussion symptoms are relatively common in the acute recovery period following mild traumatic brain injury. However, for a small subset of patients, selfreported postconcussion symptoms continue long after injury. Many factors have been proposed to account for the presence of persistent postconcussion symptoms. The influence of personality traits has been proposed as one explanation. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between postconcussion-like symptom reporting and personality traits in a sample of 96 healthy participants. Participants completed the British Columbia Postconcussion SymptomInventory and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III (MCMI-III). There was a strong positive relation between the majority of MCMI-III scales and postconcussion-like symptom reporting. Approximately half of the sample met the International Classification of Diseases-10 Criterion C symptoms for Postconcussional Syndrome. Compared with those participants who did not meet this criterion, the PCS group had significant elevations on the negativistic, depression, major depression, dysthymia, anxiety, dependent, sadistic, somatic, and borderline scales of the MCMI-III. These findings support the hypothesis that personality traits can play a contributing role in selfreported postconcussion symptoms. PMID:20230111
The role of food reactions in asthma has not been well described. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the types of self-reported reactions to foods in asthmatic patients, and to determine the association between self-reported food reactions and self-reported severity of asthma and asthma health care utilization. We characterized 914 patients, aged 3-55 years, in a large health maintenance organization. We characterized the patients according to demographic data (age, sex, occupation, SES, marital status) and their asthma according to duration, triggers, severity (symptoms, FEV1 percentage predicted) and presence of atopy. Overall, 414 (45.3%) participants, primarily women, reported adverse reactions to food, particularly milk, red wine, eggs, chocolate, and peanuts. Those with food reactions were more likely to report having ever been hospitalized for breathing problems than those without food reactions (31% vs. 22%, two-tailed p = 0.004) although their asthma was not worse. Self-reported food reactions, particularly in females, may be associated with increased asthma health care utilization, and such patients may require closer health care management. PMID:9000872
Emery, N L; Vollmer, W M; Buist, A S; Osborne, M L
Background Neuropathic pain must be correctly diagnosed for optimal treatment. The questionnaire named Neuropathic Pain SymptomInventory (NPSI) was developed in its original French version to evaluate the different symptoms of neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that the NPSI might also be used to differentiate neuropathic from non-neuropathic pain. Methods We translated the NPSI into German using a standard forward-backward translation and administered it in a case-control design to patients with neuropathic (n = 68) and non-neuropathic pain (headache and osteoarthritis, n = 169) to validate it and to analyze its discriminant properties, its sensitivity to change, and to detect neuropathic pain subgroups with distinct profiles. Results Using a sum score (the NPSI-G score), we found sensitivity to change (r between 0.37 and 0.5 for pain items of the graded chronic pain scale) and could distinguish between neuropathic and other pain on a group basis, but not for individual patients. Post hoc development of a discriminant score with optimized diagnostic properties to distinguish neuropathic pain from non-neuropathic pain resulted in an instrument with high sensitivity (91%) and acceptable specificity (70%). We detected six different pain profiles in the patient group with neuropathic pain; three profiles were found to be distinct. Conclusions The NPSI-G potentially combines the properties of a diagnostic tool and an instrument to identify subtypes of neuropathic pain.
PURPOSE. This study explored the relationship between self-reported mental health symptoms and help-seeking behaviors of active-duty Air Force members. DESIGN AND METHODS. Mixed-methods approach reviewed 200 postdeployment surveys from active-duty members assigned to Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, USA. Chi-square analysis examined significance between self-reporting mental health problems and accessing treatment. FINDINGS. As the rate of self-reported mental health symptoms increased, active-duty members were less inclined to seek help. There were inconsistencies among gender for self-reporting and accessing services. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. Air Force psychiatric nurses need to be at the forefront of outreach services when treating combat-stressed troops. PMID:19780997
Self-reported anxiety and depression symptoms in children and adolescents have been shown to be heritable, and are also highly correlated. Furthermore, there have been indications in the literature of sex and age differences in the aetiologies of these two types of symptoms. This study set out to ascertain to what extent the genetic and environmental factors that influence anxiety symptoms also influence depression symptoms, and whether these are the same in children and adolescents, and males and females. Four hundred and ninety pairs of twins aged 8 to 16 years completed the Children's Depression Inventory and the Trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. There were significant effects of age and sex on the variance in and covariance between these two types of symptom. Bivariate genetic analyses of the measures indicated that the genetic influences on anxiety and depression were shared for all four groups, a finding that has been consistently demonstrated for adults. PMID:10604405
BACKGROUND: Self-reported medical history data are frequently used in epidemiological studies. Self-reported diagnoses may differ from medical record diagnoses due to poor patient-clinician communication, self-diagnosis in the absence of a satisfactory explanation for symptoms, or the \\
Besa Smith; Laura K Chu; Tyler C Smith; Paul J Amoroso; Edward J Boyko; Tomoko I Hooper; Gary D Gackstetter; Margaret AK Ryan
This study investigated the utility of self-report measures to screen for psychiatric comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Thirty-eight 10–17 year olds with an ASD and without mental retardation completed: the Children's Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S), Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), Conners-Wells Adolescent Self-report Scale-Short edition (CASS-S), and Short Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version (SLOI-CV). Their parents were interviewed with
Research pertaining to the self-report of symptoms after traumatic brain injury was reviewed. Cognitive, emotional, and motivational factors have more relevance than demographic (except for female sex) and personality factors. Specific neuropsychological deficits in attention and memory have been found in the early stages after head injury of even mild severity. This is unlikely to be the only factor affecting symptom persistence. Exaggeration of cognitive dysfunction occurs in some cases, but appears unrelated to symptom overreport. Increased emotional distress typically accompanies symptom persistence. The psychological reaction of preoccupation with symptoms and emotional distress is not unique to concussion, but also occurs after severe head injury and back injury and relates more to the personal interpretation of the effect of the trauma than to objective indicators of brain injury severity. PMID:9253770
Despite the frequent use of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist (Y-BOCS-SC; Goodman et al., 1989a) and the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R; Foa et al., 2002), there are limited data on the psychometric properties of the two instruments. In the present research, clinician ratings on the Y-BOCS-SC for 112 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were compared to their self-report ratings on the OCI-R. In addition, Y-BOCS-SC and OCI-R scores were compared to measures of OCD symptom severity and self-report measures of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Subscale [STAI-T]; Spielberger, Gorusch, & Lushene, 1970) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II [BDI-II]; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996). The six symptom scales of the OCI-R had good internal consistency reliabilities (alphas). For the Y-BOCS-SC, three of five scales had good reliabilities (alphas >.80), but alphas for symmetry/ordering and sexual/religious symptom scales were inadequate. Total scores for the two instruments were strongly correlated with their corresponding "checking" scales, but no individual symptoms scales were identified as indices of overall OCD symptom presence. Scales assessing washing/contamination, symmetry/ordering, and hoarding from the two OCD instruments correlated well, but lower correlations for the other scales suggested differences in symptom coverage by the two instruments. Most symptom scales from the Y-BOCS-SC and OCI-R had low correlations with the BDI-II and STAI-T, but the OCI-R obsessing scale was well correlated (r=.54) with the STAI-T. These findings reveal some of the strengths and weaknesses of these two OCD instruments, and the results provide guidance for selecting scales that are suitable for measuring OCD symptoms. PMID:18942133
Sulkowski, Michael L; Storch, Eric A; Geffken, Gary R; Ricketts, Emily; Murphy, Tanya K; Goodman, Wayne K
A thorough medical literature review of adolescent self-reported suicide attempts focused on comparing the following: (1) the prevalence of attempts in anonymous vs. face-to-face surveys; (2) the prevalence rates in the United States and Canada vs. those reported elsewhere; and (3) the prevalence of attempt findings vs. self-harm behavior in anonymous surveys. The major findings were: (1) 29 anonymous self-report
We consider a model of optimal law enforcement according to which self-reporting may be considered in mitigation. After committing a crime, individuals get a private update of their probability of apprehension. Hence, self-enforcing has an option value of self-reporting, since criminals can decide whether or not to come forward after they have learned their types. We show that the optimal
The relationship between the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Inventory for Diagnosing Depression (IDD) was evaluated in a college population. The BDI is an established self-report depression instrument. The IDD is a relatively new self-report depression instrument. The IDD was designed to address the BDI's lack of full correspondence with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed.,
We describe self-reported strategies used by persons living with HIV/AIDS in Botswana, Lesotho, South Africa, and Swaziland to manage common HIV-related symptoms. A questionnaire asked participants to list three to six symptoms they had recently experienced, the care strategies they had used to make them better, where they had learned the strategy, and to rate the perceived effectiveness of the strategy. Data were collected in 2002 from 743 persons. The self-care management strategies were coded into eight categories: medications, complementary treatments, self-comforting, changing diet, seeking help, exercise, spiritual care, and daily thoughts/activities. Overall, participants reported medications as the most frequently occurring management strategy and the most effective. A very small inventory of behavioral strategies was available to participants to help them manage their HIV-related symptoms. PMID:15733810
|The survey investigated the problems of social desirability (SD), non-response bias (NRB) and reliability in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Revised (MMPI-2) self-reportinventory administered to Brunei student teachers. Bruneians scored higher on all the validity scales than the normative US sample, thereby threatening the…
Although self-reports using the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality have been used in both adult and adolescent populations, few studies have investigated preadolescents' ability to rate themselves using measures of the FFM. A total of 130 preadolescents (mean age = 10.79 years) rated their personalities using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). When standardized verbal prompts were used to clarify the
Patrick M. Markey; Charlotte N. Markey; Barbara J. Tinsley; Andrea J. Ericksen
The present study investigated the relationship between self-reported history of child abuse, neglect, and codependency in a sample of undergraduate nursing students. One hundred and two upper-division nursing students attending a medium-sized regional public university in the Southeast completed a four-part questionnaire containing the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ), the Psychological Maltreatment Inventory (PMI) and the Codependency Assessment Tool (CODAT).
Background These studies sought to investigate the relation between social desirability and self-reported health risk behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, drug use, smoking) in web-based research. Methods Three longitudinal studies (Study 1: N = 5612, 51% women; Study 2: N = 619, 60%; Study 3: N = 846, 59%) among randomly selected members of two online panels (Dutch; German) using several social desirability measures (Marlowe-Crowne Scale; Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding; The Social Desirability Scale-17) were conducted. Results Social desirability was not associated with self-reported current behavior or behavior frequency. Socio-demographics (age; sex; education) did not moderate the effect of social desirability on self-reported measures regarding health risk behaviors. Conclusions The studies at hand provided no convincing evidence to throw doubt on the usefulness of the Internet as a medium to collect self-reports on health risk behaviors.
Background. Grief is considered complicated when symptoms are found to predict long-term functional impairments resulting in a failure to return to pre-loss performance levels (Prigerson, Frank, et al. 1995). Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between selfreported trauma, complicated grief, and depression among college students. Limitations. The study of the relationship between loss of
|The reliability and validity of the Dominic Interactive (DI) assessment were evaluated. The DI is a computerized self-report measure for children, which assesses symptom presence for seven DSM-IV diagnoses. The participants were 322 children (169 cocaine exposed, 153 noncocaine exposed) who were recruited at birth for a prospective longitudinal…
Scott, Teresa J. Linares; Short, Elizabeth J.; Singer, Lynn T.; Russ, Sandra W.; Minnes, Sonia
The reliability and validity of the Dominic Interactive (DI) assessment were evaluated. The DI is a computerized self-report measure for children, which assesses symptom presence for seven DSM-IV diagnoses. The participants were 322 children (169 cocaine exposed, 153 noncocaine exposed) who were recruited at birth for a prospective longitudinal…
Scott, Teresa J. Linares; Short, Elizabeth J.; Singer, Lynn T.; Russ, Sandra W.; Minnes, Sonia
No self-report measure of attachment is well validated for middle-childhood. This study examined the validity and factor structure of the People in My Life (PIML) measure in 320 urban, fifth and sixth graders. Validity analyses consisted of correlational analyses between PIML subscales and the Child Behavior Checklist, Delinquency Rating Scale for Self and Others, Heath Resources Inventory, and Reynolds Child
Ty A. Ridenour; Mark T. Greenberg; Elizabeth T. Cook
|Psychopathy has been conceptualized as a personality disorder with distinctive interpersonal-affective and behavioral deviance features. The authors examine correlates of the factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), Self-Report Psychopathy-II (SRP-II) scale, and Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) to understand similarities…
Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Salekin, Randall T.; Leistico, Anne-Marie R.
The association between lower-class vs. middle-class values and self-reported delinquency was the focus of this study of 485 Caucasian male and female high school and college students in rural, middle Tennessee. The typical student's family background was lower-middle class, as determined by his/her father's occupation. The values statements used…
The aim of this study was to develop a self-report instrument to identify schemas in sexual offenders. A schema was defined as a structure, with cognitive contents such as attitudes, beliefs, rules and assumptions centred on a coherent theme, which directs some aspects of cognitive processing. A questionnaire containing items drawn from offenders' explanations for their offending was administered to
Assessment of workplace physical exposures by self-reported questionnaires has logistical advantages in population studies but is subject to exposure misclassification. This study measured agreement between eight self-reported and observer-rated physical exposures to the hands and wrists, and evaluated predictors of inter-method agreement. Workers (n=341) from three occupational categories (clerical/technical, construction, and service) completed self-administered questionnaires and worksite assessments. Analyses compared self-reported and observed ratings using a weighted kappa coefficient. Personal and psychosocial factors, presence of upper extremity symptoms and job type were evaluated as predictors of agreement. Weighted kappa values were substantial for lifting (0.67) and holding vibrating tools (0.61), moderate for forceful grip (0.58) and fair to poor for all other exposures. Upper extremity symptoms did not predict greater disagreement between self-reported and observed exposures. Occupational category was the only significant predictor of inter-method agreement. Self-reported exposures may provide a useful estimate of some work exposures for population studies.
Evaluated the Hopelessness Depression Symptom Questionnaire (HDSQ; Metalsky & Joiner, 1991). The HDSQ is a 32-item self-report measure of eight symptoms posited by L. Abramson, G. Metalsky, and L. Alloy (1989) to comprise a specific subtype of depression—hopelessness depression. Factor analytic results from 435 subjects suggested that: (a) Each of the eight subscales of the HDSQ reflects a distinct symptom
The objective of this study was to determine associations between displayed depression symptoms on Facebook and self-reported depression symptoms using a clinical screen. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduates from two universities were examined for displayed depression references. Profiles were categorized as depression symptom displayers or non-displayers. Participants completed an online PHQ-9 depression scale. Analyses examined associations between PHQ-9 score and depression symptom displayers versus non-displayers. The mean PHQ-9 score for non-displayers was 4.7 (SD?=?4.0), the mean PHQ-9 score for depression symptom displayers was 6.4 (SD?=?5.1; p?=?0.018). A trend approaching significance was noted that participants who scored into a depression category by their PHQ-9 score were more likely to display depression symptom references. Displayed references to depression symptoms were associated with self-reported depression symptoms. PMID:21863354
|The scientific investigation of the relationship between resources and retirement well-being is impeded by the lack of proper measurement of resources. This study reports on the development of an inventory that assesses resources relevant to retirement well-being. The 35-item Retirement Resources Inventory (RRI) is a self-report measure…
The Inventory of Learning Processes (ILP) was developed by Schmeck, Ribich, and Ramanaiah in 1977 as a self-reportinventory to assess learning style through a behavioral-oriented approach. The ILP was revised by Schmeck in 1983. The Revised ILP contains six scales: (1) Deep Processing; (2) Elaborative Processing; (3) Shallow Processing; (4)…
|The Academic Skills Inventory (Kruger and Zechmeister, 2001) was developed at Loyola University of Chicago and originally designed for use with psychology majors. It was later extended for use in a variety of academic programs. The Academic Skills Inventory (ASI) assesses student self-reports of behaviors in 10 skill areas: (1) written and oral…
Seifert, Kyle; Hurney, Carol A.; Wigtil, Clifton J.; Sundre, Donna L.
Purpose: Enterometabolic disturbances may cause meal-related symptoms. We performed a functional evaluation of the intestinal microflora in patients with unexplained, self-reported food hypersensitivity by measuring fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Patients and methods: Thirty-five consecutive patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity and 15 healthy volunteers of similar age, gender, and body mass index collected all feces for 72 hours. Fecal concentrations of acetic, propionic, n-butyric, i-butyric, n-valeric, i-valeric, n-caproic, and i-caproic acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Concentrations and excretions (output) of SCFAs in patients and controls were compared and related to gastrointestinal symptoms. Results: Despite nonsignificant differences between patients and controls for both total and individual SCFA concentrations and excretions, n-butyric acid comprised a higher (P = 0.035) and acetic acid a lower (P = 0.012) proportion of total SCFA in patients compared to controls. There were no significant correlations between symptom scores and concentrations or excretions of individual or total SCFAs, but the proportion of n-butyric acid was significantly higher in patients with severe symptoms compared to patients with moderate symptoms (P = 0.016). Conclusion: The results indicate an enterometabolic disturbance in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity. Higher proportions of n-butyric acid may be related to abdominal symptom generation, but may also protect against organic bowel disease. Further studies are needed to clarify these aspects.
Background Given ecstasy’s (MDMA) potential serotonergic neurotoxicity, it is plausible that regular ecstasy users would have an elevated prevalence of behavioral executive dysfunction or mood symptoms. However, recent studies have found that the relationship between ecstasy use and psychological symptoms was no longer significant after controlling for marijuana use (e.g., Morgan et al., 2002). The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between ecstasy exposure and self-reported executive functioning and psychological symptoms after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and other drug use. Methods Data were collected from 65 men and women with a wide range of ecstasy use (including 17 marijuana-using controls). Participants were administered the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for adults, and the Beck Depression Inventory-2nd Edition. Results Although 19–63% of the ecstasy users demonstrated clinically elevated psychological symptoms, frequency of ecstasy use did not predict the psychological symptoms. No gender differences or interactions were observed. Conclusions These results revealed that, although ecstasy users demonstrate elevated levels of psychological symptoms and executive dysfunction, these symptoms are not statistically associated with their ecstasy consumption. Instead, other drug use (alcohol, marijuana, opioids, and inhalants) significantly predict psychological symptoms in this sample of polydrug users.
Background There is a lack of knowledge about the pattern of symptom reporting in the general population as most research focuses on specific diseases or symptoms. The number of musculoskeletal pain sites is a strong predictor for disability pensioning and, hence, is considered to be an important dimension in symptom reporting. The simple method of counting symptoms might also be applicable to non-musculoskeletal symptoms, rendering further dimensions in describing individual and public health. In a general population, we aimed to explore the association between self-reported non-musculoskeletal symptoms and the number of pain sites. Methods With a cross-sectional design, the Standardised Nordic Questionnaire and the Subjective Health Complaints Inventory were used to record pain at ten different body sites and 13 non-musculoskeletal symptoms, respectively, among seven age groups in Ullensaker, Norway (n = 3,227). Results Results showed a strong, almost linear relationship between the number of non-musculoskeletal symptoms and the number of pain sites (r = 0.55). The number and type of non-musculoskeletal symptoms had an almost equal explanatory power in the number of pain sites reported (27.1% vs. 28.2%). Conclusion The linear association between the number of non-musculoskeletal and musculoskeletal symptoms might indicate that the symptoms share common characteristics and even common underlying causal factors. The total burden of symptoms as determined by the number of symptoms reported might be an interesting generic indicator of health and well-being, as well as present and future functioning. Research on symptom reporting might also be an alternative pathway to describe and, possibly, understand the medically unexplained multisymptom conditions.
How much does religion help to preserve societal order, especially in terms of preventing crime and delinquency? If religion promotes law-abiding behavior, it is reasonable to ask whether some denominations are more effective in doing so than others. To explore this question, the present study compared the self-reported delinquency of more than 11,000 United States and Canadian college students belonging
Recent behavioral research has suggested that delayed incentives are discounted in a highly concave curve, which should produce temporary preference for the poorer of two alternatives when that alternative is available earlier than the better one. Unlike the psychoanalytic model of impulsiveness, the temporary preference model implies a rational need for people to forestall impulses by committing their choices in advance. A questionnaire elicited college students' and prisoners' self-reports of approval of four basic kinds of precommitting tactics as applied to 14 commonplace temptations. Endorsement of private rules as a precommitting device was correlated with self-reported compulsive personality traits and negatively correlated with endorsement of extra-psychic (social or physical) devices; the latter endorsement was correlated with self-reported oral/paranoid traits. Female subjects endorsed attention control as a precommitting device more than males, and male subjects endorsed extrapsychic devices more than females. The ego psychology of conflict may be practical at the conscious level. PMID:3570571
The findings described here compare odometer readings with self-reported estimates of Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) to investigate to what extent self-reported VMT is a reliable surrogate for odometer-based VMT.
A paper-and-pencil self-reportinventory for assessing the sexual adjustment and sexual satisfaction of heterosexual couples is described. Other sexual assessment procedures are reviewed, and the rationale for the format of the Sexual Interaction Inventory is explained. Data from four different client and “normal” samples are presented, detailing the reliability and validity of the inventory.
Background Cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder has been associated with poor functional outcomes. We examined the relation of self-reported cognitive problems to employment trajectory in patients diagnosed with bipolar I disorder. Methods 154 bipolar I disorder patients were followed for 15–43 months at the Bipolar Disorders Center for Pennsylvanians. Using a multinomial logistic regression we examined predictors of employment group including self-reported cognitive problems, mood symptoms, education and age. Cognitive functioning was measured via 4 self-report items assessing memory/concentration at baseline and termination. Employment status was recorded at baseline and termination. Employment was categorized as working (full-time, part-time, homemaker, volunteer) or not working (leave of absence, disability, unemployed, no longer volunteering) at each time point. Patients were categorized as good stable, improving, worsening and poor stable. Results Baseline self-reported concentration problems and years of education significantly predicted employment trajectory. Limitations Post-hoc analyses of existing clinical data Conclusions Self-reported concentration problems assessed in the context of specific areas of functioning may serve as a sensitive predictor of functional outcome in patients diagnosed with bipolar I disorder.
Gilbert, A.M.; Olino, T. M.; Houck, P.; Fagiolini, A.; Kupfer, D.J.; Frank, E.
Self-reporting -- the reporting by parties of their own behavior to an enforcement authority -- is a commonly observed aspect of law enforcement, as in the context of environmental and safety regulation. We add self-reporting to the model of the control of harmful externalities through probabilistic law enforcement. Optimal self-reporting schemes are characterized and are shown to offer two advantages
This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings
Aims: We studied the relationship between the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) in young–old hemodialysis and hospitalized patients in order to evaluate the possible usefulness of GDS-15 in hemodialysis patients. Methods: Thirty-one hospitalized and 31 young–old hemodialysis patients aged 65–74 (young–old) were enrolled in the study. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE),
Mauro Giordano; Paolo Tirelli; Tiziana Ciarambino; Antonio Gambardella; Nicola Ferrara; Giuseppe Signoriello; Giuseppe Paolisso; Michele Varricchio
Three types of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) exist that are distinguished by presence and severity of impairment in cognitive and everyday functioning. Although well-validated neurocognitive measures exist, determining impairment in everyday functioning remains a challenge. We aim to determine whether Self-Report measures of everyday functioning are as effective in characterizing HAND as Performance-Based measures. We assessed 674 HIV-infected participants with a comprehensive neurocognitive battery; 233 met criteria for a HAND diagnosis by having at least mild neurocognitive impairment. Functional decline was measured via Self-Report and Performance-Based measures. HAND diagnoses were determined according to published criteria using three approaches to assess functional decline: (1) Self-Report measures only, (2) Performance-Based measures only, and (3) Dual-method combining Self-Report and Performance-Based measures. The Dual-method classified the most symptomatic HAND, compared to either singular method. Singular method classifications were 76% concordant with each other. Participants classified as Performance-Based functionally impaired were more likely to be unemployed and more immunosuppressed, whereas those classified as Self-Report functionally impaired had more depressive symptoms. Multimodal methods of assessing everyday functioning facilitate detection of symptomatic HAND. Singular Performance-Based classifications were associated with objective functional and disease-related factors; reliance on Self-Report classifications may be biased by depressive symptoms. PMID:22114912
Blackstone, K; Moore, D J; Heaton, R K; Franklin, D R; Woods, S P; Clifford, D B; Collier, A C; Marra, C M; Gelman, B B; McArthur, J C; Morgello, S; Simpson, D M; Rivera-Mindt, M; Deutsch, R; Ellis, R J; Hampton Atkinson, J; Grant, I
Background Maternal periodontal disease diagnosed by a detailed oral health examination is associated with preeclampsia. Our objective was to measure the association between maternal self-report of oral symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, and/or dental service utilization prior to or during pregnancy and severe preeclampsia. Methods A written questionnaire was administered to pregnant women at the time of prenatal ultrasound, and outcomes ascertained by chart abstraction. Chi square test compared maternal oral symptoms/problems, hygiene practices, and dental service utilization between women with severe preeclampsia versus normotensive women. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for severe preeclampsia. Results: 48 (10%) of 470 women reported ? 2 oral symptoms/problems in the 6 months prior to pregnancy and 77 (16%) since pregnancy. 51(11%) reported prior periodontal treatment. 28 (6%) of 470 developed severe preeclampsia. Women with a history of periodontal treatment were more likely to develop severe preeclampsia (aOR, 95%CI: 3.71, 1.40-9.83) than women without a prior history of periodontal treatment. Self-reported oral health symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, or dental service utilization prior to or during pregnancy were not associated with severe preeclampsia when considered in the context of other maternal risk factors. Conclusion: Maternal selfreport of previous periodontal treatment prior to pregnancy is associated with severe preeclampsia.
Boggess, Kim A.; Berggren, Erica K.; Koskenoja, Viktoria; Urlaub, Diana; Lorenz, Carol
The objective of this study was to determine associations between displayed depression symptoms on Facebook and self-reported\\u000a depression symptoms using a clinical screen. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduates from two universities were examined\\u000a for displayed depression references. Profiles were categorized as depression symptom displayers or non-displayers. Participants\\u000a completed an online PHQ-9 depression scale. Analyses examined associations between PHQ-9 score and
Megan Andreas Moreno; Dimitri A. Christakis; Katie G. Egan; Lauren A. Jelenchick; Elizabeth Cox; Henry Young; Hope Villiard; Tara Becker
Objective?To examine heart rate (HR) responses to and coping with stress in children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), anxiety, and healthy controls.?Methods?A clinical sample (children with RAP and children with anxiety) was compared to control children on self-reported and HR responses to stress and a laboratory test of pain tolerance and intensity (cold pressor).?Results?Children in the clinical sample had elevated HRs compared to healthy controls before, during, and after laboratory tasks. Self-reported stress reactivity to social stress was positively correlated with HR at all study time intervals. Secondary control coping with social stress was negatively correlated with HR at most study time intervals. Internalizing symptoms were positively correlated with HR and self-reported stress reactivity.?Conclusions?Stress reactivity, as reflected in both self-reported and HR responses to laboratory stressors, is related to the presence of both RAP and anxiety in children.
Dunn, Madeleine J.; Slosky, Laura S.; Compas, Bruce E.
While it has long been recognized that self-reported drug use may be at variance with objectively obtained evidence such as urine toxicology assays, few studies have explored the behavioral correlates of such discrepancies. Here we compared self-reported and objective measures of stimulant drug use for 162 HIV infected individuals and identified a sub-group with discrepancies between data obtained via the two methods. Results showed poorer neurocognitive performance (attention, learning/memory) and lower medication adherence rates for the discrepant group as compared to those who either acknowledged their drug use or accurately denied recent stimulant use. Using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory –III, it was also found that those in the discrepant group were more hesitant to reveal psychopathology. Comparisons of self-reported and objectively measured medication adherence data are also discussed.
Reinhard, M. J.; Hinkin, C. H.; Barclay, T. R.; Levine, A. J.; Marion, S.; Castellon, S. A.; Longshore, D.; Newton, T.; Durvasula, R. S.; Lam, M. N.; Myers, H.
This study examined the moderating effects of 4 variables on the relation between father involvement (FI) and self-reported parenting practices of 71 couples who have children with attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The variables were parents’ love for their spouses, similarity in child-rearing views, traditional role identification, and paternal ADHD symptoms. These variables interacted with FI in predicting parenting practices. FI
Elizabeth Harvey Arnold; Susan G. OLeary; Gwenyth H. Edwards
The present research expands our understanding of cognitive and affective morality by exploring associations with callous-unemotional (CU) traits and externalizing symptoms. Participants were 46 8- to 12-year-old boys from the community who completed the Affective Morality Index, the Youth Self-Report, and the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits. A pattern of results was found indicating that in particular the combination of high CU traits and high externalizing symptoms was associated with lack of affective morality, and an increased perceived likelihood of recommitting antisocial acts (recidivism). The implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:23378186
Feilhauer, Johanna; Cima, Maaike; Benjamins, Caroline; Muris, Peter
This study integrated psychological and neuroscience research regarding the effects of childhood trauma in order to advance assessment with this population. Recently, researchers proposed new criteria for complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the basis of years of interdisciplinary research, identifying symptoms that have an empirical association with survivors of childhood trauma. The criteria reflect alterations in regulating affect, dissociation,
Gregory K. Wolf; Matthew Reinhard; Louis J. Cozolino; Alex Caldwell; Joy K. Asamen
Impulsivity, often defined as a human behavior characterized by the inclination of an individual to act on urge rather than thought, with diminished regard to consequences, encompasses a range of maladaptive behaviors, which are in turn affected by distinct neural systems. Congruent with the above definition, behavioral studies have consistently shown that the underlying construct of impulsivity is multidimensional in nature. However, research to date has been inconclusive regarding the different domains or constructs that constitute this behavior. In addition there is also no clear consensus as to whether self-report and laboratory based measures of impulsivity measure the same or different domains. This study aimed to: (i) characterize the underlying multidimensional construct of impulsivity using a sample with varying degrees of putative impulsivity related to substance misuse, including subjects who were at-risk of substance use or addicted (ARA), and (ii) assess relationships between self-report and laboratory measures of impulsivity, using a principal component-based factor analysis. In addition, our supplementary goal was to evaluate the structural constructs of impulsivity within each group separately (healthy and ARA). We used five self-report measures (Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System, Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11, Padua Inventory, Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale, and Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire) and two computer-based laboratory tasks (Balloon Analog Risk Task and the Experiential Discounting Task) to measure the aspects of impulsivity in a total of 176 adult subjects. Subjects included healthy controls (n = 89), nonalcoholic subjects with family histories of alcoholism (family history positive; n = 36) and both former (n = 20) and current (n = 31) cocaine users. Subjects with a family history of alcoholism and cocaine abusers were grouped together as 'at-risk/addicted' (ARA) to evaluate our supplementary goal. Our overall results revealed the multidimensional nature of the impulsivity construct as captured optimally through a five-factor solution that accounted for nearly 70% of the total variance. The five factors/components were imputed as follows 'Self-Reported Behavioral Activation', 'Self-Reported Compulsivity and Reward/Punishment', 'Self-Reported Impulsivity', 'Behavioral Temporal Discounting', and 'Behavioral Risk-Taking'. We also found that contrary to previously published reports, there was significant overlap between certain laboratory and self-report measures, indicating that they might be measuring the same impulsivity domain. In addition, our supplemental analysis also suggested that the impulsivity constructs were largely, but not entirely the same within the healthy and ARA groups. PMID:19724194
Meda, Shashwath A; Stevens, Michael C; Potenza, Marc N; Pittman, Brian; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Andrews, Melissa M; Thomas, Andre D; Muska, Christine; Hylton, Jennifer L; Pearlson, Godfrey D
Objectives To determine the validity and properties of the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version in samples from Australia, The Netherlands, Japan and New Zealand. Study design Six cross-sectional samples of older people from The Netherlands (N = 50), Australia (N = 637 and N = 245), Japan (N = 401) and New Zealand (N = 167 and N = 86). Data were analysed using the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version. Results Almost all data-sets revealed a single extracted factor which explained about half of the variance, with Cronbach’s alpha values of at least 0.70. When mean scale scores were plotted against a “gold standard” xerostomia question, statistically significant gradients were observed, with the highest score seen in those who always had dry mouth, and the lowest in those who never had it. Conclusion The Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version is valid for measuring xerostomia symptoms in clinical and epidemiological research.
Thomson, William Murray; van der Putten, Gert-Jan; de Baat, Cees; Ikebe, Kazunori; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Enoki, Kaori; Hopcraft, Matthew; Ling, Guo Y
Previous research suggests that personality disorders, particularly in clusters A and C, persist into late life, are particularly prevalent in late-life depressed samples, and negatively impact treatment of late-life depression. The present study examined the self-reported personality disorder traits of a sample of 65 depressed elders using the Wisconsin Personality Disorder Inventory IV (WISPI IV). As expected, clusters A and
Recent interest in the construct of motivation to change among male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) has led\\u000a to development of two self-report measures of this construct: the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment for Domestic\\u000a Violence (URICA-DV; Levesque et al. 2000) and the Safe at Home Inventory (SAH; Begun et al. 2003). We examined the internal\\u000a structure of
In this study psychometric properties of seven self-report measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were compared. The seven scales evaluated were the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS), the PTSD Checklist (PCL), the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), the Civilian Mississippi Scale (CMS), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Penn Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Penn), and the PK scale of
Jennifer W. Adkins; Frank W. Weathers; Meghan McDevitt-Murphy; Jennifer B. Daniels
Self-reporting of compliance status has become a common feature in the enforcement of environmental regulation. In this paper,\\u000a I generalize existing models of enforcement with self-reporting to include the possibility of private enforcement of regulation\\u000a through citizen suits. This allows me to identify an additional argument for the efficiency of self-reporting: it can increase\\u000a the likelihood of a successful suit
Self-report itemized paper-and-pencil surveys are commonly used measures of interpersonal violence, yet little evidence exists regarding their accuracy. In this study, the authors compared high school students' reports for verbal, physical, and sexual aggression using standard-method self-report surveys with those obtained using scenario-based self-report questionnaires. The latter measure yielded not only lower reported rates but also different patterns of sex
Failures of episodic retrospective memory (RetM) are among the most frequently reported cognitive complaints endorsed by individuals living with HIV infection. The present study sought to examine the nature, frequency, and determinants of self-reported complaints of prospective memory (ProM) in HIV, which is a singly dissociable and ecologically relevant aspect of episodic memory involving the execution of future intentions. Seventy-five HIV seropositive individuals and 60 seronegative volunteers were administered the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PMRQ) as part of extensive neuropsychological, psychiatric, and medical research assessments. The HIV sample endorsed more frequent ProM complaints in daily life than the seronegative group, particularly on items requiring self-initiated cue detection and retrieval. Within both study groups, ProM complaints were significantly more frequent than RetM complaints. Although the HIV sample was impaired relative to the seronegative group on an objective, performance-based ProM test, self-reported ProM complaints did not correspond to actual ProM abilities. However, greater frequency of self-reported ProM complaints was moderately associated with increased fatigue, as well as with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Consistent with prior research on RetM in HIV, results indicate that affective distress contributes to a metamemory deficit for HIV-associated ProM impairment, which highlights the potential importance of assessing both self-reported and performance-based ProM in clinical and research neuroAIDS evaluations.
Woods, Steven Paul; Carey, Catherine L.; Moran, Lisa M.; Dawson, Matthew S.; Letendre, Scott L.; Grant, Igor
The present study assessed the convergent and discriminant validity of multidimensional measures of anger and hostility and validated abbreviated neurotic and reactive hostility subscales of the Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory. A sample of 120 adults were administered the abbreviated Buss Durkee Reaction (RH) and Neurotic Hostility (NH) subscales, State-Trait Anger Scale (ST), Anger Self-Report General (ASRG) subscale, Multidimensional Anger Inventory (MAI), and Framingham Anger-in (FI), Anger-out (FO), and Discuss (FD) scales. An intercorrelation matrix supported the convergent and discriminant validity of these measures except for the Anger-in/Brood subscale of the MAI and the FO scale. Factor analysis of the scales resulted in three factors: anger experience/hostility, verbal/adaptive anger expression, and maladaptive/physical anger expression. Implications for future research on anger assessment, specifically the components of anger experience and anger expression or suppression, were discussed. PMID:2745729
BACKGROUND: Physicians experience workplace stress and draw on different coping strategies. The primary goal of this paper is to use interview data to explore physicians' selfreported coping strategies. In addition, questionnaire data is utilized to explore the degree to which the coping strategies are used and are associated with feelings of emotional exhaustion, a key symptom of burnout. METHODS:
Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) remains poor among heroin users, even after being treated with methadone. Evidence regarding self-reported psychopathology and HRQoL in heroin users is also limited. The present study aimed to investigate the association between self-reported psychopathology and HRQoL in Asian heroin users treated with methadone. Methods Thirty-nine heroin users treated with methadone and 39 healthy controls were recruited. Both groups self-reported on demographic data, the Brief Symptom Rating Scale, EuroQoL-5D, and World Health Organization Questionnaire on Quality of Life: Short Form. We compared clinical characteristics, psychopathology, and HRQoL between the two study groups. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to explore the association between psychopathology and HRQoL in the heroin user group. Results Heroin users had more psychopathology and worse HRQoL than healthy controls. The HRQoL of heroin users had significant correlations with Brief Symptom Rating Scale scores. HRQoL could be predicted by depression, anxiety, paranoia, and additional symptoms (ie, poor appetite and sleep difficulties) independently. Conclusion Self-reported psychopathology, depression, anxiety, paranoia, poor appetite, and sleep difficulties had a negative impact on each domain of HRQoL among heroin users treated with methadone. The importance of the environmental domain of HRQoL is discussed. Clinicians should recognize comorbid psychiatric symptoms early on to improve HRQoL in heroin users.
|To further investigate the long-term impact of pre-adoption adversity on international adoptees, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a self-report measure at school-age in addition to mothers' reports. The sample consisted of 95 adopted children and their mothers. Children's health and developmental status were assessed…
The current study examined relationships between attachment style, parental rearing behaviors, and symptoms of internalizing and externalizing in a large sample of nonreferred adolescents (N = 742). Adolescents completed (a) a single-item measure of attachment style, (b) the child version of the EMBU, a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors, and (c) the Youth Self-Report, an index of severity
The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate
To further investigate the long-term impact of pre-adoption adversity on international adoptees, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a self-report measure at school-age in addition to mothers' reports. The sample consisted of 95 adopted children and their mothers. Children's health and developmental status were assessed…
|This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…
|This study investigated the utility of self-report measures to screen for psychiatric comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Thirty-eight 10-17 year olds with an ASD and without mental retardation completed: the "Children's Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S)", "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS)", "Conners-Wells…
|This investigation examined the relationship between self-reported fears on the Wolpe-Lang Fear Survey Schedule and scores on the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) among hospitalized male veterans and evaluated the effects of threat of failure and loss of self-esteem on the electrodermal activity of 32 male college students classified as high…
The present study examined whether relationships of self-reported depression and suicidality to gender roles or gender are moderated by the type of stressful life events that individuals experience. The focus was on events in stereotypic male (achievement) versus female (interpersonal) domains. This study of 290 women and 247 men undergraduates employed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Personal Attributes Questionnaire
|The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) and Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) are frequently used objective personality self-report measures. Given their widespread use, the purpose of the current study was to examine and compare the literature base for the two instruments. A comprehensive review of the…
Baum, Linda J.; Archer, Robert P.; Forbey, Johnathan D.; Handel, Richard W.
By establishing clear inventory ordering targets and following the guidelines outlined in this column, the staff member handling the process will understand the high and low levels of inventory control and be able to maintain an accurate system. Inventory control represents approximately 6 to 8 percent of practice purchasing. The main goal of the advice in this column is not to reduce the cost, unless there is waste involved, but rather to establish a process that allows the practice to purchase supplies on a regular basis, avoid mistakes and maintain a steady expense level. PMID:15493397
Access to pediatric surgical care is limited in low- and middle-income countries. Barriers must be identified before improvements can be made. This pilot study aimed to identify self-reported barriers to pediatric surgical care in Guatemala. We surveyed 78 families of Guatemalan children with surgical conditions who were seen at a pediatric surgical clinic in Guatemala City. Spanish translators were used to complete questionnaires regarding perceived barriers to surgical care. Surgical conditions included hernias, rectal prolapse, anorectal malformations, congenital heart defects, cryptorchidism, soft tissue masses, and vestibulourethral reflux. Average patient age was 8.2 years (range, 1 month to 17 years) with male predominance (62%). Families reported an average symptom duration of 3.7 years before clinic evaluation. Families traveled a variety of distances to obtain surgical care: 36 per cent were local (less than 10 km), 17 per cent traveled 10 to 50 km, and 47 per cent traveled greater than 50 km. Other barriers to surgery included financial (58.9%), excessive wait time in the national healthcare system (10. 2%), distrust of local surgeons (37.2%), and geographic inaccessibility to surgical care (10.2%). The majority of study patients required outpatient procedures, which could improve their quality of life. Many barriers to pediatric surgical care exist in Guatemala. Interventions to remove these obstacles may enhance access to surgery and benefit children in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24069982
Nguyen, Karissa; Bhattacharya, Syamal D; Maloney, Megan J; Figueroa, Ligia; Taicher, Brad M; Ross, Sherry; Rice, Henry E
Background: Somatic symptom overlap between depression and insomnia has emerged as a major concern. Self-report measures such as the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II) include somatic symptoms related to depression that are also present in the research diagnostic criteria for insomnia. This study aimed firstly to examine the relationship between the cognitive and somatic factors of the BDI-II and global scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in individuals presenting for insomnia treatment and secondly to examine whether treating insomnia in depressed individuals with insomnia will lead to a reduction in their depressive symptoms and whether this reduction is related to a decrease in the somatic or cognitive factors of depressive symptoms. Methods: A total of 379 individuals (133 males and 246 females), with a mean (M) age of 49.95 (standard deviation [SD] = 14.15) years, were used to address the first aim. To address the second aim, a total of 64 participants (27 males and 37 females) with both insomnia and depressive symptoms were treated for their insomnia. Their ages ranged between 22 and 87 (M = 50.97, SD = 15.13) years. Results: A significant relationship was found between both the cognitive and somatic factors of the BDI-II and global scores on the PSQI. Furthermore, although results in this study are only suggestive, they lend support to the idea that the relationship between insomnia and depression is not due to somatic symptom overlap. Results may also support the hypothesis that insomnia is primary to the presentation of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Clinicians and health care providers could initially treat insomnia in individuals suffering from insomnia who also experience depressive symptoms, as this will not only remit insomnia but also abate the accompanying depressive symptoms.
This article, part of Biodiversity Counts, reports on the process of doing a plant inventory. The article discusses how scientists begin by marking out the plot, using colored flagging and permanent marker, why you may need to divide a plot into smaller subplots if the plants you're inventorying are smaller than trees, and some of the difficulties scientists face in the field when they're working in particularly dense areas.
Background Recent studies have shown ethnic differences concerning cardio-vascular disease, diabetes and mental health. Little is known about ethnic differences in skin morbidity. The purpose of this study was to describe possible ethnic differences in self-reported skin morbidity in a Western urban community. Methods The design was cross sectional. 40 888 adults in Oslo, Norway, received a postal questionnaire providing information on socio-demographic factors and self-reported health, including items on skin complaints. Results 18770 individuals answered the questionnaire. In the sample 84% were from Norway. The largest immigrant group was from Western countries (5%) and the Indian Subcontinent (3%). Itch was the most prevalent reported skin symptom (7%), and was significantly more reported by men from East Asia (18%) and Middle East/North Africa (13%). The same observations were seen for reported dry and sore skin. Hair loss was a dominating complaint for men from the Indian Subcontinent and the Middle East/North Africa (23% and 25%) and for women from the same ethnic groups. Women from Sub-Saharan Africa reported significantly more pimples than in the other groups (17%). Conclusion The study showed that there were significant differences in self-reported skin complaints among ethnic groups. Issues concerning the cultural value of some skin symptoms should be examined further.
The purpose of the current study was to test the ability of adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD to reliably self-report delinquency history. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD between 1987 and 1996. Self-report of lifetime delinquency history was compared to concurrent parent-report and to self-report one year later. Participants included 313 male probands and 209 demographically similar comparison individuals without ADHD. Results indicated that adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD were more likely than comparison participants to fail to report delinquent acts reported by a parent and to recant acts they endorsed one year earlier. This trend was most apparent for acts of mild to moderate severity. After controlling for several covariates, current ADHD symptom severity and parent-report of the participant’s tendency to lie predicted reporting fewer delinquent acts than one’s parent. Current ADHD symptom severity also predicted more recanting of previously endorsed acts. Based on these findings, several recommendations are made for the assessment of delinquency history in adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD.
Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Babinski, Dara E.; Biswas, Aparajita
|There are multiple approaches to measuring physical activity. Among these are direct observation, electronic monitoring, direct and indirect calorimetry, and self-report instruments. Self-report instruments are the most practical and cost effective option for use with a large group. In a study by Motl, Dishman, Dowda, and Pate (2004), two groups…
Self-reports figure prominently in organizational and management research, but there are several problems associated with their use. This article identifies six categories of self-reports and discusses such problems as common method variance, the consistency motif, and social desirability. Statistical and post hoc remedies and some procedural methods for dealing with artifactual bias are presented and evaluated. Recommendations for future research
|Sleep insufficiency is a major public health concern, yet the accuracy of self-reported sleep measures is often poor. Self-report may be useful when direct measurement of nonverbal behavior is impossible, infeasible, or undesirable, as it may be with sleep measurement. We used feedback and positive reinforcement within a small-n multiple-baseline…
St. Peter, Claire C.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.; Massullo, Joel P.
Demonstrates that parents' education is linked to changes in adolescent (N=350) self-reported physical health through the level of and changes in parental rejection. The study also finds that parents' education has a significant, direct effect on subsequent changes in adolescents' self-reported health status. (Author/MKA)
Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Elder, Glen H, Jr.
As part of a larger study of psychosexual development and sexual functioning in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), we assessed self-reported sexual arousability with the Sexual Arousability Inventory-Short Form (SAI-SF; Hoon & Chambless, 1998). Compared to their unaffected sisters/female cousins (n = 15), women with CAH (n = 30) reported significantly lower sexual arousability on the SAI, with an effect size, using Cohen's d, of 1.16. For both the CAH women alone and combined with the controls, higher self-reported sexual arousability was significantly associated with (a) relationship status (married or cohabitating with a man versus being single or not in a relationship); (b) higher levels of sexual attraction to men in fantasy in the past 12 months on the Erotic Response and Orientation Scale (Storms, 1980); (c) higher Kinsey interview ratings of a heterosexual orientation in behavior in the past 12 months; and (d) more sexual experiences with men, according to a modified version of the Zuckerman (1973) Heterosexual Experience Scale (HES), in the past 12 months and lifetime (all ps < .001-.05). CAH women who were simple virilizers (versus salt-wasters) and those assigned female at birth (versus delayed or male) tended to report higher levels of sexual arousability (p < .10). Self-reported degree of satisfaction with genital surgery and genital function was also associated with higher levels of arousability. For CAH women and both groups combined, multiple regression analysis showed that the sole predictor of self-reported sexual arousability was HES lifetime sexual experiences with men. We discuss the results in the context of assessing sexual function and dysfunction in women with CAH. PMID:15672602
Zucker, Kenneth J; Bradley, Susan J; Oliver, Gillian; Blake, Jennifer; Fleming, Susan; Hood, Jane
The current article addresses the psychometric qualities of the German version of the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS), a self-report measure of malingering. The SIMS was administered to a heterogeneous sample of forensic patients (n=62) and undergraduate students (n=204). Within the student sample, some undergraduates were instructed to feign certain pathological conditions, while others were asked to respond honestly to the SIMS items. The findings indicate that the German version of the SIMS demonstrates adequate test-retest stability and internal consistency. In the patient sample, the SIMS was found to correlate strongly with manipulative and antisocial personality features. More specifically, SIMS scores were higher in sexually delinquent patients with antisocial personality disorders. Our findings support the SIMS as a valuable screening tool for malingering of psychiatric symptoms. PMID:14598034
Cima, M; Hollnack, S; Kremer, K; Knauer, E; Schellbach-Matties, R; Klein, B; Merckelbach, H
Abstract Background: Psychosis and other psychiatric disorders are often preceded by prodromal symptoms. There are few community-based studies on symptom predictors of severe mental problems in healthy people. Aims: We aimed to study how a new self-reported screen for prodromal symptoms (PROD) predicts onset of all psychotropic and antipsychotic medication in healthy draftees. Methods: In a prospective follow-up study, 2330 18-year-old Finnish draftees who at call-up in 1999 completed the PROD comprising 21 symptom items divided into positive, negative and general symptom categories were prospectively followed for 6 years. First purchases of any psychotropic and antipsychotic drugs separately between 2000 and 2005 were used as an indicator of the onset of psychiatric disorder and predicted by PROD symptoms in Cox regression analysis. Results: A majority of the PROD items significantly predicted the first purchases of any psychotropic and of antipsychotic drugs, separately. Positive, negative and general symptoms predicted purchases of any psychotropic medication, while negative and general symptoms predicted purchases of antipsychotic drugs. General symptoms, in particular anxiety, had a strong independent association with onset of psychotropic medication. Conclusions: In young healthy men, self-reported sub-clinical psychic symptoms predict onset of psychiatric disorders requiring psychotropic, including antipsychotic, medication. PMID:23216246
Salokangas, Raimo K R; Heinimaa, Markus; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sourander, Andre
Several previous studies have examined the correspondence between self-reports and the delayed identity match-to-sample performance they supposedly described. The present two experiments used similar procedures to explore different characteristics of the self-reports. In both studies, match-to-sample responses were successful (earned points) if they were both correct and faster than a time limit. Following each response, a computer-presented query asked whether the response had been successful, and subjects replied by pressing a “Yes” or “No” button. Experiment 1 analyzed self-report latencies from a previously-published study (Critchfield, 1993a). Latencies generally were longer for self-reports of failure than for self-reports of success. In Experiment 1, a “Yes” or “No” self-report was required to advance the session. In Experiment 2, self-reports were optional. In addition to “Yes” and “No” buttons, subjects could press a third button (a “nondisclosure” option) to remove the self-report query without providing a “Yes” or “No” answer. Across a range of conditions, nondisclosures always occurred more frequently after match-to-sample failures than after successes (i.e., under conditions in which a self-report of failure would be appropriate). The effects observed in the two experiments are consistent with a history of differential punishment for uncomplimentary self-reports, which casual observation and some descriptive studies suggest is a common experience in United States culture. The research necessary to explore this notion should produce data that are of interest to psychologists both within and outside of Behavior Analysis.
The development of a 21-item self-reportinventory for measuring the severity of anxiety in psychiatric populations is described. The initial item pool of 86 items was drawn from three preexisting scales: the Anxiety Checklist, the Physician’s Desk Reference Checklist, and the Situational Anxiety Checklist. A series of analyses was used to reduce the item pool. The resulting Beck Anxiety Inventory
Aaron T. Beck; Norman Epstein; Gary Brown; Robert A. Steer
|The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the extent to which students' retrospective self-reported gains from high school are associated with college self-reported gains. As such, the chapter offers an empirical test of how accounting for one's predisposition to report educational impact changes estimates of the effects of college…
We compared the psychometric performance of two validated self-report anxiety symptom measures when rated by people with dementia versus collaterals (as proxies). Forty-one participants with mild-to-moderate dementia and their respective collaterals completed the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated, and a structured diagnostic interview. We used descriptive and nonparametric statistics to compare scores according to respondent characteristics. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated to establish the predictive validity of each instrument by rater type against a clinical diagnosis of an anxiety disorder. Participant and collateral ratings performed comparably for both instruments. However, collaterals tended to give more severe symptom ratings, and the best-performing cut-off scores were higher for collaterals. Our findings suggest that people with mild-to-moderate dementia can give reliable self-reports of anxiety symptoms, with validity comparable to reports obtained from collaterals. Scores obtained from multiple informants should be interpreted in context. PMID:23270995
Bradford, Andrea; Brenes, Gretchen A; Robinson, Roberta A; Wilson, Nancy; Snow, A Lynn; Kunik, Mark E; Calleo, Jessica; Petersen, Nancy J; Stanley, Melinda A; Amspoker, Amber B
|The goal of this study was to develop a self-reportinventory that measures individual differences in the perceived value of mathematical literacy for general education students. The Mathematics Value Inventory (MVI) is grounded in the Eccles et al. model of achievement-related choices and surveys students' beliefs in four areas: interest,…
Luttrell, Vickie R.; Callen, Bruce W.; Allen, Charles S.; Wood, Mark D.; Deeds, Donald G.; Richard, David C. S.
This research aimed to compare the prevalence rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to differentiate the presence and severity of depressive symptoms between women and men aged 18-24?years. In this population-based, cross-sectional study (n?=?1560), young adults were screened with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for MDD (n?=?137). Participants then completed a self-report questionnaire to gather sociodemographic data, and the presence of each symptom of depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The proportion of women (12.2%) with MDD was higher than that of men (5.3%). The symptoms of depression found to be significantly more prevalent in women were sadness, crying, difficulty making decisions, and lack of energy, as well as self-criticism, irritability, changes in self-image, work difficulty, and loss of interest in sex. Sadness and self-criticism were significantly more severe in women than in men. The presentation of depressive symptoms in young adults with MDD differed between men and women. PMID:23651450
Objective: To differentiate groups of highly conditioned, competitive athletes on the basis of Exercise Orientation Questionnaire (EOQ) scores and self-reported psychiatric symptoms. Method: A total of 99 runners, 36 cyclists, and 55 paddlers were administered the EOQ and a symptom checklist. Results: Analysis of variance and chi-square associated self-loathing subscale (SLSS) scores with self-reported eating disorder (ED) symptoms for the
Alayne Yates; Jeanne D Edman; Marjorie Crago; Douglas Crowell
There is a high prevalence of depression in Germany and all over the world. Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been shown in some studies to be associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and low birth weight. The influence of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy on preterm delivery and fetal birth weight was investigated in a prospective single-centre study. A sample of 273 healthy pregnant women was assessed for symptoms of antepartum depression. Symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Symptoms of anxiety were assessed using the State/Trait Anxiety Inventory. Patients who scored above the cutoff were contacted by phone for a Structured Clinical Diagnostic interview. Neonatal measurements were obtained from the birth registry of the Department of Obstetrics. Baseline data were assessed with a self-styled data sheet. Prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was 13.2% when measured with the EPDS and 8.4% with the PHQ. According to DSM-IV criteria, only four (EPDS) respective two (PHQ-D) of these patients could be diagnosed with a depressive disorder and ten (EPDS) respective seven (PHQ) with an anxiety disorder. There was no significant influence on preterm birth or birth weight. Maternal depressive symptoms are self-reported. Elevated subclinical symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy are common. However, this study showed no evidence that these symptoms are associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:23263748
Gawlik, S; Waldeier, L; Müller, M; Szabo, A; Sohn, C; Reck, C
Our objective was to determine if sexual orientation groups differ in accuracy of BMI (kg/m(2)) calculated from self-reported height and weight and if weight status modifies possible differences. Using gender-stratified multiple linear regression to analyze Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 12,197), we examined the association of sexual orientation with BMI calculated from self-reported height and weight (self-reported BMI), controlling for BMI calculated from objectively measured height and weight (objectively measured BMI) as well as demographic, health, and behavioral variables. We tested for effect modification of the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported BMI by objectively measured BMI. The population underestimated their BMI (females: ? = 0.87, P < 0.001; males = 0.86, P < 0.001). Sexual orientation groups differed little in their accuracy of reporting; only gay males had significant underreporting (? = -0.37, P = 0.038) relative to their heterosexual peers. We found no evidence of effect modification of the relationship of sexual orientation and self-reported BMI by objectively measured BMI. With the exception of gay males, sexual orientation groups are consistent in their underreporting of BMI thus providing confidence in most comparisons of weight status based on self-report. Self-reporting of weight and height by gay males may exaggerate the differences in BMI between gay and heterosexual males. PMID:22282109
Richmond, Tracy K; Walls, Courtney E; Austin, S Bryn
The Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory (ISDI) is a new measure of self-reported sleep difficulties, which was designed to help facilitate research on the overlap of sleep disturbances and psychopathology. This instrument was developed in two large student samples using principal factor analyses; the psychometric properties of the scales were then examined in three additional samples (students, psychiatric patients, sleep disorder
|The Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory (ISDI) is a new measure of self-reported sleep difficulties, which was designed to help facilitate research on the overlap of sleep disturbances and psychopathology. This instrument was developed in two large student samples using principal factor analyses; the psychometric properties of the scales were then…
Traffic behaviour questionnaires as self-reports of behaviour are easily biased by Socially Desirable Responding (SDR), especially in investigating ‘normal’ behaviour rather than maximum performance. Despite this fact no instruments are available for measuring traffic related SDR. The present study introduces a new inventory, the Driver Social Desirability Scale (DSDS), for measuring driver impression management (DIM) and Driver Self-Deception (DSD). The
Timo Lajunen; Angela Corry; Heikki Summala; Laurence Hartley
Issues concerning use of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for the self-report of depressive symptomatology are raised and considered. Discussion includes the stability of depression and the need for multiple assessment periods, specificity and the need for multiple assessment measures, and selection cut scores and the need for terminological accuracy. Recommendations for the continued use of the BDI, designed to
Philip C. Kendall; Steven D. Hollon; Aaron T. Beck; Constance L. Hammen; Rick E. Ingram
Selected university students who requested either personal counseling at the counseling center (43 males and 101 females) or psychotherapy at the mental health service (40 males and 53 females) were administered the Symptom Distress Checklist-90. This is a self-reportsymptom rating scale intended to assess the degree of distress associated with presenting symptoms; scores are organized along 9 symptom dimensions
Compared 30 adolescents with psychiatric diagnosis and 28 adolescents without psychiatric diagnosis on parent-completed Revised Behavior Problem Checklist and self-completed Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Revised Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R). Two groups of adolescents were significantly…
The Leyton Obsessional Inventory (LOI) is a self-report questionnaire that assesses obsessional symptoms. The ability of the LOI to distinguish between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has not been adequately addressed. Our purpose is to identify dimensions of obsessional symptoms from the LOI and determine how well they distinguish between OCD and OCPD. The LOI was completed by 488 participants diagnosed by trained clinicians. Factor analysis was performed on responses to the interference items of the LOI. The relationship between the factors, OCD and OCPD was evaluated using logistic regression. Five factors underlying the LOI were identified: (I) obsessional ruminations and compulsions, (II) ordering and arranging, (III) organizing activities, (IV) contamination, and (V) parsimony. Factors I, III, and IV were strongly associated with OCD. Only Factor II was associated with OCPD. Factor IV was negatively associated with obsessive-compulsive personality traits. LOI factors are useful in discriminating between OCD and OCPD. Obsessional ruminations and compulsions, organizing activities, and contamination fears may indicate OCD, and ordering and arranging symptoms may indicate OCPD rather than OCD. Parsimony may indicate neither disorder, and contamination, the absence of OCPD traits compared with the other LOI factors. These findings may contribute to effective diagnosis and treatment by allowing the LOI to screen for OCD and OCPD in a population exhibiting obsessional symptoms and traits. PMID:17099877
Using a computer-administered interview, self-reports of past criminal behavior were obtained from 99 institutionalized sex offenders. The sample contained both rapists and child molesters who had been mandated to receive specialized treatment. Offenders disclosed an enormous amount of undetected sexual aggression, a finding consistent with other self-report studies. Also striking was the high rate and variety of nonsex offenses. According
The aim of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of self-reports of juvenile offenders on physical factors (e.g. sleep difficulties, weight-related behaviours and weight perceptions), health risk behaviours (e.g. alcohol use), trauma history (e.g. physical and sexual abuse) and psychological factors (e.g. anxiety, suicidal and self-harm behaviours). Self-reports obtained via a Health Questionnaire from 242 incarcerated juvenile offenders
In this paper we assess overall accuracy in survey self-reports on giving to charitable organizations, direction of bias in\\u000a self-reports, and the influence of this bias on relationships. We compare donations to one specific health charity reported\\u000a in the Giving in the Netherlands Panel Study 2003 with donations recorded in the database (n = 191). We find that (a) reported donations are
The current research study replicated a study by Rogers et al. (Rogers M, Smoak ND, Liu J. Self-reported criminal computer behavior: a big-5, moral choice and manipulative exploi- tive behavior analysis. Deviant Behavior 2006;27:1-24) and examined the psychological characteristics, moral choice, and exploitive manipulative behaviors of self-reported com- puter criminals and non-computer criminals. Seventy-seven students enrolled in an infor- mation
Level of ability within rock climbing is generally expressed in terms of a “best ascent”, rated using various grading systems within the sport. The most common method of obtaining this information is via self-report. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of self-reported climbing grades. Twenty-nine competitive rock climbers (17 males, 12 females) were first asked to
Nick Draper; Tabitha Dickson; Gavin Blackwell; Simon Fryer; Sefton Priestley; David Winter; Greg Ellis
Objectives To examine the accuracy and validity of selfreport of hip replacement (HR) for osteoarthritis. Methods We compared self-reported HR and the reason for surgery in elderly white women aged ? 65 years from the Study for Osteoporotic Fractures cohort to medical records and pelvis radiographs. Women, followed up for an average of 8 years at the fifth clinic visit were asked about any HRs since baseline. Results Among 7421 women attending the fifth clinic visit, 347 reported 387 HRs. Radiographs and/or medical records were available for 316 self-reported HRs. Participants accurately reported that HRs were for arthritis or fracture, with 94.5% and 97.2% of these self-reported diagnoses, respectively, confirmed from medical records. However, 1 in 8 self-reported HRs were not attributed by participants to either arthritis or a fracture; of these, medical records indicated that 88% were for osteoarthritis. Overall, 302 (95.6%) of self-reported HRs were confirmed as HRs (kappa for agreement with self-report = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92–.96). Under-reporting of HRs compared to HRs seen on radiographs was minimal (0.28%). Conclusion Elderly women accurately report HRs and whether the surgery is for arthritis or a hip fracture, though a small number of HRs for arthritis are not attributed to this diagnosis by women. Since hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture have very different determinants, epidemiologic studies that use self-reported HR as an indicator for the presence of hip osteoarthritis or as an outcome of hip osteoarthritis should verify the underlying cause by asking about reason for surgery.
Parimi, Neeta; Lane, Nancy E; Bauer, Douglas; Hochberg, Marc C; Nevitt, Michael C
The purposes of this study were to test the feasibility of using a pen-based computer to capture self-reportedsymptom data, to evaluate the system, and to evaluate the importance of obtaining symptom data. The sample included 72 patients who were hospitalized for a variety of medical conditions. Self-reportedsymptom data was obtained with the automated Sign and Symptom Checklist. The feasibility of using an automated symptom checklist to capture self-reportedsymptom data was demonstrated. Patients' evaluations of the ease of use and the format of the system were primarily positive; mean ratings ranged from 4.58 to 4.70 on a 5-point scale. Patients indicated the importance of documenting symptoms, with a few suggesting that the use of an automated symptom checklist may increase communication between providers and patients. Study findings support the inclusion of self-reportedsymptom data in electronic health records and national health care databases.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of self-reported measures in predicting periodontitis in a representative US adult population, based on 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Self-reported gum health and treatment history, loose teeth, bone loss around teeth, tooth not looking right, and use of dental floss and mouthwash were obtained during in-home interviews and validated against full-mouth clinically assessed periodontitis in 3,743 US adults 30 years and older. All self-reported measures (> 95% item response rates) were associated with periodontitis, and bivariate correlations between responses to these questions were weak, indicating low redundancy. In multivariable logistic regression modeling, the combined effects of demographic measures and responses to 5 self-reported questions in predicting periodontitis of mild or greater severity were 85% sensitive and 58% specific and produced an 'area under the receiver operator characteristic curve' (AUROCC) of 0.81. Four questions were 95% sensitive and 30% specific, with an AUROCC of 0.82 in predicting prevalence of clinical attachment loss ? 3 mm at one or more sites. In conclusion, self-reported measures performed well in predicting periodontitis in US adults. Where preferred clinically based surveillance is unattainable, locally adapted variations of these self-reported measures may be a promising alternative for surveillance of periodontitis. PMID:24065636
Eke, P I; Dye, B A; Wei, L; Slade, G D; Thornton-Evans, G O; Beck, J D; Taylor, G W; Borgnakke, W S; Page, R C; Genco, R J
Objective Depression has been linked to endothelial dysfunction, and some research suggests that past depressive episodes are associated with a lasting, negative impact on the endothelium. However, investigations in this area have been predominantly cross-sectional, raising questions about the direction of these associations. Using a multiwave design, we sought to extend previous research in this area by examining whether depressive symptoms have a lasting negative influence on endothelial function. Methods A total of 135 adolescent and young adult females with no known or suspected major health problems were followed for 2½ years. Endothelial function was assessed at three time points throughout the study. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered, and information about health practices was collected every 6 months. Results Self-reported depressive symptoms covaried with endothelial functioning on a within-person basis (? = ?0.23, p < .05). As a participant’s depression symptoms rose beyond her typical level, her endothelial function declined commensurately. This association persisted after controlling for health practices and adiposity. There was no evidence that depressive symptoms predicted endothelial function at later time points or interacted with time to predict the trajectories of endothelial function over the follow-up period. Conclusions Depressive symptoms were concurrently associated with endothelial function in this cohort of healthy adolescent girls and young women. On visits when participants endorsed depressive symptoms that were higher than their mean level of depression, they tended to have worse endothelial function. We did not observe a lasting negative effect of depression on endothelial function.
Tomfohr, Lianne M.; Murphy, Michael L.M.; Miller, Gregory E.; Puterman, Eli
As dentistry continues to evolve, the best management systems of the business world need to be incorporated into each practice. As always, my goal in these columns is to bring and modify the best business principles available to readers of The Journal of the American Dental Association. Just in Time ordering and inventory control is one of the best, as evidenced by the fact that top-performing companies worldwide have adopted it. PMID:15270164
Anxious and avoidant attachment were assessed in the Children in the Community (CIC) Study during adolescence and adulthood using self-report scales developed for this prospective study. The convergent and discriminant validity of the new CIC attachment scales were evaluated and their stability was assessed across a 17-year interval. Attachment scales predicted DSM-IV personality disorders in theoretically coherent and clinically meaningful ways, especially when supplemented with a separate measure of interpersonal aggression. Cluster B and C personality disorder symptoms were associated with elevated anxious attachment. Avoidant attachment was positively associated with Cluster A symptoms and inversely associated with Cluster B and C symptoms. Interpersonal aggression was higher in Cluster B symptoms and lower in Cluster C symptoms, thus differentiating between these symptom clusters. PMID:16901258
Crawford, Thomas N; Shaver, Phillip R; Cohen, Patricia; Pilkonis, Paul A; Gillath, Omri; Kasen, Stephanie
Leadership has both social and emotional components. Social intelligence appears to tap the social component found in leadership.\\u000a Recently, emotional intelligence has surfaced as a stable individual difference variable and appears to tap the emotional\\u000a component of leadership. Mayer and Salovey (1993) suggested that the emotional intelligence and social intelligence constructs\\u000a overlap. This study examined the power of both emotional
Purpose To understand the validity of self-reported recent drug use in men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods We obtained a probability sample of Chicago men who have sex with men(MSM; n=216) and administered urine and saliva drug testing following a self-administered interview. Analyses examined participation in drug testing, the agreement between self-reported past month drug use and drug test results, correlates of underreporting, and the relative utility of drug testing vs. self-reports in identifying recent marijuana and cocaine use. For marijuana and cocaine, findings were compared with those obtained from a general population sample of men (n=241). Results Over three quarters of the participants in both samples provided at least one specimen for drug testing. Selfreports in both samples showed a high degree of correspondence with drug tests for marijuana, but not for cocaine. Sensitivity for cocaine use reporting was 60% for the MSM sample and 40% for the general population males. Conditional kappa and sensitivity statistics for marijuana, cocaine, MDMA and methamphetamine suggested that selfreports among MSMare provided with a high degree of validity. Underreporting was a correlate of social class (education, income and employment) in the general population, but not in the MSM sample. The utility of drug testing was dependent on social class in the general population sample. Conclusions Drug testing is feasible in epidemiological surveys of drug use. Selfreports among MSM are at least as valid as those provided by a general population sample of males. In some instances (e. g. , cocaine use), they may actually be of higher quality. Although the findings support the merit of epidemiological studies of MSM drug use that have relied completely on self-report, drug tests may be useful for clarifying club drug ingestion patterns.
Fendrich, Michael; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Johnson, Timothy P.
The etiology of selective mutism (SM) in children is unknown but is regarded as multifactorial. SM is frequently associated with social anxiety and language disorder or delay. The present study addresses SM and social anxiety as a familial phenomenon by comparing self-reported personality traits and symptom traits (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory) in parents of 50 SM children with control parents. Personality and symptom traits reflecting social anxiety are also explored separately in the parents of SM children with and without a comorbid communication disorder. The results confirm SM and social anxiety as a familial phenomenon. Assessment and treatment planning should take this into account. The family data also suggest different family transmissions of SM and social anxiety in the SM group with and without a comorbid communication disorder. PMID:11727954
Assessments of service utilization is often based on self-reports. Concerns regarding the accuracy of self-reports are raised especially in mental health care. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of self-reports and calculated costs of mental health services. In a prospective cohort study in Germany, self-reports regarding psychiatric inpatient and day-care use collected by telephone interviews based on the Client Socio-Demographic and Service Receipt Inventory (CSSRI) as well as calculated costs were compared to computerized hospital records. The sample consisted of patients with mental and behavioral disorders resulting from alcohol (ICD-10 F10, n=84), schizophrenia, schizophrenic and delusional disturbances (F2, n=122) and affective disorders (F3, n=124). Agreement was assessed using the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), mean difference (95% confidence intervals (CI)) and the 95% limits of agreement. Predictors for disagreement were derived. Overall agreement of mean total costs was excellent (CCC=0.8432). Costs calculated based on self-reports were higher than costs calculated based on hospital records (15 EUR (95% CI -434 to 405)). Overall agreement of total costs for F2 patients was CCC=0.8651, for F3 CCC=0.7850 and for F10 CCC=0.6180. Depending on type of service, measure of service utilization and costs agreement ranged from excellent to poor and varied substantially between individuals. The number of admissions documented in hospital records was significantly associated with disagreement. Telephone interviews can be an accurate data collection method for calculating mean total costs in mental health care. In the future more standardization is needed. PMID:20537717
Level of ability within rock climbing is generally expressed in terms of a "best ascent", rated using various grading systems within the sport. The most common method of obtaining this information is via self-report. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of self-reported climbing grades. Twenty-nine competitive rock climbers (17 males, 12 females) were first asked to report their current (defined as within the last 12 months) best on-sight lead ascent grade (Aus/NZ). The participants then climbed a specifically designed indoor route, under on-sight conditions (one attempt, no route practice or preview), to obtain an assessed grade. The route increased in difficulty, and was such that the distance achieved by the climber corresponded to a particular grade. The mean (±standard deviation) self-reported and assessed grade was 22.6 ± 3.4 and 22.0 ± 3.0 (Aus/NZ) respectively. Despite slight over- and underestimations in males and females respectively, there was no statistically significant difference between self-reported and assessed on-sight climbing grades. The results of this study suggest that self-reported climbing grades provide a valid and accurate reflection of climbing ability. PMID:21491325
A self-report checklist assessing the occurrence of stressful life events in children and adolescents' lives was compared to an objectively rated interview to determine whether the checklist would introduce over-reporting of events or over-rating of event severity as a function of child\\/parent depressive symptoms, cognitive vulnerability, or anxiety. Participants completed the Children's Life Events Scale (CLES), the Life Events Interview
Objectives: To examine the association between self-reported exercise addiction among competitive runners and their emotional and physiological response to a one-day deprivation from scheduled training.Design: A controlled experiment was utilised with random selection to exercise-deprived and control groups to examine the causal link between acute exercise deprivation and the presence and magnitude of withdrawal symptoms.Method: Club-level runners (n=60) who had
This study investigated the utility of self-report measures to screen for psychiatric comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Thirty-eight 10–17 year olds with an ASD and without mental retardation completed: the Children’s Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S), Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), Conners-Wells Adolescent Self-report Scale-Short edition (CASS-S), and Short Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version (SLOI-CV). Their parents were interviewed with the Autism Comorbidity Interview-Present and Lifetime (ACI-PL) to establish psychiatric diagnoses. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and reliability coefficients were calculated for each self-report and compared to values from literature. The CDI-S and CASS-S yielded a high number of false negatives, with lower sensitivities and specificities in the sample than the literature. There was a nearly significant difference in total mean RCMAS scores between participants with and without anxiety, though again the means for both groups were below the threshold of concern. The SLOI-CV yielded a high false positive rate. All four instruments had reliability coefficients comparable to literature values. Results must be considered preliminary due to sample size. However, the findings suggest that although self-report instruments may provide useful information in the diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidities in ASD, caution must be exercised in their interpretation.
Rumination in response to dysphoric moods has been linked to the onset and maintenance of depressive symptoms; however, responses to positive moods have received less attention despite the theoretical roles of both positive and negative affect in mood disorders. The purpose of the present study was to develop a self-report measure of ruminative and dampening Responses to Positive Affect (RPA), which we called the RPA Questionnaire. In two psychometric studies, the three subscales of the RPA (Dampening, Self-focused positive rumination, and Emotion-focused positive rumination) demonstrated acceptable structural validity, internal consistency, and preliminary evidence of convergent and incremental validity with concurrent measures of self-esteem, depressive rumination, and depressive and manic symptoms among undergraduates. The present results suggest that future research on mood disorders would benefit from measuring responses to both negative and positive moods.
Drug use self-reports were compared with urinalysis for 248 clients in four methadone treatment programs. The validity of self-reporting based on urinalysis as a criterion depended on the type of drug examined. Opiate reporting was least valid, while benzodiazepine and cocaine reporting were moderately and highly valid, respectively. EMIT urinalysis was far more useful as a criterion of validity than TLC urinalysis. Self-reports helped identify drug users who were missed by urinalysis because of the latter's limited detection period, but urinalysis in turn detected an equal number of drug users missed by the interviews. The age of clients and the type of interviewer directly affected the rate of underreporting. Some respondents systematically denied disvalued behaviors (i.e., drug use and criminality), leading to a spurious correlation between these behaviors. This has important implications for future research. PMID:3679632
Magura, S; Goldsmith, D; Casriel, C; Goldstein, P J; Lipton, D S
Two studies are presented investigating the role of attitudes toward death in self- reported health-protective behavior. The Multidimensional Death Attitudes Scale (MDAS), based on three existing measures of death attitudes, was administered to a group of health professionals (N = 348). A principal components analysis revealed five factors, labeled Acceptance, Fear, Death as Passage, Death as Relief and Avoidance. The five- factor structure also was replicated in a second, somewhat different sample (N = 100). Twenty-three items loaded highly on the five factors, and the subscales showed good internal consistency. The relationship between the five death attitudes and self-reported health behaviors was explored. Acceptance of death was associated positively with physical exercise controlling for demographic and psychological variables. Accepting death but not viewing death as relief were associated with self- reported lower levels of drinking and driving. PMID:22012319
Two studies used response latency measures to assess automatic attitudes that individuals are unwilling or unable to reveal about their partners. In Study 1, participants (n = 51) in dating relationships completed two response latency measures (Time 1) and several relationship self-reports (Times 1 and 2). Participants who faced high barriers to exiting (BTE) their relationship generally showed a negative association between their relationship self-reports and automatic attitudes, and there was some evidence that automatic attitudes at Time 1 predicted relationship satisfaction at Time 2. Study 2 (n = 41 couples) replicated the BTE finding and showed that image-based response latency measures may assess automatic attitudes more effectively than word-based measures. A negative correlation between self-reported and automatic attitudes among high-BTE participants suggests that they may overreport relationship positivity to quell feelings of doubt about a relationship they cannot feasibly dissolve. PMID:17502418
For a sample of 147 fifth-year students enrolled in a teacher training program at the elementary school level, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses involving orthogonal and oblique solutions were carried out on a correlation matrix of scores on 22 items from a self-reportinventory of teacher burnout that was adapted with permission from the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The
Yvonne Gold; Patricia Bachelor; William B. Michael
Objective To assess the psychometric properties of the Valued Activity Inventory for Adults with Cancer (VAI-AC), a self-report instrument measuring activity limitations. Participants Fifty older adults undergoing chemotherapy. Methods Participants completed the VAI-AC and measures of physical and mental function, symptom intensity, and mood three days before and on the day of chemotherapy. Test-retest reliability was assessed by determining the average number of items for which the importance of an activity was rated consistently and by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the first and second VAI-AC scores. Convergent validity was assessed by correlating the VAI-AC scores with the other measures. Results Participants consistently rated the importance of 90% of the items. Seventy-two hour test-retest reliability was ICC = 0.67. Participants with fewer activity limitations indicated better physical function (r = 0.58, p< 0.001), better mental function (r = 0.55, p< 0.001), lower symptom intensity (r = ?0.57, p< 0.001), and fewer depressive symptoms (r = ?0.68, p< 0.001). Conclusion The VAI-AC demonstrated evidence of test-retest reliability and convergent validity in this convenience sample of older adults undergoing chemotherapy for cancer.
Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T.; Hull, Jay G.; Li, Zhongze; Balan, Stefan; Bartels, Stephen
The bias (B'H) and discriminability (A') of college students' self-reports about choices made in a delayed identity matching-to-sample task were studied as a function of characteristics of the response about which they reported. Each matching-to-sample trial consisted of two, three, or four simultaneously presented sample stimuli, a 1-s retention interval, and two, three, or four comparison stimuli. One sample stimulus was always reproduced among the comparisons, and choice of the matching comparison in less than 800 ms produced points worth chances in a drawing for money. After each choice, subjects pressed either a "yes" or a "no" button to answer a computer-generated query about whether the choice met the point contingency. The number of sample and comparison stimuli was manipulated across experimental conditions. Rates of successful matching-to-sample choices were negatively correlated with the number of matching-to-sample stimuli, regardless of whether samples or comparisons were manipulated. As in previous studies, subjects exhibited a pronounced bias for reporting successful responses. Self-report bias tended to become less pronounced as matching-to-sample success became less frequent, an outcome consistent with signal-frequency effects in psychophysical research. The bias was also resistant to change, suggesting influences other than signal frequency that remain to be identified. Self-report discriminability tended to decrease with the number of sample stimuli and increase with the number of comparison stimuli, an effect not attributable to differential effects of the two manipulations on matching-to-sample performance. Overall, bias and discriminability indices revealed effects that were not evident in self-report accuracy scores. The results indicate that analyses based on signal-detection theory can improve the description of correspondence between self-reports and their referents and thus contribute to the identification of environmental sources of control over verbal self-reports.
Examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in an African American female college student sample (n=78) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI2) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). MMPI-2 was a more conservative scale than BDI in identifying depressive symptom levels. Discusses stress inoculation methods to assist…
This study examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in a sample of 471 Swedish schoolchildren aged 8-13 years from urban and rural areas. Children self-reported their experience of depressive symptoms on a Swedish version of the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Short-term stability of children's depressive symptoms was evaluated for a 6- to 9-week period. In addition, the children's satisfaction with their school, home and leisure time was assessed. The results indicated that the prevalence of depressive symptoms was related to neither location (urban vs rural) nor age. Although girls experienced significantly more depressive symptoms than boys, the clinical importance of this difference is negligible. Approximately 1% of the schoolchildren reported severe suicidal thoughts. As expected, children's depression was negatively associated with their home and school satisfaction and leisure interest. A cut-off score of 13 on the CDI could identify the upper 10% of the children in the school sample as depressed and, at the follow-up, 44% of these children continued to be depressed. Overall, the total CDI mean scores obtained in this study were lower than those reported in comparative surveys in Anglo-Saxon countries. PMID:1546543
The present study investigates the association between Obsessive–Compulsive (OC) symptoms and the expression of anger in a sample of 131 undergraduates. Participants were divided into two groups based on their self-reported OC symptoms and compared on their tendency to suppress anger inwardly, express anger outwardly, and control their anger. In addition, the associations between anger and specific OC symptoms were
OBJECTIVE: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of drug-related and sociodemographic characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective study carried out in an in-patient setting in four addiction
B. A. G. Dijkstra; P. F. M. Krabbe; C. A. J. de Jong; C. P. F. van der Staak
Objective: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of drug-related and sociodemographic characteristics. Design and setting: A prospective study carried out in an in-patient setting in four addiction
B. A. G. Dijkstra; P. F. M. Krabbe; C. A. J. de Jong; C. P. F. van der Staak
In the present study, the role of responsibility and impulsivity and their interaction in obsessive-compulsive symptoms was investigated. The obsessive-compulsive inventory-revised (OCI-R), an attention deficit and hyperactivity/impulsivity self-report scale (AD/HD-SR), the responsibility attitudes scale (RAS), Eysenck's impulsiveness/venturesomeness/empathy questionnaire (IVE), the community epidemiological survey-depression (CES-D) and the Penn State worry questionnaire (PSWQ) were administered to a sample of 405 Icelandic university students. Responsibility attitudes (RAS) and impulsivity measures were significantly related to scores on the OCI-R total scale, even when depression had been taken into consideration. The interaction between responsibility and hyperactivity/impulsivity added to the prediction of OCI-R scores over and above simple effects. PMID:17692284
We investigated if rates of ICD-10 axis 5 abuse diagnoses in the total child psychiatric population in Norway were different from self-reported abuse at 12-18?years of age, and we investigated their respective correlates. Study 1: The official registers of the total child psychiatric population in Norway in the years 2000 and 2001 were analysed for rates and correlates of axis 5 diagnoses of sexual and physical abuse. Study 2: Self-reports of abuse and neglect in a representative clinical sample of 129 adolescents referred during the same period were analysed for rates and correlates Prevalence of diagnosed sexual abuse inside and outside the family was low (1.6% and 1.9%, respectively) in the total Norwegian clinical population, and physical abuse diagnoses were even lower (0.4%). Self-reports of abuse and neglect were much higher (60.2%). One-fourth (25.5%) of the adolescents reported more than one kind of abuse. Self-reports of abuse were associated with referral for depression, symptoms of depression and suicidal risk. Patients reporting physical abuse were more often intoxicated by alcohol, used solvents and cannabis, and scored higher on the Youth Self-Report externalizing syndrome. There is a large discrepancy between rates of ICD-10 axis 5 diagnoses of sexual and physical abuse and self-reports of such abuse. Childhood abuse needs more attention in clinical practice within child and adolescent psychiatry. Physical abuse needs to be addressed in particular. PMID:16500801
Reigstad, Bjørn; Jørgensen, Kirsti; Wichstrøm, Lars
Ascertaining the symptom experience of chronically critically ill (CCI) patients is difficult because of communication impairment and fluctuations in patient cognition and physiologic conditions. The use of checklist self-report ratings is hampered by the inability of most CCI patients to respond verbally to symptom queries. In addition to the communication problems caused by mechanical ventilation, the apparently diverse idioms of symptom expression add to the potential for miscommunication regarding symptom experience. Although patient communication impairment is a major barrier to symptom identification, symptom assessment and treatment are fundamental components of nursing care for CCI. This article reviews and describes the unique constellation of symptoms experienced by many critically ill patients. We report our observations of symptom communication among CCI patients and nurses and discuss inconsistency in the language of symptom expression among nurses and patients. Clinically applicable strategies to improve nurse-patient symptom communication and suggestions for refinement of symptom assessment in chronic critical illness are provided. PMID:20118706
Adolescents in junior high school (n ? \\/237), completed a questionnaire on bullying as it relates to victim and to perpetrator status, suicidality and biographical data. Psychological symptoms were assessed by the Youth SelfReport (YSR) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) supplemented by school health officers blind assessments. Bullying was common: bully only (18%), victim only (10%) and victim
Tord Ivarsson; Anders G. Broberg; Tomas Arvidsson; Christopher Gillberg
Fink et al. (2005) reported significant associations between facial symmetry and scores on some of the “big five” personality dimensions derived from self-report data. In particular, they identified a positive association between facial symmetry and extraversion, but negative associations between facial symmetry and both agreeableness and openness. Fink et al. (2005) used a measure of facial symmetry based on analysis
Nicholas Pound; Ian S. Penton-Voak; William M. Brown
Purpose: This study was designed to improve the measurement of financial exploitation (FE) by testing psychometric properties of the older adult financial exploitation measure (OAFEM), a client self-report instrument. Design and Methods: Rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches were used. Questionnaires were administered by…
Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Wilber, Kathleen H.
Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) represent an important occupational health issue in dentistry. Given the significance of this topic, we considered it necessary to investigate the prevalence and impact of MSD among Australian dentists. Methods: In 2004, a self-reporting questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 400 dentists registered with the Queensland Branch of the Australian Dental Association. Results: A
BACKGROUND: The critical importance of improving the well-being of people with disabilities is highlighted in many national health plans. Self-reported health status is reduced both with age and among people with disabilities. Because both factors are related to health status and the influence of the age at disability onset on health status is unclear, we examined the relationship between disability
Eric W Jamoom; Willi Horner-Johnson; Rie Suzuki; Elena M Andresen; Vincent A Campbell
Female subjects high in private self-consciousness provided more assistance to a person in need than did subjects low on this attribute. "High-private" subjects were less helpful if they were also high in public self-consciousness. Self-reported altruism, reliably predicted the helping behavior of subjects high as opposed to low in private…
Private self-consciousness consists of attending to one's thoughts, feelings, and motives. Public self-consciousness consists of attending to oneself as a social object. The effect of dispositional self-consciousness on the accuracy of self-reports was studied in research on aggression. (Editor)
Burnout is a work-related syndrome that may negatively affect more than just the resident physician. On the other hand, engagement has been shown to protect employees; it may also positively affect the patient care that the residents provide. Little is known about the relationship between residents' self-reported errors and burnout and engagement. In our national study that included all residents
J. T. Prins; F. M. M. A. van der Heijden; J. E. H. M. Hoekstra-Weebers; A. B. Bakker; B. Jacobs; S. M. Gazendam-Donofrio
|Obtained readability levels for several self-report measures designed for use with child/adolescent populations, using a recently developed readability formula based on an updated evaluation of reading materials. Also reports grade levels of words in individual items and in directions. Evaluation demonstrated lower reading levels than those…
The maturational reform hypothesis and the Easterlin cohort size hypothesis are used to specify models in which age, period, and cohort effects on self-reported crime and delinquency are estimated. Curvilinear effects, logarithmic transformations, and the distinction between prevalence and frequency of offending are considered. The maturational reform hypothesis is supported for general delinquency but not for serious (Index) delinquency, for
|Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)|
The authors analyzed self-reported SAT scores and actual SAT scores for five different samples of college students (N = 650). Students overestimated their actual SAT scores by an average of 25 points (SD = 81, d = 0.31), with 10% under-reporting, 51% reporting accurately, and 39% over-reporting, indicating a systematic bias towards over-reporting.…
Mayer, Richard E.; Stull, Andrew T.; Campbell, Julie; Almeroth, Kevin; Bimber, Bruce; Chun, Dorothy; Knight, Allan
This paper examines the extent to which participants in the Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA) program under-report their drug use. DUMA participants are asked to answer a questionnaire about their use of drugs, as well as to supply a urine sample. This sample is tested for the presence of illicit drugs and compared with the self-reported answers in the
Recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury (MHI) is thought to be relatively swift and complete. The present study replicates and extends previous work in which university students with self-reported concussion demonstrated reduced P300 amplitude on a set of easy and difficult attention tasks, in addition to performing more poorly than controls on demanding cognitive tasks many years after
|The frequent use of self-report student surveys in higher education calls into question the possibility of social desirability having an unwanted influence on responses. This research explores the potential presence of social desirability bias with the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), a widely used assessment of student behaviors.…
Background Illness and illness behaviour are important problems in the Dutch workforce. Illness has been associated with job demands, with high demands relating to poorer health. It has not been reported whether subjective health complaints relate to job demands. Aims To investigate whether perceived (physical and mental) workload and specific job demands are associated with self-reported health complaints. Methods Cross-sectional
Corne A. M. Roelen; K. Jeep Schreuder; Petra C. Koopmans; Johan W. Groothoff
Levenson's Self-Report Psychopathy scale (Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995) was administered to 1,972 male and female federal prison inmates, the results of which were subjected to taxometric analysis. We employed 4 taxometric procedures in this study: mean above minus below a cut (Meehl & Yonce, 1994), maximum slope (Grove & Meehl, 1993), maximum eigenvalue (Waller & Meehl, 1998), and latent-mode
Glenn D. Walters; Chad A. Brinkley; Philip R. Magaletta; Pamela M. Diamond
Purpose: To identify competencies connecting personality, organizational orientations and self-reported learning outcomes (as measured by concise Likert-type scales), for individuals who are learning for their organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Five concise factor scales were constructed to represent aspects of personality. Three further…
This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to “conventional” property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined
Scott Menard; Robert G. Morris; Jurg Gerber; Herbert C. Covey
Very little research has examined how drug abuse is related to general health status over the long term among both young and middle-aged adults. In this article, we investigate how self-reported health status is related to prolonged methamphetamine (MA) use in a diverse sample of MA users from ages 18 to 52 who have been treated for drug abuse in
ObjectivesOral malodor is a common complaint of dental patients, yet limited data is available on the actual prevalence of this condition. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with self-reported halitosis in Kuwaiti patients.
Jassem M. Al-Ansari; Hanan Boodai; Noura Al-Sumait; Areej K. Al-Khabbaz; Khalaf F. Al-Shammari; Nathanael Salako
Inventory Control Related Sites is a straightforward index of Websites dealing with inventory control, created by Kyle Thill, a 20-year veteran of inventory control. The sites are fully annotated and cover Census Bureau information, articles, and other metasites.
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Jamaican adolescents and examine its association with individual and family factors. We used an abbreviated form of the Beck's Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) to assess depressive symptoms among 748 students, attending public high schools in the parish of Hanover Jamaica. In the analysis, we classified adolescents with scores in the upper quartile of the depressive symptom score as having depressive symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of depressive symptoms. 14.2% of participants reported depressive symptoms. There was association between engagement in sexual activity [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.61, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02-2.51], parental monitoring of adolescent activity (OR=2.04, 95%CI=1.33 -3.12), maternal affection and support (OR= 4.07, 95%CI= 2.62-6.33), and paternal affection and support (OR= 1.58, 95%CI= 1.05-2.39) with selfreported depressive symptoms at the bivariate level. In the final model, depressive symptoms was associated with perceived lack of maternal affection and support (OR= 4.06, 95%CI= 2.61-6.32) and showed marginal association with being sexually experienced (OR= 1.59, 95%CI= 1.00-2.52). As most homes are female-headed, establishing support systems for the mother to take care of their adolescent children may decrease the odds of depressive symptoms. Sexually experienced adolescents may require screening for depression. Further research is required to fully explore all factors that could predispose Jamaican adolescents to depression. PMID:17525821
Ekundayo, Olaniyi J; Dodson-Stallworth, Joana; Roofe, Michelle; Aban, Inmaculada B; Kempf, Mirjam C; Ehiri, John E; Jolly, Pauline E
As use of self-reported data to classify obesity continues, ethnic differences in reporting errors remain unclear. The objective of this study is to elucidate misreporting disparities between African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs). The Pennington Center Longitudinal Study (PCLS) is an ongoing investigation of environmental, behavioral, and biological factors associated with obesity, diabetes, and other common diseases. Self-reported and measured height and weight were collected during initial screening for eligibility in various studies by telephone and clinic visits. All ethnicity–sex groups (15,656 adults aged 18–65 years, 53% obese, 34% AA, 37% men) misreported heights and weights increasingly as measured values increased (P < 0.0001). More AA vs. EA women (P < 0.001) misreported height and weight, but more EA vs. AA men misreported their weight (P < 0.02). Obesity was underestimated more in AA vs. EA women (self-reported – measured prevalence = ?4.0% (AA) vs. ?2.6% (EA), P < 0.0001), but less in AA vs. EA men (?3.2% (AA) vs. ?4.2% (EA), P < 0.0001)). With measured obesity prevalence equalized at 53% in all groups, the self-reported obesity prevalence in women was 50.4% (AA) vs. 49.6% (EA), and in men 49.8% (AA) vs. 47.3 (EA). Underestimation in women was ?2.6% (AA) vs. ?3.4% (EA); in men it was ?3.2% (AA) vs. ?5.7% (EA), P < 0.003. Self-reported height and weight portend underestimation of obesity prevalence and the effect varies by ethnicity and gender. However, comparisons depend on the true prevalence within ethnicity–gender groups. After controlling for obesity prevalence, disparity in underestimation was greater in EA than in AA men (P < 0.003) but not women.
Johnson, William D.; Bouchard, Claude; Newton, Robert L.; Ryan, Donna H.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.
Background: The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and hostility factors in patients with scleroderma, although a matter of clinical interest, it is rather poorly studied. Methods: Thirty female patients with scleroderma were investigated. Thirty-three healthy women were used as a comparison group. The applied psychometric instruments were the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ), the Delusions Symptoms States Inventory\\/states of
N. V. Angelopoulos; A. A. Drosos; H. M. Moutsopoulos
BACKGROUND: Analyzing social differences in the health of adolescents is a challenge. The accuracy of adolescent's report on familial socio-economic position is unknown. The aims of the study were to examine the validity of measuring occupational social class and family level of education reported by adolescents aged 12 to 18, and the relationship between social position and self-reported health. METHODS:
María-Jesús Pueyo; Vicky Serra-Sutton; Jordi Alonso; Barbara Starfield; Luis Rajmil
The original Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) has been widely used and is considered to be one of the best available self-report instruments for measuring observable obsessive-compulsive problems such as washing and checking. However, it has several limitations and requires updating. Our revision of the MOCI, the Vancouver Obsessional Compulsive Inventory (VOCI), was designed to provide assessment of a range of obsessions, compulsions, avoidance behaviour, and personality characteristics of known or theoretical importance in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The development of the VOCI is described, and we provide evidence of its reliability and validity. Our findings in samples of people with OCD, people with other anxiety disorders or depression, community adults, and undergraduate students suggest that the VOCI is a promising new measure. We anticipate that, like its predecessor, the VOCI will have widespread use in both research and clinical settings. PMID:15381439
Thordarson, Dana S; Radomsky, Adam S; Rachman, S; Shafran, Roz; Sawchuk, Craig N; Ralph Hakstian, A
This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. PMID:19932143
The psychological correlates of bulimia include affective disorder and emotional liability. In addition, emotional liability appears to precipitate binge-purge episodes. It has been proposed that emotional liability is a function of irrational beliefs regarding personal performance, interpersonal relationships and self-control. Irrational beliefs and bulimia symptoms were assessed with psychometrically valid self-report measures. Correlational analyses showed that the irrational beliefs of
The American Psychiatric Association's recently revised guidelines for the treatment of major depressive disorder indicated that it is important to consider symptom severity in initial treatment selection. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we conducted two studies of psychiatric outpatients examining the correlates of severity classification based on a self-report depression scale. The first sample consisted of 470 depressed outpatients who completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) and measures of psychosocial morbidity at the time of presentation. The second sample consisted of 112 depressed outpatients who completed the CUDOS and were evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. Compared to mildly depressed patients, moderately depressed patients reported significantly more psychosocial morbidity across all functional domains. The same differences were found between moderately and severely depressed patients. Greater severity of depression was associated with lower rates of response and remission. The results of the present studies suggest that a self-report depression questionnaire can validly subtype depressed patients according to gradations of severity. PMID:23107790
Current standard neuropsychology practice is to examine normative sample performance for systematic influences of demographic variables and then to correct for these influences. The most commonly examined demographic variables are age, gender, and years of education, and current normative databases frequently take these into consideration. However, there is a literature to suggest that self-reported years of educational attainment may not be an accurate reflection of some patients' level of performance and may actually overpredict grade estimates based on reading level. Many of these studies have focused on older samples of individuals who were free of neurological or psychiatric symptoms. In this study, a younger sample (average age = 44.5) of African American (N = 62) and Caucasian (N = 133) patients referred to an outpatient psychiatry unit was examined. Results suggest that the prior findings of a significant discrepancy between self-reported years of education and Wide Range Achievement Test-3rd Edition Reading Recognition performance hold for a younger sample with a broad range of clinical diagnoses. How these findings might influence clinical practice are discussed. PMID:15788217
O'Bryant, Sid E; Schrimsher, Gregory W; O'Jile, Judith R
Both scientists and the general public assume that physical activity (PA) is an effective, non-pharmacological approach to improvement in sleep quality. However, objective and reliable data on this relationship are scarce, particularly for adolescents. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to test the relationship by assessing both PA and sleep subjectively and objectively. A total of 56 adolescent vocational school students (Mean age=17.98, SD=1.36; 28 males, 28 females) participated in the study. Sleep and PA were subjectively assessed via questionnaires. Accelerometers objectively assessed PA, while sleep-EEG devices objectively assessed sleep. The data supported our prediction that adolescents with high PA levels would have longer TST, fewer wakening at night (WASO), fewer symptoms of insomnia, and higher sleep quality. However, gender influenced this pattern of results in that significant findings were only found between high self-reported PA levels and shorter perceived sleep onset latency (SOL). Though self-reported PA levels were a better predictor of good sleep than objectively assessed PA levels, gender was associated with sleep complaints; females reported more sleep complaints. Results indicate that among a non-clinical sample of adolescents increased PA is favorably associated with restoring sleep. Therefore, PA seems beneficial not only for physical and mental health, but also for sleep restoration. PMID:23851332
Lang, Christin; Brand, Serge; Feldmeth, Anne Karina; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus
The present investigation was performed in a population of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and it was designed to assess the correlation between self-reported questionnaire-based bruxism diagnosis and a diagnosis based on history taking plus clinical examination. One-hundred-fifty-nine patients with TMD underwent an assessment including a questionnaire investigating five bruxism-related items (i.e. sleep grinding, sleep grinding referral by bed partner, sleep clenching, awake clenching, awake grinding) and an interview (i.e. oral history taking with specific focus on bruxism habits) plus a clinical examination to evaluate bruxism signs and symptoms. The correlation between findings of the questionnaire, viz., patients' report, and findings of the interview/oral history taking plus clinical examination, viz., clinicians' diagnosis, was assessed by means of ? coefficient. The highest correlations were achieved for the sleep grinding referral item (? = 0·932) and for the awake clenching item (? = 0·811), whilst lower correlation values were found for the other items (? values ranging from 0·363 to 0·641). The percentage of disagreement between the two diagnostic approaches ranged between 1·8% and 18·2%. Within the limits of the present investigation, it can be suggested that a strong positive correlation between a self-reported and a clinically based approach to bruxism diagnosis can be achieved as for awake clenching, whilst lower levels of correlation were detected for sleep-time activities. PMID:24112029
Paesani, D A; Lobbezoo, F; Gelos, C; Guarda-Nardini, L; Ahlberg, J; Manfredini, D
We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD. PMID:22766012
Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff
The hierarchical structure of 95 self-reported impulsivity items, along with delay-discount rates for money, was examined. A large sample of college students participated in the study (N = 407). Items represented every previously proposed dimension of self-reported impulsivity. Exploratory PCA yielded at least 7 interpretable components: Prepared/Careful, Impetuous, Divertible, Thrill and Risk Seeking, Happy-Go-Lucky, Impatiently Pleasure Seeking, and Reserved. Discount rates loaded on Impatiently Pleasure Seeking, and correlated with the impulsiveness and venturesomeness scales from the I7 (Eysenck, Pearson, Easting, & Allsopp, 1985). The hierarchical emergence of the components was explored, and we show how this hierarchical structure may help organize conflicting dimensions found in previous analyses. Finally, we argue that the discounting model (Ainslie, 1975) provides a qualitative framework for understanding the dimensions of impulsivity.
Abstract The purpose of the current study was to examine the extent to which self-reported sleep quality, a clinically malleable factor, is associated with both HIV medication adherence and self-reported HIV symptom severity. In addition, we sought to examine whether sleep quality may explain the association between HIV medication adherence and symptom severity, as well as the role of self-reported memory functioning in terms of the above relations. This study took place from April 2010 to March 2012. Participants were 129 HIV-positive individuals who completed an ART pill count and series of structured clinical interviews and self-report questionnaires on sleep, memory, and HIV symptom severity. A series of regressions were conducted to test study hypotheses. After accounting for covariates (i.e., problematic alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis use, and mood disorder diagnosis), results indicated that self-reported sleep quality was associated with HIV medication adherence and self-reported HIV symptom severity, and that sleep quality partially mediated the relation between medication adherence and self-reported HIV symptom severity. In addition, memory functioning moderated the relation between self-reported sleep quality and HIV symptom severity, such that the interaction of poor sleep quality and relatively good memory functioning was associated with heightened self-reported HIV symptom severity. This study highlights the importance of assessing sleep and memory among HIV-infected individuals as they may represent treatment targets for those experiencing poor medication adherence or particularly severe HIV symptoms. Such information could lead to the inclusion of adjunct brief interventions to target sleep and memory functioning in order to reduce symptom severity among HIV-positive individuals with poor medication adherence. PMID:24032625
Babson, Kimberly A; Heinz, Adrienne J; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O
We compared measures of self-reported arrests and official arrests for 676young adults with a history of child abuse and\\/or neglect and 520 nonabusedand nonneglected controls matched on age, sex, race, and approximate familysocial class. Findings reveal considerable concurrent validity between thetwo sources overall. But there is also evidence of differences by gender,race\\/ethnicity, age at time of arrest, conviction status, and
Michael G. Maxfield; Barbara Luntz Weiler; Cathy Spatz Widom
Self?reports of incest experiences from a nonpatient, nonoffender sample of 100 individuals are described. The purpose is to document the wide range of incest types by correlating the negative?to?positive perceived outcome of the experience with sex, age, exploitation, and guilt. A 23?item questionnaire was administered to respondents contacted through nationally circulated classified advertisements. Respondents, were categorized as perpetrators, victims, and
This paper compares the accuracy of college freshmen self-reported information about financial aid awards with actual data\\u000a on the types and amounts of these awards. Data from the 1986–87 National Postsecondary Aid Study (NPSAS) file are replicated\\u000a with evidence from a single institution. The study shows that college freshmen are relatively accurate in reporting whether\\u000a any financial aid was received.
Purpose – To identify competencies connecting personality, organizational orientations and self-reported learning outcomes (as measured by concise Likert-type scales), for individuals who are learning for their organizations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Five concise factor scales were constructed to represent aspects of personality. Three further concise factor scales were constructed to represent orientation towards managers' roles and behaviour, orientation towards employees' roles and
Reliability of self-reported data obtained from 323 narcotics addicts was investigated in 2 face-to-face interviews conducted 10 years apart. The same sets of retrospectively recalled behaviors were examined at each interview for an overlapping period of 4 to 5 years. Test–retest correlations were higher among activities that occurred at a higher frequency. Socially undesirable (illegal) behaviors were reported in the
Hyperarousal Scale scores for certain self-reported behaviors reportedly correlate with EEG arousal measures. We tested whether an insomnia subject group had different Hyperarousal Scale scores compared with hypersomnia, delayed sleep phase syndrome, procrastinator or normal subject groups. Compared with 139 normal subjects, mean scores for a group of 256 insomnia subjects was significantly 1.2 S.D. higher on Hyperarousal total scale
Milena Pavlova; Oliver Berg; Ray Gleason; Fran Walker; Susan Roberts; Quentin Regestein
This chapter reviews 24 standardized self-report measures for traumatic stress that are suitable, with some modification, for use with adults by professional or lay interviewers or in paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Each scale is de- scribed in terms of its content, number of items, and response formats and is evaluated in terms of the available evidence regarding its reliability and valid- ity.
We assessed the impact of two distinct forms of socially desirable responding—self?deceptive enhancement and impression management—on sexuality self?reports (n = 504) under anonymous testing conditions. Results revealed significant positive relationships between self?deceptive enhancement and sexual adjustment variables for both sexes. Impression management was significantly negatively related to a number of intrapersonal (e.g., unrestricted sexual fantasies, sexual drive) and interpersonal (e.g.,
Cindy M. Meston; Julia R. Heiman; Paul D. Trapnell; Delroy L. Paulhus
ObjectivesHeightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct.Data sourcesPubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database.Review methodsAbstracts were screened;
Wolf E. Mehling; Viranjini Gopisetty; Jennifer Daubenmier; Cynthia J. Price; Frederick M. Hecht; Anita Stewart; Antonio Verdejo García
Two studies are presented investigating the role of attitudes toward death in self-reported health-protective behavior. The Multidimensional Death Attitudes Scale (MDAS), based on three existing measures of death attitudes, was administered to a group of health professionals (N 5 348). A principal components analysis revealed five factors, labeled Acceptance, Fear, Death as Passage, Death as Relief and Avoidance. The five-factor
Self-report data on the physiological\\/behavioral response associated with embarrassment were collected by questionnaire in Greece, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and West Germany. Blushing\\/increased temperature and smiling\\/grinning were reported consistently across nations, although blushing, as indexed by temperature change, was reported with twice the frequency in the U.K. sample as in the other European samples; gaze aversion and face touching
Robert J. Edelmann; Jens Asendorpf; Alberta Contarello; Vanda Zammuner; James Georgas; Concepcion Villanueva
STUDY OBJECTIVE--To assess the extent to which the size of socioeconomic inequalities in selfreported health varies among industrialised countries. DESIGN--Cross sectional data on the association between educational level and several health indicators were obtained from national health interview surveys. This association was quantified by means of an inequality index based on logistic regression analysis. SETTING--The national, non-institutionalised populations of
Risk adjustment for mental health care is important for making meaningful comparisons of provider, program, and system performance.\\u000a The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive value of three diagnosis-based risk-adjustment models for predicting\\u000a self-reported mental health outcomes. Baseline and 3-month follow-up mental health assessments were obtained on 1,023 veterans\\u000a in Veterans Health Administration mental health programs between
Amy K. Rosen; Sharmila Chatterjee; Mark E. Glickman; Avron Spiro III; Pradipta Seal; Susan V. Eisen
The popularity of bariatric surgery has increased the focus on the psychological aspects of extreme obesity. Although a growing literature has documented the psychosocial burden associated with extreme obesity, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the experience of weight-related stigmatization among extremely obese individuals. The present study investigated self-reported experiences of weight-related stigmatization, weight-related quality of life, and depressive
David B. Sarwer; Anthony N. Fabricatore; Miriam H. Eisenberg; Laura A. Sywulak; Thomas A. Wadden
Tea has previously been demonstrated to better help sustain alertness throughout the day in open-label studies. We investigated whether tea improves attention and self-reported alertness in two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. Participants received black tea (made from commercially available tea bags) in one condition and placebo tea (hot water with food colours and flavours) similar in taste and appearance to real tea in the other condition. Attention was measured objectively with attention tests (the switch task and the intersensory-attention test) and subjectively with a self-report questionnaire (Bond-Lader visual analogue scales). In both studies, black tea significantly enhanced accuracy on the switch task (study 1 p<.002, study 2 p=.007) and self-reported alertness on the Bond-Lader questionnaire (study 1 p<.001, study 2 p=.021). The first study also demonstrated better auditory (p<.001) and visual (p=.030) intersensory attention after black tea compared to placebo. Simulation of theanine and caffeine plasma time-concentration curves indicated higher levels in the first study compared to the second, which supports the finding that tea effects on attention were strongest in the first study. Being the second most widely consumed beverage in the world after water, tea is a relevant contributor to our daily cognitive functioning. PMID:21172396
De Bruin, E A; Rowson, M J; Van Buren, L; Rycroft, J A; Owen, G N
Body dysmorphic disorder by proxy (BDDBP), a preoccupation with a perceived defect in another person's appearance may represent a variant of BDD. However, BDDBP has received little empirical attention. We present here the phenomenology of 11 individuals with self-reported BDDBP. Participants completed an internet-based survey that assessed symptoms, psychosocial impact, and treatment history. Participants (8 females, 3 males) reported preoccupation with a wide array of individuals (e.g., spouse, stranger). Body parts of concern most commonly involved the face and head. Most participants spent several (e.g., 3-8) hours per day preoccupied by perceived defects in the person of concern (POC). All participants engaged in rituals to try to alleviate distress or improve the POC's appearance. Most avoided social/occupational activities, including contact with the POC. The impact of BDDBP was profound, particularly on relationships. Findings may help elucidate diagnostic criteria, course, and treatment. PMID:23384683
The goal of this study was to test the internal reliability of a Spanish translation of the CDI, (i.e., CDI-LA), a potentially useful screening instrument for Hispanic youngsters in their native language at a primary-care level. Self-reportedsymptoms of depression were assessed with the CDI-LA in a school sample of 205 Hispanic students. Girls…
Musculoskeletal disorders constitute a considerable public health problem, often resulting in sickness absence, particularly in public sector employees. Increased knowledge on how this is related to individual and work-related factors is required. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between self-reported musculoskeletal pain and the following factors: physical and psychosocial work conditions, lifestyle, psychosomatic symptoms and sick leave. A comprehensive questionnaire was completed by a total of 2523 people, of which 87% were women and 13% men. The participants were employed in public hospitals, educational institutions, home care services for the elderly and domestic/catering services in a Swedish county. The response rate was 92%. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the high level of self-reported musculoskeletal pain was highly associated with strenuous physical and psychosocial work conditions. The physical factor with the highest odds ratio (OR) was working in a forward-bent position. High work demands was the most prominent psychosocial factor and distinctly associated with musculoskeletal pain among men. Physical work strain and other demanding working conditions, which were associated with musculoskeletal pain, were frequent among employees in home care services for the elderly and domestic/catering services. There was a strong association between long-term sick leave and high musculoskeletal pain. Furthermore, there was a strong association between a high level of musculoskeletal pain and the exhibition of psychosomatic symptoms in both women and men; this is an interaction that may intensify the total experience of illness and thus needs to be further investigated. PMID:17264418
The present study reports on the prevalence of the DSM-IV symptoms for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 720 adults applying for or renewing their driver's licenses in central Massachusetts (ages 17-84 years). Symptoms were assessed using two self- report rating scales: One for current symptoms and a second for retrospective recall of child hood symptoms (ages
Most information on the prevalence of drug use comes from self-report surveys. The sensitivity of such information is cause for concern about the accuracy of self-report measures. In this study, self-reported drug use in the last 48 hr is compared to results from biological assays of saliva samples from 371 young adults entering clubs. The relationship between self-reports and drug
Mark B. Johnson; Robert A. Voas; Brenda A. Miller; Harold D. Holder
This research was conducted to investigate the relationship of anxiety to biorhythms. Two groups of Air Force Institute of Technology students were administered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: the first group received eight surveys over a period of fou...
The objective of this study was to evaluate the biogenetic temperament and character profiles in Korean adolescents with problematic Internet use. Six hundred eighty-six high school students completed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), and Conners/Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale: Short Form (CASS: Short). The problematic Internet use group showed higher scores in the Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness profiles and lower scores in the Novelty Seeking and Self-Transcendence profiles of the JTCI, compared with the nonproblematic Internet use group, after controlling for the ADHD symptoms. The results of this study suggest that temperament/character patterns should be considered in accounts of the etiology of problematic Internet use. PMID:18954290
Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-won; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Eun-Hui
BACKGROUND: Self-reported limitations in physical function often have only weak associations with measured performance on physical tests, suggesting that factors other than performance commonly influence self-reports. We tested if personal or health characteristics influenced self-reported limitations in three tasks, controlling for measured performance on these tasks. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data on adults aged ? 60 years (N = 5396)
From six en route and six terminal air-traffic-control facilities selected on the basis of differences between shift-rotation schedules and high traffic volume, 300 journeymen and assistant controllers were selected as volunteer subjects to complete a bio...
It is estimated that from 20 to 60% of substance abusers meet criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD). An accurate and reliable diagnosis is important because persons meeting criteria for APD, by the nature of their disorder, are less likely to change behaviors and more likely to relapse to both substance abuse and high risk behaviors. To understand more about
Linda B Cottler; Wilson M Compton; T. Andrew Ridenour; Arbi Ben Abdallah; Tim Gallagher
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compare sickness presence (SP) and sickness absence (SA) regarding the strength of their relationship to health\\/ill-health. In a previous Canadian study a stronger association between SP and health\\/ill-health than between SA and health\\/ill-health was shown. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Five Swedish data sets from the years 1992 to 2005 provided the study populations,
Gunnar Aronsson; Klas Gustafsson; Christin Mellner
This study investigated psychometric properties of two widely used instruments to measure subclinical levels of psychosis, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) and the Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised (SIS-R), and aimed to enhance measurements through the use of multidimensional measurement models. Data were collected in 747 siblings of schizophrenia patients and 341 healthy controls. Multidimensional Item-Response Theory, Mokken Scale and ordinal factor analyses were performed. Both instruments showed good psychometric properties and were measurement invariant across siblings and controls. The latent traits measured by the instruments show a correlation of 0.62 in siblings and 0.47 in controls. Multidimensional modeling resulted in smaller standard errors for SIS-R scores. By exploiting correlations among related traits through multidimensional models, scores from one diagnostic instrument can be estimated more reliably by making use of information from instruments that measure related traits. PMID:23021911
van den Berg, Stéphanie M; Paap, Muirne C S; Derks, Eske M
Background: Increasing public awareness of the adult manifestations of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders, like Asperger syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has provoked an increasing number of persons to seek assessment for the first time in adulthood. As these disorders have their origin in childhood, instruments for retrospective evaluation of childhood behavior are needed. Sampling and Methods: In this preliminary
Pekka Tani; Nina Lindberg; Björn Appelberg; Taina Nieminen-von Wendt; Lennart von Wendt; Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen
Background: This study examines the psychological symptoms of Bosnian children exposed to war and trauma, and detects changes in these\\u000a symptoms over time. Method: A total of 147 displaced children residing in refugee centers in Bosnia completed self-report assessments of anxiety, depressive,\\u000a and posttraumatic stress symptoms at two time points. Results: Symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression showed a
|Most information on the prevalence of drug use comes from self-report surveys. The sensitivity of such information is cause for concern about the accuracy of self-report measures. In this study, self-reported drug use in the last 48 hr is compared to results from biological assays of saliva samples from 371 young adults entering clubs. The…
Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert A.; Miller, Brenda A.; Holder, Harold D.
|We used a questionnaire to identify university students with self-reported difficulties in reading acquisition during elementary school (self-report; n = 31). The performance of the self-report group on standardized measures of word and non-word reading and fluency, passage comprehension and reading rate, and phonological awareness was compared…
|The Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory (MB-HSBI) was developed for use in identifying self-reported motivators of and barriers to the following health-promoting behaviors (called "health-smart behaviors") that should occur daily to help promote health and overcome illnesses/diseases: eating a healthy breakfast, eating…
Tucker, Carolyn M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Hou, Wei; Kaye, Lillian B.; Nolan, Sarah E. M.; Grandoit, Delphia J.; Gonzales, Lucia; Smith, Mary B.; Desmond, Frederic F.
Self-deception has become a construct of great interest in individual differences research because it has been associated with levels of resilience and mental health. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) is a self-report measure used for quantifying self-deception. In this study we used Rasch modeling to examine the properties of…
Cervellione, Kelly L.; Lee, Young-Sun; Bonanno, George A.
|Objective: To examine the reliability of the ecSatter Inventory (ecSI), a measure of eating competence. Design: Self-report questionnaires were administered in person or by mail. Retesting occurred 2 to 6 weeks after completion of the first questionnaire. Participants: Both administrations of the questionnaire were completed by 259 participants…
The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a well-established self-report questionnaire measuring four temperament and three character dimensions. However, surprisingly few studies have used it to examine the personality of patients with schizophrenia, and none in Japan. Moreover, possible gender differences in personality among patients with schizophrenia have not been well documented. We administered the TCI to 86 Japanese patients
Hiroaki Hori; Hiroko Noguchi; Ryota Hashimoto; Tetsuo Nakabayashi; Osamu Saitoh; Robin M. Murray; Shigeo Okabe; Hiroshi Kunugi
Objective: The Casey Foster Applicant Inventory-Applicant Version (CFAI-A) is a new standardized self-report measure designed to assess the potential to foster parent successfully. The CFAI-A is described, and results concerning its psychometric properties are presented. Method: Data from a sample of 304 foster mothers from 35 states are analyzed.…
Orme, John G.; Cuddeback, Gary S.; Buehler, Cheryl; Cox, Mary Ellen; Le Prohn, Nicole S.
BACKGROUND: The Inventory of Personality Organisation (IPO) is a self-report measure that reflects personality traits, as theorised by Kernberg. METHODS: In study 1, the Japanese version of the IPO was distributed to a population of Japanese university students (N = 701). The students were randomly divided into two groups. The factor structure derived from an exploratory factor analysis among one
Resilience has been associated with a markedly decreased chance for risky behaviors following a trauma or other negative life event. This study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of a self-report measure of resilience, the Suicide Resilience Inventory–25 (SRI–25; Osman et al., 2004), among psychiatric inpatient adolescents. In Study 1, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis to provide additional empirical
Peter M. Gutierrez; Stacey Freedenthal; Jane L. Wong; Augustine Osman; Tamami Norizuki
The Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory (MB-HSBI) was developed for use in identifying self-reported motivators of and barriers to the following health-promoting behaviors (called "health-smart behaviors") that should occur daily to help promote health and overcome illnesses/diseases: eating a healthy breakfast, eating…
Tucker, Carolyn M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Hou, Wei; Kaye, Lillian B.; Nolan, Sarah E. M.; Grandoit, Delphia J.; Gonzales, Lucia; Smith, Mary B.; Desmond, Frederic F.
Objective: To develop a youth form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory (MB-HSBI--Youth) for use in identifying self-reported motivators of and barriers to the following health-promoting behaviors (called "health-smart" behaviors): eating a healthy breakfast, eating healthy foods and snacks, drinking healthy…
Tucker, Carolyn M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Desmond, Frederic F.; Hou, Wei; Kaye, Lillian B.; Smith, Tasia M.
|Psychometric properties of the Inventory of Drug Use Consequences (InDUC; W. M. Miller, J. S. Tonigan, & R. Longabaugh, 1995), a self-report assessment of negative consequences associated with alcohol and other drug use, were investigated. The InDUC demonstrated sound psychometric characteristics and can be a valuable clinical tool for chemical…
|Objective: To develop a youth form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory (MB-HSBI--Youth) for use in identifying self-reported motivators of and barriers to the following health-promoting behaviors (called "health-smart" behaviors): eating a healthy breakfast, eating healthy foods and snacks, drinking healthy…
Tucker, Carolyn M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Desmond, Frederic F.; Hou, Wei; Kaye, Lillian B.; Smith, Tasia M.
The Academic Success Inventory for College Students (ASICS) is a newly developed self-report instrument designed to measure academic success in college students. The findings in this study provide evidence for the construct validity of the ASICS by proving reliability and the following subvalidities: face, content, factor, and discriminant. Using MANOVA to compare honors and at-risk college students, significant differences were
|In this descriptive exploratory study, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996) was used to measure levels of personal growth attributed by college students (N = 117) to a semester of university life in retrospective self-reports. Results reflect attributions of substantial total growth in the range reported in the…
The range of response options has been shown to influence the answers given in self-report instruments that measure behaviors ranging from television viewing to sexual partners. The current research extends this line of inquiry to 36 quantitative items extracted from a biographical inventory used in personnel selection. A total of 92…
Kirnan, Jean Powell; Edler, Erin; Carpenter, Allison
|The Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI; Nichols & Molinder, 1984) is a self-report measure frequently used in the assessment of sex offenders. Scores on the MSI are often used to assess levels of pedophilic interest. However, the question of whether men with pedophilia represent a unique group distinguished by their sexual interests, or whether they…
Mackaronis, Julia E.; Strassberg, Donald S.; Marcus, David K.
Development and validation of the 14-item Teacher-Student Relationship Inventory (TSRI) is described. The TSRI is a self-report measure assessing teacher perceptions of the quality of their relationship with students from Grade 4 through junior high school. In Study 1, findings from exploratory factor analysis provided evidence for a 3-factor…
|The Study Anxiety Inventory (SAI), consisting of the factors of worry and emotionality, was developed to measure college students' self-reported levels of anxiety while studying for an exam. Data from 2002 undergraduate students from four colleges (Arts and Sciences, Engineering, Business, and Education) at a southeastern state university were…
|The range of response options has been shown to influence the answers given in self-report instruments that measure behaviors ranging from television viewing to sexual partners. The current research extends this line of inquiry to 36 quantitative items extracted from a biographical inventory used in personnel selection. A total of 92…
Kirnan, Jean Powell; Edler, Erin; Carpenter, Allison
|A new measure, the Strengths Assessment Inventory-Youth self-report (SAI-Y), was recently developed to assess the strengths of children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 18 years. The SAI-Y differs from similar measures in that it provides a comprehensive assessment of strengths that are intrinsic to the individual as well as strengths…
Brazeau, James N.; Teatero, Missy L.; Rawana, Edward P.; Brownlee, Keith; Blanchette, Loretta R.
Background Patients with halitosis contact primary care practitioners, dentists, and gastroenterologists alike. Objectives It is unclear whether gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a risk factor for halitosis. Design and Patients/Participants We studied this possible relationship in the general population using the cross-sectional Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Employing structured interviews, self-reported halitosis was assessed among 417 edentulous (toothless) subjects aged 40 to 81 years and among 2,588 dentate subjects aged 20 to 59 years. The presence of heartburn or acid regurgitation (GERD-related symptoms) at 4 levels (absent, mild, moderate, severe) was taken as exposure and used for logistic regression. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders, such as age, sex, depressive symptoms, history of chronic gastritis, history of gastric or duodenal ulcer, smoking, school education, and dental status. Measurements and Main Results We found a strong positive association between GERD-related symptoms and halitosis (odds ratio 12.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.66–63.09, P = 0.002 for severe compared to no GERD-related symptoms) in denture-wearing subjects and a moderate, positive association between GERD-related symptoms and halitosis (odds ratio 2.24, 95% CI 1.27–3.92, P = 0.005) in dentate subjects with a clear dose–effect relationship. Conclusions The present study provides clear evidence for an association between GERD and halitosis. As there are effective treatments for GERD, these results suggest treatment options, such as proton pump inhibitors, for halitosis. These should be studied in randomized controlled trials.
Struch, Franziska; Wallaschofski, Henri; Grabe, Hans J.; Volzke, Henry; Lerch, Markus M.; Meisel, Peter; Kocher, Thomas
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder characterized by generalized pain, chronic fatigue, sleep disturbance, and a range of other symptoms having no definitive pathology. Consequently, patient evaluations rely on self-report. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) allows frequent real-time collection of self-report measures, removing recall bias and increasing external validity. We studied 81 females with FMS aged 18 to
Akiko Okifuji; David H. Bradshaw; Gary W. Donaldson; Dennis C. Turk
Background Attentional fatigue is experienced as a decreased ability to concentrate, engage in purposeful activity, and maintain social relationships when there are competing demands on attention. Breast and prostate cancer are the two most common cancers in women and men, respectively. Most previous studies on self-reported attentional fatigue evaluated patients with breast cancer. Objective To determine if self-reported attentional fatigue differed in patients with breast cancer and prostate cancer before radiation therapy (RT), and to determine the relationships between attentional fatigue and other symptoms in these two groups. Methods Patients (n = 155) completed questionnaires before RT. Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlations, and analysis of covariance were used for data analyses. Results After controlling for age, patients with breast cancer reported significantly higher levels of attentional fatigue. In both groups, more attentional fatigue correlated significantly with more anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, and physical fatigue. These correlations were stronger for patients with breast cancer. Conclusions This study is the first to identify differences in self-reported attentional fatigue between these two groups before RT. Additional research is warranted to determine factors that contribute to these differences, as well as mechanisms that underlie the development of attentional fatigue. Implications for Practice Clinicians should consider the capacity of their patients to direct attention when learning about RT and other treatments. It is important to simplify confusing health care terminology and reinforce teaching that is most important both verbally and in writing. Appropriate interventions for anxiety and depression may decrease attentional fatigue in these patients.
Merriman, John D.; Dodd, Marylin; Lee, Kathryn; Paul, Steven M.; Cooper, Bruce A.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Swift, Patrick S.; Wara, William; Dunn, Laura; Miaskowski, Christine
|Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents with varying drug use histories, self-reported physical health problems were not related to inhalant use history, but blood analyses indicated a relationship between extensive inhalant use and liver problems. Psychological distress symptoms were related to inhalant use and physical symptoms. Contains 23…
The study investigated brain fag symptoms in South African university students. A Cultural Orientation Scale, a Student Stress Scale, and a SelfReporting Questionnaire were administered to collect data on socioeconomic background, cultural orientation, stress events, neurotic disorder and brain fag symptoms. The sample consisted of 185 first year social science students from the University of the North, South Africa.
Students requesting personal counseling at a counseling center and a university mental health service were administered the SCL-90, a self-reportsymptom rating scale. Results indicate no significant difference between users of the counseling center and of the mental health service when compared on distress associated with presenting symptoms.…
The authors used an integrative conceptual model to examine the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 568 elementary school-age children 3 months after Hurricane An- drew. The model included 4 primary factors: Exposure to Traumatic Events, Child Characteristics, Access to Social Support, and Children's Coping. Overall, 62% of the variance in children's self- reported PTSD symptoms was accounted
Eric M. Vernberg; Annette M. La Greca; Wendy K. Silverman; Mitchell J. Prinstein
This study examined parenting practices and adolescent depressive symptoms among Chinese Americans. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that self- reported parenting practices by mothers and fathers and adolescent perception of parenting practices loaded adequately on three subscales: Inductive Reasoning, Monitoring, and Harsh Discipline. Second, parents' depressive symptoms were related to disrupted parenting practices, which, in turn, were significantly related to
This study examined parenting practices and adolescent depressive symptoms among Chinese Americans. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that self-reported parenting practices by mothers and fathers and adolescent perception of parenting practices loaded adequately on three subscales: Inductive Reasoning, Monitoring, and Harsh Discipline. Second, parents' depressive symptoms were related to disrupted parenting practices, which, in turn, were significantly related to the
Researchers have indicated that adult psychopathy often originates in childhood or adolescence. It has also been established that psychopathic traits are linked to disruptive behavior, criminality, and violence. As knowledge about psychopathy and its manifestations in juvenile sex offender populations remains limited, several instruments have been developed in an effort to measure the construct. In this study, we assessed how the relationship of diverse scales of psychopathy related to characteristics of sexual aggression, and determined which scales were most correlated to sexual and nonsexual delinquency. We utilized four measures of juvenile psychopathy: the Modified Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS; Lynam, 1997), the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Frick, O'Brien, Wootton, & McBurnett, 1994), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon & Davis, 1993; using two derived psychopathy scales), and the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional (ICU) Traits (Frick, 2003), in a sample of 191 incarcerated adolescent sex offenders located in juvenile detention facilities across a Midwestern state. We found that of the four instruments and seven subscales, only the APSD Narcissism and Impulsivity Scale was significantly correlated to a characteristic of sexual crime (i.e., number of victims, level of crime severity). No subscales were found to predict sexual crime at a significant level. However, several scales were correlated to the total delinquency score as measured by the Self-Reported Delinquency Measure. In a series of multiple regressions, the MACI Factor 2 and ICU total score were determined as the best fit to total nonsexual delinquency. Implications are offered. PMID:23525176
Background. Researchers and clinicians use a variety of measures to assess depressive symptoms, including clinician reports [for example the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17) and the 30-item Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology — Clinician Report (IDS-C-30)]; and patient reports [for example, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 30-item Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology — Self-Report (IDS-SR-30)]. Although their concurrent convergent validity is well established, the degree to which these measures reflect the same pattern and level of change during treatment is unclear. Method. We assessed depressive symptoms with two clinician (HRSD-17, IDS-C-30) and two patient (BDI, IDS-SR-30) reports on 14-15 occasions in 127 out-patients with recurrent major depressive disorder treated with 20 sessions of acute-phase cognitive therapy. Results. Factor analyses revealed that time was the major source of variation in depressive symptom severity and change, with distinct ‘early’ and ‘late’ assessment factors, regardless of measure or rater (patient v. clinician). Average symptom severity decreased rapidly on all measures until mid-treatment, after which gradual decreases continued through the end of treatment. Effect sizes for pre- to post-treatment change were large for all measures (d=1·9-2·2), although there were significant differences among measures at some time-points. Conclusions. The HRSD-17, BDI, IDS-C-30 and IDS-SR-30 reflect essentially the same symptom severity and change constructs during acute-phase cognitive therapy. Clinicians and researchers using one of these measures may estimate scores on the others with the provided common-factor conversions.
VITTENGL, JEFFREY R.; CLARK, LEE ANNA; KRAFT, DOLORES; JARRETT, ROBIN B.
Nowadays, risk of transfusion-transmitted infection has been substantially minimized by stringent donor eligibility screening and infectious disease testing. However, we report an interdiction of a blood donation containing varicella-zoster virus (VZV) by donor self-reporting of chickenpox. The donor developed varicella infection shortly after blood donation despite vaccination. Varicella-zoster virus DNA was detected in her fresh-frozen plasma before the blood components were issued for clinical transfusion. The report indicates the importance of donors' education and awareness of their obligation to report any symptoms developed shortly after blood donation in order to further secure blood safety. PMID:22998480
Chan, H M H; Ho, P L; Chan, K H; Lin, C K; Lee, C K
Background Socio-economic differences in depressive symptoms are well reported, but there are only few studies concerning changes in\\u000a these differences over time. The aim of this study was to assess trends in socio-economic differences in self-reported depression\\u000a over the time period 1979–2002 in Finland.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The data source was a representative repeated cross sectional survey “Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish
Hair analysis is a useful tool in both clinical and forensic fields: it allows information about drugs of abuse (DOA) consumption to be obtained. However, in spite of analytical results, sometimes patients continue to deny using drugs or, on the contrary, insist on describing themselves as severe drug addicts; indeed there are often considerable difficulties in getting truthful statements about the real amount of drugs used. In this study we have tried to compare cocaine concentration in hair samples with self-reported drug intake. We enrolled 113 subjects (61 Africans, 52 Caucasians) who had been recently sent to jail. They were asked to tell about their use of illicit drugs during the last three months and then submitted to hair analysis. Hair segments (3 cm) were analyzed by GC-MS for amphetamines, cocaine and opiates. Useful data was obtained from 82 subjects, separated into two main groups on account of ethnic origin (African or Caucasian) and divided further into daily, weekly and monthly users. The results showed qualitative results and self-reported consumption to be in good agreement, although the correlation between frequency of consumption and concentration in hair revealed sometimes higher concentrations in contrast with the admission of low consumption. There was a definite separation between occasional and daily use (especially in Caucasian people), while concentrations found where weekly use was reported were more variable. Concentrations of cocaine measured in Africans' hair were much higher than in Caucasians'. Even if this study is exclusively based on self-report, it provides some interesting information in order to differentiate the frequency of consumption, and especially underlines the great importance of ethnic bias on hair analysis. PMID:21645979
Background The critical importance of improving the well-being of people with disabilities is highlighted in many national health plans. Self-reported health status is reduced both with age and among people with disabilities. Because both factors are related to health status and the influence of the age at disability onset on health status is unclear, we examined the relationship between disability onset and health status. Methods The U.S. 1998–2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance system (BRFSS) provided data on 11,905 adults with disability. Bivariate logistic regression analysis modeled the relationship between age at disability onset (based on self-report of duration of disability) and fair/poor self-perceived health status, adjusting for confounding variables. Results Key variables included demographics and other measures related to disability and general health status. Disability onset after 21 years of age showed significant association with greater prevalence of fair/poor health compared to early disability onset, even adjusting for current age and other demographic covariates. Compared with younger onset, the adjusted odds ratios (OR) were ages 22–44: OR 1.52, ages 45–64: OR 1.67, and age ?65: OR 1.53. Conclusion This cross-sectional study provides population-level, generalizable evidence of increased fair or poor health in people with later onset disability compared to those with disability onset prior to the age of 21 years. This finding suggests that examining the general health of people with and those without disabilities might mask differences associated with onset, potentially relating to differences in experience and self-perception. Future research relating to global health status and disability should consider incorporating age at disability onset. In addition, research should examine possible differences in the relationship between age at onset and self-reported health within specific impairment groups.
Jamoom, Eric W; Horner-Johnson, Willi; Suzuki, Rie; Andresen, Elena M; Campbell, Vincent A
The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of first-, third-, and fifth-graders to accurately self-report height and weight. Self-reported and measured values for height and weight were recorded for 487 students. The ability to self-report a reasonable value for height and weight improved with grade level, but children in all 3 grade levels significantly underreported their height and weight. Only fifth-graders accurately self-reported their weight; therefore, using self-reported height and weight to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity for elementary school-aged children is not recommended. PMID:22742593
Beck, Jimikaye; Schaefer, Christine A; Nace, Heidi; Steffen, Alana D; Nigg, Claudio; Brink, Lois; Hill, James O; Browning, Raymond C
Socioeconomic differences in self-reported chronic and acute illness were investigated in men and women using data from the General Household Surveys (1981-4). Logit models were used to investigate the influence of age, socioeconomic group, tenure, access to cars, area of residence and marital status on these measures of morbidity. For both measures local authority tenants, whether male or female, reported the most morbidity as did those with no access to cars. Both males and females reported increasing levels of illness the lower their socioeconomic group but similar patterns were not observed with acute illness. The significance of these present day inequalities is discussed. PMID:2359822
In this study, we investigated the relationships between features of personality organization (PO) as assessed by theory driven profiles of the Dutch Short Form of the MMPI (DSFM; Luteijn & Kok, 1985) and 2 self-report measures of personality pathology, that is, the Dutch Inventory of Personality Organization (Berghuis, Kamphuis, Boedijn, & Verheul, 2009) and the Dutch Schizotypy Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Vollema & Hoijtink, 2000), in a sample of 190 outpatient psychiatric patients. Results showed that the single scales of all 3 measures segregated into 2 theoretically expected and meaningful dimensions, that is, a dimension assessing severity of personality pathology and an introversion/extraversion dimension. Theory-driven combinations of single DSFM subscales as a measure of level of PO distinguished characteristics of patients at various levels of PO in theoretically predicted ways. Results also suggest that structural personality pathology may not be fully captured by self-report measures. PMID:20954062
Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth H M; Luyten, Patrick; Remijsen, Mila; Koelen, Jurrijn
Lahey and Waldman (2003; 2005) proposed a model in which three dispositions—sympathetic response to others; negative emotional response to threat, frustration, and loss; and positive response to novelty and risk—transact with the environment to influence risk for conduct disorder (CD). To test this model, the Child and Adolescent Dispositions Scale (CADS) was developed to measure these dispositions using parent ratings of the child. Here we report psychometric evaluations of a parallel youth self-report version (CADS-Y). Exploratory factor analysis of CADS-Y items among 832 9–17 year olds yielded a 3-factor structure that was consistent with the model and invariant across sex and informants. In 1,582 pairs of 9–17 year old twins, confirmatory factor analyses supported the CADS-Y 3-factormodel. Each CADS-Y dimension was associated with CD as predicted. Correlations between the CADS-Y and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory described relations between the dispositions and an important model of personality.
Lahey, Benjamin B.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Applegate, Brooks; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.
The report is part of the Public Housing Management Improvement Program. This part of the program establishes reorder procedures for replenishment of general inventory. Factors such as delivery time and factory inventory supplies are taken into account an...
The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...
... financial inventory is a list of: Your financial assets and loans, account numbers, and companies and contact ... Inventory Worksheet [PDF] Determine where you stand— My Assets, Liabilities, and Net Worth Worksheet [PDF] Set goals— ...
This study tested a hypothesized model of the relationships among parental depressive symptoms, family process (interparental negativity and negative parenting behavior), child internalizing symptoms, and asthma disease activity. A total of 106 children with asthma, aged 7 to 17, participated with their fathers and mothers. Parental depressive symptoms were assessed by self-report. Interparental and parenting behaviors were observed and rated
JungHa Lim; Beatrice L. Wood; Bruce D. Miller; Samuel J. Simmens
Setting: Parents of children 12 years old and under whose child had made at least one visit to a study clinic in the years 2000–2003. Methods: As part of a randomized controlled trial to improve patient provider communication and preventive practices, parents' responses to telephone interview were compared with observations of safety practices during a home visit. Home visits were completed within nine weeks of the telephone interview. Parents were not told that the visit was part of a validation study and home visit observers were unaware of the interview responses. The authors calculated sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative predictive values, and their corresponding confidence intervals. Results: Sensitivity (0.78 to 0.98) and positive predictive values (0.75 to 1.00) were high for all items. Specificities and negative predictive values were more variable and the highest estimates (specificity 0.95 to 1.00, negative predictive value 0.95 to 0.97) were for car seat types. Conclusions: The results suggest that parent selfreport practice of certain injury prevention behaviors (owning a car seat, hot water temperatures) is reliable, whereas selfreports on other practices (working smoke detectors, properly fitting bike helmets) may be overstated.
Robertson, A; Rivara, F; Ebel, B; Lymp, J; Christakis, D
Little is known about how the miscarriage rate has changed over the past few decades in the United States. Data from Cycles IV to VI of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were used to examine trends from 1970 to 2000. After accounting for abortion availability and the characteristics of pregnant women, the rate of reported miscarriages increased by about 1.0% per year. This upward trend is strongest in the first seven weeks and absent after 12 weeks of pregnancy. African American and Hispanic women report lower rates of early miscarriage than do whites. The probability of reporting a miscarriage rises by about 5% per year of completed schooling. The upward trend, especially in early miscarriages, suggests awareness of pregnancy rather than prenatal care to be a key factor in explaining the evolution of self-reported miscarriages. Any beneficial effects of prenatal care on early miscarriage are obscured by this factor. Differences in adoption of early-awareness technology, such as home pregnancy tests, should be taken into account when analyzing results from self-reports or clinical trials relying on awareness of pregnancy in its early weeks. PMID:22718315
This study assessed the personality factors associated with self-reported delinquency. Respondents were 282 14-year-olds who were traced for follow-up 2 years later. The follow-up success rate was more than 80%. In line with previous work which has adopted a trait personality perspective to understanding antisocial and delinquent behaviours, it was predicted that psychoticism, extroversion, and low self-esteem as measured at Time 1 would be significant predictors of self-reported delinquency at Time 2. However, the results of structural equation modelling suggested that the three personality variables explained just over 16% of the variance of delinquency at Time 1, but only 6.61% of the variance of delinquency at Time 2. Alone, psychoticism explained 15.3% of the variance of delinquency at Time 1, but only 4.36% of the variance of delinquency at Time 2. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed and some suggestions for future research are made. PMID:8894956
Research has revealed negative associations between religiosity and alcohol consumption. Given these associations, the aim of the current research was to evaluate whether the order of assessing each construct might affect subsequent reports of the other. The present research provided an experimental evaluation of response biases of self-reported religiosity and alcohol consumption based on order of assessment. Participants (N = 301 undergraduate students) completed an online survey. Based on random assignment, religiosity was assessed either before or after questions regarding recent alcohol consumption. Social desirability bias was also measured. Results revealed a priming effect such that participants who answered questions about their religiosity prior to their alcohol consumption reported fewer drinks on their peak drinking occasions, drinking less on typical occasions, and drinking less frequently, even when controlling for social desirability and for the significant negative associations between their own religiosity and drinking. In contrast, assessment order was not significantly associated with religiosity. Results indicate priming religion results in reporting lower, but potentially more accurate, levels of health risk behaviors and that these effects are not simply the result of socially desirable responding. Results are interpreted utilizing several social-cognitive theories and suggest that retrospective self-reports of drinking may be more malleable than self-descriptions of religiosity. Implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23528191
Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Neighbors, Clayton; Foster, Dawn W
Seemingly, many healthy adults have accrued a sleep debt, as determined by findings based on the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). However, our recent, extensive survey found self-reported sleep deficit was not linked to daytime sleepiness determined by the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Here, we report on the link between self-reported sleep deficit and gold standard measures of sleepiness: MSLT, Psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) and Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). Habitual sleep time in forty-three participants, from using a week long sleep diary and actiwatch data, compared with self-ratings of how much sleep they needed, provided estimates of apparent sleep deficit or otherwise. They were split into categories: 'sleep deficit' (Av. -47 min), 'sleep plus' (Av. 47 min) or 'neutral' (Av. 0+/-15 min), depicting perceived shortfall (or excess) sleep. Although the deficit group desired to sleep longer than the other groups, they actually obtained similar habitual nightly sleep as the neutral group, but less than the sleep plus group. 'Survival curves' based on those falling asleep during the MSLT showed no difference between the groups. Neither was there any difference between the groups for the PVT, KSS, or ESS. Here, factors other than sleepiness seem to influence self-perceived sleep deficits. PMID:19071145
Anderson, Clare; Platten, Charlotte R; Horne, James A
Little is known about how the miscarriage rate has changed over the past few decades in the United States. Data from Cycles IV to VI of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were used to examine trends from 1970 to 2000. After accounting for abortion availability and the characteristics of pregnant women, the rate of reported miscarriages increased by about 1.0% per year. This upward trend is strongest in the first seven weeks and absent after 12 weeks of pregnancy. African American and Hispanic women report lower rates of early miscarriage than do whites. The probability of reporting a miscarriage rises by about 5% per year of completed schooling. The upward trend, especially in early miscarriages, suggests awareness of pregnancy rather than prenatal care to be a key factor in explaining the evolution of self-reported miscarriages. Any beneficial effects of prenatal care on early miscarriage are obscured by this factor. Differences in adoption of early-awareness technology, such as home pregnancy tests, should be taken into account when analyzing results from self-reports or clinical trials relying on awareness of pregnancy in its early weeks.
Nuclear utilities are becoming more aware of the importance of having an inventory investment that supports two opposing philosophies. The business philosophy wants a minimal inventory investment to support a better return on invested dollars. This increase in return comes from having the dollars available to invest versus having the money tied up in inventory sitting on the shelf. The
STUDY OBJECTIVE—To examine the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and demographic, lifestyle, occupational characteristics and selfreported health conditions.?DESIGN—Cross sectional study, using data from multiphasic health checkups between 1979 and 1985.?SETTING—Large health plan in Northern California, USA.?PARTICIPANTS—16 524 men aged 15-89 years and 26 197 women aged 15-105 years who never smoked.?RESULTS—Sixty eight per cent of men and 64 per cent of women reported any current ETS exposure (at home, in small spaces other than home or in large indoor areas). The exposure time from all three sources of ETS exposure correlated negatively with age. Men and women reporting high level ETS exposure were more likely to be black and never married or separated/divorced, to have no college or partial college education, to consume three alcoholic drink/day or more and to report exposure to several occupational hazards. Consistent independent relations across sexes were found between any current exposure to ETS and a positive history of hay fever/asthma (odds ratio (OR)=1.22 in men, 1.14 in women), hearing loss (OR=1.30 in men, 1.27 in women), severe headache (OR=1.22 in men, 1.17 in women), and cold/flu symptoms (OR=1.52 in men, 1.57 in women). Any current ETS exposure was also associated with chronic cough (OR=1.22) in men and with heart disease (OR=1.10) in women. Selfreported stroke was inversely associated with any current ETS exposure in men (OR=0.27). No associations were noted for cancer or tumour and for migraine.?CONCLUSION—ETS exposure correlated with several personal characteristics potentially associated with adverse health outcomes. Although the study design precluded causal inference, ETS exposure was associated with several selfreported acute and chronic medical conditions.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; smoking
This study was designed to examine self-reported cultural competency skills of second-semester junior-level nursing students toward clients from culturally diverse backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the addition of an innovative cultural sensitivity intervention facilitated greater self-perceived cultural competency skills when compared with the traditional method of incorporating cultural diversity into a junior-level clinical course. The Ethnic Competency Skills Assessment Inventory was used to collect data from participants attending a university in an urban midwestern county. Significant differences were noted between the pretest scores and posttest scores. Pretest scores were significantly lower than posttest scores for both groups. Nurse educators must examine further the differences in learning experiences related to cultural diversity that may account for these differences. PMID:10698608
Objective To study the relationship between self-reported childhood maltreatment and cerebral gray matter in adolescents without psychiatric diagnoses. Design Associations between childhood maltreatment (measured by a childhood trauma self-report questionnaire for physical, emotional and sexual abuse, and physical and emotional neglect) and regional gray matter were examined. Setting University hospital. Participants 42 adolescents without psychiatric disorders. Outcome Measures Correlations between childhood trauma questionnaire scores and regional gray matter volume were assessed in voxel-based analyses of structural magnetic resonance scans. Relationships between gray matter volume and childhood maltreatment subtypes and gender where explored. Results Total childhood trauma questionnaire scores correlated negatively (p<0.005) with gray matter volumes in prefrontal cortex, striatum, amygdala, sensory association cortices and cerebellum. Physical abuse, physical neglect and emotional neglect were associated with rostral prefrontal reductions. Additionally, decreases in dorsolateral and orbitofrontal cortices, insula, and ventral striatum were associated with physical abuse, in cerebellum with physical neglect, and in dorsolateral, orbitofrontal and subgenual prefrontal cortices, striatum, amygdala, hippocampus and cerebellum with emotional neglect. These latter emotion regulation regions were also associated with childhood trauma questionnaire scores in females, while caudate reductions, which may relate to impulse dyscontrol, were seen in males. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment was associated with corticostriatal-limbic gray matter reductions in adolescents. These findings suggest that even if adolescents reporting childhood maltreatment exposure do not present with symptoms that meet full criteria for psychiatric disorders, they may have corticostriatal-limbic changes that place them at risk for behavioral difficulties. Vulnerabilities may be moderated by gender and maltreatment subtype.
Edmiston, Erin E.; Wang, Fei; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Guiney, Joanne; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.; Blumberg, Hilary P.