Background Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Methods Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90), we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females) aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. Results A total of 150 (14.2%) patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4%) had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4%) interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3%) panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7%) violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. Conclusions This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology. PMID:20388223
Storch, Eric A.; Khanna, Muniya; Merlo, Lisa J.; Loew, Benjamin A.; Franklin, Martin; Reid, Jeannette M.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Murphy, Tanya K.
This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed…
Storch, Eric A; Khanna, Muniya; Merlo, Lisa J; Loew, Benjamin A; Franklin, Martin; Reid, Jeannette M; Goodman, Wayne K; Murphy, Tanya K
This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed with primary Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and their parents. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) was administered to assess symptom severity. Thereafter, parents completed the Child Obsessive-Compulsive Impact Scale-Parent Version and Child Behavior Checklist, and youth completed the C-FOCI, Child Obsessive-Compulsive Impact Scale-Child Version, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, and Children's Depression Inventory-Short Form. A subgroup of 21 individuals was retested with the C-FOCI after completing 14 sessions of intensive cognitive-behavioral therapy. Construct validity of the C-FOCI was supported vis-à-vis evidence of treatment sensitivity, and moderate relations with clinician-rated symptom severity, the CY-BOCS Symptom Checklist, child- and parent-rated functional impairment, child-rated anxiety, and parent-rated internalizing symptoms. Discriminant validity was evidenced by weak relationships with parent-reports of externalizing symptoms. For Study 2, 191 non-clinical adolescents completed the C-FOCI to assess the feasibility of internet administration. Overall, internal consistency was acceptable for the C-FOCI Symptom Checklist and Severity Scale, and respondents were able to complete the measure with little difficulty. Taken together, the findings of Studies 1 and 2 provide initial support for the reliability and validity of the C-FOCI for the assessment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive symptoms. PMID:19326209
Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Woolley, Stephen B; Goethe, John W
This cross-sectional study assessed the association between self-reported anxiety symptoms and self-reported suicidality among a mixed diagnostic sample of psychiatric outpatients. Data were obtained from chart review of 2,778 outpatients who completed a routine diagnostic clinical interview and a standardized self-report of psychiatric symptoms on admission. Bivariate analyses indicated that those with >or= moderate anxiety symptoms were over three times as likely to report >or= moderate difficulty with suicidality. Self-reported anxiety symptoms were associated with a 2-fold increased likelihood of reporting suicidality after controlling for confounding (demographics, depressive symptoms, and diagnoses). These data are consistent with a growing literature demonstrating an association between anxiety symptoms and suicidality, and suggest that this association is not accounted for by coexisting mood symptoms or diagnoses. A single item, self-report may be a useful screening tool for symptoms that are pertinent to assessment of suicide risk. PMID:19214043
Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Selig, James P.; Trahan, Don P., Jr.
Researchers explored the factor structure of the Self-Report Family Inventory with a sample of heterosexual parents who have a son or daughter who self-identifies as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Results suggest that a two-factor solution is appropriate. Research and clinical implications are offered. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)
Dieter Wagner; Rosane Nisenbaum; Christine Heim; James F Jones; Elizabeth R Unger; William C Reeves
OBJECTIVES: Validated or standardized self-report questionnaires used in research studies and clinical evaluation of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) generally focus on the assessment of fatigue. There are relatively few published questionnaires that evaluate case defining and other accompanying symptoms in CFS. This paper introduces the self-report CDC CFS Symptom Inventory and analyzes its psychometric properties. METHODS: One hundred sixty-four subjects
Theiling, J; Petermann, F; Daseking, M
This study has examined the relationship between cognitive functions and self-reported symptoms in ADHD adults. Cognitive functions were investigated with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) in N=113 ADHD adults. The severity of self-reported symptoms was based on a screening questionnaire (ADHS-E). Results indicated only weak correlations between self-reported ADHD symptoms and WAIS-IV performance. The ADHS-E scale "Emotion & Affect" accounted for a small but significant variance on most WAIS-IV indices and turned out to be the most important variable to explain performance. The findings suggest that concurrent and discrepant information contribute to a differentiated examination on adult ADHD and that both objective performance diagnostics and self-reports complement each other within the diagnostic process. PMID:24165919
Baer, Ruth A.; Smith, Gregory T.; Allen, Kristin B.
A self-report inventory for the assessment of mindfulness skills was developed, and its psychometric characteristics and relationships with other constructs were examined. Participants included three samples of undergraduate students and a sample of outpatients with borderline personality disorder. Based on discussions of mindfulness in the…
Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan
Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:…
A John Rush; Madhukar H Trivedi; Thomas J Carmody; Hisham M Ibrahim; John C Markowitz; Gabor I Keitner; Susan G Kornstein; Bruce Arnow; Daniel N Klein; Rachel Manber; David L Dunner; Alan J Gelenberg; James H Kocsis; Charles B Nemeroff; Jan Fawcett; Michael E Thase; James M Russell; Darlene N Jody; Frances E Borian; Martin B Keller
This study evaluated and compared the performance of three self-report measures: (1) 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (IDS-SR30); (2) 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR16); and (3) Patient Global Impression-Improvement (PGI-I) in assessing clinical outcomes in depressed patients during a 12-week, acute phase, randomized, controlled trial comparing nefazodone, cognitive-behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP), and the combination in the
A. John Rush; Madhukar H Trivedi; Hicham M Ibrahim; Thomas J Carmody; Bruce Arnow; Daniel N Klein; John C Markowitz; Philip T Ninan; Susan Kornstein; Rachel Manber; Michael E Thase; James H Kocsis; Martin B Keller
BackgroundThe 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS), a new measure of depressive symptom severity derived from the 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS), is available in both self-report (QIDS-SR16) and clinician-rated (QIDS-C16) formats.
Jones, Deborah J.; O'Connell, Cara; Gound, Mary; Heller, Laurie; Forehand, Rex
In this study we examined the association of optimism and depressive symptoms with self-reported physical symptoms in 241 low-income, inner-city African American women with or without a chronic illness (HIV). Although optimism was not a unique predictor of self-reported physical symptoms over and above depressive symptoms, optimism interacted with…
G. Leonard Burns; Susan G. Keortge; Gina M. Formea; Lee G. Sternberger
The Padua Inventory (PI), a self-report measure of obsessive and compulsive symptoms, is increasingly used in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) research. Freeston, Ladouceur, Rheaume, Letarte, Gagnon and Thibodeau (1994) [Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 29–36], however, recently showed that the PI measures worry in addition to obsessions. In an attempt to solve this measurement problem, this study used a content
Mark Zimmerman; William Coryell
The Inventory to Diagnose Depression (IDD) is a 22-item self-report scale designed to diagnose major depressive disorder (MDD) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III;American Psychiatric Association, 1980) criteria. Three hundred ninety-eight relatives of psychiatric patients and normal controls completed the IDD and were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview Scale (DIS). The point prevalence of MDD was
Maccio, Elaine M.; Pangburn, Jaimee A.
Despite the frequency of postpartum depression, little is known about the experiences of lesbian birth mothers and their female partners, or comothers. In this modest yet important exploratory investigation, 20 lesbian mothers completed a survey of self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and related risk factors. Results indicate that…
Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Haslimeier, Claudia; Metzke, Christa Winkler
Using a large longitudinal representative community sample, this study identified three groups of subjects who were depressed either in pre-adolescence, late adolescence or early adulthood, and matched by age and gender to controls without depression. The 90th percentile on one or two self-reported symptom scales [i. e. the Center for…
Simons, Jeffrey S; Wills, Thomas A; Emery, Noah N; Marks, Russell M
Research on alcohol use depends heavily on the validity of self-reported drinking. The present paper presents data from 647days of self-monitoring with a transdermal alcohol sensor by 60 young adults. We utilized a biochemical measure, transdermal alcohol assessment with the WrisTAS, to examine the convergent validity of three approaches to collecting daily self-report drinking data: experience sampling, daily morning reports of the previous night, and 1-week timeline follow-back (TLFB) assessments. We tested associations between three pharmacokinetic indices (peak concentration, area under the curve (AUC), and time to reach peak concentration) derived from the transdermal alcohol signal and within- and between- person variation in alcohol dependence symptoms. The WrisTAS data corroborated 85.74% of self-reported drinking days based on the experience sampling data. The TLFB assessment and combined experience sampling and morning reports agreed on 87.27% of drinking days. Drinks per drinking day did not vary as a function of wearing or not wearing the sensor; this indicates that participants provided consistent reports of their drinking regardless of biochemical verification. In respect to self-reported alcohol dependence symptoms, the AUC of the WrisTAS alcohol signal was associated with dependence symptoms at both the within- and between- person level. Furthermore, alcohol dependence symptoms at baseline predicted drinking episodes characterized in biochemical data by both higher peak alcohol concentration and faster time to reach peak concentration. The results support the validity of self-report alcohol data, provide empirical data useful for optimal design of daily process sampling, and provide an initial demonstration of the use of transdermal alcohol assessment to characterize drinking dynamics associated with risk for alcohol dependence. PMID:26160523
Lydia A. Shrier; Sion Kim Harris; William R. Beardslee
Objective: To examine the longitudinal associations between depressive symptoms and self-reported sexually transmitted disease (STD) diagnosis among adolescents. Setting and Participants: National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data were analyzed for 7th through 12th graders who reported having sexual intercourse be- tween baseline (Wave 1) and 1-year follow-up (Wave 2) in-home interviews (N=4738 (2232 boys, 2506 girls)). The association between
Cooper, Jessica A; Gorlick, Marissa A; Denny, Taylor; Worthy, Darrell A; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd
Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work has reported that training attention away from negative stimuli reduced this bias and reduced depressive symptoms. However, the effect of attention training on subsequent learning has yet to be explored. In the present study, participants were required to learn to maximize reward during decision making. Undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision-making task (n = 20; active training). The active-training group was compared to two other groups: undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms who received placebo training (n = 22; placebo training) and a control group with low levels of depressive symptoms (n = 33; nondepressive control). The placebo-training depressive group performed worse and switched between options more than did the nondepressive controls on the reward maximization task. However, depressives that received active training performed as well as the nondepressive controls. Computational modeling indicated that the placebo-trained group learned more from negative than from positive prediction errors, leading to more frequent switching. The nondepressive control and active-training depressive groups showed similar learning from positive and negative prediction errors, leading to less-frequent switching and better performance. Our results indicate that individuals with elevated depressive symptoms are impaired at reward maximization, but that the deficit can be improved with attention training toward positive stimuli. PMID:24197612
Background The knee is the weight-bearing joint most commonly associated with sports injuries, and therefore is most at risk of developing degenerative changes, including osteoarthritis. Skyrunners can be considered to be at risk of developing symptoms of post-traumatic osteoarthritis due to downhill running. Aim The aim of this study was to analyze the health of the knee joints of a large group of these athletes via a specific self-report questionnaire. Methods This study was carried out by asking the participants of seven official Skyraces (22.4±3.1 km length; 1596±393 m elevation) to fill out a questionnaire. Information regarding age, sex, downhill elevation (m) during training and competitions over the last month, and history of previous knee injury was also collected before the participants filled out the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), which is a reliable and validated instrument designed to assess patients’ opinions about their knees and associated problems that can result in post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Athletes were divided into six age groups (from 17 to 70 years) and 12 groups based on the downhill gradient they had covered over the last month (from 1,000 to 40,000 m). Results Six hundred twenty-one questionnaires were collected from 45% of the participants in the seven races. Multivariate analysis revealed that self-reported KOOS scores were unrelated to age, sex and monthly downhill gradient. Only 74 (12%) of the participants reported previous knee injuries. Significant differences in the five subscales of the KOOS were found between skyrunners with and without previous knee injuries (P<0.01). Conclusions In the studied population, regular training for downhill running and participation in Skyraces could not be considered risk factors for subjective knee symptoms. Skyrunners with self-reported histories of knee injuries scored worse on all five subscales of the KOOS. PMID:25902316
Cisler, Josh M.; Begle, Angela M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Acierno, Ron
Significant numbers of community-residing older adults in the United States report some form of past year mistreatment; however, little is known about mental health correlates of elder abuse. The present study represents an initial investigation of whether a recent history of emotional, physical, or sexual abuse is associated with self-reported emotional symptoms (e.g., anxiety and depression) among a nationally representative sample of 5,777 older adults residing in the continental United States. Results demonstrated that each abuse type independently increased likelihood of reporting emotional symptoms; however, when other known correlates (social support, physical health, traumatic event exposure) were controlled only emotional abuse remained a significant predictor. These results indicate a need for additional study of mistreatment-related correlates of depression and anxiety, with a particular focus on the often overlooked category of emotional mistreatment. PMID:22737973
Crawford, Geoffrey B.; Khedkar, Anuprita; Flaws, Jodi A.; Sorkin, John D.; Gallicchio, Lisa
OBJECTIVE To examine the association between depressive symptoms and fast-food intake in midlife women. METHODS Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional study of 626 women aged 45–54 years conducted from 2000–2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. Presence of depressive symptoms was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression scale and defined as a score of 16 or greater. The frequency of fast-food intake was assessed using self-reported questionnaire data, and was categorized as “at least weekly”, “at least monthly, but less than weekly” and “less than monthly”. RESULTS Approximately 25% of the study sample reported depressive symptoms; 14% consumed fast-food “at least weekly,” and 27% “at least monthly, but less than weekly”. Compared to their counterparts, women with depressive symptoms had significantly greater odds of reporting higher fast-food intake (confounder-adjusted odds ratio: 1.54; 95% confidence interval: 1.06–2.25). Other covariates associated with a higher frequency of fast-food intake included black race and body mass index ?30 kg/m2. CONCLUSIONS Findings from this study indicate that the presence of depressive symptoms is positively associated with fast-food intake in midlife women. These results may have important health implications given that both depression and dietary consumption patterns are risk factors for a number of diseases. PMID:21276813
Weinberger, Mark I.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss
Objective To examine the relationship between self-reported physical functioning and depressive symptoms by testing the mediation of identity processes in linking this relationship. Methods Sixty-eight older adults (mean age= 74.4) participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed measures of physical functioning (Physical Symptoms Checklist), depressive symptoms (CESD-20) and identity processes (IES-G). Results The relationship between physical functioning and depressive symptoms was partially mediated by sensitivity of older adults to feedback from experiences, the process known as identity accommodation (Whitbourne, Sneed, & Skultety, 2002). Conclusion Not only are physical changes relevant to negative psychological outcomes in later adulthood, but it is the interpretation of these changes that seems to have particular relevance for aging individuals. Though preliminary based on cross-sectional data, the findings suggest that examining individual differences in sensitivity to aging stereotypes may help identify factors related to depressive symptoms in later adulthood. Future research is needed to disentangle these interrelated concepts. PMID:21170160
Balsamo, Michela; Giampaglia, Giuseppe; Saggino, Aristide
This paper illustrates a sequential item development process to create a new self-report instrument of depression refined with Rasch analysis from a larger pool of potential diagnostic items elicited through a consensus approach by clinical experts according to the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for major depression. A 51-item pool was administered to a sample of 529 subjects (300 healthy community-dwelling adults and 229 psychiatric outpatients). Item selection resulted in a 21-item set, named the Teate Depression Inventory, with an excellent Person Separation Index and no evidence of bias due to an item-trait interaction (? (2)=147.71; df =168; P=0.48). Additional support for the unidimensionality, local independence, appropriateness of the response format, and discrimination ability between clinical and nonclinical subjects was provided. No substantial differential item functioning by sex was observed. The Teate Depression Inventory shows considerable promise as a unidimensional tool for the screening of depression. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of this methodology will be discussed in terms of subsequent possible mathematical analyses, statistical tests, and implications for clinical investigations. PMID:24511231
Lester, Joanne; Bernhard, Linda; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy
Urogenital atrophy affects the lower urinary and genital tracts and is responsible for urinary, genital, and sexual symptoms. The accurate identification, measurement, and documentation of symptoms are limited by the absence of reliable and valid instruments. The Urogenital Atrophy Questionnaire was developed to allow self-reporting of symptoms and to provide clinicians and researchers an instrument to identify, measure, and document indicators of urogenital atrophy. A pilot study (n = 30) measured test-retest reliability (p < .05) of the instrument. Subsequently, a survey of women with (n = 168) and without breast cancer (n = 166) was conducted using the Urogenital Atrophy Questionnaire, Female Sexual Function Instrument, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, Breast, Endocrine Scale. Exploratory factor analysis (KMO 0.774; Bartlett’s test of sphericity 0.000) indicated moderate-high relatedness of items. Concurrent (p > .01) and divergent validity (p < .000) were established. A questionnaire resulted that enables women, regardless of sexual orientation, partner status, and levels of sexual activity to accurately report symptoms. PMID:21172922
Mohamed, Saleh M. H.; Börger, Norbert A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.
The present study applied the dimensional approach to test whether self-reported symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults are associated with the speed of interhemispheric interaction. A sample of first grade students (N = 112) completed Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales and letter matching reaction time tasks. In the tasks, participants had to match a single target letter displayed below the fixation cross, either on left or right visual field, with one of two letters displayed above the fixation cross, one letter on each visual field. For each task, identical letters were presented either within the same visual field (within hemisphere condition) or across visual fields (across hemisphere condition). Interhemispheric interaction was indexed as the difference in mean reaction time between within and across hemisphere conditions. Comorbid problems such as depression, anxiety, and stress may affect task performance and are controlled for in this study. Findings indicated that self-reported ADHD symptomology, especially hyperactivity, in the presence of stress was weakly but significantly associated with fast interhemispheric interaction.
Mohamed, Saleh M H; Börger, Norbert A; Geuze, Reint H; van der Meere, Jaap J
The present study applied the dimensional approach to test whether self-reported symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults are associated with the speed of interhemispheric interaction. A sample of first grade students (N = 112) completed Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales and letter matching reaction time tasks. In the tasks, participants had to match a single target letter displayed below the fixation cross, either on left or right visual field, with one of two letters displayed above the fixation cross, one letter on each visual field. For each task, identical letters were presented either within the same visual field (within hemisphere condition) or across visual fields (across hemisphere condition). Interhemispheric interaction was indexed as the difference in mean reaction time between within and across hemisphere conditions. Comorbid problems such as depression, anxiety, and stress may affect task performance and are controlled for in this study. Findings indicated that self-reported ADHD symptomology, especially hyperactivity, in the presence of stress was weakly but significantly associated with fast interhemispheric interaction. PMID:26089596
Bromberg, Maggie H.; Connelly, Mark; Anthony, Kelly K.; Gil, Karen M.; Schanberg, Laura E.
Objective To use electronic diaries (e-diaries) to determine whether pain, stiffness, and fatigue continue to be common, disabling symptoms in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) despite the use of aggressive treatments in contemporary medical management. Methods Fifty-nine children with JIA (ages 8–18 years) provided ratings of pain, stiffness, and fatigue intensity and functional limitations using a smartphone e-diary 3 times each day for 1 month. Medication information was collected via parent report and checked for accuracy by chart review. Descriptive analyses were conducted to determine typical symptom intensity, frequency, and variability. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze associations between symptoms and functional outcomes and between medication use and symptom intensity. Results Children reported moments of pain in 66% of e-diary entries. No children were entirely pain-free across the reporting period. In 31% of all e-diary entries the visual analog scale score for pain was >40 (high pain intensity), with 86% of children reporting a high level of pain at least once during the study period. The mean ratings of pain, stiffness, and fatigue intensity were in the mild-to-moderate range. Medication class was not a reliable predictor of differences in symptom intensity, even though 79% of children were prescribed a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug and 47% were prescribed a biologic agent. Moments of higher pain intensity and higher stiffness intensity were each uniquely predictive of higher concurrent functional limitations. Conclusion Self-reported pain, stiffness, and fatigue continue to be common in children with JIA, despite contemporary advances in treatment strategies, including use of biologic agents. These findings are surprisingly consistent with previous results from research using daily paper diaries in the pre-biologics era. There remains a pressing and ongoing need to optimize pain and symptom management in JIA. PMID:24504820
G. Wieslander; C. Janson; D. Norbäck; E. Björnsson; G. Stålenheim; C. Edling
The associations between occupational exposure to water-based paints and the prevalence of self-reported asthma, other lower airway symptoms, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and lung function were studied in house painters. Symptom prevalences were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire sent to 415 male painters during 1989–1992. Clinical investigations were carried out in three selected groups: 23 painters with asthmatic symptoms, nine painters
Dansie, Elizabeth; Heppner, Pia; Furberg, Helena; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra; Afari, Niloofar
Background Data from primary care and community samples suggest higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Objective This study investigated the co-occurrence of CFS, PTSD, and trauma symptoms and assessed the contribution of familial factors to the association of CFS with lifetime PTSD and current traumatic symptoms. Method Data on lifetime CFS and PTSD, as measured by self report of a doctor’s diagnosis of the disorder, and standardized questionnaire data on traumatic symptoms, using the Impact of Events Scale (IES), were obtained from 8,544 female and male twins from the community-based University of Washington Twin Registry. Results Lifetime prevalence of CFS was 2% and lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 4%. Participants who reported a history of PTSD were over 8 times more likely to report a history of CFS. Participants with scores ? 26 on the IES were over 4 times more likely to report CFS than those who had scores ? 25. These associations were attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for familial factors through within-twin pair analyses. Conclusion These results support similar findings that a lifetime diagnosis of CFS is strongly associated with both lifetime PTSD and current traumatic symptoms, although familial factors such as shared genetic and environmental contributions played a limited role in the relationship between CFS, PTSD, and traumatic symptoms. These findings suggest that future research should investigate both the familial and the unique environmental factors that may give rise to both CFS and PTSD. PMID:22296866
Swandby, Janet R.
The literature on the relationships between changes in mood and the menstrual cycle reveals many inconsistencies due to the absence of certain control procedures. Daily self-reports of moods and physical symptoms were collected from women with normal cycles, women using oral contraceptives, and men for 35 days in a camouflaged study. Retrospective…
Dias, Gabriela; Mattos, Paulo; Coutinho, Gabriel; Segenreich, Daniel; Saboya, Eloisa; Ayrao, Vanessa
Objective: To investigate agreement rates between parent and self-report on childhood symptoms of ADHD. Method: Sixty-eight self-referred treatment-naive adults (33 men, 35 women) were interviewed with a modified version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E) and asked about past ADHD…
Tate, Charmaine M; Wang, Kevin K W; Eonta, Stephanie; Zhang, Yang; Carr, Walter; Tortella, Frank C; Hayes, Ronald L; Kamimori, Gary H
"Breachers" are a unique military and law enforcement population because they are routinely exposed to low-level blast (LLB) during training and operations. This repeated exposure has been associated with symptoms similar to that of sports concussion. This study examined effects of repeated exposure to LLB during an explosive entry course. Twenty-one members of the New Zealand Defence Force volunteered for this study. Serum samples, neurocognitive performance, and self-reported symptoms were periodically measured before, during, and after a 2-week course. Serum concentrations of three biomarkers, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1, ?II-spectrin breakdown product, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, were determined with sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and rank scores were derived using the area under the curve (relative to baseline) for each subject. Neurocognitive performance was measured with a computer-based test battery, and symptoms were assessed by paper-based inventory. There was a significant relationship (p<0.05) between composite biomarker and neurocognitive performance and between neurocognitive performance and symptoms. The individuals with the five highest (Top 5) and lowest (Bottom 5) composite biomarker scores were identified and compared using Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. The Top 5 had significantly longer reaction times and lower percent correct on neurocognitive performance and an increase in symptom reporting. The difference between individuals expressing the highest biomarker load during breacher training (Top 5) and those with the lowest biomarker load (Bottom 5) is reflected in neurocognitive performance deficits and self-reported symptoms. This suggests a measureable degree of brain perturbation linked to LLB exposure. Follow-up studies are underway to expand upon these results. PMID:23687938
Sady, Maegan D.; Vaughan, Christopher G.; Gioia, Gerard A.
Psychometric characteristics of the Postconcussion Symptom Inventory (PCSI) were examined in both concussed (n = 633) and uninjured (n = 1,273) 5 to 18 year olds. Parent- and self-report forms were created with developmentally appropriate wording and content. Factor analyses identified physical, cognitive, emotional, and sleep factors; that did not load strongly or discriminate between groups were eliminated. Internal consistency was strong for the total scales (? = 0.8–0.9). Test–retest reliability for the self-report forms was moderate to strong (intraclass coeffecients, ICCs = 0.65–0.89). Parent and self-report concordance was moderate (r = .44–.65), underscoring the importance of both perspectives. Convergent validity with another symptom measure was good (r = .8). Classification analyses indicated greater discriminability from parent report, but caveats to this are presented. With strong psychometric characteristics, the four versions of the PCSI capture important postconcussion symptoms and can be utilized to track recovery from pediatric concussion and guide treatment recommendations. PMID:24739735
Armstrong, Terri S.; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert,, Mark R.; Mendoza, Tito R.
Background Understanding the severity of symptoms is an integral part of patient care. The MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Brain Tumor (MDASI-BT) was developed using a 24-hour recall period. The choice of recall period is dependent on the treatment and disease of interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the congruence and equivalency of 24-hour and 7-day symptom reporting using the MDASI-BT. Method Adult brain tumor patients completed the MDASI-BT using 24-hour and 7-day recall periods and a tablet format. Equivalence and congruence were determined using equivalency testing and Bland-Altman analysis. Reliability and known group's validity were then assessed by use of Cronbach's alpha and evaluating differences based on performance status. Results One hundred patients (mean age, 48 y; range 19 y–77 y), who were primarily white (86%) males (62%) with a variety of brain tumors, most commonly glioblastoma (69%), participated. KPS scores ranged from 50%–100%, with 28% of participants scoring 80% or lower. Overall severity reporting using the 7-day recall was congruent and equivalent with the 24-hour rating, with difference scores of one point or less on the overall instrument and individual symptoms. The 7-day recall period instrument demonstrated psychometric properties similar to the established 24-hour recall instrument. Conclusion This study supports the use of the 7-day recall period in addition to the 24-hour recall period for symptom reports of patients with primary brain tumors. Future studies should continue to explore the reliability and validity of this recall period and its utility in other central nervous system tumor populations.
Choi, JiYeon; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Schulz, Richard; Tate, Judith A.; Donahoe, Michael P.; Ren, Dianxu; Given, Barbara A.; Sherwood, Paula R.
Context Survivors of critical illness must overcome persistent physical and psychological challenges. Few studies have longitudinally examined self-reported physical symptoms in ICU survivors. Objectives To describe prevalence and severity of self-reported symptoms in 28 adult medical ICU survivors during the first 4 months post-ICU discharge and their associations with family caregiver responses. Methods Patients completed the Modified Given Symptom Assessment Scale. Caregivers completed Shortened 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Brief Zarit Burden Score, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Caregiver Health Behavior. Data at ICU discharge (? 2 weeks), and 2 and 4 months post-ICU discharge were analyzed. Results Across the time points, the majority of patients reported one or more symptoms (88.5 – 97%), with sleep disturbance, fatigue, weakness and pain the most prevalent. For these four highest prevalent symptoms, there were: 1) moderate correlations among symptom severity at 2 and 4 months post-ICU discharge; 2) no difference in prevalence or severity by patients’ disposition (home vs. institution), except worse fatigue in patients at home ? 2 weeks post-ICU discharge. Patients’ overall symptom burden showed significant correlation with caregivers’ depressive symptoms ? 2 weeks post-ICU discharge. There were trends of moderate correlations between patients’ overall symptom burden and caregivers’ health risk behaviors and sleep quality at 2 and 4 months post-ICU discharge. Conclusion In our sample, sleep disturbance, fatigue, weakness, and pain were the four key symptoms during first 4 months post-ICU discharge. Future studies focusing on these four symptoms are necessary to promote quality in post-ICU symptom management. PMID:23856099
Bellis van den Berg; C Joris Yzermans; Peter G van der Velden; Rebecca K Stellato; Erik Lebret; Linda Grievink
BACKGROUND: Most studies examining medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) have been performed in primary or secondary care and have examined symptoms for which patients sought medical attention. Disasters are often described as precipitating factors for MUS. However, health consequences of disasters are typically measured by means of questionnaires, and it is not known whether these self-reported physical symptoms are presented to
Ettenhofer, Mark L; Abeles, Norman
The aim of this study was to evaluate neurocognition and self-reported symptoms in long-term recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mild TBI). Participants' time since injury ranged from 3 to 72 (M = 36.75) months. Relative to orthopedic injury controls (n = 63), mild TBI participants (n = 63) did not demonstrate cognitive impairment in any domains examined, or differences in self-report of postconcussive or psychiatric symptoms. However, postconcussive and psychiatric symptoms were strongly related (r = .50, p < .05). Results provide additional evidence that neurological injury in single-incident mild TBI is of little clinical significance to long-term cognitive and symptom outcome. PMID:18618356
M. J. Lusted; C. L. Carrasco; J. A. Mandryk; S. Healey
This paper describes a cross-sectional study which examines musculoskeletal symptoms in nurses working in two similar units in a residential care centre for the developmentally disabled. Amongst the 30 nurses who were administered the Nordic Questionnaire, neck and upper limb symptoms had resulted in considerable inability to perform work. In contrast, a similar incidence of reported back symptoms in these
Gust, Karyn L.
The components of the Children's Self-Report and Projective Inventory (CSRPI) that are used to assess the social/emotional functioning of gifted and talented students ages 5-12 are discussed. A case study is presented that describes the use of the CSRPI to gain insight into the feelings of a gifted child. (CR)
Georgsson, Anna; Almqvist, Kjerstin; Broberg, Anders G.
Children with experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) are at risk. Not all children, however, display symptoms, and differences connected to gender and age have been demonstrated. In this exploratory study, children's own reports of symptoms were used. The 41 recruited children, between 7 and 19 years old, were entered into a group program…
Norvilitis, Jill M.; Ingersoll, Travis; Zhang, Jie; Jia, Shuhua
Objective: The present study examined ADHD symptoms among college students in China and the United States. Method: A total of 283 (45%) American and 343 (55%) Chinese students completed the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and the Current Symptoms Scale (CSS), in addition to other measures. Results: Both of the ADHD measures appear to be reliable…
Background Semi-structured interview scales for psychosis are the gold standard approach to assessing psychotic and other symptoms. However, such assessments have limitations such as recall bias, averaging, insensitivity to change and variable interrater reliability. Ambulant, real-time self-report assessment devices may hold advantages over interview measures, but it needs to be shown that the data thus collected are valid, and the collection method is acceptable, feasible and safe. We report on a monitoring system for the assessment of psychosis using smartphone technology. The primary aims were to: i) assess validity through correlations of item responses with those on widely accepted interview assessments of psychosis, and ii) examine compliance to the procedure in individuals with psychosis of varying severity. Methods A total of 44 participants (acute or remitted DSM-4 schizophrenia and related disorders, and prodromal) completed 14 branching self-report items concerning key psychotic symptoms on a touch-screen mobile phone when prompted by an alarm at six pseudo-random times, each day, for one week. Face to face PANSS and CDS interviews were conducted before and after the assessment period blind to the ambulant data. Results Compliance as defined by completion of at least 33% of all possible data-points over seven days was 82%. In the 36 compliant participants, 5 items (delusions, hallucinations, suspiciousness, anxiety, hopelessness) showed moderate to strong (rho 0.6-0.8) associations with corresponding items from interview rating scales. Four items showed no significant correlation with rating scales: each was an item based on observable behaviour. Ambulant ratings showed excellent test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change. Conclusions Ambulatory monitoring of symptoms several times daily using smartphone software applications represents a feasible and valid way of assessing psychotic phenomena for research and clinical management purposes. Further evaluation required over longer assessment periods, in clinical trials and service settings. PMID:23075387
Mbekou, Valentin; MacNeil, Sasha; Gignac, Martin; Renaud, Johanne
Objective: A multi-informant approach is often used in child psychiatry. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment uses this approach, gathering parent reports on the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and youth reports on the Youth Self-Report (YSR), which contain scales assessing both the child’s problems and competencies. Agreement between parent and youth perceptions of their competencies on these forms has not been studied to date. Method: Our study examined the parent–youth agreement of competencies on the CBCL and YSR from a sample of 258 parent–youth dyads referred to a specialized outpatient clinic for depressive and suicidal disorders. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for all competency scales (activity, social, and academic), with further examinations based on youth’s sex, age, and type of problem. Results: Weak-to-moderate parent–youth agreements were reported on the activities and social subscales. For the activities subscale, boys’ ratings had a strong correlation with parents’ ratings, while it was weak for girls. Also, agreement on activities and social subscales was stronger for dyads with the youth presenting externalizing instead of internalizing problems. Conclusion: Agreement on competencies between parents and adolescents varied based on competency and adolescent sex, age, and type of problem. PMID:25886673
Seltzer, Marsha Mailick
Scores on the autism spectrum quotient (AQ) were examined in 65 adults with ASD. Maternal reports of symptoms were collected simultaneously using the autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R) and the Vineland Screener. A slightly revised AQ administration procedure was used to accommodate adults with below average IQ. AQ scores were lower than in the original validation study, with only 11 adults (17%) scoring above the proposed diagnostic cut-off and 24 (27%) exceeding the screening cut-off. Adults with higher IQs endorsed more symptoms than those with below average intelligence, but even when analyses were restricted to the 39 adults with at least average IQ, only 44% met the screening cut-off. AQ scores were not significantly correlated with ADI-R or Vineland scores. PMID:22361924
Jonathan M. Sutton; Susan Mineka; Richard E. Zinbarg; Michelle G. Craske; James W. Griffith; Raphael D. Rose; Allison M. Waters; Maria Nazarian; Nilly Mor
Many studies have reported concurrent relationships between depressive symptoms and various personality, cognitive, and personality-cognitive\\u000a vulnerabilities, but the degree of overlap among these vulnerabilities is unclear. Moreover, whereas most investigations of\\u000a these vulnerabilities have focused on depression, their possible relationships with anxiety have not been adequately examined.\\u000a The present study included 550 high school juniors and examined the cross-sectional relationships
Muris, Peter; van der Pennen, Els; Sigmond, Rianne; Mayer, Birgit
This study investigated the relation between the regulative trait of effortful control, and in particular attention control, and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of 207 non-clinical children aged 8-12 years. For this purpose, children completed self-report scales for measuring regulative traits and various types of psychopathological…
Ozsivadjian, Ann; Hibberd, Charlotte; Hollocks, Matthew J.
The aims of this study were two-fold; firstly, to investigate whether self-report measures are useful and reflect parent-reported psychiatric symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and secondly, to investigate whether children with ASD are able to access and report their cognitions, a prerequisite skill for cognitive behavior…
Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Bond, T Christopher; Claxton, Ami; Sood, Vipan C; Kootsikas, Maria; Agnese, Wendy; Sibbel, Scott
One of the most common conditions affecting end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) is pruritus. Studies report that itchy and dry skin, symptoms of pruritus, affect 40%-90% of ESRD patients. Yet, in clinical practice the condition is often underdiagnosed resulting in inadequate management and an underappreciated impact on patient outcomes. Two retrospective analyses were conducted: a preliminary analysis of ESRD patients with pruritus symptoms (n=73,124) undergoing HD or peritoneal dialysis at a large dialysis provider and a subsequent detailed analysis of a homogenous subset of patients undergoing in-center HD (n=38,315). The goal was to better understand the clinical burden of pruritus as it relates to patient characteristics, quality of life, medication use, and HD compliance. This population is commonly burdened by multiple comorbidities and related polypharmaceutical management; identifying the relationship of pruritus to these ailments can help guide future research and resource allocation. The detailed analysis confirmed trends observed in the preliminary analysis: 30% reported being "moderately" to "extremely bothered" by itchiness. The HD patient population with the highest severity of self-reported pruritus also had a consistent trend in overall increased resource utilization - higher monthly doses of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (53,397.1 to 63,405.4 units) and intravenous (IV) iron (237.2 to 247.6 units) and higher use of IV antibiotics (14.1% to 20.7%), as well as poorer quality-of-life measures (25-point reductions in Burden of Disease Score and Effects on Daily Life subscales of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-36 survey). These results highlight the need to better identify and manage ESRD patients impacted by pruritus, as this symptom is associated with negative clinical outcomes and increased resource utilization. Further studies are needed to evaluate the current economic burden of pruritus in ESRD patients and create possible options for an improved pharmacoeconomic profile in this patient population. PMID:24379689
Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Bond, T Christopher; Claxton, Ami; Sood, Vipan C; Kootsikas, Maria; Agnese, Wendy; Sibbel, Scott
One of the most common conditions affecting end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) is pruritus. Studies report that itchy and dry skin, symptoms of pruritus, affect 40%–90% of ESRD patients. Yet, in clinical practice the condition is often underdiagnosed resulting in inadequate management and an underappreciated impact on patient outcomes. Two retrospective analyses were conducted: a preliminary analysis of ESRD patients with pruritus symptoms (n=73,124) undergoing HD or peritoneal dialysis at a large dialysis provider and a subsequent detailed analysis of a homogenous subset of patients undergoing in-center HD (n=38,315). The goal was to better understand the clinical burden of pruritus as it relates to patient characteristics, quality of life, medication use, and HD compliance. This population is commonly burdened by multiple comorbidities and related polypharmaceutical management; identifying the relationship of pruritus to these ailments can help guide future research and resource allocation. The detailed analysis confirmed trends observed in the preliminary analysis: 30% reported being “moderately” to “extremely bothered” by itchiness. The HD patient population with the highest severity of self-reported pruritus also had a consistent trend in overall increased resource utilization – higher monthly doses of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (53,397.1 to 63,405.4 units) and intravenous (IV) iron (237.2 to 247.6 units) and higher use of IV antibiotics (14.1% to 20.7%), as well as poorer quality-of-life measures (25-point reductions in Burden of Disease Score and Effects on Daily Life subscales of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-36 survey). These results highlight the need to better identify and manage ESRD patients impacted by pruritus, as this symptom is associated with negative clinical outcomes and increased resource utilization. Further studies are needed to evaluate the current economic burden of pruritus in ESRD patients and create possible options for an improved pharmacoeconomic profile in this patient population. PMID:24379689
Bates, Michael N; Garrett, Nick; Crane, Julian; Balmes, John
Background Whether long-term, low-level hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas is a cause of health effects, including asthma, is uncertain. Rotorua city, New Zealand, has the largest population exposed, from geothermal sources, to relatively high ambient levels of H2S. In a cross-sectional study, the authors investigated associations with asthma in this population. Methods A total of 1,637 adults, aged 18-65 years, were enrolled during 2008-2010. Residences and workplaces were geocoded. H2S exposures at homes and workplaces were estimated using city-wide networks of passive H2S samplers and kriging to create exposure surfaces. Exposure metrics were based on (1) time-weighted exposures at home and work; and (2) the maximum exposure (home or work). Exposure estimates were entered as quartiles into log-binomial regression models, with covariate data. Results Neither exposure metric showed evidence of increased asthma risk from H2S. However, some suggestion of exposure-related reduced risks for diagnosed asthma and asthma symptoms, particularly wheezing during the last 12 months, emerged. With the maximum exposure metric, the prevalence ratio for wheeze in the highest exposure quartile was 0.80 (0.65, 0.99) and, for current asthma treatment, 0.75 (0.52, 1.08). There was no evidence that this was caused by a “survivor effect”. Conclusions The study provided no evidence that asthma risk increases with H2S exposure. Suggestions of a reduced risk in the higher exposure areas are consistent with recent evidence that H2S has signaling functions in the body, including induction of smooth muscle relaxation and reduction of inflammation. Study limitations, including possible confounding, preclude definitive conclusions. PMID:23453847
Ólafsson, Ragnar P; Smári, Jakob; Guðmundsdóttir, Fríður; Olafsdóttir, Gunnhildur; Harðardóttir, Hrafnhildur L; Einarsson, Svavar M
The Attentional Control Scale (ACS) is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed to measure individual differences in attentional control. Despite its fairly widespread use, little is known about the psychometric properties of the scale in adult samples. In the present study, factor structure of the ACS and its relationship with symptoms of anxiety and depression was investigated in a total sample of 728 Icelandic university students. Exploratory factor analysis in sample 1 (n=361), yielded two factors, labeled focusing and shifting. Confirmatory factor analysis in sample 2 (n=367) showed a reasonable fit of this two factor model. The two factors correlated strongly (0.73). The two subscales showed different predictive validity in a set of hierarchical regression analyses where the focusing subscale made a significant prediction of anxiety scores when depression scores were controlled for, and the shifting subscale significant prediction of depression scores when anxiety scores were controlled for. These findings are discussed in relation to previous studies on attentional and executive control in anxiety and depression. PMID:21531115
Montnemery, Peter; Nihlén, Ulf; Göran Löfdahl, Claes; Nyberg, Per; Svensson, Åke
Background Potential links between eczema and obstructive pulmonary diseases have been postulated. Previously we have reported the prevalence of upper and lower respiratory diseases and the relation to environmental and socio-economic factors in a randomly selected adult population in southern Sweden using a postal questionnaire. In the present study we wanted to analyse the prevalence of eczema and its relation to socio-economic status, heredity factors and environmental factors in an adult population. Methods Self-reported eczema, upper and lower respiratory symptoms, asthma and Chronic Bronchitis Emphysema (CBE) were examined in 12,071 adults, aged 20–59 years, living in southern Sweden by using a postal questionnaire. There were comparable numbers of males and females in all age groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis (forward conditional) was applied to estimate the association between the proposed risk factors (heredity, self-reported asthma and CBE, nasal symptoms, socio-economic group, environmental factors, age, gender and smoking habits) and self-reported eczema. Results The response rate was 70.1%. In all, 1240 subjects (14.6%) stated that they had eczema. In all age cohorts self-reported eczema was more frequently reported by women than by men (p < 0.05). The prevalence of self-reported eczema among the economically active population varied from 17.1% to 8.2% with the highest rates among assistant non-manual employees. However, when controlling for age, gender and risk occupation there was no association between low social position and eczema. Living close to heavy traffic (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.25–1.67) and living seaside (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.01–1.35) but not urban/suburban living was associated with eczema. Heredity of eczema (OR = 5.77, 95% CI 5.02–6.64), self reported allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.31, 95% CI 2.00–2.68), self reported asthma (OR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.56–2.51) and self reported CBE (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08–1.87) were all associated with eczema. Conclusions In this epidemiological study we see that self-reported eczema is a common disease in an adult population especially among women. Eczema seems to be linked to environment factors, obstructive pulmonary diseases and rhinitis. PMID:12859793
Fiedler, N; Kelly-McNeil, K; Mohr, S; Lehrer, P; Opiekun, R E; Lee, C; Wainman, T; Hamer, R; Weisel, C; Edelberg, R; Lioy, P J
The 1990 Clean Air Act mandated oxygenation of gasoline in regions where carbon monoxide standards were not met. To achieve this standard, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was increased to 15% by volume during winter months in many locations. Subsequent to the increase of MTBE in gasoline, commuters reported increases in symptoms such as headache, nausea, and eye, nose, and throat irritation. The present study compared 12 individuals selected based on self-report of symptoms (self-reported sensitives; SRSs) associated with MTBE to 19 controls without self-reported sensitivities. In a double-blind, repeated measures, controlled exposure, subjects were exposed for 15 min to clean air, gasoline, gasoline with 11% MTBE, and gasoline with 15% MTBE. Symptoms, odor ratings, neurobehavioral performance on a task of driving simulation, and psychophysiologic responses (heart and respiration rate, end-tidal CO(2), finger pulse volume, electromyograph, finger temperature) were measured before, during, and immediately after exposure. Relative to controls, SRSs reported significantly more total symptoms when exposed to gasoline with 15% MTBE than when exposed to gasoline with 11% MTBE or to clean air. However, these differences in symptoms were not accompanied by significant differences in neurobehavioral performance or psychophysiologic responses. No significant differences in symptoms or neurobehavioral or psychophysiologic responses were observed when exposure to gasoline with 11% MTBE was compared to clean air or to gasoline. Thus, the present study, although showing increased total symptoms among SRSs when exposed to gasoline with 15% MTBE, did not support a dose-response relationship for MTBE exposure nor the symptom specificity associated with MTBE in epidemiologic studies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10964796
Niranjan Saggurti; Stephen L. Schensul; Ravi K. Verma
This paper describes the interrelationship among men's self-reports of symptoms, unsafe sexual behavior, and biologically tested sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Data are drawn from the baseline survey of six-year (2001–2007) research and intervention project on men's sexual health and HIV\\/STI risk reduction conducted in three urban poor communities in Mumbai, India. The survey collected a wide range of demographic, attitudinal,
Jacob A. Bentley; John W. Thoburn; David G. Stewart; Lorin D. Boynton
The current study examined the potentially moderating influence of post-migration living difficulties on the relationship between pre-migration traumatic exposure and self-reported symptomatology in a sample of 74 adult Somali refugees residing in the United States. Results suggest that post-migration psychosocial stressors exacerbate depressive symptoms (?R = .068, p = .017) for those exposed to low levels of trauma relative to other posttraumatic psychological
Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Brustad, Magritt; Johnsen, Knut
Objective The main purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among Sami and non-Sami adults. Study design A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study). Data were collected by self-administrated questionnaires. Method SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions conducted in 24 municipalities in Northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 15,546 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.4%), Kven (7.3%) and Norwegian majority population (57.2%). Results Sami respondents had a higher prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk than the Norwegian majority population. The reporting was highest among Sami females (27.1%). Consumption of milk and dairy products (yoghurt and cheese) was high among all the ethnic groups. However, significantly more Sami than non-Sami never (or rarely) consume milk or cheese, and individuals who reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk had an significant lower intake of dairy products than those not reporting stomach symptoms after consuming dairy products. Sami reported general abdominal pain more often than the majority population. The adjusted models show a significant effect of Sami ethnicity in both men and women on self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk. In females, the odds ratio (OR)=1.77 (p=0.001) and in males OR=1.64 (p=0.001). Conclusion Our study shows that the Sami population reported more stomach symptoms after consuming milk, suggesting a higher prevalence of milk intolerance among the Sami population than the Norwegian majority population. PMID:25694052
Chungyoon Chun; Kichul Sung; Eunjung Kim; Junseok Park
The relationship between high chemical compound exposure and human health has been an important worldwide issue. High exposure to chemical compounds can make harmful health effect. One of the mostly risky groups to this high exposure to chemical compounds is the construction worker. In this study, their exposure level and self-reported Multiple Chemical Sensitivity were investigated. In the first part
Calamari, John E.; Woodard, John L.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Molino, Alma; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Socha, Jami; Longley, Susan L.
The lack of Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom measures validated for use with older adults has hindered research and treatment development for the age group. We evaluated the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R; Foa et al., 2002) with participants aged 65 and older (N = 180) to determine if the measure was an effective tool for evaluating obsessional symptoms. Participants completed the OCI-R and a comprehensive assessment battery up to four times over approximately 18 months. Results supported the well-replicated latent structure of the OCI-R (i.e., Washing, Checking, Ordering, Obsessing, Hoarding, and Neutralizing.). OCI-R total score was robustly associated with OCD symptoms assessed 18 months later by clinical interview, while scores on self-report measures of worry, general anxiety, and depression were not. Results indicate the OCI-R is an effective OCD symptom measure for older adults, although replication with additional older adult samples is needed. PMID:24949284
Peter Ventevogel; Gieljan De Vries; Willem F. Scholte; Nasratullah Rasa Shinwari; Hafizullah Faiz; Ruhullah Nassery; Wim van den Brink; Miranda Olff
Background Recent epidemiological studies in Afghanistan using mental health questionnaires yielded high prevalence rates for anxiety\\u000a and depression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives To explore the validity in the Afghan cultural context of two mental health questionnaires, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25\\u000a (HSCL-25) and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The two mental health questionnaires were compared against a ‘gold standard’ semi-structured psychiatric interview, the Psychiatric\\u000a Assessment Schedule (PAS).
Niessen, Maurice A. J.; Dingemans, Peter M. A. J.; van de Fliert, Reinaud; Becker, Hiske E.; Nieman, Dorien H.; Linszen, Don
Providers of mental health services need tools to screen for acute psychosis and ultrahigh risk (UHR) for transition to psychosis in help-seeking individuals. In this study, the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI) was examined as a screening tool and for its ability to correctly predict diagnostic group membership (e.g., help seeking, mild…
Kim, Bokyeong; Jung, Ara; Yun, Dongmin; Lee, Mira; Lee, Mee-Ri; Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Kim, Yongbae; Park, Choonghee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Sungroul
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the association between presence of depression symptoms and the exposure level to insecticides among aged population in rural area, determined via measured levels of urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), after controlling for socioeconomic confounding factors. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we randomly recruited participants for our study (161 male and 239 female) from rural areas of Asan, Chungnam, Korea. Environmental risk factor exposure was assessed using a questionnaire, and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry was used to analyze urinary 3-PBA levels. We used a logistic regression analysis to assess the association of urinary 3-PBA levels with the presence of self-reported depression symptoms. Results: After controlling for creatinine levels, the median (interquartile range) concentration of 3-PBA was approximately 1.5 times (p<0.05) higher among female (1.54 [0.90 to 2.35]) ?g/g) than among male (1.06 [0.64 to 1.81] ?g/g). Our study found that among female participants, the unit increase in 3-PBA levels exhibited a likely positive association (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.25) with an increased risk of presence of self-reported depression symptoms, after adjusting for socioeconomic insurance type, daily physical condition, marital status, smoking status, and age. Conclusions: Given our finding of a potential association between the presence of selfreported depression symptoms and 3-PBA levels, precautions should be considered to minimize exposure to insecticides and thus protect the health of aged residents in rural areas. PMID:25997450
Ness, Bryan M; Middleton, Michael J; Hildebrandt, Michael J
Abstract Objectives: To examine the relationships between self-reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, perceived positive relations with others, self-regulation strategy use, and academic motivation among student service members/veterans (SSM/V) enrolled in post-secondary education. Participants: SSM/V (N = 214), defined as veterans, active duty, or National Guard/Reservists of the U.S. military, enrolled at five different institutions in fall 2012. Methods: Data were collected using an online questionnaire that included standardized measures of PTSD symptoms, perceived quality of personal relations, academic self-regulation strategy use and motivation. Results: PTSD symptoms were associated with lower self-efficacy for learning and maladaptive academic goal orientation. Additionally, PTSD symptoms were associated with lower effort regulation (i.e., persistence) during academic work. Endorsement of more positive relations moderated the deleterious relationship between PTSD symptoms and maladaptive goal orientation. Conclusion: The results suggest post-secondary personnel adopt a social-cognitive framework to develop social, mental health and academic supports for SSM/V with PTSD. PMID:25337851
Shah, Neha S; Kim, Evelyn; de Maria Hernández Ayala, Flor; Guardado Escobar, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Kim, Andrea A; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela
Resource-limited countries have limited laboratory capability and rely on syndromic management to diagnose sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We aimed to estimate the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of STI syndromic management when used as a screening method within a study setting. Men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSWs) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) participated in a behavioural surveillance study. Data were obtained on demographics, sexual behaviours, STI history and service utilisation. Biological specimens were tested for genital inflammatory infections (Neisseria gonorrhoeae [GC], Chlamydia trachomatis [CT], Mycoplasma genitalium [MG], Trichomonas vaginalis [TV]) and genital ulcerative infection (syphilis and Herpes simplex virus-2). There was a high prevalence of Herpes simplex virus-2 (MSM 48.1%, FSW 82.0% and PLWHA 84.4%). Most participants reported no ulcerative symptoms and the majority of men reported no inflammatory symptoms. Sensitivity and PPV were poor for inflammatory infections among PLWHA and MSM. Sensitivity in FSWs for inflammatory infections was 75%. For ulcerative infections, sensitivity was poor, but specificity and PPV were high. Reliance on self-reported symptoms may not be an effective screening strategy for these populations. STI prevention studies should focus on symptom recognition and consider routine screening and referral for high-risk populations. PMID:24616119
Clark, David A.; Antony, Martin M.; Beck, Aaron T.; Swinson, Richard P.; Steer, Robert A.
The 25-item Clark-Beck Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (CBOCI) was developed to assess the frequency and severity of obsessive and compulsive symptoms. The measure uses a graded-response format to assess core symptom features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American…
Gadow, Kenneth D.; Sprafkin, Joyce; Salisbury, Helen; Schneider, Jayne; Loney, Jan
The reliability and validity of the teacher version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) was examined in 248 boys referred for evaluation of behavioral and emotional problems. The CSI-4 is a behavior rating scale whose items correspond to the symptoms of DSM?IV-defined disorders. The results indicated satisfactory internal consistency…
Harris, Paul B; Houston, John M; Vazquez, Jose A; Smither, Janan A; Harms, Amanda; Dahlke, Jeffrey A; Sachau, Daniel A
Surveys of 1217 undergraduate students supported the reliability (inter-item and test-retest) and validity of the Prosocial and Aggressive Driving Inventory (PADI). Principal component analyses on the PADI items yielded two scales: Prosocial Driving (17 items) and Aggressive Driving (12 items). Prosocial Driving was associated with fewer reported traffic accidents and violations, with participants who were older and female, and with lower Boredom Susceptibility and Hostility scores, and higher scores on Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness, and Neuroticism. Aggressive Driving was associated with more frequent traffic violations, with female participants, and with higher scores on Competitiveness, Sensation Seeking, Hostility, and Extraversion, and lower scores on Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. The theoretical and practical implications of the PADI's dual focus on safe and unsafe driving are discussed. PMID:25000297
Haley, Charlotte L.; Rush, A. John; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Luther, James F.; Kornstein, Susan G.
Abstract Objective To determine the incidence, clinical and demographic correlates, and relationship to treatment outcome of self-reported premenstrual exacerbation of depressive symptoms in premenopausal women with major depressive disorder who are receiving antidepressant medication. Method This post-hoc analysis used clinical trial data from treatment-seeking, premenopausal, adult female outpatients with major depression who were not using hormonal contraceptives. For this report, citalopram was used as the first treatment step. We also used data from the second step in which one of three new medications were used (bupropion-SR [sustained release], venlafaxine-XR [extended release], or sertraline). Treatment-blinded assessors obtained baseline treatment outcomes data. We hypothesized that those with reported premenstrual depressive symptom exacerbation would have more general medical conditions, longer index depressive episodes, lower response or remission rates, and shorter times-to-relapse with citalopram, and that they would have a better outcome with sertraline than with bupropion-SR. Results At baseline, 66% (n=545/821) of women reported premenstrual exacerbation. They had more general medical conditions, more anxious features, longer index episodes, and shorter times-to-relapse (41.3 to 47.1 weeks, respectively). Response and remission rates to citalopram, however, were unrelated to reported premenstrual exacerbation. Reported premenstrual exacerbation was also unrelated to differential benefit with sertraline and bupropion-SR. Conclusions Self-reported premenstrual exacerbation has moderate clinical utility in the management of depressed patients, although it is not predictive of overall treatment response. Factors that contribute to a more chronic or relapsing course may also play a role in premenstrual worsening of major depressive disorder (MDD). PMID:23480315
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
musculoskeletal disorders three year later? Alexis Descatha (1,2), Yves Roquelaure (3), Bradley Evanoff (4), Jean: musculoskeletal diseases, upper extremity, questionnaire, outcomes. Total word count: 1659 words (including-reported symptoms of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSD). Our objective was to study the three
A Torén; K Öberg; B Lembke; K Enlund; A Rask-Andersen
Tractor driving might be one causal risk factor in the incidence of low-back and hip symptoms among farmers. Information on the annual exposure to tractor driving and its distribution among different work operations is scarce. The purpose of this study was to quantify the total and the annual time driving tractors among Swedish farmers and its distribution into different work
Christine L. M. Joseph; Alan P. Baptist; Sonja Stringer; Suzanne Havstad; Dennis R. Ownby; Christine Cole Johnson; L. Keoki Williams; Edward L. Peterson
Strategies for identifying urban youth with asthma have not been described for high school settings. African-American high\\u000a school students are rarely included in asthma studies, despite a high risk of asthma mortality when compared to other age\\u000a and race groups. Identification and follow-up of children with uncontrolled respiratory symptoms are necessary to reduce the\\u000a burden of asthma morbidity and mortality,
M B Gaetz; G L Iverson
Background:After a concussion, when symptoms have decreased substantially at rest, it is recommended that athletes begin light aerobic exercise before progressing to sport specific exercise. The British Columbia Concussion Rehabilitation Programme (BC-CRP) uses a standardized cognitive and exercise test protocol designed to indicate when an athlete should progress to sport-specific exercise after a concussion.Objective:To document the effects of exercise on
Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming; Jørs, Erik; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Dalsgaard, Anders
Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02–1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22–0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes. PMID:21234245
Cuba?a, Wies?aw Jerzy; Landowski, Jerzy; Springer, Janusz
A number of preclinical and clinical studies are focused on mechanisms of SSRI discontinuation syndrome as well as the patient populations and agents that are most affected by this phenomenon. Characteristics of onset, duration, and severity of any discontinuation symptoms and spontaneous reports of taper/poststudy-emergent adverse events should be compared with those of the active comparator in these studies. Besides, common clinical practice supplies a number of problems associated with SSRI discontinuation syndrome as related to treatment planning and management. The recommended instrument for evaluating SSRI discontinuation syndrome symptoms is the Discontinuation-Emergent Signs and Symptoms (DESS) inventory. DESS is a 43-item checklist that can be administered in a clinician-rated form, a self-rated form, or an interactive voice-response form. The paper presents the Polish version of DESS inventory along with its application and interpretation instructions. DESS inventory is of substantial advance in common psychiatric practice as it enables effective SSRI discontinuation management on drug tapering and in case of the non-compliance with the treatment. Its use in the systematic studies facilitates conclusive outcome results and is of prime importance as being comparable with literature outcomes. PMID:24946477
Lampe, Fiona; Molloy, Tim; Sherr, Lorraine
Background Although the Internet is commonly used to recruit samples in studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors, it has not been used to measure patient-reported well-being. As the burden of long-term chronic HIV infection rises, the Internet may offer enormous potential for recruitment to research and interventions. Objective This study aimed to compare two samples of gay men living with HIV, one recruited via the Web and the other recruited in outpatient settings, in terms of self-reported physical and psychological symptom burden. Methods The Internet sample was recruited from a UK-wide Web-based survey of gay men with diagnosed HIV. Of these, 154 respondents identified themselves as resident in London and were included in this analysis. The HIV clinic sample was recruited from five HIV outpatient clinics. Of these participants, 400 gay men recruited in London clinics were included in this analysis. Results The Web-based sample was younger than the clinic sample (37.3 years, SD 7.0 vs 40.9 years, SD 8.3), more likely to be in paid employment (72.8%, 99/136 vs 60.1%, 227/378), less likely to be on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (58.4%, 90/154 vs 68.0%, 266/391), and had worse mean psychological symptom burden compared to the clinic sample (mean scores: 1.61, SD 1.09 vs 1.36, SD 0.96) but similar physical symptom burden (mean scores: 0.78, SD 0.65 vs 0.70, SD 0.74). In multivariable logistic regression, for the physical symptom burden model, adjusted for age, ethnicity, employment status, and ART use, the recruitment setting (ie, Web-based vs clinic) was not significantly associated with high physical symptom score. The only variable that remained significantly associated with high physical symptom score was employment status, with those in employment being less likely to report being in the upper (worst) physical symptom tertile versus the other two tertiles (adjusted OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.28-0.62, P<.001). For the psychological symptom burden model, those recruited via the Web were significantly more likely to report being in the upper (worst) tertile (adjusted OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.41-3.44, P=.001). In addition, those in employment were less likely to report being in the upper (worst) psychological symptom tertile compared to those not in employment (adjusted OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.21-0.49, P<.001). Conclusions Our data have revealed a number of differences. Compared to the clinic sample, the Web-based sample had worse psychological symptom burden, younger average age, higher prevalence of employment, and a lower proportion on ART. For future research, we recommend that Web-based data collection should include the demographic variables that we note differed between samples. In addition, we recognize that each recruitment method may bring inherent sampling bias, with clinic populations differing by geographical location and reflecting those accessing regular medical care, and Web-based sampling recruiting those with greater Internet access and identifying survey materials through specific searches and contact with specific websites. PMID:25793749
The use of immersive virtual reality (VR) to predict the occurrence 6 months later of paranoid thinking and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed by self-report and interviewer methods: a study of individuals who have been physically assaulted.
Freeman, Daniel; Antley, Angus; Ehlers, Anke; Dunn, Graham; Thompson, Claire; Vorontsova, Natasha; Garety, Philippa; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Glucksman, Edward; Slater, Mel
Presentation of social situations via immersive virtual reality (VR) has the potential to be an ecologically valid way of assessing psychiatric symptoms. In this study we assess the occurrence of paranoid thinking and of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to a single neutral VR social environment as predictors of later psychiatric symptoms assessed by standard methods. One hundred six people entered an immersive VR social environment (a train ride), presented via a head-mounted display, 4 weeks after having attended hospital because of a physical assault. Paranoid thinking about the neutral computer-generated characters and the occurrence of PTSD symptoms in VR were assessed. Reactions in VR were then used to predict the occurrence 6 months later of symptoms of paranoia and PTSD, as assessed by standard interviewer and self-report methods. Responses to VR predicted the severity of paranoia and PTSD symptoms as assessed by standard measures 6 months later. The VR assessments also added predictive value to the baseline interviewer methods, especially for paranoia. Brief exposure to environments presented via virtual reality provides a symptom assessment with predictive ability over many months. VR assessment may be of particular benefit for difficult to assess problems, such as paranoia, that have no gold standard assessment method. In the future, VR environments may be used in the clinic to complement standard self-report and clinical interview methods. PMID:24708073
Correlations among two self-report questionnaires for measuring DSM-defined anxiety disorder symptoms in children: the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders and the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale
Peter Muris; Henk Schmidt; Harald Merckelbach
The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) and the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) are recently developed self-report questionnaires for measuring DSM-IV defined anxiety disorder symptoms in children. The present study examined correlations among these measures in a large sample of Dutch school children (N=1011). Results showed that there was a strong correlation between the total anxiety scores
Gorde, Mrugaya W.; Helfrich, Christine A.; Finlayson, Marcia L.
This study identified the trauma symptoms and life skill needs of 84 domestic violence victims from three domestic violence programs. Women completed two self-report tools: Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) and Occupational Self Assessment (OSA). Staff members participated in focus groups regarding their perceptions of the womens needs. Women scored…
Simonds, Elise C.; Handel, Richard W.; Archer, Robert P.
This study evaluated the incremental validity of scores from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) in a sample of mental health inpatients originally published by Archer, Griffin, and Aiduk (1995). The incremental validity of scores from the SCL-90-R primary symptom dimensions…
Di Riso, Daniela; Chessa, Daphne; Delvecchio, Elisa; Lis, Adriana; Eisen, Andrew R
The aim of this study was to explore the internal consistency and confirm the factor structure of the separation anxiety symptom inventory for children (SASI-C) in a community sample of 329 Italian children, ages 6 to 10 years. A confirmatory factor analysis yielded two interpretable factors. Correlations between scores for the SASI-C and the Italian Fear Survey Schedule for Children were calculated to estimate convergent validity; medium effect sizes are hypothesized. Implications regarding the clinical utility of the SASI-C are discussed. PMID:23402042
Christina M Gullion; A. John Rush
Background: This study has two goals: 1) to establish a generalizable model of the symptoms observed in outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD); and 2) to compare symptom coverage of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Clinician-Rated (IDS-C) and Self-Report (IDS-SR) to that of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).Methods: A factor analysis of IDS-C, IDS-SR,
Symptom validity test performance and consistency of self-reported memory functioning of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi freedom veterans with positive Veteran Health Administration Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury evaluations.
Russo, Arthur C
Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom combat veterans given definite diagnoses of mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) during the Veteran Health Administration (VHA) Comprehensive TBI evaluation and reporting no post-deployment head injury were examined to assess (a) consistency of self-reported memory impairment and (b) symptom validity test (SVT) performance via a two-part study. Study 1 found that while 49 of 50 veterans reported moderate to very severe memory impairment during the VHA Comprehensive TBI evaluation, only 7 had reported any memory problem at the time of their Department of Defense (DOD) post-deployment health assessment. Study 2 found that of 38 veterans referred for neuropsychological evaluations following a positive VHA Comprehensive TBI evaluation, 68.4% failed the Word Memory Test, a forced choice memory recognition symptom validity task. Together, these studies raise questions concerning the use of veteran symptom self-report for TBI assessments and argue for the inclusion of SVTs and the expanded use of contemporaneous DOD records to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the VHA Comprehensive TBI evaluation. PMID:23059350
Gadow, Kenneth D; Schwartz, Joseph; Devincent, Carla; Strong, Greg; Cuva, Simone
Few studies examine the clinical utility of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rating scales for screening referrals to child psychiatry clinics. Parents/teachers from Long Island, NY, completed the Child Symptom Inventory-4, a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 6- to 12-year-old clinical referrals with an ASD (N = 317) or nonASD psychiatric (N = 191) diagnosis. Two separate groups of children attending public school, regular education classes in the same geographic area were also rated by their parents (N = 446) and teachers (N = 464). Stepwise forward regression generated a scoring algorithm based on a subset of all CSI-4 items that best differentiated ASD from nonASD children. ROC analyses indicated high levels of sensitivity/specificity for recommended ASD cutoff scores for parent and teacher ratings. PMID:17616796
Terry L. Mills
Advances in medical technology and surgical knowledge have greatly extended the life expectancy of older individuals with chronic disabilities. Among the older adult population the prevalence of comorbid chronic illness and depressive symptoms has often been investigated. Yet there continues to be a lack of understanding about the consequences of specific chronic illnesses on depressive symptoms. Using cross-sectional data while
Van Grootheest, Daniel S.; Bartels, Meike; Van Beijsterveldt, Catarina E. M.; Cath, Danielle C.; Beekman, Aartjan T.; Hudziak, James J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.
The involvement of genetic and environmental factors to the development of obsessive compulsion symptoms during the adolescent period is examined. Study revealed that individual differences in OC symptoms are heritable during puberty and shared environmental influences played a role only in the beginning of adolescence but no sex differences in…
Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John S.
The purpose of this study was to test the measurement invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory's (BSI) secondary factor model across African, white, and Latino Americans using multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses. This study provides an examination of the BSI's validity for use in mental health service research for people with severe and…
Anca Mirsu-PaunCarolyn; Carolyn M. Tucker; Keith C. Herman; Caridad A. Hernandez
The paper describes the construction and initial evaluation of the new Tucker-Culturally Sensitive Health Care Inventory (T-CSHCI)\\u000a Provider Form, which was developed to address the shortcomings of existing similar measures. Two hundred seventeen (217) 3rd\\u000a and 4th year medical students completed the T-CSHCI-Provider Form. Factor analysis was used to identify non-overlapping items.\\u000a The final solution produced five factors: patient-centeredness, interpersonal
Tinnitus assessment by means of standardized self-report questionnaires: Psychometric properties of the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ), the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), and their short versions in an international and multi-lingual sample
Background Tinnitus research in an international context requires standardized and validated questionnaires in different languages. The aim of the present set of analyses was the reassessment of basic psychometric properties according to classical test theory of self-report instruments that are being used within the multicentre Tinnitus Research Initiative (TRI) database project. Methods 1318 patients of the TRI Database were eligible for the analyses. The basic psychometric properties reliability, validity, and sensitivity of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ) and Tinnitus Beeinträchtigungs Fragebogen (i.e., Tinnitus Impairment Questionnaire, TBF-12) were assessed by the use of Cronbach’s alpha, corrected item-total correlations, correlation coefficients and standardized response means. Results Throughout the languages, all questionnaires showed high internal consistencies (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.79) and solid item-total correlations, as well as high correlations among themselves (around 0.8) and in combination with the self-reported tinnitus severity. However, some paradoxical correlations between individual items of the TBF-12, constructed as a shortform of the THI, and the corresponding THI-items were seen. Standardized Response Means (SRM) were low if tinnitus did not change, and between 0.3 and 1.09 for improved or worsened tinnitus complaints, indicating the sensitivity of the measures. Conclusions All investigated instruments have high internal consistency, high convergence and discriminant validity and good change sensitivity in an unselected large multinational clinical sample and thus appear appropriate to evaluate the effects of tinnitus treatments in a cross-cultural context. PMID:23078754
Lewin, A; Jöbges, M; Werheid, K
Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most common mental disorder following stroke; however, little is known about its pathogenesis. We investigated the predictive value and mutual relationship of psychological factors such as self-efficacy and social support and known risk factors such as pre-stroke depression, activities of daily living (ADL), cognitive functioning, and age for the emergence of depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke. Ninety-six ischaemic stroke inpatients residing at a rehabilitation centre completed an interview about 6.5 weeks post-stroke. The interview included demographic data, psychiatric anamnesis, the Barthel Index, Mini-Mental State Examination, Social Support Questionnaire, Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Stroke Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and the Geriatric Depression Scale. A multiple regression analysis was performed to ascertain the predictive value of the factors on depressive symptoms. High self-efficacy, no history of pre-stroke depression, and high levels of perceived social support were the strongest protective factors for depressive symptoms. The influence of cognitive functioning on depressive symptoms was fully mediated by general self-efficacy, and general self-efficacy was a stronger predictor than stroke-specific self-efficacy. Neither ADL nor age significantly predicted depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that consideration of self-efficacy and perceived social support in the inpatient rehabilitation setting may help prevent PSD. PMID:23656456
Peter L. Zhang; Juan M. Santos; John Newcomer; Barbara A. Pelfrey; Mark C. Johnson; Gabriel A. de Erausquin
Objective: The study investigated whether the introduction of atypical neuroleptics in the formulary of a large community mental health clinic had any impact on demand for services, quality of life, symptom presentation and cost of care of patients with chronic psychotic illnesses over a 3-year period. Methods: BJC Behavioral Health Services provides and coordinates mental health services for citizens residing
Jane Lindsay Gudaitis
This study seeks to validate a psychiatric checklist for parents and teachers that clinicians could use for early screening of children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). The Early Childhood Inventory-4 (ECI-4) (Gadow & Sprafkin, 1997) is a DSM-IV-referenced behavior checklist that has been found to show sensitivity to a wide range of psychiatric symptomatology. This checklist is designed to assess
Mooreville, Mira; Shomaker, Lauren B; Reina, Samantha A; Hannallah, Louise M; Adelyn Cohen, L; Courville, Amber B; Kozlosky, Merel; Brady, Sheila M; Condarco, Tania; Yanovski, Susan Z; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A
Depressive symptoms in youth may be a risk factor for obesity, with altered eating behaviors as one possible mechanism. We tested whether depressive symptoms were associated with observed eating patterns expected to promote excessive weight gain in two separate samples. In Study 1, 228 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 12-17y (15.3±1.4y; 54.7% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 10,934-kcal buffet meal served at 11:00am after an overnight fast. In Study 2, 204 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 8-17y (13.0±2.8y; 49.5% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children's Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 9835-kcal buffet meal served at 2:30pm after a standard breakfast. In Study 1, controlling for body composition and other relevant covariates, depressive symptoms were positively related to total energy intake in girls and boys. In Study 2, adjusting for the same covariates, depressive symptoms among girls only were positively associated with total energy intake. Youth high in depressive symptoms and dietary restraint consumed the most energy from sweets. In both studies, the effects of depressive symptoms on intake were small. Nevertheless, depressive symptoms were associated with significantly greater consumption of total energy and energy from sweet snack foods, which, over time, could be anticipated to promote excess weight gain. PMID:24424352
Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.
The prevalence, severity and symptom profiles for major depressive disorder (MDD) were compared in samples of boys and adolescents with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Self-reports were obtained on the Depression subscale of the Child and Adolescent Symptoms Inventory (CASI-D) with 70 ASD and 50 non-ASD male participants between the…
Pham, Uyen Ha Gia; Andersson, Stein; Toft, Mathias; Pripp, Are Hugo; Konglund, Ane Eidahl; Dietrichs, Espen; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik; Skogseid, Inger Marie; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebolt; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin
Objective. Studies on the effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on executive functioning in Parkinson's disease (PD) are still controversial. In this study we compared self-reported daily executive functioning in PD patients before and after three months of STN-DBS. We also examined whether executive functioning in everyday life was associated with motor symptoms, apathy, and psychiatric symptoms. Method. 40 PD patients were examined with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-S). Results. PD patients reported significant improvement in daily life executive functioning after 3 months of STN-DBS. Anxiety scores significantly declined, while other psychiatric symptoms remained unchanged. The improvement of self-reported executive functioning did not correlate with motor improvement after STN-DBS. Apathy scores remained unchanged after surgery. Only preoperative depressed mood had predictive value to the improvement of executive function and appears to prevent potentially favorable outcomes from STN-DBS on some aspects of executive function. Conclusion. PD patients being screened for STN-DBS surgery should be evaluated with regard to self-reported executive functioning. Depressive symptoms in presurgical PD patients should be treated. Complementary information about daily life executive functioning in PD patients might enhance further treatment planning of STN-DBS.
Tobacco Smoking, Alcohol Drinking, Diabetes, Low Body Mass Index and the Risk of Self-Reported Symptoms of Active Tuberculosis: Individual Participant Data (IPD) Meta-Analyses of 72,684 Individuals in 14 High Tuberculosis Burden Countries
Patra, Jayadeep; Jha, Prabhat; Rehm, Jürgen; Suraweera, Wilson
Background The effects of multiple exposures on active tuberculosis (TB) are largely undetermined. We sought to establish a dose-response relationship for smoking, drinking, and body mass index (BMI) and to investigate the independent and joint effects of these and diabetes on the risk of self-reported symptoms of active TB disease. Methods and Findings We analyzed 14 national studies in 14 high TB-burden countries using self-reports of blood in cough/phlegm and cough lasting >?=?3 weeks in the last year as the measures of symptoms of active TB. The random effect estimates of the relative risks (RR) between active TB and smoking, drinking, diabetes, and BMI<18.5 kg/m2 were reported for each gender. Floating absolute risks were used to examine dyads of exposure. Adjusted for age and education, the risks of active TB were significantly associated with diabetes and BMI<18.5 kg/m2 in both sexes, with ever drinking in men and with ever smoking in women. Stronger dose-response relationships were seen in women than in men for smoking amount, smoking duration and drinking amount but BMI<18.5 kg/m2 showed a stronger dose-response relationship in men. In men, the risks from joint exposures were statistically significant for diabetics with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 (RR?=?6.4), diabetics who smoked (RR?=?3.8), and diabetics who drank alcohol (RR?=?3.2). The risks from joint risk factors were generally larger in women than in men, with statistically significant risks for diabetics with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 (RR?=?10.0), diabetics who smoked (RR?=?5.4) and women with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 who smoked (RR?=?5.0). These risk factors account for 61% of male and 34% of female estimated TB incidents in these 14 countries. Conclusions Tobacco, alcohol, diabetes, and low BMI are significant individual risk factors but in combination are associated with triple or quadruple the risk of development of recent active TB. These risk factors might help to explain the wide variation in TB across countries. PMID:24789311
Efendov, Adele A.; Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael
The authors examined the comparative predictive capacity of the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) Atypical Response Scale (ATR) and the standard set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) fake-bad validity scales (i.e., F, F[subscript B[prime
Salaffi, Fausto; Carotti, Marina; Gutierrez, Marwin; Di Carlo, Marco; De Angelis, Rossella
Objective. To provide information on the value of Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by the identification of PASS thresholds for patient-reported outcomes (PROs) composite scores. Methods. The characteristics of RA patients with affirmative and negative assignment to PASS were compared. Contributors to physician response were estimated by logistic regression models and PASS thresholds by the 75th percentile and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methods. Results. 303?RA patients completed the study. All PROs were different between the PASS (+) and PASS (?) groups (p < 0.0001). The thresholds with the 75th percentile approach were 2.0 for the RA Impact of Disease (RAID) score, 2.5 for the PRO-CLinical ARthritis Activity (PRO-CLARA) index, and 1.0 for the Recent-Onset Arthritis Disability (ROAD) questionnaire. The cut-off values for Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) were in the moderate range of disease activity. Assessing the size of the logistic regression coefficients, the strongest predictors of PASS were the disease activity (p = 0.0007) and functional state level (0.006). Conclusion. PASS thresholds were relatively high and many patients in PASS had moderate disease activity states according to CDAI. Factors such as disease activity and physical function may influence a negative PASS.
The purpose of this study is to try to learn more about common symptoms that may occur in patients due to cancer and its treatment. We also want to learn more about the impact of symptoms on your quality of life. Another goal is to learn how to better measure symptoms systematically when caring for patients.
Okwumabua, Jebose O.; Duryea, Elias J.; Wong, S. P.
Examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and decision making among a non-clinical sample of low-income African American adolescents. Data from the Children's Depression Inventory and Flinders Adolescent Decision Making Questionnaire indicated that there was a significant correlation between adolescents' self-reported depressive…
Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Agra-Varela, Yolanda
Abstract Background Some domains of the questionnaires used to measure symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in patients with advanced cancer seem to measure similar dimensions or constructs, so it would be useful for clinicians to demonstrate the interchangeability of equivalent domains of the questionnaires in measuring the same constructs. Objective This study investigated the reliability and concurrent validity of the Palliative Outcome Scale (POS), the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL), and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), used to measure symptom control in patients with advanced cancer. Design This was an evaluative study. Setting/Subjects Subjects were patients with advanced cancer attended by Spanish primary care physicians. Measurements Secondary analysis was performed of 117 outpatients who completed the POS, BPI, and RSCL at two different times, with an interval of 7 to 10 days. Bland and Altman analyses and plot, repeatability coefficient, as well as Spearman correlations were carried out. Results There were 117 included patients. Mean age was 69.4 (11.5) years, gender was 60% male, 37.6% completed only elementary school, diagnoses were mainly digestive and lung cancer, with a low functional rate and presence of oncologic pain. First and second questionnaire rounds showed significant correlations and agreement. Agreement was shown between pain intensity of BPI and pain and physical scales of RSCL, and between physical symptoms of RSCL and of POS, with significant correlations in equivalent dimensions. Conclusion BPI, POS, and RSCL have shown adequate reliability and moderate concurrent validity among them. PMID:23808642
Dodd, Alyson L.; Mansell, Warren; Morrison, Anthony P.; Tai, Sara
The Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory (HAPPI; W. Mansell, 2006) was developed to assess multiple, extreme, self-relevant appraisals of internal states. The present study aimed to validate the HAPPI in a clinical sample. Participants (N = 50) with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (confirmed by a structured clinical interview)…
Pain Phenotype in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: Classification and Measurement Properties of painDETECT and Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Scale in a Cross-Sectional Study
Moreton, Bryan J; Tew, Victoria; das Nair, Roshan; Wheeler, Maggie; Walsh, David A; Lincoln, Nadina B
Objective Multiple mechanisms are involved in pain associated with osteoarthritis (OA). The painDETECT and Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) questionnaires screen for neuropathic pain and may also identify individuals with musculoskeletal pain who exhibit abnormal central pain processing. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate painDETECT and S-LANSS for classification agreement and fit to the Rasch model, and to explore their relationship to pain severity and pain mechanisms in OA. Methods A total of 192 patients with knee OA completed questionnaires covering different aspects of pain. Another group of 77 patients with knee OA completed questionnaires and underwent quantitative sensory testing for pressure–pain thresholds (PPTs). Agreement between painDETECT and S-LANSS was evaluated using kappa coefficients and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Rasch analysis of both questionnaires was conducted. Relationships between screening questionnaires and measures of pain severity or PPTs were calculated using correlations. Results PainDETECT and S-LANSS shared a stronger correlation with each other than with measures of pain severity. ROC curves identified optimal cutoff scores for painDETECT and S-LANSS to maximize agreement, but the kappa coefficient was low (? = 0.33–0.46). Rasch analysis supported the measurement properties of painDETECT but not those of S-LANSS. Higher painDETECT scores were associated with widespread reductions in PPTs. Conclusion The data suggest that painDETECT assesses pain quality associated with augmented central pain processing in patients with OA. Although developed as a screening questionnaire, painDETECT may also function as a measure of characteristics that indicate augmented central pain processing. Agreement between painDETECT and S-LANSS for pain classification was low, and it is currently unknown which tool may best predict treatment outcome. PMID:25155472
Shin Yamazaki; Shunichi Fukuhara; Joseph Green
BACKGROUND: The five-question Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5) is a brief questionnaire that can be used to screen for depressive symptoms. Removing the 2 anxiety-related items from the MHI-5 yields the MHI-3. We assessed the performance of the Japanese versions of the MHI-5 and MHI-3 in detecting depressive symptoms in the general population of Japan. METHODS: From the population of Japan,
Wiesner, Margit; Chen, Vincent; Windle, Michael; Elliott, Marc N.; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kanouse, David E.; Schuster, Mark A.
This study used data from 3 sites to examine the invariance and psychometric characteristics of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 across Black, Hispanic, and White mothers of 5th graders (N = 4,711; M = 38.07 years of age, SD = 7.16). Internal consistencies were satisfactory for all subscale scores of the instrument regardless of ethnic group…
Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent
The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and…
Steffan, Jarrod S.; Kroner, Daryl G.; Morgan, Robert D.
This study employed the Basic Personality Inventory (BPI) to differentiate various types of dis-simulation, including malingered psychopathology and faking good, by inmates. In particular, the role of intelligence in utilizing symptom information to successfully malinger was examined. On admission to a correctional facility, 161 inmates completed…
Hesselmark, Eva; Eriksson, Jonna M.; Westerlund, Joakim; Bejerot, Susanne
Although self-reported measures are frequently used to assess adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the validity of self-reports is under-researched in ASD. The core symptoms of ASD may negatively affect the psychometric properties of self-reported measures. The aim of the present study was to test the validity and reliability of…
Aaron T. Beck; David Guth; Robert A. Steer; Roberta Ball
To ascertain how effective the Beck Depression Inventory for Primary Care (BDI-PC) was for differentiating medical inpatients who were and were not diagnosed with DSM-IV major depression disorders (MDD), this 7-item self-report instrument composed of cognitive and affective symptoms was administered to 50 medical inpatients along with the Depression subscale (HDS) from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond &
Seichepine, Daniel R.; Stamm, Julie M.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Riley, David O.; Baugh, Christine M.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C.; Nowinski, Christopher J.
Abstract Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE. PMID:23421745
Samuelstuen, Marit S.; Braten, Ivar
Background: Self-report inventories trying to measure strategic processing at a global level have been much used in both basic and applied research. However, the validity of global strategy scores is open to question because such inventories assess strategy perceptions outside the context of specific task performance. Aims: The primary aim was to…
Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C.; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John
We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression). PMID:23644673
Adler, Lenard A; Newcorn, Jeffrey H
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition that can be difficult to diagnose in adolescents, since symptoms may vary among patients, evolve over time, and mimic symptoms of other disorders. Various rating scales are helpful to the clinician when evaluating patients for ADHD and should be used as part of a thorough assessment. Clinicians should use both informant- and self-report rating scales to gather as much information as possible, while being aware that informants are subject to rater error and adolescents typically underreport symptoms. Rating scales can establish a baseline measure of the patient's symptom type and frequency, provide a framework for assessing symptom impairment, and aid clinicians in monitoring treatment response. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) Symptom Checklist is a reliable self-report rating scale for adolescents as well as adults. PMID:21733473
Meijer, Rob R; de Vries, Rivka M; van Bruggen, Vincent
The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and prisoners, indicating strong unidimensionality. For students, only the depression and anxiety items formed a medium Mokken scale. Parametric item response theory analyses showed that the best discriminating items came from the depression and anxiety subscales. PMID:21280957
Raymond M O'Connor; Ian S Little
In response to general press assertions that training emotionally intelligent children will lead to great rewards, this study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and academic achievement in college students, using both self-report and ability-based measures of EI. Specifically, the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT, an ability-based measure) and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i, a self-report
Brakoulias, Vlasios; Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Sammut, Peter; Milicevic, Denise; Moses, Karen; Hannan, Anthony; Martin, Andrew
Attempts to explain the phenotypic heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have resulted in three to six OCD symptom dimensions. This study aimed to clarify the nature of these symptom dimensions using a self-report instrument (Vancouver Obsessional Compulsive Inventory [VOCI]) in addition to the clinician-rated Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist (YBOCS-SC). Participants (N = 154) were recruited to a study designed to specifically assess OCD symptom dimensions. Symptoms assessed via the YBOCS-SC and the VOCI were subjected to principal components analysis (PCA). Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the YBOCS-SC-derived symptom dimensions and the VOCI symptom subscales. PCA of the YBOCS-SC and the VOCI revealed five OCD symptom dimensions that explained 68% and 60% of the variance, respectively. The results also supported a distinction between the doubt/checking symptom dimension and the unacceptable/taboo thoughts dimension that includes mental rituals. The YBOCS-SC-derived symptom components were predicted by their respective VOCI symptom subscale scores. PMID:23686154
Kirkland, Angela G.; Redfield, Doris L.
To assess depression in college students, two inventories were compared: the Student Experience Inventory (SEI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). SEI, a self-report questionnaire, contains 56 items that are designed to measure hopelessness and decreased energy levels, as well as five factors covered in BDI: (1) negative affect toward self,…
Venables, Noah C.; Patrick, Christopher J.
The Externalizing Spectrum Inventory (ESI; Krueger, Markon, Patrick, Benning, & Kramer, 2007) provides a self-report based method for indexing a range of correlated problem behaviors and traits in the domain of deficient impulse control. The ESI organizes lower-order behaviors and traits of this kind around higher-order factors encompassing general disinhibitory proneness, callous-aggression, and substance abuse. The current study used data from a male prisoner sample (N = 235) to evaluate the validity of ESI total and factor scores in relation to external criterion measures consisting of externalizing disorder symptoms (including child and adult antisocial deviance and substance-related problems) assessed via diagnostic interview, personality traits assessed by self-report, and psychopathic features as assessed by both interview and self-report. Results provide evidence for the validity of the ESI measurement model and point to its potential utility as a referent for research on the neurobiological correlates and etiological bases of externalizing proneness. PMID:21787091
The cumulative effect of different childhood trauma types on self-reported symptoms of adult male depression and PTSD, substance abuse and health-related quality of life in a large active-duty military cohort.
Agorastos, Agorastos; Pittman, James O E; Angkaw, Abigail C; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Hansen, Christian J; Aversa, Laura H; Parisi, Sarah A; Barkauskas, Donald A; Baker, Dewleen G
History of childhood trauma (CT) is highly prevalent and may lead to long-term consequences on physical and mental health. This study investigated the independent association of CT with symptoms of adult depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL), as well as current tobacco consumption and alcohol abuse in a large homogenous cohort of 1254 never-deployed, young male Marines enrolled in the Marine Resiliency Study. Independent effects of CT history, number and type of CT on outcomes were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate logistic regression models. Our results suggested dose-dependent negative effect of an increasing number of trauma types of CT on depression, PTSD and HRQoL. Experience of single CT type demonstrated overall weak effects, while history of multiple CT types distinctively increased the likelihood of adult PTSD symptomology (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5-6.2), poor mental (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.1) and physical HRQoL (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9). Risk for depression symptoms was similar for both single and multiple CT (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.8 and OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.5 respectively). CT history had no effects on current tobacco use and alcohol abuse. Our study thus provides evidence for substantial additive effect of different CT types on adult mental and physical health with increasing levels of exposure. PMID:25139009
Zeman, Janice; Shipman, Kimberly; Suveg, Cynthia
Examined the relation between children's self-reported anger and sadness regulation and the presence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Participants were 121 boys and 106 girls in the fourth and fifth grades who completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), Emotion Expression Scale for Children (EESC), and Children's Emotion Management Scales (CSMS, CAMS) and rated each other on aggressive behavior. Results of multiple regression analyses indicated that the inability to identify emotional states, the inhibition of anger, the dysregulation of anger and sadness, and the constructive coping with anger predicted internalizing symptoms. The dysregulated expression of sadness and constructive coping with anger were inversely related to externalizing symptoms. PMID:12149977
Kathryn Betts Adams; Sara Sanders
The self-reported losses, grief reactions, and depressive symptoms experienced by caregivers in the early, middle, and late stages of dementia were assessed using open-ended descriptive questions and scaled measures including the Meuser-Marwit Caregiver Grief Inventory (MM-CGI; Marwit & Meuser, 2002). Ninety-nine caregivers associated with an urban Alzheimer’s Association chapter were surveyed by post. While there were moderate levels of grief
Wrobel, Nancy Howells; Lachar, David; Wrobel, Thomas A.
The relationship between children's self-reported problems on the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY) and peer descriptors derived from the Pupil Evaluation Inventory was examined in a regular education sample of 156 children in fourth through eighth grade. The relative contributions of the PIY scales and subscales to the prediction of peer…
Richard A. Bryant; Michelle L. Moulds; Rachel M. Guthrie
The Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS) is a self-report inventory that (a) indexes acute stress disorder (ASD) and (b) predicts posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The ASDS is a 19-item inventory that is based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM–IV, American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria. The ASDS possessed good sensitivity (95%) and specificity (83%) for identifying
Background Neuropathic pain must be correctly diagnosed for optimal treatment. The questionnaire named Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) was developed in its original French version to evaluate the different symptoms of neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that the NPSI might also be used to differentiate neuropathic from non-neuropathic pain. Methods We translated the NPSI into German using a standard forward-backward translation and administered it in a case-control design to patients with neuropathic (n = 68) and non-neuropathic pain (headache and osteoarthritis, n = 169) to validate it and to analyze its discriminant properties, its sensitivity to change, and to detect neuropathic pain subgroups with distinct profiles. Results Using a sum score (the NPSI-G score), we found sensitivity to change (r between 0.37 and 0.5 for pain items of the graded chronic pain scale) and could distinguish between neuropathic and other pain on a group basis, but not for individual patients. Post hoc development of a discriminant score with optimized diagnostic properties to distinguish neuropathic pain from non-neuropathic pain resulted in an instrument with high sensitivity (91%) and acceptable specificity (70%). We detected six different pain profiles in the patient group with neuropathic pain; three profiles were found to be distinct. Conclusions The NPSI-G potentially combines the properties of a diagnostic tool and an instrument to identify subtypes of neuropathic pain. PMID:21861889
This study examined self-reported driving behaviors in 120 (Israeli) male drivers as a function of trait anxiety (TA). TA was assessed through the TA scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. For the analysis of driving behaviors, the present study used the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and adopted previous distinctions between four classes of behaviors within the DBQ: errors, lapses, ordinary
Holleran, Paula; And Others
The relationships among self-reported social desirability, biological sex, and sex-role orientation are examined. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) consists of 60 personality characteristics divided equally into three subscales labeled Femininity (F), Masculinity (M), and Social Desirability (SD). One hundred and twenty-six undergraduates were…
Vincent Giannone; Daniel Medeiros; Jennifer Elliott; Caroline Perez; Erika Carlson; Irwin Epstein
Adolescents entering an urban mental health program completed Adquest, an 80-item self-report inventory asking about important areas in their life such as school and education, work, health, sexuality, substance abuse, personal and family life. This article examines how much adolescents wanted to talk about family and friends with their counselors, gender and age differences in this desire, and how that
Smith, Timothy W; Williams, Paula G
Evidence of reciprocal associations between individual emotional adjustment and the quality of intimate relationships has led to the growing use of interventions that combine a focus on couple issues with a focus on individual emotional functioning. In these approaches, spouse ratings of emotional functioning can provide an important second method of assessment, beyond the much more commonly used self-reports. Although an extensive literature demonstrates substantial convergent correlations between self-reported and spouse-rated emotional adjustment, levels of adjustment evident across these 2 assessment methods are much less commonly compared, especially among couples reporting higher levels of marital distress. Well-documented limitations of both self-reports and spouse ratings suggest that differences--which would not necessarily be evident in correlations between methods--might be common and substantial, perhaps raising complications in couple assessments and intervention. The present study compared self-reports and spouse ratings of neuroticism and its specific components using the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised in a sample of 301 middle-aged and older couples. For overall neuroticism and the specific facets of anxiety, angry hostility, and vulnerability, self-reported levels of negative emotionality were consistently lower than the parallel ratings by spouses, most notably among couples reporting low levels of marital adjustment. Hence, substantial underestimates of negative emotionality obtained through self-reports as compared to ratings by spouses (or overestimates as obtained through spouse ratings) may be common and could complicate couple assessment and intervention. PMID:25844498
Vahl, Pauline; Colins, Olivier F; Lodewijks, Henny P B; Markus, Monica T; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M
Studies have demonstrated that self-report tools can be used to reliably and validly examine psychopathic-like traits in adolescents. However, it is unclear if self-report instruments are still reliable and valid when confidentiality cannot be guaranteed, such as during routine assessments in juvenile detention centres. To address this issue, the current study used data from the routine mental health screening of 365 detained male adolescents (12-18 years) in two juvenile detention centres. With the intention of gaining insight in the clinical usefulness of self-reported psychopathic-like traits, we examined relations known from literature with emotional and behavioural features. Self-reported psychopathic-like traits, measured by the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short version (YPI-S), were uniquely associated with substance abuse, anger/irritability, conduct problems and hyperactivity, but not with internalizing problems. YPI-S-dimensions showed several specific relationships with variables of interest. For example, only the callous unemotional dimension was negatively related with prosocial behaviour and only the behavioural dimension was positively related with hyperactivity. In conclusion, self-reported psychopathic-like traits showed expected relations with relevant variables. These findings suggest that self-report can be used to identify detained youths with high levels of psychopathic-like traits outside a research context, thus, even when anonymity and confidentiality are not guaranteed. PMID:24327266
Emma Haycraft; Jackie Blissett
This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings
Horan, William P; Reise, Steven P; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Penn, David L; Green, Michael F
Research on empathy in schizophrenia has relied on dated self-report scales that do not conform to contemporary social neuroscience models of empathy. The current study evaluated the structure and correlates of the recently-developed Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE) in schizophrenia. This measure, whose structure and validity was established in healthy individuals, includes separate scales to assess the two main components of empathy: Cognitive Empathy (assessed by two subscales) and Affective Empathy (assessed by three subscales). Stable outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 145) and healthy individuals (n = 45) completed the QCAE, alternative measures of empathy, and assessments of clinical symptoms, neurocognition, and functional outcome. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided consistent support for a two-factor solution in the schizophrenia group, justifying the use of separate cognitive and affective empathy scales in this population. However, one of the three Affective Empathy subscales was not psychometrically sound and was excluded from further analyses. Patients reported significantly lower Cognitive Empathy but higher Affective Empathy than controls. Among patients, the QCAE scales showed significant correlations with an alternative self-report empathy scale, but not with performance on an empathic accuracy task. The QCAE Cognitive Empathy subscales also showed significant, though modest, correlations with negative symptoms and functional outcome. These findings indicate that structure of self-reported empathy is similar in people with schizophrenia and healthy subjects, and can be meaningfully compared between groups. They also contribute to emerging evidence that some aspects of empathy may be intact or hyper-responsive in schizophrenia. PMID:25985922
Colleen Daniels; Grant D. Huang; Michael Feuerstein; Mary Lopez
Low back pain and symptoms are major contributors to ambulatory visits, economic burden, and reduced readiness among military personnel and employers in the civilian workplace as well. While a link between low back pain and biomechanical exposures has been established, efficient surveillance methods of such exposures are still needed. Furthermore, the utility of self-report measures for biomechanical exposures has not
Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine
This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.
Frazier, Patricia; Tennen, Howard; Gavian, Margaret; Park, Crystal; Tomich, Patricia; Tashiro, Ty
In this study, we evaluated the validity of self-reported posttraumatic growth (PTG) by assessing the relation between perceived growth and actual growth from pre- to posttrauma. Undergraduate students completed measures tapping typical PTG domains at Time 1 and Time 2 (2 months later). We compared change in those measures with scores on the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996) for those participants who reported a traumatic event between Time 1 and Time 2 (n= 122). PTGI scores generally were unrelated to actual growth in PTG-related domains. Moreover, perceived growth was associated with increased distress from pre- to posttrauma, whereas actual growth was related to decreased distress, a pattern suggesting that perceived and actual growth reflect different processes. Finally, perceived (but not actual) growth was related to positive reinterpretation coping. Thus, the PTGI, and perhaps other retrospective measures, does not appear to measure actual pre- to posttrauma change. PMID:19515115
Stroud, Kathryn Chatham
The goal of this project was to develop a self-report inventory designed to assess constructs associated with academic motivation and various learning strategies including study strategies, time management, organizational ...
Knouse, Laura E.; Traeger, Lara; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A.
Relationships among Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and adult personality traits have not been examined in larger clinically diagnosed samples. We collected multi-source ADHD symptom and self-report NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992a) data from 117 adults with ADHD and tested symptom-trait associations using structural equation modeling. The final model fit the data. Inattention was positively associated with Neuroticism and negatively associated with Conscientiousness. Based on ADHD expression in adulthood, hyperactivity and impulsivity were estimated as separate constructs and showed differential relationships to Extraversion and Agreeableness. A significant positive relationship between Hyperactivity and Conscientiousness arose in the context of other pathways. ADHD symptoms are reliably associated with personality traits, suggesting a complex interplay across development that warrants prospective study into adulthood. PMID:24080671
Anthony P. Mannarino; Judith A. Cohen; Esther Deblinger; Robert Steer
The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996) was administered to 164 biological\\u000a mothers of sexually abused children to determine the psychometric characteristics of the BDI-II and to estimate the prevalence\\u000a of self-reported depression in this population. The study also sought to ascertain whether the mothers’ BDI-II total scores\\u000a were correlated with
Ty A. Ridenour; Mark T. Greenberg; Elizabeth T. Cook
No self-report measure of attachment is well validated for middle-childhood. This study examined the validity and factor structure of the People in My Life (PIML) measure in 320 urban, fifth and sixth graders. Validity analyses consisted of correlational analyses between PIML subscales and the Child Behavior Checklist, Delinquency Rating Scale for Self and Others, Heath Resources Inventory, and Reynolds Child
Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Edens, John F.; Epstein, Monica; Patrick, Christopher J.
Two self-report measures of psychopathy, Levenson's Primary and Secondary Psychopathy scales (LPSP) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), were administered to a large sample of 1,603 offenders. The most widely researched measure of criminal psychopathy, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), served as a provisional referent…
Testa, S Marc; Lesser, Ronald P; Krauss, Gregory L; Brandt, Jason
The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is a widely used self-report questionnaire designed to detect and quantify dimensions of adult psychopathology. Previous studies that examined the ability of the PAI to differentiate between patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and those with epilepsy (EPIL) have yielded inconsistent results. We compared the full PAI profiles of 62 patients with PNES, 55 with EPIL, and 45 normal control (NC) participants to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the PAI. We also sought to highlight psychopathologic symptoms that may inform psychological treatment of patients with PNES or epilepsy. PNES and EPIL patients reported more somatic concerns and symptoms of anxiety and depression than did NC persons. PNES patients reported more unusual somatic symptoms, as well as greater physical symptoms of anxiety and depression than did patients with EPIL. Classification accuracy of the "NES Indicator" was not much better than chance, whereas the Conversion subscale alone had reasonable sensitivity (74%) and specificity (67%). Overall, the PAI demonstrated only moderate classification accuracy in an epilepsy monitoring unit sample. However, the inventory appears to identify specific psychopathological symptoms that may be targets of psychological/psychiatric intervention. PMID:21740416
Staik, Irene M.; Dickman, Carol L.
Research has indicated that the freshman year of college is the most stressful for the student. This study is based on the belief that a thorough comprehension of self-reported stressors of college freshmen is necessary for administrators to plan programs designed to help students to cope with their stressors. Effective coping reduces attrition…
Bridget Kilpatrick; Mary Howlett; Philip Sedgwick; A. Hamid Ghodse
Stimulated by the ever present demand to consider the financial implications in management decisions, this study examines the use of urinalysis and self-report in the treatment of drug users, to question if urinalysis, rather than being a routine investigation, could be used with greater discrimination without jeopardising its effectiveness. It concludes that urinalysis remains of importance, as an adjunct to
Christopher W. Williams; Paul R. Lees-Haley; Stacy E. Djanogly
As more psychotherapists enter forensic practice, fundamental differences between patients in treatment and patients in personal injury litigation require adjustment of clinicians' orientation toward patients. Therapists' traditional support, acceptance, and empathy toward patients in psychotherapy must be supplemented with increased objectivity regarding plaintiffs' self-presentation. Adopting a more investigative attitude toward patients' self-reports may represent for some therapists an uncomfortable transformation
Romeis, J C; Scherrer, J F; Xian, H; Eisen, S A; Bucholz, K; Heath, A C; Goldberg, J; Lyons, M J; Henderson, W G; True, W R
OBJECTIVE: To explore the contribution of genes and environmental factors to variation in a common measure (i.e., a five-point--excellent, very good, good, fair, and poor--Likert scale) of self-reported health. DATA SOURCES: Data were analyzed from 4,638 male-male twin pair members of the Vietnam Era Twin (VET) Registry who responded to a 1987 health survey. STUDY DESIGN: Varying models for the relationship between genetic and environmental influences on self-reported health were tested in an attempt to explain the relative contributions of additive genetic, shared and nonshared environmental effects, and health conditions reported since 1975 to perceived health status. DATA COLLECTION: A mail and telephone survey of health was administered in 1987 to VET Registry twins. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Variance component estimates under the best-fitting model included a 39.6 percent genetic contribution to self-reported health. In a model which included the effect of health condition, genes accounted for 32.5 percent and health condition accounted for 15.0 percent of the variance in self-reported health. The magnitude of the genetic contribution to perceived health status was not significantly different in a model with or without health condition. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest over one-third of the variability of self-reported health can be attributed to genes. Since perceived health status is a major predictor of morbidity, mortality, and health services utilization, future analyses should consider the role of heritable influences on traditional health services variables. PMID:11130808
Background Self-reported knee joint instability compromises function in individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis and may be related to impaired joint mechanics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between self-reported instability and the passive varus-valgus mechanical behaviour of the medial osteoarthritis knee. Methods Passive varus-valgus angular laxity and stiffness were assessed using a modified isokinetic dynamometer in 73 participants with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. All participants self-reported the absence or presence of knee instability symptoms and the degree to which instability affected daily activity on a 6-point likert scale. Results Forward linear regression modelling identified a significant inverse relationship between passive mid-range knee stiffness and symptoms of knee instability (r =?0.27; P 0.05): reduced stiffness was indicative of more severe instability symptoms. Angular laxity and end-range stiffness were not related to instability symptoms (P >?0.05). Conclusions Conceivably, a stiffer passive system may contribute toward greater joint stability during functional activities. Importantly however, net joint stiffness is influenced by both active and passive stiffness, and thus the active neuromuscular system may compensate for reduced passive stiffness in order to maintain joint stability. Future work is merited to examine the role of active stiffness in symptomatic joint stability. PMID:24252592
Background Research on Internet-based interventions typically use digital versions of pen and paper self-report symptom scales. However, adaptation into the digital format could affect the psychometric properties of established self-report scales. Several studies have investigated differences between digital and pen and paper versions of instruments, but no systematic review of the results has yet been done. Objective This review aims to assess the interformat reliability of self-report symptom scales used in digital or online psychotherapy research. Methods Three databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO) were systematically reviewed for studies investigating the reliability between digital and pen and paper versions of psychiatric symptom scales. Results From a total of 1504 publications, 33 were included in the review, and interformat reliability of 40 different symptom scales was assessed. Significant differences in mean total scores between formats were found in 10 of 62 analyses. These differences were found in just a few studies, which indicates that the results were due to study effects and sample effects rather than unreliable instruments. The interformat reliability ranged from r=.35 to r=.99; however, the majority of instruments showed a strong correlation between format scores. The quality of the included studies varied, and several studies had insufficient power to detect small differences between formats. Conclusions When digital versions of self-report symptom scales are compared to pen and paper versions, most scales show high interformat reliability. This supports the reliability of results obtained in psychotherapy research on the Internet and the comparability of the results to traditional psychotherapy research. There are, however, some instruments that consistently show low interformat reliability, suggesting that these conclusions cannot be generalized to all questionnaires. Most studies had at least some methodological issues with insufficient statistical power being the most common issue. Future studies should preferably provide information about the transformation of the instrument into digital format and the procedure for data collection in more detail. PMID:25472463
The findings described here compare odometer readings with self-reported estimates of Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) to investigate to what extent self-reported VMT is a reliable surrogate for odometer-based VMT.
Nigel E. Turner; Helen M. Annis; Sherrilyn M. Sklar
The development, factor structure, and validity of the Inventory of Drug-Taking Situations (IDTS) is described. This 50-item self-report questionnaire, which is an extension of the Inventory of Drinking Situations (Annis, 1982, Inventory of drinking situations; Annis, Graham & Davis, 1987, Inventory of drinking situations (IDS): User's guide), is designed to assess the situational antecedents to use of a wide range
Seifert, Kyle; Hurney, Carol A.; Wigtil, Clifton J.; Sundre, Donna L.
The Academic Skills Inventory (Kruger and Zechmeister, 2001) was developed at Loyola University of Chicago and originally designed for use with psychology majors. It was later extended for use in a variety of academic programs. The Academic Skills Inventory (ASI) assesses student self-reports of behaviors in 10 skill areas: (1) written and oral…
Beck, Aaron T.; And Others
Describes development of Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), self-report inventory for measuring severity of anxiety in psychiatric populations. Describes study results which showed BAI to have high internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and to discriminate anxious diagnostic groups from nonanxious diagnostic groups. (Author/NB)
Greg C. Feldman; Jutta Joormann; Sheri L. Johnson
Rumination in response to dysphoric moods has been linked to the onset and maintenance of depressive symptoms; however, responses\\u000a to positive moods have received less attention despite the theoretical roles of both positive and negative affect in mood\\u000a disorders. The purpose of the present study was to develop a self-report measure of ruminative and dampening Responses to\\u000a Positive Affect (RPA),
Schenk, Allison M; Cooper-Lehki, Christi; Keelan, Colleen M; Fremouw, William J
Juvenile sex offenders (JSO) are a specific subset of delinquent adolescents that are receiving more attention because of the crimes they commit and the issues surrounding how to successfully treat their deviant behaviors. Given JSO are such predominant treatment concerns in society, it is essential to identify and target key risk factors. One sexual behavior, bestiality, may be of particular importance to address in treatment. In a meta-analysis conducted by Seto and Lalumiere, a 14% rate of bestiality among JSO was reported. This current study examined the differences in JSO (n = 32) who admitted bestiality based upon a self-report measure, the Multiphasic Sexual Inventory-II (MSI-II), compared to information elicited by polygraphs. The results indicated extensive underreporting of bestiality behaviors between these two sources of information (MSI-II = 37.5%; polygraph = 81.25%). These findings are important given the reliance treatment programs place on information elicited from self-report tools. PMID:24502368
Li, Mian; Xu, Changqing; Yao, Wenguo; Mahan, Clare M; Kang, Han K; Sandbrink, Friedhelm; Zhai, Ping; Karasik, Pamela A
To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72-2.67) among ill group compared to controls (0.58-1.59). We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series. PMID:24431987
Deighton, Jessica; Croudace, Tim; Fonagy, Peter; Brown, Jeb; Patalay, Praveetha; Wolpert, Miranda
There is a growing appetite for mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that can inform clinical practice at individual and service levels, including use for local and national benchmarking. Despite a varied literature on child mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that focus on psychometric properties alone, no reviews exist that appraise the availability of psychometric evidence and suitability for use in routine practice in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) including key implementation issues. This paper aimed to present the findings of the first review that evaluates existing broadband measures of mental health and wellbeing outcomes in terms of these criteria. The following steps were implemented in order to select measures suitable for use in routine practice: literature database searches, consultation with stakeholders, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, secondary searches and filtering. Subsequently, detailed reviews of the retained measures' psychometric properties and implementation features were carried out. 11 measures were identified as having potential for use in routine practice and meeting most of the key criteria: 1) Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, 2) Beck Youth Inventories, 3) Behavior Assessment System for Children, 4) Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, 5) Child Health Questionnaire, 6) Child Symptom Inventories, 7) Health of the National Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents, 8) Kidscreen, 9) Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 10) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, 11) Youth Outcome Questionnaire. However, all existing measures identified had limitations as well as strengths. Furthermore, none had sufficient psychometric evidence available to demonstrate that they could reliably measure both severity and change over time in key groups. The review suggests a way of rigorously evaluating the growing number of broadband self-report mental health outcome measures against standards of feasibility and psychometric credibility in relation to use for practice and policy. PMID:24834111
KENNARD, BETSY D.; HUGHES, JENNIFER L.; STEWART, SUNITA M.; MAYES, TARYN; NIGHTINGALE-TERESI, JEANNE; TAO, RONGRONG; CARMODY, THOMAS; EMSLIE, GRAHAM J.
Objective In the present study, we assess maternal depressive symptoms at the beginning and end of treatment to investigate the possible reciprocal relationship of maternal illness with the child’s depressive illness and treatment. Method We present data on 146 children and their mothers who were participating in a pediatric acute treatment study of fluoxetine. Patients were assessed with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised at baseline and at each treatment visit. Mothers completed the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report at baseline and end of acute treatment. Results Thirty percent of mothers had moderate to severe levels of depressive symptoms at the child’s baseline assessment. Overall, mothers reported improvement in maternal depressive symptoms at the end of their child’s acute treatment, although maternal depression was not specifically targeted for intervention. Furthermore, mother’s depressive symptoms appear to be associated with the child’s depression severity both at the beginning and end of treatment. Mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms had children with higher levels of depression severity at baseline and over the course of treatment. However, maternal depressive symptoms at baseline had no association with the rate of improvement of child depression severity. Conclusions This study indicates a positive relationship between the depression severity of mothers and their children. These findings highlight potential areas of intervention in the acute treatment of childhood depression. PMID:18434919
Background The prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is not well understood in many Arabian Peninsula countries. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with self-reported CTS in Kuwait. Findings A cross-sectional, self-administered survey of CTS-related symptoms was used in this study. Multivariate logistic regression was also used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for factors of interest. Participants in this study were adult office workers in Kuwait (n?=?470, 55.6% males), who worked in companies employing more than 50 people. Self-reported CTS was reported in 18.7% of the group (88/470). CTS was significantly associated with the following demographic factors: female gender, obesity and number of comorbid conditions. Self-identification of CTS was also associated with key symptoms and impairment in daily activities (e.g., wrist pain, numbness, weakness, night pain, difficulty carrying bags, difficulty grasping [Chi-Square Test for Association: P?0.05 for all symptoms/activities]). However, symptoms such as wrist pain, weakness, and functional disabilities were also frequently reported among those who do not self report CTS (range: 12.1%–38.2%). Conclusions Prevalence of self-reported CTS among office workers in Kuwait is 18.7%, and the risk factors for CTS in this population included female gender, obesity and number of related comorbidities. The frequency of symptoms in the sample who did not self report CTS suggest that CTS may be under-recognized, however further research is required to assess the prevalence of clinically diagnosed CTS. PMID:22695029
Ridenour, T. A.; Cook, E. T.
No self-report measure of attachment is well validated for middle-childhood. This study examined the validity and factor structure of the People in My Life (PIML) measure in 320 urban, fifth and sixth graders. Validity analyses consisted of correlational analyses between PIML subscales and the Child Behavior Checklist, Delinquency Rating Scale for Self and Others, Heath Resources Inventory, and Reynolds Child Depression Scale. Validity correlations were consistent with a-priori hypotheses. Confirmatory factor analyses consisted of comparison of model fit indices between seven models. Two models fit the data well and both models were consistent with the traditionally used PIML scoring protocol. Moreover, both models were consistent with the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), on which the PIML is modeled, as well as the theoretical underpinnings of attachment in childhood. The PIML and IPPA provide instruments for obtaining a continuous self-report measure of attachment from middle-childhood through adulthood. PMID:17476310
Ridenour, T A; Greenberg, M T; Cook, E T
No self-report measure of attachment is well validated for middle-childhood. This study examined the validity and factor structure of the People in My Life (PIML) measure in 320 urban, fifth and sixth graders. Validity analyses consisted of correlational analyses between PIML subscales and the Child Behavior Checklist, Delinquency Rating Scale for Self and Others, Heath Resources Inventory, and Reynolds Child Depression Scale. Validity correlations were consistent with a-priori hypotheses. Confirmatory factor analyses consisted of comparison of model fit indices between seven models. Two models fit the data well and both models were consistent with the traditionally used PIML scoring protocol. Moreover, both models were consistent with the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), on which the PIML is modeled, as well as the theoretical underpinnings of attachment in childhood. The PIML and IPPA provide instruments for obtaining a continuous self-report measure of attachment from middle-childhood through adulthood. PMID:17476310
Van Dyke, Sarah A; Millis, Scott R; Axelrod, Bradley N; Hanks, Robin A
The current study aimed to clarify the relationship among the constructs involved in neuropsychological assessment, including cognitive performance, symptom self-report, performance validity, and symptom validity. Participants consisted of 120 consecutively evaluated individuals from a veteran's hospital with mixed referral sources. Measures included the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Full Scale IQ (WAIS-IV FSIQ), California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), Trail Making Test Part B (TMT-B), Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT), WAIS-IV Reliable Digit Span (RDS), Post-traumatic Check List-Military Version (PCL-M), MMPI-2 F scale, MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale (FBS), MMPI-2 Response Bias Scale (RBS), and the Postconcussive Symptom Questionnaire (PCSQ). Six different models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine the factor model describing the relationships between cognitive performance, symptom self-report, performance validity, and symptom validity. The strongest and most parsimonious model was a three-factor model in which cognitive performance, performance validity, and self-reported symptoms (including both standard and symptom validity measures) were separate factors. The findings suggest failure in one validity domain does not necessarily invalidate the other domain. Thus, performance validity and symptom validity should be evaluated separately. PMID:24028487
Self-Reported quality of life in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and executive function impairment treated with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study
Background This study examined the effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on quality of life (QOL) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and clinically significant executive function deficits (EFD). Methods This report highlights QOL findings from a 10-week randomized placebo-controlled trial of LDX (30–70 mg/d) in adults (18–55 years) with ADHD and EFD (Behavior Rating Inventory of EF-Adult, Global Executive Composite [BRIEF-A GEC] ?65). The primary efficacy measure was the self-reported BRIEF-A; a key secondary measure was self-reported QOL on the Adult ADHD Impact Module (AIM-A). The clinician-completed ADHD Rating Scale version IV (ADHD-RS-IV) with adult prompts and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) were also employed. The Adult ADHD QoL (AAQoL) was added while the study was in progress. A post hoc analysis examined the subgroup having evaluable results from both AIM-A and AAQoL. Results Of 161 randomized (placebo, 81; LDX, 80), 159 were included in the safety population. LDX improved AIM-A multi-item domain scores versus placebo; LS mean difference for Performance and Daily Functioning was 21.6 (ES, 0.93, P<.0001); Impact of Symptoms: Daily Interference was 14.9 (ES, 0.62, P<.0001); Impact of Symptoms: Bother/Concern was 13.5 (ES, 0.57, P=.0003); Relationships/Communication was 7.8 (ES, 0.31, P=.0302); Living With ADHD was 9.1 (ES, 0.79, P<.0001); and General Well-Being was 10.8 (ES, 0.70, P<.0001). AAQoL LS mean difference for total score was 21.0; for subscale: Life Productivity was 21.0; Psychological Health was 12.1; Life Outlook was 12.5; and Relationships was 7.3. In a post hoc analysis of participants with both AIM-A and AAQoL scores, AIM-A multi-item subgroup analysis scores numerically improved with LDX, with smaller difference for Impact of Symptoms: Daily Interference. The safety profile of LDX was consistent with amphetamine use in previous studies. Conclusions Overall, adults with ADHD/EFD exhibited self-reported improvement on QOL, using the AIM-A and AAQoL scales in line with medium/large ES; these improvements were paralleled by improvements in EF and ADHD symptoms. The safety profile of LDX was similar to previous studies. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01101022 PMID:24106804
Kelly C. Allison; Carlos M. Grilo; Robin M. Masheb; Albert J. Stunkard
This study compared rates of self-reported childhood maltreatment in three groups diagnosed using semi-structured interviews: binge eating disorder (BED; n=176), night eating syndrome (NES, n=57), and overweight\\/obese comparison (OC, n=38). We used the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) to assess childhood maltreatment and the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess depression levels. Reports of maltreatment were common in patients with BED (82%),
S S Hedayati; H B Bosworth; M Kuchibhatla; P L Kimmel; L A Szczech
The prevalence of depression in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis has not been definitively determined. We examined the prevalence of depression and the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative likelihood ratios (+LR and ?LR) of self-report scales using the physician-administered Structured Clinical Interview for Depression (SCID) as the comparison. Ninety-eight consecutive patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and
Mazefsky, C. A.; Kao, J.; Oswald, D. P.
This study investigated the utility of self-report measures to screen for psychiatric comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Thirty-eight 10-17 year olds with an ASD and without mental retardation completed: the "Children's Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S)", "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS)", "Conners-Wells…
Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning; Rudner, Mary; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker
This present study examined the relationship between cognitive measures and self-report hearing aid outcome. A sentence-final word identification and recall (SWIR) test was used to investigate how hearing aid use may relate to experienced explicit cognitive processing. A visually based cognitive test battery was also administered. To measure self-report hearing aid outcome, the International Outcome Inventory – Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) and the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ) were employed. Twenty-six experienced hearing aid users (mean age of 59 years) with symmetrical moderate-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Free recall performance in the SWIR test correlated negatively with item 3 of IOI-HA, which measures residual difficulty in adverse listening situations. Cognitive abilities related to verbal information processing were correlated positively with self-reported hearing aid use and overall success. The present study showed that reported residual difficulty with hearing aid may relate to experienced explicit processing in difficult listening conditions, such that individuals with better cognitive capacity tended to report more remaining difficulty in challenging listening situations. The possibility of using cognitive measures to predict hearing aid outcome in real life should be explored in future research.
Takano, Keisuke; Iijima, Yudai; Tanno, Yoshihiko
Repetitive thought has been focused upon as a transdiagnostic risk factor for depression, anxiety, and poor physical health. Among the forms of repetitive thought, rumination and worry are considered to play important roles in the onset and maintenance of insomnia. However, there have been few attempts to clarify the similarities, differences, and interaction between the functions of rumination and worry in sleep problems. Furthermore, no study has investigated the prospective relationships between these two forms of repetitive thought and sleep disturbance. In the present study, we examined the prospective associations between repetitive thought and subjective sleep quality, measured by a self-report questionnaire. A total of 208 undergraduates participated in a 2-wave longitudinal survey with an interval of 3weeks between assessments. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that baseline rumination predicted reduction in the follow-up assessment of subjective sleep quality, controlling for levels of depressive and anxious symptoms. This main effect of rumination was qualified by the levels of worry; for individuals with higher levels of worry, rumination was associated with greater reduction in subjective sleep quality. These results suggest that both rumination and worry have unique associations with sleep and that their interaction is especially important in sleep problems. PMID:23046780
Introduction Little is known about the relationship between discrimination and distress among multiple racial groups because previous studies have focused primarily on either blacks or Asian Americans. The objective of this study was to assess the association between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination and symptoms of psychological distress among 5 racial/ethnic groups in California. Methods I used data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey describing an adult sample of 27,511 non-Hispanic whites, 8,020 Hispanics, 1,813 non-Hispanic blacks, 3,875 non-Hispanic Asians, and 1,660 people of other races/ethnicities. The Kessler 6-item Psychological Distress Scale determined symptoms of psychological distress. I used a single-item, self-reported measure to ascertain experiences of racial discrimination. Results Reports of racial discrimination differed significantly among racial groups. Self-reported discrimination was independently associated with psychological distress after adjusting for race/ethnicity, age, sex, education level, employment status, general health status, nativity and citizenship status, English use and proficiency, ability to understand the doctor at last visit, and geographic location. The relationship between discrimination and psychological distress was modified by the interaction between discrimination and race/ethnicity; the effect of discrimination on distress was weaker for minority groups (ie, blacks and people of other races/ethnicities) than for whites. Conclusion Self-reported discrimination may be a key predictor of high levels of psychological distress among racial/ethnic groups in California, and race appears to modify this association. Public health practitioners should consider the adverse effects of racial discrimination on minority health. PMID:23078667
This paper presents findings from the first study of female prisoners' self-reports of criminal activity. Using the criminal career paradigm to frame the analysis, self-reported estimates of crime participation and frequency rates were examined for eight felony crimes. Important similarities between women and men were found in overall patterns of crime. Specifically, a small proportion ofboth women and men described
Fujiura, Glenn T.
Self-reported health is an important outcome in the evaluation of health care but is largely ignored in favor of proxy-based reporting for people with an intellectual disability. This study briefly reviews the role of self-report in health assessment of people with intellectual disability and the challenges and recommendations that have emerged…
Chen, Yi-Heng; Lin, Li-Chan
Despite many studies conducted to validate the self-reported pain of vulnerable patients, it is unclear at what level of cognitive impairment individuals still can provide reliable information. The aims of this study were to examine the reliability and validity of self-reported pain by degree of patients' cognitive function and to determine important predictors of self-reported pain in cognitively impaired residents in long-term care facilities. The 414 participants were divided into four groups according to their scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (nonimpaired, mild, moderate, and severe cognitive impairment). Multifaceted measures were performed to validate residents' pain reports. Self-reported pain and pain behaviors were measured using the Verbal Descriptor Scale and the Doloplus-2 scale. Known correlates of pain including functional disability, depression, and agitation were compared, using the Barthel Index, the Cornell scale, and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. Intra-rater and interrater reliability were generally acceptable in groups with no impairment to moderate cognitive impairment. The relationships between residents' self-reported pain and the known correlates of pain were almost all significant across groups with no impairment to moderate cognitive impairment, but fewer were significant in the severely impaired group. Regression analyses revealed that multiple pain indicators together were significantly better predictors of self-reported pain in moderately and severely impaired residents. The findings from this study support residents with cognitive impairment up to a moderate level can report pain reliably. However, for those in later stages of dementia, a multifaceted approach is suggested to help in pain recognition. PMID:25194480
Seifert, Tricia A.; Asel, Ashley M.
The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the extent to which students' retrospective self-reported gains from high school are associated with college self-reported gains. As such, the chapter offers an empirical test of how accounting for one's predisposition to report educational impact changes estimates of the effects of college experiences…
Takarangi, Melanie K T; Strange, Deryn; Lindsay, D Stephen
Research examining maladaptive responses to trauma routinely relies on spontaneous self-report to index intrusive thoughts, which assumes people accurately recognize and report their intrusive thoughts. However, "mind-wandering" research reveals people are not always meta-aware of their thought content: they often fail to notice shifts in their attention. In two experiments, we exposed subjects to trauma films, then instructed them to report intrusive thoughts during an unrelated reading task. Intermittently, we asked whether they were thinking about the trauma. As expected, subjects often spontaneously reported intrusive thoughts. However, they were also "caught" engaging in unreported trauma-oriented thoughts. The presence and frequency of intermittent probes did not influence self-caught intrusions. Both self-caught and probe-caught intrusions were related to an existing tendency toward intrusive cognition, film-related distress, and thought suppression attempts. Our data suggest people may lack meta-awareness of trauma-related thoughts, which has implications for theory, research and treatment relating to trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:24993526
Zgaljardic, Dennis J.; Borod, Joan C.; Foldi, Nancy S.; Rocco, Mary; Mattis, Paul J.; Gordon, Mark F.; Feigin, Andrew S.; Eidelberg, David
Objective The prevalence of apathy was assessed across select cognitive and psychiatric variables in 32 nondemented patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and 29 demographically matched healthy control participants. Background Apathy is common in PD, although differentiating apathy from motor, cognitive, and/or other neuropsychiatric symptoms can be challenging. Previous studies have reported a positive relationship between apathy and cognitive impairment, particularly executive dysfunction. Method Patients were categorized according to apathy symptom severity. Stringent criteria were used to exclude patients with dementia. Results Approximately 44% of patients endorsed significant levels of apathy. Those patients performed worse than patients with nonsignificant levels of apathy on select measures of verbal fluency and on a measure of verbal and nonverbal conceptualization. Further, they reported a greater number of symptoms related to depression and behavioral disturbance than did those patients with nonsignificant levels of apathy. Apathy was significantly related to self-report of depression and executive dysfunction. Performance on cognitive tasks assessing verbal fluency, working memory, and verbal abstraction and also on a self-report measure of executive dysfunction was shown to significantly predict increasing levels of apathy. Conclusions Our findings suggest that apathy in nondemented patients with PD seems to be strongly associated with executive dysfunction. PMID:17846518
Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J
Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7 % of the sample, and 67 % was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8 % of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse. PMID:25270111
Lawrence J. Lewandowski; Benjamin J. Lovett; Robin S. Codding; Michael Gordon
Objective: Previous research has found ADHD symptoms to be common in the general population but has not compared endorsement of symptoms between ADHD and non-ADHD groups. This study examines self-reported ADHD symptoms and academic complaints in college students. Method: Students without (n = 496) and with ADHD (n = 38) completed a questionnaire covering the 18 ADHD symptoms in the
Ho, Lorinda Y; Lau, Anna S
Construal of the self as independent or interdependent in relation to others has been found to correlate significantly with social anxiety symptom ratings, raising concerns about possible cultural bias in these measures for Asian Americans. To investigate the validity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms, we examined the role of ethnicity in the associations among social anxiety, self-construal, and adaptive social functioning in a sample of 229 Asian- and European American college students. Results revealed that ethnicity moderated the relationship between self-construal and social anxiety such that interdependent self-construal was associated with higher social anxiety only for first generation Asian Americans. However, there were no significant ethnic differences in the associations between social anxiety self-reports and several measures of social functioning. PMID:21341897
Madhoo, Manisha; Levine, Stephen Z
The effects of initial severity on the time to and course of residual symptoms based on response or remission periods, and during and after failed response to citalopram in major depressive disorder are unknown. STAR*D data during and after failed citalopram treatment were reanalyzed to examine the effect of initial severity on the time to and course of residual symptoms using the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR). During and after failed citalopram treatment, Cox regression and Generalized Estimating Equation models were computed to examine mild and moderate residual symptoms during (1) response based on at least a 50% QIDS-SR reduction, as well as (2) remission based on a QIDS-SR score below 6. Generally, initial severity significantly (P < 0.05) increased the time to and course of residual symptoms at the time of response and remission. The course of select mild and moderate residual symptoms was significantly (P < 0.05) more likely to persist in the presence of initial severity during response than remission (eg, energy) across treatment levels. It is concluded that initial severity is a predictor of the time to and course of residual symptoms. The presence of residual symptoms is more likely during response than remission, thereby directing their definition as a treatment target. PMID:26066336
Derek Richard Smith; Mitsuko Sato; Taeko Miyajima; Takashi Mizutani; Zentaro Yamagata
We conducted an epidemiological investigation of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among a complete cohort of 222 female nursing students in Yamanashi prefecture, central Japan. This study involved a retrospective analysis of data gathered by means of a self-reported, anonymous questionnaire. Symptom descriptions and evaluation criteria were drawn from previously validated studies. Slightly more than one-third of all nursing students (36.9%) reported
Clara Wagner; John R. Z. Abela; Karen Brozina
A self-report checklist assessing the occurrence of stressful life events in children and adolescents' lives was compared to an objectively rated interview to determine whether the checklist would introduce over-reporting of events or over-rating of event severity as a function of child\\/parent depressive symptoms, cognitive vulnerability, or anxiety. Participants completed the Children's Life Events Scale (CLES), the Life Events Interview
Montaldi, Daniel F
The purpose of this study was to begin the development of a self-report envy scale, and to investigate possible associations between envy and self-deception, impression management, antisocial behavior, and cynical attitudes. ...
Johnson, Kenneth A.
Self-report ergometric inventories can provide valuable information to employers and can serve as a means of intervention to improve employee attributes. Based on the science of ergonomics (a science that studies the natural laws of work in order to maximize human efficiency in job performance), such an inventory focuses on the interaction of the…
Watkins, Arleen J.; Kligman, Evan
The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a self-reported inventory tapping current feelings only. A short form was published in 1972 consisting of 13 items from the original BDI, called the BDI-SF. In 1978 the original version was modified to eliminate double negative statements and alternative ways of asking the same question and then referred to…
B. Blicher; K. Joshipura; P. Eke
Self-report is an efficient and accepted means of assessing many population characteristics, risk factors, and diseases, but has rarely been used for periodontal disease (chronic periodontitis). The availability of valid self-reported measures of periodontal disease would facilitate epidemiologic studies on a much larger scale, allow for integration of new studies of periodontal disease within large ongoing studies, and facilitate lower-cost
Jared B. Jobe
This article describes the models and methods that cognitive psychologists and survey researchers use to evaluate and experimentally test cognitive issues in questionnaire design and subsequently improve self-report instruments. These models and methods assess the cognitive processes underlying how respondents comprehend and generate answers to self-report questions. Cognitive processing models are briefly described. Non-experimental methods – expert cognitive review, cognitive
The use of behavioural self-reports of drug users is widespread among studies of illicit drug use. Despite widespread use, concerns about the accuracy of these reports continue to be raised. The current paper critically reviews the literature on the reliability and validity of self-reported drug use, criminality and HIV risk-taking among injecting drug users. The literature shows respectable reliability and
Dianna T Kenny; Jennifer Grant
The aim of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of self-reports of juvenile offenders on physical factors (e.g. sleep difficulties, weight-related behaviours and weight perceptions), health risk behaviours (e.g. alcohol use), trauma history (e.g. physical and sexual abuse) and psychological factors (e.g. anxiety, suicidal and self-harm behaviours). Self-reports obtained via a Health Questionnaire from 242 incarcerated juvenile offenders
Bhui, Kamaldeep; Warfa, Nasir; Jones, Edgar
Background Doctors, lawyers and criminal justice agencies need methods to assess vulnerability to violent radicalization. In synergy, public health interventions aim to prevent the emergence of risk behaviours as well as prevent and treat new illness events. This paper describes a new method of assessing vulnerability to violent radicalization, and then investigates the role of previously reported causes, including poor self-reported health, anxiety and depression, adverse life events, poverty, and migration and socio-political factors. The aim is to identify foci for preventive intervention. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a representative population sample of men and women aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage and recruited by quota sampling by age, gender, working status, in two English cities. The main outcomes include self-reported health, symptoms of anxiety and depression (common mental disorders), and vulnerability to violent radicalization assessed by sympathies for violent protest and terrorist acts. Results 2.4% of people showed some sympathy for violent protest and terrorist acts. Sympathy was more likely to be articulated by the under 20s, those in full time education rather than employment, those born in the UK, those speaking English at home, and high earners (>£75,000 a year). People with poor self-reported health were less likely to show sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, adverse life events and socio-political attitudes showed no associations. Conclusions Sympathies for violent protest and terrorism were uncommon among men and women, aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage living in two English cities. Youth, wealth, and being in education rather than employment were risk factors. PMID:24599058
Brown, E Sherwood; Hughes, Carroll W; McColl, Roderick; Peshock, Ronald; King, Kevin S; Rush, A John
Hippocampal atrophy is reported in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, sample sizes were generally modest, and participant characteristics, including age, differed between studies. This study used a community sample to examine relationships between current depressive symptom severity and hippocampal volume across the adult lifespan. A total of 1936 adults with magnetic resonance images of the brain and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR) scores were included. Brain volumes were quantified using the FSL program. Multiple linear regressions were performed using left, right, and total hippocampal volume as criterion variables, and predictor variables of QIDS-SR total, total brain volume, age, gender, education, psychotropic medications, alcohol use, and race/ethnicity. Post hoc analyses were conducted in participants with QIDS-SR scores ?11 (moderate or greater depressive symptom severity) and <11, and older and younger adults. In the primary analysis (sample as a whole) QIDS-SR was inversely associated with total hippocampal volume (b=?0.044, p=0.032, (CI?0.019 to ?0.001)) but not with left or right hippocampal volume evaluated individually. In participants with QIDS-SR scores of <11, hippocampal volumes were not associated with QIDS-SR scores. In those with QIDS-SR scores ?11 total, right, and left hippocampal volumes were modestly, but significantly, associated with QIDS-SR scores. The association between QIDS-SR scores and the hippocampal volume was much stronger in older persons. Findings suggest smaller hippocampal volumes among those with greater reported depressive symptom severity—an association that is strongest in people with at least moderate depressive symptom levels. PMID:24220026
Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Blijlevens, Pim
The present study examined the relations between self-reported reactive and regulative temperament factors and psychopathological symptoms and personality traits in a group of non-clinical youths aged 9-13 years (N=208). Results showed that the reactive temperament factor of negative affectivity was positively associated with internalizing and…
Philip C. Kendall; Steven D. Hollon; Aaron T. Beck; Constance L. Hammen; Rick E. Ingram
Issues concerning use of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for the self-report of depressive symptomatology are raised and considered. Discussion includes the stability of depression and the need for multiple assessment periods, specificity and the need for multiple assessment measures, and selection cut scores and the need for terminological accuracy. Recommendations for the continued use of the BDI, designed to
DeKoning, E.; Weiss, R. L.
This study describes the development of a self-report measure of functional humor in relationships. People were asked to report on their own and their partner's use of humor in the marriage. The Relational Humor Inventory proved to be a useful instrument for tapping important positive and negative relationship behaviors. (Contains 30 references, 4…
A three-phase study was conducted to develop and validate the Penn Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a 26-item self-report measure. Results with 83 and 98 combat veterans and with 76 general population patients and disaster survivors support usefulness of the measure. (SLD)
Eric M. Vernberg; Annette M. La Greca; Wendy K. Silverman; Mitchell J. Prinstein
The authors used an integrative conceptual model to examine the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 568 elementary school-age children 3 months after Hurricane An- drew. The model included 4 primary factors: Exposure to Traumatic Events, Child Characteristics, Access to Social Support, and Children's Coping. Overall, 62% of the variance in children's self- reported PTSD symptoms was accounted
Ge, Xiaojia; Brody, Gene H.; Conger, Rand D.; Simons, Ronald L.
The association of pubertal maturation with internalizing and externalizing symptoms was examined with a sample of 867 African-American 10-12-year-old children. Children reported their pubertal development status and timing using a self-report questionnaire, and symptoms were assessed through diagnostic interviews with the children and their…
Dallaire, Danielle H.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Cole, David A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Jacquez, Farrah; LaGrange, Beth; Bruce, Alanna E.
This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive-positive and harsh-negative parenting behaviors on children's depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children's depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports…
Mitch Earleywine; Sara Smucker Barnwell
Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use
Ferol E. Mennen
This exploratory study looks at a sample of abused Latino children and evaluates the relationship of PTSD symptoms to other symptoms, characteristics of the abuse, and demographics. The results indicate that Latino children have a wide range of distress, with some children being highly symptomatic and others with few symptoms. The scores on the PTSD Inventory were related to scores
An inventory of potentially available nuclear byproducts from defense production activities and from the commercial fuel cycle has been prepared for inclusion in the DOE document, Department of Energy Plan for Recovery and Utilization of Nuclear Byproducts from Defense Wastes, which should be issued in 1983. The byproduct materials included in the inventory are strontium-90, cesium-137, krypton-85, xenon, palladium, rhodium,
A science kit inventory introduces students to tools and vocabulary, paving the way for successful science experiences. While it is an effective strategy for all students, it is especially useful for English Learners. This article describes how kit inventories are conducted and what role each step plays in both conceptual development and the internalization of academic vocabulary.
Finkelstein, J W; Susman, E J; Chinchilli, V M; Kunselman, S J; D'Arcangelo, M R; Schwab, J; Demers, L M; Liben, L S; Lookingbill, G; Kulin, H E
A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial was used to determine the role of sex steroids on the development of aggressive behaviors in 35 boys and 14 girls. Depo-testosterone (to boys) or conjugated estrogens (to girls) was administered in 3-month blocks alternating with placebo at three dose levels approximating early, middle and late pubertal amounts. The Olweus Multifaceted Aggression Inventory was administered after each placebo and treatment period to ascertain the effect of sex steroids on self-reported aggressive behaviors. We employed a strict intent-to-treat analytical model. The data demonstrated significant hormone effects on physical aggressive behaviors and aggressive impulses, but not in verbal aggressive behaviors nor aggressive inhibitions in both boys and girls. These results are the first to causally relate the administration of physiological doses of sex steroids to changes in aggressive behaviors in adolescents. PMID:9253313
Falkenbach, Diana; Poythress, Norman; Falki, Marielle; Manchak, Sarah
The present study assessed the psychometric properties and construct validity of two self-report measures of psychopathy in a male-college sample: the Levenson Psychopathy scales (LPS; Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996). Both the LPS and the PPI demonstrated good internal consistency, although selected items from the PPI correlated weakly with their respective factor scores, suggesting the need for further investigation of the factors' item content. The PPI showed stronger validity than the LPS in terms of convergent and discriminant validity of its factor scores and factor associations with two criterion variables, aggression, and anxiety. Overall, the current study provides greater support for the use of the PPI over the LPS in studies investigating psychopathic traits in nonclinical and nonforensic samples. PMID:17986652
Elliot, Catherine; Lang, Christin; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus
This study examines how students who met the current recommendations for vigorous physical activity (VPA) of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) differ from peers who did not reach these standards with regard to self-reported burnout, before and after controlling for light physical activity and moderate physical activity. A sample of 144 vocational students (Mage =16.2 years, SD = 1.13, 98 males) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure, and the School Burnout Inventory. Bivariate correlations revealed that only VPA was associated with reduced burnout. Both the ACSM and CDC guidelines were useful to identify significant differences in burnout symptoms between students who met versus did not meet the standards. Health policy makers should develop strategies to integrate more VPA into the lives of adolescent students so as to reach a minimum of 60 min per week. PMID:25996108
Bruce P. Hermann; Michael Seidenberg; Brian Bell; Austin Woodard; Paul Rutecki; Raj Sheth
Purpose. The goals of this work were to determine: (1) the nature and extent of differences in self-reported psychiatric symptoms between patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and matched healthy controls, (2) the relationship between chronicity (duration) of temporal lobe epilepsy and comorbid interictal psychiatric symptoms, and (3) the impact of comorbid psychiatric symptoms on self-reported health-related quality of life.Methods. Patients
Symptom Management A brain injury can affect a person physically and psychologically, and sometimes the symptoms don't appear ... Diagnosis and Assessment Treatment and Recovery Caregiving Symptom Management Life After TBI Defense and Veterans Brain Injury ...
An inventory of potentially available nuclear byproducts from defense production activities and from the commercial fuel cycle has been prepared for inclusion in the DOE document, Department of Energy Plan for Recovery and Utilization of Nuclear Byproducts from Defense Wastes, which should be issued in 1983. The byproduct materials included in the inventory are strontium-90, cesium-137, krypton-85, xenon, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, technetium-99, americium-241, promethium-147, neptunium-237, and curium. The inventory summarizes the amounts of these materials in current wastes and projects the quantities contained in future wastes. 2 figures, 7 tables.
Critchfield, T S
The bias (B'H) and discriminability (A') of college students' self-reports about choices made in a delayed identity matching-to-sample task were studied as a function of characteristics of the response about which they reported. Each matching-to-sample trial consisted of two, three, or four simultaneously presented sample stimuli, a 1-s retention interval, and two, three, or four comparison stimuli. One sample stimulus was always reproduced among the comparisons, and choice of the matching comparison in less than 800 ms produced points worth chances in a drawing for money. After each choice, subjects pressed either a "yes" or a "no" button to answer a computer-generated query about whether the choice met the point contingency. The number of sample and comparison stimuli was manipulated across experimental conditions. Rates of successful matching-to-sample choices were negatively correlated with the number of matching-to-sample stimuli, regardless of whether samples or comparisons were manipulated. As in previous studies, subjects exhibited a pronounced bias for reporting successful responses. Self-report bias tended to become less pronounced as matching-to-sample success became less frequent, an outcome consistent with signal-frequency effects in psychophysical research. The bias was also resistant to change, suggesting influences other than signal frequency that remain to be identified. Self-report discriminability tended to decrease with the number of sample stimuli and increase with the number of comparison stimuli, an effect not attributable to differential effects of the two manipulations on matching-to-sample performance. Overall, bias and discriminability indices revealed effects that were not evident in self-report accuracy scores. The results indicate that analyses based on signal-detection theory can improve the description of correspondence between self-reports and their referents and thus contribute to the identification of environmental sources of control over verbal self-reports. PMID:8283146
Haugen, Anne Julsrud; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens Ivar; Grotle, Margreth
The objective of the study was to investigate how patients with sciatica due to disc herniation rate the bothersomeness of paresthesia and weakness as compared to leg pain, and how these symptoms are associated with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 411 patients with clinical signs of radiculopathy. Items from the Sciatica Bothersomeness Index (0 = none to 6 = extremely) were used to establish values for paresthesia, weakness and leg pain. Associations with socio-demographic and clinical variables were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Mean scores (SD) were 4.5 (1.5) for leg pain, 3.4 (1.8) for paresthesia and 2.6 (2.0) for weakness. Women reported higher levels of bothersomeness for all three symptoms with mean scores approximately 10% higher than men. In the multivariate models, more severe symptoms were associated with lower physical function and higher emotional distress. Muscular paresis explained 19% of the variability in self-reported weakness, sensory findings explained 10% of the variability in paresthesia, and straight leg raising test explained 9% of the variability in leg pain. In addition to leg pain, paresthesia and weakness should be assessed when measuring symptom severity in sciatica. PMID:19488793
Friis, L; Carter, N; Edling, C
Unemployment is considered to be a public health concern since deterioration in the health of the unemployed is often anticipated. However, for some groups, such as miners, unemployment might improve health due to a cessation of potentially harmful occupational exposures. This study evaluates the health of 79 miners in one Swedish iron-ore mine, and 226 age-matched controls from the general population, during one year after the closure of the mine. The participants received a questionnaire regarding medical history and subjective symptoms at the beginning of the study period, and after one year. Statistically significant negative effects on self-reported health attributable to unemployment were not found, although neuropsychiatric symptoms were more common among the unemployed miners. The miners reported a statistically significant improvement in grip force (p = 0.031). They had a significantly higher prevalence of symptoms associated with mining related exposures when compared with the population controls; pain in the upper extremities [relative risk (RR) = 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.44-3.59), back pain (RR = 1.84; CI = 1.23-2.75), vasospastic disease of the fingers (RR = 2.05; CI = 1.18-3.57) and obstructive respiratory symptoms (attacks of dyspnea and wheezing: RR = 3.67; CI = 1.16-11.6). PMID:9876412
Hall, Susan A.; Link, Carol L.; Hu, Jim C.; Eggers, Paul W.; McKinlay, John B.
Objective To examine, in a community-based sample, the use of prescription drugs for lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH), overactive bladder, erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, and painful bladder syndrome; and to determine whether the use of recommended medications varied by sociodemographics, symptom severity, access to care, and other factors. Subjects and methods In a cross-sectional analysis of data obtained from 5503 men and women residents participating in the Boston Area Community Health Survey of Boston, MA, urological symptoms were ascertained by in-person interviews conducted during 2002–2005, using validated symptom scales. Medication use in the past 4 weeks was captured using a combination of drug-inventory methods and self-report. Results Compared to the prevalence of symptoms, the prevalence of use of medications for urological conditions was very low among men and women. The highest prevalence of use was among men with moderate-to-severe LUTS/BPH symptoms, where 9.6% used recommended drugs. Use of medications did not vary consistently by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status, but was often associated with symptom severity. More frequent and more recent use of medical care was also associated with greater use of urological medications. Conclusions Only a small proportion of community-dwelling men and women with urological symptoms are receiving recommended effective drug treatments for urological conditions. While not all persons are candidates for drug treatment, our results suggest that there is a substantial unmet need in the general population. PMID:19549122
Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Buodo, Giulia; Mennella, Rocco; Palomba, Daniela
Background: Somatic, but not cognitive–affective, symptoms of depression have been associated with reduced heart rate variability (HRV), and with poor prognosis in cardiovascular patients. However, factors concomitant with cardiovascular diseases may confound the relationship between somatic symptoms of depression and reduced HRV. Therefore, this study examined whether reduced HRV was differentially associated with cognitive–affective and somatic symptoms of depression in medically healthy individuals with and without dysphoria. Methods: Self-reported cognitive–affective and somatic symptoms as measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II questionnaire and time and frequency domain parameters of HRV were collected in 62 medically healthy individuals, of whom 25 with and 37 without dysphoria. Results: Somatic, but not cognitive–affective, symptoms of depression were inversely associated with SD of NN intervals (? = -0.476, p < 0.05), number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 ms (NN50; ? = -0.498, p < 0.03), and HRV total power (? = -0.494, p < 0.04) in the group with dysphoria, after controlling for sex, anxiety, and lifestyle factors. Cognitive–affective and somatic symptoms were not related to any of the HRV parameters in the group without dysphoria (all ps > 0.24). Conclusion: By showing that the relationship between somatic depressive symptoms and reduced HRV extends to medically healthy individuals with dysphoria, the present findings suggest that this association is independent of factors concomitant with cardiovascular diseases. The present study also suggests that individuals with somatic rather than cognitive–affective subsets of depressive symptoms may be at greater risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25999905
Terrence J Horrigan; Nick Piazza
Multiple authors have reported attempts to effectively address the discovery of substance abuse in pregnancy using various mechanisms to encourage positive self-reports and urine toxicology to augment identification. In this study, we evaluated 1,251 patients with (a) self-report, (b) the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI), and (c) urine toxicology screening to determine which modality or combination would yield the
Aukst-Margeti?, Branka; Jakši?, Nenad; Bori?evi? Maršani?, Vlatka; Jakovljevi?, Miro
This study investigated the associations between internalized stigma, depressive symptoms, and temperament dimension Harm avoidance. One hundred and seventeen stable outpatients with schizophrenia completed a battery of self-report instruments. Internalized stigma was significantly positively related to depressive symptoms, while Harm avoidance moderated the internalized stigma-depressive symptoms relationship. PMID:24857565
Meyer, Jessica E; Arnett, Peter A
Collegiate athletes tested at baseline and post-concussion were administered a self-report measure of post-concussion symptoms pre- and post-testing. Athletes tested post-concussion were significantly more likely to demonstrate an increase in symptoms post-testing, suggesting that the cognitive exertion involved in neuropsychological assessment may exacerbate symptoms in some athletes. PMID:25649776
Lewandowski, Lawrence J.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Codding, Robin S.; Gordon, Michael
Objective: Previous research has found ADHD symptoms to be common in the general population but has not compared endorsement of symptoms between ADHD and non-ADHD groups. This study examines self-reported ADHD symptoms and academic complaints in college students. Method: Students without (n = 496) and with ADHD (n = 38) completed a questionnaire…
Diamond, G.M.; Izzard, M.C.; Kedar, T.; Hutlzer, A.; Mell, H.
The objective of this study was to assess the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and the relation between psychological symptoms and drug use severity, among 117 Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment. Psychological symptoms were assessed via both adolescent self-report and parent report. Drug use was…
Welling, Lisa L M; Singh, Kevin; Puts, David A; Jones, Benedict C; Burriss, Robert P
Recent studies investigating the relationship between self-reported sexual desire and attraction to same- and opposite-sex individuals have found that homosexual men's sexual desire is positively correlated with their self-reported attraction to own-sex individuals only, while homosexual women's sexual desire is positively correlated with their self-reported attraction to both men and women. These data have been interpreted as evidence that sexual desire strengthens men's pre-existing (i.e., dominant) sexual behaviors and strengthens women's sexual behaviors in general. Here we show that homosexual men's (n = 106) scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 (SDI-2) were positively correlated with their preferences for exaggerated sex-typical shape cues in own-sex, but not opposite-sex, faces. Contrary to the hypothesis that sexual desire strengthens women's preferences for sexual dimorphism generally, homosexual women's (n = 83) SDI-2 scores were positively correlated with their preferences for exaggerated sex-typical shape cues in opposite-sex faces only. Together with previous research in heterosexual subjects, our findings support the proposal that sexual desire increases the incidence of existing sexual behaviors in homosexual and heterosexual men, and increases the incidence of sexual responses more generally in heterosexual women, although not necessarily in homosexual women. PMID:23297152
Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Ezquerra-Cabrera, Mercedes; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada
The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education. PMID:24232917
This article, part of Biodiversity Counts, reports on the process of doing a plant inventory. The article discusses how scientists begin by marking out the plot, using colored flagging and permanent marker, why you may need to divide a plot into smaller subplots if the plants you're inventorying are smaller than trees, and some of the difficulties scientists face in the field when they're working in particularly dense areas.
Gerard A. Banez; Bruce E. Compas
Associations of children's daily stressful events and their parents' daily hassles and psychological symptoms with children's emotional\\/behavioral problems were examined in a sample of fourth- and fifth-grade children and their parents. Correlational analyses indicated that children's self-reports of depressive symptoms were associated with children's daily stressors and mothers' daily hassles, and children's selfreports of anxiety symptoms were associated with children's
David F. Tolin; Carol M. Woods; Jonathan S. Abramowitz
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between symptom presentation in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and dysfunctional beliefs hypothesized to relate to OCD. Five-hundred sixty two undergraduates completed self-report measures of OCD symptoms and OCD-related beliefs, as well as measures of social anxiety and depression. The tendency to overestimate threat significantly predicted the OCD symptom domains of washing,
Yvonne Gold; Patricia Bachelor; William B. Michael
For a sample of 147 fifth-year students enrolled in a teacher training program at the elementary school level, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses involving orthogonal and oblique solutions were carried out on a correlation matrix of scores on 22 items from a self-report inventory of teacher burnout that was adapted with permission from the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The
Bonnaud, Sophie; Boumendil, Ariane; Andrieu, Sandrine; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Ankri, Joël
Objectives. We investigated whether, and under what conditions, informal caregiving is associated with improved self-reported physical and mental health, most notably in terms of cognitive functioning. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2008 data from the Gazel Cohort Study, which involved 10 687 men and women aged 54 to 70 years. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between self-reported health and caregiving status and burden. Results. Regular caregivers with the highest burden scores reported significantly worse health status than did noncaregivers for almost all of the physical and mental outcomes evaluated after adjustment for potential confounding factors. In particular, they reported more cognitive complaints (odds ratio [OR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21, 1.73). Conversely, caregivers with the lowest burden scores reported better perceived health status, less physical and mental tiredness, and fewer depressive symptoms (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.37, 0.68) than did noncaregivers; however, they did not report decreases in cognitive difficulties (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.81, 1.18). Conclusions. Our findings support the hypothesis that caregiving can have positive effects on health, provided that caregiving activities themselves are not too heavy a burden. PMID:21493948
Powers, Abigail; Stevens, Jennifer; Fani, Negar; Bradley, Bekh
There is a need for a brief measure of emotion dysregulation that can be used in large-scale studies. This study evaluated the construct validity of a short, self-report instrument of emotion dysregulation. Subjects (N=2197) were recruited from primary care clinics of an urban public hospital as part of a study of trauma-related risk and resilience. Emotion dysregulation was measured using the Emotion Dysregulation Scale, short version (EDS-short), a12-item self-report measure assessing emotional experiencing, cognition, and behavior. EDS-short was first compared with the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Then, the construct validity of the EDS-short in predicting depression, posttraumatic stress, substance abuse, borderline pathology, suicide attempts, psychiatric hospitalizations, positive affect, and resiliency was assessed. We found a significant positive correlation between EDS-short and DERS. The EDS-short was significantly predictive of higher reported depressive, posttraumatic stress, substance abuse, and borderline symptoms, and lower reported positive affect and resiliency, over and above demographic characteristics and negative affect. Our results demonstrate that the EDS-short is a useful instrument for measuring emotion dysregulation in traumatized populations. A brief measure of emotion dysregulation is critical as the field moves forward in studying the wide ranging negative effects of emotion dysregulation across psychiatric disorders and outcomes. PMID:25468625
Smith, Joyce D.; Shaffer, David R.
Female subjects high in private self-consciousness provided more assistance to a person in need than did subjects low on this attribute. "High-private" subjects were less helpful if they were also high in public self-consciousness. Self-reported altruism, reliably predicted the helping behavior of subjects high as opposed to low in private…
Scheier, Michael F.; And Others
Private self-consciousness consists of attending to one's thoughts, feelings, and motives. Public self-consciousness consists of attending to oneself as a social object. The effect of dispositional self-consciousness on the accuracy of self-reports was studied in research on aggression. (Editor)
Miller, Angie L.
The frequent use of student self-report surveys in higher education calls into question the possibility of social desirability having an unwanted influence on responses. This research explores the potential presence of social desirability bias with the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), a widely used assessment of student behaviors.…
Miller, Angie L.
The frequent use of self-report student surveys in higher education calls into question the possibility of social desirability having an unwanted influence on responses. This research explores the potential presence of social desirability bias with the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), a widely used assessment of student behaviors.…
Valerie Clarke; Sally Savage; Barbara Hanna; Helen Cox
Our aim was to provide a description of the self-reported health beliefs of a sample of Victorian public housing tenants, and to identify how gender, age and geographic location relate to these beliefs. Telephone interviews were conducted with a stratified random sample of 360 tenants, asking questions such as what they believe are the major health problems for men and
Scott Menard; Delbert S. Elliott
The maturational reform hypothesis and the Easterlin cohort size hypothesis are used to specify models in which age, period, and cohort effects on self-reported crime and delinquency are estimated. Curvilinear effects, logarithmic transformations, and the distinction between prevalence and frequency of offending are considered. The maturational reform hypothesis is supported for general delinquency but not for serious (Index) delinquency, for
Glenn D. Walters; Chad A. Brinkley; Philip R. Magaletta; Pamela M. Diamond
Levenson's Self-Report Psychopathy scale (Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995) was administered to 1,972 male and female federal prison inmates, the results of which were subjected to taxometric analysis. We employed 4 taxometric procedures in this study: mean above minus below a cut (Meehl & Yonce, 1994), maximum slope (Grove & Meehl, 1993), maximum eigenvalue (Waller & Meehl, 1998), and latent-mode
Deborah A. Clayton; Christopher J. Griffith; Patricia Price; Adrian C. Peters
Despite an increase in the number of food handlers receiving food hygiene training, a high proportion of food poisoning outbreaks still occur as a result of poor food handling practices. This paper uses elements of social cognitive theory to examine the beliefs of food handlers towards food safety and to determine food handlers' self-reported practices. Questionnaires were completed by 137
Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Anetzberger, Georgia J.
Purpose: This study tested key psychometric properties of the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM), one self-report scale of the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment (OAMA). Design and Methods: Items and theory were developed in a prior concept mapping study. Subsequently, the measures were administered to 226 substantiated clients by 22…
McHugh, R. Kathryn; Behar, Evelyn
As the demand for accountability in service provision settings increases, the need for valid methods for assessing clinical outcomes is of particular importance. Self-report measures of functioning are particularly useful in the assessment of psychological functioning, but a vital factor in their validity and transportability is the reading level…
Johnson, Patrick B.
This experiment examined the impact of achievement motivation on the accuracy of self-reported grades. The author predicted that subjects high in achievement motivation would also be more likely to overestimate the degree of their success than low need achievers. Results supported the hypotheses. (Author)
Gold, Steven R.; Cundiff, Gary
Coed undergraduates were assigned to three groups: a talk about daydreaming emphasizing its adaptive qualities, attention control, or a no treatment control. Results suggested that providing undergraduates with positive information about daydreaming leads to an increased frequency of self-reported daydreaming. (Author)
Ileana Arias; Steven R. H. Beach
The most commonly used and practiced method for assessing spouse abuse is the individual's self-report of engaging in or being a victim of physical aggression. However, the socially undesirable nature of relationship violence raises questions regarding the likelihood that it is accurately reported. The current investigation found that a socially desirable response set is related to willingness to report one's
Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J.; Lummus, Allan C.; Nichols, Linda O.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer
BACKGROUND: Differences in self-reported disability may be found for older black and white adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: This secondary analysis of data from a randomized single-blind clinical trial examined race differences in the relationship between self-reports and timed performance tests of walking. Study participants were 518 older adults (131 blacks, 387 whites), including 363 women and 155 men, with an average age of 68.6 years. RESULTS: Older black and white adults with radiographically documented knee OA reported equivalent functional ability and pain severity. However, both blacks' OA severity rating and tested performance were significantly worse than those of whites. Self-report and tested walking performance were significantly less correlated among black older adults than among white older adults. Analyses of potential confounding variables documented that the difference was not due to marital status, gender, education, income, body mass index, comorbidity, pain level, OA severity or general health. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reports of OA disability were less related to tested performance for walking among black older adults. Clinicians' knowledge of black patients' underestimation of their disability has compelling potential for improving clinical treatment and enhancing diagnostic approaches to care of older adults. PMID:17913116
Bamber, David; Castka, Pavel
Purpose: To identify competencies connecting personality, organizational orientations and self-reported learning outcomes (as measured by concise Likert-type scales), for individuals who are learning for their organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Five concise factor scales were constructed to represent aspects of personality. Three further…
McCarrey, Michael; And Others
Investigates the ability of 269 Canadian male and female undergraduates, with comparable fear of negative evaluation, to give and receive criticism. Using role playing, in vivo, and self-reported criticism behaviors, finds no significant differences across gender. Reports the hypothesis that women would devalue their criticism skills on…
Andreou, Eleni; Bonoti, Fotini
Traditionally, studies assessing children's experiences of bullying and victimization have focused on the use of questionnaires and peer-nominations. The present study aimed to investigate this phenomenon by using two complementary assessment tools, namely self-reported questionnaires and children's drawings. The sample consisted of 448 boys and…
Konno, Shin-ichi; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi; Tanaka, Yasuhisa; Yamazaki, Ken; Shimada, You-ichi; Takei, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Toru; Okada, Masahiro; Kokubun, Shou-ichi
Background There is no validated gold-standard diagnostic support tool for LSS, and therefore an accurate diagnosis depends on clinical assessment. Assessment of the diagnostic value of the history of the patient requires an evaluation of the differences and overlap of symptoms of the radicular and cauda equina types; however, no tool is available for evaluation of the LSS category. We attempted to develop a self-administered, self-reported history questionnaire as a diagnostic support tool for LSS using a clinical epidemiological approach. The aim of the present study was to use this tool to assess the diagnostic value of the history of the patient for categorization of LSS. Methods The initial derivation study included 137 patients with LSS and 97 with lumbar disc herniation who successfully recovered following surgical treatment. The LSS patients were categorized into radicular and cauda equina types based on history, physical examinations, and MRI. Predictive factors for overlapping symptoms between the two types and for cauda equina symptoms in LSS were derived by univariate analysis. A self-administered, self-reported history questionnaire (SSHQ) was developed based on these findings. A prospective derivation study was then performed in a series of 115 patients with LSS who completed the SSHQ before surgery. All these patients recovered following surgical treatment. The sensitivity of the SSHQ was calculated and clinical prediction rules for LSS were developed. A validation study was subsequently performed on 250 outpatients who complained of lower back pain with or without leg symptoms. The sensitivity and specificity of the SSHQ were calculated, and the test-retest reliability over two weeks was investigated in 217 patients whose symptoms remained unchanged. Results The key predictive factors for overlapping symptoms between the two categories of LSS were age > 50, lower-extremity pain or numbness, increased pain when walking, increased pain when standing, and relief of symptoms on bending forward (odds ratio ? 2, p < 0.05). The key predictive factors for cauda equina type symptoms were numbness around the buttocks, walking almost causes urination, a burning sensation around the buttocks, numbness in the soles of both feet, numbness in both legs, and numbness without pain (odds ratio ? 2, p < 0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of the SSHQ were 84% and 78%, respectively, in the validation data set. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.797 in the derivation set and 0.782 in the validation data set. In the test-retest analysis, the intraclass correlation coefficient for the first and second tests was 85%. Conclusion A new self-administered, self-reported history questionnaire was developed successfully as a diagnostic support tool for LSS. PMID:17967201
Robbins, Clifford A; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Picano, John D; Gavett, Brandon E; Baugh, Christine M; Riley, David O; Nowinski, Christopher J; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; Stern, Robert A
Background In recent years, the understanding of concussion has evolved in the research and medical communities to include more subtle and transient symptoms. The accepted definition of concussion in these communities has reflected this change. However, it is unclear whether this shift is also reflected in the understanding of the athletic community. What is known about the subject Self-reported concussion history is an inaccurate assessment of someone’s lifetime exposure to concussive brain trauma. However, unfortunately, in many cases it is the only available tool. Hypothesis/purpose We hypothesize that athletes’ self-reported concussion histories will be significantly greater after reading them the current definition of concussion, relative to the reporting when no definition was provided. An increase from baseline to post-definition response will suggest that athletes are unaware of the currently accepted medical definition. Study design Cross-sectional study of 472 current and former athletes. Methods Investigators conducted structured telephone interviews with current and former athletes between January 2010 and January 2013, asking participants to report how many concussions they had received in their lives. Interviewers then read participants a current definition of concussion, and asked them to re-estimate based on that definition. Results The two estimates were significantly different (Wilcoxon signed rank test: z=15.636, P<0.001). Comparison of the baseline and post-definition medians (7 and 15, respectively) indicated that the post-definition estimate was approximately twice the baseline. Follow-up analyses indicated that this effect was consistent across all levels of competition examined and across type of sport (contact versus non-contact). Conclusion Our results indicate that athletes’ current understandings of concussions are not consistent with a currently accepted medical definition. We strongly recommend that clinicians and researchers preface requests for self-reported concussion history with a definition. In addition, it is extremely important that researchers report the definition they used in published manuscripts of their work. What this study adds to existing knowledge Our study shows that unprompted reporting of concussion history produces results that are significantly different from those provided after a definition has been given, suggesting one possible mechanism to improve the reliability of self-reported concussion history across multiple individuals. PMID:24891816
Brinthaupt, Thomas M; Benson, Scott A; Kang, Minsoo; Moore, Zaver D
As with most kinds of inner experience, it is difficult to assess actual self-talk frequency beyond self-reports, given the often hidden and subjective nature of the phenomenon. The Self-Talk Scale (STS; Brinthaupt et al., 2009) is a self-report measure of self-talk frequency that has been shown to possess acceptable reliability and validity. However, no research using the STS has examined the accuracy of respondents' self-reports. In the present paper, we report a series of studies directly examining the measurement of self-talk frequency and functions using the STS. The studies examine ways to validate self-reported self-talk by (1) comparing STS responses from 6 weeks earlier to recent experiences that might precipitate self-talk, (2) using experience sampling methods to determine whether STS scores are related to recent reports of self-talk over a period of a week, and (3) comparing self-reported STS scores to those provided by a significant other who rated the target on the STS. Results showed that (1) overall self-talk scores, particularly self-critical and self-reinforcing self-talk, were significantly related to reports of context-specific self-talk; (2) high STS scorers reported talking to themselves significantly more often during recent events compared to low STS scorers, and, contrary to expectations, (3) friends reported less agreement than strangers in their self-other self-talk ratings. Implications of the results for the validity of the STS and for measuring self-talk are presented. PMID:25999887
Merrell, Kenneth W.; Blade, Richard L.; Lund, Jacqueline; Kempf, Kari K. G.
This brief report details a study of the construct validity of the Internalizing Symptoms Scale for Children (ISSC) in comparison with the Child Self-Report Form of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC). Using self-reports of 121 students ages 8-12 from general education classes, who were administered both measures, correlational…
Steer, R A; Platt, J J; Hendriks, V M; Metzger, D S
One-hundred Dutch and 100 American heroin addicts receiving methadone were administered the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), and a Modal Profile Analysis was performed to determine whether or not the mean profiles of the nine SCL-90 subscales were comparable for these two White male samples. Three profile-shape components correctly classified over 85% of both groups and reflected (1) Anxious-depressed, (2) Hostile and (3) Paranoid syndromes. The relationships of the SCL-90 profiles to selected psychosocial characteristics were also studied. For example, marijuana use was associated with the Paranoid shape component in both samples. The implications of these SCL-90 profiles for identifying common aspects of self-reported psychopathology in both Dutch and American heroin addicts were discussed. PMID:2605992
Del Vecchio, Nicole; Elwy, A Rani; Smith, Eric; Bottonari, Kathryn A; Eisen, Susan V
The authors report results of work to enhance self-report posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessment by developing an item bank for use in a computer-adapted test. Computer-adapted tests have great potential to decrease the burden of PTSD assessment and outcomes monitoring. The authors conducted a systematic literature review of PTSD instruments, created a database of items, performed qualitative review and readability analysis, and conducted cognitive interviews with veterans diagnosed with PTSD. The systematic review yielded 480 studies in which 41 PTSD instruments comprising 993 items met inclusion criteria. The final PTSD item bank includes 104 items representing each of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994), PTSD symptom clusters (reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal), and 3 additional subdomains (depersonalization, guilt, and sexual problems) that expanded the assessment item pool. PMID:21351175
Cundiff, Jenny M; Smith, Timothy W; Frandsen, Clay A
The personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness are consistently related to marital quality, influencing the individual's own (i.e., actor effect) and the spouse's marital quality (i.e., partner effect). However, this research has almost exclusively relied on self-reports of personality, despite the fact that spouse ratings have been found to have incremental validity over self-reports for a variety of other important outcomes. In a study of 300 middle-aged and older married couples, we examined the incremental validity of spouse ratings of neuroticism and agreeableness in predicting concurrent levels of self-reported marital quality, observations of behavior during a marital disagreement task, and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and agreeableness had expected actor and partner effects on each of these outcomes. Spouse ratings of these traits demonstrated incremental validity in estimates of actor and partner effects on marital quality, marital behavior, and depressive symptoms. Results suggest that spouse ratings of personality may be important additions to the typical reliance on self-reports for research and clinical assessment in marriage. PMID:22149325
Kilts, Jason D; Tupler, Larry A; Keefe, Francis J; Payne, Victoria M; Hamer, Robert M; Naylor, Jennifer C; Calnaido, Rohana P; Morey, Rajendra A; Strauss, Jennifer L; Parke, Gillian; Massing, Mark W; Youssef, Nagy A; Shampine, Lawrence J; Marx, Christine E
Objective Nearly half of Operation Enduring Freedom / Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans experience continued pain post-deployment. Several investigations report analgesic effects of allopregnanolone and other neurosteroids in animal models, but few data are currently available focusing on neurosteroids in clinical populations. Allopregnanolone positively modulates GABAA receptors and demonstrates pronounced analgesic and anxiolytic effects in rodents, yet studies examining the relationship between pain and allopregnanolone in humans are limited. We thus hypothesized that endogenous allopregnanolone and other neurosteroid levels may be negatively correlated with self-reported pain symptoms in humans. Design We determined serum neurosteroid levels by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (allopregnanolone, pregnenolone) or radioimmunoassay (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], progesterone, DHEA sulfate [DHEAS]) in 90 male veterans who served in the U.S. military after September 11, 2001. Self-reported pain symptoms were assessed in four areas (low back pain, chest pain, muscle soreness, headache). Stepwise linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between pain assessments and neurosteroids, with the inclusion of smoking, alcohol use, age, and history of traumatic brain injury as covariates. Setting Durham VA Medical Center. Results Allopregnanolone levels were inversely associated with low back pain (p=0.044) and chest pain (p=0.013), and DHEA levels were inversely associated with muscle soreness (p=0.024). DHEAS levels were positively associated with chest pain (p=0.001). Additionally, there was a positive association between traumatic brain injury and muscle soreness (p=0.002). Conclusions Neurosteroids may be relevant to the pathophysiology of self-reported pain symptoms in this veteran cohort, and could represent future pharmacological targets for pain disorders. PMID:20735755
Genetic moderation of child maltreatment effects on depression and internalizing symptoms by serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) genes in African American children.
Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A
Genetic moderation of the effects of child maltreatment on depression and internalizing symptoms was investigated in a sample of low-income maltreated and nonmaltreated African American children (N = 1,096). Lifetime child maltreatment experiences were independently coded from Child Protective Services records and maternal report. Child depression and internalizing problems were assessed in the context of a summer research camp by self-report on the Children's Depression Inventory and adult counselor report on the Teacher Report Form. DNA was obtained from buccal cell or saliva samples and genotyped for polymorphisms of the following genes: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter, and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1. Analyses of covariance with age and gender as covariates were conducted, with maltreatment status and respective polymorphism as main effects and their Gene × Environment (G × E) interactions. Maltreatment consistently was associated with higher Children's Depression Inventory and Teacher Report Form symptoms. The results for child self-report symptoms indicated a G × E interaction for BDNF and maltreatment. In addition, BDNF and triallelic 5-HTTLPR interacted with child maltreatment in a G × G × E interaction. Analyses for counselor report of child anxiety/depression symptoms on the Teacher Report Form indicated moderation of child maltreatment effects by triallelic 5-HTTLPR. These effects were elaborated based on variation in developmental timing of maltreatment experiences. Norepinephrine transporter was found to further moderate the G × E interaction of 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment status, revealing a G × G × E interaction. This G × G × E was extended by consideration of variation in maltreatment subtype experiences. Finally, G × G × E effects were observed for the co-action of BDNF and the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 haplotype. The findings illustrate the variable influence of specific genotypes in G × E interactions based on variation in maltreatment experiences and the importance of a multigenic approach for understanding influences on depression and internalizing symptoms among African American children. PMID:25422957
Davanzo, Pablo; Kerwin, Lauren; Nikore, Vipan; Esparza, Claudia; Forness, Steve; Murrelle, Lenn
The goal of this study was to test the internal reliability of a Spanish translation of the CDI, (i.e., CDI-LA), a potentially useful screening instrument for Hispanic youngsters in their native language at a primary-care level. Self-reported symptoms of depression were assessed with the CDI-LA in a school sample of 205 Hispanic students. Girls…
Ncube, Ngqabutho M.; Fogo, Christopher; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Curtis M.; Jolly, Pauline E.
Pesticide poisoning is a major public health concern in developing countries. We conducted a population survey among farmers in three parishes of northwestern Jamaica to determine the occurrence of acute pesticide poisoning and to identify factors associated with pesticide poisoning. Approximately 16% of 359 farmers who participated in the study reported one or more incidents of acute pesticide poisoning within the last two years. Only 25% of the farmers reported ever receiving training in pesticide handling or safety. The majority (68%) of farmers who reported pesticide poisoning never sought medical attention for poisoning. The factors found to be associated with pesticide poisoning in this study indicate that implementation of specific intervention strategies and education of farmers is needed in order to improve safe handling, use and disposal of pesticides and reduce incidents of acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:24484363
Syed Fayyaz Hussain; Yona Keich Cloonan; Mohammad H. Rahbar; Muhammad Islam
Purpose To assess prevalence of self-reported nasal congestion and its association with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and excessive\\u000a daytime sleepiness (EDS) in Pakistani adults employed at a medical university.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods All full-time employees of a medical university (n?=?3,470) were delivered a questionnaire that elicited demographic data, symptoms of nasal blockage and SDB and Epworth Sleepiness\\u000a Scale score. Overnight pulse oximetry was performed on
Duric, Nezla S; Aßmus, Jörg; Elgen, Irene B
Background Many non-pharmacological treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been attempted, but reports indicate that most are ineffective. Although neurofeedback (NF) is a treatment approach for children with ADHD that remains promising, a variety of appropriate measures have been used in reporting and evaluating its effect. Objective To report the self-evaluations of NF treatment by children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods Randomized controlled trial in 91 children and adolescents with ADHD, aged less than 18 years (mean, 11.2 years) participated in a 30-session program of intensive NF treatment. Participants were randomized and allocated by sequentially numbered sealed envelopes into three groups: methylphenidate (MPH) as an active control group, and two trial groups NF with MPH, and NF alone. ADHD core symptoms and school performance were given on a scale of 1 to 10 using a self-reporting questionnaire, and the changes in these scores after treatment were used as the self-reported evaluation. Basic statistical methods (descriptive, analyses of variance, exact ?2 test, and paired t-test) were used to investigate the baseline data. Changes in ADHD core symptoms and treatment effects were investigated using a general linear model for repeated measures. Results Eighty participants completed the treatment study and 73 (91%) responded sufficiently on the self-reporting questionnaires. The treatment groups were comparable in age, sex, and cognition as well as in the baseline levels of core ADHD symptoms. All treatments resulted in significant improvements regarding attention and hyperactivity (P<0.001), and did not differ from each other in effectiveness. However, a significant treatment effect in school performance was observed (P=0.042), in which only the NF group showed a significant improvement. Conclusion The self-reported improvements in ADHD core symptoms and school performance shortly after treatment indicate NF treatment being promising in comparison with medication, suggesting NF as an alternative treatment for children and adolescents who do not respond to MPH, or who suffer side effects. Further long-term follow-up is needed. PMID:25214789
Mendez, C. M.; Foy, M.; Mason, S.; Wear, M. L.; Meyers, V.; Law, J.; Alexander, D.; Van Baalen, M.
Understanding the nuances in clinical data is critical in developing a successful data analysis plan. Carbon dioxide (CO2) data are collected on board the International Space Station (ISS) in a continuous stream. Clinical data on ISS are primarily collected via conversations between individual crewmembers and NASA Flight Surgeons during weekly Private Medical Conferences (PMC). Law, et.al, 20141 demonstrated a statistically significant association between weekly average CO2 levels on ISS and self-reported headaches over the reporting period from March 14, 2001 to May 31, 2012. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the evaluation of a possible association between visual changes and CO2 levels on ISS and to discuss challenges in developing an appropriate analysis plan. METHODS & PRELIMINARY RESULTS: A first analysis was conducted following the same study design as the published work on CO2 and self-reported headaches1; substituting self-reported changes in visual acuity in place of self-reported headaches. The analysis demonstrated no statistically significant association between visual impairment characterized by vision symptoms self-reported during PMCs and ISS average CO2 levels over ISS missions. Closer review of the PMC records showed that vision outcomes are not well-documented in terms of clinical severity, timing of onset, or timing of resolution, perhaps due to the incipient nature of vision changes. Vision has been monitored in ISS crewmembers, pre- and post-flight, using standard optometry evaluations. In-flight visual assessments were limited early in the ISS program, primarily consisting of self-perceived changes reported by crewmembers. Recently, on-orbit capabilities have greatly improved. Vision data ranges from self-reported post-flight changes in visual acuity, pre- to postflight changes identified during fundoscopic examination, and in-flight progression measured by advanced on-orbit clinical imaging capabilities at predetermined testing intervals. In contrast, CO2 data are recorded in a continuous stream over time; however, for the initial analysis this data was categorized into weekly averages.
Kirby, Kris N.; Finch, Julia C.
The hierarchical structure of 95 self-reported impulsivity items, along with delay-discount rates for money, was examined. A large sample of college students participated in the study (N = 407). Items represented every previously proposed dimension of self-reported impulsivity. Exploratory PCA yielded at least 7 interpretable components: Prepared/Careful, Impetuous, Divertible, Thrill and Risk Seeking, Happy-Go-Lucky, Impatiently Pleasure Seeking, and Reserved. Discount rates loaded on Impatiently Pleasure Seeking, and correlated with the impulsiveness and venturesomeness scales from the I7 (Eysenck, Pearson, Easting, & Allsopp, 1985). The hierarchical emergence of the components was explored, and we show how this hierarchical structure may help organize conflicting dimensions found in previous analyses. Finally, we argue that the discounting model (Ainslie, 1975) provides a qualitative framework for understanding the dimensions of impulsivity. PMID:20224803
Noel P. T. Chan; Rita Y. T. Sung; E. Anthony S. Nelson; Hung K. So; Yee K. Tse; Alice P. S. Kong
This cross sectional study of 290 Chinese children aged 8–18 years, evaluated a Chinese version of the self-reported Pubertal\\u000a Development Scale (PDS) against both raters’ and self-reported Tanner assessment of pubertal status. Children completed both\\u000a the self-reported PDS and self-reported Tanner pubertal questionnaire prior to physical examination through visual depiction\\u000a by a same gender rater. Puberty Category Scores (PCS) which were
Lizabeth Roemer; Mary Borkovec; Sharon Posa; T. D. Borkovec
The present study tested the reliability of a self-report diagnostic measure of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) based on DSM criteria. Among two samples of undergraduate students, 47–80% of the GAD diagnoses by questionnaire were confirmed by diagnostic interview, with the higher rate being associated with DSM-IV criteria. Categorization of a participant as Non-GAD by questionnaire was found to be 100%
Wolf E. Mehling; Viranjini Gopisetty; Jennifer Daubenmier; Cynthia J. Price; Frederick M. Hecht; Anita Stewart; Antonio Verdejo García
ObjectivesHeightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct.Data sourcesPubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database.Review methodsAbstracts were screened;
Klaus Schlaefer; Brigitte Schlehofer; Joachim Schüz
In all epidemiological studies the validity of self-reported questionnaire data is an important issue as the exposure assessment\\u000a based on such data is a major source of bias in the risk estimation. A validation study was conducted based on a case–control\\u000a study including 94 acoustic neuroma cases and 191 matched controls from the German Interphone Study to investigate the level
Voss, Joachim G; Cesan, Annushka; Jensen, Kelly; Yahiaoui, Anella; Steiner, Cassandra; Bajwa, Sundeep; Eilers, Kristi; Applin, Shauna
People living with HIV (PLWH) see their providers quarterly to go over their laboratory results and discuss problems with antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens. Our purpose was to determine whether socially and economically marginalized PLWH were accurate in self-reporting their most recent CD4 count, viral load, and ART regimen, and whether demographic differences influenced self-reporting. We conducted a secondary data analysis based on results from (N = 200) PLWH. We found moderate agreement for CD4 count (k = .58), and viral load (k = .43), but only 43% were able to recall their ART regimens accurately. PLWH ? age 50 (k = .77) and those with health insurance coverage (k = .61) were more accurate to self-report CD4. Women were more accurate in reporting viral load than men (k = .53, p = .003 vs. k = .38). These findings suggest that PLWH need multiple modalities of education to relate CD4 counts, viral load, and ART regimens to their personal health understanding. PMID:24719280
De Bruin, E A; Rowson, M J; Van Buren, L; Rycroft, J A; Owen, G N
Tea has previously been demonstrated to better help sustain alertness throughout the day in open-label studies. We investigated whether tea improves attention and self-reported alertness in two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. Participants received black tea (made from commercially available tea bags) in one condition and placebo tea (hot water with food colours and flavours) similar in taste and appearance to real tea in the other condition. Attention was measured objectively with attention tests (the switch task and the intersensory-attention test) and subjectively with a self-report questionnaire (Bond-Lader visual analogue scales). In both studies, black tea significantly enhanced accuracy on the switch task (study 1 p<.002, study 2 p=.007) and self-reported alertness on the Bond-Lader questionnaire (study 1 p<.001, study 2 p=.021). The first study also demonstrated better auditory (p<.001) and visual (p=.030) intersensory attention after black tea compared to placebo. Simulation of theanine and caffeine plasma time-concentration curves indicated higher levels in the first study compared to the second, which supports the finding that tea effects on attention were strongest in the first study. Being the second most widely consumed beverage in the world after water, tea is a relevant contributor to our daily cognitive functioning. PMID:21172396
Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert A.; Miller, Brenda A.; Holder, Harold D.
Most information on the prevalence of drug use comes from self-report surveys. The sensitivity of such information is cause for concern about the accuracy of self-report measures. In this study, self-reported drug use in the last 48 hr is compared to results from biological assays of saliva samples from 371 young adults entering clubs. The…
Deacon, S. Helene; Cook, Kathryn; Parrila, Rauno
We used a questionnaire to identify university students with self-reported difficulties in reading acquisition during elementary school (self-report; n = 31). The performance of the self-report group on standardized measures of word and non-word reading and fluency, passage comprehension and reading rate, and phonological awareness was compared to…
Connors, Laura L.; Connolly, Jennifer; Toplak, Maggie E.
Objective: Inattention is typically associated with ADHD, but less research has been done to examine the correlates of self-reported inattention in youth in a community sample. Method: Associations among self-reported inattention, parent-reported inattention, and self-reported psychopathology in children aged 10 to 11 years are examined.…
Bergin, Jocilyn; Verhulst, Brad; Aggen, Steven H; Neale, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Bienvenu, Oscar J; Hettema, John M
Individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder can display diverse and heterogeneous patterns of symptoms. Little is known about the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom (OCS) dimensions and normal personality traits, particularly those that increase risk for other internalizing disorders. In this study of 1,382 individuals from female-female twin pairs, we examined the relationship between self-report OCS dimensions derived from the Padua Inventory and Eysenck's personality traits neuroticism and extraversion. We conducted factor analysis to determine their phenotypic structure followed by twin analyses to determine their genetic and environmental sources of covariation. A three-factor solution, with dimensions corresponding to checking, aggressive obsessions, and contamination, was the best fit for the Padua OCS items. These dimensions were significantly and somewhat variably associated with neuroticism but negligibly associated with extraversion. The genetic correlations between neuroticism and these three OCS dimensions were moderate to high (0.66 with checking, 0.89 with aggressive obsessions, and 0.40 with contamination). However, the estimated genetic correlation between neuroticism and a unified latent OCS construct was smaller (0.32). Overall this study suggests that genetic, and to a smaller extent environmental, factors underlying neuroticism may act differentially as risk factors for OCS dimensions. PMID:25231027
Grasso, Damion J; Felton, Julia W; Reid-Quiñones, Kathryn
The Structured Trauma-Related Experiences and Symptoms Screener (STRESS) is a self-report instrument for youth of age 7-18 that inventories 25 adverse childhood experiences and potentially traumatic events and assesses symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder using the revised criteria published in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). The STRESS can be administered by computer such that questions are read aloud and automatic scoring and feedback are provided. Data were collected on a sample of 229 children and adolescents of age 7-17 undergoing a forensic child abuse and neglect evaluation. The purpose of the current study was to examine preliminary psychometric characteristics of the computer-administered STRESS as well as its underlying factor structure in relation to the four-factor DSM-5 model. Results provide initial support for the use of the STRESS in assessing adverse and potentially traumatic experiences and traumatic stress in children and adolescents. PMID:26092442
Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Li, Zhao; Guo, Liang; Zheng, Liqiang; Yang, Hongmei; Zou, Lu; Hu, Wenyu; Zhou, Ying; Zhu, Luoning; Zhang, Yonghong; Sun, Yingxian
Short sleep duration has been found recently to be a predictor of proteinuria. However, population-based investigations addressing the association between self-reported sleep duration and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among hypertensive patients are lacking. We therefore sought to investigate the extent to which self-reported sleep duration might be associated with reduced GFR in a large hypertensive population in rural northeast China. A total of 5555 hypertensive participants, aged ?35 years, in rural areas of Liaoning Province, China, were screened between January 2012 and August 2013, using a stratified, cluster multi-stage sampling scheme. Anthropometric measurements, self-reported sleep duration, blood biochemical indexes and other health-related variables were collected by medically trained personnel. Reduced GFR was defined as the estimated GFR (eGFR) < 60 mL min(-1) 1.73 m(2) . On average, participants slept for 6.9 ± 1.6 h per night. Mean self-reported sleep duration decreased with eGFR (P < 0.001). For both genders, a lower prevalence of reduced GFR was observed among participants who slept ?6 h per night in total. In the multivariable regression model, after adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, lifestyle factors, clinical correlates, depressive symptoms and general quality of life, participants who slept for 6 h or less per night were associated with a higher risk of reduced GFR [odds ratio (OR: 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-2.73] compared with the reference group (self-reported sleep duration >7 and ?8 h day(-1) ). We concluded that short self-reported sleep duration (?6 h per night) was related significantly to an increased risk of reduced GFR in a hypertensive population. This novel risk factor should be taken into consideration during daily management of hypertension to prevent chronic kidney disease. PMID:25626914
FELTON, JULIA; COLE, DAVID A.; TILGHMAN-OSBORNE, CARLOS; MAXWELL, MELISSA A.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders lists weight gain or weight loss as a symptom of depression at all ages, but no study of adolescent depression has examined its relation to actual (not just self-reported) weight change. In the current longitudinal study, 215 adolescents provided physical and self-report measures of change in weight, body mass, and body fat over a 4-month time interval. They also completed psychological measures of body dissatisfaction, problematic eating attitudes, and depressive symptoms. The relation between physical measures of weight change and depressive symptoms varied with age. These relations were explained by individual differences in body dissatisfaction, eating attitudes, and behaviors, leading to questions about weight change as a symptom of depression in adolescence. PMID:20102656
Carla Kmett Danielson; Eric A. Youngstrom; Robert L. Findling; Joseph R. Calabrese
The present study investigated the ability of the General Behavior Inventory (GBI) to discriminate between diagnostic groups using youth self-report. One hundred and ninety-seven youths ages 10–17 years presenting at a midwestern urban outpatient clinic specializing in mood disorders completed the GBI as part of the intake process. Diagnoses were determined by a structured clinical interview (K-SADS) administered by either
Deacon, S Hélène; Cook, Kathryn; Parrila, Rauno
We used a questionnaire to identify university students with self-reported difficulties in reading acquisition during elementary school (self-report; n=31). The performance of the self-report group on standardized measures of word and non-word reading and fluency, passage comprehension and reading rate, and phonological awareness was compared to that of two other groups of university students: one with a recent diagnosis (diagnosed; n=20) and one with no self-reported reading acquisition problems (comparison group; n=33). The comparison group outperformed both groups with a history of reading difficulties (self-report and diagnosed) on almost all measures. The self-report and diagnosed groups performed similarly on most tasks, with the exception of untimed reading comprehension (better performance for diagnosed) and reading rate (better performance for self-report). The two recruitment methods likely sample from the same underlying population but identify individuals with different adaptive strategies. PMID:22446966
Iribarren, C; Friedman, G; Klatsky, A; Eisner, M
STUDY OBJECTIVE—To examine the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and demographic, lifestyle, occupational characteristics and self reported health conditions.?DESIGN—Cross sectional study, using data from multiphasic health checkups between 1979 and 1985.?SETTING—Large health plan in Northern California, USA.?PARTICIPANTS—16 524 men aged 15-89 years and 26 197 women aged 15-105 years who never smoked.?RESULTS—Sixty eight per cent of men and 64 per cent of women reported any current ETS exposure (at home, in small spaces other than home or in large indoor areas). The exposure time from all three sources of ETS exposure correlated negatively with age. Men and women reporting high level ETS exposure were more likely to be black and never married or separated/divorced, to have no college or partial college education, to consume three alcoholic drink/day or more and to report exposure to several occupational hazards. Consistent independent relations across sexes were found between any current exposure to ETS and a positive history of hay fever/asthma (odds ratio (OR)=1.22 in men, 1.14 in women), hearing loss (OR=1.30 in men, 1.27 in women), severe headache (OR=1.22 in men, 1.17 in women), and cold/flu symptoms (OR=1.52 in men, 1.57 in women). Any current ETS exposure was also associated with chronic cough (OR=1.22) in men and with heart disease (OR=1.10) in women. Self reported stroke was inversely associated with any current ETS exposure in men (OR=0.27). No associations were noted for cancer or tumour and for migraine.?CONCLUSION—ETS exposure correlated with several personal characteristics potentially associated with adverse health outcomes. Although the study design precluded causal inference, ETS exposure was associated with several self reported acute and chronic medical conditions.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; smoking PMID:11553655
Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna; Chmielewski, Michael; Kotov, Roman
Suppressor effects are operating when the addition of a predictor increases the predictive power of another variable. We argue that suppressor effects can play a valuable role in explicating the construct validity of symptom measures by bringing into clearer focus opposing elements that are inherent--but largely hidden--in the measure's overall score. We illustrate this point using theoretically grounded, replicated suppressor effects that have emerged in analyses of the original Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS; Watson et al., 2007) and its expanded 2nd version (IDAS-II; Watson et al., 2012). In Study 1, we demonstrate that the IDAS-II Appetite Gain and Appetite Loss scales contain both (a) a shared distress component that creates a positive correlation between them and (b) a specific symptom component that produces a natural negative association between them (i.e., people who recently have experienced decreased interest in food/loss of appetite are less likely to report a concomitant increase in appetite/weight). In Study 2, we establish that mania scales also contain 2 distinct elements-namely, high energy/positive emotionality and general distress/dysfunction-that oppose each another in many instances. In both studies, we obtained evidence of suppression effects that were highly robust across different types of respondents (e.g., clinical outpatients, community adults, college students) and using both self-report and interview-based measures. These replicable suppressor effects establish that many homogeneous, unidimensional symptom scales actually contain distinguishable components with distinct--at times, even antagonistic--properties. PMID:23795886
Jennifer Fine McDermut; David A. F. Haaga; Lindsey Kirk
It is clear that sexual assault can precipitate posttraumatic stress disorder. Some theorists have suggested that less severe sexually harassing behaviors may also have trauma-like sequelae. In a study evaluating this hypothesis, 69 female participants completed self-report measures of instances of sexual harassment, basic beliefs, psychological distress\\/symptoms, and PTSD symptoms. Participants watched videotapes depicting sexual harassment, emotional arousal (not sexual
Edmiston, Erin E.; Wang, Fei; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Guiney, Joanne; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.; Blumberg, Hilary P.
Objective To study the relationship between self-reported childhood maltreatment and cerebral gray matter in adolescents without psychiatric diagnoses. Design Associations between childhood maltreatment (measured by a childhood trauma self-report questionnaire for physical, emotional and sexual abuse, and physical and emotional neglect) and regional gray matter were examined. Setting University hospital. Participants 42 adolescents without psychiatric disorders. Outcome Measures Correlations between childhood trauma questionnaire scores and regional gray matter volume were assessed in voxel-based analyses of structural magnetic resonance scans. Relationships between gray matter volume and childhood maltreatment subtypes and gender where explored. Results Total childhood trauma questionnaire scores correlated negatively (p<0.005) with gray matter volumes in prefrontal cortex, striatum, amygdala, sensory association cortices and cerebellum. Physical abuse, physical neglect and emotional neglect were associated with rostral prefrontal reductions. Additionally, decreases in dorsolateral and orbitofrontal cortices, insula, and ventral striatum were associated with physical abuse, in cerebellum with physical neglect, and in dorsolateral, orbitofrontal and subgenual prefrontal cortices, striatum, amygdala, hippocampus and cerebellum with emotional neglect. These latter emotion regulation regions were also associated with childhood trauma questionnaire scores in females, while caudate reductions, which may relate to impulse dyscontrol, were seen in males. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment was associated with corticostriatal-limbic gray matter reductions in adolescents. These findings suggest that even if adolescents reporting childhood maltreatment exposure do not present with symptoms that meet full criteria for psychiatric disorders, they may have corticostriatal-limbic changes that place them at risk for behavioral difficulties. Vulnerabilities may be moderated by gender and maltreatment subtype. PMID:22147775
Prochaska, Judith J; Grossman, William; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Benowitz, Neal L
Objectives Exposure of adults to secondhand smoke (SHS) has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease. The current study evaluated brief self-report screening measures for accurately identifying adult cardiology patients with clinically significant levels of SHS exposure in need of intervention. Design and setting A cross-sectional study conducted in a university-affiliated cardiology clinic and cardiology inpatient service. Patients Participants were 118 non-smoking patients (59% male, mean age=63.6 years, SD=16.8) seeking cardiology services. Main outcome measures Serum cotinine levels and self-reported SHS exposure in the past 24 h and 7 days on 13 adult secondhand exposure to smoke (ASHES) items. Results A single item assessment of SHS exposure in one’s own home in the past 7 days was significantly correlated with serum cotinine levels (r=0.41, p<0.001) with sensitivity ?75%, specificity >85% and correct classification rates >85% at cotinine cut-off points of >0.215 and >0.80 ng/mL. The item outperformed multi-item scales, an assessment of home smoking rules, and SHS exposure assessed in other residential areas, automobiles and public settings. The sample was less accurate at self-reporting lower levels of SHS exposure (cotinine 0.05–0.215 ng/mL). Conclusions The single item ASHES-7d Home screener is brief, assesses recent SHS exposure over a week’s time, and yielded the optimal balance of sensitivity and specificity. The current findings support use of the ASHES-7d Home screener to detect SHS exposure and can be easily incorporated into assessment of other major vital signs in cardiology. PMID:23997071
James G. Barbee; Alexandre A. Todorov; Andrzej R. Kuczmierczyk; Donna M. Mancuso; John J. Schwab; Richard J. Maddock; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; Lee Ann Kelley; Jonathan R. T. Davidson
We have examined the numbers and types of symptoms in a sample of 90 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and 77 patients with panic disorder (PD) collected from six different sites during the conduct of a multicenter clinical trial. This information was obtained utilizing the Health Questionnaire, a 47-item self-report list of medical symptoms, patterned after the Somatization Disorder
Ashwin A. Patkar; Allan Lundy; Frank T. Leone; Stephen P. Weinstein; Edward Gottheil; Michael Steinberg
Despite the widespread use of tobacco and alcohol by illicit drug users, the medical effects of smoking and alcohol use remain understudied among such individuals. We investigated the relationship between smoking and alcohol use, and medical symptoms among 125 cocaine dependent patients. Subjects were assessed for smoking, alcohol use, and medical problems using a standardized self-report instrument (MILCOM). Medical symptoms
Arria, Amelia M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.
Objective: To investigate the possible association between untreated ADHD symptoms (as measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale) and persistent nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Method: Multinomial regression modeling was used to compare ADHD symptoms among three groups of college students enrolled in a longitudinal study over 4…
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…
Lewis, Tené T.; Williams, David R.; Tamene, Mahader; Clark, Cheryl R.
Researchers have long speculated that exposure to discrimination may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk but compared to other psychosocial risk factors, large-scale epidemiologic and community based studies examining associations between reports of discrimination and CVD risk have only emerged fairly recently. This review summarizes findings from studies of self-reported experiences of discrimination and CVD risk published between 2011–2013. We document the innovative advances in recent work, the notable heterogeneity in these studies, and the considerable need for additional work with objective clinical endpoints other than blood pressure. Implications for the study of racial disparities in CVD and clinical practice are also discussed. PMID:24729825
Hamilton, Deven T.; Morris, Martina
Accurate data on sexual behavior have become increasingly important for demographers and epidemiologists, but self-reported data are widely regarded as unreliable. We examined the consistency in the number of sexual partners reported by participants in seven population-based surveys of adults in the U.S. Differences between studies were quite modest and much smaller than those associated with demographic attributes. Surprisingly, the mode of survey administration did not appear to influence disclosure when the questions were similar. We conclude that there is more consistency in sexual partnership reporting than is commonly believed. PMID:19588240
Zimmerman, Mark; D'Avanzato, Catherine; Attiullah, Naureen; Friedman, Michael; Toba, Cristina; Boerescu, Daniela A
Self-report measures of depression differ in their construction and scoring rules. In the present study from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project we tested the hypothesis that the loss of information due to scoring rules or rating formats reduces the validity of depression severity assessment. One hundred fifty-three outpatients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) who presented for treatment or who were in ongoing treatment and had their medication changed due to lack of efficacy completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) and Remission from Depression Questionnaire (RDQ) at the initiation of treatment and 4 month follow-up. The patients were evaluated with the 17-item Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD). The CUDOS and RDQ were equally highly correlated with the HAMD at baseline and follow-up. There was no significant difference in the correlations between the modified and original scoring algorithms of the QIDS with the HAMD at baseline and the follow-up. On each scale, the patients showed significant levels of improvement from baseline to 4 months, and the effect sizes were similar. These findings suggest that the loss of information due to the scoring rules of the QIDS or the rating format of the RDQ did not reduce the validity of depression severity assessment. PMID:24745466
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Buchanan, Diana Taibi; Cain, Kevin; Heitkemper, Margaret; Burr, Robert; Vitiello, Michael V.; Zia, Jasmine; Jarrett, Monica
Study Objectives: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often report sleep disturbances. Previously, we have shown that self-reported sleep difficulties predicted exacerbations of next-day IBS symptoms, mood disturbance, and fatigue. The purpose of this study was to explore whether objectively measured sleep using actigraphy, as well as self-report, predicts next-day symptoms in women with IBS and to explore whether or not symptoms also predict self-report and objective sleep. Methods: Women aged 18-45 years with IBS were community-recruited (n = 24, mean age = 32 ± 8 years). Participants completed sleep and IBS symptom diaries for one menstrual cycle and wore Actiwatch-64 actigraphs for 7 days at home. Statistical analyses used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Results: Poorer self-reported sleep quality significantly (p < 0.05) predicted higher next-day abdominal pain, anxiety, and fatigue, but was not significant for gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms or depressed mood. Actigraphic sleep efficiency (SEF) significantly predicted worsening next-day anxiety and fatigue, but not abdominal pain, GI symptoms, or depressed mood. On temporally reversed analyses, none of the symptoms significantly predicted subsequent sleep, except that GI symptoms significantly predicted higher actigraphic sleep efficiency. Conclusion: This small exploratory study supports previous findings that self-reported sleep disturbance predicted exacerbation of next-day symptoms in women with IBS and extends this relationship using an objective sleep measure. The study adds further evidence that sleep quality predicts subsequent IBS symptoms, but not the converse. The findings from this small study support the importance of additional longitudinal research to further understand the relationships between sleep and IBS. Citation: Buchanan DT, Cain K, Heitkemper M, Burr R, Vitiello MV, Zia J, Jarrett M. Sleep measures predict next-day symptoms in women with irritable bowel syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(9):1003-1009. PMID:25142761
Are estimates of socioeconomic inequalities in chronic disease artefactually narrowed by self-reported measures of prevalence in low-income and middle-income countries? Findings from the WHO-SAGE survey
Vellakkal, Sukumar; Millett, Christopher; Basu, Sanjay; Khan, Zaky; Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Stuckler, David; Ebrahim, Shah
Background The use of self-reported measures of chronic disease may substantially underestimate prevalence in low-income and middle-income country settings, especially in groups with lower socioeconomic status (SES). We sought to determine whether socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) differ if estimated by using symptom-based or criterion-based measures compared with self-reported physician diagnoses. Methods Using population-representative data sets of the WHO Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE), 2007–2010 (n=42?464), we calculated wealth-related and education-related concentration indices of self-reported diagnoses and symptom-based measures of angina, hypertension, asthma/chronic lung disease, visual impairment and depression in three ‘low-income and lower middle-income countries’—China, Ghana and India—and three ‘upper-middle-income countries’—Mexico, Russia and South Africa. Results SES gradients in NCD prevalence tended to be positive for self-reported diagnoses compared with symptom-based/criterion-based measures. In China, Ghana and India, SES gradients were positive for hypertension, angina, visual impairment and depression when using self-reported diagnoses, but were attenuated or became negative when using symptom-based/criterion-based measures. In Mexico, Russia and South Africa, this distinction was not observed consistently. For example, concentration index of self-reported versus symptom-based angina were: in China: 0.07 vs ?0.11, Ghana: 0.04 vs ?0.21, India: 0.02 vs ?0.16, Mexico: 0.19 vs ?0.22, Russia: ?0.01 vs ?0.02 and South Africa: 0.37 vs 0.02. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities in NCD prevalence tend to be artefactually positive when using self-report compared with symptom-based or criterion-based diagnostic criteria, with greater bias occurring in low-income countries. Using standardised, symptom-based measures would provide more valid estimates of NCD inequalities. PMID:25550454
The purpose of the inventory abstraction as directed by the development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999b) is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 1999c, 1999d). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) (NRC 1999) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [Spent Nuclear Fuel] are released from the EBS [Engineered Barrier System] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the accessible environment. The inventory abstraction is important in assessing system performance because radionuclide screening determines the scope for several TSPA models, and the abstraction provides input to the TSPA..
The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the accessible environment. The inventory abstraction is important in assessing system performance because radionuclide screening determines the scope for several TSPA models, and the abstraction provides input to the TSPA.
Anderson, Walter P., Jr.; Lopez-Baez, Sandra I.
In this descriptive exploratory study, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996) was used to measure levels of personal growth attributed by college students (N = 117) to a semester of university life in retrospective self-reports. Results reflect attributions of substantial total growth in the range reported in the…
Ingles, Candido J.; Hidalgo, Maria D.; Mendez, F. Xavier; Inderbitzen, Heidi, M.
Peer relationships play a critical role in the development of social skills and personal feelings essential for personal growth. The Teenage Inventory of Social Skills is a self-report designed exclusively to reflect behaviors functionally related to peer acceptance in adolescence. The aim of the present work was to determine the reliability and…
Kirnan, Jean Powell; Edler, Erin; Carpenter, Allison
The range of response options has been shown to influence the answers given in self-report instruments that measure behaviors ranging from television viewing to sexual partners. The current research extends this line of inquiry to 36 quantitative items extracted from a biographical inventory used in personnel selection. A total of 92…
Brazeau, James N.; Teatero, Missy L.; Rawana, Edward P.; Brownlee, Keith; Blanchette, Loretta R.
A new measure, the Strengths Assessment Inventory-Youth self-report (SAI-Y), was recently developed to assess the strengths of children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 18 years. The SAI-Y differs from similar measures in that it provides a comprehensive assessment of strengths that are intrinsic to the individual as well as strengths…
Malterer, Melanie B.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Neumann, Craig S.; Newman, Joseph P.
The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is a frequently used and well-validated measure of psychopathy but is relatively time-intensive and expensive to administer. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) is a self-report measure that provides a less time-intensive and less expensive method for identifying psychopathic individuals. Using…
Prevatt, Frances; Li, Huijun; Welles, Theresa; Festa-Dreher, Desaree; Yelland, Sherry; Lee, Jiyoon
The Academic Success Inventory for College Students (ASICS) is a newly-developed, self-report instrument designed to evaluate academic success in college students. The 50-item instrument has 10 factors that measure general academic skills, career decidedness, internal and external motivation, anxiety, concentration, socializing, personal…
Merritt, Victoria C; Rabinowitz, Amanda R; Arnett, Peter A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between personality and symptom reporting at baseline in collegiate athletes. Participants were 759 athletes who completed the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale and NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Results showed that neuroticism and agreeableness personality dimensions were predictive of athletes' symptom reports at baseline. PMID:25649780
Orrevall, Ylva; McGreevy, Jenny; Månsson-Brahme, Eva; Wismer, Wendy; Tishelman, Carol; Bernhardson, Britt-Marie
This study of patients under investigation for lung cancer (LC) aims to: 1) examine the prevalence of self-reported taste and smell alterations (TSAs) and their relationships with demographic and clinical characteristics; and 2) explore nutritional importance of TSAs by examining their associations with patient-reported weight loss, symptoms interfering with food intake, and changes in food intake. Methods Patients were recruited consecutively during investigation for LC from one university hospital in Sweden. Patient-reported information on TSAs, demographics, six-month weight history, symptoms interfering with food intake, and changes in food intake was obtained. Relationships between TSAs and other variables were examined using two-tailed significance tests. In addition, putative explanatory factors for weight loss were explored in those patients diagnosed with LC, since a relationship between TSAs and weight loss was found in this group. Results The final sample consisted of 215 patients, of which 117 were diagnosed with primary LC within four months of study inclusion and 98 did not receive a cancer diagnosis. The 38% prevalence of TSAs was identical in both groups, and were generally reported as mild and not interfering with food intake. However, a statistically significant relationship between TSAs and weight loss was found among patients with LC, with a median weight change of ? 5.5% and a higher frequency of weight loss ? 10%. Patients with LC and weight loss ? 10%, had higher frequency of reporting TSAs, of decreased food intake and of ? 1 symptom interfering with food intake compared with those with less weight loss. Conclusion TSAs, although relatively mild, were present in 38% of patients with and without LC. Relationships between TSAs and weight loss were found among patients with LC, but not fully explained by decreased food intake. This highlights the complexity of cancer-related weight loss. PMID:24702121
Shinn, Eileen Huh; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Baum, George; Steen, Sven; Bauman, Rachel Freeman; Morrison, William; Garden, Adam Seth; Sheil, Cathleen; Kilgore, Kelly; Hutcheson, Kate; Barringer, Denise; Yuan, Ying; Lewin, Jan
Background To reduce the risk of long-term swallowing complications after radiation, swallowing exercises may be helpful. Both the rate of adherence to swallowing exercises and its impact on future swallowing function is unknown. Methods 109 oropharyngeal cancer patients beginning radiation were tracked for two years to determine adherence to swallowing exercises. Participants completed the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) 1–2 years after treatment to assess self-reported swallowing function. Adherence, demographics, tumor and treatment variables were multivariably regressed onto the MDADI physical subscale score. Results Per speech pathologist documentation, 13% of the participants were fully adherent and 32% were partially adherent. Adherence was associated with the Physical MDADI Subscale score in the multivariate model (p=.01). Conclusions The majority of head and neck cancer patients are nonadherent to swallowing exercise regimens and may benefit from supportive care strategies to optimize their adherence. PMID:24142523
Cucciare, Michael A.; Gray, Heather; Azar, Armin; Jimenez, Daniel; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores
Objectives The present study examined the relationship between self-reported physical health, depressive symptoms, and the occurrence of depression diagnosis in Hispanic female dementia caregivers. Participants Participants were 89 Hispanic female dementia caregivers. Design This study used a cross-sectional design. Baseline depression and physical health data were collected from participants enrolled in the ‘Reducing Stress in Hispanic Anglo Dementia Caregivers’ study sponsored by the National Institute on Aging. Measurements Physical health was assessed using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), a one-item self-report health rating, body mass index, and the presence or history of self-reported physical illness. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Scale (CES-D). The occurrence of depression diagnosis was assessed using the Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID). Analysis Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which indices of physical health and depressive symptoms accounted for variance in participants’ depressive symptoms and depressive diagnoses. Results Self-reported indices of health (e.g., SF-36) accounted for a significant portion of variance in both CES-D scores and SCID diagnoses. Caregivers who reported worsened health tended to report increased symptoms of depression on the CES-D and increased likelihood of an SCID diagnosis of a depressive disorder. Conclusion Self-reported health indices are helpful in identifying Hispanic dementia caregivers at risk for clinical levels of depression. PMID:20425646
Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Foster, Dawn W.
Research has revealed negative associations between religiosity and alcohol consumption. Given these associations, the aim of the current research was to evaluate whether the order of assessing each construct might affect subsequent reports of the other. The present research provided an experimental evaluation of response biases of self-reported religiosity and alcohol consumption based on order of assessment. Participants (N = 301 undergraduate students) completed an online survey. Based on random assignment, religiosity was assessed either before or after questions regarding recent alcohol consumption. Social desirability bias was also measured. Results revealed a priming effect such that participants who answered questions about their religiosity prior to their alcohol consumption reported fewer drinks on their peak drinking occasions, drinking less on typical occasions, and drinking less frequently, even when controlling for social desirability and for the significant negative associations between their own religiosity and drinking. In contrast, assessment order was not significantly associated with religiosity. Results indicate priming religion results in reporting lower, but potentially more accurate, levels of health risk behaviors and that these effects are not simply the result of socially desirable responding. Results are interpreted utilizing several social–cognitive theories and suggest that retrospective self-reports of drinking may be more malleable than self-descriptions of religiosity. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23528191
Lang, Kevin; Nuevo-Chiquero, Ana
Little is known about how the miscarriage rate has changed over the past few decades in the United States. Data from Cycles IV to VI of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were used to examine trends from 1970 to 2000. After accounting for abortion availability and the characteristics of pregnant women, the rate of reported miscarriages increased by about 1.0% per year. This upward trend is strongest in the first seven weeks and absent after 12 weeks of pregnancy. African American and Hispanic women report lower rates of early miscarriage than do whites. The probability of reporting a miscarriage rises by about 5% per year of completed schooling. The upward trend, especially in early miscarriages, suggests awareness of pregnancy rather than prenatal care to be a key factor in explaining the evolution of self-reported miscarriages. Any beneficial effects of prenatal care on early miscarriage are obscured by this factor. Differences in adoption of early-awareness technology, such as home pregnancy tests, should be taken into account when analyzing results from self-reports or clinical trials relying on awareness of pregnancy in its early weeks. PMID:22718315
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Inventory Control Related Sites is a straightforward index of Websites dealing with inventory control, created by Kyle Thill, a 20-year veteran of inventory control. The sites are fully annotated and cover Census Bureau information, articles, and other metasites.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 revised form Symptom Validity Scale-Revised (MMPI-2-RF FBS-r; also known as Fake Bad Scale): psychometric characteristics in a nonlitigation neuropsychological setting.
Gass, Carlton S; Odland, Anthony P
This study examined fundamental psychometric characteristics of the Symptom Validity Scale-Revised (FBS-r) in a nonforensic sample of 303 neuropsychological referrals. FBS-r had a reliability (internal consistency) of .747 and two higher order factoral dimensions (Somatic Complaints and Optimism/Virtue). FBS-r had a discordant factor structure: Optimism/Virtue (7 items) was negatively related to Somatic Complaints (21 items) and undercut FBS-r measurement consistency (reliability). FBS-r scores, which purportedly reflect symptom exaggeration, are affected by as much as 23 T-score points on test items that are negatively related to symptom reporting. These data suggest that the FBS-r produces ambiguous scores reflecting two underlying dimensions that warrant additional research. PMID:22384793
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Klein, Sandra E.; Dale, Ann Marie; Hayes, Marcie Harris; Johnson, Jeffrey E.; McCormick, Jeremy J.; Racette, Brad A.
Background Plantar heel pain is a common disorder of the foot for which patients seek medical treatment. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between duration of symptoms in plantar fasciitis patients and demographic factors, the intensity and location of pain, extent of previous treatment and self reported pain and function. Methods The charts of patients presenting with plantar heel pain between June 2008 and October 2010 were reviewed retrospectively and 182 patients with a primary diagnosis of plantar fasciitis were identified. Patients with symptoms less than 6 months were identified as acute and patients with symptoms greater than or equal to six months were defined as having chronic symptoms. Comparisons based on duration of symptoms were performed for age, gender, BMI, comorbidities, pain location and intensity, and a functional score measured by the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM). Results The two groups were similar in age, BMI, gender, and comorbidities. Pain severity, as measured by a VAS, was not statistically significant between the two groups (6.6 and 6.2). The acute and chronic groups of patients reported similar levels of function on both the activity of daily living (62 and 65) and sports (47 and 45) subscales of the FAAM. Patients in the chronic group were more likely to have seen more providers and tried more treatment options for this condition. Conclusion As plantar fasciitis symptoms extend beyond 6 months, patients do not experience increasing pain intensity or functional limitation. No specific risk factors have been identified to indicate a risk of developing chronic symptoms. PMID:22995253
Ehrmantrout, Nikki; Allen, Nicholas B.; Leve, Craig; Davis, Betsy; Sheeber, Lisa
This study examined depressive biases in adolescents’ labelling of parental affect. Adolescents (151 girls; 82 boys) and their parents engaged in videotaped problem-solving interactions (PSIs). Adolescents then participated in a video-mediated recall procedure in which they watched the videotaped interaction and indicated how they thought their parents were feeling. Indices of parents’ affect during the PSIs were also provided by parent self-report and behavioral observations. Adolescent depressive symptoms were associated with over-reporting of parental aggressive affect and under-reporting of parental happy and neutral affects, relative to both directly observed and self-reported parental affect. Depressive symptoms were not associated with over-reporting of parental dysphoric affect. Given the importance of accurately reading affective cues for negotiating interpersonal interactions, these findings likely have implications for understanding processes that contribute to adverse relationships amongst the families of adolescents with depressive symptoms. PMID:21381801
S. V. Subramanian; Malavika A. Subramanyam; Sakthivel Selvaraj; Ichiro Kawachi
Self-reported measures of poor health and morbidities from developing countries tend to be viewed with considerable skepticism. Examination of the social gradient in self-reported health and morbidity measures provides a useful test of the validity of self-reports of poor health and morbidities. The prevailing view, in part influenced by Amartya Sen, is that socially disadvantaged individuals will fail to perceive
Lawrence C. Hamilton
Data from a survey questionnaire and from water utility billing records are used to compare self-reported and actual water savings for 471 households during a conservation campaign. Self-reports are only weakly related to actual changes in water consumption. Errors are widespread, and not wholly random: The accuracy of self-reports increases with household socioeconomic status and with the extent of conservation
Marilyn A. Winkleby; Beverly Rockhill
Few empirical analyses have assessed the concordance between self-reported Hispanic ethnicity and ethnicity obtained from Spanish surname coding programs. Using data from 4,918 Hispanic and non-Hispanic individuals, aged 12-74, who participated in cross-sectional surveys conducted in Northern California during 1979-1980 and 1989-1990, The authors e-xamined agreement between self-reported and surname-coded ethnicity. Of self-reportedHispanics, 84. 1% were coded as Spanish surnamed
W. Jansen; P. M. van de Looij-Jansen; I. Ferreira; E. J. de Wilde; J. Brug
Background\\/Aims: Monitoring overweight prevalence and its trends in Dutch youth is frequently based on self-reported data. The validity of self-reported data especially in young adolescents is not sufficiently known. The purpose of this study is to study the validity of self-reported height and weight in 12- to 13-year-olds, to identify sociodemographic correlates and to explore whether correction factors can be
Francesco Zambon; Ugo Fedeli; Maria Marchesan; Elena Schievano; Antonio Ferro; Paolo Spolaore
BACKGROUND: The effects of seat belt laws and public education campaigns on seat belt use are assessed on the basis of observational or self-reported data on seat belt use. Previous studies focusing on front seat occupants have shown that self-reports indicate a greater seat belt usage than observational findings. Whether this over-reporting in self reports applies to rear seat belt
Okada, Mayumi; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
Levels of convergence among three measures of personality pathology, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+), the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders Questionnaire (SCID-IIQ) and the Multi-source Assessment of Personality Pathology (MAPP) were examined. Each questionnaire was administered three times in an alternating sequence over nine consecutive weekdays to a sample of college students. There was some degree of convergence among the three instruments, but there were also substantial empirical differences between them. The data suggest three related conclusions: (1) in general, the self-report version of the MAPP is more conservative than the other two questionnaires, (2) these questionnaires should not be considered interchangeable measures of the same constructs, and (3) the breadth of measurement provided varies as a function of both the questionnaire and the specific personality disorder being measured. PMID:20454642
Hong, Janie J; Woody, Sheila R
East Asians generally endorse higher social anxiety than do Westerners. Widely used measures of social anxiety, however, may not account for different social values across cultures. Drawing from Korean (n=251) and Euro-Canadian (n=250) community samples, this study used a cross-sectional design to examine the relationship between ratings of social anxiety and beliefs and self-views typically found in East Asian cultures. Results indicated that independent self-construal and identity consistency, views of the self that are typically associated with Western cultures, fully mediate the ethnic difference on self-reported social anxiety. Moreover, two indicators of East Asian views of the self in social contexts (interdependent self-construal and self-criticism) were partial mediators. Overall, the data suggest conceptualizations of pathological social anxiety may need to be revised to be useful for studying individuals in East Asian cultures. PMID:17350589
Hoedlmoser, K; Kloesch, G; Wiater, A; Schabus, M
OBJECTIVES: Investigation of sleep patterns, sleep problems, and behavioral problems in 8- to 11-year-old children. METHODS: A total of 330 children (age: M=9.52; SD=0.56; range=8-11 years; 47.3% girls) in the 4th grade of elementary school in Salzburg (Austria) completed a self-report questionnaire (80 items) to survey sleep patterns, sleep problems, and behavioral problems. RESULTS: Children aged 8-11 years slept approximately 10 h and 13 min on school days (SD=47 min) as well as on weekends (SD=81 min); girls slept significantly longer on weekends than boys. Most common self-reported sleep problems were dryness of the mouth (26.6%), sleep onset delay (21.9%), bedtime resistance (20.3%), and restless legs (19.4%). There was a significant association between watching TV as well as playing computer games prior to sleep with frightful dreams. Daytime sleepiness indicated by difficulty waking up (33.4%) and having a hard time getting out of bed (28.5%) was also very prominent. However, children in Salzburg seemed to be less tired during school (6.6%) or when doing homework (4.8%) compared to other nationalities. Behavioral problems (e.g., emotional symptoms, hyperactivity and inattention, conduct problems, peer problems) and daytime sleepiness were both significantly associated with sleep problems: the more sleep problems reported, the worse behavioral problems and daytime sleepiness were. Moreover, we could show that sharing the bed with a pet was also related to sleep problems. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported sleep problems among 8- to 11-year-old children are very common. There is a strong relationship between sleep disorders and behavioral problems. Routine screening and diagnosis as well as treatment of sleep disorders in school children should, therefore, be established in the future. PMID:23162377
Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C
This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to "conventional" property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11-18 years old in 1976-77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36-44) in 2002-2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002-2003 (total age range 11-88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes. PMID:22347761
Angela Ramsey; P. J. Watson; Michael D. Biderman; Amy L. Reeves
The hypothesis that inadequate parenting promotes the development of pathological narcissism was tested in a sample of 370 undergraduate students. They responded to the O'Brien (1987) Multiphasic Narcissism Inventory (OMNI) and to measures of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness. Perceived parental permissiveness and authoritarianism served as independent predictors of greater narcissistic tendencies. The students who scored high on the OMNI
Michael E. Geisser; Randy S. Roth; Jan E. Bachman; Thomas A. Eckert
Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among individuals with chronic pain. Studies suggest that persons with pain and PTSD also display higher levels of affective disturbance. In the present study we examined self-reports of pain, affective disturbance, and disability among pain patients with and without symptoms of PTSD. Patients without PTSD symptoms
Background Previous research has shown an association between preoperative depressive symptoms and a poorer surgery outcome in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). It is not known whether depressive symptoms throughout the recovery period are relevant to the outcome of surgery in LSS. In this prospective clinical study the predictive value of preoperative and postoperative depressive symptoms with respect to the surgery outcome is reported. Methods 96 patients (mean age 62 years) with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis underwent decompressive surgery. They completed the same set of questionnaires preoperatively and 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years postoperatively. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory. Physical functioning and pain were assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index, the Stucki Questionnaire, self-reported walking ability and VAS rating. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the predictive value of preoperative and postoperative depressive symptoms regarding the surgery outcome. A "good" outcome was defined in two ways: first, by gaining a 30% improvement in relation to the preoperative disability and pain, and second, by having a score at or below the median value for disability and pain on 2-year follow-up. Results Having elevated depressive symptoms particularly on 3-month follow-up was predictive of a poorer surgery outcome regarding pain and disability: when the outcome was defined as less than 30% improvement from the baseline, the OR's (with 95% confidence intervals) were 2.94 (1.06-8.12), <0.05 for Oswestry and 3.33 (1.13-9.79), <0.05 for VAS. In median split approach the OR was 4.11 (1.27-13.32), <0.05 for Oswestry. Predictive associations also emerged between having depressive symptoms on 6-month and 1-year follow-ups and a poorer outcome regarding disability. The predictive value of elevated depressive symptoms particularly with respect to 2-yeard disability was evident whether the outcome was defined as a 30% improvement compared to the preoperative status or as belonging to the better scoring half of the study population on 2-year follow-up. Conclusions Preoperative and postoperative depressive symptoms may indicate those patients at greater risk of a poorer postoperative functional ability. For these patients, further clinical evaluation should be carried out, especially during postoperative stages. PMID:20604949
Rønning, John A; Handegaard, Bjørn Helge; Sourander, Andre; Mørch, Willy-Tore
This study reports on the application of the Norwegian self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-S). The application of the SDQ-S was not motivated by a wish to reveal the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, but rather to set the stage for routine screening as part of schools' efforts to inform themselves about the life of adolescents at school. The survey included 4167 young people aged 11 to 16 years, attending 66 primary and secondary schools in Northern Norway. The respondents comprised 80.2% of the total population in these grades in the target area. Structural analysis of the instrument, including confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency and intra- and cross-scale correlations revealed somewhat variable psychometric properties. Model modification suggested several ways of improving the structural psychometric properties of the SDQ-S. Norwegian cut-off points were similar to those found in other Scandinavian studies. About one third of the subjects reported at least minor perceived difficulties, while about 5% reported definite or severe difficulties. These difficulties were strongly associated with all symptom scales. Girls reported a significantly higher level of emotional problems and better prosocial functioning. Boys reported significantly higher scores on the externalising scales and on peer problems. The SDQ-S may be judged as an efficient and economical screening instrument for preventive research on large community samples. However, efforts should be made to improve its psychometric structure. PMID:15103532
Pilkonis, Paul A.; Choi, Seung W.; Salsman, John; Butt, Zeeshan; Moore, Tara L.; Lawrence, Suzanne M.; Zill, Nicholas; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Kelly, Morgen A. R.; Knox, Sarah S.; Cella, David
We report on the selection of self-report measures for inclusion in the NIH Toolbox that are suitable for assessing the full range of negative affect including sadness, fear, and anger. The Toolbox is intended to serve as a “core battery” of assessment tools for cognition, sensation, motor function, and emotional health that will help to overcome the lack of consistency in measures used across epidemiological, observational, and intervention studies. A secondary goal of the NIH Toolbox is the identification of measures that are flexible, efficient, and precise, an agenda best fulfilled by the use of item banks calibrated with models from item response theory (IRT) and suitable for adaptive testing. Results from a sample of 1,763 respondents supported use of the adult and pediatric item banks for emotional distress from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) as a starting point for capturing the full range of negative affect in healthy individuals. Content coverage for the adult Toolbox was also enhanced by the development of a scale for somatic arousal using items from the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ) and scales for hostility and physical aggression using items from the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ). PMID:23083918
Noise-induced loss of hearing has been recognized as an occupational health problem since the 18th century. Occupational deafness is an irreversible, sensorineural condition that results from damage to the nerve cells of the inner ear. Recent estimates from surveys indicate that between 7.4 and 10.2 million people work at sites where the level of noise presents an increased risk of hearing loss (85 decibels (dBA) or higher). During the period of 1978-1987, an estimated $835 million was paid in workers' compensation claims for occupationally induced hearing impairment. To assess the prevalence of hearing-loss symptoms among adult workers in the United States, investigators from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recently analyzed data collected during the 1971 and 1977 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). For this study, the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss was obtained for all persons over 17 years of age who were in the labor force at the time of interview. Data from the 1972-1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS) were used to classify worksites by noise level. NOHS was conducted by NIOSH from 1972 to 1974 on a probability sample of approximately 5000 workplaces across the United States. The survey provides information on potential exposures of workers to chemical and physical agents. These data identified industries and occupations in which employees are exposed to continuous noise.
Short, Meghan E.; Pei, Xiaofei; Tabrizi, Maryam J.; Ozminkowski, Ronald J.; Gibson, Teresa B.; DeJoy, Dave M.; Wilson, Mark G.
Objective To determine the accuracy of self-reported healthcare utilization and absence reported on health risk assessments (HRAs) against administrative claims and human resource records. Methods Self-reported values of healthcare utilization and absenteeism were analyzed for concordance to administrative claims values. Percent agreement, Pearson’s correlations, and multivariate logistic regression models examined the level of agreement and characteristics of participants with concordance. Results Self-report and administrative data showed greater concordance for monthly compared to yearly healthcare utilization metrics. Percent agreement ranged from 30 to 99% with annual doctor visits having the lowest percent agreement. Younger people, males, those with higher education, and healthier individuals more accurately reported their healthcare utilization and absenteeism. Conclusions Self-reported healthcare utilization and absenteeism may be used as a proxy when medical claims and administrative data are unavailable, particularly for shorter recall periods. PMID:19528832
Vernberg, E M; Silverman, W K; La Greca, A M; Prinstein, M J
The authors used an integrative conceptual model to examine the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 568 elementary school-age children 3 months after Hurricane Andrew. The model included 4 primary factors: Exposure to Traumatic Events, Child Characteristics, Access to Social Support, and Children's Coping. Overall, 62% of the variance in children's self-reported PTSD symptoms was accounted for by the 4 primary factors, and each factor improved overall prediction of symptoms when entered in the analyses in the order specified by the conceptual model. The findings suggest that the conceptual model may be helpful to organize research and intervention efforts in the wake of natural disasters. PMID:8723005
Jason J. Nichols; Corrie Ziegler; G. Lynn Mitchell; Kelly K. Nichols
RESULTS. Overall, 893 surveys were completed, and the age- adjusted frequency of dry eye in the sample was 28.7%, with 3.5% of the sample reporting severe symptoms (at least grade 4 of a possible 5 for both symptoms). Contact lens wearers were most likely to report dry eye disease (52.3%), followed by spectacle wearers (23.9%) and clinical emmetropes (7.1%). Adjustment
Tegeler, Charles H.; Tegeler, Catherine L.; Cook, Jared F.; Lee, Sung W.; Pajewski, Nicholas M.
Abstract Objective Increased amplitudes in high-frequency brain electrical activity are reported with menopausal hot flashes. We report outcomes associated with the use of High-resolution, relational, resonance-based, electroencephalic mirroring—a noninvasive neurotechnology for autocalibration of neural oscillations—by women with perimenopausal and postmenopausal hot flashes. Methods Twelve women with hot flashes (median age, 56 y; range, 46-69 y) underwent a median of 13 (range, 8-23) intervention sessions for a median of 9.5 days (range, 4-32). This intervention uses algorithmic analysis of brain electrical activity and near real-time translation of brain frequencies into variable tones for acoustic stimulation. Hot flash frequency and severity were recorded by daily diary. Primary outcomes included hot flash severity score, sleep, and depressive symptoms. High-frequency amplitudes (23-36 Hz) from bilateral temporal scalp recordings were measured at baseline and during serial sessions. Self-reported symptom inventories for sleep and depressive symptoms were collected. Results The median change in hot flash severity score was ?0.97 (range, ?3.00 to 1.00; P = 0.015). Sleep and depression scores decreased by ?8.5 points (range, ?20 to ?1; P = 0.022) and ?5.5 points (range, ?32 to 8; P = 0.015), respectively. The median sum of amplitudes for the right and left temporal high-frequency brain electrical activity was 8.44 ?V (range, 6.27-16.66) at baseline and decreased by a median of ?2.96 ?V (range, ?11.05 to ?0.65; P = 0.0005) by the final session. Conclusions Hot flash frequency and severity, symptoms of insomnia and depression, and temporal high-frequency brain electrical activity decrease after High-resolution, relational, resonance-based, electroencephalic mirroring. Larger controlled trials with longer follow-up are warranted. PMID:25668305
Background Depression can be treated in an outpatient, inpatient or day hospital setting. In the German health care system, episodes of inpatient or day hospital treatment are common, but there is a lack of studies evaluating effectiveness in routine care and subgroups of patients with a good or insufficient treatment response. Our study aims at identifying prognostic and prescriptive outcome predictors as well as comparative effectiveness in psychosomatic inpatient and day hospital treatment in depression. Methods/Design In a naturalistic study, 300 consecutive inpatient and 300 day hospital treatment episodes in seven psychosomatic hospitals in Germany will be included. Patients are assessed at four time points of measurement (admission, discharge, 3-months follow-up, 12-months follow-up) including a broad range of variables (self-report and expert ratings). First, the whole sample will be analysed to identify prognostic and prescriptive predictors of outcome (primary outcome criterion: Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms QIDS-total score, expert rating). Secondly, for a comparison of inpatient and day hospital treatment, samples will be matched according to known predictors of outcome. Discussion Naturalistic studies with good external validity are needed to assess treatment outcome in depression in routine care and to identify subgroups of patients with different therapeutic needs. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN20317064 PMID:23531019
Kurokawa, N K; Weed, N C
The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) is a 48-item self-report inventory designed to measure three basic coping styles: Task Oriented, Emotion Oriented, and Avoidance Oriented coping. The psychometric properties of this inventory are promising, but CISS scores have not yet been shown to reflect behavioral variation in response to stress. This study was designed as a first step toward this end by examining the relationship between self- and peer-report on the CISS. One hundred and sixty-three pairs of friends completed the CISS, a peer form of the CISS, and a friendship questionnaire. Positive but modest correlations were found for each construct. Higher correlations were obtained when comparing scores across forms completed by the same informant, indicating that examinees believe their friends cope as they do themselves. Actual friend similarity was apparent only on Avoidance Oriented coping. Neither depth of relationship nor item observability moderated peer-self agreement. PMID:9458345
Porter, Stephen R.
Recent studies have asserted that self-reported learning gains (SRLG) are valid measures of learning, because gains in specific content areas vary across academic disciplines as theoretically predicted. In contrast, other studies find no relationship between actual and self-reported gains in learning, calling into question the validity of SRLG. I…
Petot, Djaouida; Rescorla, Leslie; Petot, Jean-Michel
The present study examined agreement between scores obtained from self-reports of behavioral and emotional problems obtained from 513 Algerian adolescents on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) with scores obtained from reports provided by their parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The correlations between self- and parent-report were larger…
Kent J. Nielsen
The aim of the present study is to investigate the predictive validity of the Danish Safety Culture Questionnaire on retrospective and prospective self-reported occupational injuries in a sample of workers in the manufacturing industry. A total of 765 workers at 3 different manufacturing plants completed the questionnaire comprised of leadership, organizational and worker factors. The occurrence of self-reported injuries was
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kosunen, Elisa; Rimpela, Matti
Study analyzed associations between pubertal timing, sexual activity, and self-reported depression in sample of girls and boys aged 14-16. Among girls, self-reported depression was associated with early puberty and intimate sexual relationship. Among boys, depression was associated with every early and late puberty and experience of intercourse.…
Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Erbacher, Monica K.; Reppucci, N. Dickon
Despite general consensus over the value of measuring self-reported offending, discrepancies exist in methods of scoring self-reported offending and the length of the reference period over which offending is assessed. This analysis compared the concurrent interassociations and longitudinal predictive strength of diversity, frequency, and severity…
Kercood, Suneeta; Lineweaver, Tara T.; Kugler, Jennifer
The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in self-reported symptomatology and working memory (visuospatial and auditory) in college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Forty-seven college students with ADHD and 44 non-affected control participants completed two self-report questionnaires and six tests…
Karlsson, Jon S.
This study examined the relationship between degree of visual impairment and the self-reports of psychological distress by 167 Icelanders (ages 18-69) and 100 between the ages of 70-97, who were blind or had low vision. The study found that self-reports of psychological distress and perceptions of unhappiness varied significantly with the degree…
Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Babinski, Dara E.; Biswas, Aparajita
The purpose of the current study was to test the ability of adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD to reliably self-report delinquency history. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD between 1987 and 1996. Self-report of lifetime delinquency history was…
Mahmut, Mehmet K.; Menictas, Con; Stevenson, Richard J.; Homewood, Judi
Currently, there is no standard self-report measure of psychopathy in community-dwelling samples that parallels the most commonly used measure of psychopathy in forensic and clinical samples, the Psychopathy Checklist. A promising instrument is the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP), which was derived from the original version the Psychopathy…
Dunaway, Krystall E.; Morrow, Jennifer A.; Porter, Bryan E.
No self-report measure of cultural competence currently exists in program evaluation. Adapting items from cultural competence measures in fields such as counseling and nursing, the researchers developed the Cultural Competence of Program Evaluators (CCPE) self-report scale. The goals of this study were to validate the CCPE and to assess…
Gonyea, Robert M.; Miller, Angie
Correlations between self-reported learning gains and direct, longitudinal measures that ostensibly correspond in content area are generally inadequate. This chapter clarifies that self-reported measures of learning are more properly used and interpreted as evidence of students' perceived learning and affective outcomes. In this context, the…
Self-report measures of physical activity have attractive features for epidemiologists and behavior change specialists. An information processing model is proposed to understand the encoding, storage, and retrieval processes, and to identify necessary skills for accurate self-reporting identified at each step in the process. (JD)
Hope R. Conte
This is a review and chronological perspective on the development of self-report measures designed to describe an individual's sexual functioning. It includes scales that provide data on both heterosexual and homosexual behavior. Attitude scales are also included, but only those that reflect an individual's attitudes toward his own or his partner's behavior. Two classes of self-report measures are evaluated: (1)
Belton, Sarahjane; Mac Donncha, Ciaran
The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability and validity of a new Youth Physical Activity Self-Report measure. Heart rate and direct observation were employed as criterion measures with a sample of 79 children (aged 7-9 years). Spearman's rho correlation between self reported activity intensity and heart rate was 0.87 for…
Lorin Hochstein; Victor R. Basili; Marvin V. Zelkowitz; Jeffrey K. Hollingsworth; Jeffrey Carver
Measuring effort accurately and consistently across subjects in a programming experiment can be a surprisingly difficult task. In particular, measures based on self-reported data may differ significantly from measures based on data which is recorded automatically from a subject's computing environment. Since self-reports can be unreliable, and not all activities can be captured automatically, a complete measure of programming effort
Senner, Jill E.; Fish, Thomas
Considering the needs of siblings is an important component of family-centered practice for children with developmental disabilities. A syntactically and semantically simplified version of the "Sibling Need and Involvement Profile" (SNIP) was developed to allow self-report. Total profile scores for the self-report version correlated well with the…
Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms experienced by older people, both with and without chronic disease. It is unpleasant and distressing and can affect functioning and quality of life. Fatigue also may inhibit an older person from participating optimally in a physical therapy program aimed at rehabilitation or the promotion of better health. However, confusion surrounds the concept of self-reported aging-related fatigue, not only because of the complexity of the problem itself but also because of lack of clarity of definition and the use of the term "fatigue" to describe a range of different concepts. This article aims to provide clarification of the concept in the context of physical therapist clinical practice. The intention is to increase awareness of the issue among physical therapists, promoting their assessment and consideration of the problem when planning health interventions involving functioning, physical activity, and exercise for older people. PMID:23704037
McAleavey, Andrew A.; Nordberg, Samuel S.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Locke, Benjamin D.; Lockard, Allison J.
Self-report instruments of psychological symptoms are increasingly used in counseling centers but rely on rigorous evaluation of their clinical validity. Three studies reported here (total N = 26,886) investigated the validity of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62; Locke et al., 2011) as an assessment and…
Stephanie W. Kuffel; Julia R. Heiman
The present study examined the effects of depressive mood symptoms and experimentally adopted sexual schemas on women's sexual arousal and affect. Women's vaginal response, subjective sexual arousal, and affect were measured in response to sexually explicit visual material in a laboratory setting. At baseline on a self-report measure, women with depressive mood symptoms (n?=?28) reported significantly lower sexual desire than
Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bogels, Susan M.; Meesters, Cor
The role of cognitive vulnerability in the development of depressive symptoms in youth might depend on age and gender. The current study examined cognitive vulnerability models in relationship to depressive symptoms from a developmental perspective. For that purpose, 805 youth (aged 10-18, 59.9% female) completed self-report measures.…
Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Hankin, Benjamin L.
This study used a multiwave design to examine the short-term longitudinal and bidirectional associations between depressive symptoms and peer relationship qualities among a sample of early to middle adolescents (N = 350, 6th-10th graders). Youth completed self-report measures of relationship quality and depressive symptoms at three time points…
R L Grotz; J H Pemberton; N J Talley; D M Rath; A R Zinsmeister
Severe idiopathic constipation can be categorised based on physiological testing into subgroups including slow transit constipation and pelvic floor dysfunction. This study aimed to determine if colonic and psychological symptoms, or rectosigmoid transit times, could discriminate among these subgroups. Patients, categorised according to total colonic transit times and pelvic floor function testing, completed a self report questionnaire that recorded symptoms
Balsis, Steve; Cooper, Luke D; Oltmanns, Thomas F
The present study examined whether informant-reported personality was more or less internally consistent than self-reported personality in an epidemiological community sample (n = 1,449). Results indicated that across the 5 NEO (Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness) personality factors and the 10 personality disorder trait dimensions, informant reports tended to be more internally consistent than self reports, as indicated by equal or higher Cronbach's alpha scores and higher average interitem correlations. In addition, the informant reports collectively outperformed the self reports for predicting responses on a global measure of health, indicating that the informant reports are not only more reliable than self reports, but they can also be useful in predicting an external criterion. Collectively these findings indicate that informant reports tend to have greater internal consistency than self reports. PMID:25376588
Hasson, Dan; Theorell, Töres; Liljeholm-Johansson, Yvonne; Canlon, Barbara
Experimental and epidemiological research indicate an association between long-term stress and hearing problems, yet the mechanisms underlying these disorders are not yet fully established. Thus, in order to better understand the pathogenesis of stress-related hearing problems, the present study explored the symptoms and general physiological and psychosocial status of musicians in symphony orchestras. Orchestral musicians are an ideal group to study since physical, psychosocial, work-environmental and acoustic stressors are highly prevalent. The subjects where obtained from two different studies. The first group included 250 participants from 12 orchestras and is entitled "the epidemiological study". The second group, entitled "the longitudinal study", included 47 musicians who were assessed at five occasions (every half year) during two years. Thirty-one of the 47 participants were selected for sampling of physiological variables, i.e. 24-hour ECG to assess heart rate variability to evaluate the synergistic action of the autonomic system as well as saliva cortisol and testosterone levels. The results indicate that self-reported hearing problems are associated with perceived poorer psychosocial environment, as well as mental health symptoms and stress. High-frequency power of heart rate variability (parasympathetic activity) showed a negative relationship to hearing problems, implying a poorer ability to "unwind" from stress. Cortisol levels were not correlated to hearing problems whereas testosterone levels showed a tendency to be lower in subjects with hearing problems than in others. These findings provide evidence for a relationship between long-term stress and self-reported hearing problems and demonstrate a protective role of parasympathetic and anabolic activity on hearing status. PMID:19666059
Scott, Lori N.; Whalen, Diana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Beeney, Joseph E.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.
In an at-risk community sample of 2,101 girls, we examined trajectories, predictors, and consequences of changes in a central aspect of adolescents’ perceived quality of attachment (QOA), i.e., their reported trust in the availability and supportiveness of the primary caregiver. Results demonstrated two distinct epochs of change in this aspect of girls’ perceived QOA, with a significant linear decrease in early adolescence (ages 11 to 14) followed by a plateau from 14 to 16. Baseline parent-reported harsh punishment, low parental involvement, single parent status, and child-reported depression symptoms predicted steeper decreases in attachment during early adolescence, which in turn predicted greater child-reported depression and conduct disorder symptoms in later adolescence. Results suggest that both parent and child factors contribute to trajectories of self-reported QOA in adolescence, and a faster rate of decrease in girls’ perceived QOA to caregivers during early adolescence may increase risk for both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. PMID:24011095
Cattie, Jordan E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Posada, Carolina; Grant, Igor
Chronic methamphetamine (MA) use is commonly associated with neural injury and neurocognitive deficits. We examined the nature and correlates of self-reported neurobehavioral symptoms (i.e., apathy, disinihibition, and executive dysfunction) in 73 individuals with histories of MA dependence (MA+) and 85 comparison participants with comparable demographics and risk histories. MA+ individuals endorsed significantly more severe neurobehavioral symptoms on the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale (FrSBe), especially disinhibition and executive dysfunction. Elevations in neurobehavioral symptoms were independent of common comorbidities, including hepatitis C infection, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, mood disorders, and other substance use factors. Notably, the severity of neurobehavioral symptoms were uniquely associated with self-reported decrements in instrumental activities of daily living in the MA dependent sample. Findings indicate that chronic MA users may experience elevated neurobehavioral symptoms of disinhibition and executive dysfunction, potentially increasing their risk of functional declines. PMID:23037647
Gorske, Tad T.
In this article, the author reviews the Ruff Neurobehavioral Inventory (RNBI), a self-report questionnaire designed to assess an individual's ability to function in cognitive, emotional, physical, and psychosocial domains, before and after a major illness or injury. The measure is designed to be used with men and women ages 18 to 75 who have at…
Armsden, Gay G.; Greenberg, Mark T.
The development and validation of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), a self-report instrument for use with adolescents, is described. Item content of the instrument was suggested by Bowlby's theoretical formulations concerning the nature of feelings toward attachment figures. A hierarchical regression model was employed to…
Karen B. Nicholas; Stephen L. Bieber
Due to an awareness of the frequency of child abuse and lack of a single instrument to assess the extent of exposure to both the abusive and supportive environments provided by parents, a 70 item inventory (the EASE-PI) was developed that is a self-report on how both mother and father treated the respondent. A factor analysis, which was subsequently replicated,
Roose, Annelore; Bijttebier, Patricia; Decoene, Stefaan; Claes, Laurence; Frick, Paul J.
To provide an extended assessment of the affective features of psychopathy, Frick developed the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits (ICU), which is a multi-informant questionnaire. Previous studies have provided initial support for the self-report version. The aim of the present study is to investigate the validity of self- as well as…
Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Franklin, Martin E.; Keuthen, Nancy J.; Piacentini, John; Cashin, Susan E.; Moore, Phoebe S.
This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Milwaukee Inventory for Styles of Trichotillomania-Child Version (MIST-C), a self-report scale designed to assess styles of hair pulling in children and adolescents diagnosed with trichotillomania (TTM). Using Internet sampling procedures, the authors recruited 164…
Merlino Perkins, Rose J.
The Merlino-Perkins Father-Daughter Relationship Inventory, a self-report instrument, assesses women's childhood interactions with supportive, doting, distant, controlling, tyrannical, physically abusive, absent, and seductive fathers. Item and scale development, psychometric findings drawn from factor analyses, reliability assessments, and…
Austin, Bryan S.; Leahy, Michael J.
Purpose: To construct and validate a new self-report instrument, the Clinical Judgment Skill Inventory (CJSI), inclusive of clinical judgment skill competencies that address counselor biases and evidence-based strategies. Method: An Internet-based survey design was used and an exploratory factor analysis was performed on a sample of rehabilitation…
Al-Janabi, Hareth; Keeley, Thomas; Mitchell, Paul; Coast, Joanna
Direct assessment of capability to function may be useful in healthcare settings, but poses many challenges. This paper reports a first investigation of the feasibility of individuals self-reporting their capabilities and the meaning of the responses. The study was conducted in 2010, using think-aloud interviews with participants in the UK. The findings of the study suggest that the majority of participants were able to comprehend questions about their capabilities, felt able to judge their own capability wellbeing and provided responses in line with this judgement. In a number of cases, for example in relation to ‘autonomy’, participants highlighted that their capability was potentially greater than their functioning. The findings also show varying interpretations of the capability concept, with some participants finding the capability concept unintuitive in relation to specific aspects of life (in particular, ‘attachment’). The findings suggest that guiding individuals in the process of identifying their capabilities may be important in generating consistent responses to capability questions. PMID:23631786
Paice, Judith A
The control, and ideally prevention, of symptoms such as pain, depression, and fatigue is dependent on a comprehensive clinical assessment. Furthermore, to advance the science of this field, symptom research requires the use of multidimensional instruments with proven validity and reliability in a cancer population across the lifespan. Studies demonstrate a significant correlation among pain, depression, fatigue, and other symptoms commonly seen throughout the course of cancer. Therefore, multidimensional scales incorporating the most common symptoms would ensure systematic assessment. Optimally, valid and reliable tools that measure symptom clusters would be feasible for use in both clinical and research settings. Currently available instruments that measure symptom clusters include the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale, the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist, the Symptom Distress Scale, and others. Special populations include cancer patients with advanced disease, where symptom prevalence is expected to increase. Newer tools that attempt to address these populations are the Brief Hospice Inventory and the Hospice Quality of Life Index, appropriate for cancer patients with more advanced disease. Each of these tools has demonstrated utility in measuring symptom severity and quality of life. Few scales have been validated in the measurement of symptom clusters in children, in cognitively impaired adults, or in non-English speaking patients from various cultural backgrounds. The strengths and limitations presented in the clinical and research uses of each these instruments will be presented, as will be areas for future investigation. PMID:15263048
Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n?=?433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n?=?165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's?=?299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. PMID:25131806
Edman, Gunnar; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Berglund, Gunilla; Gillberg, Christopher; Hofvander, Björn; Humble, Mats B.; Mörtberg, Ewa; Råstam, Maria; Ståhlberg, Ola; Frisén, Louise
Background The Brief Obsessive Compulsive Scale (BOCS), derived from the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the children’s version (CY-BOCS), is a short self-report tool used to aid in the assessment of obsessive–compulsive symptoms and diagnosis of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). It is widely used throughout child, adolescent and adult psychiatry settings in Sweden but has not been validated up to date. Aim The aim of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the BOCS amongst a psychiatric outpatient population. Method The BOCS consists of a 15-item Symptom Checklist including three items (hoarding, dysmorphophobia and self-harm) related to the DSM-5 category “Obsessive–compulsive related disorders”, accompanied by a single six-item Severity Scale for obsessions and compulsions combined. It encompasses the revisions made in the Y-BOCS-II severity scale by including obsessive–compulsive free intervals, extent of avoidance and excluding the resistance item. 402 adult psychiatric outpatients with OCD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder and other psychiatric disorders completed the BOCS. Results Principal component factor analysis produced five subscales titled “Symmetry”, “Forbidden thoughts”, “Contamination”, “Magical thoughts” and “Dysmorphic thoughts”. The OCD group scored higher than the other diagnostic groups in all subscales (P < 0.001). Sensitivities, specificities and internal consistency for both the Symptom Checklist and the Severity Scale emerged high (Symptom Checklist: sensitivity = 85%, specificities = 62–70% Cronbach’s ? = 0.81; Severity Scale: sensitivity = 72%, specificities = 75–84%, Cronbach’s ? = 0.94). Conclusions The BOCS has the ability to discriminate OCD from other non-OCD related psychiatric disorders. The current study provides strong support for the utility of the BOCS in the assessment of obsessive–compulsive symptoms in clinical psychiatry. PMID:24568661
Patricia Van Oppen; Rense J. Hoekstra; Paul M. G. Emmelkamp
In the present study, the structure of obsessive-compulsive symptoms was investigated by means of the Padua Inventory (PI). Simultaneous Components Analysis on data from obsessive-compulsives (n = 206), patients with other anxiety disorders (n = 222), and a non clinical sample (n = 430) revealed a five-factor solution. These factors are: (I) impulses; (II) washing; (III) checking; (IV) rumination; and
Ruiz-Robledillo, N; Moya-Albiol, L
Caring for offspring with autism spectrum disorders entails high levels of stress for a long period of time and is associated with several types of health complaints. Few studies have focused on specific effects of particular disorders in the spectrum. This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the global health of parents of people with Asperger syndrome (N = 53) compared to those of typically developing children (N = 54) through self-reported measures (medication consumption and somatic symptoms) and biological markers (cortisol awakening response [CAR]). Additionally, we analysed various psychological variables as potential predictors of caregiver health. We found that caregivers take more medication and have worse self-reported health than controls, but there were no significant differences in CAR between the groups. However, after controlling for negative affect, differences between groups in CAR reached significance. With regards to predictor variables, anxiety trait, cognitive-coping style, burden and anger temperament were significantly associated with caregiver's self-reported health. These findings underline the need to develop interventions that foster improvements in the health of caregivers, reduce their burden and enhance their quality of life. PMID:23713979
Richmond, Tracy K.; Walls, Courtney E.; Austin, S. Bryn
Our objective was to determine if sexual orientation groups differ in accuracy of body mass index (BMI kg/m2) calculated from self-reported height and weight and if weight status modifies possible differences. Using gender-stratified multiple linear regression to analyze Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=12,197) we examined the association of sexual orientation with BMI calculated from self-reported height and weight (self-reported BMI) , controlling for BMI calculated from objectively measured height and weight (objectively measured BMI) as well as demographic, health, and behavioral variables. We tested for effect modification of the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported BMI by objectively-measured BMI. The population underestimated their BMI (females: beta=0.87, p<0.001; males=0.86, p<0.001). Sexual orientation groups differed little in their accuracy of reporting; only gay males had significant underreporting (beta=?0.37, p=0.038) relative to their heterosexual peers. We found no evidence of effect modification of the relationship of sexual orientation and self-reported BMI by objectively measured BMI. With the exception of gay males, sexual orientation groups are consistent in their underreporting of BMI thus providing confidence in most comparisons of weight status based on self-report. Self-reporting of weight and height by gay males may exaggerate the differences in BMI between gay and heterosexual males. PMID:22282109
Middle Snake Subbasins Inventory May 2004 Compiled by Ecovista Contracted by Shoshone-Paiute Tribes #12;Middle Snake Subbasins Inventory i May 2004 Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1 2 CURRENT MANAGEMENT
The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...
Foa, Edna B.; Coles, Meredith; Huppert, Jonathan D.; Pasupuleti, Radhika V.; Franklin, Martin E.; March, John
Surprisingly, only 3 self-report measures that directly assess pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been developed. In addition, these scales have typically been developed in small samples and fail to provide a quick assessment of symptoms across multiple domains. Therefore, the current paper presents initial psychometric data for a…
Höhne, Nina; Stalla, Günter K.; Sievers, Caroline
Objective Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. Methods We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female “MtF” and 45 female-to-male “FtM”) patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. Results In total, 32.9% (n?=? 23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n?=? 10) FtM transsexual persons (p?=? 0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males (?=?androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p ?=? 0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p ?=? 0.05). Conclusion In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon. PMID:25299675
Fussner, Lauren M; Luebbe, Aaron M; Bell, Debora J
Depression is frequently considered a disorder of impaired affect regulation with deficits across both positive and negative affective systems. However, where deficits in emotion regulation occur in youth, specifically regarding regulation of positive emotions, is relatively unknown. The current study tested whether deficits in broad (felt and expressed) and specific (up-regulation and maintenance) positive emotion processes are associated with youth depressive symptoms. Adolescents (n?=?134; 65 girls) in grades 7 to 9 completed a self-report measure of depressive symptoms prior to participating in two parent-child interactions tasks, a rewarding trivia task and a problem-solving conflict task. During the interaction tasks, adolescent's overall self-reported experience and observed expression of positive affect (PA) was examined. Following the reward task, youth's ability to up-regulate PA (PA response) and maintain PA while buffering against NA (PA persistence) was explored observationally. Results suggested that reduced experience and expression of PA was associated with depression symptoms, but only in a context that elicited negative emotions. No association was found between PA response and depression symptoms; however, shorter PA persistence was associated with elevated depressive symptoms. Youth higher in depressive symptoms appear able to respond similarly to rewarding events, but fail to maintain PA and ward off NA when transitioning from a positive to negative task. PMID:25070360
Examined the validity of aural and oral self-report scales for determining the Fiji Hindi proficiency of new adolescent immigrants in New Zealand. Participants completed self-reports and performance tests (oral interviews, listening-comprehension tests, and vocabulary tests). Performance tests correlated strongly with self-reports. Respondents…
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Volume 1: Fiscal Years 1990-2009 Published: October 2009 #12 The production of the first Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory for Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL;Washington University in St. Louis i GHG Emissions Inventory (Vol. 1: FY1990-2009) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Rabin, Laura A.; Wang, Cuiling; Katz, Mindy J.; Derby, Carol A.; Buschke, Herman; Lipton, Richard B.
Background/Objectives Despite the strong need for evidence-based diagnostics, there is disagreement about the cognitive tools that best predict incident Alzheimer's disease (AD) in nondemented elders. We investigated the independent and combined contributions to the risk of AD of three key domains of cognitive assessment: neuropsychological measurement, self reports, and informant reports. Design Longitudinal, community-based sample. Setting Einstein Aging Study. Participants Six hundred twenty-seven non-demented older adults aged 70 and above systematically recruited from the Bronx, NY. Measurements Comprehensive assessment included neurological exam, behavioral questions, and neuropsychological testing. AD diagnoses were based on DSM-IV criteria assigned at a multidisciplinary consensus case conference. The major statistical analyses utilized Cox proportional hazards models (with age as the time scale), adjusted for gender, education, and depressive symptoms. Results Forty-eight participants developed incident AD during a median of 3.3 years of follow-up. Self and informant reports of cognitive status as well as baseline scores on tests of episodic memory and psychomotor speed predicted the onset of AD. In models examining all the variables simultaneously, however, only the episodic memory tests and informant reports were associated with risk of AD. A likelihood ratio test confirmed the incremental effect of informant reports in addition to the neuropsychological test scores (P=0.035). Conclusion Informant ratings improved the prediction of AD conversion above and beyond objective memory impairment in non-demented elders. Combining these cognitive measures may provide a useful, empirical method for identifying individuals at high risk for future AD. PMID:22690986
Peura, Sirpa; Salimäki, Johanna; Järvenpää, Salme; Linna, Miika; Haahtela, Tari
Background Asthma and allergies are common and cause substantial burden in symptoms and suffering, hospitalizations and medication costs. However, despite the high prevalence, asthma burden has already decreased in Finland in 2000s. Objective We carried out an asthma barometer survey in all Finnish pharmacies to study changes in asthma severity and control, and use of health care services from 2001 to 2010. Methods Asthma severity, comorbid allergic conditions, and use of medication and health care services were assessed in subjects who purchased asthma or allergy medication from the pharmacies all across the country during one week in 2001 and again in 2010. In 2001, 3,062 patients (mean age, 49 years), and in 2010, 1,114 patients (mean age, 51 years) participated. Results In 2001 90% and in 2010 73% of the respondents reported physician-diagnosed asthma and were entitled to special reimbursement for their drug costs, i.e., they needed regular maintenance treatment. In 2001, 10% of the asthmatics regarded their disease as severe, compared with 4% in 2010, while the figures for mild asthma were 45% and 62%, respectively (p < 0.001). The proportion of patients needing emergency care during the last year decreased from 34% (2001) to 14% (2010) (p < 0.001) and the need for hospitalizations from 18% to 6% (p < 0.001). Smoking reduced from 24% to 18% among asthmatics ( p = 0.002). In 2010, risk factors for severe asthma were older age, comorbid atopic eczema, and food allergy. Conclusion During ten years, self-reported asthma severity has reduced and disease control improved in Finland. PMID:25653918
Schermer, Julie Aitken; Johnson, Andrew M; Jang, Kerry L; Vernon, Philip A
The relationship between self-report abilities and measured intelligence was examined at both the phenotypic (zero-order) level as well as at the genetic and environmental levels. Twins and siblings (N = 516) completed a timed intelligence test and a self-report ability questionnaire, which has previously been found to produce 10 factors, including: politics, interpersonal relationships, practical tasks, intellectual pursuits, academic skills, entrepreneur/business, domestic skills, vocal abilities, and creativity. At the phenotypic level, the correlations between the ability factor scores and intelligence ranged from 0.01 to 0.42 (between self-report academic abilities and verbal intelligence). Further analyses found that some of the phenotypic relationships between self-report ability scores and measured intelligence also had significant correlations at the genetic and environmental levels, suggesting that some of the observed relationships may be due to common genetic and/or environmental factors. PMID:25662420
Michael Huerta; Gabriel Chodick; Ran D. Balicer; Nadav Davidovitch; Itamar Grotto
Background.Many studies use questionnaires to determine smoking status and age of smoking onset. This study aimed to determine the reliability of self-reported smoking history and age of smoking initiation.
Ferraro, K F; Su, Y P
OBJECTIVES: This study compared the predictive validity of physician-evaluated morbidity and self-reported morbidity on disability among adults. METHODS: Subjects from a large national survey (n = 6913) received a detailed medical examination by a physician and were asked about the presence of 36 health conditions at baseline. Disability measured 10 and 15 years later was regressed on the morbidity measures and covariates with tobit models. RESULTS: Although physician-evaluated morbidity and self-reported morbidity were associated with greater disability, self-reports of chronic nonserious illnesses manifested greater predictive validity. Disability was also higher for obese subjects and those of lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate the predictive utility of self-reported morbidity measures on functional disability. PMID:10630145
Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L.; Guerin, Michele T.; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique
Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7- 61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness. PMID:19507750
... Search ANAUSA.org Connect with us! Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma Early symptoms are easily overlooked, thus making ... are symptoms, however, indicating the possibility of an acoustic neuroma . The first symptom in 90% of those ...
Sharifah Azizah Haron; Deanna L. Sharpe; Jariah Masud; Mohamed Abdel-Ghany
Data from the 2004 Survey of Economic and Financial Aspects of Aging in Malaysia were analyzed to determine factors associated\\u000a with self-reported health status among older Malaysians. Odds of self-reporting health as bad versus moderate or good were\\u000a higher for respondents who were in lower income quintiles, who perceived their financial situation as bad, who were older\\u000a and who were
Two studies found that individuals high in private self-consciousness provide self-reports of greater reliability across time than individuals low in private self-consciousness. In addition, Study 2 found that a successful manipulation of self-awareness did not affect test–retest reliability of self-reports among Ss either high or low in private self-consciousness. The hypothesis that individuals high in private self-consciousness have articulated self-schemata
Stephen T Chermack; John Roll; Mark Reilly; Leonard Davis; Usha Kilaru; John Grabowski
This study examined under naturalistic assessment conditions the validity of self-reported opiate and cocaine use among 175 veterans enrolled in methadone treatment, and factors related to self-report validity, such as stage in treatment and drug of abuse. Veterans were interviewed by clinical staff about past 30-day drug use with the addiction severity index (ASI), and urinalysis results were obtained for
Sara M. Fulmer; Jan C. Frijters
Within psychological and educational research, self-report methodology dominates the study of student motivation. The present\\u000a review argues that the scope of motivation research can be expanded by incorporating a wider range of methodologies and measurement\\u000a tools. Several authors have suggested that current study of motivation is overly reliant on self-report measures, warranting\\u000a a move toward alternative approaches. This review critiques
M. Douglas Anglin; Yih-Ing Hser; Chih-Ping Chou
Issues related to the reliability and validity of self-reported behavior within a deviant population are examined using data obtained from narcotics addicts in two face-to-face interviews conducted 10 years apart. The same measures of behavioral self-report for an overlapping period of 4-5 years were collected at each interview and were analyzed within a test-retest design. Agreement between measures obtained at
Kerstin E. E. Schroder; Michael P. Carey; Peter A. Vanable
Assessing sexual behavior with self-report is essential to research on a variety of health topics, including pregnancy and\\u000a infertility, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual health and functioning. Recent methodological research has provided\\u000a new insights regarding the accuracy of self-reports of sexual behavior. We review these studies, paying particular attention\\u000a to a promising new development: the use of computer-assisted assessments. The
Christian Hoppe; Christoph Helmstaedter; Judith Scherrmann; Christian E. Elger
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for treatment of drug-resistant epileptic seizures has been reported to have additional positive mood effects as obtained by psychiatric ratings. To avoid rater bias effects, this study used self-report questionnaires and examined changes in self-reported mood and health-related quality of life following 6 months of VNS treatment. From 40 adult patients treated with VNS since the
Matthias Bopp; David Faeh
BACKGROUND: When individuals report figures, they often prefer to round to specific end-digits (e.g. zero). Such preference has been found in reports of body weight, cigarette consumption or blood pressure measurements. Very little is known about self-reported body height. End-digit preference can distort estimates of prevalence and other statistical parameters. This study examines end-digit preference for self-reported height and how
The study focused on the prediction of autonomic reactivity to public speaking by using self-report and objective data (other-ratings and behavioral data) of task-induced nervousness and task engagement. Forty-one individuals participated in the study. Heart rate and electrodermal activity were recorded during baseline and speech delivery. Stepwise multiple regression analyses indicated that self-report data of task engagement and nervousness largely
Rosebud O. Roberts; Erik J. Bergstralh; Luanne Schmidt; Steven J. Jacobsen
Self-reported utilization of health care services is important in epidemiological studies and in health care planning, policy, and research, and the accuracy of such information is essential. This study assessed the validity of self-reported utilization of health care services in a randomly selected cohort of 500 community-dwelling men aged 40 to 79 years in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Men had previously
William E Cunningham; Hanif M Rana; Martin F Shapiro; Ron D Hays
Studies of health care outcomes and clinical decision making for people with HIV disease depend on CD4 cell count data to accurately assess the stage of disease. The possibility of obtaining reliable and valid data from self-reported CD4 counts is an unexplored source of potentially important, cost-effective information for these purposes. We examined the extent of agreement of self-reported CD4
Timothy R. Jordan; James H. Price; Keith A. King; Tatiana Masyk; Archie W. Bedell
Background.Despite the high rate of prostate cancer screening, the accuracy of male patients' self-reports of screening has not been investigated. This study assessed the concordance between patients' self-reports of prostate screening and the medical record.Methods.Focus groups were conducted to obtain male patients' perceptions of prostate cancer screening and salient terminology. A sample of males (n= 276), 40 years of age
MARIE FANELLI KUCZMARSKI; ROBERT J KUCZMARSKI; MATTHEW NAJJAR
Objective To compare self-reported to measured heights and weights of adults examined in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), and to determine to what extent body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported heights and weights affects estimates of overweight prevalence compared with BMI calculated from measured values.Design A complex sample design was used in NHANES III
I Niedhammer; I Bugel; S Bonenfant; M Goldberg; A Leclerc
OBJECTIVE: To examine the validity of self-reported weight and height and the resulting body mass index (BMI), and to explore the associations between demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related factors on the one hand and bias in self-reported weight and height on the other, in order to determine the groups most likely to exhibit bias.DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.SUBJECTS: 7350 middle-aged subjects, 5445
Shin, Ju Young; Sims, Regina C.; Bradley, Diane L.; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Harrison, Barbara E.
The purpose of this pilot study was to identify the prevalence of and risk factors associated with depressive symptoms among older adult residents of a public housing apartment. Self-reported depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) 8. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect data on risk factors of sociodemographic information, cardiovascular health history, and history of depression. Fifty-eight of 171 residents responded, and 31% of residents met the CES-D 8 criterion for depression (total score >7). Sequential multiple regression models identified age, loss of loved ones in the past year, and financial worries as significant predictors of CES-D 8 scores. These study results have implications for future studies of depressive symptoms in older adults, suggesting that grief and financial assistance programs may help reduce risks associated with depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults living in public housing. PMID:25036530
Compian, Laura; Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris
This study explored the relationship of both romantic and platonic involvement with boys, as well as pubertal status, to body image and depression symptoms among an ethnically diverse sample of sixth-grade girls. Participants were 157 early adolescent girls (ages 10-13) who completed self-report measures designed to assess girls' level of…
Ozer, Emily J.; Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Pasch, Lauri A.
This study of 151 Mexican American adolescents ages 12 to 15 examined the relationship between parenting and adolescents' self-reported level of depressive symptoms and substance use 6 months and 1 year later. Adolescents and their parents were recruited from a large health-maintenance organization and interviewed at three time points. Lower…
Menesini, Ersilia; Modena, Marco; Tani, Franca
From an initial sample of 1,278 Italian students, the authors selected 537 on the basis of their responses to a self-report bully and victim questionnaire. Participants' ages ranged from 13 to 20 years (M = 15.12 years, SD = 1.08 years). The authors compared the concurrent psychological symptoms of 4 participant groups (bullies, victims,…
Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; De Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.
In this study, we investigated if the association between parental divorce and depressive symptoms changes during early adolescence and if developmental patterns are similar for boys and girls. Data were collected in a prospective population cohort of Dutch adolescents (N = 2,149), aged 10 - 15 years. Outcome variables were self-reported and…
Michael A. Cucciare; Heather Gray; Armin Azar; Daniel Jimenez; Dolores Gallagher-Thompson
Objectives: The present study examined the relationship between self-reported physical health, depressive symptoms, and the occurrence of depression diagnosis in Hispanic female dementia caregivers. Participants: Participants were 89 Hispanic female dementia caregivers. Design: This study used a cross-sectional design. Baseline depression and physical health data were collected from participants enrolled in the ‘Reducing Stress in Hispanic Anglo Dementia Caregivers’ study
Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Elliott, Ann N.; Smith, Christopher H.
Objective: The present study tests a model linking attachment, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological functioning. It expands on previous work by assessing the degree to which attachment security moderates the relationship between a history of child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms in college females. Method: Self-reports of…
K. Miyashita; I. Morioka; T. Tanabe; H. Iwata; S. Takeda
Summary To study the effects of construction machinery operation on subjective symptoms, a questionnaire survey was caried out among construction machinery operators by a self-reporting method. Subjects were 184 power shovel operators, 127 bulldozer operators, 44 forklift operators as operator groups, and 44 office workers as a control. Their ages were in a range of 30–49 years. The questionnaire contained
Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.
This study investigated gender differences in the moderating and mediating effects of responses to stress on the association between perceived peer stress and symptoms of psychopathology. A sample of 295 middle school students (63.7% female; M[subscript age] = 12.39 years, SD = 0.99) completed self-report surveys on stress, coping, and behavioral…
Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Spoth, Richard L.; Redmond, Cleve
Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY) is a preventive intervention that targets parenting behaviors, family interaction patterns, and adolescent substance use, factors that have been shown to predict depression among teenagers. Effects of PDFY on trajectories of self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms from 6th through 12th grade were…
Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Fox, Jeffery D.; Volker, Martin A.; Chow, Sabrina Y.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Lee, Gloria K.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; McDonald, Christin A.; Smerbeck, Audrey M.
The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine symptom levels of anxiety and depression in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) compared with matched control children using child self-reports and parent ratings; and (2) examine source differences within the two condition groups. An overall multivariate effect indicated…
Traci L Brooks; Sion Kim Harris; Jeannie S Thrall; Elizabeth R Woods
Purpose: To examine the hypothesis that self-reported symptoms of depression and stress may be associated with other risk behaviors.Methods: A secondary data analysis of the 1992 Massachusetts Adolescent Health Survey involving a representative sample of 2224 ninth and twelfth grade students was performed. The dichotomous dependent variable was positive if the adolescent reported feeling depressed or stressed for 10 or
Vaughn, Lisa M.; Battle, Julie V.; Taylor, Trisha; Dearman, Laura
This study examined relationships between specific learning styles, attachment styles and psychological symptoms in a sample of female college students (N=246). The participants in this study were assessed on the above variables through completion of several self-report instruments measuring these variables. Significant relationships between…
Stringaris, Argyris; Stahl, Daniel; Santosh, Paramala; Goodman, Robert
The dramatic increase in diagnostic rates of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents in the USA has led to an intense interest in the phenomenology of the disorder. Here we present data from a newly-developed instrument to assess episodic mania-like symptoms in youth in a large population-based sample (N = 5326) using parent- and self-report.…
William E. Barlow; Constance D. Lehman; Yingye Zheng; Rachel Ballard-Barbash; Bonnie C. Yankaskas; Gary R. Cutter; Patricia A. Carney; Berta M. Geller; Robert Rosenberg; Karla Kerlikowske; Donald L. Weaver; Stephen H. Taplin
Background: The performance of diagnostic mammography for women with signs or symptoms of breast cancer has not been well studied. We evaluated whether age, breast density, self-reported breast lump, and previous mammog- raphy influence the performance of diagnostic mammogra- phy. Methods: From January 1996 through March 1998, prospective diagnostic mammography data from women aged 25-89 years with no previous breast
Thrane, Lisa E.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Danny R.; Shelley, Mack C.
This study examined the measurement of depressive symptoms among American Indian adolescents as assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Youth Self Report (YSR), and the Tri-Ethnic Center's for Prevention Research Depression Scale (TEDS). This analysis demonstrated that the TEDS had good internal consistency,…
Nadeem, Erum; Graham, Sandra
One thousand twenty-four African American and Latino sixth graders participated in a study examining the moderating role of pubertal development on the relation between peer victimization and adolescent self-worth, depressed mood, and physical symptoms using peer and self-reported victimization. It was hypothesized that early-maturing girls who…
Edward W. McCranie; Leon A. Hyer
Given important differences in the Korean conflict and World War II, samples of treatment-seeking combat veterans from these wars (30 Korea, 83 World War II) were compared on the prevalence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). With age, ethnicity, and combat exposure taken into account, the Korean veterans reported significantly more severe symptoms on both interview and self-report PTSD
Elgar, Frank J.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Brownridge, Douglas A.
This study examined parental behaviors as mediators in links between depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers and child adjustment problems. Participants were 4,184 parents and 6,048 10- to 15-year-olds enrolled in the 1998 and 2000 cycles of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Mothers and fathers self-reported…
Becker, Kimberly D.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; McCloskey, Laura A.
Interviews of women with (n = 193) and without (n = 170) recent exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) were used to examine how IPV and past exposure to child abuse influence self-reports of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The measurement of IPV included assessing psychological, physical, escalated physical, and sexual abuse.…
The burden of managing chronic health problems such as asthma is often compounded by psychological distress and debilitating mental health problems associated with these conditions. In this study we assessed the relationship between asthma and self-reported mental health symptom...
FRANCESCO FORASTIERE; JOHN BALMES; MARINA SCARINCI; IRA B. TAGER
We evaluated the role of occupational factors on the prevalence of self-reported asthma, chronic bronchitis, and asthma-like respiratory symptoms among women > 55 yr. Occupational history, smoking, and respiratory conditions were collected through an interviewer-administered question- naire from 1,226 women. Lung function data from 820 subjects were used for group \\
Carey, Kate B.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Carey, Michael P.; Purnine, Daniel M.
Objective The high rates of comorbid substance use disorders among persons living with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) have increased interest in assessing and enhancing motivation to change substance misuse in this population. This study provides evidence for the psychometric adequacy of three self-report measures of readiness-to-change. Method The sample consisted of 84 persons (65% men) with co-occurring substance abuse or dependence and an SPMI. After a psychiatric assessment, participants completed three measures of readiness-to-change, which yielded seven subscales: (1) the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (ambivalence about change, recognition of substance-related problems, taking steps), (2) Decisional Balance Scale (pros of using, cons of using) and (3) the Alcohol and Drug Consequences Questionnaire (costs of quitting, benefits of quitting). Results All of the subscales were stable over time, and 6 of the 7 subscales demonstrated excellent internal consistency. Reliability indices were comparable when analyses were repeated on subsets of participants defined by diagnosis, cognitive function, positive symptoms and negative symptoms. A pattern of theoretically meaningful intercorrelations provided convergent evidence of validity, and a general lack of relationships with demographic variables and indices of psychiatric status provided discriminant evidence of validity. These findings support efforts to quantify readiness-to-change substance misuse among persons with an SPMI. PMID:11271968
Orru, Hans; Jõgi, Rain; Kaasik, Marko; Forsberg, Bertil
The relationship between exposure to traffic induced particles, respiratory health and cardiac diseases was studied in the RHINE Tartu cohort. A postal questionnaire with commonly used questions regarding respiratory symptoms, cardiac disease, lifestyle issues such as smoking habits, indoor environment, occupation, early life exposure and sleep disorders was sent to 2,460 adults. The annual concentrations of local traffic induced particles were modelled with an atmospheric dispersion model with traffic flow data, and obtained PMexhaust concentrations in 40 × 40 m grids were linked with home addresses with GIS. The relationship between the level of exhaust particles outside home and self-reported health problems were analyzed using a multiple logistic regression model. We found a significant relation between fine exhaust particles and cardiac disease, OR = 1.64 (95% CI 1.12–2.43) for increase in PMexhaust corresponding to the fifth to the 95th percentile range. The associations also were positive but non-significant for hypertension OR = 1.42 (95% CI 0.94–2.13), shortness of breath OR = 1.27 (95% CI 0.84–1.94) and other respiratory symptoms. PMID:20049219
Flor Zaldívar Basurto; José Manuel García Montes; Pilar Flores Cubos; Fernando Sánchez Santed; Francisca López Ríos; Antonio Molina Moreno
The purpose of this work was to determine the validity of a self-report on recent drug use (cocaine and cannabis) in a sample of university students of both sexes and to explore the role of attitudes toward substance use as related to this report. The subjects (506) were volunteers aged 17-35 years (who received an economic incentive) recruited at the
Epkins, C C; Dedmon, A M
The authors examined siblings' reports of children's depression, anxiety, and aggression, and their reports of the sibling relationship, and compared them with children's self-reports. In two samples, including 169 sibling pairs (age M = 9.98 years, SD = 1.51), no significant differences emerged in the levels of depression and anxiety found in siblings' reports of children's behavior and children's self-reports, although siblings reported children to have significantly higher levels of aggression than the children self-reported. Age, the difference in ages between siblings, sex, and sibling sex were not related to siblings' reports of children's behavior. The relations between children's and siblings' reports of children's behavior were significant, yet moderate (average r = .22). Both siblings' self-reports of internalizing behavior and their perceptions of aspects of the sibling relationship (affection, rivalry, hostility, and satisfaction with the sibling relationship) explained significant, and unique, variance in siblings' reports of children's internalizing behavior. The findings for aggressive behavior were similar, although siblings' perceptions of affection in the sibling relationship were not significantly related to their reports of children's aggression. The potential uses and benefits of sibling reports of children's behavior, and sibling and family relationships, are discussed. PMID:10582838
Stevanovic, D; Urbán, R; Atilola, O; Vostanis, P; Singh Balhara, Y P; Avicenna, M; Kandemir, H; Knez, R; Franic, T; Petrov, P
Aims. This study evaluated the measurement invariance of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) self-report among adolescents from seven different nations. Methods. Data for 2367 adolescents, aged 13-18 years, from India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Serbia, Turkey, Bulgaria and Croatia were available for a series of factor analyses. Results. The five-factor model including original SDQ scales emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity-inattention problems, peer problems and prosocial behaviour generated inadequate fit degree in all countries. A bifactor model with three factors (i.e., externalising, internalising and prosocial) and one general problem factor yielded adequate degree of fit in India, Nigeria, Turkey and Croatia. The prosocial behaviour, emotional symptoms and conduct problems factor were found to be common for all nations. However, originally proposed items loaded saliently on other factors besides the proposed ones or only some of them corresponded to proposed factors in all seven countries. Conclusions. Due to the lack of a common acceptable model across all countries, namely the same numbers of factors (i.e., dimensional invariance), it was not possible to perform the metric and scalar invariance test, what indicates that the SDQ self-report models tested lack appropriate measurement invariance across adolescents from these seven nations and it needs to be revised for cross-country comparisons. PMID:24785706
Bengtsson, Ulrika; Kasperowski, Dick; Ring, Lena; Kjellgren, Karin
Low adherence remains a struggle in hypertension management, despite improvement efforts. Presuming that increased patient participation is a possible approach, we collaborated with patients and healthcare professionals to design a self-report system to support self-management. The study aimed to explore and describe relevant aspects of hypertension and hypertension treatment, for use in the development of an interactive mobile phone self-report system. It further aimed to suggest which clinical measures, lifestyle measures, symptoms and side-effects of treatment would be meaningful to include in such a system. Five focus group interviews were performed with 15 patients and 12 healthcare professionals, and data was analysed using thematic analysis. Patients suggested trust, a good relationship with caregivers, and well-being as important aspects of hypertension self-management. Furthermore, they regarded blood pressure, dizziness, stress, headache and tiredness as important outcomes to include. Patients sought to understand interconnections between symptoms and variations in blood pressure, whilst healthcare professionals doubted patients' ability to do so. Healthcare professionals emphasized accessibility, clear and consistent counselling, complication prevention and educational efforts. The study presents aspects of importance for follow-up to understand the interplay between blood pressure and daily life experiences for patients with hypertension. PMID:24564289
Sarah Bal; Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij; Geert Crombez; Paulette Van Oost
This study investigated to what extent abuse-related symptoms and family functioning are related to intra- or extrafamilial sexual abuse. One hundred adolescents (12 to 18 years old) were recruited shortly after disclosure of the abuse. Information from the participants was obtained through self-report questionnaires and a semistructured interview. Fifty-three percent of the adolescents reported clinically significant symptoms. Data did not
Xiaojia Ge; Gene H. Brody; Rand D. Conger; Ronald L. Simons
The association of pubertal maturation with internalizing and externalizing symptoms was examined with a sample of 867 African-American 10 – 12-year-old children. Children reported their pubertal development status and timing using a self-report questionnaire, and symptoms were assessed through diagnostic interviews with the children and their primary caregivers. Pubertal status and timing were significantly associated with children's reports of the
Noni K. Gaylord-Harden; Jamila A. Cunningham
The current study examined the impact of racial discrimination stress on internalizing symptoms and coping strategies in a\\u000a sample of 268 African American early adolescents (mean age = 12.90; 56% female) from low-income communities. Information about\\u000a discrimination stress, coping, and internalizing symptoms was obtained via adolescents’ self-report. It was predicted that\\u000a discrimination stress would be positively associated with depression and anxiety, as
Christopher Lopata; Jennifer A. Toomey; Jeffery D. Fox; Martin A. Volker; Sabrina Y. Chow; Marcus L. Thomeer; Gloria K. Lee; Jonathan D. Rodgers; Christin A. McDonald; Audrey M. Smerbeck
The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine symptom levels of anxiety and depression in children with high-functioning autism\\u000a spectrum disorders (HFASDs) compared with matched control children using child self-reports and parent ratings; and (2) examine\\u000a source differences within the two condition groups. An overall multivariate effect indicated significantly elevated depression\\u000a and anxiety symptoms for children with HFASDs based
Benita Jackson; Elizabeth Goodman
Some markers of social disadvantage are associated robustly with depressive symptoms among adolescents: female gender and\\u000a lower socioeconomic status (SES), respectively. Others are associated equivocally, notably black v. white race\\/ethnicity.\\u000a Few studies examine whether markers of social disadvantage by gender, SES, and race\\/ethnicity jointly predict self-reported\\u000a depressive symptoms during adolescence; this was our goal. Secondary analyses were conducted on data
Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice; Mao, Jun James
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between immigration transition and depressive symptoms among 1,054 midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the data from two national Internet survey studies. Questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Depression Index for Midlife Women were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including multiple regressions. Immigrants reported lower numbers of symptoms and less severe symptoms than nonimmigrants (p <.01). When controlling for background characteristics, self-reported racial/ethnic identity and immigration status were significant predictors of depressive symptoms (R(2) =.01, p <.05). PMID:24875592
El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Haghgoo, Ghollamreza
This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively). A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, living arrangements during semester, income sufficiency), lifestyle (tobacco smoking, illicit drug/s use, alcohol consumption frequency), and health variables (subjective health status, health awareness, BMI), along with religiosity, and quality of life. Factor analysis categorized the 21 self-reported symptoms into four components. Correlation analysis and linear regression tested the associations between the self-reported symptoms and stress. Factor analysis of the health symptoms generated four symptom groups for each of the UK and Egypt (psychological; circulatory/breathing; gastrointestinal; and, pains/aches), and factor loadings were quite similar for both countries. Whilst the two samples showed similarities as to the kind of symptoms most frequently reported by students, the Egyptian sample had significantly higher frequency than the UK for every symptom. Frequent complaints (both countries) included difficulties to concentrate, fatigue, headaches, nervousness/anxiety, and back pain (UK) and mood swings (Egypt). Significantly more Egyptian students reported ? 4 symptoms over the past year than the UK. For each of the UK and Egypt, across each of the four symptom groups, there was a stepladder appearance whereby the frequency of symptoms increased with increasing quartiles of perceived stress. Not controlling for other variables, for both countries, there were significant positive correlations between each of the four symptom groups and stress; the highest correlation was for psychological symptoms. After controlling for sex, age country, and other symptom groups, stress was highly and significantly associated with psychological symptoms and also with pain & aches symptoms in both countries. UK students were generally less stressed than their counterparts in Egypt. Age and female gender were also associated with stress; the younger the student was the more likely to suffer from stress. Interactions were not significant. Across both countries, the levels of stress among students and the associations between perceived stress and health complaints suggest the need for a multiple approaches in order to understand the sources of stress; how college students experience stress; and, the coping mechanisms that different students employ to mitigate stress. Interventions aimed at both preventing, treating and caring for students' distress, and also preventive strategies to help minimize the impact of stressful situations are required. Strategies that address both physical and psychological complaints may be beneficial for this population. PMID:25264677
Vrouva, Ioanna; Fonagy, Peter; Fearon, Pasco R. M.; Roussow, Trudie
In this study, we report on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Risk-Taking (RT) and Self-Harm (SH) Inventory for Adolescents (RTSHIA), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescent RT and SH in community and clinical settings. 651 young people from secondary schools in England ranging in age from 11.6 years to 18.7 years and…
Alain Brunet; Daniel S. Weiss; Thomas J. Metzler; M. A. Suzanne; Thomas C. Neylan; Cynthia Rogers; Jeffrey Fagan; Charles R. Marmar
Objective: Meeting criterion A2 for the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in DSM-IV requires that an individ- ual have high levels of distress during or after the traumatic event. Because of the paucity of valid and reliable instruments for assessing such responses, the authors developed a 13-item self-report measure, the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory, to obtain a quantitative measure of
Davis, Tchiki S.; Mauss, Iris B.; Lumian, Daniel; Troy, Allison S.; Shallcross, Amanda J.; Zarolia, Paree; Ford, Brett Q.; McRae, Kateri
Intentionally hurting one’s own body (deliberate self-harm; DSH) is theorized to be associated with high negative emotional reactivity and poor emotion regulation ability. However, little research has assessed the relationship between these potential risk factors and DSH using laboratory measures. Therefore, we conducted two studies using laboratory measures of negative emotional reactivity and emotion regulation ability. Study 1 assessed self-reported negative emotions during a sad film clip (Reactivity) and during a sad film clip for which participants were instructed to use reappraisal (Regulation). Those with a history of DSH were compared to two control groups without a history of DSH matched on key demographics: one healthy group low in depression and anxiety symptoms and one group matched to the DSH group on depression and anxiety symptoms. Study 2 extended Study 1 by assessing neural responding to negative images (Reactivity) and negative images for which participants were instructed to use reappraisal (Regulation). Those with a history of DSH were compared to a control group matched to the DSH group on demographics, depression, and anxiety symptoms. Compared to control groups, participants with a history of DSH did not exhibit greater negative emotional reactivity but did exhibit lower ability to regulate emotion with reappraisal (greater self-reported negative emotions in Study 1 and greater amygdala activation in Study 2 during regulation). These results suggest that poor emotion regulation ability, but not necessarily greater negative emotional reactivity, is a correlate of and may be a risk factor for DSH, even when controlling for mood disorder symptoms. PMID:24865373
Peter A. Weiss; John H. Hitchcock; William U. Weiss; Cary Rostow; Robert Davis
Previous studies have established the utility of self-report personality inventories in the pre-employment screening of police officers. The present study therefore sought to explore the relationship between the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) Borderline, Drug, and Alcohol Scales and performance as a police officer. The PAI results of 632 police officers who took the test as part of pre-employment screening procedures
D?ugosz, Anna; W?do?owska, Lidia
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In nutritional epidemiology, collecting self-reported respondent height and weight is a simpler procedure of data collection than taking measurements. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported and measured height and weight and to evaluate the possibility of using self-reported estimates in the assessment of nutritional status of elderly Poles aged 65 + years. SUBJECTS/METHODS The research was carried out in elderly Poles aged 65 + years. Respondents were chosen using a quota sampling. The total sample numbered 394 participants and the sub-sample involved 102 participants. Self-reported weight (non-corrected self-reported weight; non-cSrW) and height estimates (non-corrected self-reported height; non-cSrH) were collected. The measurements of weight (measured weight; mW) and height (measured height; mH) were taken. Using multiple regression equations, the corrected self-reported weight (cSrW) and height (cSrH) estimates were calculated. RESULTS Non-cSrH was higher than mH in men on average by 2.4 cm and in women on average by 2.3 cm. In comparison to mW, non-cSrW was higher in men on average by 0.7 kg, while in women no significant difference was found (mean difference of 0.4 kg). In comparison to mBMI, non-cSrBMI was lower on average by 0.6 kg/m2 in men and 0.7 kg/m2 in women. No differences were observed in overweight and obesity incidence when determined by mBMI (68% and 19%, respectively), non-cSrBMI (62% and 14%, respectively), cSrBMI (70% and 22%, respectively) and pcSrBMI (67% and 18%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Since the results showed that the estimated self-reported heights, weights and BMI were accurate, the assessment of overweight and obesity incidence was accurate as well. The use of self-reported height and weight in the nutritional status assessment of elderly Poles on a population level is therefore recommended. On an individual level, the use of regression equations is recommended to correct self-reported height, particularly in women.
Scorzelli, James F.
In order to assist the newly formed rehabilitation counseling program at Northeastern University in curriculum and instructional planning, a job task analysis was conducted. The sample consisted of 55 employed rehabilitation counselors in the New England region from both state agencies and rehabilitation facilities. The results of the study were…
Rzeszutek, Marcin; Oniszczenko, W?odzimierz; Firl?g-Burkacka, Ewa
This article presents a study of relations between temperament traits and coping style, and intensity of trauma symptoms in HIV+ men and women. The study was run on 310 HIV + individuals (157 men and 153 women) in or not in the AIDS phase. Temperament traits were assessed with the Formal characteristics of behaviour - temperament inventory. Coping styles were assessed with the Coping inventory for stressful situations. Intensity of trauma symptoms was assessed with the Factorial version of the post-traumatic stress disorder inventory. Coping style had the greatest effect on intensity of trauma symptoms. Emotion-focused coping accounted for 13% of the variance of trauma symptom intensity in HIV + participants. Together, sensory sensibility, emotional reactivity and emotion-focused coping accounted for 26% of the variance of trauma intensity symptoms. Emotion-focused coping and emotional reactivity were conducive to increased trauma symptom intensity in HIV+ participants whereas sensory sensibility tended to reduce symptom intensity. PMID:22702407
Pourabdian, Siamak; Azmoon, Hiva
Background: The aims of this study included: Determination of the most common driver behavior in drivers and also analyzing the relationship between trait anxiety (TA) with subscale of driving behavior (lapses, errors, ordinary and aggressive violations). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 168 drivers that having crash. The self-reporting of the drivers was determined by using Manchester driving behavior questionnaire (DBQ) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results: Independent t-test showed that violations factor (ordinary and aggressive) are the most common behavior in drivers, Pearson correlation revealed that TA had a significant direct positive relation with all DBQ subscales especially error and lapses factor (P < 0.01) also Pearson correlation showed that age had a negative significant relation with factors of DBQ. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the results (according to the relation between TA with error and lapses factor) that the rate of TA is destructive effective on the memory performance and process in the drivers and cause absent minded and memory imperfect function and process in these people during the driving. PMID:24319550
Gardner, Bethany T.; Dale, Ann Marie; Descatha, Alexis; Evanoff, Bradley
Objective To describe the proportions of workers with upper extremity (UE) symptoms and work limitations due to symptoms in a newly hired working population over a 3-year study period and to describe transitions between various outcome states. Methods 827 subjects completed repeat self-reported questionnaires including demographics, medical and work history, symptoms and work status. Outcomes of interest were UE symptoms and work limitations due to symptoms. Results 72% of workers reported symptoms at least once during the study, with 12% reporting persistent symptoms and 27% reporting fluctuating symptoms. 31% reported work limitations at least once, with 3% reporting consistent work limitations and 8% reporting fluctuating limitations. Conclusions UE symptoms and work limitations are common among workers and dynamic in their course. A better understanding of the natural course of symptoms is necessary for targeted interventions. PMID:24854251
Phillips, James G; Sargeant, James; Ogeil, Rowan P; Chow, Yang-Wai; Blaszczynski, Alex
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), lists concealment as one of the symptoms of a gambling disorder. However, some transactions are more likely to leave permanent records of gambling transactions (credit, consumer loyalty schemes) than others (cash, Internet cash, Internet cafes, prepaid phones). An online survey of 815 participants recruited through newspaper and online sites elicited consumer preferences for a variety of transactions and communication media. Hierarchical multiple regression accounted for age, gender, housing status, and involvement in gambling before considering relationships between consumer preferences and scores on the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Even after statistically allowing for the contributions of other variables, a greater risk of developing a gambling problem was associated with a preference for cash transactions, prepaid mobile phones, and Internet cafes. Problem gamblers may seek to reduce their digital trace. PMID:25415375
Brumitt, Jason; Reisch, Rebecca; Krasnoselsky, Karla; Welch, Amy; Rutt, Richard; Garside, Leda I; McKay, Carolyn
The agricultural economy in the United States is dependent on millions of Latino migratory workers. Despite the health risks associated with this line of work, many agricultural workers lack health insurance or access to health care services. The purpose of this study was to collect demographic data and investigate the musculoskeletal health of Latino migratory vineyard workers. A physical therapy team collected demographic data at health clinics held at vineyards in Oregon. Nearly half (48.4%) of all vineyard workers reported experiencing musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) in at least one region of the body. The primary region of reported MSS was the back (32% of all men and 43.7% of all women). In most cases, those who reported MSS were significantly older than those who did not report MSS. Future research is necessary to identify personal and work related injury risk factors in order to develop prevention programs. PMID:21213166
Culig, Josip; Leppée, Marcel
There are a number of approaches to studying medication-taking behavior. Self-report measures have the benefits of being cheap, easy to administer, non-intrusive, and able to provide information on attitudes and beliefs about medication. Potential limitations to self-report are that the ability to understand the items, and willingness to disclose information, can affect response accuracy and, thus, questionnaire validity. A computerized systematic search of the PubMed databases identified articles on scales for medication adherence measuring using the MeSH terms medication adherence, compliance, and persistence combined with the terms questionnaire self-report. Adherence scales have identified mostly in the last few years (2005-2012). One of the main sources has been article (Lavsa et. al) which evaluated literature describing medication adherence surveys/scales to gauge patient behaviors at the point of care. Articles were included if they evaluated or reviewed self-reported adherence medication scale applicable to chronic diseases and with a good coefficient of internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha (alpha)). Articles that contained data about self-report medication adherence scales use were included. A total of about one hundred articles were identified. Of those articles, 20% (20 of 100) were included in the review because of their relevance to the article topic. This article describes various self-report scales by which to monitor medication adherence, their advantages and disadvantages, and discusses the effectiveness of their application at different chronic diseases. There are many self-report scales for measuring medication adherence and their derivatives (or subscales). Due to the different nature of the diseases, there is no gold-standard scale for measuring medication adherence. It can be nevertheless concluded that the nearest to gold-standard is the Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ) scale by Morisky et.al. but we found better internal consistency reliability in some other scales. PMID:24851597
Hure, Alexis J.; Chojenta, Catherine L.; Powers, Jennifer R.; Byles, Julie E.; Loxton, Deborah
Background A high rate of stillbirth was previously observed in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women’s Health (ALSWH). Our primary objective was to test the validity and reliability of self-reported stillbirth data linked to state-based administrative datasets. Methods Self-reported data, collected as part of the ALSWH cohort born in 1973–1978, were linked to three administrative datasets for women in New South Wales, Australia (n = 4374): the Midwives Data Collection; Admitted Patient Data Collection; and Perinatal Death Review Database. Linkages were obtained from the Centre for Health Record Linkage for the period 1996–2009. True cases of stillbirth were defined by being consistently recorded in two or more independent data sources. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, percent agreement, and kappa statistics were calculated for each dataset. Results Forty-nine women reported 53 stillbirths. No dataset was 100% accurate. The administrative datasets performed better than self-reported data, with high accuracy and agreement. Self-reported data showed high sensitivity (100%) but low specificity (30%), meaning women who had a stillbirth always reported it, but there was also over-reporting of stillbirths. About half of the misreported cases in the ALSWH were able to be removed by identifying inconsistencies in longitudinal data. Conclusions Data linkage provides great opportunity to assess the validity and reliability of self-reported study data. Conversely, self-reported study data can help to resolve inconsistencies in administrative datasets. Quantifying the strengths and limitations of both self-reported and administrative data can improve epidemiological research, especially by guiding methods and interpretation of findings. PMID:25367675
Spremo, Stevan M. (Inventor); Udoh, Usen E. (Inventor)
Method and system for monitoring present location and/or present status of a target inventory item, where the inventory items are located on one or more inventory shelves or other inventory receptacles that communicate with an inventory base station through use of responders such as RFIDs. A user operates a hand held interrogation and display (IAD) module that communicates with, or is part of, the base station, to provide an initial inquiry. Information on location(s) of the target inventory item is also indicated visibly and/or audibly on the receptacle(s) for the user. Status information includes an assessment of operation readiness and a time, if known, that the specified inventory item or class was last removed or examined or modified. Presentation of a user access level may be required for access to the target inventory item. Another embodiment provides inventory information for a stack as a sight-impaired or hearing-impaired person passes adjacent to that stack.
Fischer, Sebastian; Freund, Philipp Alexander
The Adaption-Innovation Inventory (AII), originally developed by Kirton (1976), is a widely used self-report instrument for measuring problem-solving styles at work. The present study investigates how scores on the AII are affected by different response styles. Data are collected from a combined sample (N = 738) of students, employees, and…
Furr-Holden, C. D. M.; Campbell, K. D. M.; Milam, A. J.; Smart, M. J.; Ialongo, N. A.; Leaf, P. J.
Objectives: Establish metric properties of the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology (NIfETy). Method: A total of 919 residential block faces were assessed by paired raters using the NIfETy. Reliability was evaluated via interrater and internal consistency reliability; validity by comparing NIfETy data with youth self-reported…
Background Self-reported anthropometric data are commonly used to estimate prevalence of obesity in population and community-based studies. We aim to: 1) Determine whether survey participants are able and willing to self-report height and weight; 2) Assess the accuracy of self-reported compared to measured anthropometric data in a community-based sample of young people. Methods Participants (16–29 years) of a behaviour survey, recruited at a Melbourne music festival (January 2011), were asked to self-report height and weight; researchers independently weighed and measured a sub-sample. Body Mass Index was calculated and overweight/obesity classified as ?25kg/m2. Differences between measured and self-reported values were assessed using paired t-test/Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Accurate report of height and weight were defined as <2cm and <2kg difference between self-report and measured values, respectively. Agreement between classification of overweight/obesity by self-report and measured values was assessed using McNemar’s test. Results Of 1405 survey participants, 82% of males and 72% of females self-reported their height and weight. Among 67 participants who were also independently measured, self-reported height and weight were significantly less than measured height (p=0.01) and weight (p<0.01) among females, but no differences were detected among males. Overall, 52% accurately self-reported height, 30% under-reported, and 18% over-reported; 34% accurately self-reported weight, 52% under-reported and 13% over-reported. More females (70%) than males (35%) under-reported weight (p=0.01). Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 33% based on self-report data and 39% based on measured data (p=0.16). Conclusions Self-reported measurements may underestimate weight but accurately identified overweight/obesity in the majority of this sample of young people. PMID:23170838
Gress-Smith, Jenna L; Roubinov, Danielle S; Andreotti, Charissa; Compas, Bruce E; Luecken, Linda J
Although the college years represent a high-risk period for depressive symptoms and insomnia, little research has explored their prevalence, comorbidities and risk factors within this developmental period. Two studies were conducted; the first evaluated the prevalence and comorbidity of depressive symptoms and insomnia in 1338 students (ages 18-23?years) from a large Southwestern University. Mild depressive symptoms were endorsed by 19% of students and 14.5% reported moderate to severe symptoms. Forty-seven percent of students reported mild insomnia and 22.5% endorsed moderate to severe insomnia severity. A second study investigated perceived stress as a potential mediator of the relation between self-reported childhood adversity and concurrent depressive symptoms and insomnia. Undergraduates (N?=?447) from a Southwestern and Southeastern University reported prior childhood adversity, current perceived stress, insomnia and depressive symptoms. Self-reported childhood adversity predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms and insomnia severity, partially mediated by perceived stress. Results support the high prevalence of depressive symptoms and insomnia among undergraduates. The risk for depressive and insomnia symptoms may be increased among students who experienced greater levels of childhood adversity. PMID:23897800
Teschke, Kay; Trask, Catherine; Johnson, Pete; Chow, Yat; Village, Judy; Koehoorn, Mieke
The objective of this study was to use and evaluate three postural assessment methods for epidemiological studies of back disorders. The methods were: (1) a data-logging inclinometer; (2) observations by trained observers; (3) self-reports by employees. All methods were feasible in 50 heavy industry worksites. Inclinometry provided quantitative measures of flexion-extension (mean 17 degrees, SD 11.2 degrees), lateral flexion (mean 8.5 degrees, SD 2.6 degrees) and trunk movement speed (mean 14.3 degrees per second, SD 4.9 degrees per second). Observations and self-reports provided estimates of time spent in various trunk angles, general postures, materials handling and vehicles. Compared to observations, self-reports under-reported less common tasks, but over-reported task durations. In statistical modelling to determine if observations or self-reports could be used to estimate measured postures, observations accounted for 30 to 61% of the inclinometer measurement variance and self-reports for 33 to 40%. A combination of inclinometry and observations would be an ideal option to provide both depth and breadth of data on postures and other physical exposures for epidemiological research. PMID:19787510
Stewart, Susan M; Bing, Mark N; Davison, H Kristl; Woehr, David J; McIntyre, Michael D
Because employees may be reluctant to admit to performing deviant acts, the authors of this study reexamined the commonly used self-report measure of workplace deviance developed by R. J. Bennett and S. L. Robinson (2000). Specifically, the self-report measure was modified into a non-self-report measure based on multiple other-reported assessments to address methodological concerns with self-reported information regarding deviant workplace behaviors. The authors assessed the psychometric properties of this new measure by first conducting an exploratory factor analysis, which indicated a 3-factor structure (production deviance, property deviance, and personal aggression). Subsequent confirmatory factor analysis on a different sample verified these findings. Taken together, the results suggest that the content and psychometric qualities of this non-self-report measure of workplace deviance closely represent S. L. Robinson and R. J. Bennett's (1995) original typology of workplace deviance. The potential usefulness of this measure in organizational studies is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19186905
DiMatteo, M Robin; Robinson, Jeffrey D; Heritage, John; Tabbarah, Melissa; Fox, Sarah A
This pilot study examined the covariation of patients' self-reports of instrumental and affective aspects of communication during physician-patient visits with 2 other sources of data: medical chart records and audio/videotapes. Participants were 17 community-based (nonuniversity) primary-care physicians and 77 of their patients, ages 50 to 80. Patients were interviewed by telephone within 1 week after their medical visits. Thirty-five of these visits were audio- and videotaped. Patients were asked to report on their receipt of specific cancer screening in the previous 2 years, the occurrence of instrumental communication events during the visit (e.g., recommendations), their affect, and their visit experiences and communication with their physicians. Results showed (a) noteworthy disagreements between patients' self-reports and medical charts regarding cancer screening; (b) better agreement of patients' self-reports with videotape records than with chart records regarding physicians' recommendations; (c) accurate recognition of patients' self-reported affect, communication, and visit experiences by third-party raters of both audiotapes and videotapes; and (d) similar correlations of audio- and videotape ratings with patients' self-reports as well as substantial correlations between audio and video ratings. The implications of these findings are discussed, and recommendations are made for future research. PMID:14527865
Dharod, Jigna Morarji; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Paciello, Stefania; Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Damio, Grace
The study was conducted to compare and identify the magnitude of differences between self-reported and observed food safety behaviors among women preparing a chicken and salad dish at home. The observed food safety practices also were compared according to sociodemographic variables and prior food safety education. Sixty Puerto Rican women who were the main meal preparers for their households were recruited in Hartford, Conn. Three household visits were made to (i) deliver food ingredients to prepare the chicken and salad meal, (ii) conduct household observation, and (iii) conduct a self-reported survey. The difference between self-reported and observed behaviors varied across food handling and sanitation behaviors. There was a high level of inaccuracy for socially desirable behaviors such as hand washing; the vast majority of participants reported practicing these behaviors but they were not observed doing so. Cutting board washing also was considerably overreported, questioning the validity of these self-reported data for regression analyses. There was a significant association (P < 0.05) between proper thawing method and prior food safety education, use of cutting board and higher income, and washing tomatoes and having a positive attitude towards food safety. Results revealed that overreporting errors must be considered when analyzing and/or interpreting data derived from self-reported food safety consumer surveys and that food safety education and positive food safety attitudes are associated with recommended food safety behaviors. PMID:17803151
Ehlers, S L; Bronars, C A; Patten, C A; Brockman, T; Hughes, C; Decker, P A; Cerhan, J R; Hogan, W; Dispenzieri, A; Ansell, S; Ebbert, J; Gastineau, D
Tobacco use is a risk factor for adverse outcomes among hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) patients. Accurate identification of tobacco use offers a vital opportunity to treat this risk factor. The current study compared self-reported tobacco use status with serum cotinine levels among HSCT patients at the time of pre-transplant evaluation. A total of 444 participants completed both assessments; 44 participants (9.9%) were classified as tobacco users with serum cotinine concentrations >2?ng/mL vs 29 with self-reporting. Sensitivity and specificity of self-reporting were 65.9% and 100%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 96.4%, respectively. Comparing tobacco use documented in the medical record with cotinine, sensitivity and specificity were 51.2% and 99.2%, respectively. Factors associated with tobacco use were male gender, single relationship status, less education and younger age. In summary, utilization of serum cotinine assays increased detection of tobacco use cases >50% over self-reporting. Results are discussed in the context of translation to care, including clinical and ethical implications, and current tobacco use treatment guidelines. When cotinine assays are not available, self-reporting of any tobacco use in the year before HSCT should trigger brief advice and cessation or relapse prevention counseling. PMID:24732958
MacKenzie, Meagan B.; Kocovski, Nancy L.
Mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have been used in social anxiety treatments with initial success. Further research requires the psychometrically sound measurement of mechanisms of change associated with these treatments. This research was conducted to develop and evaluate such a measure, the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action…
Preti, Emanuele; Prunas, Antonio; De Panfilis, Chiara; Marchesi, Carlo; Madeddu, Fabio; Clarkin, John F
This work aims to further validate the object-relations-based model of personality pathology assessment, evaluating the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO), a self-report instrument for the assessment of personality organization according to O. Kernberg's model of personality pathology. Six hundred ninety-six nonclinical volunteers and 121 psychiatric patients completed a set of questionnaires including the IPO, the Severity Indices of Personality Problems, the Borderline Personality Disorder Checklist, the Response Evaluation Measure 71, and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. Confirmatory factor-analyses on the IPO items supported the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-factor solutions. The last (Instability of sense of self/others, Instability of goals, Instability of behaviors, Psychosis) resulted in relatively better fit indexes. Invariance across samples (nonclinical, clinical) and gender was confirmed. The 4 IPO subscales showed good levels of internal coherence and, in the nonclinical sample, good test-retest reliability. Associations with the convergent measures were in line with theoretical expectations and supported the benefit of adopting a 4-factor solution. The 4 factors showed the expected criterion relations: All the dimensions discriminated between clinical and nonclinical subjects, whereas only Instability of self/others and Instability of goals discriminated patients with borderline personality disorder from patients with other diagnoses. Our results suggest that the Italian version of the IPO is a reliable and valid tool for the assessment of personality organization according to Kernberg's model. Results are discussed in the context of the current directions in the evaluation of personality disorders proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25867838
Although a shoddy business practice, hospitals have historically found it advantageous to expense inventory upon receipt rather than use for two reasons: It sped up reimbursement, and under a cost-based reimbursement system, huge cashes of "unofficial" inventory didn't affect profitability. This reasoning no longer applies. The author explains various strategies for controlling this invisible asset. PMID:10279002
Masataka Fukugita; P. J. E. Peebles
We present an inventory of the cosmic mean densities of energy associated with all the known states of matter and radiation at the present epoch. The observational and theoretical bases for the inventory have become rich enough to allow estimates with observational support for the densities of energy in some 40 forms. The result is a global portrait of the
The NARSTO Emission Inventory Committee has been pursuing enhancement of the emission inventory program for North American countries--Canada, Mexico, and the United States. With the completion of the NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments, it was recognized that emissio...
Ayub, Muhammad; Saeed, Khalid; Kingdon, David; Naeem, Farooq
Psychotic symptoms are more common in general population than validated diagnosis of psychosis. There is evidence to suggest that these symptoms, hallucinations, paranoia, elated mood, thought insertion, are part of a spectrum of psychosis and may have association with the same risk factors that determine development of psychosis. These symptoms have an association with exposure to psychological trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the population affected by a natural disaster, earthquake in this case and possible correlates of these symptoms. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a population sample affected by the disaster, comprising of 1,291 individuals, 18 months after 2005 earthquake in Northern Pakistan and Kashmir to look at the prevalence of these symptoms and their correlates. Screening Instrument for Traumatic Stress in Earthquake Survivors and Self-Reporting Questionnaire and Psychosis Screening Questionnaire were used as tools. We examined association between the symptoms of anxiety, depression, PTSD and psychotic symptoms. We performed logistic regression analysis where hallucinations and delusions were dependent variables and demographic and trauma exposure variables were independent variables. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms ranged between 16.8 and 30.4 %. They were directly correlated with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder as well as concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression. Lower level of education had a strong association in all the regression models. For hallucinations, living in a joint family had a negative association and participation in rescue, history of exposure to previous trauma and past psychiatric history had positive association. Paranoia was associated with female gender. Any psychiatric symptom was associated death of a family member, history of past psychiatric illness and living in a tent at the time of interview. Pattern of association of psychotic symptoms is consistent with prior literature and can be understood in the light of stress vulnerability model. PMID:25421792
... gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia The symptoms of PCP are fever, dry cough, ... Diagnosis & Testing Treatment & Outcomes Statistics Additional Information Pneumocystis pneumonia Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & ...
Ritchie, Stephen M.; Hudson, Peter; Bellocchi, Alberto; Henderson, Senka; King, Donna; Tobin, Kenneth
Emotion researchers have grappled with challenging methodological issues in capturing emotions of participants in naturalistic settings such as school or university classrooms. Self-reporting methods have been used frequently, yet these methods are inadequate when used alone. We argue that the self-reporting methods of emotion diaries and cogenerative dialogues can be helpful in identifying in-the-moment emotions when used in conjunction with the microanalysis of video recordings of classroom events. We trace the evolution of our use of innovative self-reporting methods through three cases from our research projects, and propose new directions for our ongoing development and application of these methods in both school and university classrooms.
Robert A. Steer; David A. Clark; Geetha Kumar; Aaron T. Beck
To investigate the common and specific dimensions of anxiety and depression in adolescents, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI;\\u000a Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. Manual for the Beck Anxiety Inventory. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation 1993a) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., &\\u000a Brown, G. K. Manual for Beck Depression Inventory (2nd Ed.). San
Ruff, Ronald M.
The coexistence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a controversial issue in the literature. To address this controversy, we focused primarily on the civilian-related literature of TBI and PTSD. Some investigators have argued that individuals who had been rendered unconscious or suffered amnesia due to a TBI are unable to develop PTSD because they would be unable to consciously experience the symptoms of fear, helplessness, and horror associated with the development of PTSD. Other investigators have reported that individuals who sustain TBI, regardless of its severity, can develop PTSD even in the context of prolonged unconsciousness. A careful review of the methodologies employed in these studies reveals that investigators who relied on clinical interviews of TBI patients to diagnose PTSD found little or no evidence of PTSD. In contrast, investigators who relied on PTSD questionnaires to diagnose PTSD found considerable evidence of PTSD. Further analysis revealed that many of the TBI patients who were initially diagnosed with PTSD according to self-report questionnaires did not meet the diagnostic criteria for PTSD upon completion of a clinical interview. In particular, patients with severe TBI were often misdiagnosed with PTSD. A number of investigators found that many of the severe TBI patients failed to follow the questionnaire instructions and erroneously endorsed PTSD symptoms because of their cognitive difficulties. Because PTSD questionnaires are not designed to discriminate between PTSD and TBI symptoms or determine whether a patient's responses are accurate or exaggerated, studies that rely on self-report questionnaires to evaluate PTSD in TBI patients are at risk of misdiagnosing PTSD. Further research should evaluate the degree to which misdiagnosis of PTSD occurs in individuals who have sustained mild TBI. PMID:20927197
Sijmen A Reijneveld; Karien Stronks
Background Socioeconomic differences in health and in use of health care are well known. Most data on socioeconomic differences in health care utilization are based on retrospective self-report in community surveys, but the evidence on the validity of self-reported utilization of health care across socioeconomic groups is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of self-reported
G. Keith Warriner; Gordon H. G. McDougall; John D. Claxton
Accuracies of self-reports of household energy consumption were examined among a sample of 2090 electricity and 1699 fuel oil and natural gas consumers. Information obtained from self-reports allowed an increase in response of 37% over what could be obtained from utility company files. Errors in measures as a result of self-reporting occurred, ranging between 10.5% and 12.6% and 24.6% and
AIM: To explore the relationship between self-reported weight and height to actual weight and height in a cross-sectional nationally representative sample of young adolescents.METHODS: Weights and heights were obtained on 1932 adolescents aged 12–16 y enrolled in the NHANES III study. Self-reported weights and heights were available on 1657 of the adolescents (86%).RESULTS: Correlation between self-reported weight and actual weight
A. A. Ismail; T. W. O’Neill; W. Cockerill; J. D. Finn; J. B. Cannata; K. Hoszowski; O. Johnell; C. Matthis; H. Raspe; A. Raspe; J. Reeve; A. J. Silman
: In population-based studies of osteoporosis, ascertainment of fractures is typically based on self-report, with subsequent\\u000a verification by medical records. The aim of this analysis was to assess the validity of self-report of incident nonspine fractures\\u000a using a postal questionnaire. The degree of overreporting of fracture (false positives) was assessed by comparing self-reports\\u000a of new fracture from respondents in the
Escolas, Sandra M; Escolas, Holliel D
This study examines the effects of temperament on self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from a convenience sample of US military service members (N=559). Previously deployed active duty service members completed anonymous questionnaires that included demographics, temperament, and PTSD measures. This study also examines demographic variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, race, education, and marital status, and service-related variables such as branch, grade, and years of military service for moderating effects. Results suggest a relationship between the temperament dimensions and PTSD symptoms in that the temperament dimensions of low mood quality, high levels of activity generally and during sleep, and low flexibility were found to predict high levels of self-reported PTSD symptoms. This is the first study incorporating temperament as a predictor of PTSD within a military population and provides the basis for future research in this area. PMID:25651150
Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Schneider, Havah E.; Wexler, Deborah J.; Psaros, Christina; Delahanty, Linda M.; Cagliero, Enrico; Safren, Steven A.
OBJECTIVE To assess the validity of self-report measures of diabetes medication adherence and evaluate the effect of depression on the validity of these reports. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adults with type 2 diabetes, treated with oral medications, completed a set of medication adherence self-reports that varied response scales and time frames, were administered structured clinical interviews for depression, and provided blood samples for HbA1c as part of a screening for an intervention study. A subsample of participants with HbA1c ?7.0% and clinically significant depression received Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) bottle caps to record adherence. Analyses examined relationships between adherence measures and HbA1c and, in the subsample, MEMS. Moderated linear regression evaluated whether depression severity modified relationships with HbA1c. RESULTS Participant (n = 170, 57% men, 81% white, mean HbA1c 8.3% [SD, 1.7]) adherence self-reports were significantly (r = ?0.18 to ?0.28; P < 0.03) associated with lower HbA1c. In the subsample (n = 88), all self-reports were significantly (r = 0.35 to 0.55; P ? 0.001) associated with MEMS-measured adherence. Depression significantly moderated the relationship between three of six self-reports and HbA1c; at high levels of depression, associations with HbA1c became nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS Results support the validity of easily administered self-reports for diabetes medication adherence. One-month, percentage-based ratings of adherence had the strongest associations with MEMS and HbA1c; those requiring the report of missed doses had weaker associations. One-week self-ratings and measures that require respondents to record the number of missed doses appear to be vulnerable to bias from depression severity. PMID:23204245
Morales, Nelson A.; Romano, Michelle A.; Cummings, K. Michael; Marshall, James R.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Hutson, Alan
Purpose Accurate identification of tobacco use is critical to implement evidence-based cessation treatments in cancer patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported tobacco use in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Methods Tobacco use questionnaires and blood samples were collected from 233 newly diagnosed cancer patients (77 lung, 77 breast, and 79 prostate cancer). Blood was analyzed for cotinine levels using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients with cotinine measurements exceeding 10 ng/mL were categorized as current smokers. Smoking status based upon cotinine levels was contrasted with self-report in current smokers, recent quitters (1 or less year since quit), non-recent quitters (>1 year since quit), and never smokers. Multivariate analyses were used to identify potential predictors of discordance between self-reported and biochemically confirmed smoking. Results Cotinine confirmed 100 % accuracy in self-reporting of current and never smokers. Discordance in cotinine and smoking status was observed in 26 patients (15.0 %) reporting former tobacco use. Discordance in self-reported smoking was 12 times higher in recent (35.4 %) as compared with non-recent quitters (2.8 %). Combining disease site, pack-year history, and employment status predicted misrepresentation of tobacco use in 82.4 % of recent quitters. Conclusions Self-reported tobacco use may not accurately assess smoking status in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Patients who claim to have recently stopped smoking within the year prior to a cancer diagnosis and lung cancer patients may have a higher propensity to misrepresent tobacco use and may benefit from biochemical confirmation. PMID:23553611
Miljøundersøgelser & Energistyrelsen Maj 2000 #12;2 Data sheet Title: Denmark's National Inventory Report Submitted National Environmental Research Institute URL: http://www.dmu.dk Date of publication: May 2000 Please cite............................................................................................................7 References regarding methodologies, emission factors and activity data
Aikaterini Kapi; Alexandra Veltsista; George Kavadias; Vasso Lekea; Chryssa Bakoula
Objective This study aimed to assess the social factors associated with self-reported emotional and behavioral problems among Greek\\u000a adolescents.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods At age 18, a population-based sample of 3373 Greek adolescents completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR) questionnaire.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results The results from the multivariate analysis indicated that both lack of intimate friendships and not having parental monitoring\\u000a were independently associated with problem behavior among both
Roth, Lauren W; Allshouse, Amanda A; Lesh, Jennifer; Polotsky, Alex J; Santoro, Nanette
This prospective, cross-sectional study of 60 women compares self-reported height, weight, and BMI with measured values. Self-reported BMI (29.0±8.37 kg/m(2)) was slightly lower than measured BMI (29.1±8.38 kg/m(2)) (p=0.4). Eighty percent of participants reported a BMI in the same category in which their BMI was measured. Pearson's correlation coefficient for height (0.96, p<0.001), weight (0.99, p<0.001), and BMI (0.99, p<0.001) were high. Reproductive age women accurately reported their height and weight. PMID:23958434
Roth, Lauren W.; Allshouse, Amanda A.; Lesh, Jennifer; Polotsky, Alex J.; Santoro, Nanette
This prospective, cross-sectional study of 60 women compares self- reported height, weight, and BMI with measured values. Self-reported BMI (29.0 ± 8.37kg/m2) was slightly lower than measured BMI (29.1 ± 8.38kg/m2) (p=0.4). Eighty percent of participants reported a BMI in the same category in which their BMI was measured. Pearson's correlation coefficient for height (0.96, p<0.001), weight (0.99, p<0.001), and BMI (0.99, p<0.001) were high. Reproductive age women accurately reported their height and weight. PMID:23958434
Brakoulias, Vlasios; Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony; Martin, Andrew
Several studies have linked obsessive-compulsive symptoms to specific obsessive-compulsive cognitions, however methodologies have varied, and no study has determined obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the most widely used clinician rating scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Considering that almost all studies that used factor analysis to ascertain OCD symptom dimensions were based on the Y-BOCS and that self-report instruments assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms correlate poorly with the Y-BOCS, there is a need to use the Y-BOCS to examine the relationship between obsessive-compulsive cognitions and obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. This study examined the relationship between five Y-BOCS-derived obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and the three obsessive-compulsive cognitive domains identified by the obsessive-beliefs questionnaire (OBQ). The symmetry/ordering symptom dimension was associated with increased perfectionism/intolerance of uncertainty, the unacceptable/taboo thoughts symptom dimension was associated with increased importance/control of thoughts and the doubt/checking symptom dimension was associated with increased responsibility/threat estimation. There was no statistical evidence of an association between any OBQ belief sub-scale and the hoarding symptom dimension nor the contamination/cleaning symptom dimension. The findings encourage symptom-based approaches to cognitive-behavioural therapy for some OCD symptoms and call for further research on cognitions associated with contamination/cleaning symptoms and hoarding. PMID:24142072
Desiring to demonstrate top-quality services and to be accountable to allocative bodies, mental health administrators often wrestle with the problem of how to show that services actually benefit clients. One popular approach has been to periodically conduct client satisfaction surveys. The popularity of these consumer-oriented surveys comes from the fact that they can be conducted quickly, inexpensively, do not impose
Clark, S; Berrang-Ford, L; Lwasa, S; Namanya, D B; Edge, V L; Harper, S
Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) is an important public health priority worldwide. Few studies have captured the burden of AGI in developing countries, and even fewer have focused on Indigenous populations. This study aimed to estimate the incidence and determinants of AGI within a Batwa Pygmy Indigenous population in southwestern Uganda. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted in January 2013 via a census of 10 Batwa communities (n = 583 participants). The AGI case definition included any self-reported symptoms of diarrhoea or vomiting in the past 2 weeks. The 14-day prevalence of AGI was 6·17% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4·2-8·1], corresponding to an annual incidence rate of 1·66 (95% CI 1·1-2·2) episodes of AGI per person-year. AGI prevalence was greatest in children aged <3 years (11·3%). A multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression model controlling for clustering at the community level indicated that exposure to goats [odds ratio (OR) 2·6, 95% CI 1·0-6·8], being a child aged <3 years (OR 4·8, 95% CI 1·2-18·9), and being a child, adolescent or senior Batwa in the higher median of wealth (OR 7·0, 95% CI 3·9-9·2) were significantly associated with having AGI. This research represents the first Indigenous community-census level study of AGI in Uganda, and highlights the substantial burden of AGI within this population. PMID:25500189
Gonzalez, Laura; Negrón, Rosalyn; Berry, Donna L.
Spanish speakers in the United States encounter numerous communication barriers during cancer treatment. Communication-focused interventions may help Spanish speakers communicate better with healthcare providers and manage symptoms and quality of life issues (SQOL). For this study, we developed a Spanish version of the electronic self-report assessment for cancer (ESRA-C), a web-based program that helps people with cancer report, track, and manage cancer-related SQOL. Four methods were used to evaluate the Spanish version. Focus groups and cognitive interviews were conducted with 51 Spanish-speaking individuals to elicit feedback. Readability was assessed using the Fry readability formula. The cultural sensitivity assessment tool was applied by three bilingual, bicultural reviewers. Revisions were made to personalize the introduction using a patient story and photos and to simplify language. Focus group participants endorsed changes to the program in a second round of focus groups. Cultural sensitivity of the program was scored unacceptable (x¯=3.0) for audiovisual material and acceptable (x¯=3.0) for written material. Fry reading levels ranged from 4th to 10th grade. Findings from this study provide several next steps to refine ESRA-C for Spanish speakers with cancer. PMID:25045535
Laaksonen, Maarit A; Sirkiä, Carlos; Knekt, Paul; Lindfors, Olavi
Objective Identification of pretreatment patient characteristics predictive of psychotherapy outcome could help to guide treatment choices. This study evaluates patients' initial level of immature defense style as a predictor of the outcome of short-term versus long-term psychotherapy. Method In the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, 326 adult outpatients with mood or anxiety disorder were randomized to individual short-term (psychodynamic or solution-focused) or long-term (psychodynamic) psychotherapy. Their defense style was assessed at baseline using the 88-item Defense Style Questionnaire and classified as low or high around the median value of the respective score. Both specific (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS], Symptom Check List Anxiety Scale [SCL-90-Anx], Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HARS]) and global (Symptom Check List Global Severity Index [SCL-90-GSI], Global Assessment of Functioning Scale [GAF]) psychiatric symptoms were measured at baseline and 3–7 times during a 3-year follow-up. Results Patients with high use of immature defense style experienced greater symptom reduction in long-term than in short-term psychotherapy by the end of the 3-year follow-up (50% vs. 34%). Patients with low use of immature defense style experienced faster symptom reduction in short-term than in long-term psychotherapy during the first year of follow-up (34% vs. 19%). Conclusion Knowledge of patients' initial level of immature defense style may potentially be utilized in tailoring treatments. Further research on defense styles as outcome predictors in psychotherapies of different types is needed. PMID:25161816
Kathleen Restifo; Joyce Akse; Natalie Valle Guzman; Caroline Benjamins; Katharina Dick
The aim of this study was to examine whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between family factors and depressive symptoms in young adults. Participants completed self-report questionnaires about overall family environment, conflict with mother or father, parental rearing, self esteem, and depressive symptoms. Self-esteem was found to mediate the relationship between the combined family factors and depressive symptoms. When examined simultaneously,
Fitzpatrick, Mary E; Weltzin, Theodore
The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure and psychometric properties of a new brief self-report form of the Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale (YBC-EDS-BSR) in a transdiagnostic eating disorder population, and to determine the predictive ability of motivation for change and ego syntonic subscales on treatment outcome. Self-report measures of the YBC-EDS-BSR, eating pathology, depression, anxiety and obsessive compulsive symptoms were collected from 164 individuals entering residential treatment. Of these, 107 individuals completed identical measures at discharge. The admission items on the YBC-EDS-BSR were examined for factor structure, and subscales were examined for internal, convergent and discriminant validity. Multiple regression analysis was used to investigate predictive value of the motivation and ego syntonic subscales on two measures of treatment outcome. Results indicate that the YBC-EDS-BSR demonstrated a robust factor structure and good psychometric properties in this population. The predicted ego-syntonic subscale did not emerge as an independent factor. The motivation for change subscale significantly predicted treatment outcome on the EDE-Q and the EDI-3 Global Maladjustment Scale. The ego-syntonic items and other psychopathology measures had no predictive value on treatment outcome. Results suggest that motivation for change is a significant predictor of treatment outcome over and above baseline psychopathology. PMID:25064284
Farrell, Jennifer E.; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Seid, Michael; Verkamp, Emily; DeWitt, Esi Morgan
Objectives?To examine the content validity of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System pediatric measures, including the pain interference scale, among children and adolescents (aged 8–18 years) who experience chronic pain. To describe children’s understandings of the health domain constructs and elucidate verbal and conceptual aspects of self-reported pain-related functioning, which shape disclosure and reporting.?Methods?34 children and youth with diagnoses of juvenile idiopathic arthritis or noninflammatory chronic pain completed semistructured and cognitive interviews exploring the meaning, experience, and expression of up to 4 of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System pediatric domains: anger, anxiety, depressive symptoms, fatigue, pain interference, and peer relationships. Team-based thematic and content analyses were conducted.?Results?Clear verbal and social-cognitive differences were observed in representations and accounts of the domain-experiences across age-groups, but we noted little, if any, evidence of problems with content validity.?Conclusions?Findings suggest the importance of a rigorous developmental approach for understanding the verbal and cognitive dimensions of pediatric self-reports and patient-reported outcomes. PMID:23027719
Edwards, Patrick W.; Donaldson, Mary Ann
A study of the construction and factor validity of the Response to Child Incest Questionnaire, a self-report instrument for assessing commonly reported symptoms of adult survivors of incest, is reported. The instrument's usefulness as a pre- and post-treatment measure and further research needs are discussed. (MSE)
Hurtig, Tuula; Kuusikko, Sanna; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Haapsamo, Helena; Ebeling, Hanna; Jussila, Katja; Joskitt, Leena; Pauls, David; Moilanen, Irma
The aim of the study was to examine psychiatric symptoms in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders reported by multiple informants. Forty-three 11- to 17-year-old adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 217 typically developed adolescents completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR), while their…
Kerr, David C. R.; Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J. Mark
We examined associations between adolescent problem trajectories and suicide risk outcomes in 361 community participants. Depressive symptoms (self-report) and externalizing behaviors (parent report) were assessed six times from grades 5 to 10. Parallel process linear growth curves indicated that lifetime suicide attempt history assessed to age 25…
Nygren, Karina; Bergström, Erik; Janlert, Urban; Nygren, Lennart
The aim of the study was to examine school-related determinants of self-reported health among adolescents. Questionnaire survey data comprising 4,972 students, Grades 7 through 9, from 20 schools in northern Sweden were used. Also, complimentary data about each school were collected from the Swedish National Agency for Education. Using multilevel…
Son, Esther; Parish, Susan L.; Swaine, Jamie G.; Luken, Karen
This study examines the accuracy of self-report of cervical and breast cancer screening by women with intellectual disability ("n" ?=? 155). Data from face-to-face interviews and medical records were analyzed. Total agreement, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. Total…
Hubbard, Julie A.; Parker, Elizabeth H.; Ramsden, Sally R.; Flanagan, Kelly D.; Relyea, Nicole; Dearing, Karen F.; Smithmyer, Catherine M.; Simons, Robert F.; Hyde, Christopher T.
Our first goal was to examine the relations among observational, physiological, and self-report measures of children's anger. Our second goal was to investigate whether these relations varied by reactive or proactive aggression. Children (272 second-grade boys and girls) participated in a procedure in which they lost a game and prize to a…
Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…
Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger; Lund, Soren Peter; Shibuya, Hitomi; Nielsen, Per Moberg
Beyond noise annoyance and voice problems, little is known about the effects that noise and poor classroom acoustics have on teachers' health and well-being. The aim of this field study was therefore to investigate the effects of perceived noise exposure and classroom reverberation on measures of well-being. Data on self-reported noise exposure,…
Poythress, Norman G.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Falkenbach, Diana; Cruise, Keith; Lee, Zina; Murrie, Daniel C.; Vitacco, Michael
The self-report version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) has become a popular measure for assessing psychopathic features in justice-involved adolescents. However, the internal consistency reliability of its component scales (Narcissism, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsivity) has been questioned in several studies. This study…
Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.
The authors evaluated self-report instruments currently being used to assess children and adolescents with psychopathic personality traits with respect to their reliability, validity, and research utility. Comprehensive searches across multiple computerized bibliographic databases were conducted and supplemented with manual searches. A total of 30…
Curry, Lynn; Purkis, Ian E.
An evaluation procedure designed to measure the effects of university-organized continuing medical education (CME) courses on participants' prescribing behavior was examined. Copies of prescriptions were analyzed to establish real behavior compared with the physicians' self-reports. (Author/MLW)
Muller-Godeffroy, E.; Michael, T.; Poster, M.; Seidel, U.; Schwarke, D.; Thyen, U.
The aim of the study was to investigate self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents with myelomeningocele (MMC) and to examine the impact of clinical impairments and limitations in activities of daily living (ADL). Fifty patients (28 females, 22 males) between 8 and 16 years of age (mean age 12y 1mo [SD 2y…
Moukhyer, M. E.; de Vries, N. K.; Bosma, H.; van Eijk, J. Th. M.
In this paper we describe self-reported health problems and haemoglobin status among 1200 Sudanese adolescents (53.2% females, 46.8% males). Many adolescents report their general health as excellent and good (84%). A large number, however, report separate physical and psychological complaints. Report of psychological complaints is equal for both…
Guy, Laura S.; Poythress, Norman G.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Edens, John F.
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is associated with suicide, violence, and risk-taking behavior and can slow response to first-line treatment for Axis I disorders. ASPD may be assessed infrequently because few efficient diagnostic tools are available. This study evaluated 2 promising self-report measures for assessing ASPD--the ASPD scale of…
Verona, Edelyn; Sadeh, Naomi; Case, Steve M.; Reed, Americus, II; Bhattacharjee, Amit
Two studies investigated the psychometric properties of a self-report measure of commonly recognized forms of aggression (FOA) that could be used to efficiently gather aggression data in large samples. EFA and CFA in Study 1 suggested that a five-factor model (Physical, Property, Verbal, Relational, and Passive-Rational) best represented the data…
Anglin, M. Douglas; And Others
Reliability and validity of self-reported behavior within a deviant population are examined using data from 2 interviews with 323 narcotics addicts conducted 10 years apart (1974-75 and 1985-86). Results complement existing reliability and validity studies of alcohol use, and suggest that quality information can be obtained from heroin users. (SLD)
Arseneault, Louise; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.
Past research suggests that young children are incapable of reporting information about their own behavior problems. To test this, we examined the validity and the usefulness of children's self-reports in the E-Risk Study, a nationally representative birth cohort of 2,232 children. We used the Berkeley Puppet Interview to obtain children's…
Farrington-Flint, Lee; Wood, Clare
The research addresses the role of lexical analogies in early reading by examining variation in children's self-reported strategy choices in the context of a traditional clue-word reading task. Sixty 5- to 6-year-old beginning readers were given a nonword version of a traditional clue-word reading analogy task, and changes in strategies were…
Ng, Kok-Mun; Wang, Chuang; Kim, Do-Hong; Bodenhorn, Nancy
The authors investigated the factor structure of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) scale on international students. Via confirmatory factor analysis, the authors tested the fit of the models reported by Schutte et al. and five other studies to data from 640 international students in the United States. Results show that…
Cornell, Dewey; Mehta, Sharmila B.
School counselors frequently use self-report surveys to assess bullying despite little research on their accuracy. In this study, counselor follow-up interviews found that only 24 (56%) of 43 middle school students who self-identified as victims of bullying could be confirmed as actual victims. Other students described peer conflicts that did not…