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Sample records for semantic information alters

  1. From Data to Semantic Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floridi, Luciano

    2003-06-01

    There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI) as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information) is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

  2. Semantic Tools in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinoff, Morris; Stone, Don C.

    This report discusses the problem of the meansings of words used in information retrieval systems, and shows how semantic tools can aid in the communication which takes place between indexers and searchers via index terms. After treating the differing use of semantic tools in different types of systems, two tools (classification tables and…

  3. Spatial information semantic query based on SPARQL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhifeng; Huang, Lei; Zhai, Xiaofang

    2009-10-01

    How can the efficiency of spatial information inquiries be enhanced in today's fast-growing information age? We are rich in geospatial data but poor in up-to-date geospatial information and knowledge that are ready to be accessed by public users. This paper adopts an approach for querying spatial semantic by building an Web Ontology language(OWL) format ontology and introducing SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language(SPARQL) to search spatial semantic relations. It is important to establish spatial semantics that support for effective spatial reasoning for performing semantic query. Compared to earlier keyword-based and information retrieval techniques that rely on syntax, we use semantic approaches in our spatial queries system. Semantic approaches need to be developed by ontology, so we use OWL to describe spatial information extracted by the large-scale map of Wuhan. Spatial information expressed by ontology with formal semantics is available to machines for processing and to people for understanding. The approach is illustrated by introducing a case study for using SPARQL to query geo-spatial ontology instances of Wuhan. The paper shows that making use of SPARQL to search OWL ontology instances can ensure the result's accuracy and applicability. The result also indicates constructing a geo-spatial semantic query system has positive efforts on forming spatial query and retrieval.

  4. Semantic information influences race categorization from faces.

    PubMed

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that low-level visual features affect person categorization in a bottom-up fashion. Few studies have examined top-down influences, however, and have largely focused on how information recalled from memory or from motivation influences categorization. Here, we investigated how race categorizations are affected by the context in which targets are perceived by manipulating semantic information associated with the faces being categorized. We found that presenting faces that systematically varied in racial ambiguity with race-congruent (vs. incongruent) semantic labels shifted the threshold at which perceivers distinguished between racial groups. The semantic information offered by the labels therefore appeared to influence the categorization of race. These findings suggest that semantic information creates a context for the interpretation of perceptual cues during social categorization, highlighting an active role of top-down information in race perception. PMID:25810414

  5. Exploiting semantic linkages among multiple sources for semantic information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, JianQiang; Yang, Ji-Jiang; Liu, Chunchen; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Bo; Shi, Yuliang

    2014-07-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web is to build a global Web of machine-readable data to be consumed by intelligent applications. As the first step to make this vision come true, the initiative of linked open data has fostered many novel applications aimed at improving data accessibility in the public Web. Comparably, the enterprise environment is so different from the public Web that most potentially usable business information originates in an unstructured form (typically in free text), which poses a challenge for the adoption of semantic technologies in the enterprise environment. Considering that the business information in a company is highly specific and centred around a set of commonly used concepts, this paper describes a pilot study to migrate the concept of linked data into the development of a domain-specific application, i.e. the vehicle repair support system. The set of commonly used concepts, including the part name of a car and the phenomenon term on the car repairing, are employed to build the linkage between data and documents distributed among different sources, leading to the fusion of documents and data across source boundaries. Then, we describe the approaches of semantic information retrieval to consume these linkages for value creation for companies. The experiments on two real-world data sets show that the proposed approaches outperform the best baseline 6.3-10.8% and 6.4-11.1% in terms of top five and top 10 precisions, respectively. We believe that our pilot study can serve as an important reference for the development of similar semantic applications in an enterprise environment.

  6. Business information query expansion through semantic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhiguo; Muyeba, Maybin; Guo, Jingzhi

    2010-02-01

    In this article, we propose a method for business information query expansions. In our approach, hypernym/hyponymy and synonym relations in WordNet are used as the basic expansion rules. Then we use WordNet Lexical Chains and WordNet semantic similarity to assign terms in the same query into different groups with respect to their semantic similarities. For each group, we expand the highest terms in the WordNet hierarchies with hypernym and synonym, the lowest terms with hyponym and synonym and all other terms with only synonym. In this way, the contradictory caused by full expansion can be well controlled. Furthermore, we use collection-related term semantic network to further improve the expansion performance. And our experiment reveals that our solution for query expansion can improve the query performance dramatically.

  7. From Semantic Roles to Temporal Information Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Hector; Navarro, Borja; Saquete, Estela

    The automatic treatment of temporal elements of natural language has become a very important issue among NLP community. Recently, TimeML annotation scheme has been adopted as standard for temporal information representation by a large number of researchers. There are few TimeML resources for languages other than English whereas there exist semantic roles annotated corpora and automatic labeling tools for several languages. The objective of this paper is to study if semantic roles resources can be exploited to generate TimeML corpora. An analysis of the similarities and differences between the temporal semantic role and TimeML elements has been carried out, focusing on temporal expressions (TIMEX3). Using this analysis, an approach consisting of a set of transformation rules between semantic roles and TIMEX3 has been implemented. It has been evaluated in TIMEX3 identification for English and Spanish obtaining same quality results (76.85% F β= 1 AVG), which suggests that it could be also valid for other languages.

  8. Semantic Preview Benefit in English: Individual Differences in the Extraction and Use of Parafoveal Semantic Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Although there is robust evidence that skilled readers of English extract and use orthographic and phonological information from the parafovea to facilitate word identification, semantic preview benefits have been elusive. We sought to establish whether individual differences in the extraction and/or use of parafoveal semantic information could…

  9. Semantic preview benefit in English: Individual differences in the extraction and use of parafoveal semantic information.

    PubMed

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Although there is robust evidence that skilled readers of English extract and use orthographic and phonological information from the parafovea to facilitate word identification, semantic preview benefits have been elusive. We sought to establish whether individual differences in the extraction and/or use of parafoveal semantic information could account for this discrepancy. Ninety-nine adult readers who were assessed on measures of reading and spelling ability read sentences while their eye movements were recorded. The gaze-contingent boundary paradigm was used to manipulate the availability of relevant semantic and orthographic information in the parafovea. On average, readers showed a benefit from previews high in semantic feature overlap with the target. However, reading and spelling ability yielded opposite effects on semantic preview benefit. High reading ability was associated with a semantic preview benefit that was equivalent to an identical preview on first-pass reading. High spelling ability was associated with a reduced semantic preview benefit despite an overall higher rate of skipping. These results suggest that differences in the magnitude of semantic preview benefits in English reflect constraints on extracting semantic information from the parafovea and competition between the orthographic features of the preview and the target. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595070

  10. GIS information organization based on the Semantic Geospatial Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuxia; Su, Xuming; Li, Ke

    2008-10-01

    People typically use geographic names instead of coordinates to find geographic information on the web through a search engine. But the current keyword-based web search engines are poorly adapted to help people find information that relates to a particular geographic name, because they don't incorporate the geospatial semantic during the search process. The Semantic Web is a new semantic-based information-retrieval environment. We propose the information organization framework of the GIS semantic data according to the architecture of the Semantic Web, that is, the ontology, the metadata and the data source. Then we deal with the organization of the semantic data based on the three-layered framework respectively. As a focus, we present a novel method to disambiguate geographical name based on the ontology of the place.

  11. Extracting Useful Semantic Information from Large Scale Corpora of Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Ray Padilla, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Extracting and representing semantic information from large scale corpora is at the crux of computer-assisted knowledge generation. Semantic information depends on collocation extraction methods, mathematical models used to represent distributional information, and weighting functions which transform the space. This dissertation provides a…

  12. Developing Visualization Techniques for Semantics-based Information Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Hall, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Information systems incorporating complex network structured information spaces with a semantic underpinning - such as hypermedia networks, semantic networks, topic maps, and concept maps - are being deployed to solve some of NASA s critical information management problems. This paper describes some of the human interaction and navigation problems associated with complex semantic information spaces and describes a set of new visual interface approaches to address these problems. A key strategy is to leverage semantic knowledge represented within these information spaces to construct abstractions and views that will be meaningful to the human user. Human-computer interaction methodologies will guide the development and evaluation of these approaches, which will benefit deployed NASA systems and also apply to information systems based on the emerging Semantic Web.

  13. Computation of Semantic Number from Morphological Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Iris; Pinker, Steven; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bibi, Uri; Goldfarb, Liat

    2005-01-01

    The distinction between singular and plural enters into linguistic phenomena such as morphology, lexical semantics, and agreement and also must interface with perceptual and conceptual systems that assess numerosity in the world. Three experiments examine the computation of semantic number for singulars and plurals from the morphological…

  14. Semantic Web and Contextual Information: Semantic Network Analysis of Online Journalistic Texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yon Soo

    This study examines why contextual information is important to actualize the idea of semantic web, based on a case study of a socio-political issue in South Korea. For this study, semantic network analyses were conducted regarding English-language based 62 blog posts and 101 news stories on the web. The results indicated the differences of the meaning structures between blog posts and professional journalism as well as between conservative journalism and progressive journalism. From the results, this study ascertains empirical validity of current concerns about the practical application of the new web technology, and discusses how the semantic web should be developed.

  15. Information Semantic Tools for Coastal Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbha, S. S.; King, R. L.; Younan, N. H.; Rajender, S. K.; Bheemireddy, S.

    2007-12-01

    In a coastal disaster event, it is necessary to obtain information about water level (depth), winds, currents, waves, temperature-salinity stratification in real time and predictions of water level (12-24 hrs), storm surge (48-72 hours) in advance. It has been estimated that better preparation, response, and mitigation will reduce average costs of storm-related disasters by 10%. The dissemination of information that is time critical calls for systems that will facilitate quick assessment of the scenario from multiple perspectives. Sensor data are obtained from a multitude of distributed sensor networks. Our current work funded by Northern Gulf Institute (NGI) on Sensor Web tools for coastal buoys based on OGC sensor web enablement framework enables the use of real or near real time data derived from coastal sensor networks and dynamic selection and aggregation of multiple sensor systems, meteorological and oceanographic simulations and other decision support systems in a web services- based environment. In addition, we pursue the semantic web approaches to understand the context of the data, resolve the meaning, interpretation or usage of the same or related data and develop knowledge-based tools for access to the information sources. Observations from satellites provide a variety of measurements that are not otherwise available or affordable. However, the use of such valuable information in a rapid assessment scenario is hindered by the fact that it is cumbersome to explore huge image databases through manual or semi automated methods. The Rapid Image information mining (RIIM) tool that we developed for this purpose is demonstrated with imagery data from Landsat ETM+ of post Katrina hurricane.

  16. Altered semantic integration in autism beyond language: a cross-modal event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiane C; Valasek, Claudia A; Minati, Ludovico; Boggio, Paulo S

    2013-05-29

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by impaired communication, particularly pragmatic and semantic language, resulting in verbal comprehension deficits. Semantic processing in these conditions has been studied extensively, but mostly limited only to linguistic material. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that semantic integration deficits may extend beyond the verbal domain. Here, we explored cross-modal semantic integration using visual targets preceded by musical and linguistic cues. Particularly, we have recorded the event-related potentials to evaluate whether the N400 and late positive potential (LPP) components, two widely studied electrophysiological markers of semantic processing, are differently sensitive to congruence with respect to typically developing children. Seven ASD patients and seven neurotypical participants matched by age, education and intelligence quotient provided usable data. Neuroelectric activity was recorded in response to visual targets that were related or unrelated to a preceding spoken sentence or musical excerpt. The N400 was sensitive to semantic congruence in the controls but not the patients, whereas the LPP showed a complementary pattern. These results suggest that semantic processing in ASD children is also altered in the context of musical and visual stimuli, and point to a functional decoupling between the generators of the N400 and LPP, which may indicate delayed semantic processing. These novel findings underline the importance of exploring semantic integration across multiple modalities in ASDs and provide motivation for further investigation in large clinical samples. PMID:23629689

  17. Improving the trust algorithm of information in semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zong-bao; Min, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of computer networks, especially with the introduction of the Semantic Web perspective, the problem of trust computation in the network has become an important research part of current computer system theoretical. In this paper, according the information properties of the Semantic Web and interact between nodes, the definition semantic trust as content trust of information and the node trust between the nodes of two parts. By Calculate the content of the trust of information and the trust between nodes, then get the final credibility num of information in semantic web. In this paper , we are improve the computation algorithm of the node trust .Finally, stimulations and analyses show that the improved algorithm can effectively improve the trust of information more accurately.

  18. Improving the trust algorithm of information in semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zong-Bao; Min, Jiang

    2011-12-01

    With the rapid development of computer networks, especially with the introduction of the Semantic Web perspective, the problem of trust computation in the network has become an important research part of current computer system theoretical. In this paper, according the information properties of the Semantic Web and interact between nodes, the definition semantic trust as content trust of information and the node trust between the nodes of two parts. By Calculate the content of the trust of information and the trust between nodes, then get the final credibility num of information in semantic web. In this paper , we are improve the computation algorithm of the node trust .Finally, stimulations and analyses show that the improved algorithm can effectively improve the trust of information more accurately.

  19. Combinatorial Information Theoretical Measurement of the Semantic Significance of Semantic Graph Motifs

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Haglin, David J.; Holder, Larry

    2011-06-14

    Given an arbitrary semantic graph data set, perhaps one lacking in explicit ontological information, we wish to first identify its significant semantic structures, and then measure the extent of their significance. Casting a semantic graph dataset as an edge-labeled, directed graph, this task can be built on the ability to mine frequent {\\em labeled} subgraphs in edge-labeled, directed graphs. We begin by considering the fundamentals of the enumerative combinatorics of subgraph motif structures in edge-labeled directed graphs. We identify its frequent labeled, directed subgraph motif patterns, and measure the significance of the resulting motifs by the information gain relative to the expected value of the motif based on the empirical frequency distribution of the link types which compose them, assuming indpendence. We illustrate the method on a small test graph, and discuss results obtained for small linear motifs (link type bigrams and trigrams) in a larger graph structure.

  20. Semantics of interdisciplinary data and information integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P.; Raskin, R.; Sinha, A. K.

    2009-05-01

    We have developed an application of semantic web methods and technologies to address the integration of interdisciplinary earth-science datasets. The specific use case addresses seeking and using atmospheric chemistry and volcano geochemistry datasets. We have developed an integration framework based on semantic descriptions (ontologies) of the linking relations between the application domains. In doing this, we have extensively leveraged and existing ontology frameworks such as SWEET, VSTO and GEON as well as included extentions of them when needed. We present the components of this application, including the ontologies, the registration of datasets with ontologies at several levels of granularity, the data sources, and application results from the use case. We will also present the cur rent and near-future capabilities we are developing. This work arises from the Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project, which is an NASA/ESTO/ACCESS-funded project performed in part by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), McGuinness Associates, NASA/JPL and Virginia Polytechnic University.

  1. Semantic Annotation for Biological Information Retrieval System

    PubMed Central

    Oshaiba, Mohamed Marouf Z.; El Houby, Enas M. F.; Salah, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Online literatures are increasing in a tremendous rate. Biological domain is one of the fast growing domains. Biological researchers face a problem finding what they are searching for effectively and efficiently. The aim of this research is to find documents that contain any combination of biological process and/or molecular function and/or cellular component. This research proposes a framework that helps researchers to retrieve meaningful documents related to their asserted terms based on gene ontology (GO). The system utilizes GO by semantically decomposing it into three subontologies (cellular component, biological process, and molecular function). Researcher has the flexibility to choose searching terms from any combination of the three subontologies. Document annotation is taking a place in this research to create an index of biological terms in documents to speed the searching process. Query expansion is used to infer semantically related terms to asserted terms. It increases the search meaningful results using the term synonyms and term relationships. The system uses a ranking method to order the retrieved documents based on the ranking weights. The proposed system achieves researchers' needs to find documents that fit the asserted terms semantically. PMID:25737720

  2. Semantic representations for collaborative, distributed scientific information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kantor, M.; Joslyn, C.; Kantor, M.

    1997-08-01

    It is vital for Los Alamos to respond to the challenge presented by the ongoing revolution in Information Science and Technology. Distributed Information Systems (DIS) are having a profound affect not only in science, but in society in general. In view of their increasing role in the management of scientific information, in national security and intelligence, and certainly as objects of scientific inquiry themselves, these DIS need to be designed and studied from a scientific perspective. The technological developments over the last ten years, the Internet and the World-Wide Web (www) in particular, have been breakthroughs, allowing for the construction of non-linear, hypertextually based, DIS. And yet most of these DIS are still constructed by hand, and have the properties and architectures of the prior paradigm based on books and libraries, with strictly hierarchical categorization designed with many hours of human effort. Our broader vision is based on an organismal model where DIS are adaptable and evolutionary, scalable, highly connected, high dimensional, resilient, and admitting to many complementary views and orderings. The key development necessary to support this view is the representation of semantic information in DIS. We propose a set of software developments and experiments which will both construct novel DIS with explicit semantic representations, and measure the semantic properties of existing DIS. For DIS design, we propose an architecture called Semantic Webs, where a binary multigraph representation relates a number of nodes according to a variety of semantic categories, each partially ordered. The ontological relations among the semantic categories allows a dynamic among them, and thus for the DIS to be self-modifying and adaptive, suggesting new links as a form of inference. These structures will be implemented as Java add-ons in existing browsers. Semantic categories will be represented as hypertext links, with type indicated by anchor color.

  3. Toward Semantic Web Infrastructure for Spatial FEATURES' Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabsheibani, R.; Ariannamazi, S.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Web and its capabilities can be employed as a tool for data and information integration if comprehensive datasets and appropriate technologies and standards enable the web with interpretation and easy alignment of data and information. Semantic Web along with the spatial functionalities enable the web to deal with the huge amount of data and information. The present study investigate the advantages and limitations of the Spatial Semantic Web and compare its capabilities with relational models in order to build a spatial data infrastructure. An architecture is proposed and a set of criteria is defined for the efficiency evaluation. The result demonstrate that when using the data with special characteristics such as schema dynamicity, sparse data or available relations between the features, the spatial semantic web and graph databases with spatial operations are preferable.

  4. Semantic overlay network for large-scale spatial information indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yue; Cao, Kai; Qu, Tianshan; Wang, Zhongmin

    2013-08-01

    The increased demand for online services of spatial information poses new challenges to the combined filed of Computer Science and Geographic Information Science. Amongst others, these include fast indexing of spatial data in distributed networks. In this paper we propose a novel semantic overlay network for large-scale multi-dimensional spatial information indexing, called SON_LSII, which has a hybrid structure integrating a semantic quad-tree and Chord ring. The SON_LSII is a small world overlay network that achieves a very competitive trade-off between indexing efficiency and maintenance overhead. To create SON_LSII, we use an effective semantic clustering strategy that considers two aspects, i.e., the semantic of spatial information that peer holds in overlay network and physical network performances. Based on SON_LSII, a mapping method is used to reduce the multi-dimensional features into a single dimension and an efficient indexing algorithm is presented to support complex range queries of the spatial information with a massive number of concurrent users. The results from extensive experiments demonstrate that SON_LSII is superior to existing overlay networks in various respects, including scalability, maintenance, rate of indexing hits, indexing logical hops, and adaptability. Thus, the proposed SON_LSII can be used for large-scale spatial information indexing.

  5. Information Integration from Semantically Heterogeneous Biological Data Sources.

    PubMed

    Caragea, Doina; Bao, Jie; Pathak, Jyotishman; Silvescu, Adrian; Andorf, Carson; Dobbs, Drena; Honavar, Vasant

    2005-08-26

    We present the first prototype of INDUS (Intelligent Data Understanding System), a federated, query-centric system for information integration and knowledge acquisition from distributed, semantically heterogeneous data sources that can be viewed (conceptually) as tables. INDUS employs ontologies and inter-ontology mappings, to enable a user to view a collection of such data sources (regardless of location, internal structure and query interfaces) as though they were a collection of tables structured according to an ontology supplied by the user. This allows INDUS to answer user queries against distributed, semantically heterogeneous data sources without the need for a centralized data warehouse or a common global ontology. PMID:20802821

  6. How Visual and Semantic Information Influence Learning in Familiar Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R.; Ehinger, Krista A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical…

  7. Lateralization of Object-Shape Information in Semantic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaan, Rolf A.; Yaxley, Richard H.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine whether perceptual information, specifically the shape of objects, is activated during semantic processing. Subjects judged whether a target word was related to a prime word. Prime-target pairs that were not associated, but whose referents had similar shapes (e.g. LADDER-RAILROAD) yielded longer ''no''…

  8. Life, Information, Entropy, and Time: Vehicles for Semantic Inheritance.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Antony R

    2007-01-01

    Attempts to understand how information content can be included in an accounting of the energy flux of the biosphere have led to the conclusion that, in information transmission, one component, the semantic content, or "the meaning of the message," adds no thermodynamic burden over and above costs arising from coding, transmission and translation. In biology, semantic content has two major roles. For all life forms, the message of the genotype encoded in DNA specifies the phenotype, and hence the organism that is tested against the real world through the mechanisms of Darwinian evolution. For human beings, communication through language and similar abstractions provides an additional supra-phenotypic vehicle for semantic inheritance, which supports the cultural heritages around which civilizations revolve. The following three postulates provide the basis for discussion of a number of themes that demonstrate some important consequences. (i) Information transmission through either pathway has thermodynamic components associated with data storage and transmission. (ii) The semantic content adds no additional thermodynamic cost. (iii) For all semantic exchange, meaning is accessible only through translation and interpretation, and has a value only in context. (1) For both pathways of semantic inheritance, translational and copying machineries are imperfect. As a consequence both pathways are subject to mutation and to evolutionary pressure by selection. Recognition of semantic content as a common component allows an understanding of the relationship between genes and memes, and a reformulation of Universal Darwinism. (2) The emergent properties of life are dependent on a processing of semantic content. The translational steps allow amplification in complexity through combinatorial possibilities in space and time. Amplification depends on the increased potential for complexity opened by 3D interaction specificity of proteins, and on the selection of useful variants by

  9. The geographical ontology, LDAP, and the space information semantic grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wei; Li, Deren

    2005-10-01

    The research purpose is to discuss the development trend and theory of the semantic integration and interoperability of Geography Information Systems on the network ages and to point out that the geography ontology is the foregone conclusion of the development of the semantic-based integration and interoperability of Geography Information Systems. After analyzing the effect by using the various new technologies, the paper proposes new idea for the family of the ontology class based on the GIS knowledge built here. They are the basic ontology, the domain ontology and the application ontology and are very useful for the sharing and transferring of the semantic information between the complicated distributed systems and object abstracting. The main contributions of the paper are as follows: 1) For the first time taking the ontology and LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) in creating and optimizing the architecture of Spatial Information Gird and accelerating the fusion of Geography Information System and other domain's information systems. 2) For the first time, introducing a hybrid method to build geography ontology. This hybrid method mixes the excellence of the independent domain expert and data mining. It improves the efficiency of the method of the domain expert and builds ontology semi-automatically. 3) For the first time, implementing the many-to-many relationship of integration ontology system by LDAP's reference and creating ontology-based virtual organization that could provide transparent service to guests.

  10. Towards A Topological Framework for Integrating Semantic Information Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Robinson, Michael

    2014-09-07

    In this position paper we argue for the role that topological modeling principles can play in providing a framework for sensor integration. While used successfully in standard (quantitative) sensors, we are developing this methodology in new directions to make it appropriate specifically for semantic information sources, including keyterms, ontology terms, and other general Boolean, categorical, ordinal, and partially-ordered data types. We illustrate the basics of the methodology in an extended use case/example, and discuss path forward.

  11. From paragraph to graph: Latent semantic analysis for information visualization

    PubMed Central

    Landauer, Thomas K.; Laham, Darrell; Derr, Marcia

    2004-01-01

    Most techniques for relating textual information rely on intellectually created links such as author-chosen keywords and titles, authority indexing terms, or bibliographic citations. Similarity of the semantic content of whole documents, rather than just titles, abstracts, or overlap of keywords, offers an attractive alternative. Latent semantic analysis provides an effective dimension reduction method for the purpose that reflects synonymy and the sense of arbitrary word combinations. However, latent semantic analysis correlations with human text-to-text similarity judgments are often empirically highest at ≈300 dimensions. Thus, two- or three-dimensional visualizations are severely limited in what they can show, and the first and/or second automatically discovered principal component, or any three such for that matter, rarely capture all of the relations that might be of interest. It is our conjecture that linguistic meaning is intrinsically and irreducibly very high dimensional. Thus, some method to explore a high dimensional similarity space is needed. But the 2.7 × 107 projections and infinite rotations of, for example, a 300-dimensional pattern are impossible to examine. We suggest, however, that the use of a high dimensional dynamic viewer with an effective projection pursuit routine and user control, coupled with the exquisite abilities of the human visual system to extract information about objects and from moving patterns, can often succeed in discovering multiple revealing views that are missed by current computational algorithms. We show some examples of the use of latent semantic analysis to support such visualizations and offer views on future needs. PMID:15037748

  12. Limning the Semantic Frontier of Informed Consent.

    PubMed

    Washington, Harriet A

    2016-09-01

    It is the researcher's responsibility to provide accurate, complete, and unbiased verbal and written information yet, as this essay discusses, challenges to meaningful research consent abound in the communication between researcher and subject. This discussion of these challenges is far from exhaustive, but it will flag some of the potholes that researchers must anticipate on the sometimes rocky road to eliciting meaningful consent. These include, but are not limited to, inadequate scientific literacy, poorly written consent forms, and even the deployment of scientific terms and seductive acronyms like CURE and MIRACL. Studies with acronyms, for example, enroll five times as many patients as those without, are more likely to be published by prestigious journals, and have higher Jadad methodologic quality scores although they are no more likely to conclude with positive findings. Other barriers to researcher-subject communication include: widely differing beliefs and customs, semiotics, socioeconomic status, iatrophobia, and dramatically different histories of treatment in the medical-research arena. PMID:27587444

  13. Aging and semantic cueing during learning and retention of verbal episodic information.

    PubMed

    Woo, Ellen; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of semantic cues provided at encoding and during retention for older adults' memory. For the California Verbal Learning Test-II, participants received semantic or nonsemantic cues that were varied across groups at encoding and during the retention interval. Provision of a semantic cue at encoding led to greater semantic clustering at learning, but not increased recall performance. Providing a semantic cue during the retention interval led to better delayed free recall and greater semantic clustering. No group differences in recall or semantic clustering were found at delayed cued recall. The current findings suggest that semantic cues can be beneficial for recalling unstructured information when administered during the retention interval. PMID:18923945

  14. Dretske's Semantic Information Theory and Metatheories in Library and Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnevie, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    Presents the semantic information theory, formulated by the philosopher Fred Dretske, as a contribution to the discussion of metatheories and their practical implications in library and information science. Highlights include mathematical communication theory; digitization, perception, cognition, and concept formation; information and knowledge;…

  15. Semantic and phonological information in sentence recall: converging psycholinguistic and neuropsychological evidence.

    PubMed

    Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf; Bormann, Tobias; Martin, Randi C

    2011-12-01

    We present one experiment and a neuropsychological case study to investigate to what extent phonological and semantic representations contribute to short-term sentence recall. We modified Potter and Lombardi's (1990) intrusion paradigm, in which retention of a list interferes with sentence recall such that on the list a semantically related lure is presented, which is expected to intrude into sentence recall. In our version, lure words are either semantically related to target words in the sentence or semantically plus phonologically related. With healthy participants, intrusions are more frequent when lure and target overlap phonologically in addition to semantically than when they solely overlap semantically. When this paradigm is applied to a patient with a phonological short-term memory impairment, both lure types induce the same amount of intrusions. These findings indicate that usually phonological information is retained in sentence recall in addition to semantic information. PMID:22813068

  16. The agent-based spatial information semantic grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wei; Zhu, YaQiong; Zhou, Yong; Li, Deren

    2006-10-01

    Analyzing the characteristic of multi-Agent and geographic Ontology, The concept of the Agent-based Spatial Information Semantic Grid (ASISG) is defined and the architecture of the ASISG is advanced. ASISG is composed with Multi-Agents and geographic Ontology. The Multi-Agent Systems are composed with User Agents, General Ontology Agent, Geo-Agents, Broker Agents, Resource Agents, Spatial Data Analysis Agents, Spatial Data Access Agents, Task Execution Agent and Monitor Agent. The architecture of ASISG have three layers, they are the fabric layer, the grid management layer and the application layer. The fabric layer what is composed with Data Access Agent, Resource Agent and Geo-Agent encapsulates the data of spatial information system so that exhibits a conceptual interface for the Grid management layer. The Grid management layer, which is composed with General Ontology Agent, Task Execution Agent and Monitor Agent and Data Analysis Agent, used a hybrid method to manage all resources that were registered in a General Ontology Agent that is described by a General Ontology System. The hybrid method is assembled by resource dissemination and resource discovery. The resource dissemination push resource from Local Ontology Agent to General Ontology Agent and the resource discovery pull resource from the General Ontology Agent to Local Ontology Agents. The Local Ontology Agent is derived from special domain and describes the semantic information of local GIS. The nature of the Local Ontology Agents can be filtrated to construct a virtual organization what could provides a global scheme. The virtual organization lightens the burdens of guests because they need not search information site by site manually. The application layer what is composed with User Agent, Geo-Agent and Task Execution Agent can apply a corresponding interface to a domain user. The functions that ASISG should provide are: 1) It integrates different spatial information systems on the semantic The Grid

  17. How visual and semantic information influence learning in familiar contexts.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R; Ehinger, Krista A

    2012-10-01

    Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical contextual cuing procedure was adapted to use meaningless but nevertheless visually complex images. The data in reaction time and in eye movements show that, like scenes, such repeated contexts can trigger large, stable, and explicit cuing effects, and that those effects result from facilitated attentional guidance. Like simpler stimulus arrays, however, those effects were impaired by a sudden change of a repeating image's color scheme at the end of the learning phase (Experiment 1), or when the repeated images were presented in a different and unique color scheme across each presentation (Experiment 2). In both cases, search was driven by explicit memory. Collectively, these results suggest that semantic information is not required for conscious awareness of context-target covariation, but it plays a primary role in overcoming variability in specific features within familiar displays. PMID:22612057

  18. Semantic interoperability between clinical and public health information systems for improving public health services.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd G M E

    2007-01-01

    Improving public health services requires comprehensively integrating all services including medical, social, community, and public health ones. Therefore, developing integrated health information services has to start considering business process, rules and information semantics of involved domains. The paper proposes a business and information architecture for the specification of a future-proof national integrated system, concretely the requirements for semantic integration between public health surveillance and clinical information systems. The architecture is a semantically interoperable approach because it describes business process, rules and information semantics based on national policy documents and expressed in a standard language such us the Unified Modeling Language UML. Having the enterprise and information models formalized, semantically interoperable Health IT components/services development is supported. PMID:17901617

  19. Horizontal Flow of Semantic and Phonological Information in Chinese Spoken Sentence Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jin-Chen; Yang, Yu-Fang

    2008-01-01

    A variant of the picture--word interference paradigm was used in three experiments to investigate the horizontal information flow of semantic and phonological information between nouns in spoken Mandarin Chinese sentences. Experiment 1 demonstrated that there is a semantic interference effect when the word in the second phrase (N3) and the first…

  20. EIIS: An Educational Information Intelligent Search Engine Supported by Semantic Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chang-Qin; Duan, Ru-Lin; Tang, Yong; Zhu, Zhi-Ting; Yan, Yong-Jian; Guo, Yu-Qing

    2011-01-01

    The semantic web brings a new opportunity for efficient information organization and search. To meet the special requirements of the educational field, this paper proposes an intelligent search engine enabled by educational semantic support service, where three kinds of searches are integrated into Educational Information Intelligent Search (EIIS)…

  1. Early Stages of Sensory Processing, but Not Semantic Integration, Are Altered in Dyslexic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patrícia B.; Ueki, Karen; Oliveira, Darlene G.; Boggio, Paulo S.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairments in processing spoken and musical auditory information. The present study sought to investigate and compare the performance of 32 adult participants (14 individuals with dyslexia), in semantic processing tasks in two situations with auditory stimuli: sentences and music, with integrated visual stimuli (pictures). From the analysis of the accuracy, both the sentence and the music blocks showed significant effects on the congruency variable, with both groups having higher scores for the incongruent items than for the congruent ones. Furthermore, there was also a group effect when the priming was music, with the dyslexic group showing an inferior performance to the control group, demonstrating greater impairments in processing when the priming was music. Regarding the reaction time variable, a group effect in music and sentence priming was found, with the dyslexic group being slower than the control group. The N400 and P100 components were analyzed. In items with judgment and music priming, a group effect was observed for the amplitude of the P100, with higher means produced by individuals with dyslexia, corroborating the literature that individuals with dyslexia have difficulties in early information processing. A congruency effect was observed in the items with music priming, with greater P100 amplitudes found in incongruous situations. Analyses of the N400 component showed the congruency effect for amplitude in both types of priming, with the mean amplitude for incongruent

  2. Early Stages of Sensory Processing, but Not Semantic Integration, Are Altered in Dyslexic Adults.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia B; Ueki, Karen; Oliveira, Darlene G; Boggio, Paulo S; Macedo, Elizeu C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairments in processing spoken and musical auditory information. The present study sought to investigate and compare the performance of 32 adult participants (14 individuals with dyslexia), in semantic processing tasks in two situations with auditory stimuli: sentences and music, with integrated visual stimuli (pictures). From the analysis of the accuracy, both the sentence and the music blocks showed significant effects on the congruency variable, with both groups having higher scores for the incongruent items than for the congruent ones. Furthermore, there was also a group effect when the priming was music, with the dyslexic group showing an inferior performance to the control group, demonstrating greater impairments in processing when the priming was music. Regarding the reaction time variable, a group effect in music and sentence priming was found, with the dyslexic group being slower than the control group. The N400 and P100 components were analyzed. In items with judgment and music priming, a group effect was observed for the amplitude of the P100, with higher means produced by individuals with dyslexia, corroborating the literature that individuals with dyslexia have difficulties in early information processing. A congruency effect was observed in the items with music priming, with greater P100 amplitudes found in incongruous situations. Analyses of the N400 component showed the congruency effect for amplitude in both types of priming, with the mean amplitude for incongruent

  3. A study on heterogeneous distributed spatial information platform based on semantic Web services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shuang-yun; Yang, Kun; Xu, Quan-li; Huang, Bang-mei

    2008-10-01

    With the development of Semantic Web technology, the spatial information service based on ontology is an effective way for sharing and interoperation of heterogeneous information resources in the distributed network environment. This paper discusses spatial information sharing and interoperability in the Semantic Web Services architecture. Through using Ontology record spatial information in sharing knowledge system, explicit and formalization expresses the default and the concealment semantic information. It provides the prerequisite for spatial information sharing and interoperability; Through Semantic Web Services technology parses Ontology and intelligent buildings services under network environment, form a network of services. In order to realize the practical applications of spatial information sharing and interoperation in different brunches of CDC system, a prototype system for HIV/AIDS information sharing based on geo-ontology has also been developed by using the methods described above.

  4. Semantics-informed cartography: the case of Piemonte Geological Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana, Fabrizio; Lombardo, Vincenzo; Mimmo, Dario; Giardino, Marco; Fubelli, Giandomenico

    2016-04-01

    In modern digital geological maps, namely those supported by a large geo-database and devoted to dynamical, interactive representation on WMS-WebGIS services, there is the need to provide, in an explicit form, the geological assumptions used for the design and compilation of the database of the Map, and to get a definition and/or adoption of semantic representation and taxonomies, in order to achieve a formal and interoperable representation of the geologic knowledge. These approaches are fundamental for the integration and harmonisation of geological information and services across cultural (e.g. different scientific disciplines) and/or physical barriers (e.g. administrative boundaries). Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4.0, 2015, http://www.geosciml.org) and the INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/Data_Specifications/INSPIRE_DataSpecification_GE_v3.0rc3.pdf (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. Grounded on these standard vocabularies, schemas and data models, we provide a shared semantic classification of geological data referring to the study case of the synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap", developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Torino (CNR IGG TO) and hosted as a dynamical interactive map on the geoportal of ARPA Piemonte Environmental Agency. The Piemonte Geological Map is grounded on a regional-scale geo-database consisting of some hundreds of GeologicUnits whose thousands instances (Mapped Features, polygons geometry) widely occur in Piemonte region, and each one is bounded by GeologicStructures (Mapped Features, line geometry). GeologicUnits and GeologicStructures have been spatially

  5. Latent morpho-semantic analysis : multilingual information retrieval with character n-grams and mutual information.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, Brett William; Chew, Peter A.; Abdelali, Ahmed

    2008-08-01

    We describe an entirely statistics-based, unsupervised, and language-independent approach to multilingual information retrieval, which we call Latent Morpho-Semantic Analysis (LMSA). LMSA overcomes some of the shortcomings of related previous approaches such as Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). LMSA has an important theoretical advantage over LSA: it combines well-known techniques in a novel way to break the terms of LSA down into units which correspond more closely to morphemes. Thus, it has a particular appeal for use with morphologically complex languages such as Arabic. We show through empirical results that the theoretical advantages of LMSA can translate into significant gains in precision in multilingual information retrieval tests. These gains are not matched either when a standard stemmer is used with LSA, or when terms are indiscriminately broken down into n-grams.

  6. Integrating semantic web technologies and geospatial catalog services for geospatial information discovery and processing in cyberinfrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Peng; Gong, Jianya; Di, Liping; He, Lianlian; Wei, Yaxing

    2011-04-01

    Abstract A geospatial catalogue service provides a network-based meta-information repository and interface for advertising and discovering shared geospatial data and services. Descriptive information (i.e., metadata) for geospatial data and services is structured and organized in catalogue services. The approaches currently available for searching and using that information are often inadequate. Semantic Web technologies show promise for better discovery methods by exploiting the underlying semantics. Such development needs special attention from the Cyberinfrastructure perspective, so that the traditional focus on discovery of and access to geospatial data can be expanded to support the increased demand for processing of geospatial information and discovery of knowledge. Semantic descriptions for geospatial data, services, and geoprocessing service chains are structured, organized, and registered through extending elements in the ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM) of a geospatial catalogue service, which follows the interface specifications of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Services for the Web (CSW). The process models for geoprocessing service chains, as a type of geospatial knowledge, are captured, registered, and discoverable. Semantics-enhanced discovery for geospatial data, services/service chains, and process models is described. Semantic search middleware that can support virtual data product materialization is developed for the geospatial catalogue service. The creation of such a semantics-enhanced geospatial catalogue service is important in meeting the demands for geospatial information discovery and analysis in Cyberinfrastructure.

  7. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design. PMID:24311971

  8. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2010-12-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design. PMID:24311971

  9. A novel architecture for information retrieval system based on semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, the web has enabled an explosive growth of information sharing (there are currently over 4 billion pages covering most areas of human endeavor) so that the web has faced a new challenge of information overhead. The challenge that is now before us is not only to help people locating relevant information precisely but also to access and aggregate a variety of information from different resources automatically. Current web document are in human-oriented formats and they are suitable for the presentation, but machines cannot understand the meaning of document. To address this issue, Berners-Lee proposed a concept of semantic web. With semantic web technology, web information can be understood and processed by machine. It provides new possibilities for automatic web information processing. A main problem of semantic web information retrieval is that when these is not enough knowledge to such information retrieval system, the system will return to a large of no sense result to uses due to a huge amount of information results. In this paper, we present the architecture of information based on semantic web. In addiction, our systems employ the inference Engine to check whether the query should pose to Keyword-based Search Engine or should pose to the Semantic Search Engine.

  10. Semantic information extracting system for classification of radiological reports in radiology information system (RIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liehang; Ling, Tonghui; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-03-01

    Radiologists currently use a variety of terminologies and standards in most hospitals in China, and even there are multiple terminologies being used for different sections in one department. In this presentation, we introduce a medical semantic comprehension system (MedSCS) to extract semantic information about clinical findings and conclusion from free text radiology reports so that the reports can be classified correctly based on medical terms indexing standards such as Radlex or SONMED-CT. Our system (MedSCS) is based on both rule-based methods and statistics-based methods which improve the performance and the scalability of MedSCS. In order to evaluate the over all of the system and measure the accuracy of the outcomes, we developed computation methods to calculate the parameters of precision rate, recall rate, F-score and exact confidence interval.

  11. Operationalizing Semantic Medline for meeting the information needs at point of care

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    Scientific literature is one of the popular resources for providing decision support at point of care. It is highly desirable to bring the most relevant literature to support the evidence-based clinical decision making process. Motivated by the recent advance in semantically enhanced information retrieval, we have developed a system, which aims to bring semantically enriched literature, Semantic Medline, to meet the information needs at point of care. This study reports our work towards operationalizing the system for real time use. We demonstrate that the migration of a relational database implementation to a NoSQL (Not only SQL) implementation significantly improves the performance and makes the use of Semantic Medline at point of care decision support possible. PMID:26306259

  12. Operationalizing Semantic Medline for meeting the information needs at point of care.

    PubMed

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    Scientific literature is one of the popular resources for providing decision support at point of care. It is highly desirable to bring the most relevant literature to support the evidence-based clinical decision making process. Motivated by the recent advance in semantically enhanced information retrieval, we have developed a system, which aims to bring semantically enriched literature, Semantic Medline, to meet the information needs at point of care. This study reports our work towards operationalizing the system for real time use. We demonstrate that the migration of a relational database implementation to a NoSQL (Not only SQL) implementation significantly improves the performance and makes the use of Semantic Medline at point of care decision support possible. PMID:26306259

  13. Hybrid Ontology for Semantic Information Retrieval Model Using Keyword Matching Indexing System

    PubMed Central

    Uthayan, K. R.; Anandha Mala, G. S.

    2015-01-01

    Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology. PMID:25922851

  14. Hybrid ontology for semantic information retrieval model using keyword matching indexing system.

    PubMed

    Uthayan, K R; Mala, G S Anandha

    2015-01-01

    Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology. PMID:25922851

  15. E-Government Goes Semantic Web: How Administrations Can Transform Their Information Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klischewski, Ralf; Ukena, Stefan

    E-government applications and services are built mainly on access to, retrieval of, integration of, and delivery of relevant information to citizens, businesses, and administrative users. In order to perform such information processing automatically through the Semantic Web,1 machine-readable2 enhancements of web resources are needed, based on the understanding of the content and context of the information in focus. While these enhancements are far from trivial to produce, administrations in their role of information and service providers so far find little guidance on how to migrate their web resources and enable a new quality of information processing; even research is still seeking best practices. Therefore, the underlying research question of this chapter is: what are the appropriate approaches which guide administrations in transforming their information processes toward the Semantic Web? In search for answers, this chapter analyzes the challenges and possible solutions from the perspective of administrations: (a) the reconstruction of the information processing in the e-government in terms of how semantic technologies must be employed to support information provision and consumption through the Semantic Web; (b) the required contribution to the transformation is compared to the capabilities and expectations of administrations; and (c) available experience with the steps of transformation are reviewed and discussed as to what extent they can be expected to successfully drive the e-government to the Semantic Web. This research builds on studying the case of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, where semantic technologies have been used within the frame of the Access-eGov3 project in order to semantically enhance electronic service interfaces with the aim of providing a new way of accessing and combining e-government services.

  16. A Validation of Parafoveal Semantic Information Extraction in Reading Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Wei; Kliegl, Reinhold; Yan, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Parafoveal semantic processing has recently been well documented in reading Chinese sentences, presumably because of language-specific features. However, because of a large variation of fixation landing positions on pretarget words, some preview words actually were located in foveal vision when readers' eyes landed close to the end of the…

  17. Information Retrieval by Constrained Spreading Activation in Semantic Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Paul R.; Kjeldsen, Rick

    1987-01-01

    Describes GRANT, an expert system for finding sources of funding given research proposals. The architecture of GRANT and the implementation of constrained spreading activation (a modified search algorithm based on semantic memory) are described, and recall and precision rates are analyzed. (Author/LRW)

  18. Semantics of data and service registration to advance interdisciplinary information and data access.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P. P.; McGuinness, D. L.; Raskin, R.; Sinha, A. K.

    2008-12-01

    In developing an application of semantic web methods and technologies to address the integration of heterogeneous and interdisciplinary earth-science datasets, we have developed methodologies for creating rich semantic descriptions (ontologies) of the application domains. We have leveraged and extended where possible existing ontology frameworks such as SWEET. As a result of this semantic approach, we have also utilized ontologic descriptions of key enabling elements of the application, such as the registration of datasets with ontologies at several levels of granularity. This has enabled the location and usage of the data across disciplines. We are also realizing the need to develop similar semantic registration of web service data holdings as well as those provided with community and/or standard markup languages (e.g. GeoSciML). This level of semantic enablement extending beyond domain terms and relations significantly enhances our ability to provide a coherent semantic data framework for data and information systems. Much of this work is on the frontier of technology development and we will present the current and near-future capabilities we are developing. This work arises from the Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project, which is an NASA/ESTO/ACCESS-funded project involving the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), McGuinness Associates Consulting, NASA/JPL and Virginia Polytechnic University.

  19. Discovering biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries for information retrieval and database curation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Identifying relevant papers from the literature is a common task in biocuration. Most current biomedical literature search systems primarily rely on matching user keywords. Semantic search, on the other hand, seeks to improve search accuracy by understanding the entities and contextual relations in user keywords. However, past research has mostly focused on semantically identifying biological entities (e.g. chemicals, diseases and genes) with little effort on discovering semantic relations. In this work, we aim to discover biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries in an automated and unsupervised fashion. Specifically, we focus on extracting and understanding the contextual information (or context patterns) that is used by PubMed users to represent semantic relations between entities such as ‘CHEMICAL-1 compared to CHEMICAL-2.’ With the advances in automatic named entity recognition, we first tag entities in PubMed queries and then use tagged entities as knowledge to recognize pattern semantics. More specifically, we transform PubMed queries into context patterns involving participating entities, which are subsequently projected to latent topics via latent semantic analysis (LSA) to avoid the data sparseness and specificity issues. Finally, we mine semantically similar contextual patterns or semantic relations based on LSA topic distributions. Our two separate evaluation experiments of chemical-chemical (CC) and chemical–disease (CD) relations show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms a baseline method, which simply measures pattern semantics by similarity in participating entities. The highest performance achieved by our approach is nearly 0.9 and 0.85 respectively for the CC and CD task when compared against the ground truth in terms of normalized discounted cumulative gain (nDCG), a standard measure of ranking quality. These results suggest that our approach can effectively identify and return related semantic patterns in a ranked

  20. Discovering biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries for information retrieval and database curation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Identifying relevant papers from the literature is a common task in biocuration. Most current biomedical literature search systems primarily rely on matching user keywords. Semantic search, on the other hand, seeks to improve search accuracy by understanding the entities and contextual relations in user keywords. However, past research has mostly focused on semantically identifying biological entities (e.g. chemicals, diseases and genes) with little effort on discovering semantic relations. In this work, we aim to discover biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries in an automated and unsupervised fashion. Specifically, we focus on extracting and understanding the contextual information (or context patterns) that is used by PubMed users to represent semantic relations between entities such as 'CHEMICAL-1 compared to CHEMICAL-2' With the advances in automatic named entity recognition, we first tag entities in PubMed queries and then use tagged entities as knowledge to recognize pattern semantics. More specifically, we transform PubMed queries into context patterns involving participating entities, which are subsequently projected to latent topics via latent semantic analysis (LSA) to avoid the data sparseness and specificity issues. Finally, we mine semantically similar contextual patterns or semantic relations based on LSA topic distributions. Our two separate evaluation experiments of chemical-chemical (CC) and chemical-disease (CD) relations show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms a baseline method, which simply measures pattern semantics by similarity in participating entities. The highest performance achieved by our approach is nearly 0.9 and 0.85 respectively for the CC and CD task when compared against the ground truth in terms of normalized discounted cumulative gain (nDCG), a standard measure of ranking quality. These results suggest that our approach can effectively identify and return related semantic patterns in a ranked order

  1. Integration of Sentence-Level Semantic Information in Parafovea: Evidence from the RSVP-Flanker Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjia; Li, Nan; Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Suiping

    2015-01-01

    During text reading, the parafoveal word was usually presented between 2° and 5° from the point of fixation. Whether semantic information of parafoveal words can be processed during sentence reading is a critical and long-standing issue. Recently, studies using the RSVP-flanker paradigm have shown that the incongruent parafoveal word, presented as right flanker, elicited a more negative N400 compared with the congruent parafoveal word. This suggests that the semantic information of parafoveal words can be extracted and integrated during sentence reading, because the N400 effect is a classical index of semantic integration. However, as most previous studies did not control the word-pair congruency of the parafoveal and the foveal words that were presented in the critical triad, it is still unclear whether such integration happened at the sentence level or just at the word-pair level. The present study addressed this question by manipulating verbs in Chinese sentences to yield either a semantically congruent or semantically incongruent context for the critical noun. In particular, the interval between the critical nouns and verbs was controlled to be 4 or 5 characters. Thus, to detect the incongruence of the parafoveal noun, participants had to integrate it with the global sentential context. The results revealed that the N400 time-locked to the critical triads was more negative in incongruent than in congruent sentences, suggesting that parafoveal semantic information can be integrated at the sentence level during Chinese reading. PMID:26418230

  2. Co-speech gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information.

    PubMed

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Hasson, Uri; Skipper, Jeremy I; Small, Steven L

    2009-11-01

    Everyday communication is accompanied by visual information from several sources, including co-speech gestures, which provide semantic information listeners use to help disambiguate the speaker's message. Using fMRI, we examined how gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information. The BOLD response was recorded while participants listened to stories under three audiovisual conditions and one auditory-only (speech alone) condition. In the first audiovisual condition, the storyteller produced gestures that naturally accompany speech. In the second, the storyteller made semantically unrelated hand movements. In the third, the storyteller kept her hands still. In addition to inferior parietal and posterior superior and middle temporal regions, bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and left anterior inferior frontal gyrus responded more strongly to speech when it was further accompanied by gesture, regardless of the semantic relation to speech. However, the right inferior frontal gyrus was sensitive to the semantic import of the hand movements, demonstrating more activity when hand movements were semantically unrelated to the accompanying speech. These findings show that perceiving hand movements during speech modulates the distributed pattern of neural activation involved in both biological motion perception and discourse comprehension, suggesting listeners attempt to find meaning, not only in the words speakers produce, but also in the hand movements that accompany speech. PMID:19384890

  3. Methods and apparatus for capture and storage of semantic information with sub-files in a parallel computing system

    DOEpatents

    Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M; Tzelnic, Percy; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron

    2015-02-03

    Techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system using sub-files with semantically meaningful boundaries. A method is provided for storing at least one file generated by a distributed application in a parallel computing system. The file comprises one or more of a complete file and a plurality of sub-files. The method comprises the steps of obtaining a user specification of semantic information related to the file; providing the semantic information as a data structure description to a data formatting library write function; and storing the semantic information related to the file with one or more of the sub-files in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system. The semantic information provides a description of data in the file. The sub-files can be replicated based on semantically meaningful boundaries.

  4. Only time will tell - why temporal information is essential for our neuroscientific understanding of semantics.

    PubMed

    Hauk, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical developments about the nature of semantic representations and processes should be accompanied by a discussion of how these theories can be validated on the basis of empirical data. Here, I elaborate on the link between theory and empirical research, highlighting the need for temporal information in order to distinguish fundamental aspects of semantics. The generic point that fast cognitive processes demand fast measurement techniques has been made many times before, although arguably more often in the psychophysiological community than in the metabolic neuroimaging community. Many reviews on the neuroscience of semantics mostly or even exclusively focus on metabolic neuroimaging data. Following an analysis of semantics in terms of the representations and processes involved, I argue that fundamental theoretical debates about the neuroscience of semantics can only be concluded on the basis of data with sufficient temporal resolution. Any "semantic effect" may result from a conflation of long-term memory representations, retrieval and working memory processes, mental imagery, and episodic memory. This poses challenges for all neuroimaging modalities, but especially for those with low temporal resolution. It also throws doubt on the usefulness of contrasts between meaningful and meaningless stimuli, which may differ on a number of semantic and non-semantic dimensions. I will discuss the consequences of this analysis for research on the role of convergence zones or hubs and distributed modal brain networks, top-down modulation of task and context as well as interactivity between levels of the processing hierarchy, for example in the framework of predictive coding. PMID:27294424

  5. Semantic annotation for concept-based cross-language medical information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Volk, Martin; Ripplinger, Bärbel; Vintar, Spela; Buitelaar, Paul; Raileanu, Diana; Sacaleanu, Bogdan

    2002-12-01

    We present a framework for concept-based cross-language information retrieval in the medical domain, which is under development in the MUCHMORE project. Our approach is based on using the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) as the primary source of semantic data. Documents and queries are annotated with multiple layers of linguistic information. Linguistic processing includes part-of-speech tagging, morphological analysis, phrase recognition and the identification of medical terms and semantic relations between them. The paper describes experiments in monolingual and cross-language document retrieval, performed on a corpus of medical abstracts. Results show that linguistic processing, especially lemmatization and compound analysis for German, is a crucial step in achieving a good baseline performance. On the other hand, they show that semantic information, specifically the combined use of concepts and relations, increases the performance in monolingual and cross-language retrieval. PMID:12460635

  6. Integrating semantic information into multiple kernels for protein-protein interaction extraction from biomedical literatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Lishuang; Zhang, Panpan; Zheng, Tianfu; Zhang, Hongying; Jiang, Zhenchao; Huang, Degen

    2014-01-01

    Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) extraction is an important task in the biomedical information extraction. Presently, many machine learning methods for PPI extraction have achieved promising results. However, the performance is still not satisfactory. One reason is that the semantic resources were basically ignored. In this paper, we propose a multiple-kernel learning-based approach to extract PPIs, combining the feature-based kernel, tree kernel and semantic kernel. Particularly, we extend the shortest path-enclosed tree kernel (SPT) by a dynamic extended strategy to retrieve the richer syntactic information. Our semantic kernel calculates the protein-protein pair similarity and the context similarity based on two semantic resources: WordNet and Medical Subject Heading (MeSH). We evaluate our method with Support Vector Machine (SVM) and achieve an F-score of 69.40% and an AUC of 92.00%, which show that our method outperforms most of the state-of-the-art systems by integrating semantic information. PMID:24622773

  7. Integrating Semantic Information into Multiple Kernels for Protein-Protein Interaction Extraction from Biomedical Literatures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lishuang; Zhang, Panpan; Zheng, Tianfu; Zhang, Hongying; Jiang, Zhenchao; Huang, Degen

    2014-01-01

    Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) extraction is an important task in the biomedical information extraction. Presently, many machine learning methods for PPI extraction have achieved promising results. However, the performance is still not satisfactory. One reason is that the semantic resources were basically ignored. In this paper, we propose a multiple-kernel learning-based approach to extract PPIs, combining the feature-based kernel, tree kernel and semantic kernel. Particularly, we extend the shortest path-enclosed tree kernel (SPT) by a dynamic extended strategy to retrieve the richer syntactic information. Our semantic kernel calculates the protein-protein pair similarity and the context similarity based on two semantic resources: WordNet and Medical Subject Heading (MeSH). We evaluate our method with Support Vector Machine (SVM) and achieve an F-score of 69.40% and an AUC of 92.00%, which show that our method outperforms most of the state-of-the-art systems by integrating semantic information. PMID:24622773

  8. A left cerebral hemisphere's superiority in processing spatial-categorical information in a non-verbal semantic format.

    PubMed

    Suegami, Takashi; Laeng, Bruno

    2013-03-01

    It has been shown that the left and right cerebral hemispheres (LH and RH) respectively process qualitative or "categorical" spatial relations and metric or "coordinate" spatial relations. However, categorical spatial information could be thought as divided into two types: semantically-coded and visuospatially-coded categorical information. We examined whether a LH's advantage in processing semantic-categorical information is observed in a non-verbal format, and also whether semantic- and visuospatial-categorical processing are differentially lateralized. We manipulated the colors and positions of the standard traffic light sign as semantic- and visuospatial-categorical information respectively, and tested performance with the divided visual field method. In the semantic-categorical matching task, in which the participants judged if the semantic-categorical information of a successive cue and target was the same, a right visual field advantage was observed, suggesting a LH's preference for processing semantic-categorical information in a non-verbal format. In the visuospatial-categorical matching task, in which the participants judged if the visuospatial-categorical information of a successive cue and target was identical, a left visual field advantage was obtained. These results suggest that the processing of semantic-categorical information is lateralized in LH, and we discuss the dissociation between the two types of categorical information. PMID:23290044

  9. Encoding Sequential Information in Semantic Space Models: Comparing Holographic Reduced Representation and Random Permutation

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Sahlgren, Magnus; Kanerva, Pentti; Jones, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    Circular convolution and random permutation have each been proposed as neurally plausible binding operators capable of encoding sequential information in semantic memory. We perform several controlled comparisons of circular convolution and random permutation as means of encoding paired associates as well as encoding sequential information. Random permutations outperformed convolution with respect to the number of paired associates that can be reliably stored in a single memory trace. Performance was equal on semantic tasks when using a small corpus, but random permutations were ultimately capable of achieving superior performance due to their higher scalability to large corpora. Finally, “noisy” permutations in which units are mapped to other units arbitrarily (no one-to-one mapping) perform nearly as well as true permutations. These findings increase the neurological plausibility of random permutations and highlight their utility in vector space models of semantics. PMID:25954306

  10. The Neural Bases of the Semantic Interference of Spatial Frequency-based Information in Scenes.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, Louise; Bourgin, Jessica; Guyader, Nathalie; Peyrin, Carole

    2015-12-01

    Current models of visual perception suggest that during scene categorization, low spatial frequencies (LSF) are processed rapidly and activate plausible interpretations of visual input. This coarse analysis would then be used to guide subsequent processing of high spatial frequencies (HSF). The present fMRI study examined how processing of LSF may influence that of HSF by investigating the neural bases of the semantic interference effect. We used hybrid scenes as stimuli by combining LSF and HSF from two different scenes, and participants had to categorize the HSF scene. Categorization was impaired when LSF and HSF scenes were semantically dissimilar, suggesting that the LSF scene was processed automatically and interfered with categorization of the HSF scene. fMRI results revealed that this semantic interference effect was associated with increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus, the superior parietal lobules, and the fusiform and parahippocampal gyri. Furthermore, a connectivity analysis (psychophysiological interaction) revealed that the semantic interference effect resulted in increasing connectivity between the right fusiform and the right inferior frontal gyri. Results support influential models suggesting that, during scene categorization, LSF information is processed rapidly in the pFC and activates plausible interpretations of the scene category. These coarse predictions would then initiate top-down influences on recognition-related areas of the inferotemporal cortex, and these could interfere with the categorization of HSF information in case of semantic dissimilarity to LSF. PMID:26244724

  11. Measure the Semantic Similarity of GO Terms Using Aggregate Information Content.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuebo; Li, Lin; Srimani, Pradip K; Yu, Philip S; Wang, James Z

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of gene ontology (GO) and huge amount of biomedical data annotated by GO terms necessitate computation of semantic similarity of GO terms and, in turn, measurement of functional similarity of genes based on their annotations. In this paper we propose a novel and efficient method to measure the semantic similarity of GO terms. The proposed method addresses the limitations in existing GO term similarity measurement techniques; it computes the semantic content of a GO term by considering the information content of all of its ancestor terms in the graph. The aggregate information content (AIC) of all ancestor terms of a GO term implicitly reflects the GO term's location in the GO graph and also represents how human beings use this GO term and all its ancestor terms to annotate genes. We show that semantic similarity of GO terms obtained by our method closely matches the human perception. Extensive experimental studies show that this novel method also outperforms all existing methods in terms of the correlation with gene expression data. We have developed web services for measuring semantic similarity of GO terms and functional similarity of genes using the proposed AIC method and other popular methods. These web services are available at http://bioinformatics.clemson.edu/G-SESAME. PMID:26356015

  12. Extracting directed information flow networks: An application to genetics and semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masucci, A. P.; Kalampokis, A.; Eguíluz, V. M.; Hernández-García, E.

    2011-02-01

    We introduce a general method to infer the directional information flow between populations whose elements are described by n-dimensional vectors of symbolic attributes. The method is based on the Jensen-Shannon divergence and on the Shannon entropy and has a wide range of application. We show here the results of two applications: first we extract the network of genetic flow between meadows of the seagrass Poseidonia oceanica, where the meadow elements are specified by sets of microsatellite markers, and then we extract the semantic flow network from a set of Wikipedia pages, showing the semantic channels between different areas of knowledge.

  13. Visual Statistical Learning Based on the Perceptual and Semantic Information of Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsuka, Sachio; Nishiyama, Megumi; Nakahara, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments examined what is learned based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects in visual statistical learning (VSL). In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a sequence of line drawings and detected repetitions of various objects. In a subsequent test phase, they watched 2 test sequences (statistically related…

  14. WORD STATISTICS IN THE GENERATION OF SEMANTIC TOOLS FOR INFORMATION SYSTEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STONE, DON C.

    ONE OF THE PROBLEMS IN INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS OF TECHNICAL DOCUMENTS IS THE INTERPRETATION OF WORDS USED TO INDEX DOCUMENTS. SEMANTIC TOOLS, DEFINED AS CHANNELS FOR THE COMMUNICATION OF WORD MEANINGS BETWEEN TECHNICAL EXPERTS, DOCUMENT INDEXERS, AND SEARCHERS, PROVIDE ONE METHOD OF DEALING WITH THE PROBLEM OF MULTIPLE…

  15. Semantic Relationships between Cited and Citing Articles in Library and Information Science Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated semantic relationships between citing and cited documents for a sample of document pairs in three journals in library and information science. Highlights include comparisons of Library of Congress classification numbers and subject descriptors; implications for collection development and relevance; and…

  16. Dynamic information processing states revealed through neurocognitive models of object semantics

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Recognising objects relies on highly dynamic, interactive brain networks to process multiple aspects of object information. To fully understand how different forms of information about objects are represented and processed in the brain requires a neurocognitive account of visual object recognition that combines a detailed cognitive model of semantic knowledge with a neurobiological model of visual object processing. Here we ask how specific cognitive factors are instantiated in our mental processes and how they dynamically evolve over time. We suggest that coarse semantic information, based on generic shared semantic knowledge, is rapidly extracted from visual inputs and is sufficient to drive rapid category decisions. Subsequent recurrent neural activity between the anterior temporal lobe and posterior fusiform supports the formation of object-specific semantic representations – a conjunctive process primarily driven by the perirhinal cortex. These object-specific representations require the integration of shared and distinguishing object properties and support the unique recognition of objects. We conclude that a valuable way of understanding the cognitive activity of the brain is though testing the relationship between specific cognitive measures and dynamic neural activity. This kind of approach allows us to move towards uncovering the information processing states of the brain and how they evolve over time. PMID:25745632

  17. Thesaurus-Based Hierarchical Semantic Grouping of Medical Terms in Information Extraction.

    PubMed

    Lassoued, Yassine; Deleris, Léa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe a semantic approach for grouping medical terms into a hierarchy of concepts based on the UMLS meta-thesaurus. The context of this work is Medical Recap, a Web system that automatically extracts risk information from PubMed abstracts, and then aggregates this knowledge into dependence graphs or Bayesian networks. PMID:27577422

  18. Rightward Bisection Errors for Letter Lines: The Role of Semantic Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, C.; Leonards, U.

    2007-01-01

    When bisecting words in their middle, people reveal leftward bisection errors. This tendency might emerge from an attentional bias towards the beginning of the word. However, when longer meaningless letter strings are presented, people reveal a rightward bisection bias. To test the role of semantic information on leftward or rightward bisection…

  19. Dissociative Contributions of Semantic and Lexical-Phonological Information to Immediate Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Ryoji

    2013-01-01

    Several neuropsychological studies have reported that patients with memory deficits exhibit a dissociation of effects attributed to semantic and lexical-phonological information in verbal working memory (e.g., Reilly, Martin, & Grossman, 2005; Romani & Martin, 1999). The present study reports on 3 experiments conducted with individuals without…

  20. Mediator infrastructure for information integration and semantic data integration environment for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Grethe, Jeffrey S; Ross, Edward; Little, David; Sanders, Brian; Gupta, Amarnath; Astakhov, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents current progress in the development of semantic data integration environment which is a part of the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN; http://www.nbirn.net) project. BIRN is sponsored by the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). A goal is the development of a cyberinfrastructure for biomedical research that supports advance data acquisition, data storage, data management, data integration, data mining, data visualization, and other computing and information processing services over the Internet. Each participating institution maintains storage of their experimental or computationally derived data. Mediator-based data integration system performs semantic integration over the databases to enable researchers to perform analyses based on larger and broader datasets than would be available from any single institution's data. This paper describes recent revision of the system architecture, implementation, and capabilities of the semantically based data integration environment for BIRN. PMID:19623485

  1. A novel software architecture for the provision of context-aware semantic transport information.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Asier; Perallos, Asier; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Onieva, Enrique; Salaberria, Itziar; Masegosa, Antonio D

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Intelligent Transportation Systems depends largely on the ability to integrate information from diverse sources and the suitability of this information for the specific user. This paper describes a new approach for the management and exchange of this information, related to multimodal transportation. A novel software architecture is presented, with particular emphasis on the design of the data model and the enablement of services for information retrieval, thereby obtaining a semantic model for the representation of transport information. The publication of transport data as semantic information is established through the development of a Multimodal Transport Ontology (MTO) and the design of a distributed architecture allowing dynamic integration of transport data. The advantages afforded by the proposed system due to the use of Linked Open Data and a distributed architecture are stated, comparing it with other existing solutions. The adequacy of the information generated in regard to the specific user's context is also addressed. Finally, a working solution of a semantic trip planner using actual transport data and running on the proposed architecture is presented, as a demonstration and validation of the system. PMID:26016915

  2. A Novel Software Architecture for the Provision of Context-Aware Semantic Transport Information

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Asier; Perallos, Asier; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Onieva, Enrique; Salaberria, Itziar; Masegosa, Antonio D.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Intelligent Transportation Systems depends largely on the ability to integrate information from diverse sources and the suitability of this information for the specific user. This paper describes a new approach for the management and exchange of this information, related to multimodal transportation. A novel software architecture is presented, with particular emphasis on the design of the data model and the enablement of services for information retrieval, thereby obtaining a semantic model for the representation of transport information. The publication of transport data as semantic information is established through the development of a Multimodal Transport Ontology (MTO) and the design of a distributed architecture allowing dynamic integration of transport data. The advantages afforded by the proposed system due to the use of Linked Open Data and a distributed architecture are stated, comparing it with other existing solutions. The adequacy of the information generated in regard to the specific user’s context is also addressed. Finally, a working solution of a semantic trip planner using actual transport data and running on the proposed architecture is presented, as a demonstration and validation of the system. PMID:26016915

  3. I See What You Mean: Theta Power Increases Are Involved in the Retrieval of Lexical Semantic Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaansen, Marcel C. M.; Oostenveld, Robert; Jensen, Ole; Hagoort, Peter

    2008-01-01

    An influential hypothesis regarding the neural basis of the mental lexicon is that semantic representations are neurally implemented as distributed networks carrying sensory, motor and/or more abstract functional information. This work investigates whether the semantic properties of words partly determine the topography of such networks. Subjects…

  4. Rationale and design considerations for a semantic mediator in health information systems.

    PubMed

    Degoulet, P; Sauquet, D; Jaulent, M C; Zapletal, E; Lavril, M

    1998-11-01

    Rapid development of community health information networks raises the issue of semantic interoperability between distributed and heterogeneous systems. Indeed, operational health information systems originate from heterogeneous teams of independent developers and have to cooperate in order to exchange data and services. A good cooperation is based on a good understanding of the messages exchanged between the systems. The main issue of semantic interoperability is to ensure that the exchange is not only possible but also meaningful. The main objective of this paper is to analyze semantic interoperability from a software engineering point of view. It describes the principles for the design of a semantic mediator (SM) in the framework of a distributed object manager (DOM). The mediator is itself a component that should allow the exchange of messages independently of languages and platforms. The functional architecture of such a SM is detailed. These principles have been partly applied in the context of the HELIOS object-oriented software engineering environment. The resulting service components are presented with their current state of achievement. PMID:9865050

  5. Care episode retrieval: distributional semantic models for information retrieval in the clinical domain

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patients' health related information is stored in electronic health records (EHRs) by health service providers. These records include sequential documentation of care episodes in the form of clinical notes. EHRs are used throughout the health care sector by professionals, administrators and patients, primarily for clinical purposes, but also for secondary purposes such as decision support and research. The vast amounts of information in EHR systems complicate information management and increase the risk of information overload. Therefore, clinicians and researchers need new tools to manage the information stored in the EHRs. A common use case is, given a - possibly unfinished - care episode, to retrieve the most similar care episodes among the records. This paper presents several methods for information retrieval, focusing on care episode retrieval, based on textual similarity, where similarity is measured through domain-specific modelling of the distributional semantics of words. Models include variants of random indexing and the semantic neural network model word2vec. Two novel methods are introduced that utilize the ICD-10 codes attached to care episodes to better induce domain-specificity in the semantic model. We report on experimental evaluation of care episode retrieval that circumvents the lack of human judgements regarding episode relevance. Results suggest that several of the methods proposed outperform a state-of-the art search engine (Lucene) on the retrieval task. PMID:26099735

  6. On-Line Acoustic and Semantic Interpretation of Talker Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Tumlin, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work demonstrates that listeners utilize talker-specific information in the speech signal to inform real-time language processing. However, there are multiple representational levels at which this may take place. Listeners might use acoustic cues in the speech signal to access the talker's identity and information about what they tend to…

  7. Bim-Gis Integrated Geospatial Information Model Using Semantic Web and Rdf Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hor, A.-H.; Jadidi, A.; Sohn, G.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, 3D virtual indoor/outdoor urban modelling becomes a key spatial information framework for many civil and engineering applications such as evacuation planning, emergency and facility management. For accomplishing such sophisticate decision tasks, there is a large demands for building multi-scale and multi-sourced 3D urban models. Currently, Building Information Model (BIM) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are broadly used as the modelling sources. However, data sharing and exchanging information between two modelling domains is still a huge challenge; while the syntactic or semantic approaches do not fully provide exchanging of rich semantic and geometric information of BIM into GIS or vice-versa. This paper proposes a novel approach for integrating BIM and GIS using semantic web technologies and Resources Description Framework (RDF) graphs. The novelty of the proposed solution comes from the benefits of integrating BIM and GIS technologies into one unified model, so-called Integrated Geospatial Information Model (IGIM). The proposed approach consists of three main modules: BIM-RDF and GIS-RDF graphs construction, integrating of two RDF graphs, and query of information through IGIM-RDF graph using SPARQL. The IGIM generates queries from both the BIM and GIS RDF graphs resulting a semantically integrated model with entities representing both BIM classes and GIS feature objects with respect to the target-client application. The linkage between BIM-RDF and GIS-RDF is achieved through SPARQL endpoints and defined by a query using set of datasets and entity classes with complementary properties, relationships and geometries. To validate the proposed approach and its performance, a case study was also tested using IGIM system design.

  8. Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory.

    PubMed

    Loftus, E F; Miller, D G; Burns, H J

    1978-01-01

    A total of 1,242 subjects, in five experiments plus a pilot study, saw a series of slides depicting a single auto-pedestrian accident. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate how information supplied after an event influences a witness's memory for that event. Subjects were exposed to either consistent, misleading, or irrelevant information after the accident event. Misleading information produced less accurate responding on both a yes-no and a two-alternative forced-choice recognition test. Further, misleading information had a larger impact if introduced just prior to a final test rather than immediately after the initial event. The effects of misleading information cannot be accounted for by a simple demand-characteristics explanation. Overall, the results suggest that information to which a witness is exposed after an event, whether that information is consistent or misleading, is integrated into the witness's memory of the event. PMID:621467

  9. Evaluation of Semantic-Based Information Retrieval Methods in the Autism Phenotype Domain

    PubMed Central

    Hassanpour, Saeed; O’Connor, Martin J.; Das, Amar K.

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical ontologies are increasingly being used to improve information retrieval methods. In this paper, we present a novel information retrieval approach that exploits knowledge specified by the Semantic Web ontology and rule languages OWL and SWRL. We evaluate our approach using an autism ontology that has 156 SWRL rules defining 145 autism phenotypes. Our approach uses a vector space model to correlate how well these phenotypes relate to the publications used to define them. We compare a vector space phenotype representation using class hierarchies with one that extends this method to incorporate additional semantics encoded in SWRL rules. From a PubMed-extracted corpus of 75 articles, we show that average rank of a related paper using the class hierarchy method is 4.6 whereas the average rank using the extended rule-based method is 3.3. Our results indicate that incorporating rule-based definitions in information retrieval methods can improve search for relevant publications. PMID:22195112

  10. Evaluation of semantic-based information retrieval methods in the autism phenotype domain.

    PubMed

    Hassanpour, Saeed; O'Connor, Martin J; Das, Amar K

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical ontologies are increasingly being used to improve information retrieval methods. In this paper, we present a novel information retrieval approach that exploits knowledge specified by the Semantic Web ontology and rule languages OWL and SWRL. We evaluate our approach using an autism ontology that has 156 SWRL rules defining 145 autism phenotypes. Our approach uses a vector space model to correlate how well these phenotypes relate to the publications used to define them. We compare a vector space phenotype representation using class hierarchies with one that extends this method to incorporate additional semantics encoded in SWRL rules. From a PubMed-extracted corpus of 75 articles, we show that average rank of a related paper using the class hierarchy method is 4.6 whereas the average rank using the extended rule-based method is 3.3. Our results indicate that incorporating rule-based definitions in information retrieval methods can improve search for relevant publications. PMID:22195112

  11. Does the speaker matter? Online processing of semantic and pragmatic information in L2 speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foucart, Alice; Garcia, Xavier; Ayguasanosa, Meritxell; Thierry, Guillaume; Martin, Clara; Costa, Albert

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated how pragmatic information is integrated during L2 sentence comprehension. We put forward that the differences often observed between L1 and L2 sentence processing may reflect differences on how various types of information are used to process a sentence, and not necessarily differences between native and non-native linguistic systems. Based on the idea that when a cue is missing or distorted, one relies more on other cues available, we hypothesised that late bilinguals favour the cues that they master during sentence processing. To verify this hypothesis we investigated whether late bilinguals take the speaker's identity (inferred by the voice) into account when incrementally processing speech and whether this affects their online interpretation of the sentence. To do so, we adapted Van Berkum, J.J.A., Van den Brink, D., Tesink, C.M.J.Y., Kos, M., Hagoort, P., 2008. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 20(4), 580-591, study in which sentences with either semantic violations or pragmatic inconsistencies were presented. While both the native and the non-native groups showed a similar response to semantic violations (N400), their response to speakers' inconsistencies slightly diverged; late bilinguals showed a positivity much earlier than native speakers (LPP). These results suggest that, like native speakers, late bilinguals process semantic and pragmatic information incrementally; however, what seems to differ between L1 and L2 processing is the time-course of the different processes. We propose that this difference may originate from late bilinguals' sensitivity to pragmatic information and/or their ability to efficiently make use of the information provided by the sentence context to generate expectations in relation to pragmatic information during L2 sentence comprehension. In other words, late bilinguals may rely more on speaker identity than native speakers when they face semantic integration difficulties. PMID:26115602

  12. Semantic Integration of Verbal Information Into a Visual Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    1,242 subjects, in five experiments plus a pilot study, saw a series of slides depicting a single auto-pedestrian accident. These experiments investigate how information supplied after an event influences a witness's memory for that event. Results suggest that information supplied a witness after an event, whether inconsistent or misleading, is…

  13. Semantic Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes semantic mapping, an effective strategy for vocabulary instruction that involves the categorical structuring of information in graphic form and requires students to relate new words to their own experience and prior knowledge. (HOD)

  14. Information Enrichment Using TaToo's Semantic Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimak, Gerald; Rizzoli, Andrea E.; Avellino, Giuseppe; Lobo, Tomas Pariente; Fuentes, José Maria; Athanasiadis, Ioannis N.

    The Internet is growing in a non-coordinated manner, where different groups continuously publish and update information, adopting a variety of standards, according to the specific domain of interest: from agriculture to ecology, from groundwater to climate change. This unconstrained and unregulated growth has proven to be very successful, as more information is made available, even more is being added, in a virtuous cycle of information accrual. At the same time, modern search engines make looking for information rather easy, with their overall performance being more than satisfactory for most users. Yet, searching and discovering information requires a good deal of expertise and pre-existing knowledge. That may not be a problem when a user searches for common assets using a generic-purpose search engine. But what happens when the user is trying to gather scientific information across boundaries (e.g. cross different disciplines, cross environmental domains, etc)? This asks for new approaches, methods and tools to close the discovery gap of information resources satisfying your specific request. This is exactly the challenge the TaToo project is heading to.

  15. Exploiting syntactic and semantics information for chemical-disease relation extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huiwei; Deng, Huijie; Chen, Long; Yang, Yunlong; Jia, Chen; Huang, Degen

    2016-01-01

    Identifying chemical-disease relations (CDR) from biomedical literature could improve chemical safety and toxicity studies. This article proposes a novel syntactic and semantic information exploitation method for CDR extraction. The proposed method consists of a feature-based model, a tree kernel-based model and a neural network model. The feature-based model exploits lexical features, the tree kernel-based model captures syntactic structure features, and the neural network model generates semantic representations. The motivation of our method is to fully utilize the nice properties of the three models to explore diverse information for CDR extraction. Experiments on the BioCreative V CDR dataset show that the three models are all effective for CDR extraction, and their combination could further improve extraction performance.Database URL:http://www.biocreative.org/resources/corpora/biocreative-v-cdr-corpus/. PMID:27081156

  16. Exploiting syntactic and semantics information for chemical–disease relation extraction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huiwei; Deng, Huijie; Chen, Long; Yang, Yunlong; Jia, Chen; Huang, Degen

    2016-01-01

    Identifying chemical–disease relations (CDR) from biomedical literature could improve chemical safety and toxicity studies. This article proposes a novel syntactic and semantic information exploitation method for CDR extraction. The proposed method consists of a feature-based model, a tree kernel-based model and a neural network model. The feature-based model exploits lexical features, the tree kernel-based model captures syntactic structure features, and the neural network model generates semantic representations. The motivation of our method is to fully utilize the nice properties of the three models to explore diverse information for CDR extraction. Experiments on the BioCreative V CDR dataset show that the three models are all effective for CDR extraction, and their combination could further improve extraction performance. Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/corpora/biocreative-v-cdr-corpus/. PMID:27081156

  17. How does the provision of semantic information influence the lexicalization of new spoken words?

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Erin A; Rastle, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    The integration of a novel spoken word with existing lexical items can proceed within 24 hours of learning its phonological form. However, previous studies have reported that lexical integration of new spoken words can be delayed if semantic information is provided during learning. One possibility is that this delay in lexical integration reflects reduced phonological processing during learning as a consequence of the need to learn the semantic associations. In the current study, adult participants learnt novel words via a phoneme monitoring task, in which half of the words were associated with a picture referent, and half were phonological forms only. Critically, participants were instructed to learn the forms of the novel words, with no explicit goal to learn the word-picture mappings. Results revealed significant lexical competition effects emerging one week after consolidation, which were equivalent for the picture-present and form-only conditions. Tests of declarative memory and shadowing showed equivalent performance for picture-present and form-only words, despite participants showing good knowledge of the picture associations immediately after learning. These data support the contention that provided phonological information is recruited sufficiently well during learning, the provision of semantic information does not slow the time-course of lexical integration. PMID:26241013

  18. Use of Semantic Information to Interpret Thematic Information for Real-Time Sentence Comprehension in an SOV Language

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Takahashi, Kei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Recently, sentence comprehension in languages other than European languages has been investigated from a cross-linguistic perspective. In this paper, we examine whether and how animacy-related semantic information is used for real-time sentence comprehension in a SOV word order language (i.e., Japanese). Twenty-three Japanese native speakers participated in this study. They read semantically reversible and non-reversible sentences with canonical word order, and those with scrambled word order. In our results, the second argument position in reversible sentences took longer to read than that in non-reversible sentences, indicating that animacy information is used in second argument processing. In contrast, for the predicate position, there was no difference in reading times, suggesting that animacy information is NOT used in the predicate position. These results are discussed using the sentence comprehension models of an SOV word order language. PMID:23409134

  19. Exploring information from the topology beneath the Gene Ontology terms to improve semantic similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Bo; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2016-07-15

    Measuring the similarity between pairs of biological entities is important in molecular biology. The introduction of Gene Ontology (GO) provides us with a promising approach to quantifying the semantic similarity between two genes or gene products. This kind of similarity measure is closely associated with the GO terms annotated to biological entities under consideration and the structure of the GO graph. However, previous works in this field mainly focused on the upper part of the graph, and seldom concerned about the lower part. In this study, we aim to explore information from the lower part of the GO graph for better semantic similarity. We proposed a framework to quantify the similarity measure beneath a term pair, which takes into account both the information two ancestral terms share and the probability that they co-occur with their common descendants. The effectiveness of our approach was evaluated against seven typical measurements on public platform CESSM, protein-protein interaction and gene expression datasets. Experimental results consistently show that the similarity derived from the lower part contributes to better semantic similarity measure. The promising features of our approach are the following: (1) it provides a mirror model to characterize the information two ancestral terms share with respect to their common descendant; (2) it quantifies the probability that two terms co-occur with their common descendant in an efficient way; and (3) our framework can effectively capture the similarity measure beneath two terms, which can serve as an add-on to improve traditional semantic similarity measure between two GO terms. The algorithm was implemented in Matlab and is freely available from http://ejl.org.cn/bio/GOBeneath/. PMID:27080954

  20. Guidance of visual attention by semantic information in real-world scenes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Chien; Wick, Farahnaz Ahmed; Pomplun, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on attentional guidance in real-world scenes has focused on object recognition within the context of a scene. This approach has been valuable for determining some factors that drive the allocation of visual attention and determine visual selection. This article provides a review of experimental work on how different components of context, especially semantic information, affect attentional deployment. We review work from the areas of object recognition, scene perception, and visual search, highlighting recent studies examining semantic structure in real-world scenes. A better understanding on how humans parse scene representations will not only improve current models of visual attention but also advance next-generation computer vision systems and human-computer interfaces. PMID:24567724

  1. Semantic integration of information about orthologs and diseases: the OGO system.

    PubMed

    Miñarro-Gimenez, Jose Antonio; Egaña Aranguren, Mikel; Martínez Béjar, Rodrigo; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás; Madrid, Marisa

    2011-12-01

    Semantic Web technologies like RDF and OWL are currently applied in life sciences to improve knowledge management by integrating disparate information. Many of the systems that perform such task, however, only offer a SPARQL query interface, which is difficult to use for life scientists. We present the OGO system, which consists of a knowledge base that integrates information of orthologous sequences and genetic diseases, providing an easy to use ontology-constrain driven query interface. Such interface allows the users to define SPARQL queries through a graphical process, therefore not requiring SPARQL expertise. PMID:21864715

  2. Information Model Driven Semantic Framework Architecture and Design for Distributed Data Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P. A.; Semantic eScience Framework Team

    2011-12-01

    In Earth and space science, the steady evolution away from isolated and single purpose data 'systems' toward systems of systems, data ecosystems, or data frameworks that provide access to highly heterogeneous data repositories is picking up in pace. As a result, common informatics approaches are being sought for how newer architectures are developed and/or implemented. In particular, a clear need to have a repeatable method for modeling, implementing and evolving the information architectures has emerged and one that goes beyond traditional software design. This presentation outlines new component design approaches bases in sets of information model and semantic encodings for mediation.

  3. Context-Based Tourism Information Filtering with a Semantic Rule Engine

    PubMed Central

    Lamsfus, Carlos; Martin, David; Alzua-Sorzabal, Aurkene; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Torres-Manzanera, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the CONCERT framework, a push/filter information consumption paradigm, based on a rule-based semantic contextual information system for tourism. CONCERT suggests a specific insight of the notion of context from a human mobility perspective. It focuses on the particular characteristics and requirements of travellers and addresses the drawbacks found in other approaches. Additionally, CONCERT suggests the use of digital broadcasting as push communication technology, whereby tourism information is disseminated to mobile devices. This information is then automatically filtered by a network of ontologies and offered to tourists on the screen. The results obtained in the experiments carried out show evidence that the information disseminated through digital broadcasting can be manipulated by the network of ontologies, providing contextualized information that produces user satisfaction. PMID:22778584

  4. Intelligent Information Fusion in the Aviation Domain: A Semantic-Web based Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen; Goforth, Andre

    2005-01-01

    Information fusion from multiple sources is a critical requirement for System Wide Information Management in the National Airspace (NAS). NASA and the FAA envision creating an "integrated pool" of information originally coming from different sources, which users, intelligent agents and NAS decision support tools can tap into. In this paper we present the results of our initial investigations into the requirements and prototype development of such an integrated information pool for the NAS. We have attempted to ascertain key requirements for such an integrated pool based on a survey of DSS tools that will benefit from this integrated pool. We then advocate key technologies from computer science research areas such as the semantic web, information integration, and intelligent agents that we believe are well suited to achieving the envisioned system wide information management capabilities.

  5. A service-oriented distributed semantic mediator: integrating multiscale biomedical information.

    PubMed

    Mora, Oscar; Engelbrecht, Gerhard; Bisbal, Jesus

    2012-11-01

    Biomedical research continuously generates large amounts of heterogeneous and multimodal data spread over multiple data sources. These data, if appropriately shared and exploited, could dramatically improve the research practice itself, and ultimately the quality of health care delivered. This paper presents DISMED (DIstributed Semantic MEDiator), an open source semantic mediator that provides a unified view of a federated environment of multiscale biomedical data sources. DISMED is a Web-based software application to query and retrieve information distributed over a set of registered data sources, using semantic technologies. It also offers a userfriendly interface specifically designed to simplify the usage of these technologies by non-expert users. Although the architecture of the software mediator is generic and domain independent, in the context of this paper, DISMED has been evaluated for managing biomedical environments and facilitating research with respect to the handling of scientific data distributed in multiple heterogeneous data sources. As part of this contribution, a quantitative evaluation framework has been developed. It consist of a benchmarking scenario and the definition of five realistic use-cases. This framework, created entirely with public datasets, has been used to compare the performance of DISMED against other available mediators. It is also available to the scientific community in order to evaluate progress in the domain of semantic mediation, in a systematic and comparable manner. The results show an average improvement in the execution time by DISMED of 55% compared to the second best alternative in four out of the five use-cases of the experimental evaluation. PMID:22929464

  6. The Semantic Representation of Event Information Depends on the Cue Modality: An Instance of Meaning-Based Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Kristina; Sikström, Sverker; Willander, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The semantic content, or the meaning, is the essence of autobiographical memories. In comparison to previous research, which has mainly focused on the phenomenological experience and the age distribution of retrieved events, the present study provides a novel view on the retrieval of event information by quantifying the information as semantic representations. We investigated the semantic representation of sensory cued autobiographical events and studied the modality hierarchy within the multimodal retrieval cues. The experiment comprised a cued recall task, where the participants were presented with visual, auditory, olfactory or multimodal retrieval cues and asked to recall autobiographical events. The results indicated that the three different unimodal retrieval cues generate significantly different semantic representations. Further, the auditory and the visual modalities contributed the most to the semantic representation of the multimodally retrieved events. Finally, the semantic representation of the multimodal condition could be described as a combination of the three unimodal conditions. In conclusion, these results suggest that the meaning of the retrieved event information depends on the modality of the retrieval cues. PMID:24204561

  7. Extraction of spatio-temporal information of earthquake event based on semantic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hong; Guo, Dan; Li, Huaiyuan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper a web information extraction method is presented which identifies a variety of thematic events utilizing the event knowledge framework derived from text training, and then further uses the syntactic analysis to extract the event key information. The method which combines the text semantic information and domain knowledge of the event makes the extraction of information people interested more accurate. In this paper, web based earthquake news extraction is taken as an example. The paper firstly briefs the overall approaches, and then details the key algorithm and experiments of seismic events extraction. Finally, this paper conducts accuracy analysis and evaluation experiments which demonstrate that the proposed method is a promising way of hot events mining.

  8. Unlocking the Potential of Public Sector Information with Semantic Web Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alani, Harith; Dupplaw, David; Sheridan, John; O'Hara, Kieron; Darlington, John; Shadbolt, Nigel; Tullo, Carol

    Governments often hold very rich data and whilst much of this information is published and available for re-use by others, it is often trapped by poor data structures, locked up in legacy data formats or in fragmented databases. One of the great benefits that Semantic Web (SW) technology offers is facilitating the large scale integration and sharing of distributed data sources. At the heart of information policy in the UK, the Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the part of the UK government charged with enabling the greater re-use of public sector information. This paper describes the actions, findings, and lessons learnt from a pilot study, involving several parts of government and the public sector. The aim was to show to government how they can adopt SW technology for the dissemination, sharing and use of its data.

  9. A Semantic Graph Query Language

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I L

    2006-10-16

    Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

  10. Visual statistical learning based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Sachio; Nishiyama, Megumi; Nakahara, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments examined what is learned based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects in visual statistical learning (VSL). In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a sequence of line drawings and detected repetitions of various objects. In a subsequent test phase, they watched 2 test sequences (statistically related triplets vs. unrelated foils) and decided whether the first or second sequence was more familiar based on the familiarization phase. In Experiment 1A, the test sequences comprised line drawings; in Experiment 1B, they comprised word stimuli representing each line drawing. The results showed that performance for statistically related triplets was greater than chance. In Experiments 2 and 3 containing the forward ABC and backward CBA triplets in the test, the results showed the importance of temporal order, especially in line drawings. In Experiment 4, in which the forward triplets were pitted against the backward triplets, we showed that temporal order is still important for the expression of VSL with word stimuli. Finally, in Experiment 5, we replicated the results of Experiments 2 and 3 even with the images of visual objects. These results suggest the parallel processes on the visual features and semantic information of objects in VSL. PMID:22686848

  11. The relationship between acoustic structure and semantic information in Diana monkey alarm vocalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-08-01

    Mammalian vocal production mechanisms are still poorly understood despite their significance for theories of human speech evolution. Particularly, it is still unclear to what degree mammals are capable of actively controlling vocal-tract filtering, a defining feature of human speech production. To address this issue, a detailed acoustic analysis on the alarm vocalization of free-ranging Diana monkeys was conducted. These vocalizations are especially interesting because they convey semantic information about two of the monkeys' natural predators, the leopard and the crowned eagle. Here, vocal tract and sound source parameter in Diana monkey alarm vocalizations are described. It is found that a vocalization-initial formant downward transition distinguishes most reliably between eagle and leopard alarm vocalization. This finding is discussed as an indication of articulation and alternatively as the result of a strong nasalization effect. It is suggested that the formant modulation is the result of active vocal filtering used by the monkeys to encode semantic information, an ability previously thought to be restricted to human speech.

  12. A Left Cerebral Hemisphere's Superiority in Processing Spatial-Categorical Information in a Non-Verbal Semantic Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suegami, Takashi; Laeng, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that the left and right cerebral hemispheres (LH and RH) respectively process qualitative or "categorical" spatial relations and metric or "coordinate" spatial relations. However, categorical spatial information could be thought as divided into two types: semantically-coded and visuospatially-coded categorical information. We…

  13. HTML5 microdata as a semantic container for medical information exchange.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Eizen; Kobayashi, Shinji; Ishihara, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Achieving interoperability between clinical electronic medical records (EMR) systems and cloud computing systems is challenging because of the lack of a universal reference method as a standard for information exchange with a secure connection. Here we describe an information exchange scheme using HTML5 microdata, where the standard semantic container is an HTML document. We embed HL7 messages describing laboratory test results in the microdata. We also annotate items in the clinical research report with the microdata. We mapped the laboratory test result data into the clinical research report using an HL7 selector specified in the microdata. This scheme can provide secure cooperation between the cloud-based service and the EMR system. PMID:25160218

  14. Application of Semantic Tagging to Generate Superimposed Information on a Digital Encyclopedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Piedad; Tramullas, Jesus; Martinez, Francisco J.

    We can find in the literature several works regarding the automatic or semi-automatic processing of textual documents with historic information using free software technologies. However, more research work is needed to integrate the analysis of the context and provide coverage to the peculiarities of the Spanish language from a semantic point of view. This research work proposes a novel knowledge-based strategy based on combining subject-centric computing, a topic-oriented approach, and superimposed information. It subsequent combination with artificial intelligence techniques led to an automatic analysis after implementing a made-to-measure interpreted algorithm which, in turn, produced a good number of associations and events with 90% reliability.

  15. Semantic information mediates visual attention during spoken word recognition in Chinese: Evidence from the printed-word version of the visual-world paradigm.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Qu, Qingqing; Li, Xingshan

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the activation of semantic information during spoken word recognition can mediate visual attention's deployment to printed Chinese words. We used a visual-world paradigm with printed words, in which participants listened to a spoken target word embedded in a neutral spoken sentence while looking at a visual display of printed words. We examined whether a semantic competitor effect could be observed in the printed-word version of the visual-world paradigm. In Experiment 1, the relationship between the spoken target words and the printed words was manipulated so that they were semantically related (a semantic competitor), phonologically related (a phonological competitor), or unrelated (distractors). We found that the probability of fixations on semantic competitors was significantly higher than that of fixations on the distractors. In Experiment 2, the orthographic similarity between the spoken target words and their semantic competitors was manipulated to further examine whether the semantic competitor effect was modulated by orthographic similarity. We found significant semantic competitor effects regardless of orthographic similarity. Our study not only reveals that semantic information can affect visual attention, it also provides important new insights into the methodology employed to investigate the semantic processing of spoken words during spoken word recognition using the printed-word version of the visual-world paradigm. PMID:26993126

  16. Differential Utilization of Syntactic and Semantic Information by Skilled and Less Skilled Readers in the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Willows, Dale M.

    To assess the extent to which syntactic and semantic information guides the reading performance of skilled and less-skilled readers in the intermediate grades, a study was conducted involving 96 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students. The students were matched both within and across grade level on nonverbal IQ and within each grade level on age.…

  17. Differential Utilization of Syntactic and Semantic Information by Skilled and Less Skilled Readers in the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willows, Dale M.; Ryan, Ellen Bouchard

    1981-01-01

    Matched pairs of skilled and less skilled readers read aloud material in cloze procedure format and printed in geometric transformations. Skilled readers made greater use of grammatical and contextual information. The stability of differences suggests that differential utilization of syntactic and semantic cues contributes to differences in…

  18. Parafoveal processing in silent and oral reading: Reading mode influences the relative weighting of phonological and semantic information in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jinger; Laubrock, Jochen; Yan, Ming

    2016-08-01

    We examined how reading mode (i.e., silent vs. oral reading) influences parafoveal semantic and phonological processing during the reading of Chinese sentences, using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm. In silent reading, we found in 2 experiments that reading times on target words were shortened with semantic previews in early and late processing, whereas phonological preview effects mainly occurred in gaze duration or second-pass reading. In contrast, results showed that phonological preview information is obtained early on in oral reading. Strikingly, in oral reading, we observed a semantic preview cost on the target word in Experiment 1 and a decrease in the effect size of preview benefit from first- to second-pass measures in Experiment 2, which we hypothesize to result from increased preview duration. Taken together, our results indicate that parafoveal semantic information can be obtained irrespective of reading mode, whereas readers more efficiently process parafoveal phonological information in oral reading. We discuss implications for notions of information processing priority and saccade generation during silent and oral reading. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844580

  19. Processing Coordinated Verb Phrases: The Relevance of Lexical-Semantic, Conceptual, and Contextual Information towards Establishing Verbal Parallelism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutunjian, Damon A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the influence of lexical-semantic representations, conceptual similarity, and contextual fit on the processing of coordinated verb phrases. The study integrates information gleaned from current linguistic theory with current psycholinguistic approaches to examining the processing of coordinated verb phrases. It has…

  20. Wikipedia Information Flow Analysis Reveals the Scale-Free Architecture of the Semantic Space

    PubMed Central

    Masucci, Adolfo Paolo; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Eguíluz, Victor Martínez; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we extract the topology of the semantic space in its encyclopedic acception, measuring the semantic flow between the different entries of the largest modern encyclopedia, Wikipedia, and thus creating a directed complex network of semantic flows. Notably at the percolation threshold the semantic space is characterised by scale-free behaviour at different levels of complexity and this relates the semantic space to a wide range of biological, social and linguistics phenomena. In particular we find that the cluster size distribution, representing the size of different semantic areas, is scale-free. Moreover the topology of the resulting semantic space is scale-free in the connectivity distribution and displays small-world properties. However its statistical properties do not allow a classical interpretation via a generative model based on a simple multiplicative process. After giving a detailed description and interpretation of the topological properties of the semantic space, we introduce a stochastic model of content-based network, based on a copy and mutation algorithm and on the Heaps' law, that is able to capture the main statistical properties of the analysed semantic space, including the Zipf's law for the word frequency distribution. PMID:21407801

  1. Wikipedia information flow analysis reveals the scale-free architecture of the semantic space.

    PubMed

    Masucci, Adolfo Paolo; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Eguíluz, Victor Martínez; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we extract the topology of the semantic space in its encyclopedic acception, measuring the semantic flow between the different entries of the largest modern encyclopedia, Wikipedia, and thus creating a directed complex network of semantic flows. Notably at the percolation threshold the semantic space is characterised by scale-free behaviour at different levels of complexity and this relates the semantic space to a wide range of biological, social and linguistics phenomena. In particular we find that the cluster size distribution, representing the size of different semantic areas, is scale-free. Moreover the topology of the resulting semantic space is scale-free in the connectivity distribution and displays small-world properties. However its statistical properties do not allow a classical interpretation via a generative model based on a simple multiplicative process. After giving a detailed description and interpretation of the topological properties of the semantic space, we introduce a stochastic model of content-based network, based on a copy and mutation algorithm and on the Heaps' law, that is able to capture the main statistical properties of the analysed semantic space, including the Zipf's law for the word frequency distribution. PMID:21407801

  2. An adaptive semantic based mediation system for data interoperability among Health Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Khan, Wajahat Ali; Khattak, Asad Masood; Hussain, Maqbool; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Afzal, Muhammad; Nugent, Christopher; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-08-01

    Heterogeneity in the management of the complex medical data, obstructs the attainment of data level interoperability among Health Information Systems (HIS). This diversity is dependent on the compliance of HISs with different healthcare standards. Its solution demands a mediation system for the accurate interpretation of data in different heterogeneous formats for achieving data interoperability. We propose an adaptive AdapteR Interoperability ENgine mediation system called ARIEN, that arbitrates between HISs compliant to different healthcare standards for accurate and seamless information exchange to achieve data interoperability. ARIEN stores the semantic mapping information between different standards in the Mediation Bridge Ontology (MBO) using ontology matching techniques. These mappings are provided by our System for Parallel Heterogeneity (SPHeRe) matching system and Personalized-Detailed Clinical Model (P-DCM) approach to guarantee accuracy of mappings. The realization of the effectiveness of the mappings stored in the MBO is evaluation of the accuracy in transformation process among different standard formats. We evaluated our proposed system with the transformation process of medical records between Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and Virtual Medical Record (vMR) standards. The transformation process achieved over 90 % of accuracy level in conversion process between CDA and vMR standards using pattern oriented approach from the MBO. The proposed mediation system improves the overall communication process between HISs. It provides an accurate and seamless medical information exchange to ensure data interoperability and timely healthcare services to patients. PMID:24964780

  3. The Tug of War between Phonological, Semantic and Shape Information in Language-Mediated Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettig, Falk; McQueen, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Experiments 1 and 2 examined the time-course of retrieval of phonological, visual-shape and semantic knowledge as Dutch participants listened to sentences and looked at displays of four pictures. Given a sentence with "beker," "beaker," for example, the display contained phonological (a beaver, "bever"), shape (a bobbin, "klos"), and semantic (a…

  4. Towards a Collaborative Knowledge Discovery System for Enriching Semantic Information about Risks of Geospatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grira, J.; Bédard, Y.; Roche, S.; Devillers, R.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research is to design and implement a knowledge discovery system that facilitates, using a web 2.0 collaborative approach, the identification of new risks of geospatial data misuse based on a contributed knowledge repository fed by application domain experts. [Context/Motivation] This research is motivated by the irregularity of risk analysis efforts and the poor semantic of the collected information about risks. In the context of risk analysis during geospatial database design, the knowledge about risks of geospatial data misuse is typically held by domain application experts. The collection and record of that knowledge are usually considered as optional activities. It is usually performed through face-to-face risk assessment meetings and reports. Such techniques end up by restricting the scope of risk analysis to a set of obvious risks usually already identified. Besides, little consideration is devoted to the storage of risk information in an appropriate format for automatic reasoning and new risk information discovery. As a consequence, many foreseeable risky aspects inherent to the data remain overlooked leading to ill-defined specification and faulty decisions. [Principal ideas/results] In this paper, we present a contributed knowledge discovery system that aims at enriching the semantic information about risks of geospatial data misuse in order to identify foreseeable risks. The proposed web-based system relies on a systematic and more active involvement of users in risk analysis. The approach consists of 1) providing an overview of the related work in the domains of risk analysis within the context of geospatial database design, 2) presenting an ontology-based knowledge discovery system that helps experts in risks identification based on an upper-level risk ontology and on a structured representation of the domain-specific knowledge and, 3) presenting the components of the proposed system architecture and how it may be implemented and used

  5. Detailed Clinical Models: Representing Knowledge, Data and Semantics in Healthcare Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper will present an overview of the developmental effort in harmonizing clinical knowledge modeling using the Detailed Clinical Models (DCMs), and will explain how it can contribute to the preservation of Electronic Health Records (EHR) data. Methods Clinical knowledge modeling is vital for the management and preservation of EHR and data. Such modeling provides common data elements and terminology binding with the intention of capturing and managing clinical information over time and location independent from technology. Any EHR data exchange without an agreed clinical knowledge modeling will potentially result in loss of information. Results Many attempts exist from the past to model clinical knowledge for the benefits of semantic interoperability using standardized data representation and common terminologies. The objective of each project is similar with respect to consistent representation of clinical data, using standardized terminologies, and an overall logical approach. However, the conceptual, logical, and the technical expressions are quite different in one clinical knowledge modeling approach versus another. There currently are synergies under the Clinical Information Modeling Initiative (CIMI) in order to create a harmonized reference model for clinical knowledge models. Conclusions The goal for the CIMI is to create a reference model and formalisms based on for instance the DCM (ISO/TS 13972), among other work. A global repository of DCMs may potentially be established in the future. PMID:25152829

  6. A Contextual Information Acquisition Approach Based on Semantics and Mashup Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yangfan; Li, Lu; He, Keqing; Chen, Xiuhong

    Pay per use is an essential feature of cloud computing. Users can make use of some parts of a large scale service to satisfy their requirements, merely at the cost of a little payment. A good understanding of the users' requirement is a prerequisite for choosing the service in need precisely. Context implies users' potential requirements, which can be a complement to the requirements delivered explicitly. However, traditional context-aware computing research always demands some specific kinds of sensors to acquire contextual information, which renders a threshold too high for an application to become context-aware. This paper comes up with an approach which combines contextual information obtained directly and indirectly from the cloud services. Semantic relationship between different kinds of contexts lays foundation for the searching of the cloud services. And mashup technology is adopted to compose the heterogonous services. Abundant contextual information may lend strong support to a comprehensive understanding of users' context and a bettered abstraction of contextual requirements.

  7. Identifying adverse drug event information in clinical notes with distributional semantic representations of context.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Aron; Kvist, Maria; Dalianis, Hercules; Duneld, Martin

    2015-10-01

    For the purpose of post-marketing drug safety surveillance, which has traditionally relied on the voluntary reporting of individual cases of adverse drug events (ADEs), other sources of information are now being explored, including electronic health records (EHRs), which give us access to enormous amounts of longitudinal observations of the treatment of patients and their drug use. Adverse drug events, which can be encoded in EHRs with certain diagnosis codes, are, however, heavily underreported. It is therefore important to develop capabilities to process, by means of computational methods, the more unstructured EHR data in the form of clinical notes, where clinicians may describe and reason around suspected ADEs. In this study, we report on the creation of an annotated corpus of Swedish health records for the purpose of learning to identify information pertaining to ADEs present in clinical notes. To this end, three key tasks are tackled: recognizing relevant named entities (disorders, symptoms, drugs), labeling attributes of the recognized entities (negation, speculation, temporality), and relationships between them (indication, adverse drug event). For each of the three tasks, leveraging models of distributional semantics - i.e., unsupervised methods that exploit co-occurrence information to model, typically in vector space, the meaning of words - and, in particular, combinations of such models, is shown to improve the predictive performance. The ability to make use of such unsupervised methods is critical when faced with large amounts of sparse and high-dimensional data, especially in domains where annotated resources are scarce. PMID:26291578

  8. Reporting Device Observations for semantic interoperability of surgical devices and clinical information systems.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Björn; Ulrich, Hannes; Rehmann, Daniel; Kock, Ann-Kristin; Wrage, Jan-Hinrich; Ingenerf, Josef

    2015-08-01

    Service-oriented medical device architectures make the progress from interdisciplinary research projects to international standardisation: A new set of IEEE 11073 proposals shall pave the way to industry acceptance. This expected availability of device observations in a standardised representation enables secondary usage if interoperability with clinical information systems can be achieved. The Device Observation Reporter (DOR) described in this work is a gateway that connects these realms. After a user chooses a selection of signals from different devices in the digital operating room, the DOR records these semantically described values for a specified duration. Upon completion, the signals descriptions and values are transformed to Health Level Seven version 2 messages and sent to a hospital information system/electronic health record system within the clinical IT network. The successful integration of device data for documentation and usage in clinical information systems can further leverage the novel device communication standard proposals. Complementing these, an Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise profile will aid commercial implementers in achieving interoperability. Their solutions could incorporate clinical knowledge to autonomously select signal combinations and generate reports of diagnostic and interventional procedures, thus saving time and effort for surgical documentation. PMID:26736610

  9. Semantic Processing to Identify Adverse Drug Event Information from Black Box Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Culbertson, Adam; Fiszman, Marcelo; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Adverse drug events account for two million combined injuries, hospitalizations, or deaths each year. Furthermore, there are few comprehensive, up-to-date, and free sources of drug information. Clinical decision support systems may significantly mitigate the number of adverse drug events. However, these systems depend on up-to-date, comprehensive, and codified data to serve as input. The DailyMed website, a resource managed by the FDA and NLM, contains all currently approved drugs. We used a semantic natural language processing approach that successfully extracted information for adverse drug events, at-risk conditions, and susceptible populations from black box warning labels on this site. The precision, recall, and F-score were, 94%, 52%, 0.67 for adverse drug events; 80%, 53%, and 0.64 for conditions; and 95%, 44%, 0.61 for populations. Overall performance was 90% precision, 51% recall, and 0.65 F-Score. Information extracted can be stored in a structured format and may support clinical decision support systems. PMID:25954348

  10. Using semantic information for processing negation and disjunction in logic programs

    SciTech Connect

    Gaasterland, T. ); Lobo, J. )

    1993-01-01

    There are many applications in which integrity constraints can play an important role. An example is the semantic query optimization method developed by Chakravarthy, Grant, and Minker for definite deductive databases. They use integrity constraints during query processing to prevent the exploration of search space that is bound to fail. In this paper, the authors generalize the semantic query optimization method to apply to negated atoms. The generalized method is referred to as semantic compilation. They show that semantic compilation provides an alternative search space for negative query literals. They also show how semantic compilation can be used to transform a disjunctive database with or without functions and denial constraints without negation into a new disjunctive database that complies with the integrity constraints.

  11. Using semantic information for processing negation and disjunction in logic programs

    SciTech Connect

    Gaasterland, T.; Lobo, J.

    1993-07-01

    There are many applications in which integrity constraints can play an important role. An example is the semantic query optimization method developed by Chakravarthy, Grant, and Minker for definite deductive databases. They use integrity constraints during query processing to prevent the exploration of search space that is bound to fail. In this paper, the authors generalize the semantic query optimization method to apply to negated atoms. The generalized method is referred to as semantic compilation. They show that semantic compilation provides an alternative search space for negative query literals. They also show how semantic compilation can be used to transform a disjunctive database with or without functions and denial constraints without negation into a new disjunctive database that complies with the integrity constraints.

  12. Semantically Interoperable XML Data.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-09-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  13. Semantically Interoperable XML Data

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  14. The Chemical Information Ontology: Provenance and Disambiguation for Chemical Data on the Biological Semantic Web

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Janna; Chepelev, Leonid; Willighagen, Egon; Adams, Nico; Steinbeck, Christoph; Dumontier, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cheminformatics is the application of informatics techniques to solve chemical problems in silico. There are many areas in biology where cheminformatics plays an important role in computational research, including metabolism, proteomics, and systems biology. One critical aspect in the application of cheminformatics in these fields is the accurate exchange of data, which is increasingly accomplished through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are formal representations of objects and their properties using a logic-based ontology language. Many such ontologies are currently being developed to represent objects across all the domains of science. Ontologies enable the definition, classification, and support for querying objects in a particular domain, enabling intelligent computer applications to be built which support the work of scientists both within the domain of interest and across interrelated neighbouring domains. Modern chemical research relies on computational techniques to filter and organise data to maximise research productivity. The objects which are manipulated in these algorithms and procedures, as well as the algorithms and procedures themselves, enjoy a kind of virtual life within computers. We will call these information entities. Here, we describe our work in developing an ontology of chemical information entities, with a primary focus on data-driven research and the integration of calculated properties (descriptors) of chemical entities within a semantic web context. Our ontology distinguishes algorithmic, or procedural information from declarative, or factual information, and renders of particular importance the annotation of provenance to calculated data. The Chemical Information Ontology is being developed as an open collaborative project. More details, together with a downloadable OWL file, are available at http://code.google.com/p/semanticchemistry/ (license: CC-BY-SA). PMID:21991315

  15. Semantic World Modelling and Data Management in a 4d Forest Simulation and Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roßmann, J.; Hoppen, M.; Bücken, A.

    2013-08-01

    Various types of 3D simulation applications benefit from realistic forest models. They range from flight simulators for entertainment to harvester simulators for training and tree growth simulations for research and planning. Our 4D forest simulation and information system integrates the necessary methods for data extraction, modelling and management. Using modern methods of semantic world modelling, tree data can efficiently be extracted from remote sensing data. The derived forest models contain position, height, crown volume, type and diameter of each tree. This data is modelled using GML-based data models to assure compatibility and exchangeability. A flexible approach for database synchronization is used to manage the data and provide caching, persistence, a central communication hub for change distribution, and a versioning mechanism. Combining various simulation techniques and data versioning, the 4D forest simulation and information system can provide applications with "both directions" of the fourth dimension. Our paper outlines the current state, new developments, and integration of tree extraction, data modelling, and data management. It also shows several applications realized with the system.

  16. Memory for the perceptual and semantic attributes of information in pure amnesic and severe closed-head injured patients.

    PubMed

    Carlesimo, Giovanni A; Bonanni, Rita; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2003-05-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that brain damaged patients with memory disorder are poorer at remembering the semantic than the perceptual attributes of information. Eight patients with memory impairment of different etiology and 24 patients with chronic consequences of severe closed-head injury were compared to similarly sized age- and literacy-matched normal control groups on recognition tests for the physical aspect and the semantic identity of words and pictures lists. In order to avoid interpretative problems deriving from different absolute levels of performance, study conditions were manipulated across subjects to obtain comparable accuracy on the perceptual recognition tests in the memory disordered and control groups. The results of the Picture Recognition test were consistent with the hypothesis. Indeed, having more time for the stimulus encoding, the two memory disordered groups performed at the same level as the normal subjects on the perceptual test but significantly lower on the semantic test. Instead, on the Word Recognition test, following study condition manipulation, patients and controls performed similarly on both the perceptual and the semantic tests. These data only partially support the hypothesis of the study; rather they suggest that in memory disordered patients there is a reduction of the advantage, exhibited by normal controls, of retrieving pictures over words (picture superiority effect). PMID:12916652

  17. Methods and apparatus for multi-resolution replication of files in a parallel computing system using semantic information

    DOEpatents

    Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M.; Tzelnic, Percy; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron

    2015-10-20

    Techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system using different resolutions. A method is provided for storing at least one file generated by a distributed application in a parallel computing system. The file comprises one or more of a complete file and a sub-file. The method comprises the steps of obtaining semantic information related to the file; generating a plurality of replicas of the file with different resolutions based on the semantic information; and storing the file and the plurality of replicas of the file in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system. The different resolutions comprise, for example, a variable number of bits and/or a different sub-set of data elements from the file. A plurality of the sub-files can be merged to reproduce the file.

  18. Local-Based Semantic Navigation on a Networked Representation of Information

    PubMed Central

    Capitán, José A.; Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Gómez, Sergio; Martinez-Romo, Juan; Araujo, Lourdes; Cuesta, José A.; Arenas, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The size and complexity of actual networked systems hinders the access to a global knowledge of their structure. This fact pushes the problem of navigation to suboptimal solutions, one of them being the extraction of a coherent map of the topology on which navigation takes place. In this paper, we present a Markov chain based algorithm to tag networked terms according only to their topological features. The resulting tagging is used to compute similarity between terms, providing a map of the networked information. This map supports local-based navigation techniques driven by similarity. We compare the efficiency of the resulting paths according to their length compared to that of the shortest path. Additionally we claim that the path steps towards the destination are semantically coherent. To illustrate the algorithm performance we provide some results from the Simple English Wikipedia, which amounts to several thousand of pages. The simplest greedy strategy yields over an 80% of average success rate. Furthermore, the resulting content-coherent paths most often have a cost between one- and threefold compared to shortest-path lengths. PMID:22937081

  19. Semantic Specification of Data Type Information in the Deep Carbon Observatory Data Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Erickson, J. S.; West, P.; Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    The global open data initiative is incubating a social-technical system that promotes both the culture and the practice of open data. Within such a system, data are going to be shared and reused across various boundaries, both physically and conceptually. Among the various metadata elements available for describing the shared data, data type information can provide clues for both users and machines on how to parse and use the data. Data types are often treated only as syntax of variables, such as integer, float, Boolean, character, and string, etc. Such declaration does not offer any domain specific meaning to the data types. Our intention is to let a data type include more meanings, such as who create the data type, the source standard that the data type derives from, the operations that can be done on datasets of that data type, and typical scientific domains, software programs and/or instruments that use the data type. We deployed semantic technologies to address this issue, and initial results have already been achieved in the Deep Carbon Observatory Data Portal.

  20. Impaired information processing triggers altered states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, M

    2002-04-01

    Schizophrenia, intoxication with tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-THC), and cannabis psychosis induce characteristic time and space distortions suggesting a common psychotic dysfunction. Since genetic research into schizophrenia has led into disappointing dead ends, the present study is focusing on this phenotype. It is shown that information theory can account for the dynamical basis of higher sensorimotor information processing and consciousness under physiologic as well as pathologic conditions. If Kolmogorov entropy (inherent in the processing of action and time) breaks down in acute psychosis, it is predicted that Shannon entropy (inherent in the processing of higher dimensional perception) will increase, provoking positive symptoms and altered states of consciousness. In the search for candidate genes and the protection of vulnerable individuals from cannabis abuse, non-linear EEG analysis of Kolmogorov information could thus present us with a novel diagnostic tool to directly assess the breakdown of information processing in schizophrenia. PMID:12027532

  1. From ontology selection and semantic web to an integrated information system for food-borne diseases and food safety.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xianghe; Peng, Yun; Meng, Jianghong; Ruzante, Juliana; Fratamico, Pina M; Huang, Lihan; Juneja, Vijay; Needleman, David S

    2011-01-01

    Several factors have hindered effective use of information and resources related to food safety due to inconsistency among semantically heterogeneous data resources, lack of knowledge on profiling of food-borne pathogens, and knowledge gaps among research communities, government risk assessors/managers, and end-users of the information. This paper discusses technical aspects in the establishment of a comprehensive food safety information system consisting of the following steps: (a) computational collection and compiling publicly available information, including published pathogen genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data; (b) development of ontology libraries on food-borne pathogens and design automatic algorithms with formal inference and fuzzy and probabilistic reasoning to address the consistency and accuracy of distributed information resources (e.g., PulseNet, FoodNet, OutbreakNet, PubMed, NCBI, EMBL, and other online genetic databases and information); (c) integration of collected pathogen profiling data, Foodrisk.org ( http://www.foodrisk.org ), PMP, Combase, and other relevant information into a user-friendly, searchable, "homogeneous" information system available to scientists in academia, the food industry, and government agencies; and (d) development of a computational model in semantic web for greater adaptability and robustness. PMID:21431616

  2. Occipital cortical thickness in very low birth weight born adolescents predicts altered neural specialization of visual semantic category related neural networks.

    PubMed

    Klaver, Peter; Latal, Beatrice; Martin, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) premature born infants have a high risk to develop visual perceptual and learning deficits as well as widespread functional and structural brain abnormalities during infancy and childhood. Whether and how prematurity alters neural specialization within visual neural networks is still unknown. We used functional and structural brain imaging to examine the visual semantic system of VLBW born (<1250 g, gestational age 25-32 weeks) adolescents (13-15 years, n = 11, 3 males) and matched term born control participants (13-15 years, n = 11, 3 males). Neurocognitive assessment revealed no group differences except for lower scores on an adaptive visuomotor integration test. All adolescents were scanned while viewing pictures of animals and tools and scrambled versions of these pictures. Both groups demonstrated animal and tool category related neural networks. Term born adolescents showed tool category related neural activity, i.e. tool pictures elicited more activity than animal pictures, in temporal and parietal brain areas. Animal category related activity was found in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortex. VLBW born adolescents showed reduced tool category related activity in the dorsal visual stream compared with controls, specifically the left anterior intraparietal sulcus, and enhanced animal category related activity in the left middle occipital gyrus and right lingual gyrus. Lower birth weight of VLBW adolescents correlated with larger thickness of the pericalcarine gyrus in the occipital cortex and smaller surface area of the superior temporal gyrus in the lateral temporal cortex. Moreover, larger thickness of the pericalcarine gyrus and smaller surface area of the superior temporal gyrus correlated with reduced tool category related activity in the parietal cortex. Together, our data suggest that very low birth weight predicts alterations of higher order visual semantic networks, particularly in the dorsal stream. The differences

  3. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th. PMID:21388570

  4. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences? We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th. PMID:21388570

  5. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  6. The Information Resources in Arcetri Astrophysics Observatory: Between Metadata and Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglioni, Roberto; Gasperini, Antonella

    It is becoming apparent that libraries are going to play a key role in the new W3C's (World Wide Web Consortium) paradigm for the semantic web. For this reason, the Arcetri library is investigating methods for publishing different kinds of electronic documents on the net and a way of enriching them with semantic metadata. For the first phase, we are focusing on the library catalogue; and, in a second phase, we will consider bibliographies, preprints, technical reports, web pages, archives of astronomical data, and photographic and historical archives.

  7. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  8. Association with emotional information alters subsequent processing of neutral faces

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Lily; Fujioka, Takako; Chan, Jessica; McQuiggan, Douglas A.; Anderson, Adam K.; Ryan, Jennifer D.

    2014-01-01

    The processing of emotional as compared to neutral information is associated with different patterns in eye movement and neural activity. However, the ‘emotionality’ of a stimulus can be conveyed not only by its physical properties, but also by the information that is presented with it. There is very limited work examining the how emotional information may influence the immediate perceptual processing of otherwise neutral information. We examined how presenting an emotion label for a neutral face may influence subsequent processing by using eye movement monitoring (EMM) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) simultaneously. Participants viewed a series of faces with neutral expressions. Each face was followed by a unique negative or neutral sentence to describe that person, and then the same face was presented in isolation again. Viewing of faces paired with a negative sentence was associated with increased early viewing of the eye region and increased neural activity between 600 and 1200 ms in emotion processing regions such as the cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex, and amygdala, as well as posterior regions such as the precuneus and occipital cortex. Viewing of faces paired with a neutral sentence was associated with increased activity in the parahippocampal gyrus during the same time window. By monitoring behavior and neural activity within the same paradigm, these findings demonstrate that emotional information alters subsequent visual scanning and the neural systems that are presumably invoked to maintain a representation of the neutral information along with its emotional details. PMID:25566024

  9. The Roles of Semantic and Phonological Information in Word Production: Evidence from Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennison, Shelia M.; Fernandez, Elaine C.; Bowers, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    The research investigated the roles of semantic and phonological processing in word production. Spanish-English bilingual individuals produced English target words when cued with definitions that were also written in English. When the correct word was not produced, a secondary task was performed in which participants rated the ease of…

  10. Stereotype Priming in Face Recognition: Interactions between Semantic and Visual Information in Face Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Peter J.; Lewis, Michael B.; Honey, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    The accuracy with which previously unfamiliar faces are recognised is increased by the presentation of a stereotype-congruent occupation label [Klatzky, R. L., Martin, G. L., & Kane, R. A. (1982a). "Semantic interpretation effects on memory for faces." "Memory & Cognition," 10, 195-206; Klatzky, R. L., Martin, G. L., & Kane, R. A. (1982b).…

  11. Semantic Elaboration through Integration: Hints Both Facilitate and Inform the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Varga, Nicole L.; King, Jessica E.; Nolen, Ayla M.; White, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic knowledge can be extended in a variety of ways, including self-generation of new facts through integration of separate yet related episodes. We sought to promote integration and self-generation by providing "hints" to help 6-year-olds (Experiment 1) and 4-year-olds (Experiment 2) see the relevance of separate episodes to one…

  12. Genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease alters the five-year trajectory of semantic memory activation in cognitively intact elders.

    PubMed

    Rao, Stephen M; Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Nielson, Kristy A; Seidenberg, Michael; Smith, J Carson; Woodard, John L; Durgerian, Sally

    2015-05-01

    Healthy aging is associated with cognitive declines typically accompanied by increased task-related brain activity in comparison to younger counterparts. The Scaffolding Theory of Aging and Cognition (STAC) (Park and Reuter-Lorenz, 2009; Reuter-Lorenz and Park, 2014) posits that compensatory brain processes are responsible for maintaining normal cognitive performance in older adults, despite accumulation of aging-related neural damage. Cross-sectional studies indicate that cognitively intact elders at genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) demonstrate patterns of increased brain activity compared to low risk elders, suggesting that compensation represents an early response to AD-associated pathology. Whether this compensatory response persists or declines with the onset of cognitive impairment can only be addressed using a longitudinal design. The current prospective, 5-year longitudinal study examined brain activation in APOE ε4 carriers (N=24) and non-carriers (N=21). All participants, ages 65-85 and cognitively intact at study entry, underwent task-activated fMRI, structural MRI, and neuropsychological assessments at baseline, 18, and 57 months. fMRI activation was measured in response to a semantic memory task requiring participants to discriminate famous from non-famous names. Results indicated that the trajectory of change in brain activation while performing this semantic memory task differed between APOE ε4 carriers and non-carriers. The APOE ε4 group exhibited greater activation than the Low Risk group at baseline, but they subsequently showed a progressive decline in activation during the follow-up periods with corresponding emergence of episodic memory loss and hippocampal atrophy. In contrast, the non-carriers demonstrated a gradual increase in activation over the 5-year period. Our results are consistent with the STAC model by demonstrating that compensation varies with the severity of underlying neural damage and can be exhausted with the onset

  13. Developing A Web-based User Interface for Semantic Information Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Keller, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    While there are now a number of languages and frameworks that enable computer-based systems to search stored data semantically, the optimal design for effective user interfaces for such systems is still uncle ar. Such interfaces should mask unnecessary query detail from users, yet still allow them to build queries of arbitrary complexity without significant restrictions. We developed a user interface supporting s emantic query generation for Semanticorganizer, a tool used by scient ists and engineers at NASA to construct networks of knowledge and dat a. Through this interface users can select node types, node attribute s and node links to build ad-hoc semantic queries for searching the S emanticOrganizer network.

  14. Right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is engaged during post-retrieval processing of both episodic and semantic information.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Hiroki R; Rugg, Michael D

    2009-10-01

    Post-retrieval processes are engaged when the outcome of a retrieval attempt must be monitored or evaluated. Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as playing a role in post-retrieval processing. The present study used fMRI to investigate whether retrieval-related neural activity in DLPFC is associated specifically with monitoring the episodic content of a retrieval attempt. During study, subjects were cued to make one of two semantic judgments on serially presented pictures. One study phase was followed by a source memory task, in which subjects responded 'new' to unstudied pictures, and signaled the semantic judgment made on each studied picture. A separate study phase was followed by a task in which the studied items were subjected to a judgment about their semantic attributes. Both tasks required that retrieved information be evaluated prior to response selection, but only the source memory task required evaluation of retrieved episodic information. In both tasks, activity in a common region of right DLPFC was greater for studied than for unstudied items, and the magnitude of this effect did not differ between the tasks. Together with the results of a parallel event-related potential study [Hayama, H. R., Johnson, J. D., & Rugg, M. D. (2008). The relationship between the right frontal old/new ERP effect and post-retrieval monitoring: Specific or non-specific? Neuropsychologia, 46(5), 1211-1223, doi:S0028-3932(07)00390-9], the present findings indicate that putative right DLPFC correlates of post-retrieval processing are not associated exclusively with monitoring or evaluating episodic content. Rather, the effects likely reflect processing associated with monitoring or decision-making in multiple cognitive domains. PMID:19383503

  15. Biomedical text summarization to support genetic database curation: using Semantic MEDLINE to create a secondary database of genetic information

    PubMed Central

    Fiszman, Marcelo; Hurdle, John F; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines the development and evaluation of an automatic summarization system in the domain of molecular genetics. The system is a potential component of an advanced biomedical information management application called Semantic MEDLINE and could assist librarians in developing secondary databases of genetic information extracted from the primary literature. Methods: An existing summarization system was modified for identifying biomedical text relevant to the genetic etiology of disease. The summarization system was evaluated on the task of identifying data describing genes associated with bladder cancer in MEDLINE citations. A gold standard was produced using records from Genetics Home Reference and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Genes in text found by the system were compared to the gold standard. Recall, precision, and F-measure were calculated. Results: The system achieved recall of 46%, and precision of 88% (F-measure = 0.61) by taking Gene References into Function (GeneRIFs) into account. Conclusion: The new summarization schema for genetic etiology has potential as a component in Semantic MEDLINE to support the work of data curators. PMID:20936065

  16. GeoIRIS: Geospatial Information Retrieval and Indexing System—Content Mining, Semantics Modeling, and Complex Queries

    PubMed Central

    Shyu, Chi-Ren; Klaric, Matt; Scott, Grant J.; Barb, Adrian S.; Davis, Curt H.; Palaniappan, Kannappan

    2007-01-01

    Searching for relevant knowledge across heterogeneous geospatial databases requires an extensive knowledge of the semantic meaning of images, a keen eye for visual patterns, and efficient strategies for collecting and analyzing data with minimal human intervention. In this paper, we present our recently developed content-based multimodal Geospatial Information Retrieval and Indexing System (GeoIRIS) which includes automatic feature extraction, visual content mining from large-scale image databases, and high-dimensional database indexing for fast retrieval. Using these underpinnings, we have developed techniques for complex queries that merge information from heterogeneous geospatial databases, retrievals of objects based on shape and visual characteristics, analysis of multiobject relationships for the retrieval of objects in specific spatial configurations, and semantic models to link low-level image features with high-level visual descriptors. GeoIRIS brings this diverse set of technologies together into a coherent system with an aim of allowing image analysts to more rapidly identify relevant imagery. GeoIRIS is able to answer analysts’ questions in seconds, such as “given a query image, show me database satellite images that have similar objects and spatial relationship that are within a certain radius of a landmark.” PMID:18270555

  17. Neuro-Semantics and Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stewart W.

    1987-01-01

    Draws distinctions between the terms semantics (dealing with such verbal parameters as dictionaries and "laws" of logic and rhetoric), general semantics (semantics, plus the complex, dynamic, organismal properties of human beings and their physical environment), and neurosemantics (names for relations-based input from the neurosensory system, and…

  18. The Influence of Information Structure on the Depth of Semantic Processing: How Focus and Pitch Accent Determine the Size of the N400 Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang; Hagoort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To highlight relevant information in dialogues, both wh-question context and pitch accent in answers can be used, such that focused information gains more attention and is processed more elaborately. To evaluate the relative influence of context and pitch accent on the depth of semantic processing, we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) to…

  19. Exploiting Recurring Structure in a Semantic Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing popularity of the Semantic Web, an increasing amount of information is becoming available in machine interpretable, semantically structured networks. Within these semantic networks are recurring structures that could be mined by existing or novel knowledge discovery methods. The mining of these semantic structures represents an interesting area that focuses on mining both for and from the Semantic Web, with surprising applicability to problems confronting the developers of Semantic Web applications. In this paper, we present representative examples of recurring structures and show how these structures could be used to increase the utility of a semantic repository deployed at NASA.

  20. Semantic Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya

  1. MedCIRCLE - Collaboration for Internet Rating, Certification, Labeling and Evaluation of Health Information on the Semantic World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    Eysenbach, G.; Köhler, Ch.; Roth-Berghofer, T.; Mayer, M.A.; Fiene, M.; Darmoni, S.

    2002-01-01

    MedCIRCLE (www.medcircle.info) is a semantic web project to develop and promote technologies able to guide consumers to trustworthy health information on the Internet and to establish a global web of trust for networked health information. Gateway sites for consumer health information (CisMEF, AQUMED, Certified Medical Web Site Seal of METGES online) will use HIDDEL metadata (Health Information Disclosure, Description and Evaluation Language, expressed in XML/RDF Syntax) to make their annotation and evaluation data machine-processable and accessible for software-agents. Other health subject gateways, accreditation, or rating services are invited to join the collaboration by implementing HIDDEL on their gateways. Expressing self-descriptive or third-party evaluations a machine-processable format allows intelligent agents or client-side software to harvest statements and opinions about the trustworthiness of other websites and assist users in selecting trustworthy websites. The MedCIRCLE project builds on, expands and continues work on rating health information on the Internet piloted within the MedCERTAIN project. While MedCERTAIN provided the core technologies and software for rating and “trustmarking” health information, MedCIRCLE is built around these technologies and involves a wider medical community to assess health information, demonstrating the power of collaborative and interoperable evaluations on the world-wide-web. Other specific aims include refinement and expansion of HIDDEL, to become a standard vocabulary and interchange format for self- and third-party ratings of health information.

  2. Activation of shape and semantic information during ambiguous homophone processing: eye tracking evidence from Hindi.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Siddharth

    2014-11-01

    In two visual world eye tracking studies, we examined the activation of subordinate meanings of ambiguous homophones in Hindi and particularly when the sentence context is biased towards the dominant meaning. Participants listened to sentences that were either neutral or biased towards the dominant meaning of the homophone and saw a display containing four pictures. In experiment 1, the display had a shape competitor of the subordinate meaning of the homophone in both neutral and biased conditions along with three unrelated distractors. Experiment 2 had semantic competitors of the subordinate meaning of the homophones along with three distractors. Proportion of fixations to different objects overtime suggested that participants activated the subordinate meanings and oriented their attention to the shape and semantic competitors even when the prior context was biased towards the dominant meaning. Overall, these data from Hindi provide further support to those models of lexical access that assume exhaustive access of both the meanings of an ambiguous homophone. These data suggest even a dominant bias does not eliminate the activation of perceptual and conceptual features of the subordinate meaning. PMID:25015722

  3. BioTCM-SE: a semantic search engine for the information retrieval of modern biology and traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Huajun; Bi, Xuan; Gu, Peiqin; Chen, Jiaoyan; Wu, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the functional mechanisms of the complex biological system as a whole is drawing more and more attention in global health care management. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), essentially different from Western Medicine (WM), is gaining increasing attention due to its emphasis on individual wellness and natural herbal medicine, which satisfies the goal of integrative medicine. However, with the explosive growth of biomedical data on the Web, biomedical researchers are now confronted with the problem of large-scale data analysis and data query. Besides that, biomedical data also has a wide coverage which usually comes from multiple heterogeneous data sources and has different taxonomies, making it hard to integrate and query the big biomedical data. Embedded with domain knowledge from different disciplines all regarding human biological systems, the heterogeneous data repositories are implicitly connected by human expert knowledge. Traditional search engines cannot provide accurate and comprehensive search results for the semantically associated knowledge since they only support keywords-based searches. In this paper, we present BioTCM-SE, a semantic search engine for the information retrieval of modern biology and TCM, which provides biologists with a comprehensive and accurate associated knowledge query platform to greatly facilitate the implicit knowledge discovery between WM and TCM. PMID:24772189

  4. Beneficial effects of semantic memory support on older adults' episodic memory: Differential patterns of support of item and associative information.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Praggyan Pam; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Ratneshwar, Srinivasan

    2016-02-01

    The effects of two types of semantic memory support-meaningfulness of an item and relatedness between items-in mitigating age-related deficits in item and associative, memory are examined in a marketing context. In Experiment 1, participants studied less (vs. more) meaningful brand logo graphics (pictures) paired with meaningful brand names (words) and later were assessed by item (old/new) and associative (intact/recombined) memory recognition tests. Results showed that meaningfulness of items eliminated age deficits in item memory, while equivalently boosting associative memory for older and younger adults. Experiment 2, in which related and unrelated brand logo graphics and brand name pairs served as stimuli, revealed that relatedness between items eliminated age deficits in associative memory, while improving to the same degree item memory in older and younger adults. Experiment 2 also provided evidence for a probable boundary condition that could reconcile seemingly contradictory extant results. Overall, these experiments provided evidence that although the two types of semantic memory support can improve both item and associative memory in older and younger adults, older adults' memory deficits can be eliminated when the type of support provided is compatible with the type of information required to perform well on the test. PMID:26765749

  5. Progress in Spatial Analysis and Fusion of Remote Sensing Satellite Data for Generating High-Level Semantic Geo-Information in Support of GMES Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Anca; Vaduva, Corina; Bratasanu, Dragos; Nedelcu, Ion; Datcu, Mihai

    2010-12-01

    The scientific community is challenged today by more and more complex requirements coming from the users in a very attractive EO context created by GMES. Recent debates show that there is no common understanding or standardization of, for example, the land use land cover products and the way of presenting them to the user, although de-facto standards like CORINE (CLC) are already in use. CLC is the European standard for extracting and presenting land cover and land use information for monitoring and protecting the environment. All mapping methodologies are mostly manually assessed because there still are important difficulties in creating thematic maps of land cover using automatic classification methods. When coming to land use, the final products based on satellite image of classification methods do not contain exclusive mapping units but mixtures of heterogeneous land cover classes, as opposed to cartographic data that use rather a segmenting approach. This paper presents new approaches and innovative solutions for bridging the gap between the results of state-of-the-art automatic classification algorithms and high semantic human-defined terminology of cartographic data. Using a recent pure-spectral rule-based fully automatic classifier to define the basic 'vocabulary', we provide a hybrid method to automatically understand and describe semantic rules that link existent data according to different specifications (e.g. CLC 2000) with end-results of unsupervised computer information mining methods. Following an agreement between the learning model and the cartographic scale implied we exploited Latent Dirichlet Allocation model (LDA) to map heterogeneous pixels with similar intermediate-level semantic meaning into land cover classes of CLC. By discovering the set of semantic rules explaining the semantic classes in existent vector systems, we introduce the prototype of an interactive learning loop that uses the concept of direct semantics applied on satellite

  6. Adult attachment orientation and automatic processing of emotional information on a semantic level: A masked affective priming study.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Zeitschel, Frank; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-09-30

    Early adverse social experiences leading to attachment insecurity could cause heightened sensitivity to emotional information. Automatic processing of emotional stimuli conveys information about positive-negative differentiation and the so-called possessor vs. other-relevance of valence. The aim of the present study was to examine automatic processing of emotional and relevance type information on a semantic level as a function of adult attachment avoidance and anxiety. A masked affective priming task, varying valence and relevance of prime and target adjectives, was presented to a sample of 153 healthy adults. The Experiences in Close Relationships scale was administered to assess attachment orientation. Significant priming effects for valence and relevance were observed. Attachment avoidance, but not attachment anxiety, was significantly related to affective priming independently of trait anxiety and depression. Specifically, attachment avoidance was found to be related to affective priming effects based on other-relevant words. It can be concluded that automatic processing of emotional adjectives used to characterize safe or risky social environments is heightened in avoidant individuals. The avoidantly attached processing style has similarities with repressive coping, which is characterized by an enhanced early response to emotion stimuli followed by avoidant biases at a controlled processing level. PMID:26235477

  7. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumais, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  8. Semantic Research for Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need for semantic research in digital libraries to help overcome interoperability problems. Highlights include federal initiatives; semantic analysis; knowledge representations; human-computer interactions and information visualization; and the University of Illinois DLI (Digital Libraries Initiative) project through partnership with…

  9. Information-computational system for storage, search and analytical processing of environmental datasets based on the Semantic Web technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, A.; Gordov, E.; Okladnikov, I.

    2009-04-01

    In this report the results of the work devoted to the development of working model of the software system for storage, semantically-enabled search and retrieval along with processing and visualization of environmental datasets containing results of meteorological and air pollution observations and mathematical climate modeling are presented. Specially designed metadata standard for machine-readable description of datasets related to meteorology, climate and atmospheric pollution transport domains is introduced as one of the key system components. To provide semantic interoperability the Resource Description Framework (RDF, http://www.w3.org/RDF/) technology means have been chosen for metadata description model realization in the form of RDF Schema. The final version of the RDF Schema is implemented on the base of widely used standards, such as Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (http://dublincore.org/), Directory Interchange Format (DIF, http://gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov/User/difguide/difman.html), ISO 19139, etc. At present the system is available as a Web server (http://climate.risks.scert.ru/metadatabase/) based on the web-portal ATMOS engine [1] and is implementing dataset management functionality including SeRQL-based semantic search as well as statistical analysis and visualization of selected data archives [2,3]. The core of the system is Apache web server in conjunction with Tomcat Java Servlet Container (http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/) and Sesame Server (http://www.openrdf.org/) used as a database for RDF and RDF Schema. At present statistical analysis of meteorological and climatic data with subsequent visualization of results is implemented for such datasets as NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, Reanalysis NCEP/DOE AMIP II, JMA/CRIEPI JRA-25, ECMWF ERA-40 and local measurements obtained from meteorological stations on the territory of Russia. This functionality is aimed primarily at finding of main characteristics of regional climate dynamics. The proposed system represents

  10. Improving data management and dissemination in web based information systems by semantic enrichment of descriptive data aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Steffen; Wehrmann, Thilo; Klinger, Verena; Schettler, Ingo; Huth, Juliane; Künzer, Claudia; Dech, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    The German-Vietnamese water-related information system for the Mekong Delta (WISDOM) project supports business processes in Integrated Water Resources Management in Vietnam. Multiple disciplines bring together earth and ground based observation themes, such as environmental monitoring, water management, demographics, economy, information technology, and infrastructural systems. This paper introduces the components of the web-based WISDOM system including data, logic and presentation tier. It focuses on the data models upon which the database management system is built, including techniques for tagging or linking metadata with the stored information. The model also uses ordered groupings of spatial, thematic and temporal reference objects to semantically tag datasets to enable fast data retrieval, such as finding all data in a specific administrative unit belonging to a specific theme. A spatial database extension is employed by the PostgreSQL database. This object-oriented database was chosen over a relational database to tag spatial objects to tabular data, improving the retrieval of census and observational data at regional, provincial, and local areas. While the spatial database hinders processing raster data, a "work-around" was built into WISDOM to permit efficient management of both raster and vector data. The data model also incorporates styling aspects of the spatial datasets through styled layer descriptions (SLD) and web mapping service (WMS) layer specifications, allowing retrieval of rendered maps. Metadata elements of the spatial data are based on the ISO19115 standard. XML structured information of the SLD and metadata are stored in an XML database. The data models and the data management system are robust for managing the large quantity of spatial objects, sensor observations, census and document data. The operational WISDOM information system prototype contains modules for data management, automatic data integration, and web services for data

  11. Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic…

  12. Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2010-01-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…

  13. Semantic Desktop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauermann, Leo; Kiesel, Malte; Schumacher, Kinga; Bernardi, Ansgar

    In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, wie der Arbeitsplatz der Zukunft aussehen könnte und wo das Semantic Web neue Möglichkeiten eröffnet. Dazu werden Ansätze aus dem Bereich Semantic Web, Knowledge Representation, Desktop-Anwendungen und Visualisierung vorgestellt, die es uns ermöglichen, die bestehenden Daten eines Benutzers neu zu interpretieren und zu verwenden. Dabei bringt die Kombination von Semantic Web und Desktop Computern besondere Vorteile - ein Paradigma, das unter dem Titel Semantic Desktop bekannt ist. Die beschriebenen Möglichkeiten der Applikationsintegration sind aber nicht auf den Desktop beschränkt, sondern können genauso in Web-Anwendungen Verwendung finden.

  14. The I-Word: Semantics and Substance in Library and Information Studies Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Fleet, Connie; Wallace, Danny P.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the introduction of the word "information" into the field of library science. Highlights include ALA (American Library Association) accreditation; the inclusion of the word "information" in names of institutions, academic units, and degree programs; and the question of whether programs really prepare graduates for careers in libraries.…

  15. Non-semantic contributions to "semantic" redundancy gain.

    PubMed

    Shepherdson, Peter; Miller, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Recently, two groups of researchers have reported redundancy gains (enhanced performance with multiple, redundant targets) in tasks requiring semantic categorization. Here we report two experiments aimed at determining whether the gains found by one of these groups resulted from some form of semantic coactivation. We asked undergraduate psychology students to complete choice RT tasks requiring the semantic categorization of visually presented words, and compared performance with redundant targets from the same semantic category to performance with redundant targets from different semantic categories. If the redundancy gains resulted from the combination of information at a semantic level, they should have been greater in the former than the latter situation. However, our results showed no significant differences in redundancy gain (for latency and accuracy) between same-category and different-category conditions, despite gains appearing in both conditions. Thus, we suggest that redundancy gain in the semantic categorization task may result entirely from statistical facilitation or combination of information at non-semantic levels. PMID:26339718

  16. Consolidation of altered associability information by amygdala central nucleus.

    PubMed

    Schiffino, Felipe L; Holland, Peter C

    2016-09-01

    The surprising omission of a reinforcer can enhance the associability of the stimuli that were present when the reward prediction error was induced, so that they more readily enter into new associations in the future. Previous research from this laboratory identified brain circuit elements critical to the enhancement of stimulus associability by the omission of an expected event and to the subsequent expression of that altered associability in more rapid learning. These elements include the amygdala, the midbrain substantia nigra, the basal forebrain substantia innominata, the dorsolateral striatum, the secondary visual cortex, and the posterior parietal cortex. Here, we found that consolidation of a surprise-enhanced associability memory in a serial prediction task depends on processing in the amygdala central nucleus (CeA) after completion of sessions that included the surprising omission of an expected event. Post-surprise infusions of anisomycin, lidocaine, or muscimol prevented subsequent display of surprise-enhanced associability. Because previous studies indicated that CeA function is unnecessary for the expression of associability enhancements that were induced previously when CeA function was intact (Holland & Gallagher, 2006), we interpreted these results as indicating that post-surprise activity of CeA ("surprise replay") is necessary for the consolidation of altered associability memories elsewhere in the brain, such as the posterior parietal cortex (Schiffino et al., 2014a). PMID:27427328

  17. Semantic Space Analyst

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-04-15

    The Semantic Space Analyst (SSA) is software for analyzing a text corpus, discovering relationships among terms, and allowing the user to explore that information in different ways. It includes features for displaying and laying out terms and relationships visually, for generating such maps from manual queries, for discovering differences between corpora. Data can also be exported to Microsoft Excel.

  18. Enlisting User Community Perspectives to Inform Development of a Semantic Web Application for Discovery of Cross-Institutional Research Information and Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, E. M.; Mayernik, M. S.; Boler, F. M.; Corson-Rikert, J.; Daniels, M. D.; Gross, M. B.; Khan, H.; Maull, K. E.; Rowan, L. R.; Stott, D.; Williams, S.; Krafft, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Researchers seek information and data through a variety of avenues: published literature, search engines, repositories, colleagues, etc. In order to build a web application that leverages linked open data to enable multiple paths for information discovery, the EarthCollab project has surveyed two geoscience user communities to consider how researchers find and share scholarly output. EarthCollab, a cross-institutional, EarthCube funded project partnering UCAR, Cornell University, and UNAVCO, is employing the open-source semantic web software, VIVO, as the underlying technology to connect the people and resources of virtual research communities. This study will present an analysis of survey responses from members of the two case study communities: (1) the Bering Sea Project, an interdisciplinary field program whose data archive is hosted by NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL), and (2) UNAVCO, a geodetic facility and consortium that supports diverse research projects informed by geodesy. The survey results illustrate the types of research products that respondents indicate should be discoverable within a digital platform and the current methods used to find publications, data, personnel, tools, and instrumentation. The responses showed that scientists rely heavily on general purpose search engines, such as Google, to find information, but that data center websites and the published literature were also critical sources for finding collaborators, data, and research tools.The survey participants also identify additional features of interest for an information platform such as search engine indexing, connection to institutional web pages, generation of bibliographies and CVs, and outward linking to social media. Through the survey, the user communities prioritized the type of information that is most important to display and describe their work within a research profile. The analysis of this survey will inform our further development of a platform that will

  19. Selective Short-Term Memory Deficits Arise from Impaired Domain-General Semantic Control Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Semantic short-term memory (STM) patients have a reduced ability to retain semantic information over brief delays but perform well on other semantic tasks; this pattern suggests damage to a dedicated buffer for semantic information. Alternatively, these difficulties may arise from mild disruption to domain-general semantic processes that have…

  20. Introduction to geospatial semantics and technology workshop handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2012-01-01

    The workshop is a tutorial on introductory geospatial semantics with hands-on exercises using standard Web browsers. The workshop is divided into two sections, general semantics on the Web and specific examples of geospatial semantics using data from The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Open Ontology Repository. The general semantics section includes information and access to publicly available semantic archives. The specific session includes information on geospatial semantics with access to semantically enhanced data for hydrography, transportation, boundaries, and names. The Open Ontology Repository offers open-source ontologies for public use.

  1. Corporate Semantic Web: Towards the Deployment of Semantic Technologies in Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschke, Adrian; Coskun, Gökhan; Heese, Ralf; Luczak-Rösch, Markus; Oldakowski, Radoslaw; Schäfermeier, Ralph; Streibel, Olga

    The amount of information that companies have to produce, acquire, maintain, propagate, and use has increased dramatically over the last decades. Nowadays, companies seek more capable approaches for gaining, managing, and utilizing knowledge, and the Semantic Web offers promising solutions. While the global Semantic Web still remains an unfulfilled vision for the present, the Corporate Semantic Web idea aims at bringing semantic technologies to enterprises. The expected results are a competitive advantage for enterprises using semantic technologies and a boost for the evolution of the global Semantic Web.

  2. Contributions of Semantic and Facial Information to Perception of Nonsibilant Fricatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongman, Allard; Wang, Yue; Kim, Brian H.

    2003-01-01

    Most studies have been unable to identify reliable acoustic cues for the recognition of the English nonsibilant fricatives /f, v, [theta], [eth]/. The present study was designed to test the extent to which the perception of these fricatives by normal-hearing adults is based on other sources of information, namely, linguistic context and visual…

  3. The Development of the Ability to Semantically Integrate Information in Speech and Iconic Gesture in Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekine, Kazuki; Sowden, Hannah; Kita, Sotaro

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether children's ability to integrate speech and gesture follows the pattern of a broader developmental shift between 3- and 5-year-old children (Ramscar & Gitcho, 2007) regarding the ability to process two pieces of information simultaneously. In Experiment 1, 3-year-olds, 5-year-olds, and adults were presented with either an…

  4. Automatic natural acquisition of a semantic network for information retrieval systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enguehard, Chantal; Malvache, Pierre; Trigano, Philippe

    1992-03-01

    The amount of information is becoming greater and greater, in industries where complex processes are performed it is becoming increasingly difficult to profit from all the documents produced when fresh knowledge becomes available (reports, experiments, findings). This situation causes a considerable and expensive waste of precious time lost searching for documents or, quite simply, results in outright repeating what has been done. One solution is to transform all paper information into computerized information. We might imagine that we are in a science-fiction world and that we have the perfect computer. We tell it everything we know, we make it read all the books, and if we ask it any question, it will find the response if that response exists. But unfortunately, we are in the real world and the last four decades have taught us to minimize our expectations of computers. During the 1960s, the information retrieval systems appeared. Their purpose is to provide access to any desired documents, in response to a question about a subject, even if it is not known to exist. Here we focus on the problem of selecting items to index the documents. In 1966, Salton identified this problem as crucial when he saw that his system, Medlars, did not find a relevant text because of the wrong indexation. Faced with this problem, he imagined a guide to help authors choose the correct indexation, but he anticipated the automation of this operation with the SMART system. It was stated previously that a manual language analysis for information items by subjects experts is likely to prove impractical in the long run. After a brief survey of the existing responses to the index choice problem, we shall present the system automatic natural acquisition (ANA) which chooses items to index texts by using as little knowledge as possible- -just by learning the language. This system does not use any grammar or lexicon, so the selected indexes will be very close to the field concerned in the texts.

  5. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  6. The Semantic SPASE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S.; Crichton, D.; Thieman, J.; Ramirez, P.; King, T.; Weiss, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Semantic SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) prototype demonstrates the use of semantic web technologies to capture, document, and manage the SPASE data model, support facet- and text-based search, and provide flexible and intuitive user interfaces. The SPASE data model, under development since late 2003 by a consortium of space physics domain experts, is intended to serve as the basis for interoperability between independent data systems. To develop the Semantic SPASE prototype, the data model was first analyzed to determine the inherit object classes and their attributes. These were entered into Stanford Medical Informatics' Protege ontology tool and annotated using definitions from the SPASE documentation. Further analysis of the data model resulted in the addition of class relationships. Finally attributes and relationships that support broad-scope interoperability were added from research associated with the Object-Oriented Data Technology task. To validate the ontology and produce a knowledge base, example data products were ingested. The capture of the data model as an ontology results in a more formal specification of the model. The Protege software is also a powerful management tool and supports plug-ins that produce several graphical notations as output. The stated purpose of the semantic web is to support machine understanding of web-based information. Protege provides an export capability to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML for this purpose. Several research efforts use RDF/XML knowledge bases to provide semantic search. MIT's Simile/Longwell project provides both facet- and text-based search using a suite of metadata browsers and the text-based search engine Lucene. Using the Protege generated RDF knowledge-base a semantic search application was easily built and deployed to run as a web application. Configuration files specify the object attributes and values to be designated as facets (i.e. search) constraints. Semantic web technologies provide

  7. Semantic-Based Knowledge Management in E-Government: Modeling Attention for Proactive Information Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samiotis, Konstantinos; Stojanovic, Nenad

    E-government has become almost synonymous with a consumer-led revolution of government services inspired and made possible by the Internet. With technology being the least of the worries for government organizations nowadays, attention is shifting towards managing complexity as one of the basic antecedents of operational and decision-making inefficiency. Complexity has been traditionally preoccupying public administrations and owes its origins to several sources. Among them we encounter primarily the cross-functional nature and the degree of legal structuring of administrative work. Both of them have strong reliance to the underlying process and information infrastructure of public organizations. Managing public administration work thus implies managing its processes and information. Knowledge management (KM) and business process reengineering (BPR) have been deployed already by private organizations with success for the same purposes and certainly comprise improvement practices that are worthwhile investigating. Our contribution through this paper is on the utilization of KM for the e-government.

  8. NASA and The Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  9. Explaining semantic short-term memory deficits: Evidence for the critical role of semantic control

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought and can occur as a result of mild disruption to semantic control processes, i.e., mechanisms that bias semantic processing towards task-relevant aspects of knowledge and away from irrelevant information. We tested three semantic STM patients with tasks that tapped four aspects of semantic control: (i) resolving ambiguity between word meanings, (ii) sensitivity to cues, (iii) ignoring irrelevant information and (iv) detecting weak semantic associations. All were impaired in conditions requiring more semantic control, irrespective of the STM demands of the task, suggesting a mild, but task-general, deficit in regulating semantic knowledge. This mild deficit has a disproportionate effect on STM tasks because they have high intrinsic control demands: in STM tasks, control is required to keep information active when it is no longer available in the environment and to manage competition between items held in memory simultaneously. By re-interpreting the core deficit in semantic STM patients in this way, we are able to explain their apparently selective impairment without the need for a specialised STM store. Instead, we argue that semantic STM patients occupy the mildest end of spectrum of semantic control disorders. PMID:21195105

  10. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for Semantic Web Services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol) is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP is the driving technology behind the Virtual Plant Information Network, an NSF-funded semantic w...

  11. The scientific origin of life. Considerations on the evolution of information, leading to an alternative proposal for explaining the origin of the cell, a semantically closed system.

    PubMed

    Vaneechoutte, M

    2000-01-01

    We hypothesize that the origin of life, that is, the origin of the first cell, cannot be explained by natural selection among self-replicating molecules, as is done by the RNA-world hypothesis. To circumvent the chicken and egg problem associated with semantic closure of the cell--no replication of information molecules (nucleotide strands) without functional enzymes, no functional enzymes without encoding in information molecules--a prebiotic evolutionary process is proposed that, from the informational point of view, must somehow have resembled the current scientific process. The cell was the outcome of interactions of a complex premetabolic community, with information molecules that were devoid of self-replicative properties. In a comparable manner, scientific progress is possible, essentially because of interaction between a complex cultural society and permanent information carriers like printed matter. This may eventually lead to self-replicating technology in which semantic closure occurs anew. Explaining the origin of life as a scientific process might provide a unifying theory for the evolution of information, wherebye at two moments symbolization/encoding of interactions into permanent information occurred: at one moment that of chemical interaction and at another moment that of animal behavior interaction. In one event this encoding led to autonomously duplicating chemistry (the cell), an event that possibly may be one of the outcomes of current scientific progress. PMID:10818565

  12. Generative Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  13. Use of altered informed consent in pragmatic clinical research

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Ross E.; Beskow, Laura M.; Ford, Daniel E.; Lantos, John D.; McCall, Jonathan; Patrick-Lake, Bray; Pletcher, Mark J.; Rath, Brian; Schmidt, Hollie; Weinfurt, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    There are situations in which the requirement to obtain conventional written informed consent can impose significant or even insurmountable barriers to conducting pragmatic clinical research, including some comparative effectiveness studies and cluster-randomized trials. Although certain federal regulations governing research in the United States (45 CFR 46) define circumstances in which any of the required elements may be waived, the same standards apply regardless of whether any single element is to be waived or whether consent is to be waived in its entirety. Using the same threshold for a partial or complete waiver limits the options available to IRBs as they seek to optimize a consent process. In this article, we argue that new standards are necessary in order to enable important pragmatic clinical research while at the same time protecting patients’ rights and interests. PMID:26374677

  14. Neural networks involved in learning lexical-semantic and syntactic information in a second language

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Jutta L.; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Ono, Kentaro; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sadato, Norihiro; Nakamura, Akinori

    2014-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of language acquisition in a realistic learning environment. Japanese native speakers were trained in a miniature version of German prior to fMRI scanning. During scanning they listened to (1) familiar sentences, (2) sentences including a novel sentence structure, and (3) sentences containing a novel word while visual context provided referential information. Learning-related decreases of brain activation over time were found in a mainly left-hemispheric network comprising classical frontal and temporal language areas as well as parietal and subcortical regions and were largely overlapping for novel words and the novel sentence structure in initial stages of learning. Differences occurred at later stages of learning during which content-specific activation patterns in prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices emerged. The results are taken as evidence for a domain-general network supporting the initial stages of language learning which dynamically adapts as learners become proficient. PMID:25400602

  15. Semantic aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: towards sharing knowledge and unifying information.

    PubMed

    Andronache, Adrian Stefan; Simoncello, Andrea; Della Mea, Vincenzo; Daffara, Carlo; Francescutti, Carlo

    2012-02-01

    During the last decade, under the World Health Organization's direction, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has become a reference tool for monitoring and developing various policies addressing people with disability. This article presents three steps to increase the semantic interoperability of ICF: first, the representation of ICF using ontology tools; second, the alignment to upper-level ontologies; and third, the use of these tools to implement semantic mappings between ICF and other tools, such as disability assessment instruments, health classifications, and at least partially formalized terminologies. PMID:22193319

  16. A Semantic Modeling Approach to Metadata.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasethvik, Terje

    1998-01-01

    Explores problems in information sharing; discusses the concept of metadata; illustrates its use on the World Wide Web, as well as other related approaches; and presents an approach to information sharing that uses a semantic modeling language (referent model language) as the basis for expressing semantics of information and designing metadata…

  17. Comparing and Combining the Effectiveness of Latent Semantic Indexing and the Ordinary Vector Space Model for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochbaum, Karen E.; Streeter, Lynn A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes experiments that compared a new method for automatically analyzing semantic structures in text by statistical means with the standard vector space model. Findings indicate that combining both methods improved performance over either alone. The effects of other experimental variables on retrieval performance (term weighting, suffix…

  18. SemanticOrganizer Brings Teams Together

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufenberg, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    SemanticOrganizer enables researchers in different locations to share, search for, and integrate data. Its customizable semantic links offer fast access to interrelated information. This knowledge management and information integration tool also supports real-time instrument data collection and collaborative image annotation.

  19. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  20. Method and Apparatus Providing Deception and/or Altered Operation in an Information System Operating System

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu

    2008-10-14

    A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.

  1. Translingual Alteration of Conceptual Information in Medical Translation: A Crosslanguage Analysis between English and Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Shaoyi

    2000-01-01

    This study conducted a crosslanguage analysis of conceptual alteration in medical translation between English and Chinese, focusing on the original and translated concepts in article titles from two English medical journals and two Chinese medical journals. Findings provide insights into future studies on crosslanguage information retrieval via…

  2. Living With Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Karen; Wilkinson, Ray; Keady, John

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia is a variant of frontotemporal dementia and is a recently recognized diagnostic condition. There has been some research quantitatively examining care partner stress and burden in frontotemporal dementia. There are, however, few studies exploring the subjective experiences of family members caring for those with frontotemporal dementia. Increased knowledge of such experiences would allow service providers to tailor intervention, support, and information better. We used a case study design, with thematic narrative analysis applied to interview data, to describe the experiences of a wife and son caring for a husband/father with semantic dementia. Using this approach, we identified four themes: (a) living with routines, (b) policing and protecting, (c) making connections, and (d) being adaptive and flexible. Each of these themes were shared and extended, with the importance of routines in everyday life highlighted. The implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed. PMID:24532121

  3. Endoscopic image analysis in semantic space.

    PubMed

    Kwitt, R; Vasconcelos, N; Rasiwasia, N; Uhl, A; Davis, B; Häfner, M; Wrba, F

    2012-10-01

    A novel approach to the design of a semantic, low-dimensional, encoding for endoscopic imagery is proposed. This encoding is based on recent advances in scene recognition, where semantic modeling of image content has gained considerable attention over the last decade. While the semantics of scenes are mainly comprised of environmental concepts such as vegetation, mountains or sky, the semantics of endoscopic imagery are medically relevant visual elements, such as polyps, special surface patterns, or vascular structures. The proposed semantic encoding differs from the representations commonly used in endoscopic image analysis (for medical decision support) in that it establishes a semantic space, where each coordinate axis has a clear human interpretation. It is also shown to establish a connection to Riemannian geometry, which enables principled solutions to a number of problems that arise in both physician training and clinical practice. This connection is exploited by leveraging results from information geometry to solve problems such as (1) recognition of important semantic concepts, (2) semantically-focused image browsing, and (3) estimation of the average-case semantic encoding for a collection of images that share a medically relevant visual detail. The approach can provide physicians with an easily interpretable, semantic encoding of visual content, upon which further decisions, or operations, can be naturally carried out. This is contrary to the prevalent practice in endoscopic image analysis for medical decision support, where image content is primarily captured by discriminative, high-dimensional, appearance features, which possess discriminative power but lack human interpretability. PMID:22717411

  4. Endoscopic Image Analysis in Semantic Space

    PubMed Central

    Kwitt, R.; Vasconcelos, N.; Rasiwasia, N.; Uhl, A.; Davis, B.; Häfner, M.; Wrba, F.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach to the design of a semantic, low-dimensional, encoding for endoscopic imagery is proposed. This encoding is based on recent advances in scene recognition, where semantic modeling of image content has gained considerable attention over the last decade. While the semantics of scenes are mainly comprised of environmental concepts such as vegetation, mountains or sky, the semantics of endoscopic imagery are medically relevant visual elements, such as polyps, special surface patterns, or vascular structures. The proposed semantic encoding differs from the representations commonly used in endoscopic image analysis (for medical decision support) in that it establishes a semantic space, where each coordinate axis has a clear human interpretation. It is also shown to establish a connection to Riemannian geometry, which enables principled solutions to a number of problems that arise in both physician training and clinical practice. This connection is exploited by leveraging results from information geometry to solve problems such as 1) recognition of important semantic concepts, 2) semantically-focused image browsing, and 3) estimation of the average-case semantic encoding for a collection of images that share a medically relevant visual detail. The approach can provide physicians with an easily interpretable, semantic encoding of visual content, upon which further decisions, or operations, can be naturally carried out. This is contrary to the prevalent practice in endoscopic image analysis for medical decision support, where image content is primarily captured by discriminative, high-dimensional, appearance features, which possess discriminative power but lack human interpretability. PMID:22717411

  5. Genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease alters the five-year trajectory of semantic memory activation in cognitively intact elders

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Stephen M.; Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Nielson, Kristy A.; Seidenberg, Michael; Smith, J. Carson; Woodard, John L.; Durgerian, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Healthy aging is associated with cognitive declines typically accompanied by increased task-related brain activity in comparison to younger counterparts. The Scaffolding Theory of Aging and Cognition (STAC) (Park and Reuter-Lorenz, 2009; Reuter-Lorenz and Park, 2014) posits that compensatory brain processes are responsible for maintaining normal cognitive performance in older adults, despite accumulation of aging-related neural damage. Cross-sectional studies indicate that cognitively intact elders at genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) demonstrate patterns of increased brain activity compared to low risk elders, suggesting that compensation represents an early response to AD-associated pathology. Whether this compensatory response persists or declines with the onset of cognitive impairment can only be addressed using a longitudinal design. The current prospective, 5-year longitudinal study examined brain activation in APOE ε4 carriers (N=24) and non-carriers (N=21). All participants, ages 65–85 and cognitively intact at study entry, underwent task-activated fMRI, structural MRI, and neuropsychological assessments at baseline, 18, and 57 months. fMRI activation was measured in response to a semantic memory task requiring participants to discriminate famous from non-famous names. Results indicated that the trajectory of change in brain activation while performing this semantic memory task differed between APOE ε4 carriers and non-carriers. The APOE ε4 group exhibited greater activation than the Low Risk group at baseline, but they subsequently showed a progressive decline in activation during the follow-up periods with corresponding emergence of episodic memory loss and hippocampal atrophy. In contrast, the non-carriers demonstrated a gradual increase in activation over the 5-year period. Our results are consistent with the STAC model by demonstrating that compensation varies with the severity of underlying neural damage and can be exhausted with the

  6. MeSH-Informed Enrichment Analysis and MeSH-Guided Semantic Similarity Among Functional Terms and Gene Products in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Morota, Gota; Beissinger, Timothy M.; Peñagaricano, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical vocabularies and ontologies aid in recapitulating biological knowledge. The annotation of gene products is mainly accelerated by Gene Ontology (GO), and more recently by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Here, we report a suite of MeSH packages for chicken in Bioconductor, and illustrate some features of different MeSH-based analyses, including MeSH-informed enrichment analysis and MeSH-guided semantic similarity among terms and gene products, using two lists of chicken genes available in public repositories. The two published datasets that were employed represent (i) differentially expressed genes, and (ii) candidate genes under selective sweep or epistatic selection. The comparison of MeSH with GO overrepresentation analyses suggested not only that MeSH supports the findings obtained from GO analysis, but also that MeSH is able to further enrich the representation of biological knowledge and often provide more interpretable results. Based on the hierarchical structures of MeSH and GO, we computed semantic similarities among vocabularies, as well as semantic similarities among selected genes. These yielded the similarity levels between significant functional terms, and the annotation of each gene yielded the measures of gene similarity. Our findings show the benefits of using MeSH as an alternative choice of annotation in order to draw biological inferences from a list of genes of interest. We argue that the use of MeSH in conjunction with GO will be instrumental in facilitating the understanding of the genetic basis of complex traits. PMID:27261003

  7. MeSH-Informed Enrichment Analysis and MeSH-Guided Semantic Similarity Among Functional Terms and Gene Products in Chicken.

    PubMed

    Morota, Gota; Beissinger, Timothy M; Peñagaricano, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical vocabularies and ontologies aid in recapitulating biological knowledge. The annotation of gene products is mainly accelerated by Gene Ontology (GO), and more recently by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Here, we report a suite of MeSH packages for chicken in Bioconductor, and illustrate some features of different MeSH-based analyses, including MeSH-informed enrichment analysis and MeSH-guided semantic similarity among terms and gene products, using two lists of chicken genes available in public repositories. The two published datasets that were employed represent (i) differentially expressed genes, and (ii) candidate genes under selective sweep or epistatic selection. The comparison of MeSH with GO overrepresentation analyses suggested not only that MeSH supports the findings obtained from GO analysis, but also that MeSH is able to further enrich the representation of biological knowledge and often provide more interpretable results. Based on the hierarchical structures of MeSH and GO, we computed semantic similarities among vocabularies, as well as semantic similarities among selected genes. These yielded the similarity levels between significant functional terms, and the annotation of each gene yielded the measures of gene similarity. Our findings show the benefits of using MeSH as an alternative choice of annotation in order to draw biological inferences from a list of genes of interest. We argue that the use of MeSH in conjunction with GO will be instrumental in facilitating the understanding of the genetic basis of complex traits. PMID:27261003

  8. Semantic preview benefit during reading.

    PubMed

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word during the saccade to the preview (boundary paradigm). In the 1st experiment the preview word was semantically related or unrelated to the target. Fixation durations on the target were shorter for semantically related than unrelated previews, consistent with a semantic preview benefit. In the 2nd experiment, half the sentences were presented following the rules of German spelling (i.e., previews and targets were printed with an initial capital letter), and the other half were presented completely in lowercase. A semantic preview benefit was obtained under both conditions. In the 3rd experiment, we introduced 2 further preview conditions, an identical word and a pronounceable nonword, while also manipulating the text contrast. Whereas the contrast had negligible effects, fixation durations on the target were reliably different for all 4 types of preview. Semantic preview benefits were greater for pretarget fixations closer to the boundary (large preview space) and, although not as consistently, for long pretarget fixation durations (long preview time). The results constrain theoretical proposals about eye movement control in reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23895448

  9. Preserved Musical Semantic Memory in Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Design Case study. Setting Academic medical center. Patient A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Main Outcome Measures Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Results Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Conclusion Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music. PMID:21320991

  10. Functional MR imaging of semantic information processing and learning-related effects using psychometrically controlled stimulation paradigms.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, M; Bellemann, M E; Kammer, T; Gückel, F; Kischka, U; Maier, S; Schwartz, A; Brix, G

    1996-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in conjunction with carefully designed, psychometrically optimized stimulation procedures, was used to investigate the relation between brain activation and the processing of word associations. A semantic discrimination task of word-pair similarity was performed by normal subjects (n = 17) within a clinical 1.5-Tesla whole-body MRI system. A color similarity task of psychometrically equivalent difficulty, as indicated by behavioral data acquired online during fMRI, served as active control condition. Comparisons between tasks dramatically improved results compared to comparisons between task and resting condition. The language paradigm selectively activated left frontal and left fronto-temporal areas. Cortical activation during the semantic task decreased significantly over three runs of the same word list and was paralleled by decreased reaction times. No such changes were observed in the active control condition indicating selective learning of the language task only. When combined with psychological activation schemes and the acquisition of behavioral data, fMRI represents a powerful tool for the study of brain-behavior interaction. PMID:8924044

  11. Formal semantic and computer text processing, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, J.G.; Lepage, F.

    1983-01-01

    Computer processing of large nonpreedited natural language texts has often been limited either to managing and editing or to analysing basic levels of content (indexes, concordances, clusters, etc.). Few systems approach syntactic information, even less semantic information. Because of the complexity and the originality of the underlying semantic information of any text it is not possible to import directly the AI and computational semantic concepts. It is necessary to explore news paths. The research presented here is oriented toward the understanding of certain semantic aspects in computer text processing (words and meaning representation and inference patterns). This is done through a model theoretic approach embedded in an algebraic language. The hypothesis which governs the concepts and the distinctions is the following: discourse in a text constitutes a semantic space built of an ordered set of sentences which are of different logical types and which present a specific pattern of coherence expressible in a syntactic manner. 47 references.

  12. Learning the Semantics of Structured Data Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taheriyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Information sources such as relational databases, spreadsheets, XML, JSON, and Web APIs contain a tremendous amount of structured data, however, they rarely provide a semantic model to describe their contents. Semantic models of data sources capture the intended meaning of data sources by mapping them to the concepts and relationships defined by a…

  13. Comparative Studies of Semantic Structure. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Michael L.

    The objective of this research was to successfully model several semantic domains in English and Spanish, in order to (a) test the reliability of judged-similarities tasks in cross-cultural situations and (b) obtain information about changes in semantic organization with bilingualism and education. To achieve these goals, data were collected in…

  14. Social Semantics for an Effective Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike

    2012-01-01

    An evolution of the Semantic Web, the Social Semantic Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social Semantic Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of semantic markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social Semantic Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a semantic system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social Semantic Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a semantic system are also modeled.

  15. Famous face identification in temporal lobe epilepsy: support for a multimodal integration model of semantic memory.

    PubMed

    Drane, Daniel L; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Phatak, Vaishali; Loring, David W; Gross, Robert E; Hebb, Adam O; Silbergeld, Daniel L; Miller, John W; Voets, Natalie L; Saindane, Amit M; Barsalou, Lawrence; Meador, Kimford J; Ojemann, George A; Tranel, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to demonstrate that the left and right anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) perform critical but unique roles in famous face identification, with damage to either leading to differing deficit patterns reflecting decreased access to lexical or semantic concepts but not their degradation. Famous face identification was studied in 22 presurgical and 14 postsurgical temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and 20 healthy comparison subjects using free recall and multiple choice (MC) paradigms. Right TLE patients exhibited presurgical deficits in famous face recognition, and postsurgical deficits in both famous face recognition and familiarity judgments. However, they did not exhibit any problems with naming before or after surgery. In contrast, left TLE patients demonstrated both pre- and postsurgical deficits in famous face naming but no significant deficits in recognition or familiarity. Double dissociations in performance between groups were alleviated by altering task demands. Postsurgical right TLE patients provided with MC options correctly identified greater than 70% of famous faces they initially rated as unfamiliar. Left TLE patients accurately chose the name for nearly all famous faces they recognized (based on their verbal description) but initially failed to name, although they tended to rapidly lose access to this name. We believe alterations in task demands activate alternative routes to semantic and lexical networks, demonstrating that unique pathways to such stored information exist, and suggesting a different role for each ATL in identifying visually presented famous faces. The right ATL appears to play a fundamental role in accessing semantic information from a visual route, with the left ATL serving to link semantic information to the language system to produce a specific name. These findings challenge several assumptions underlying amodal models of semantic memory, and provide support for the integrated multimodal theories of semantic memory

  16. Famous face identification in temporal lobe epilepsy: Support for a multimodal integration model of semantic memory

    PubMed Central

    Drane, Daniel L.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Phatak, Vaishali; Loring, David W.; Gross, Robert E.; Hebb, Adam O.; Silbergeld, Daniel L.; Miller, John W.; Voets, Natalie L.; Saindane, Amit M.; Barsalou, Lawrence; Meador, Kimford J.; Ojemann, George A.; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate that the left and right anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) perform critical but unique roles in famous face identification, with damage to either leading to differing deficit patterns reflecting decreased access to lexical or semantic concepts but not their degradation. Famous face identification was studied in 22 presurgical and 14 postsurgical temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and 20 healthy comparison subjects using free recall and multiple choice (MC) paradigms. Right TLE patients exhibited presurgical deficits in famous face recognition, and postsurgical deficits in both famous face recognition and familiarity judgments. However, they did not exhibit any problems with naming before or after surgery. In contrast, left TLE patients demonstrated both pre-and postsurgical deficits in famous face naming but no significant deficits in recognition or familiarity. Double dissociations in performance between groups were alleviated by altering task demands. Postsurgical right TLE patients provided with MC options correctly identified greater than 70% of famous faces they initially rated as unfamiliar. Left TLE patients accurately chose the name for nearly all famous faces they recognized (based on their verbal description) but initially failed to name, although they tended to rapidly lose access to this name. We believe alterations in task demands activate alternative routes to semantic and lexical networks, demonstrating that unique pathways to such stored information exist, and suggesting a different role for each ATL in identifying visually presented famous faces. The right ATL appears to play a fundamental role in accessing semantic information from a visual route, with the left ATL serving to link semantic information to the language system to produce a specific name. These findings challenge several assumptions underlying amodal models of semantic memory, and provide support for the integrated multimodal theories of semantic memory

  17. An Educational Tool for Browsing the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Sujin; Kim, Younghwan; Park, Seongbin

    2013-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web where information is represented in a machine processable way. It is not separate from the current Web and one of the confusions that novice users might have is where the Semantic Web is. In fact, users can easily encounter RDF documents that are components of the Semantic Web while they navigate…

  18. Development and application of the alteration mineral information extraction system based on ASTER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Rihong; Yuan, Tao

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, multi-spectral data have been widely used to prospect the source rock or source region of porphyry copper deposits. In this paper, we present a system to extract the information of alteration mineral from multi-spectral data. The system is developed with the Visual C# 2010 and IDL8.0 platform, and is able to process the ASTER multi-spectral data which is a new multiband file after layer stacking. Based on the principal component analysis, the ASTER data is processed automatically in this system. The result shows two components, the classified information of argillic- and phyllic-altered mineral assemblage and propylitization mineral assemblage. Compared with the traditional processes, the system not only lowers the threshold of the application of remote sensing technology, but also improves the work efficiency significantly.

  19. Language Networks Associated with Computerized Semantic Indices

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomov, Serguei V. S.; Jones, David T.; Knopman, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Tests of generative semantic verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with semantic memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of semantic relatedness between words and grouping of words into semantic clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of semantic relatedness between words based on latent semantic analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed semantic clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that semantic clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized semantic indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory. PMID:25315785

  20. What Klein’s “Semantic Gradient” Does and Does Not Really Show: Decomposing Stroop Interference into Task and Informational Conflict Components

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Yulia; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The present study suggests that the idea that Stroop interference originates from multiple components may gain theoretically from integrating two independent frameworks. The first framework is represented by the well-known notion of “semantic gradient” of interference and the second one is the distinction between two types of conflict – the task and the informational conflict – giving rise to the interference (MacLeod and MacDonald, 2000; Goldfarb and Henik, 2007). The proposed integration led to the conclusion that two (i.e., orthographic and lexical components) of the four theoretically distinct components represent task conflict, and the other two (i.e., indirect and direct informational conflict components) represent informational conflict. The four components were independently estimated in a series of experiments. The results confirmed the contribution of task conflict (estimated by a robust orthographic component) and of informational conflict (estimated by a strong direct informational conflict component) to Stroop interference. However, the performed critical review of the relevant literature (see General Discussion), as well as the results of the experiments reported, showed that the other two components expressing each type of conflict (i.e., the lexical component of task conflict and the indirect informational conflict) were small and unstable. The present analysis refines our knowledge of the origins of Stroop interference by providing evidence that each type of conflict has its major and minor contributions. The implications for cognitive control of an automatic reading process are also discussed. PMID:26955363

  1. Simulating Expert Clinical Comprehension: Adapting Latent Semantic Analysis to Accurately Extract Clinical Concepts from Psychiatric Narrative

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Blatter, Brett; Patel, Vimla

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive studies reveal that less-than-expert clinicians are less able to recognize meaningful patterns of data in clinical narratives. Accordingly, psychiatric residents early in training fail to attend to information that is relevant to diagnosis and the assessment of dangerousness. This manuscript presents cognitively motivated methodology for the simulation of expert ability to organize relevant findings supporting intermediate diagnostic hypotheses. Latent Semantic Analysis is used to generate a semantic space from which meaningful associations between psychiatric terms are derived. Diagnostically meaningful clusters are modeled as geometric structures within this space and compared to elements of psychiatric narrative text using semantic distance measures. A learning algorithm is defined that alters components of these geometric structures in response to labeled training data. Extraction and classification of relevant text segments is evaluated against expert annotation, with system-rater agreement approximating rater-rater agreement. A range of biomedical informatics applications for these methods are suggested. PMID:18455483

  2. SASL: A Semantic Annotation System for Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Pingpeng; Wang, Guoyin; Zhang, Qin; Jin, Hai

    Due to ambiguity, search engines for scientific literatures may not return right search results. One efficient solution to the problems is to automatically annotate literatures and attach the semantic information to them. Generally, semantic annotation requires identifying entities before attaching semantic information to them. However, due to abbreviation and other reasons, it is very difficult to identify entities correctly. The paper presents a Semantic Annotation System for Literature (SASL), which utilizes Wikipedia as knowledge base to annotate literatures. SASL mainly attaches semantic to terminology, academic institutions, conferences, and journals etc. Many of them are usually abbreviations, which induces ambiguity. Here, SASL uses regular expressions to extract the mapping between full name of entities and their abbreviation. Since full names of several entities may map to a single abbreviation, SASL introduces Hidden Markov Model to implement name disambiguation. Finally, the paper presents the experimental results, which confirm SASL a good performance.

  3. Web Feature Service Semantic Mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.; Percivall, G. S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists from different organizations and disciplines need to work together to find the solutions to complex problems. Multi-disciplinary science typically involves users with specialized tools and their own preferred view of the data including unique characteristics of the user's information model and symbology. Even though organizations use web services to expose data, there are still semantic inconsistencies that need to be solved. Recent activities within the OGC Interoperability Program (IP) have helped advance semantic mediation solutions when using OGC services to help solve complex problems. The OGC standards development process is influenced by the feedback of activities within the Interoperability Program, which conducts international interoperability initiatives such as Testbeds, Pilot Projects, Interoperability Experiments, and Interoperability Support Services. These activities are designed to encourage rapid development, testing, validation, demonstration and adoption of open, consensus based standards and best practices. Two recent Testbeds, the OGC Web Services Phase 8 and Phase 9, have advanced the use of semantic mediation approaches to increase semantic interoperability among geospatial communities. The Cross-Community Interoperability (CCI) thread within these two testbeds, advanced semantic mediation approaches for data discovery, access and use of heterogeneous data models and heterogeneous metadata models. This presentation will provide an overview of the interoperability program, the CCI Thread and will explain the methodology to mediate heterogeneous GML Application Profiles served via WFS, including discovery of services via a catalog standard interface and mediating symbology applicable to each application profile.

  4. Semantic Fission through Dialect Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Michael D.

    The linguistic atlas projects have provided much information on the regional distribution of pronunciation, vocabulary, and syntax and have given important evidence for a greater understanding of problems involved in semantic change, particularly in pointing out transition areas where dialects become fused. In a study supplementary to that…

  5. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

  6. The Semantic Web in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  7. Entanglement as a Semantic Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Ledda, Antonio; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe

    2010-10-01

    The characteristic holistic features of the quantum theoretic formalism and the intriguing notion of entanglement can be applied to a field that is far from microphysics: logical semantics. Quantum computational logics are new forms of quantum logic that have been suggested by the theory of quantum logical gates in quantum computation. In the standard semantics of these logics, sentences denote quantum information quantities: systems of qubits ( quregisters) or, more generally, mixtures of quregisters ( qumixes), while logical connectives are interpreted as special quantum logical gates (which have a characteristic reversible and dynamic behavior). In this framework, states of knowledge may be entangled, in such a way that our information about the whole determines our information about the parts; and the procedure cannot be, generally, inverted. In spite of its appealing properties, the standard version of the quantum computational semantics is strongly “Hilbert-space dependent”. This certainly represents a shortcoming for all applications, where real and complex numbers do not generally play any significant role (as happens, for instance, in the case of natural and of artistic languages). We propose an abstract version of quantum computational semantics, where abstract qumixes, quregisters and registers are identified with some special objects (not necessarily living in a Hilbert space), while gates are reversible functions that transform qumixes into qumixes. In this framework, one can give an abstract definition of the notions of superposition and of entangled pieces of information, quite independently of any numerical values. We investigate three different forms of abstract holistic quantum computational logic.

  8. SemanticOrganizer: A Customizable Semantic Repository for Distributed NASA Project Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Berrios, Daniel C.; Carvalho, Robert E.; Hall, David R.; Rich, Stephen J.; Sturken, Ian B.; Swanson, Keith J.; Wolfe, Shawn R.

    2004-01-01

    SemanticOrganizer is a collaborative knowledge management system designed to support distributed NASA projects, including diverse teams of scientists, engineers, and accident investigators. The system provides a customizable, semantically structured information repository that stores work products relevant to multiple projects of differing types. SemanticOrganizer is one of the earliest and largest semantic web applications deployed at NASA to date, and has been used in diverse contexts ranging from the investigation of Space Shuttle Columbia's accident to the search for life on other planets. Although the underlying repository employs a single unified ontology, access control and ontology customization mechanisms make the repository contents appear different for each project team. This paper describes SemanticOrganizer, its customization facilities, and a sampling of its applications. The paper also summarizes some key lessons learned from building and fielding a successful semantic web application across a wide-ranging set of domains with diverse users.

  9. Both the middle temporal gyrus and the ventral anterior temporal area are crucial for multimodal semantic processing: distortion-corrected fMRI evidence for a double gradient of information convergence in the temporal lobes.

    PubMed

    Visser, Maya; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Embleton, Karl V; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2012-08-01

    Most contemporary theories of semantic memory assume that concepts are formed from the distillation of information arising in distinct sensory and verbal modalities. The neural basis of this distillation or convergence of information was the focus of this study. Specifically, we explored two commonly posed hypotheses: (a) that the human middle temporal gyrus (MTG) provides a crucial semantic interface given the fact that it interposes auditory and visual processing streams and (b) that the anterior temporal region-especially its ventral surface (vATL)-provides a critical region for the multimodal integration of information. By utilizing distortion-corrected fMRI and an established semantic association assessment (commonly used in neuropsychological investigations), we compared the activation patterns observed for both the verbal and nonverbal versions of the same task. The results are consistent with the two hypotheses simultaneously: Both MTG and vATL are activated in common for word and picture semantic processing. Additional planned, ROI analyses show that this result follows from two principal axes of convergence in the temporal lobe: both lateral (toward MTG) and longitudinal (toward the anterior temporal lobe). PMID:22621260

  10. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2004-01-01

    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

  11. An Analysis of Semantic Aware Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uy, Nguyen Quang; Hoai, Nguyen Xuan; O'Neill, Michael; McKay, Bob; Galván-López, Edgar

    It is well-known that the crossover operator plays an important role in Genetic Programming (GP). In Standard Crossover (SC), semantics are not used to guide the selection of the crossover points, which are generated randomly. This lack of semantic information is the main cause of destructive effects from SC (e.g., children having lower fitness than their parents). Recently, we proposed a new semantic based crossover known GP called Semantic Aware Crossover (SAC) [25]. We show that SAC outperforms SC in solving a class of real-value symbolic regression problems. We clarify the effect of SAC on GP search in increasing the semantic diversity of the population, thus helping to reduce the destructive effects of crossover in GP.

  12. Disorders of semantic memory.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, R A; Warrington, E K

    1994-10-29

    It is now established that selective disorders of semantic memory may arise after focal cerebral lesions. Debate and dissension remain on three principal issues: category specificity, the status of modality-dependent knowledge, and the stability and sufficiency of stored information. Theories of category specificity have focused on the frequently reported dissociation between living things and man-made objects. However, other dimensions need theoretical integration. Impairments can be both finer-grain and broader in range. A second variable of importance is stimulus modality. Reciprocal interactive dissociations between vision and language and between animals and objects will be described. These indicate that the derivation of semantic information is constrained by input modality: we appear to have evolved separable databases for the visual and the verbal world. Thirdly, an orthogonal distinction has been drawn between degradation disorders, where representations are insufficient for comprehension, and access deficits, in which representations have become unstable. These issues may have their parallel in the acquisition of knowledge by the developing child. PMID:7886158

  13. SEMANTICS AND CRITICAL READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FLANIGAN, MICHAEL C.

    PROFICIENCY IN CRITICAL READING CAN BE ACCELERATED BY MAKING STUDENTS AWARE OF VARIOUS SEMANTIC DEVICES THAT HELP CLARIFY MEANINGS AND PURPOSES. EXCERPTS FROM THE ARTICLE "TEEN-AGE CORRUPTION" FROM THE NINTH-GRADE SEMANTICS UNIT WRITTEN BY THE PROJECT ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER AT EUCLID, OHIO, ARE USED TO ILLUSTRATE HOW SEMANTICS RELATE TO…

  14. Modeling of cell signaling pathways in macrophages by semantic networks

    PubMed Central

    Hsing, Michael; Bellenson, Joel L; Shankey, Conor; Cherkasov, Artem

    2004-01-01

    Background Substantial amounts of data on cell signaling, metabolic, gene regulatory and other biological pathways have been accumulated in literature and electronic databases. Conventionally, this information is stored in the form of pathway diagrams and can be characterized as highly "compartmental" (i.e. individual pathways are not connected into more general networks). Current approaches for representing pathways are limited in their capacity to model molecular interactions in their spatial and temporal context. Moreover, the critical knowledge of cause-effect relationships among signaling events is not reflected by most conventional approaches for manipulating pathways. Results We have applied a semantic network (SN) approach to develop and implement a model for cell signaling pathways. The semantic model has mapped biological concepts to a set of semantic agents and relationships, and characterized cell signaling events and their participants in the hierarchical and spatial context. In particular, the available information on the behaviors and interactions of the PI3K enzyme family has been integrated into the SN environment and a cell signaling network in human macrophages has been constructed. A SN-application has been developed to manipulate the locations and the states of molecules and to observe their actions under different biological scenarios. The approach allowed qualitative simulation of cell signaling events involving PI3Ks and identified pathways of molecular interactions that led to known cellular responses as well as other potential responses during bacterial invasions in macrophages. Conclusions We concluded from our results that the semantic network is an effective method to model cell signaling pathways. The semantic model allows proper representation and integration of information on biological structures and their interactions at different levels. The reconstruction of the cell signaling network in the macrophage allowed detailed

  15. Life-span differences in semantic integration of pictures and sentences in memory.

    PubMed

    Pezdek, K

    1980-09-01

    This study examined life-span developmental differences in spontaneous integration of semantically relevant material presented in pictures and sentences. 45 third graders, 45 sixth graders, 45 high school students, and 30 adults over 60 were presented a sequence of 24 pictures and sentences, followed by 24 intervening items. Each intervening item corresponded to, but was in the opposite modality from, one of the original items and was either semantically relevant or irrelevant to the corresponding original. In a "same-different" recognition test, data suggested that the sixth-grade and high school subjects semantically integrated original items with relevant intervening items that were in the opposite modality and made subsequent recognition responses on the basis of the integrated memory. Third graders and older adults, however, showed no evidence of spontaneous, cross-modality semantic integration. Further, increasing the temporal delay between presenting the to-be-integrated items, from 5 min to 1 day, decreased overall response sensitivity but did not alter the patterns of integration results. The findings are discussed in terms of age differences in the spontaneous use of strategies for effective memory processing, with the extreme age groups processing more formal characteristics of the stimuli in memory, and the middle 2 groups processing deeper, more semantic information. PMID:7418508

  16. Project Integration Architecture: Formulation of Semantic Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    One of several key elements of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is the intention to formulate parameter objects which convey meaningful semantic information. In so doing, it is expected that a level of automation can be achieved in the consumption of information content by PIA-consuming clients outside the programmatic boundary of a presenting PIA-wrapped application. This paper discusses the steps that have been recently taken in formulating such semantically-meaningful parameters.

  17. Extraction of reduced alteration information based on Aster data: a case study of the Bashibulake uranium ore district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Fa-wang; Liu, De-chang

    2008-12-01

    Practices of sandstone-type uranium exploration in recent years in China indicate that the uranium mineralization alteration information is of great importance for selecting a new uranium target or prospecting in outer area of the known uranium ore district. Taking a case study of BASHIBULAKE uranium ore district, this paper mainly presents the technical minds and methods of extracting the reduced alteration information by oil and gas in BASHIBULAKE ore district using ASTER data. First, the regional geological setting and study status in BASHIBULAKE uranium ore district are introduced in brief. Then, the spectral characteristics of altered sandstone and un-altered sandstone in BASHIBULAKE ore district are analyzed deeply. Based on the spectral analysis, two technical minds to extract the remote sensing reduced alteration information are proposed, and the un-mixing method is introduced to process ASTER data to extract the reduced alteration information in BASHIBULAKE ore district. From the enhanced images, three remote sensing anomaly zones are discovered, and their geological and prospecting significances are further made sure by taking the advantages of multi-bands in SWIR of ASTER data. Finally, the distribution and intensity of the reduced alteration information in Cretaceous system and its relationship with the genesis of uranium deposit are discussed, the specific suggestions for uranium prospecting orientation in outer of BASHIBULAKE ore district are also proposed.

  18. Latent semantic analysis.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulos, Nicholas E

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews latent semantic analysis (LSA), a theory of meaning as well as a method for extracting that meaning from passages of text, based on statistical computations over a collection of documents. LSA as a theory of meaning defines a latent semantic space where documents and individual words are represented as vectors. LSA as a computational technique uses linear algebra to extract dimensions that represent that space. This representation enables the computation of similarity among terms and documents, categorization of terms and documents, and summarization of large collections of documents using automated procedures that mimic the way humans perform similar cognitive tasks. We present some technical details, various illustrative examples, and discuss a number of applications from linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, education, information science, and analysis of textual data in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:683-692. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1254 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304272

  19. LEARNING SEMANTICS-ENHANCED LANGUAGE MODELS APPLIED TO UNSUEPRVISED WSD

    SciTech Connect

    VERSPOOR, KARIN; LIN, SHOU-DE

    2007-01-29

    An N-gram language model aims at capturing statistical syntactic word order information from corpora. Although the concept of language models has been applied extensively to handle a variety of NLP problems with reasonable success, the standard model does not incorporate semantic information, and consequently limits its applicability to semantic problems such as word sense disambiguation. We propose a framework that integrates semantic information into the language model schema, allowing a system to exploit both syntactic and semantic information to address NLP problems. Furthermore, acknowledging the limited availability of semantically annotated data, we discuss how the proposed model can be learned without annotated training examples. Finally, we report on a case study showing how the semantics-enhanced language model can be applied to unsupervised word sense disambiguation with promising results.

  20. Aspects of Swedish Morphology and Semantics from the Perspective of Mono- and Cross-Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlund, Turid; Pirkola, Ari; Jarvelin, Kalervo

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes features of the Swedish language from the viewpoint of mono-and cross-language information retrieval. Results of a comparative study that tested the degree of lexical ambiguity in Swedish, Finnish, and English suggest that part-of-speech tagging might be useful in Swedish information retrieval due to the high frequency of homographic…

  1. D-Fussion: A Semantic Selective Disssemination of Information Service for the Research Community in Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-del-Castillo, Jose Manuel; Peis, Eduardo; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we propose a multi-agent Selective Dissemination of Information service to improve the research community's access to digital library resources. The service also provides a new recommendation approach to satisfy researchers' specific information requirements. Method: The service model is developed by jointly applying…

  2. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  3. Towards a semantic lexicon for clinical natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongfang; Wu, Stephen T; Li, Dingcheng; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Sohn, Sunghwan; Wagholikar, Kavishwar; Haug, Peter J; Huff, Stanley M; Chute, Christopher G

    2012-01-01

    A semantic lexicon which associates words and phrases in text to concepts is critical for extracting and encoding clinical information in free text and therefore achieving semantic interoperability between structured and unstructured data in Electronic Health Records (EHRs). Directly using existing standard terminologies may have limited coverage with respect to concepts and their corresponding mentions in text. In this paper, we analyze how tokens and phrases in a large corpus distribute and how well the UMLS captures the semantics. A corpus-driven semantic lexicon, MedLex, has been constructed where the semantics is based on the UMLS assisted with variants mined and usage information gathered from clinical text. The detailed corpus analysis of tokens, chunks, and concept mentions shows the UMLS is an invaluable source for natural language processing. Increasing the semantic coverage of tokens provides a good foundation in capturing clinical information comprehensively. The study also yields some insights in developing practical NLP systems. PMID:23304329

  4. AID to overcome the limitations of genomic information by introducing somatic DNA alterations

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, Tasuku; Muramatsu, Masamichi; Nagaoka, Hitoshi; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Shinkura, Reiko

    2006-01-01

    The immune system has adopted somatic DNA alterations to overcome the limitations of the genomic information. Activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an essential enzyme to regulate class switch recombination (CSR), somatic hypermutation (SHM) and gene conversion (GC) of the immunoglobulin gene. AID is known to be required for DNA cleavage of S regions in CSR and V regions in SHM. However, its molecular mechanism is a focus of extensive debate. RNA editing hypothesis postulates that AID edits yet unknown mRNA, to generate specific endonucleases for CSR and SHM. By contrast, DNA deamination hypothesis assumes that AID deaminates cytosine in DNA, followed by DNA cleavage by base excision repair enzymes. We summarize the basic knowledge for molecular mechanisms for CSR and SHM and then discuss the importance of AID not only in the immune regulation but also in the genome instability. PMID:25873751

  5. Uncovering the Architecture of Action Semantics

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christine E.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite research suggesting that stored sensorimotor information about tool use is a component of the semantic representations of tools, little is known about the action features or organizing principles that underlie this knowledge. We used methods similar to those applied in other semantic domains to examine the “architecture” of action semantic knowledge. In Experiment 1, participants sorted photographs of tools into groups according to the similarity of their associated “use” actions and rated tools on dimensions related to action. The results suggest that the magnitude of arm movement, configuration of the hand, and manner of motion during tool use play a role in determining how tools cluster in action “semantic space”. In Experiment 2, we validated the architecture uncovered in Experiment 1 using an implicit semantic task for which tool use knowledge was not ostensibly relevant (blocked cyclic word-picture matching). Using stimuli from Experiment 1, we found that participants performed more poorly during blocks of trials containing tools used with similar versus unrelated actions, and the amount of semantic interference depended on the magnitude of action similarity among tools. Thus, the degree of featural overlap between tool use actions plays a role in determining the overall semantic similarity of tools. PMID:25045905

  6. Maternal Immune Activation Alters Nonspatial Information Processing in the Hippocampus of the Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroshi T.; Smith, Stephen E. P.; Hsiao, Elaine; Patterson, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    The observation that maternal infection increases the risk for schizophrenia in the offspring suggests that the maternal immune system plays a key role in the etiology of schizophrenia. In a mouse model, maternal immune activation (MIA) by injection of poly(I:C) yields adult offspring that display abnormalities in a variety of behaviors relevant to schizophrenia. As abnormalities in the hippocampus are a consistent observation in schizophrenia patients, we examined synaptic properties in hippocampal slices prepared from the offspring of poly(I:C)- and saline-treated mothers. Compared to controls, CA1 pyramidal neurons from adult offspring of MIA mothers display reduced frequency and increased amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. In addition, the specific component of the temporoammonic pathway that mediates object-related information displays increased sensitivity to dopamine. To assess hippocampal network function in vivo, we used expression of the immediate early gene, c-Fos, as a surrogate measure of neuronal activity. Compared to controls, the offspring of poly(I:C)-treated mothers display a distinct c-Fos expression pattern in area CA1 following novel object, but not novel location, exposure. Thus, the offspring of MIA mothers may have an abnormality in modality-specific information processing. Indeed, the MIA offspring display enhanced discrimination in a novel object recognition, but not in an object location, task. Thus, analysis of object and spatial information processing at both synaptic and behavioral levels reveals a largely selective abnormality in object information processing in this mouse model. Our results suggest that altered processing of object-related information may be part of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia-like cognitive behaviors. PMID:20227486

  7. Altered processing of contextual information during fear extinction in PTSD: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Rougemont-Bücking, Ansgar; Linnman, Clas; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Zeidan, Mohamed A; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer; Rodriguez-Romaguera, Jose; Rauch, Scott L; Pitman, Roger K; Milad, Mohammed R

    2011-08-01

    Medial prefrontal cortical areas have been hypothesized to underlie altered contextual processing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We investigated brain signaling of contextual information in this disorder. Eighteen PTSD subjects and 16 healthy trauma-exposed subjects underwent a two-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. On day 1, within visual context A, a conditioned stimulus (CS) was followed 60% of the time by an electric shock (conditioning). The conditioned response was then extinguished (extinction learning) in context B. On day 2, recall of the extinction memory was tested in context B. Skin conductance response (SCR) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected during context presentations. There were no SCR group differences in any context presentation. Concerning fMRI data, during late conditioning, when context A signaled danger, PTSD subjects showed dorsal anterior cingulate cortical (dACC) hyperactivation. During early extinction, when context B had not yet fully acquired signal value for safety, PTSD subjects still showed dACC hyperactivation. During late extinction, when context B had come to signal safety, they showed ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) hypoactivation. During early extinction recall, when context B signaled safety, they showed both vmPFC hypoactivation and dACC hyperactivation. These findings suggest that PTSD subjects show alterations in the processing of contextual information related to danger and safety. This impairment is manifest even prior to a physiologically-measured, cue-elicited fear response, and characterized by hypoactivation in vmPFC and hyperactivation in dACC. PMID:20406268

  8. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages.

    PubMed

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework. PMID:25762923

  9. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages

    PubMed Central

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework. PMID:25762923

  10. From ontology selection and semantic web to the integrated information system of food-borne diseases and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last three decades, the rapid explosion of information and resources on human food-borne diseases and food safety has provided the ability to rapidly determine and interpret the mechanisms of survival and pathogenesis of food-borne pathogens. However, several factors have hindered effective...

  11. Semantic prosody and judgment.

    PubMed

    Hauser, David J; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-07-01

    Some words tend to co-occur exclusively with a positive or negative context in natural language use, even though such valence patterns are not dictated by definitions or are part of the words' core meaning. These words contain semantic prosody, a subtle valenced meaning derived from co-occurrence in language. As language and thought are heavily intertwined, we hypothesized that semantic prosody can affect evaluative inferences about related ambiguous concepts. Participants inferred that an ambiguous medical outcome was more negative when it was caused, a verb with negative semantic prosody, than when it was produced, a synonymous verb with no semantic prosody (Studies 1a, 1b). Participants completed sentence fragments in a manner consistent with semantic prosody (Study 2), and semantic prosody affected various other judgments in line with evaluative inferences (estimates of an event's likelihood in Study 3). Finally, semantic prosody elicited both positive and negative evaluations of outcomes across a large set of semantically prosodic verbs (Study 4). Thus, semantic prosody can exert a strong influence on evaluative judgment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243765

  12. Ontology Reuse in Geoscience Semantic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayernik, M. S.; Gross, M. B.; Daniels, M. D.; Rowan, L. R.; Stott, D.; Maull, K. E.; Khan, H.; Corson-Rikert, J.

    2015-12-01

    The tension between local ontology development and wider ontology connections is fundamental to the Semantic web. It is often unclear, however, what the key decision points should be for new semantic web applications in deciding when to reuse existing ontologies and when to develop original ontologies. In addition, with the growth of semantic web ontologies and applications, new semantic web applications can struggle to efficiently and effectively identify and select ontologies to reuse. This presentation will describe the ontology comparison, selection, and consolidation effort within the EarthCollab project. UCAR, Cornell University, and UNAVCO are collaborating on the EarthCollab project to use semantic web technologies to enable the discovery of the research output from a diverse array of projects. The EarthCollab project is using the VIVO Semantic web software suite to increase discoverability of research information and data related to the following two geoscience-based communities: (1) the Bering Sea Project, an interdisciplinary field program whose data archive is hosted by NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL), and (2) diverse research projects informed by geodesy through the UNAVCO geodetic facility and consortium. This presentation will outline of EarthCollab use cases, and provide an overview of key ontologies being used, including the VIVO-Integrated Semantic Framework (VIVO-ISF), Global Change Information System (GCIS), and Data Catalog (DCAT) ontologies. We will discuss issues related to bringing these ontologies together to provide a robust ontological structure to support the EarthCollab use cases. It is rare that a single pre-existing ontology meets all of a new application's needs. New projects need to stitch ontologies together in ways that fit into the broader semantic web ecosystem.

  13. Modeling Semantic and Structural Knowledge in Web Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvina, Ion; van Oostendorp, Herre

    2008-01-01

    Research on cognitive modeling of information search and Web navigation emphasizes the importance of "information scent" (the relevance of semantic cues such as link labels and headings to a reader's goal; Pirolli & Card, 1999). This article shows that not only semantic but also structural knowledge is involved in navigating the Web (Juvina,…

  14. LORD: a phenotype-genotype semantically integrated biomedical data tool to support rare disease diagnosis coding in health information systems

    PubMed Central

    Choquet, Remy; Maaroufi, Meriem; Fonjallaz, Yannick; de Carrara, Albane; Vandenbussche, Pierre-Yves; Dhombres, Ferdinand; Landais, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing a rare disease diagnosis for a given patient is often made through expert’s networks. It is a complex task that could evolve over time depending on the natural history of the disease and the evolution of the scientific knowledge. Most rare diseases have genetic causes and recent improvements of sequencing techniques contribute to the discovery of many new diseases every year. Diagnosis coding in the rare disease field requires data from multiple knowledge bases to be aggregated in order to offer the clinician a global information space from possible diagnosis to clinical signs (phenotypes) and known genetic mutations (genotype). Nowadays, the major barrier to the coding activity is the lack of consolidation of such information scattered in different thesaurus such as Orphanet, OMIM or HPO. The Linking Open data for Rare Diseases (LORD) web portal we developed stands as the first attempt to fill this gap by offering an integrated view of 8,400 rare diseases linked to more than 14,500 signs and 3,270 genes. The application provides a browsing feature to navigate through the relationships between diseases, signs and genes, and some Application Programming Interfaces to help its integration in health information systems in routine. PMID:26958175

  15. LORD: a phenotype-genotype semantically integrated biomedical data tool to support rare disease diagnosis coding in health information systems.

    PubMed

    Choquet, Remy; Maaroufi, Meriem; Fonjallaz, Yannick; de Carrara, Albane; Vandenbussche, Pierre-Yves; Dhombres, Ferdinand; Landais, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing a rare disease diagnosis for a given patient is often made through expert's networks. It is a complex task that could evolve over time depending on the natural history of the disease and the evolution of the scientific knowledge. Most rare diseases have genetic causes and recent improvements of sequencing techniques contribute to the discovery of many new diseases every year. Diagnosis coding in the rare disease field requires data from multiple knowledge bases to be aggregated in order to offer the clinician a global information space from possible diagnosis to clinical signs (phenotypes) and known genetic mutations (genotype). Nowadays, the major barrier to the coding activity is the lack of consolidation of such information scattered in different thesaurus such as Orphanet, OMIM or HPO. The Linking Open data for Rare Diseases (LORD) web portal we developed stands as the first attempt to fill this gap by offering an integrated view of 8,400 rare diseases linked to more than 14,500 signs and 3,270 genes. The application provides a browsing feature to navigate through the relationships between diseases, signs and genes, and some Application Programming Interfaces to help its integration in health information systems in routine. PMID:26958175

  16. The Fact and Future of Semantic Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, N.

    2008-08-01

    The Semantic Web has turned from W3C vision into a set of practical engineering challenges; at the same time, the success of Web~2.0 applications has illustrated a broad variety of new ways that users (and indeed machines) can interact with data sources. Now is an excellent time to examine the many opportunities for astronomy, including semantic data access, data mining (exploiting distributed annotation and heterogeneous sources), and intelligent data dissemination and discovery. This paper presents a brief review of the technologies, illustrating it with examples of the wide range of existing Virtual Observatory semantic applications, from the elaborate and formal to the informal and lightweight. The latter tools overlap with Web-2.0 style applications, and indicate how we might adapt some of that community's more successful ideas. Throughout, the emphasis will be on how existing applications help us imagine further possibilities of the emerging field of Semantic Astronomy.

  17. Software analysis in the semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Joshua; Hall, Robert T.

    2013-05-01

    Many approaches in software analysis, particularly dynamic malware analyis, benefit greatly from the use of linked data and other Semantic Web technology. In this paper, we describe AIS, Inc.'s Semantic Extractor (SemEx) component from the Malware Analysis and Attribution through Genetic Information (MAAGI) effort, funded under DARPA's Cyber Genome program. The SemEx generates OWL-based semantic models of high and low level behaviors in malware samples from system call traces generated by AIS's introspective hypervisor, IntroVirtTM. Within MAAGI, these semantic models were used by modules that cluster malware samples by functionality, and construct "genealogical" malware lineages. Herein, we describe the design, implementation, and use of the SemEx, as well as the C2DB, an OWL ontology used for representing software behavior and cyber-environments.

  18. A Collection of Features for Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B

    2007-05-02

    Semantic graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of semantic graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to semantic graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for semantic graphs that vary over time.

  19. Synaptic plasticity, neural circuits, and the emerging role of altered short-term information processing in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Gregg W.; Gogos, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity alters the strength of information flow between presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons and thus modifies the likelihood that action potentials in a presynaptic neuron will lead to an action potential in a postsynaptic neuron. As such, synaptic plasticity and pathological changes in synaptic plasticity impact the synaptic computation which controls the information flow through the neural microcircuits responsible for the complex information processing necessary to drive adaptive behaviors. As current theories of neuropsychiatric disease suggest that distinct dysfunctions in neural circuit performance may critically underlie the unique symptoms of these diseases, pathological alterations in synaptic plasticity mechanisms may be fundamental to the disease process. Here we consider mechanisms of both short-term and long-term plasticity of synaptic transmission and their possible roles in information processing by neural microcircuits in both health and disease. As paradigms of neuropsychiatric diseases with strongly implicated risk genes, we discuss the findings in schizophrenia and autism and consider the alterations in synaptic plasticity and network function observed in both human studies and genetic mouse models of these diseases. Together these studies have begun to point toward a likely dominant role of short-term synaptic plasticity alterations in schizophrenia while dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may be due to a combination of both short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity alterations. PMID:25505409

  20. Communication: General Semantics Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Lee, Ed.

    This book contains the edited papers from the eleventh International Conference on General Semantics, titled "A Search for Relevance." The conference questioned, as a central theme, the relevance of general semantics in a world of wars and human misery. Reacting to a fundamental Korzybski-ian principle that man's view of reality is distorted by…

  1. The Semantic Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

  2. Aging and Semantic Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Darlene V.

    Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

  3. Semantic Web Data Discovery of Earth Science Data at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwara; Strub, Richard F.; Lynnes, Christopher S.; Fang, Hongliang; Teng, William

    2008-01-01

    Mirador is a web interface for searching Earth Science data archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Mirador provides keyword-based search and guided navigation for providing efficient search and access to Earth Science data. Mirador employs the power of Google's universal search technology for fast metadata keyword searches, augmented by additional capabilities such as event searches (e.g., hurricanes), searches based on location gazetteer, and data services like format converters and data sub-setters. The objective of guided data navigation is to present users with multiple guided navigation in Mirador is an ontology based on the Global Change Master directory (GCMD) Directory Interchange Format (DIF). Current implementation includes the project ontology covering various instruments and model data. Additional capabilities in the pipeline include Earth Science parameter and applications ontologies.

  4. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  5. Semantics, Pragmatics, and the Nature of Semantic Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spewak, David Charles, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The primary concern of this dissertation is determining the distinction between semantics and pragmatics and how context sensitivity should be accommodated within a semantic theory. I approach the question over how to distinguish semantics from pragmatics from a new angle by investigating what the objects of a semantic theory are, namely…

  6. Prenatal androgen exposure alters girls' responses to information indicating gender-appropriate behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hines, Melissa; Pasterski, Vickie; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Patalay, Praveetha; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L

    2016-02-19

    Individual variability in human gender-related behaviour is influenced by many factors, including androgen exposure prenatally, as well as self-socialization and socialization by others postnatally. Many studies have looked at these types of influences in isolation, but little is known about how they work together. Here, we report that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally, because they have the genetic condition congenital adrenal hyperplasia, show changes in processes related to self-socialization of gender-related behaviour. Specifically, they are less responsive than other girls to information that particular objects are for girls and they show reduced imitation of female models choosing particular objects. These findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure may influence subsequent gender-related behaviours, including object (toy) choices, in part by changing processes involved in the self-socialization of gendered behaviour, rather than only by inducing permanent changes in the brain during early development. In addition, the findings suggest that some of the behavioural effects of prenatal androgen exposure might be subject to alteration by postnatal socialization processes. The findings also suggest a previously unknown influence of early androgen exposure on later processes involved in self-socialization of gender-related behaviour, and thus expand understanding of the developmental systems regulating human gender development. PMID:26833843

  7. Altering shoppers' supermarket purchases to fit nutritional guidelines: An interactive information system

    PubMed Central

    Winett, Richard A.; Geller, E. Scott; Mundy, Laurie L.; Moore, John F.; Wagner, Jana L.; Hite, Lee A.; Leahy, Michael; Neubauer, Tamara E.; Walberg, Janet L.; Walker, W. Bruce; Lombard, David

    1991-01-01

    This study reports the results of one effort to help supermarket shoppers alter food purchases to make purchases (and meals) that are lower in fat and higher in fiber. A prototype interactive information system using instructional video programs, feedback on purchases with specific goals for change, weekly programs, and the ability to track user interactions and intended purchases was evaluated. The major dependent measure was users' actual food purchases as derived from participants' highly detailed supermarket receipts. After a 5- to 7-week baseline phase, participants were randomly assigned to an experimental or control condition for the 7- to 8-week intervention phase. A follow-up phase began 5 to 8 weeks after participants completed the intervention and discontinued use of the system. The results indicated that experimental participants, when compared to control participants, decreased high fat purchases and increased high fiber purchases during intervention, with evidence for some maintenance of effect in follow-up. Plans for increasing the use and impact of the system are discussed. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:1647387

  8. Preservation of Person-Specific Semantic Knowledge in Semantic Dementia: Does Direct Personal Experience Have a Specific Role?

    PubMed Central

    Péron, Julie A.; Piolino, Pascale; Moal-Boursiquot, Sandrine Le; Biseul, Isabelle; Leray, Emmanuelle; Bon, Laetitia; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis; Belliard, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Semantic dementia patients seem to have better knowledge of information linked to the self. More specifically, despite having severe semantic impairment, these patients show that they have more general information about the people they know personally by direct experience than they do about other individuals they know indirectly. However, the role of direct personal experience remains debated because of confounding factors such as frequency, recency of exposure, and affective relevance. We performed an exploratory study comparing the performance of five semantic dementia patients with that of 10 matched healthy controls on the recognition (familiarity judgment) and identification (biographic information recall) of personally familiar names vs. famous names. As expected, intergroup comparisons indicated a semantic breakdown in semantic dementia patients as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, unlike healthy controls, the semantic dementia patients recognized and identified personally familiar names better than they did famous names. This pattern of results suggests that direct personal experience indeed plays a specific role in the relative preservation of person-specific semantic meaning in semantic dementia. We discuss the role of direct personal experience on the preservation of semantic knowledge and the potential neurophysiological mechanisms underlying these processes. PMID:26635578

  9. Anomia as a Marker of Distinct Semantic Memory Impairments in Alzheimer’s Disease and Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Jamie; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Antonucci, Sharon M.; Grossman, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Objective Many neurologically-constrained models of semantic memory have been informed by two primary temporal lobe pathologies: Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Semantic Dementia (SD). However, controversy persists regarding the nature of the semantic impairment associated with these patient populations. Some argue that AD presents as a disconnection syndrome in which linguistic impairment reflects difficulties in lexical or perceptual means of semantic access. In contrast, there is a wider consensus that SD reflects loss of core knowledge that underlies word and object meaning. Object naming provides a window into the integrity of semantic knowledge in these two populations. Method We examined naming accuracy, errors and the correlation of naming ability with neuropsychological measures (semantic ability, executive functioning, and working memory) in a large sample of patients with AD (n=36) and SD (n=21). Results Naming ability and naming errors differed between groups, as did neuropsychological predictors of naming ability. Despite a similar extent of baseline cognitive impairment, SD patients were more anomic than AD patients. Conclusions These results add to a growing body of literature supporting a dual impairment to semantic content and active semantic processing in AD, and confirm the fundamental deficit in semantic content in SD. We interpret these findings as supporting of a model of semantic memory premised upon dynamic interactivity between the process and content of conceptual knowledge. PMID:21443339

  10. Semantic Services for Wikipedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

    Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

  11. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  12. Semantic Learning Modifies Perceptual Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisz, Jennifer J.; Shedden, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Face processing changes when a face is learned with personally relevant information. In a five-day learning paradigm, faces were presented with rich semantic stories that conveyed personal information about the faces. Event-related potentials were recorded before and after learning during a passive viewing task. When faces were novel, we observed…

  13. Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect

    PubMed Central

    Dekerle, Marie; Boulenger, Véronique; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1–4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring. PMID:25400572

  14. Semantic SenseLab: implementing the vision of the Semantic Web in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Samwald, Matthias; Chen, Huajun; Ruttenberg, Alan; Lim, Ernest; Marenco, Luis; Miller, Perry; Shepherd, Gordon; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective Integrative neuroscience research needs a scalable informatics framework that enables semantic integration of diverse types of neuroscience data. This paper describes the use of the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and other Semantic Web technologies for the representation and integration of molecular-level data provided by several of SenseLab suite of neuroscience databases. Methods Based on the original database structure, we semi-automatically translated the databases into OWL ontologies with manual addition of semantic enrichment. The SenseLab ontologies are extensively linked to other biomedical Semantic Web resources, including the Subcellular Anatomy Ontology, Brain Architecture Management System, the Gene Ontology, BIRNLex and UniProt. The SenseLab ontologies have also been mapped to the Basic Formal Ontology and Relation Ontology, which helps ease interoperability with many other existing and future biomedical ontologies for the Semantic Web. In addition, approaches to representing contradictory research statements are described. The SenseLab ontologies are designed for use on the Semantic Web that enables their integration into a growing collection of biomedical information resources. Conclusion We demonstrate that our approach can yield significant potential benefits and that the Semantic Web is rapidly becoming mature enough to realize its anticipated promises. The ontologies are available online at http://neuroweb.med.yale.edu/senselab/ PMID:20006477

  15. Lexical and Sublexical Semantic Preview Benefits in Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ming; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    Semantic processing from parafoveal words is an elusive phenomenon in alphabetic languages, but it has been demonstrated only for a restricted set of noncompound Chinese characters. Using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm, this experiment examined whether parafoveal lexical and sublexical semantic information was extracted from compound…

  16. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    PubMed Central

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  17. Adventures in Semantic Publishing: Exemplar Semantic Enhancements of a Research Article

    PubMed Central

    Shotton, David; Portwin, Katie; Klyne, Graham; Miles, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit “Citations in Context”, and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups) with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/). The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of semantic publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of semantic publishing for their own research

  18. Algebraic Semantics for Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, E.

    1974-01-01

    This paper uses discussion of Edmund Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" to present a theoretical framework for explaining the semantics of narrative discourse. The algebraic theory of finite automata is used. (CK)

  19. Auditing the Unified Medical Language System with Semantic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) includes a Metathesaurus (Meta), which is a compilation of medical terms drawn from over 30 controlled vocabularies, and a Semantic Net, which contains the semantic types used to categorize Meta concepts and the semantic relations to connect them. Meta has been constructed through lexical matching techniques and human review. The purpose of this study was to audit the Meta using semantic techniques to identify possible inconsistencies. Methods: Five different techniques were applied: (1) detection of ambiguity in Meta concepts with two or more semantic types, (2) detection of interchangeable keyword synonyms, (3) detection of redundant pairs of Meta concepts (using lexical matching combined with keyword synonyms), (4) detection of inconsistent parent-child relationships in Meta (based on the semantic type information), and (5) discovery of pairs of semantic types for which relations could be added to the Semantic Net, based on “other” relationships between Meta concepts. Results: Of 57,592 concepts with multiple semantic types, 1817 (3.2%) were judged to be ambiguous. Keyword analysis showed 7121 pairs of interchangeable words. Using the keyword pairs, 5031 pairs of potentially redundant concepts were suggested, of which 3274 (65.1%) were judged to actually be redundant. Review of the 100,586 parent-child relationships revealed 544 (0.54%) that were incorrect. Review of the 219,664 “Other” relationships suggested 1299 places in the Semantic Net where relations between pairs of semantic types could be added. Conclusion: Semantic techniques, alone or in combination, can be used to audit the UMLS to detect inconsistencies that are not detectable through lexical techniques alone. Use of these methods to augment the UMLS maintenance process will lead to improvement in the UMLS. PMID:9452984

  20. Remote semantic memory is impoverished in hippocampal amnesia.

    PubMed

    Klooster, Nathaniel B; Duff, Melissa C

    2015-12-01

    The necessity of the hippocampus for acquiring new semantic concepts is a topic of considerable debate. However, it is generally accepted that any role the hippocampus plays in semantic memory is time limited and that previously acquired information becomes independent of the hippocampus over time. This view, along with intact naming and word-definition matching performance in amnesia, has led to the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in patients with hippocampal amnesia. Motivated by perspectives of word learning as a protracted process where additional features and senses of a word are added over time, and by recent discoveries about the time course of hippocampal contributions to on-line relational processing, reconsolidation, and the flexible integration of information, we revisit the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in amnesia. Using measures of semantic richness and vocabulary depth from psycholinguistics and first and second language-learning studies, we examined how much information is associated with previously acquired, highly familiar words in a group of patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia. Relative to healthy demographically matched comparison participants and a group of brain-damaged comparison participants, the patients with hippocampal amnesia performed significantly worse on both productive and receptive measures of vocabulary depth and semantic richness. These findings suggest that remote semantic memory is impoverished in patients with hippocampal amnesia and that the hippocampus may play a role in the maintenance and updating of semantic memory beyond its initial acquisition. PMID:26474741

  1. Semantic-based crossmodal processing during visual suppression

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Dustin; Hong, Sang Wook

    2015-01-01

    To reveal the mechanisms underpinning the influence of auditory input on visual awareness, we examine, (1) whether purely semantic-based multisensory integration facilitates the access to visual awareness for familiar visual events, and (2) whether crossmodal semantic priming is the mechanism responsible for the semantic auditory influence on visual awareness. Using continuous flash suppression, we rendered dynamic and familiar visual events (e.g., a video clip of an approaching train) inaccessible to visual awareness. We manipulated the semantic auditory context of the videos by concurrently pairing them with a semantically matching soundtrack (congruent audiovisual condition), a semantically non-matching soundtrack (incongruent audiovisual condition), or with no soundtrack (neutral video-only condition). We found that participants identified the suppressed visual events significantly faster (an earlier breakup of suppression) in the congruent audiovisual condition compared to the incongruent audiovisual condition and video-only condition. However, this facilitatory influence of semantic auditory input was only observed when audiovisual stimulation co-occurred. Our results suggest that the enhanced visual processing with a semantically congruent auditory input occurs due to audiovisual crossmodal processing rather than semantic priming, which may occur even when visual information is not available to visual awareness. PMID:26082736

  2. Somatotopic Semantic Priming and Prediction in the Motor System.

    PubMed

    Grisoni, Luigi; Dreyer, Felix R; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-05-01

    The recognition of action-related sounds and words activates motor regions, reflecting the semantic grounding of these symbols in action information; in addition, motor cortex exerts causal influences on sound perception and language comprehension. However, proponents of classic symbolic theories still dispute the role of modality-preferential systems such as the motor cortex in the semantic processing of meaningful stimuli. To clarify whether the motor system carries semantic processes, we investigated neurophysiological indexes of semantic relationships between action-related sounds and words. Event-related potentials revealed that action-related words produced significantly larger stimulus-evoked (Mismatch Negativity-like) and predictive brain responses (Readiness Potentials) when presented in body-part-incongruent sound contexts (e.g., "kiss" in footstep sound context; "kick" in whistle context) than in body-part-congruent contexts, a pattern reminiscent of neurophysiological correlates of semantic priming. Cortical generators of the semantic relatedness effect were localized in areas traditionally associated with semantic memory, including left inferior frontal cortex and temporal pole, and, crucially, in motor areas, where body-part congruency of action sound-word relationships was indexed by a somatotopic pattern of activation. As our results show neurophysiological manifestations of action-semantic priming in the motor cortex, they prove semantic processing in the motor system and thus in a modality-preferential system of the human brain. PMID:26908635

  3. Somatotopic Semantic Priming and Prediction in the Motor System

    PubMed Central

    Grisoni, Luigi; Dreyer, Felix R.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of action-related sounds and words activates motor regions, reflecting the semantic grounding of these symbols in action information; in addition, motor cortex exerts causal influences on sound perception and language comprehension. However, proponents of classic symbolic theories still dispute the role of modality-preferential systems such as the motor cortex in the semantic processing of meaningful stimuli. To clarify whether the motor system carries semantic processes, we investigated neurophysiological indexes of semantic relationships between action-related sounds and words. Event-related potentials revealed that action-related words produced significantly larger stimulus-evoked (Mismatch Negativity-like) and predictive brain responses (Readiness Potentials) when presented in body-part-incongruent sound contexts (e.g., “kiss” in footstep sound context; “kick” in whistle context) than in body-part-congruent contexts, a pattern reminiscent of neurophysiological correlates of semantic priming. Cortical generators of the semantic relatedness effect were localized in areas traditionally associated with semantic memory, including left inferior frontal cortex and temporal pole, and, crucially, in motor areas, where body-part congruency of action sound–word relationships was indexed by a somatotopic pattern of activation. As our results show neurophysiological manifestations of action-semantic priming in the motor cortex, they prove semantic processing in the motor system and thus in a modality-preferential system of the human brain. PMID:26908635

  4. The Semantic Web: From Representation to Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thórisson, Kristinn R.; Spivack, Nova; Wissner, James M.

    A semantically-linked web of electronic information - the Semantic Web - promises numerous benefits including increased precision in automated information sorting, searching, organizing and summarizing. Realizing this requires significantly more reliable meta-information than is readily available today. It also requires a better way to represent information that supports unified management of diverse data and diverse Manipulation methods: from basic keywords to various types of artificial intelligence, to the highest level of intelligent manipulation - the human mind. How this is best done is far from obvious. Relying solely on hand-crafted annotation and ontologies, or solely on artificial intelligence techniques, seems less likely for success than a combination of the two. In this paper describe an integrated, complete solution to these challenges that has already been implemented and tested with hundreds of thousands of users. It is based on an ontological representational level we call SemCards that combines ontological rigour with flexible user interface constructs. SemCards are machine- and human-readable digital entities that allow non-experts to create and use semantic content, while empowering machines to better assist and participate in the process. SemCards enable users to easily create semantically-grounded data that in turn acts as examples for automation processes, creating a positive iterative feedback loop of metadata creation and refinement between user and machine. They provide a holistic solution to the Semantic Web, supporting powerful management of the full lifecycle of data, including its creation, retrieval, classification, sorting and sharing. We have implemented the SemCard technology on the semantic Web site Twine.com, showing that the technology is indeed versatile and scalable. Here we present the key ideas behind SemCards and describe the initial implementation of the technology.

  5. Semantic Visualization Mapping for Illustrative Volume Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautek, P.; Bruckner, S.; Gröller, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    Measured and simulated data is usually divided into several meaningful intervals that are relevant to the domain expert. Examples from medicine are the specific semantics for different measuring modalities. A PET scan of a brain measures brain activity. It shows regions of homogeneous activity that are labeled by experts with semantic values such as low brain activity or high brain activity. Diffusion MRI data provides information about the healthiness of tissue regions and is classified by experts with semantic values like healthy, diseased, or necrotic. Medical CT data encode the measured density values in Hounsfield units. Specific intervals of the Hounsfield scale refer to different tissue types like air, soft tissue, bone, contrast enhanced vessels, etc. However, the semantic parameters from expert domains are not necessarily used to describe a mapping between the volume attributes and visual appearance. Volume rendering techniques commonly map attributes of the underlying data on visual appearance via a transfer function. Transfer functions are a powerful tool to achieve various visualization mappings. The specification of transfer functions is a complex task. The user has to have expert knowledge about the underlying rendering technique to achieve the desired results. Especially the specification of higher-dimensional transfer functions is challenging. Common user interfaces provide methods to brush in two dimensions. While brushing is an intuitive method to select regions of interest or to specify features, user interfaces for higher-dimensions are more challenging and often non-intuitive. For seismic data the situation is even more difficult since the data typically consists of many more volumetric attributes than for example medical datasets. Scientific illustrators are experts in conveying information by visual means. They also make use of semantics in a natural way describing visual abstractions such as shading, tone, rendering style, saturation

  6. Semiautomatic generation of semantic building models from image series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, Stefan; Decker, Peter; Paulus, Dietrich

    2012-03-01

    We present an approach to generate a 3D model of a building including semantic annotations from image series. In the recent years semantic based modeling, reconstruction of buildings and building recognition became more and more important. Semantic building models have more information than just the geometry, thus making them more suitable for recognition or simulation tasks. The time consuming generation of such models and annotations makes an automatism desirable. Therefore, we present a semiautomatic approach towards semantic model generation. This approach has been implemented as a plugin for the photostitching tool Hugin*. Our approach reduces the interaction with the system to a minimum. The resulting model contains semantic, geometric and appearance information and is represented in City Geography Markup Language (CityGML).

  7. Semantic classification of business images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Berna; Hull, Jonathan J.

    2006-01-01

    Digital cameras are becoming increasingly common for capturing information in business settings. In this paper, we describe a novel method for classifying images into the following semantic classes: document, whiteboard, business card, slide, and regular images. Our method is based on combining low-level image features, such as text color, layout, and handwriting features with high-level OCR output analysis. Several Support Vector Machine Classifiers are combined for multi-class classification of input images. The system yields 95% accuracy in classification.

  8. Effects of semantic relatedness on recall of stimuli preceding emotional oddballs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan M; Beversdorf, David Q

    2008-07-01

    Semantic and episodic memory networks function as highly interconnected systems, both relying on the hippocampal/medial temporal lobe complex (HC/MTL). Episodic memory encoding triggers the retrieval of semantic information, serving to incorporate contextual relationships between the newly acquired memory and existing semantic representations. While emotional material augments episodic memory encoding at the time of stimulus presentation, interactions between emotion and semantic memory that contribute to subsequent episodic recall are not well understood. Using a modified oddball task, we examined the modulatory effects of negative emotion on semantic interactions with episodic memory by measuring the free-recall of serially presented neutral or negative words varying in semantic relatedness. We found increased free-recall for words related to and preceding emotionally negative oddballs, suggesting that negative emotion can indirectly facilitate episodic free-recall by enhancing semantic contributions during encoding. Our findings demonstrate the ability of emotion and semantic memory to interact to mutually enhance free-recall. PMID:18577291

  9. Gazetteer Brokering through Semantic Mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.

    2013-12-01

    A gazetteer is a geographical directory containing some information regarding places. It provides names, location and other attributes for places which may include points of interest (e.g. buildings, oilfields and boreholes), and other features. These features can be published via web services conforming to the Gazetteer Application Profile of the Web Feature Service (WFS) standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Against the backdrop of advances in geophysical surveys, there has been a significant increase in the amount of data referenced to locations. Gazetteers services have played a significant role in facilitating access to such data, including through provision of specialized queries such as text, spatial and fuzzy search. Recent developments in the OGC have led to advances in gazetteers such as support for multilingualism, diacritics, and querying via advanced spatial constraints (e.g. search by radial search and nearest neighbor). A challenge remaining however, is that gazetteers produced by different organizations have typically been modeled differently. Inconsistencies from gazetteers produced by different organizations may include naming the same feature in a different way, naming the attributes differently, locating the feature in a different location, and providing fewer or more attributes than the other services. The Gazetteer application profile of the WFS is a starting point to address such inconsistencies by providing a standardized interface based on rules specified in ISO 19112, the international standard for spatial referencing by geographic identifiers. The profile, however, does not provide rules to deal with semantic inconsistencies. The USGS and NGA commissioned research into the potential for a Single Point of Entry Global Gazetteer (SPEGG). The research was conducted by the Cross Community Interoperability thread of the OGC testbed, referenced OWS-9. The testbed prototyped approaches for brokering gazetteers through use of semantic

  10. Empirical Distributional Semantics: Methods and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, a range of methods have been developed that are able to learn human-like estimates of the semantic relatedness between terms from the way in which these terms are distributed in a corpus of unannotated natural language text. These methods have also been evaluated in a number of applications in the cognitive science, computational linguistics and the information retrieval literatures. In this paper, we review the available methodologies for derivation of semantic relatedness from free text, as well as their evaluation in a variety of biomedical and other applications. Recent methodological developments, and their applicability to several existing applications are also discussed. PMID:19232399

  11. Developmental changes in semantic knowledge organization.

    PubMed

    Unger, Layla; Fisher, Anna V; Nugent, Rebecca; Ventura, Samuel L; MacLellan, Christopher J

    2016-06-01

    Semantic knowledge is a crucial aspect of higher cognition. Theoretical accounts of semantic knowledge posit that relations between concepts provide organizational structure that converts information known about individual entities into an interconnected network in which concepts can be linked by many types of relations (e.g., taxonomic, thematic). The goal of the current research was to address several methodological shortcomings of prior studies on the development of semantic organization, by using a variant of the spatial arrangement method (SpAM) to collect graded judgments of relatedness for a set of entities that can be cross-classified into either taxonomic or thematic groups. In Experiment 1, we used the cross-classify SpAM (CC-SpAM) to obtain graded relatedness judgments and derive a representation of developmental changes in the organization of semantic knowledge. In Experiment 2, we validated the findings of Experiment 1 by using a more traditional pairwise similarity judgment paradigm. Across both experiments, we found that an early recognition of links between entities that are both taxonomically and thematically related preceded an increasing recognition of links based on a single type of relation. The utility of CC-SpAM for evaluating theoretical accounts of semantic development is discussed. PMID:26974015

  12. A Semantic Constraint on Syntactic Parsing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Stephen; Coker, Pamela L.

    This research examines how semantic information influences syntactic parsing decisions during sentence processing. In the first experiment, subjects were presented lexical strings having syntactically identical surface structures but with two possible underlying structures: "The children taught by the Berlitz method," and "The teachers taught by…

  13. Hybrid Filtering in Semantic Query Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Hanjo

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents a hybrid filtering method and a case-based reasoning framework for enhancing the effectiveness of Web search. Web search may not reflect user needs, intent, context, and preferences, because today's keyword-based search is lacking semantic information to capture the user's context and intent in posing the search query.…

  14. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Kalil A; Rosa, Nelson S; Cunha, Paulo R F

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks), which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS. PMID:26528974

  15. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bispo, Kalil A.; Rosa, Nelson S.; Cunha, Paulo R. F.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks), which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS. PMID:26528974

  16. SemantEco: a semantically powered modular architecture for integrating distributed environmental and ecological data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, Evan W.; Seyed, Patrice; Wang, Ping; Fu, Linyun; Dein, F. Joshua; Bristol, R. Sky; McGuinness, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    We aim to inform the development of decision support tools for resource managers who need to examine large complex ecosystems and make recommendations in the face of many tradeoffs and conflicting drivers. We take a semantic technology approach, leveraging background ontologies and the growing body of linked open data. In previous work, we designed and implemented a semantically enabled environmental monitoring framework called SemantEco and used it to build a water quality portal named SemantAqua. Our previous system included foundational ontologies to support environmental regulation violations and relevant human health effects. In this work, we discuss SemantEco’s new architecture that supports modular extensions and makes it easier to support additional domains. Our enhanced framework includes foundational ontologies to support modeling of wildlife observation and wildlife health impacts, thereby enabling deeper and broader support for more holistically examining the effects of environmental pollution on ecosystems. We conclude with a discussion of how, through the application of semantic technologies, modular designs will make it easier for resource managers to bring in new sources of data to support more complex use cases.

  17. The MMI Semantic Framework: Rosetta Stones for Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, C.; Bermudez, L. E.; Graybeal, J.; Alexander, P.

    2009-12-01

    Semantic interoperability—the exchange of meaning among computer systems—is needed to successfully share data in Ocean Science and across all Earth sciences. The best approach toward semantic interoperability requires a designed framework, and operationally tested tools and infrastructure within that framework. Currently available technologies make a scientific semantic framework feasible, but its development requires sustainable architectural vision and development processes. This presentation outlines the MMI Semantic Framework, including recent progress on it and its client applications. The MMI Semantic Framework consists of tools, infrastructure, and operational and community procedures and best practices, to meet short-term and long-term semantic interoperability goals. The design and prioritization of the semantic framework capabilities are based on real-world scenarios in Earth observation systems. We describe some key uses cases, as well as the associated requirements for building the overall infrastructure, which is realized through the MMI Ontology Registry and Repository. This system includes support for community creation and sharing of semantic content, ontology registration, version management, and seamless integration of user-friendly tools and application programming interfaces. The presentation describes the architectural components for semantic mediation, registry and repository for vocabularies, ontology, and term mappings. We show how the technologies and approaches in the framework can address community needs for managing and exchanging semantic information. We will demonstrate how different types of users and client applications exploit the tools and services for data aggregation, visualization, archiving, and integration. Specific examples from OOSTethys (http://www.oostethys.org) and the Ocean Observatories Initiative Cyberinfrastructure (http://www.oceanobservatories.org) will be cited. Finally, we show how semantic augmentation of web

  18. Evaluating the Semantic Web: A Task-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabou, Marta; Gracia, Jorge; Angeletou, Sofia; D'Aquin, Mathieu; Motta, Enrico

    The increased availability of online knowledge has led to the design of several algorithms that solve a variety of tasks by harvesting the Semantic Web, i.e., by dynamically selecting and exploring a multitude of online ontologies. Our hypothesis is that the performance of such novel algorithms implicitly provides an insight into the quality of the used ontologies and thus opens the way to a task-based evaluation of the Semantic Web. We have investigated this hypothesis by studying the lessons learnt about online ontologies when used to solve three tasks: ontology matching, folksonomy enrichment, and word sense disambiguation. Our analysis leads to a suit of conclusions about the status of the Semantic Web, which highlight a number of strengths and weaknesses of the semantic information available online and complement the findings of other analysis of the Semantic Web landscape.

  19. A probabilistic model of semantic plausibility in sentence processing.

    PubMed

    Padó, Ulrike; Crocker, Matthew W; Keller, Frank

    2009-07-01

    Experimental research shows that human sentence processing uses information from different levels of linguistic analysis, for example, lexical and syntactic preferences as well as semantic plausibility. Existing computational models of human sentence processing, however, have focused primarily on lexico-syntactic factors. Those models that do account for semantic plausibility effects lack a general model of human plausibility intuitions at the sentence level. Within a probabilistic framework, we propose a wide-coverage model that both assigns thematic roles to verb-argument pairs and determines a preferred interpretation by evaluating the plausibility of the resulting (verb, role, argument) triples. The model is trained on a corpus of role-annotated language data. We also present a transparent integration of the semantic model with an incremental probabilistic parser. We demonstrate that both the semantic plausibility model and the combined syntax/semantics model predict judgment and reading time data from the experimental literature. PMID:21585487

  20. A choice-semantical approach to theoretical truth.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Holger; Schiemer, Georg

    2016-08-01

    A central topic in the logic of science concerns the proper semantic analysis of theoretical sentences, that is sentences containing theoretical terms. In this paper, we present a novel choice-semantical account of theoretical truth based on the epsilon-term definition of theoretical terms. Specifically, we develop two ways of specifying the truth conditions of theoretical statements in a choice functional semantics, each giving rise to a corresponding logic of such statements. In order to investigate the inferential strength of these logical systems, we provide a translation of each truth definition into a modal definition of theoretical truth. Based on this, we show that the stronger notion of choice-semantical truth captures more adequately our informal semantic understanding of scientific statements. PMID:27474181

  1. c-Mantic: A Cytoscape plugin for Semantic Web

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semantic Web tools can streamline the process of storing, analyzing and sharing biological information. Visualization is important for communicating such complex biological relationships. Here we use the flexibility and speed of the Cytoscape platform to interactively visualize s...

  2. Semantic Webs and Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, John J.; Rabideau, Debra K.

    1995-01-01

    Principles for ensuring effective use of semantic webbing in meeting study skill needs of students with learning problems are noted. Important study skills are listed, along with suggested semantic web topics for which subordinate ideas may be developed. Two semantic webs are presented, illustrating the study skills of multiple choice test-taking…

  3. Semantic Search of Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  4. Semantic Processing Impairment in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Jaimes-Bautista, Amanda G.; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Martínez-Juárez, Iris E.; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth

    2015-01-01

    The impairment in episodic memory system is the best-known cognitive deficit in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Recent studies have shown evidence of semantic disorders, but they have been less studied than episodic memory. The semantic dysfunction in TLE has various cognitive manifestations, such as the presence of language disorders characterized by defects in naming, verbal fluency, or remote semantic information retrieval, which affects the ability of patients to interact with their surroundings. This paper is a review of recent research about the consequences of TLE on semantic processing, considering neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging findings, as well as the functional role of the hippocampus in semantic processing. The evidence from these studies shows disturbance of semantic memory in patients with TLE and supports the theory of declarative memory of the hippocampus. Functional neuroimaging studies show an inefficient compensatory functional reorganization of semantic networks and electrophysiological studies show a lack of N400 effect that could indicate that the deficit in semantic processing in patients with TLE could be due to a failure in the mechanisms of automatic access to lexicon. PMID:26257956

  5. Semantic Processing Impairment in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jaimes-Bautista, Amanda G; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Martínez-Juárez, Iris E; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth

    2015-01-01

    The impairment in episodic memory system is the best-known cognitive deficit in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Recent studies have shown evidence of semantic disorders, but they have been less studied than episodic memory. The semantic dysfunction in TLE has various cognitive manifestations, such as the presence of language disorders characterized by defects in naming, verbal fluency, or remote semantic information retrieval, which affects the ability of patients to interact with their surroundings. This paper is a review of recent research about the consequences of TLE on semantic processing, considering neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging findings, as well as the functional role of the hippocampus in semantic processing. The evidence from these studies shows disturbance of semantic memory in patients with TLE and supports the theory of declarative memory of the hippocampus. Functional neuroimaging studies show an inefficient compensatory functional reorganization of semantic networks and electrophysiological studies show a lack of N400 effect that could indicate that the deficit in semantic processing in patients with TLE could be due to a failure in the mechanisms of automatic access to lexicon. PMID:26257956

  6. Measuring the lexical semantics of picture description in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Jean K

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals with non-fluent aphasia have difficulty producing syntactically laden words, such as function words, whereas individuals with fluent aphasia often have difficulty producing semantically specific words. It is hypothesised that such dissociations arise, at least in part, from a trade-off between syntactic and semantic sources of input to lexical retrieval. AIMS: The aims of this study were (a) to identify quantitative measures of the semantic content of narrative for people with aphasia that are reliable indicators of semantic competence, independent of overall aphasia severity; (b) to determine whether these measures distinguish between fluent and non-fluent aphasia; and (c) to assess whether individuals with fluent and non-fluent aphasia show a trade-off between measures of syntactic and semantic production. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Connected speech samples were elicited from 16 participants with aphasia, 8 fluent and 8 non-fluent. The semantic sufficiency of the samples was analysed by measuring the proportion of correct information units (CIUs), the type-token ratios (TTRs) of content words, and the proportion of semantically specific ("heavy") to semantically general ("light") verbs produced. These measures were then correlated with syntactic measures from the QPA (Berndt, Wayland, Rochon, Saffran, & Schwartz, 2000) across and within participant groups. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: CIUs were found to reflect primarily aphasia severity, and not to differentiate between fluent and non-fluent groups. TTRs were also strongly influenced by severity among fluent, but not non-fluent, participants. The ratio of heavy to light verbs reliably distinguished the groups, and showed different patterns of correlation with the syntactic measures. CONCLUSIONS: Results show some evidence for a trade-off between syntactic and semantic inputs to word retrieval, at least among non-fluent participants. The heavy-light verb ratio

  7. Emotional speech processing: disentangling the effects of prosody and semantic cues.

    PubMed

    Pell, Marc D; Jaywant, Abhishek; Monetta, Laura; Kotz, Sonja A

    2011-08-01

    To inform how emotions in speech are implicitly processed and registered in memory, we compared how emotional prosody, emotional semantics, and both cues in tandem prime decisions about conjoined emotional faces. Fifty-two participants rendered facial affect decisions (Pell, 2005a), indicating whether a target face represented an emotion (happiness or sadness) or not (a facial grimace), after passively listening to happy, sad, or neutral prime utterances. Emotional information from primes was conveyed by: (1) prosody only; (2) semantic cues only; or (3) combined prosody and semantic cues. Results indicated that prosody, semantics, and combined prosody-semantic cues facilitate emotional decisions about target faces in an emotion-congruent manner. However, the magnitude of priming did not vary across tasks. Our findings highlight that emotional meanings of prosody and semantic cues are systematically registered during speech processing, but with similar effects on associative knowledge about emotions, which is presumably shared by prosody, semantics, and faces. PMID:21824024

  8. Semantator: annotating clinical narratives with semantic web ontologies.

    PubMed

    Song, Dezhao; Chute, Christopher G; Tao, Cui

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate clinical research, clinical data needs to be stored in a machine processable and understandable way. Manual annotating clinical data is time consuming. Automatic approaches (e.g., Natural Language Processing systems) have been adopted to convert such data into structured formats; however, the quality of such automatically extracted data may not always be satisfying. In this paper, we propose Semantator, a semi-automatic tool for document annotation with Semantic Web ontologies. With a loaded free text document and an ontology, Semantator supports the creation/deletion of ontology instances for any document fragment, linking/disconnecting instances with the properties in the ontology, and also enables automatic annotation by connecting to the NCBO annotator and cTAKES. By representing annotations in Semantic Web standards, Semantator supports reasoning based upon the underlying semantics of the owl:disjointWith and owl:equivalentClass predicates. We present discussions based on user experiences of using Semantator. PMID:22779043

  9. Semantator: Annotating Clinical Narratives with Semantic Web Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dezhao; Chute, Christopher G.; Tao, Cui

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate clinical research, clinical data needs to be stored in a machine processable and understandable way. Manual annotating clinical data is time consuming. Automatic approaches (e.g., Natural Language Processing systems) have been adopted to convert such data into structured formats; however, the quality of such automatically extracted data may not always be satisfying. In this paper, we propose Semantator, a semi-automatic tool for document annotation with Semantic Web ontologies. With a loaded free text document and an ontology, Semantator supports the creation/deletion of ontology instances for any document fragment, linking/disconnecting instances with the properties in the ontology, and also enables automatic annotation by connecting to the NCBO annotator and cTAKES. By representing annotations in Semantic Web standards, Semantator supports reasoning based upon the underlying semantics of the owl:disjointWith and owl:equivalentClass predicates. We present discussions based on user experiences of using Semantator. PMID:22779043

  10. Altered retrieval of melodic information in congenital amusia: insights from dynamic causal modeling of MEG data

    PubMed Central

    Albouy, Philippe; Mattout, Jérémie; Sanchez, Gaëtan; Tillmann, Barbara; Caclin, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder that primarily manifests as a difficulty in the perception and memory of pitch-based materials, including music. Recent findings have shown that the amusic brain exhibits altered functioning of a fronto-temporal network during pitch perception and short-term memory. Within this network, during the encoding of melodies, a decreased right backward frontal-to-temporal connectivity was reported in amusia, along with an abnormal connectivity within and between auditory cortices. The present study investigated whether connectivity patterns between these regions were affected during the short-term memory retrieval of melodies. Amusics and controls had to indicate whether sequences of six tones that were presented in pairs were the same or different. When melodies were different only one tone changed in the second melody. Brain responses to the changed tone in “Different” trials and to its equivalent (original) tone in “Same” trials were compared between groups using Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM). DCM results confirmed that congenital amusia is characterized by an altered effective connectivity within and between the two auditory cortices during sound processing. Furthermore, right temporal-to-frontal message passing was altered in comparison to controls, with notably an increase in “Same” trials. An additional analysis in control participants emphasized that the detection of an unexpected event in the typically functioning brain is supported by right fronto-temporal connections. The results can be interpreted in a predictive coding framework as reflecting an abnormal prediction error sent by temporal auditory regions towards frontal areas in the amusic brain. PMID:25698955

  11. Altered retrieval of melodic information in congenital amusia: insights from dynamic causal modeling of MEG data.

    PubMed

    Albouy, Philippe; Mattout, Jérémie; Sanchez, Gaëtan; Tillmann, Barbara; Caclin, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder that primarily manifests as a difficulty in the perception and memory of pitch-based materials, including music. Recent findings have shown that the amusic brain exhibits altered functioning of a fronto-temporal network during pitch perception and short-term memory. Within this network, during the encoding of melodies, a decreased right backward frontal-to-temporal connectivity was reported in amusia, along with an abnormal connectivity within and between auditory cortices. The present study investigated whether connectivity patterns between these regions were affected during the short-term memory retrieval of melodies. Amusics and controls had to indicate whether sequences of six tones that were presented in pairs were the same or different. When melodies were different only one tone changed in the second melody. Brain responses to the changed tone in "Different" trials and to its equivalent (original) tone in "Same" trials were compared between groups using Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM). DCM results confirmed that congenital amusia is characterized by an altered effective connectivity within and between the two auditory cortices during sound processing. Furthermore, right temporal-to-frontal message passing was altered in comparison to controls, with notably an increase in "Same" trials. An additional analysis in control participants emphasized that the detection of an unexpected event in the typically functioning brain is supported by right fronto-temporal connections. The results can be interpreted in a predictive coding framework as reflecting an abnormal prediction error sent by temporal auditory regions towards frontal areas in the amusic brain. PMID:25698955

  12. Decreased thalamo-cortical connectivity by alteration of neural information flow in theta oscillation in depression-model rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chenguang; Quan, Meina; Zhang, Tao

    2012-12-01

    Alterations in oscillatory brain activity are strongly correlated with cognitive performance in various physiological rhythms. The present study investigated whether the directionality of neural information flow (NIF) could be used to characterize the synaptic plasticity in thalamocortical (TC) pathway, and examined which frequency field oscillations were mostly related to the cognitive deficiency in depression. Two novel algorithms were employed to determine the coupling interaction between the LD thalamus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in five frequency bands, using the phase signals of local field potentials (LFP) in these two regions. The results showed that the power of neural activity in mPFC was increased in delta, theta and beta frequency bands in depression. However, the nonlinear characteristics of LFP activity were weakened in depression by means of sample entropy measurements. In the analysis of phase dynamics, the phase synchronization values were reduced in theta rhythm in stressed rats. Importantly, the coupling direction index d and the unidirectional influence from LD thalamus to mPFC were significantly reduced at the theta rhythm in rats in depression, and increased after memantine treatment, which were associated with the LTP alterations and cognitive impairment in our previous report. Moreover, the fact that the reduced entropy value was only found in mPFC might implicate postsynaptic effect involved in synaptic plasticity alteration in the depression model. The results suggest that the effects of depression on cognitive deficits are mediated via profound alterations in information flow in the TC pathway, and the directional index at theta rhythm could be used as a measurement of synaptic plasticity. PMID:22648379

  13. e-Science and biological pathway semantics

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, Joanne S; Stevens, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    Background The development of e-Science presents a major set of opportunities and challenges for the future progress of biological and life scientific research. Major new tools are required and corresponding demands are placed on the high-throughput data generated and used in these processes. Nowhere is the demand greater than in the semantic integration of these data. Semantic Web tools and technologies afford the chance to achieve this semantic integration. Since pathway knowledge is central to much of the scientific research today it is a good test-bed for semantic integration. Within the context of biological pathways, the BioPAX initiative, part of a broader movement towards the standardization and integration of life science databases, forms a necessary prerequisite for its successful application of e-Science in health care and life science research. This paper examines whether BioPAX, an effort to overcome the barrier of disparate and heterogeneous pathway data sources, addresses the needs of e-Science. Results We demonstrate how BioPAX pathway data can be used to ask and answer some useful biological questions. We find that BioPAX comes close to meeting a broad range of e-Science needs, but certain semantic weaknesses mean that these goals are missed. We make a series of recommendations for re-modeling some aspects of BioPAX to better meet these needs. Conclusion Once these semantic weaknesses are addressed, it will be possible to integrate pathway information in a manner that would be useful in e-Science. PMID:17493286

  14. Preserved semantic access in global amnesia and hippocampal damage.

    PubMed

    Giovagnoli, A R; Erbetta, A; Bugiani, O

    2001-12-01

    C.B., a right-handed 33-year-old man, presented with anterograde amnesia after acute heart block. Cognitive abilities were normal except for serious impairment of long-term episodic memory. The access to semantic information was fully preserved. Magnetic resonance showed high signal intensity and marked volume loss in the hippocampus bilaterally; the left and right parahippocampal gyrus, lateral occipito-temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, and lateral temporal cortex were normal. This case underlines that global amnesia associated with hippocampal damage does not affect semantic memory. Although the hippocampus is important in retrieving context-linked information, its role is not so crucial in retrieving semantic contents. Cortical areas surrounding the hippocampus and lateral temporal areas might guide the recall of semantic information. PMID:11935452

  15. SemanticEye: a semantic web application to rationalize and enhance chemical electronic publishing.

    PubMed

    Casher, Omer; Rzepa, Henry S

    2006-01-01

    SemanticEye, an ontology with associated tools, improves the classification and open accessibility of chemical information in electronic publishing. In a manner analogous to digital music management, RDF metadata encoded as Adobe XMP can be extracted from a variety of document formats, such as PDF, and managed in an RDF repository called Sesame. Users upload electronic documents containing XMP to a central server by "dropping" them into WebDAV folders. The documents can then be navigated in a Web browser via their metadata, and multiple documents containing identical metadata can then be aggregated. SemanticEye does not actually store any documents. By including unique identifiers within the XMP, such as the DOI, associated documents can be retrieved from the Web with the help of resolving agents. The power of this metadata driven approach is illustrated by including, within the XMP, InChI identifiers for molecular structures and finding relationships between articles based on their InChIs. SemanticEye will become increasingly more comprehensive as usage becomes more widespread. Furthermore, following the Semantic Web architecture enables the reuse of open software tools, provides a "semantically intuitive" alternative to search engines, and fosters a greater sense of trust in Web-based scientific information. PMID:17125182

  16. Universal Semantics in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenying

    2009-01-01

    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which…

  17. Learning Semantic Query Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meij, Edgar; Bron, Marc; Hollink, Laura; Huurnink, Bouke; de Rijke, Maarten

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide facilities that let users complete, specify, or reformulate their queries. We study the problem of semantic query suggestion, a special type of query transformation based on identifying semantic concepts contained in user queries. We use a feature-based approach in conjunction with supervised machine learning, augmenting term-based features with search history-based and concept-specific features. We apply our method to the task of linking queries from real-world query logs (the transaction logs of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision) to the DBpedia knowledge base. We evaluate the utility of different machine learning algorithms, features, and feature types in identifying semantic concepts using a manually developed test bed and show significant improvements over an already high baseline. The resources developed for this paper, i.e., queries, human assessments, and extracted features, are available for download.

  18. Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

    This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

  19. Semantic text mining support for lignocellulose research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biofuels produced from biomass are considered to be promising sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. The conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars for biofuels production requires the use of enzyme cocktails that can efficiently and economically hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass. As many fungi naturally break down lignocellulose, the identification and characterization of the enzymes involved is a key challenge in the research and development of biomass-derived products and fuels. One approach to meeting this challenge is to mine the rapidly-expanding repertoire of microbial genomes for enzymes with the appropriate catalytic properties. Results Semantic technologies, including natural language processing, ontologies, semantic Web services and Web-based collaboration tools, promise to support users in handling complex data, thereby facilitating knowledge-intensive tasks. An ongoing challenge is to select the appropriate technologies and combine them in a coherent system that brings measurable improvements to the users. We present our ongoing development of a semantic infrastructure in support of genomics-based lignocellulose research. Part of this effort is the automated curation of knowledge from information on fungal enzymes that is available in the literature and genome resources. Conclusions Working closely with fungal biology researchers who manually curate the existing literature, we developed ontological natural language processing pipelines integrated in a Web-based interface to assist them in two main tasks: mining the literature for relevant knowledge, and at the same time providing rich and semantically linked information. PMID:22595090

  20. Semantic Search with GoPubMed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doms, Andreas; Schroeder, Michael

    Searching relevant information on the web is a main occupation of researchers nowadays. Classical keyword-based search engines have limits. Inconsistent vocabulary used by authors is not handled. Relevant information spread over multiple documents can not be found. An overview over an entire document collection can not be given by the means of ranked lists. Question answering requiring semantic disambiguation of occurring terminology is not possible. Trends in the literature can not be followed if vocabulary is evolving over time.

  1. EXACT2: the semantics of biomedical protocols

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The reliability and reproducibility of experimental procedures is a cornerstone of scientific practice. There is a pressing technological need for the better representation of biomedical protocols to enable other agents (human or machine) to better reproduce results. A framework that ensures that all information required for the replication of experimental protocols is essential to achieve reproducibility. Methods We have developed the ontology EXACT2 (EXperimental ACTions) that is designed to capture the full semantics of biomedical protocols required for their reproducibility. To construct EXACT2 we manually inspected hundreds of published and commercial biomedical protocols from several areas of biomedicine. After establishing a clear pattern for extracting the required information we utilized text-mining tools to translate the protocols into a machine amenable format. We have verified the utility of EXACT2 through the successful processing of previously 'unseen' (not used for the construction of EXACT2) protocols. Results The paper reports on a fundamentally new version EXACT2 that supports the semantically-defined representation of biomedical protocols. The ability of EXACT2 to capture the semantics of biomedical procedures was verified through a text mining use case. In this EXACT2 is used as a reference model for text mining tools to identify terms pertinent to experimental actions, and their properties, in biomedical protocols expressed in natural language. An EXACT2-based framework for the translation of biomedical protocols to a machine amenable format is proposed. Conclusions The EXACT2 ontology is sufficient to record, in a machine processable form, the essential information about biomedical protocols. EXACT2 defines explicit semantics of experimental actions, and can be used by various computer applications. It can serve as a reference model for for the translation of biomedical protocols in natural language into a semantically

  2. Protein interaction sentence detection using multiple semantic kernels

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Detection of sentences that describe protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in biomedical publications is a challenging and unresolved pattern recognition problem. Many state-of-the-art approaches for this task employ kernel classification methods, in particular support vector machines (SVMs). In this work we propose a novel data integration approach that utilises semantic kernels and a kernel classification method that is a probabilistic analogue to SVMs. Semantic kernels are created from statistical information gathered from large amounts of unlabelled text using lexical semantic models. Several semantic kernels are then fused into an overall composite classification space. In this initial study, we use simple features in order to examine whether the use of combinations of kernels constructed using word-based semantic models can improve PPI sentence detection. Results We show that combinations of semantic kernels lead to statistically significant improvements in recognition rates and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) scores over the plain Gaussian kernel, when applied to a well-known labelled collection of abstracts. The proposed kernel composition method also allows us to automatically infer the most discriminative kernels. Conclusions The results from this paper indicate that using semantic information from unlabelled text, and combinations of such information, can be valuable for classification of short texts such as PPI sentences. This study, however, is only a first step in evaluation of semantic kernels and probabilistic multiple kernel learning in the context of PPI detection. The method described herein is modular, and can be applied with a variety of feature types, kernels, and semantic models, in order to facilitate full extraction of interacting proteins. PMID:21569604

  3. Semantic Annotation of Existing Geo-Datasets a Case Study of Disaster Response in Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobasheri, A.; van Oosterom, P.; Zlatanova, S.; Bakillah, M.

    2013-05-01

    Use of relevant geo-information is one of the important issues for performing different tasks and processes in disaster response phase. In order to save time and cost, services could be employed for integrating and extracting relevant up-to-date geo-information. For this purpose, semantics of geo-information should be explicitly defined. This paper presents our initial results in applying an approach for semantic annotation of existing geo-datasets. In this research the process of injecting semantic descriptions into geodatasets (information integration) is called semantic annotation. A web system architecture is presented and the process of semantic annotation is presented by using the Meta-Annotation approach. The approach is elaborated by providing an example in disaster response which utilizes geo-datasets in CityGML format and further two languages of semantic web technology: RDF and Notation3.

  4. The chicken with four legs: a case of semantic amnesia and cryptogenic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Giovagnoli, Anna R; Villani, Flavio; Bell, Brian; Erbetta, Alessandra; Avanzini, Giuliano

    2009-01-01

    Here we describe the unusual condition of selective semantic amnesia related to cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy. XY, an adult male patient, presented with partial seizures and disabling dysnomia. Neuropsychological tests revealed seriously impaired semantic memory. Electroencephalography documented ictal epileptic abnormalities in the left temporal lobe. Positron emission tomography showed reduced metabolism in the temporoparietal regions, but the results of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were normal. After 11 years, neuropsychological tests showed selective impairment of semantic memory and computed tomography provided normal results. This case shows that semantic memory may be selectively and lastingly altered, highlighting a distinction between semantic amnesia and global amnesia. Moreover, it is unique in that it occurred without evidence of gross temporal lobe pathology. The pathophysiological pattern of epileptic abnormalities in the left temporoparietal cortex supports the role played by dysfunctional neuronal networks (as provoked by focal epileptic discharges) in determining selective semantic amnesia. PMID:18930165

  5. The SCN1A mutation database: updating information and analysis of the relationships among genotype, functional alteration, and phenotype.

    PubMed

    Meng, Heng; Xu, Hai-Qing; Yu, Lu; Lin, Guo-Wang; He, Na; Su, Tao; Shi, Yi-Wu; Li, Bin; Wang, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Rong; Tang, Bin; Long, Yue-Sheng; Yi, Yong-Hong; Liao, Wei-Ping

    2015-06-01

    Mutations in the SCN1A gene have been identified in epilepsy patients with widely variable phenotypes and modes of inheritance and in asymptomatic carriers. This raises challenges in evaluating the pathogenicity of SCN1A mutations. We systematically reviewed all SCN1A mutations and established a database containing information on functional alterations. In total, 1,257 mutations have been identified, of which 81.8% were not recurrent. There was a negative correlation between phenotype severity and missense mutation frequency. Further analyses suggested close relationships among genotype, functional alteration, and phenotype. Missense mutations located in different sodium channel regions were associated with distinct functional changes. Missense mutations in the pore region were characterized by the complete loss of function, similar to haploinsufficiency. Mutations with severe phenotypes were more frequently located in the pore region, suggesting that functional alterations are critical in evaluating pathogenicity and can be applied to patient management. A negative correlation was found between phenotype severity and familial incidence, and incomplete penetrance was associated with missense and splice site mutations, but not truncations or genomic rearrangements, suggesting clinical genetic counseling applications. Mosaic mutations with a load of 12.5-25.0% were potentially pathogenic with low penetrance, suggesting the need for future studies on less pathogenic genomic variations. PMID:25754450

  6. {Semantic metadata application for information resources systematization in water spectroscopy} A.Fazliev (1), A.Privezentsev (1), J.Tennyson (2) (1) Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia, (2) University College London, London, UK (faz@iao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazliev, A.

    2009-04-01

    The information and knowledge layers of information-computational system for water spectroscopy are described. Semantic metadata for all the tasks of domain information model that are the basis of the layers have been studied. The principle of semantic metadata determination and mechanisms of the usage during information systematization in molecular spectroscopy has been revealed. The software developed for the work with semantic metadata is described as well. Formation of domain model in the framework of Semantic Web is based on the use of explicit specification of its conceptualization or, in other words, its ontologies. Formation of conceptualization for molecular spectroscopy was described in Refs. 1, 2. In these works two chains of task are selected for zeroth approximation for knowledge domain description. These are direct tasks chain and inverse tasks chain. Solution schemes of these tasks defined approximation of data layer for knowledge domain conceptualization. Spectroscopy tasks solutions properties lead to a step-by-step extension of molecular spectroscopy conceptualization. Information layer of information system corresponds to this extension. An advantage of molecular spectroscopy model designed in a form of tasks chain is actualized in the fact that one can explicitly define data and metadata at each step of solution of these molecular spectroscopy chain tasks. Metadata structure (tasks solutions properties) in knowledge domain also has form of a chain in which input data and metadata of the previous task become metadata of the following tasks. The term metadata is used in its narrow sense: metadata are the properties of spectroscopy tasks solutions. Semantic metadata represented with the help of OWL 3 are formed automatically and they are individuals of classes (A-box). Unification of T-box and A-box is an ontology that can be processed with the help of inference engine. In this work we analyzed the formation of individuals of molecular spectroscopy

  7. Language and culture modulate online semantic processing

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Ceri; Kuipers, Jan R.; Thierry, Guillaume; Lovett, Victoria; Turnbull, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Language has been shown to influence non-linguistic cognitive operations such as colour perception, object categorization and motion event perception. Here, we show that language also modulates higher level processing, such as semantic knowledge. Using event-related brain potentials, we show that highly fluent Welsh–English bilinguals require significantly less processing effort when reading sentences in Welsh which contain factually correct information about Wales, than when reading sentences containing the same information presented in English. Crucially, culturally irrelevant information was processed similarly in both Welsh and English. Our findings show that even in highly proficient bilinguals, language interacts with factors associated with personal identity, such as culture, to modulate online semantic processing. PMID:25767190

  8. Language and culture modulate online semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Ceri; Kuipers, Jan R; Thierry, Guillaume; Lovett, Victoria; Turnbull, Oliver; Jones, Manon W

    2015-10-01

    Language has been shown to influence non-linguistic cognitive operations such as colour perception, object categorization and motion event perception. Here, we show that language also modulates higher level processing, such as semantic knowledge. Using event-related brain potentials, we show that highly fluent Welsh-English bilinguals require significantly less processing effort when reading sentences in Welsh which contain factually correct information about Wales, than when reading sentences containing the same information presented in English. Crucially, culturally irrelevant information was processed similarly in both Welsh and English. Our findings show that even in highly proficient bilinguals, language interacts with factors associated with personal identity, such as culture, to modulate online semantic processing. PMID:25767190

  9. Chemical Entity Semantic Specification: Knowledge representation for efficient semantic cheminformatics and facile data integration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past several centuries, chemistry has permeated virtually every facet of human lifestyle, enriching fields as diverse as medicine, agriculture, manufacturing, warfare, and electronics, among numerous others. Unfortunately, application-specific, incompatible chemical information formats and representation strategies have emerged as a result of such diverse adoption of chemistry. Although a number of efforts have been dedicated to unifying the computational representation of chemical information, disparities between the various chemical databases still persist and stand in the way of cross-domain, interdisciplinary investigations. Through a common syntax and formal semantics, Semantic Web technology offers the ability to accurately represent, integrate, reason about and query across diverse chemical information. Results Here we specify and implement the Chemical Entity Semantic Specification (CHESS) for the representation of polyatomic chemical entities, their substructures, bonds, atoms, and reactions using Semantic Web technologies. CHESS provides means to capture aspects of their corresponding chemical descriptors, connectivity, functional composition, and geometric structure while specifying mechanisms for data provenance. We demonstrate that using our readily extensible specification, it is possible to efficiently integrate multiple disparate chemical data sources, while retaining appropriate correspondence of chemical descriptors, with very little additional effort. We demonstrate the impact of some of our representational decisions on the performance of chemically-aware knowledgebase searching and rudimentary reaction candidate selection. Finally, we provide access to the tools necessary to carry out chemical entity encoding in CHESS, along with a sample knowledgebase. Conclusions By harnessing the power of Semantic Web technologies with CHESS, it is possible to provide a means of facile cross-domain chemical knowledge integration with full

  10. Semantic Interoperability and Dynamic Resource Discovery in P2P Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Devis; de Antonellis, Valeria; Melchiori, Michele

    Service-oriented architectures and Semantic Web technologies are widely recognized as strategic means to enable effective search and access to data and services in P2P systems. In this paper we present SERVANT, a reference architecture to support SERVice-based semANTic search, by means of a semantic distributed service registry. Specifically, SERVANT supports the automatic discovery of services, available in the P2P network, apt to satisfy user's requests for information searches. The SERVANT architecture is based on: a distributed service registry, DSR, composed of semantic-enriched peer registries and semantic links between peer registries holding similar services; a Service Knowledge Evolution Manager, to update peer knowledge; a Semantic Search Assistant, to find services satisfying a user's request, to suggest possible alternative services and to propose possible related services for composition. The proposed architecture allows for efficient semantic search based on service discovery throughout the network and is able to manage P2P network evolution.

  11. A Collaborative Semantic Web Layer to Enhance Legacy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliozzo, Alfio; Gangemi, Aldo; Presutti, Valentina; Cardillo, Elena; Daga, Enrico; Salvati, Alberto; Troiani, Gianluca

    This paper introduces a framework to add a semantic web layer to legacy organizational information, and describes its application to the use case provided by the Italian National Research Council (CNR) intraweb. Building on a traditional web-based view of information from different legacy databases, we have performed a semantic porting of data into a knowledge base, dependent on an OWL domain ontology. We have enriched the knowledge base by means of text mining techniques, in order to discover on-topic relations. Several reasoning techniques have been applied, in order to infer relevant implicit relationships. Finally, the ontology and the knowledge base have been deployed on a semantic wiki by means of the WikiFactory tool, which allows users to browse the ontology and the knowledge base, to introduce new relations, to revise wrong assertions in a collaborative way, and to perform semantic queries. In our experiments, we have been able to easily implement several functionalities, such as expert finding, by simply formulating ad-hoc queries from either an ontology editor or the semantic wiki interface. The result is an intelligent and collaborative front end, which allow users to add information, fill gaps, or revise existing information on a semantic basis, while keeping the knowledge base automatically updated.

  12. Semantic Metrics for Object Oriented Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etzkorn, Lethe

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to research a new suite of object-oriented (OO) software metrics, called semantic metrics, that have the potential to help software engineers identify fragile, low quality code sections much earlier in the development cycle than is possible with traditional OO metrics. With earlier and better Fault detection, software maintenance will be less time consuming and expensive, and software reusability will be improved. Because it is less costly to correct faults found earlier than to correct faults found later in the software lifecycle, the overall cost of software development will be reduced. Semantic metrics can be derived from the knowledge base of a program understanding system. A program understanding system is designed to understand a software module. Once understanding is complete, the knowledge-base contains digested information about the software module. Various semantic metrics can be collected on the knowledge base. This new kind of metric measures domain complexity, or the relationship of the software to its application domain, rather than implementation complexity, which is what traditional software metrics measure. A semantic metric will thus map much more closely to qualities humans are interested in, such as cohesion and maintainability, than is possible using traditional metrics, that are calculated using only syntactic aspects of software.

  13. Live Social Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alani, Harith; Szomszor, Martin; Cattuto, Ciro; van den Broeck, Wouter; Correndo, Gianluca; Barrat, Alain

    Social interactions are one of the key factors to the success of conferences and similar community gatherings. This paper describes a novel application that integrates data from the semantic web, online social networks, and a real-world contact sensing platform. This application was successfully deployed at ESWC09, and actively used by 139 people. Personal profiles of the participants were automatically generated using several Web 2.0 systems and semantic academic data sources, and integrated in real-time with face-to-face contact networks derived from wearable sensors. Integration of all these heterogeneous data layers made it possible to offer various services to conference attendees to enhance their social experience such as visualisation of contact data, and a site to explore and connect with other participants. This paper describes the architecture of the application, the services we provided, and the results we achieved in this deployment.

  14. Semantic interpretation of nominalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.D.; Gomez, F.

    1996-12-31

    A computational approach to the semantic interpretation of nominalizations is described. Interpretation of normalizations involves three tasks: deciding whether the normalization is being used in a verbal or non-verbal sense; disambiguating the normalized verb when a verbal sense is used; and determining the fillers of the thematic roles of the verbal concept or predicate of the nominalization. A verbal sense can be recognized by the presence of modifiers that represent the arguments of the verbal concept. It is these same modifiers which provide the semantic clues to disambiguate the normalized verb. In the absence of explicit modifiers, heuristics are used to discriminate between verbal and non-verbal senses. A correspondence between verbs and their nominalizations is exploited so that only a small amount of additional knowledge is needed to handle the nominal form. These methods are tested in the domain of encyclopedic texts and the results are shown.

  15. Practical Semantic Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew; Gray, N.; Burke, D.

    2010-01-01

    Many activities in the era of data-intensive astronomy are predicated upon some transference of domain knowledge and expertise from human to machine. The semantic infrastructure required to support this is no longer a pipe dream of computer science but a set of practical engineering challenges, more concerned with deployment and performance details than AI abstractions. The application of such ideas promises to help in such areas as contextual data access, exploiting distributed annotation and heterogeneous sources, and intelligent data dissemination and discovery. In this talk, we will review the status and use of semantic technologies in astronomy, particularly to address current problems in astroinformatics, with such projects as SKUA and AstroCollation.

  16. Augmenting Weak Semantic Cognitive Maps with an “Abstractness” Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Samsonovich, Alexei V.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2013-01-01

    The emergent consensus on dimensional models of sentiment, appraisal, emotions, and values is on the semantics of the principal dimensions, typically interpreted as valence, arousal, and dominance. The notion of weak semantic maps was introduced recently as distribution of representations in abstract spaces that are not derived from human judgments, psychometrics, or any other a priori information about their semantics. Instead, they are defined entirely by binary semantic relations among representations, such as synonymy and antonymy. An interesting question concerns the ability of the antonymy-based semantic maps to capture all “universal” semantic dimensions. The present work shows that those narrow weak semantic maps are not complete in this sense and can be augmented with other semantic relations. Specifically, including hyponym-hypernym relations yields a new semantic dimension of the map labeled here “abstractness” (or ontological generality) that is not reducible to any dimensions represented by antonym pairs or to traditional affective space dimensions. It is expected that including other semantic relations (e.g., meronymy/holonymy) will also result in the addition of new semantic dimensions to the map. These findings have broad implications for automated quantitative evaluation of the meaning of text and may shed light on the nature of human subjective experience. PMID:23840200

  17. Semantics of color in chromatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Nikolai V.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to describe the semantics of color in chromatism (from the ancient Greek triune notion of <>: (1) color as ideal (Id- plan), psychic; (2) tint as physical, verbal; material (M- plan), physiological, syntonic (S-plan), and (3) emotion as their informative-energetic correlation). Being a new field of science, chromatism links humanitarian and natural subjects by means of interdiscipline investigation of a real (f-m) man living in a real (color) surrounding environment. According to the definition for <>, color may be considered to be the most universal notion, permitting to assume the unity of both a man and an environment. Due to this assumption, we may give models of human intellect.

  18. Semantic Neighborhood Effects for Abstract versus Concrete Words

    PubMed Central

    Danguecan, Ashley N.; Buchanan, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that semantic effects may be task-specific, and thus, that semantic representations are flexible and dynamic. Such findings are critical to the development of a comprehensive theory of semantic processing in visual word recognition, which should arguably account for how semantic effects may vary by task. It has been suggested that semantic effects are more directly examined using tasks that explicitly require meaning processing relative to those for which meaning processing is not necessary (e.g., lexical decision task). The purpose of the present study was to chart the processing of concrete versus abstract words in the context of a global co-occurrence variable, semantic neighborhood density (SND), by comparing word recognition response times (RTs) across four tasks varying in explicit semantic demands: standard lexical decision task (with non-pronounceable non-words), go/no-go lexical decision task (with pronounceable non-words), progressive demasking task, and sentence relatedness task. The same experimental stimulus set was used across experiments and consisted of 44 concrete and 44 abstract words, with half of these being low SND, and half being high SND. In this way, concreteness and SND were manipulated in a factorial design using a number of visual word recognition tasks. A consistent RT pattern emerged across tasks, in which SND effects were found for abstract (but not necessarily concrete) words. Ultimately, these findings highlight the importance of studying interactive effects in word recognition, and suggest that linguistic associative information is particularly important for abstract words. PMID:27458422

  19. Semantic Neighborhood Effects for Abstract versus Concrete Words.

    PubMed

    Danguecan, Ashley N; Buchanan, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that semantic effects may be task-specific, and thus, that semantic representations are flexible and dynamic. Such findings are critical to the development of a comprehensive theory of semantic processing in visual word recognition, which should arguably account for how semantic effects may vary by task. It has been suggested that semantic effects are more directly examined using tasks that explicitly require meaning processing relative to those for which meaning processing is not necessary (e.g., lexical decision task). The purpose of the present study was to chart the processing of concrete versus abstract words in the context of a global co-occurrence variable, semantic neighborhood density (SND), by comparing word recognition response times (RTs) across four tasks varying in explicit semantic demands: standard lexical decision task (with non-pronounceable non-words), go/no-go lexical decision task (with pronounceable non-words), progressive demasking task, and sentence relatedness task. The same experimental stimulus set was used across experiments and consisted of 44 concrete and 44 abstract words, with half of these being low SND, and half being high SND. In this way, concreteness and SND were manipulated in a factorial design using a number of visual word recognition tasks. A consistent RT pattern emerged across tasks, in which SND effects were found for abstract (but not necessarily concrete) words. Ultimately, these findings highlight the importance of studying interactive effects in word recognition, and suggest that linguistic associative information is particularly important for abstract words. PMID:27458422

  20. Discriminative Semantic Subspace Analysis for Relevance Feedback.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lining; Shum, Hubert P H; Shao, Ling

    2016-03-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has attracted much attention during the past decades for its potential practical applications to image database management. A variety of relevance feedback (RF) schemes have been designed to bridge the gap between low-level visual features and high-level semantic concepts for an image retrieval task. In the process of RF, it would be impractical or too expensive to provide explicit class label information for each image. Instead, similar or dissimilar pairwise constraints between two images can be acquired more easily. However, most of the conventional RF approaches can only deal with training images with explicit class label information. In this paper, we propose a novel discriminative semantic subspace analysis (DSSA) method, which can directly learn a semantic subspace from similar and dissimilar pairwise constraints without using any explicit class label information. In particular, DSSA can effectively integrate the local geometry of labeled similar images, the discriminative information between labeled similar and dissimilar images, and the local geometry of labeled and unlabeled images together to learn a reliable subspace. Compared with the popular distance metric analysis approaches, our method can also learn a distance metric but perform more effectively when dealing with high-dimensional images. Extensive experiments on both the synthetic data sets and a real-world image database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in improving the performance of the CBIR. PMID:26780793

  1. Semantic Location Extraction from Crowdsourced Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koswatte, S.; Mcdougall, K.; Liu, X.

    2016-06-01

    Crowdsourced Data (CSD) has recently received increased attention in many application areas including disaster management. Convenience of production and use, data currency and abundancy are some of the key reasons for attracting this high interest. Conversely, quality issues like incompleteness, credibility and relevancy prevent the direct use of such data in important applications like disaster management. Moreover, location information availability of CSD is problematic as it remains very low in many crowd sourced platforms such as Twitter. Also, this recorded location is mostly related to the mobile device or user location and often does not represent the event location. In CSD, event location is discussed descriptively in the comments in addition to the recorded location (which is generated by means of mobile device's GPS or mobile communication network). This study attempts to semantically extract the CSD location information with the help of an ontological Gazetteer and other available resources. 2011 Queensland flood tweets and Ushahidi Crowd Map data were semantically analysed to extract the location information with the support of Queensland Gazetteer which is converted to an ontological gazetteer and a global gazetteer. Some preliminary results show that the use of ontologies and semantics can improve the accuracy of place name identification of CSD and the process of location information extraction.

  2. Semantic grasping escapes Weber's law.

    PubMed

    Löwenkamp, Christian; Gärtner, Wiebke; Haus, Isabel D; Franz, Volker H

    2015-04-01

    According to Weber's law, the just noticeable difference between stimuli increases proportionally with stimulus magnitude, suggesting that perception becomes more variable when a stimulus becomes larger. Surprisingly, this basic psychophysical principle appears to be violated in grasping because the variability of grasping movements does not increase with object size. This dissociation between perception and grasping has been interpreted either as evidence for different neuronal processing of real-time visual size information [Ganel, T., Chajut, E., Algom, D. (2008a). Current Biology, 18(14), R599-R601], or for the idea that grasping ignores stimulus size and is based on position information only [Smeets, J. B. J., and Brenner, E. (2008). Current Biology, 18(23), R1089-R1090]. Both accounts assume that it is the processing of visual information that leads to the absence of Weber's law in grasping. We show that even if neither visual nor any real-time sensory information about the stimulus is presented (but only abstract, semantic information about its size), grasping does not follow Weber's law. This indicates that other mechanisms must be responsible for the unexpected behavior of grasping. PMID:25731904

  3. A flexible integration framework for a Semantic Geospatial Web application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ying; Mei, Kun; Bian, Fuling

    2008-10-01

    With the growth of the World Wide Web technologies, the access to and use of geospatial information changed in the past decade radically. Previously, the data processed by a GIS as well as its methods had resided locally and contained information that was sufficiently unambiguous in the respective information community. Now, both data and methods may be retrieved and combined from anywhere in the world, escaping their local contexts. The last few years have seen a growing interest in the field of semantic geospatial web. With the development of semantic web technologies, we have seen the possibility of solving the heterogeneity/interoperation problem in the GIS community. The semantic geospatial web application can support a wide variety of tasks including data integration, interoperability, knowledge reuse, spatial reasoning and many others. This paper proposes a flexible framework called GeoSWF (short for Geospatial Semantic Web Framework), which supports the semantic integration of the distributed and heterogeneous geospatial information resources and also supports the semantic query and spatial relationship reasoning. We design the architecture of GeoSWF by extending the MVC Pattern. The GeoSWF use the geo-2007.owl proposed by W3C as the reference ontology of the geospatial information and design different application ontologies according to the situation of heterogeneous geospatial information resources. A Geospatial Ontology Creating Algorithm (GOCA) is designed for convert the geospatial information to the ontology instances represented by RDF/OWL. On the top of these ontology instances, the GeoSWF carry out the semantic reasoning by the rule set stored in the knowledge base to generate new system query. The query result will be ranking by ordering the Euclidean distance of each ontology instances. At last, the paper gives the conclusion and future work.

  4. Odor identification: perceptual and semantic dimensions.

    PubMed

    Cain, W S; de Wijk, R; Lulejian, C; Schiet, F; See, L C

    1998-06-01

    Five studies explored identification of odors as an aspect of semantic memory. All dealt in one way or another with the accessibility of acquired olfactory information. The first study examined stability and showed that, consistent with personal reports, people can fail to identify an odor one day yet succeed another. Failure turned more commonly to success than vice versa, and once success occurred it tended to recur. Confidence ratings implied that subjects generally knew the quality of their answers. Even incorrect names, though, often carried considerable information which sometimes reflected a semantic and sometimes a perceptual source of errors. The second study showed that profiling odors via the American Society of Testing and Materials list of attributes, an exercise in depth of processing, effected no increment in the identifiability/accessibility beyond an unelaborated second attempt at retrieval. The third study showed that subjects had only a weak ability to predict the relative recognizability of odors they had failed to identify. Whereas the strength of the feeling that they would 'know' an answer if offered choices did not associate significantly with performance for odors, it did for trivia questions. The fourth study demonstrated an association between ability to discriminate among one set of odors and to identify another, but this emerged only after subjects had received feedback about identity, which essentially changed the task to one of recognition and effectively stabilized access. The fifth study illustrated that feedback improves performance dramatically only for odors involved with it, but that mere retrieval leads to some improvement. The studies suggest a research agenda that could include supplemental use of confidence judgments both retrospectively and prospectively in the same subjects to indicate the amount of accessible semantic information; use of second and third guesses to examine subjects' simultaneously held hypotheses about

  5. Selective Audiovisual Semantic Integration Enabled by Feature-Selective Attention.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Huang, Biao; Yu, Tianyou; Wu, Wei; Li, Peijun; Fang, Fang; Sun, Pei

    2016-01-01

    An audiovisual object may contain multiple semantic features, such as the gender and emotional features of the speaker. Feature-selective attention and audiovisual semantic integration are two brain functions involved in the recognition of audiovisual objects. Humans often selectively attend to one or several features while ignoring the other features of an audiovisual object. Meanwhile, the human brain integrates semantic information from the visual and auditory modalities. However, how these two brain functions correlate with each other remains to be elucidated. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we explored the neural mechanism by which feature-selective attention modulates audiovisual semantic integration. During the fMRI experiment, the subjects were presented with visual-only, auditory-only, or audiovisual dynamical facial stimuli and performed several feature-selective attention tasks. Our results revealed that a distribution of areas, including heteromodal areas and brain areas encoding attended features, may be involved in audiovisual semantic integration. Through feature-selective attention, the human brain may selectively integrate audiovisual semantic information from attended features by enhancing functional connectivity and thus regulating information flows from heteromodal areas to brain areas encoding the attended features. PMID:26759193

  6. Semantics of the Visual Environment Encoded in Parahippocampal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Michael F; Price, Amy Rose; Peelle, Jonathan E; Grossman, Murray

    2016-03-01

    Semantic representations capture the statistics of experience and store this information in memory. A fundamental component of this memory system is knowledge of the visual environment, including knowledge of objects and their associations. Visual semantic information underlies a range of behaviors, from perceptual categorization to cognitive processes such as language and reasoning. Here we examine the neuroanatomic system that encodes visual semantics. Across three experiments, we found converging evidence indicating that knowledge of verbally mediated visual concepts relies on information encoded in a region of the ventral-medial temporal lobe centered on parahippocampal cortex. In an fMRI study, this region was strongly engaged by the processing of concepts relying on visual knowledge but not by concepts relying on other sensory modalities. In a study of patients with the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (semantic dementia), atrophy that encompassed this region was associated with a specific impairment in verbally mediated visual semantic knowledge. Finally, in a structural study of healthy adults from the fMRI experiment, gray matter density in this region related to individual variability in the processing of visual concepts. The anatomic location of these findings aligns with recent work linking the ventral-medial temporal lobe with high-level visual representation, contextual associations, and reasoning through imagination. Together, this work suggests a critical role for parahippocampal cortex in linking the visual environment with knowledge systems in the human brain. PMID:26679216

  7. Selective Audiovisual Semantic Integration Enabled by Feature-Selective Attention

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Huang, Biao; Yu, Tianyou; Wu, Wei; Li, Peijun; Fang, Fang; Sun, Pei

    2016-01-01

    An audiovisual object may contain multiple semantic features, such as the gender and emotional features of the speaker. Feature-selective attention and audiovisual semantic integration are two brain functions involved in the recognition of audiovisual objects. Humans often selectively attend to one or several features while ignoring the other features of an audiovisual object. Meanwhile, the human brain integrates semantic information from the visual and auditory modalities. However, how these two brain functions correlate with each other remains to be elucidated. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we explored the neural mechanism by which feature-selective attention modulates audiovisual semantic integration. During the fMRI experiment, the subjects were presented with visual-only, auditory-only, or audiovisual dynamical facial stimuli and performed several feature-selective attention tasks. Our results revealed that a distribution of areas, including heteromodal areas and brain areas encoding attended features, may be involved in audiovisual semantic integration. Through feature-selective attention, the human brain may selectively integrate audiovisual semantic information from attended features by enhancing functional connectivity and thus regulating information flows from heteromodal areas to brain areas encoding the attended features. PMID:26759193

  8. Semantics of the visual environment encoded in parahippocampal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Michael F.; Price, Amy Rose; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Grossman, Murray

    2016-01-01

    Semantic representations capture the statistics of experience and store this information in memory. A fundamental component of this memory system is knowledge of the visual environment, including knowledge of objects and their associations. Visual semantic information underlies a range of behaviors, from perceptual categorization to cognitive processes such as language and reasoning. Here we examine the neuroanatomic system that encodes visual semantics. Across three experiments, we found converging evidence indicating that knowledge of verbally mediated visual concepts relies on information encoded in a region of the ventral-medial temporal lobe centered on parahippocampal cortex. In an fMRI study, this region was strongly engaged by the processing of concepts relying on visual knowledge but not by concepts relying on other sensory modalities. In a study of patients with the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (semantic dementia), atrophy that encompassed this region was associated with a specific impairment in verbally mediated visual semantic knowledge. Finally, in a structural study of healthy adults from the fMRI experiment, gray matter density in this region related to individual variability in the processing of visual concepts. The anatomic location of these findings aligns with recent work linking the ventral-medial temporal lobe with high-level visual representation, contextual associations, and reasoning through imagination. Together this work suggests a critical role for parahippocampal cortex in linking the visual environment with knowledge systems in the human brain. PMID:26679216

  9. Nonthermal sensory input and altered human thermoregulation: effects of visual information depicting hot or cold environments.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    A recent study showed that thermoregulatory-like cardiovascular responses can be invoked simply by exposure to visual information, even though the thermal environments are neutral and unchanged. However, it was not clear how such responses affect actual human body temperature regulation. We investigated whether such visually invoked physiological responses can substantively affect human core body temperature in a thermally challenging cold environment. Participants comprised 13 graduate or undergraduate students viewing different video images containing hot, cold, or no scenery, while room temperature was gradually lowered from 28 to 16 °C over 80 min. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, core to skin temperature gradient, and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiment. Rectal temperature was significantly lower when hot video images were presented compared to when control video images were presented. Oxygen consumption was comparable among all video images, but core to skin temperature gradient was significantly lower when hot video images were presented. This result suggests that visual information, even in the absence of thermal energy, can affect human thermodynamics and core body temperature. PMID:25609478

  10. Nonthermal sensory input and altered human thermoregulation: effects of visual information depicting hot or cold environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    A recent study showed that thermoregulatory-like cardiovascular responses can be invoked simply by exposure to visual information, even though the thermal environments are neutral and unchanged. However, it was not clear how such responses affect actual human body temperature regulation. We investigated whether such visually invoked physiological responses can substantively affect human core body temperature in a thermally challenging cold environment. Participants comprised 13 graduate or undergraduate students viewing different video images containing hot, cold, or no scenery, while room temperature was gradually lowered from 28 to 16 °C over 80 min. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, core to skin temperature gradient, and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiment. Rectal temperature was significantly lower when hot video images were presented compared to when control video images were presented. Oxygen consumption was comparable among all video images, but core to skin temperature gradient was significantly lower when hot video images were presented. This result suggests that visual information, even in the absence of thermal energy, can affect human thermodynamics and core body temperature.

  11. Taxonomy, Ontology and Semantics at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Sarah Ann

    2011-01-01

    At NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Chief Knowledge Officer has been developing the JSC Taxonomy to capitalize on the accomplishments of yesterday while maintaining the flexibility needed for the evolving information environment of today. A clear vision and scope for the semantic system is integral to its success. The vision for the JSC Taxonomy is to connect information stovepipes to present a unified view for information and knowledge across the Center, across organizations, and across decades. Semantic search at JSC means seemless integration of disparate information sets into a single interface. Ever increasing use, interest, and organizational participation mark successful integration and provide the framework for future application.

  12. Redundancy in perceptual and linguistic experience: comparing feature-based and distributional models of semantic representation.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Brian; Jones, Michael N

    2011-04-01

    Since their inception, distributional models of semantics have been criticized as inadequate cognitive theories of human semantic learning and representation. A principal challenge is that the representations derived by distributional models are purely symbolic and are not grounded in perception and action; this challenge has led many to favor feature-based models of semantic representation. We argue that the amount of perceptual and other semantic information that can be learned from purely distributional statistics has been underappreciated. We compare the representations of three feature-based and nine distributional models using a semantic clustering task. Several distributional models demonstrated semantic clustering comparable with clustering-based on feature-based representations. Furthermore, when trained on child-directed speech, the same distributional models perform as well as sensorimotor-based feature representations of children's lexical semantic knowledge. These results suggest that, to a large extent, information relevant for extracting semantic categories is redundantly coded in perceptual and linguistic experience. Detailed analyses of the semantic clusters of the feature-based and distributional models also reveal that the models make use of complementary cues to semantic organization from the two data streams. Rather than conceptualizing feature-based and distributional models as competing theories, we argue that future focus should be on understanding the cognitive mechanisms humans use to integrate the two sources. PMID:25164298

  13. Semantic factors in the production of number agreement.

    PubMed

    Barker, J; Nicol, J; Garrett, M

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the role of semantic factors in the production of subject-verb number agreement. As an ostensibly grammatical process, number agreement provides an interesting case for examining the flow and interaction of semantic and syntactic information through the language-production system. Using a sentence-completion task, agreement errors can be elicited from subjects by presenting them with sentence fragments containing a complex noun-phrase, in which the nonhead noun is plural (e.g., The key to the cabinets ... WERE missing.). Previous research has demonstrated that the probability of making an error can be affected by varying the properties of the nouns in the complex noun phrase. By investigating which variables do and do not affect error rates, constraints on the flow of information through the production system can be inferred. In three experiments, we investigated the possible effects of three different semantic manipulations of the nouns in the complex NP: animacy, semantic overlap, and plausibility of modification by the sentence predicate. We found that both animacy and semantic relatedness had reliable effects on error rates, indicating that the mechanism involved in implementing agreement cannot be blind to semantic information. However, the plausibility with which each noun could serve as the subject of the sentence predicate had no effect on error rates. Taken together, these results suggest that while semantic information is visible to the agreement mechanism, there are still constraints on when this information can affect the process. Specifically, it may be the case that only information contained within the complex NP is considered for the purposes of implementing agreement. PMID:11291185

  14. Two cases of food aversion with semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Alexandra E; Clark, Camilla N; Hardy, Christopher J; Fletcher, Phillip D; Greene, John; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Warren, Jason D

    2016-06-01

    Accounts of altered eating behavior in semantic dementia generally emphasize gluttony and abnormal food preferences. Here we describe two female patients with no past history of eating disorders who developed early prominent aversion to food in the context of an otherwise typical semantic dementia syndrome. One patient (aged 57) presented features in line with anorexia nervosa while the second patient (aged 58) presented with a syndrome more suggestive of bulimia nervosa. These cases add to the growing spectrum of apparently dichotomous behavior patterns in the frontotemporal dementias and illustrate a potentially under-recognized cause of eating disorders presenting in later life. PMID:26963051

  15. Two cases of food aversion with semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Alexandra E.; Clark, Camilla N.; Hardy, Christopher J.; Fletcher, Phillip D.; Greene, John; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accounts of altered eating behavior in semantic dementia generally emphasize gluttony and abnormal food preferences. Here we describe two female patients with no past history of eating disorders who developed early prominent aversion to food in the context of an otherwise typical semantic dementia syndrome. One patient (aged 57) presented features in line with anorexia nervosa while the second patient (aged 58) presented with a syndrome more suggestive of bulimia nervosa. These cases add to the growing spectrum of apparently dichotomous behavior patterns in the frontotemporal dementias and illustrate a potentially under-recognized cause of eating disorders presenting in later life. PMID:26963051

  16. Semantics-based composition of EMBOSS services

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background More than in other domains the heterogeneous services world in bioinformatics demands for a methodology to classify and relate resources in a both human and machine accessible manner. The Semantic Web, which is meant to address exactly this challenge, is currently one of the most ambitious projects in computer science. Collective efforts within the community have already led to a basis of standards for semantic service descriptions and meta-information. In combination with process synthesis and planning methods, such knowledge about types and services can facilitate the automatic composition of workflows for particular research questions. Results In this study we apply the synthesis methodology that is available in the Bio-jETI workflow management framework for the semantics-based composition of EMBOSS services. EMBOSS (European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite) is a collection of 350 tools (March 2010) for various sequence analysis tasks, and thus a rich source of services and types that imply comprehensive domain models for planning and synthesis approaches. We use and compare two different setups of our EMBOSS synthesis domain: 1) a manually defined domain setup where an intuitive, high-level, semantically meaningful nomenclature is applied to describe the input/output behavior of the single EMBOSS tools and their classifications, and 2) a domain setup where this information has been automatically derived from the EMBOSS Ajax Command Definition (ACD) files and the EMBRACE Data and Methods ontology (EDAM). Our experiments demonstrate that these domain models in combination with our synthesis methodology greatly simplify working with the large, heterogeneous, and hence manually intractable EMBOSS collection. However, they also show that with the information that can be derived from the (current) ACD files and EDAM ontology alone, some essential connections between services can not be recognized. Conclusions Our results show that adequate domain

  17. Altered emotional information processing in borderline personality disorder: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Marissen, Marlies A E; Meuleman, Linda; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2010-03-30

    Emotional dysregulation is one of the key symptoms of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the present study it is hypothesized that borderline patients display a cortical hyper-responsivity to emotional stimuli compared with a healthy control group. Further, we aimed to examine whether BPD patients were able to suppress stimuli with negative emotional valence as well as healthy control participants could. This is the first study addressing the electrophysiological processing of emotional stimuli in BPD. The electrophysiological response to emotional information was studied among 30 BPD patients and compared with the response in 30 normal controls using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were shown pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System with neutral, positive, and negative valence. After performing an attentional task, the participants were asked to perform a reappraisal task. The assignment was to consciously suppress emotions that might occur after viewing pictures with an unpleasant content. Borderline patients displayed larger late positive potentials (LPP) to pictures with an unpleasant valence as compared with the control group, indicating an enhanced elaborative processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, they did not differ on the reappraisal task. Borderline patients show an enhanced emotional cortical reactivity to unpleasant stimuli as compared with a control group. This suggests an emotional dysfunctioning in BPD patients. This feature might be an important focus in the treatment of BPD. PMID:20153144

  18. Susceptibility to semantic illusions: an individual-differences perspective.

    PubMed

    Hannon, B; Daneman, M

    2001-04-01

    When asked How many animals of each kind did Moses take on the ark?, people frequently respond "two" even though they know it was Noah, not Moses, who took animals on the ark. We replicate previous research by showing that susceptibility to semantic illusions is influenced by the semantic relatedness of both the impostor word and the surrounding context. However, we also show that the two text manipulations make independent contributions to semantic illusions, and we propose two individual-differences mechanisms that might underlie these two effects. We propose that the ability to resist the lure of a semantically related impostor word is related to the individual's skill at accessing and reasoning about knowledge from long-term memory. And we propose that the ability to resist the lure of the surrounding sentential context is related to the individual's capacity to simultaneously process and store information in working memory. PMID:11407422

  19. Learning document semantic representation with hybrid deep belief network.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Yin, Xu-Cheng; Li, Sujian; Yang, Mingyuan; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    High-level abstraction, for example, semantic representation, is vital for document classification and retrieval. However, how to learn document semantic representation is still a topic open for discussion in information retrieval and natural language processing. In this paper, we propose a new Hybrid Deep Belief Network (HDBN) which uses Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM) on the lower layers together with Deep Belief Network (DBN) on the upper layers. The advantage of DBM is that it employs undirected connection when training weight parameters which can be used to sample the states of nodes on each layer more successfully and it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance. PMID:25878657

  20. Learning Document Semantic Representation with Hybrid Deep Belief Network

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Yin, Xu-Cheng; Li, Sujian; Yang, Mingyuan; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    High-level abstraction, for example, semantic representation, is vital for document classification and retrieval. However, how to learn document semantic representation is still a topic open for discussion in information retrieval and natural language processing. In this paper, we propose a new Hybrid Deep Belief Network (HDBN) which uses Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM) on the lower layers together with Deep Belief Network (DBN) on the upper layers. The advantage of DBM is that it employs undirected connection when training weight parameters which can be used to sample the states of nodes on each layer more successfully and it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance. PMID:25878657

  1. Shared neural processes support semantic control and action understanding

    PubMed Central

    Davey, James; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Costigan, Alison; Murphy, Nik; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Hallam, Glyn; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Executive–semantic control and action understanding appear to recruit overlapping brain regions but existing evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses and neuropsychology lacks spatial precision; we therefore manipulated difficulty and feature type (visual vs. action) in a single fMRI study. Harder judgements recruited an executive–semantic network encompassing medial and inferior frontal regions (including LIFG) and posterior temporal cortex (including pMTG). These regions partially overlapped with brain areas involved in action but not visual judgements. In LIFG, the peak responses to action and difficulty were spatially identical across participants, while these responses were overlapping yet spatially distinct in posterior temporal cortex. We propose that the co-activation of LIFG and pMTG allows the flexible retrieval of semantic information, appropriate to the current context; this might be necessary both for semantic control and understanding actions. Feature selection in difficult trials also recruited ventral occipital–temporal areas, not implicated in action understanding. PMID:25658631

  2. Interference by process, not content, determines semantic auditory distraction.

    PubMed

    Marsh, John E; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2009-01-01

    Distraction by irrelevant background sound of visually-based cognitive tasks illustrates the vulnerability of attentional selectivity across modalities. Four experiments centred on auditory distraction during tests of memory for visually-presented semantic information. Meaningful irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic category-exemplars more than meaningless irrelevant sound (Experiment 1). This effect was exacerbated when the irrelevant speech was semantically related to the to-be-remembered material (Experiment 2). Importantly, however, these effects of meaningfulness and semantic relatedness were shown to arise only when instructions emphasized recall by category rather than by serial order (Experiments 3 and 4). The results favor a process-oriented, rather than a structural, approach to the breakdown of attentional selectivity and forgetting: performance is impaired by the similarity of process brought to bear on the relevant and irrelevant material, not the similarity in item content. PMID:19081558

  3. ERP measures of semantic richness: the case of multiple senses.

    PubMed

    Taler, Vanessa; Kousaie, Shanna; López Zunini, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Semantic richness refers to the amount of semantic information that a lexical item possesses. An important measure of semantic richness is the number of related senses that a word has (e.g., TABLE meaning a piece of furniture, a table of contents, to lay aside for future discussion, etc.). We measured electrophysiological response to lexical items with many and few related senses in monolingual English-speaking young adults. Participants performed lexical decision on each item. Overall, high-sense words elicited shorter response latencies and smaller N400 amplitudes than low-sense words. These results constitute further evidence of the importance of semantic richness in lexical processing, and provide evidence that processing of multiple related senses begins as early as 200 milliseconds after stimulus onset. PMID:23386817

  4. ERP measures of semantic richness: the case of multiple senses

    PubMed Central

    Taler, Vanessa; Kousaie, Shanna; López Zunini, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Semantic richness refers to the amount of semantic information that a lexical item possesses. An important measure of semantic richness is the number of related senses that a word has (e.g., TABLE meaning a piece of furniture, a table of contents, to lay aside for future discussion, etc.). We measured electrophysiological response to lexical items with many and few related senses in monolingual English-speaking young adults. Participants performed lexical decision on each item. Overall, high-sense words elicited shorter response latencies and smaller N400 amplitudes than low-sense words. These results constitute further evidence of the importance of semantic richness in lexical processing, and provide evidence that processing of multiple related senses begins as early as 200 milliseconds after stimulus onset. PMID:23386817

  5. Semantic web data warehousing for caGrid

    PubMed Central

    McCusker, James P; Phillips, Joshua A; Beltrán, Alejandra González; Finkelstein, Anthony; Krauthammer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing caGrid as a means for sharing cancer-related data and services. As more data sets become available on caGrid, we need effective ways of accessing and integrating this information. Although the data models exposed on caGrid are semantically well annotated, it is currently up to the caGrid client to infer relationships between the different models and their classes. In this paper, we present a Semantic Web-based data warehouse (Corvus) for creating relationships among caGrid models. This is accomplished through the transformation of semantically-annotated caBIG® Unified Modeling Language (UML) information models into Web Ontology Language (OWL) ontologies that preserve those semantics. We demonstrate the validity of the approach by Semantic Extraction, Transformation and Loading (SETL) of data from two caGrid data sources, caTissue and caArray, as well as alignment and query of those sources in Corvus. We argue that semantic integration is necessary for integration of data from distributed web services and that Corvus is a useful way of accomplishing this. Our approach is generalizable and of broad utility to researchers facing similar integration challenges. PMID:19796399

  6. Semantic web data warehousing for caGrid.

    PubMed

    McCusker, James P; Phillips, Joshua A; González Beltrán, Alejandra; Finkelstein, Anthony; Krauthammer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing caGrid as a means for sharing cancer-related data and services. As more data sets become available on caGrid, we need effective ways of accessing and integrating this information. Although the data models exposed on caGrid are semantically well annotated, it is currently up to the caGrid client to infer relationships between the different models and their classes. In this paper, we present a Semantic Web-based data warehouse (Corvus) for creating relationships among caGrid models. This is accomplished through the transformation of semantically-annotated caBIG Unified Modeling Language (UML) information models into Web Ontology Language (OWL) ontologies that preserve those semantics. We demonstrate the validity of the approach by Semantic Extraction, Transformation and Loading (SETL) of data from two caGrid data sources, caTissue and caArray, as well as alignment and query of those sources in Corvus. We argue that semantic integration is necessary for integration of data from distributed web services and that Corvus is a useful way of accomplishing this. Our approach is generalizable and of broad utility to researchers facing similar integration challenges. PMID:19796399

  7. Semantic Knowledge for Famous Names in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Seidenberg, Michael; Guidotti, Leslie; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Durgerian, Sally; Zhang, Qi; Gander, Amelia; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Person identification represents a unique category of semantic knowledge that is commonly impaired in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but has received relatively little investigation in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The current study examined the retrieval of semantic knowledge for famous names from three time epochs (recent, remote, and enduring) in two participant groups; 23 aMCI patients and 23 healthy elderly controls. The aMCI group was less accurate and produced less semantic knowledge than controls for famous names. Names from the enduring period were recognized faster than both recent and remote names in both groups, and remote names were recognized more quickly than recent names. Episodic memory performance was correlated with greater semantic knowledge particularly for recent names. We suggest that the anterograde memory deficits in the aMCI group interferes with learning of recent famous names and as a result produces difficulties with updating and integrating new semantic information with previously stored information. The implications of these findings for characterizing semantic memory deficits in MCI are discussed. PMID:19128524

  8. Using semantic treemaps to categorize and visualize bookmark files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ying; Borner, Katy

    2002-03-01

    As more and more information is available on the Internet, search engines and bookmark tools become very popular. However, most search tools are based on character-level matching without any semantic analysis, and users have to manually organize their bookmarks or favorite collections without any convenient tool to help them identify the subjects of the Web pages. In this paper, we introduce an interactive tool that automatically analyzes, categorizes, and visualizes the semantic relationships of web pages in personal bookmark or favorites collections based on their semantic similarity. Sophisticated data analysis methods are applied to retrieve and analyze the full text of the Web pages. The Web pages are clustered hierarchically based on their semantic similarities. A utility measure is recursively applied to determine the best partitions that are visualized by what we call the Semantic Treemap. Various interaction methods such as scrolling, zooming, expanding, selecting, searching, filtering etc. are provided to facilitate viewing and querying for information. Furthermore, the hierarchical organization as well as the semantic similarities among Web pages can be exported and visualized in a collaborative 3D environment, allowing a group of people to compare and share each other's bookmarks.

  9. X-Informatics: Practical Semantic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    The discipline of data science is merging with multiple science disciplines to form new X-informatics research disciplines. They are almost too numerous to name, but they include geoinformatics, bioinformatics, cheminformatics, biodiversity informatics, ecoinformatics, materials informatics, and the emerging discipline of astroinformatics. Within any X-informatics discipline, the information granules are unique to that discipline -- e.g., gene sequences in bio, the sky object in astro, and the spatial object in geo (such as points, lines, and polygons in the vector model, and pixels in the raster model). Nevertheless the goals are similar: transparent data re-use across subdisciplines and within education settings, information and data integration and fusion, personalization of user interactions with the data collection, semantic search and retrieval, and knowledge discovery. The implementation of an X-informatics framework enables these semantic e-science research goals. We describe the concepts, challenges, and new developments associated with the new discipline of astroinformatics, and how geoinformatics provides valuable lessons learned and a model for practical semantic science within a traditional science discipline through the accretion of data science methodologies (such as formal metadata creation, data models, data mining, information retrieval, knowledge engineering, provenance, taxonomies, and ontologies). The emerging concept of data-as-a-service (DaaS) builds upon the concept of smart data (or data DNA) for intelligent data management, automated workflows, and intelligent processing. Smart data, defined through X-informatics, enables several practical semantic science use cases, including self-discovery, data intelligence, automatic recommendations, relevance analysis, dimension reduction, feature selection, constraint-based mining, interdisciplinary data re-use, knowledge-sharing, data use in education, and more. We describe these concepts within the

  10. Semantic-preload video model based on VOP coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianping; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Xiangjun

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, in order to reduce semantic gap which exists between high-level semantics and low-level features of video when the human understanding image or video, people mostly try the method of video annotation where in signal's downstream, namely further (again) attach labels to the content in video-database. Few people focus on the idea that: Use limited interaction and the means of comprehensive segmentation (including optical technologies) from the front-end of collection of video information (i.e. video camera), with video semantics analysis technology and corresponding concepts sets (i.e. ontology) which belong in a certain domain, as well as story shooting script and the task description of scene shooting etc; Apply different-level semantic descriptions to enrich the attributes of video object and the attributes of image region, then forms a new video model which is based on Video Object Plan (VOP) Coding. This model has potential intellectualized features, and carries a large amount of metadata, and embedded intermediate-level semantic concept into every object. This paper focuses on the latter, and presents a framework of a new video model. At present, this new video model is temporarily named "Video Model of Semantic-Preloaded or Semantic-Preload Video Model (simplified into VMoSP or SPVM)". This model mainly researches how to add labeling to video objects and image regions in real time, here video object and image region are usually used intermediate semantic labeling, and this work is placed on signal's upstream (i.e. video capture production stage). Because of the research needs, this paper also tries to analyses the hierarchic structure of video, and divides the hierarchic structure into nine hierarchy semantic levels, of course, this nine hierarchy only involved in video production process. In addition, the paper also point out that here semantic level tagging work (i.e. semantic preloading) only refers to the four middle-level semantic. All in

  11. A computational modeling of semantic knowledge in reading comprehension: Integrating the landscape model with latent semantic analysis.

    PubMed

    Yeari, Menahem; van den Broek, Paul

    2016-09-01

    It is a well-accepted view that the prior semantic (general) knowledge that readers possess plays a central role in reading comprehension. Nevertheless, computational models of reading comprehension have not integrated the simulation of semantic knowledge and online comprehension processes under a unified mathematical algorithm. The present article introduces a computational model that integrates the landscape model of comprehension processes with latent semantic analysis representation of semantic knowledge. In three sets of simulations of previous behavioral findings, the integrated model successfully simulated the activation and attenuation of predictive and bridging inferences during reading, as well as centrality estimations and recall of textual information after reading. Analyses of the computational results revealed new theoretical insights regarding the underlying mechanisms of the various comprehension phenomena. PMID:27383752

  12. Multimodal Semantic Analysis and Annotation for Basketball Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Song; Xu, Min; Yi, Haoran; Chia, Liang-Tien; Rajan, Deepu

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a new multiple-modality method for extracting semantic information from basketball video. The visual, motion, and audio information are extracted from video to first generate some low-level video segmentation and classification. Domain knowledge is further exploited for detecting interesting events in the basketball video. For video, both visual and motion prediction information are utilized for shot and scene boundary detection algorithm; this will be followed by scene classification. For audio, audio keysounds are sets of specific audio sounds related to semantic events and a classification method based on hidden Markov model (HMM) is used for audio keysound identification. Subsequently, by analyzing the multimodal information, the positions of potential semantic events, such as "foul" and "shot at the basket," are located with additional domain knowledge. Finally, a video annotation is generated according to MPEG-7 multimedia description schemes (MDSs). Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorokhodko, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

  14. Semantic Feature Distinctiveness and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access is the process in which basic components of meaning in language, the lexical entries (words) are activated. This activation is based on the organization and representational structure of the lexical entries. Semantic features of words, which are the prominent semantic characteristics of a word concept, provide important information…

  15. Semantic Processing of Mathematical Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Vanessa K.; Wilson, Anna J.; Hamm, Jeff P.; Phillips, Nicola; Iwabuchi, Sarina J.; Corballis, Michael C.; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Thomas, Michael O. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether or not university mathematics students semantically process gestures depicting mathematical functions (mathematical gestures) similarly to the way they process action gestures and sentences. Semantic processing was indexed by the N400 effect. Results: The N400 effect elicited by words primed with mathematical gestures…

  16. The semantic planetary data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel; Kelly, Sean; Mattmann, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This paper will provide a brief overview of the PDS data model and the PDS catalog. It will then describe the implentation of the Semantic PDS including the development of the formal ontology, the generation of RDFS/XML and RDF/XML data sets, and the buiding of the semantic search application.

  17. GOOSE: semantic search on internet connected sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutte, Klamer; Bomhof, Freek; Burghouts, Gertjan; van Diggelen, Jurriaan; Hiemstra, Peter; van't Hof, Jaap; Kraaij, Wessel; Pasman, Huib; Smith, Arthur; Versloot, Corne; de Wit, Joost

    2013-05-01

    More and more sensors are getting Internet connected. Examples are cameras on cell phones, CCTV cameras for traffic control as well as dedicated security and defense sensor systems. Due to the steadily increasing data volume, human exploitation of all this sensor data is impossible for effective mission execution. Smart access to all sensor data acts as enabler for questions such as "Is there a person behind this building" or "Alert me when a vehicle approaches". The GOOSE concept has the ambition to provide the capability to search semantically for any relevant information within "all" (including imaging) sensor streams in the entire Internet of sensors. This is similar to the capability provided by presently available Internet search engines which enable the retrieval of information on "all" web pages on the Internet. In line with current Internet search engines any indexing services shall be utilized cross-domain. The two main challenge for GOOSE is the Semantic Gap and Scalability. The GOOSE architecture consists of five elements: (1) an online extraction of primitives on each sensor stream; (2) an indexing and search mechanism for these primitives; (3) a ontology based semantic matching module; (4) a top-down hypothesis verification mechanism and (5) a controlling man-machine interface. This paper reports on the initial GOOSE demonstrator, which consists of the MES multimedia analysis platform and the CORTEX action recognition module. It also provides an outlook into future GOOSE development.

  18. Identifying bilingual semantic neural representations across languages

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Mason, Robert A.; Mitchell, Tom M.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to identify the neural representation of a noun's meaning in one language based on the neural representation of that same noun in another language. Machine learning methods were used to train classifiers to identify which individual noun bilingual participants were thinking about in one language based solely on their brain activation in the other language. The study shows reliable (p < .05) pattern-based classification accuracies for the classification of brain activity for nouns across languages. It also shows that the stable voxels used to classify the brain activation were located in areas associated with encoding information about semantic dimensions of the words in the study. The identification of the semantic trace of individual nouns from the pattern of cortical activity demonstrates the existence of a multi-voxel pattern of activation across the cortex for a single noun common to both languages in bilinguals. PMID:21978845

  19. Semantic priming revealed by mouse movement trajectories.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kunchen; Yamauchi, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Congruency effects are taken as evidence that semantic information can be processed automatically. However, these effects are often weak, and the straightforward association between primes and targets can exaggerate congruency effects. To address these problems, a mouse movement method is applied to scrutinize congruency effects. In one experiment, participants judged whether two numbers were the same ("3\\3") or different ("3\\5"), preceded by briefly presented pictures with either positive or negative connotations. Participants indicated their responses by clicking a "Same" or "Different" button on the computer screen, while their cursor trajectories were recorded for each trial. The trajectory data revealed greater deviation to unselected buttons in incongruent trials (e.g., "3\\5" preceded by a green traffic light picture). This effect was influenced by the type of responses but not by prime durations. We suggest that the mouse movement method can complement the reaction time to study masked semantic priming. PMID:24797040

  20. Semantic Advertising for Web 3.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edward; Pan, Jeff Z.; Taylor, Stuart; Ren, Yuan; Jekjantuk, Nophadol; Zhao, Yuting

    Advertising on the World Wide Web is based around automatically matching web pages with appropriate advertisements, in the form of banner ads, interactive adverts, or text links. Traditionally this has been done by manual classification of pages, or more recently using information retrieval techniques to find the most important keywords from the page, and match these to keywords being used by adverts. In this paper, we propose a new model for online advertising, based around lightweight embedded semantics. This will improve the relevancy of adverts on the World Wide Web and help to kick-start the use of RDFa as a mechanism for adding lightweight semantic attributes to the Web. Furthermore, we propose a system architecture for the proposed new model, based on our scalable ontology reasoning infrastructure TrOWL.

  1. "Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

  2. Semantic priming effect during REM-sleep inertia in patients with narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Michela; Campi, Claudio; Mattarozzi, Katia; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Tuozzi, Giovanni; Vandi, Stefano; Vignatelli, Luca; Cipolli, Carlo

    2006-12-11

    Patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC) present excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy and an altered architecture of nocturnal sleep, with frequent episodes of REM-sleep at sleep onset (SOREM-sleep). This altered organization of nocturnal sleep may be accompanied by some differences in the functioning of the cognitive processes involved in the access, organization and consolidation of information during sleep. This study attempts to ascertain whether the activation of semantic memory during REM-sleep, as measured using a technique of semantic priming (namely, the facilitation of the activation of strongly-related rather than weakly-related and, overall, unrelated pairs of prime-target words) is different in NC patients compared to normal subjects. A lexical decision task (LDT) was carried out twice in wakefulness (at 10a.m. and after a 24h interval) and twice in the period of sleep inertia following awakening from SOREM and 4th-cycle REM-sleep on 12 NC patients and from 1st- and 4th-cycle REM-sleep on 12 matched controls. Reaction time (RT) to target words, taken as a measure of the semantic priming effect, proved to be longer (a) in NC patients than in control subjects; (b) in the period of REM-sleep inertia than in wakefulness; (c) in the first rather than the second session; and (d) for unrelated compared to weakly-related and, overall, strongly-related prime-target pairs. RT in post-REM-sleep sessions was less impaired, compared to waking sessions, and less dependent on the associative strength of prime-target pairs in NC patients than in normal subjects. Finally, RT of NC patients, although longer than that of normal subjects in waking sessions, significantly improved in the second session, as a consequence of either the amount of exercise or the consolidation advantage provided by REM-sleep for the procedural components of the task. The whole picture suggests a greater effectiveness of the activation of semantic memory during (SO)REM-sleep in NC

  3. Neural changes associated with semantic processing in healthy aging despite intact behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Jacinthe; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Grimault, Stephan; Pineault, Jessica; Joubert, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Semantic memory recruits an extensive neural network including the left inferior prefrontal cortex (IPC) and the left temporoparietal region, which are involved in semantic control processes, as well as the anterior temporal lobe region (ATL) which is considered to be involved in processing semantic information at a central level. However, little is known about the underlying neuronal integrity of the semantic network in normal aging. Young and older healthy adults carried out a semantic judgment task while their cortical activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite equivalent behavioral performance, young adults activated the left IPC to a greater extent than older adults, while the latter group recruited the temporoparietal region bilaterally and the left ATL to a greater extent than younger adults. Results indicate that significant neuronal changes occur in normal aging, mainly in regions underlying semantic control processes, despite an apparent stability in performance at the behavioral level. PMID:26282079

  4. Semantic Web technologies for the big data in life sciences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongyan; Yamaguchi, Atsuko

    2014-08-01

    The life sciences field is entering an era of big data with the breakthroughs of science and technology. More and more big data-related projects and activities are being performed in the world. Life sciences data generated by new technologies are continuing to grow in not only size but also variety and complexity, with great speed. To ensure that big data has a major influence in the life sciences, comprehensive data analysis across multiple data sources and even across disciplines is indispensable. The increasing volume of data and the heterogeneous, complex varieties of data are two principal issues mainly discussed in life science informatics. The ever-evolving next-generation Web, characterized as the Semantic Web, is an extension of the current Web, aiming to provide information for not only humans but also computers to semantically process large-scale data. The paper presents a survey of big data in life sciences, big data related projects and Semantic Web technologies. The paper introduces the main Semantic Web technologies and their current situation, and provides a detailed analysis of how Semantic Web technologies address the heterogeneous variety of life sciences big data. The paper helps to understand the role of Semantic Web technologies in the big data era and how they provide a promising solution for the big data in life sciences. PMID:25224624

  5. Improving Volunteered Geographic Data Quality Using Semantic Similarity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, A.; Devillers, R.

    2013-05-01

    Studies have analysed the quality of volunteered geographic information (VGI) datasets, assessing the positional accuracy of features and the completeness of specific attributes. While it has been shown that VGI can, in some context, reach a high positional accuracy, these works have also highlighted a large spatial heterogeneity in positional accuracy, completeness but also with regards to the semantics of the objects. Such high semantic heterogeneity of VGI datasets becomes a significant obstacle to a number of possible uses that could be made of the data. This paper proposes an approach for both improving the semantic quality and reducing the semantic heterogeneity of VGI dat asets. The improvement of the semantic quality is achieved by automatically suggesting attributes to contributors during the editing process. The reduction of semantic heterogeneity is achieved by automatically notifying contributors when two attributes are too similar or too dissimilar. The approach was implemented into a plugin for OpenStreetMap and different examples illustrate how this plugin can be used to improve the quality of VGI data.

  6. Combinatorial semantics strengthens angular-anterior temporal coupling.

    PubMed

    Molinaro, Nicola; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    The human semantic combinatorial system allows us to create a wide number of new meanings from a finite number of existing representations. The present study investigates the neural dynamics underlying the semantic processing of different conceptual constructions based on predictions from previous neuroanatomical models of the semantic processing network. In two experiments, participants read sentences for comprehension containing noun-adjective pairs in three different conditions: prototypical (Redundant), nonsense (Anomalous) and low-typical but composable (Contrastive). In Experiment 1 we examined the processing costs associated to reading these sentences and found a processing dissociation between Anomalous and Contrastive word pairs, compared to prototypical (Redundant) stimuli. In Experiment 2, functional connectivity results showed strong co-activation across conditions between inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG), as well as between these two regions and middle frontal gyrus (MFG), anterior temporal cortex (ATC) and fusiform gyrus (FG), consistent with previous neuroanatomical models. Importantly, processing of low-typical (but composable) meanings relative to prototypical and anomalous constructions was associated with a stronger positive coupling between ATC and angular gyrus (AG). Our results underscore the critical role of IFG-MTG co-activation during semantic processing and how other relevant nodes within the semantic processing network come into play to handle visual-orthographic information, to maintain multiple lexical-semantic representations in working memory and to combine existing representations while creatively constructing meaning. PMID:25682046

  7. Ontology alignment architecture for semantic sensor Web integration.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Susel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; Velasco, Juan R; Alarcos, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Sensor networks are a concept that has become very popular in data acquisition and processing for multiple applications in different fields such as industrial, medicine, home automation, environmental detection, etc. Today, with the proliferation of small communication devices with sensors that collect environmental data, semantic Web technologies are becoming closely related with sensor networks. The linking of elements from Semantic Web technologies with sensor networks has been called Semantic Sensor Web and has among its main features the use of ontologies. One of the key challenges of using ontologies in sensor networks is to provide mechanisms to integrate and exchange knowledge from heterogeneous sources (that is, dealing with semantic heterogeneity). Ontology alignment is the process of bringing ontologies into mutual agreement by the automatic discovery of mappings between related concepts. This paper presents a system for ontology alignment in the Semantic Sensor Web which uses fuzzy logic techniques to combine similarity measures between entities of different ontologies. The proposed approach focuses on two key elements: the terminological similarity, which takes into account the linguistic and semantic information of the context of the entity's names, and the structural similarity, based on both the internal and relational structure of the concepts. This work has been validated using sensor network ontologies and the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) tests. The results show that the proposed techniques outperform previous approaches in terms of precision and recall. PMID:24051523

  8. Ontology Alignment Architecture for Semantic Sensor Web Integration

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Susel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; Velasco, Juan R.; Alarcos, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Sensor networks are a concept that has become very popular in data acquisition and processing for multiple applications in different fields such as industrial, medicine, home automation, environmental detection, etc. Today, with the proliferation of small communication devices with sensors that collect environmental data, semantic Web technologies are becoming closely related with sensor networks. The linking of elements from Semantic Web technologies with sensor networks has been called Semantic Sensor Web and has among its main features the use of ontologies. One of the key challenges of using ontologies in sensor networks is to provide mechanisms to integrate and exchange knowledge from heterogeneous sources (that is, dealing with semantic heterogeneity). Ontology alignment is the process of bringing ontologies into mutual agreement by the automatic discovery of mappings between related concepts. This paper presents a system for ontology alignment in the Semantic Sensor Web which uses fuzzy logic techniques to combine similarity measures between entities of different ontologies. The proposed approach focuses on two key elements: the terminological similarity, which takes into account the linguistic and semantic information of the context of the entity's names, and the structural similarity, based on both the internal and relational structure of the concepts. This work has been validated using sensor network ontologies and the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) tests. The results show that the proposed techniques outperform previous approaches in terms of precision and recall. PMID:24051523

  9. The systematic use of semantic and acoustic processing by younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    West, R L; Cohen, S L

    1985-01-01

    To examine age differences in semantic and acoustic processing, 80 older and 80 younger adults participated in an incidental learning study. The study compared free recall and semantic and acoustic cued recall performance after five orienting conditions. The younger adults performed better than the older adults, especially after acoustic orienting. Encoding specificity effects occurred at both age levels. The results indicated that both age groups performed better with semantic processing than acoustic processing, but that older adults relied on the semantic information far more than the younger adults. PMID:4092721

  10. Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

  11. Industrial application of semantic process mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espen Ingvaldsen, Jon; Atle Gulla, Jon

    2012-05-01

    Process mining relates to the extraction of non-trivial and useful information from information system event logs. It is a new research discipline that has evolved significantly since the early work on idealistic process logs. Over the last years, process mining prototypes have incorporated elements from semantics and data mining and targeted visualisation techniques that are more user-friendly to business experts and process owners. In this article, we present a framework for evaluating different aspects of enterprise process flows and address practical challenges of state-of-the-art industrial process mining. We also explore the inherent strengths of the technology for more efficient process optimisation.

  12. Semantic Elaboration: ERPs Reveal Rapid Transition from Novel to Known

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Jackson, Felicia L.

    2015-01-01

    Like language, semantic memory is productive: It extends itself through self-derivation of new information through logical processes such as analogy, deduction, and induction, for example. Though it is clear these productive processes occur, little is known about the time course over which newly self-derived information becomes incorporated into…

  13. Semantic Memory Redux: An Experimental Test of Hierarchical Category Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Hampton, James A.; Milovanovic, Goran S.

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the classic issue in semantic memory of whether people organize categorical information in hierarchies and use inference to retrieve information from them, as proposed by Collins and Quillian (1969). Past evidence has focused on RT to confirm sentences such as "All birds are animals" or "Canaries breathe." However,…

  14. Individual Differences in a Spatial-Semantic Virtual Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chaomei

    2000-01-01

    Presents two empirical case studies concerning the role of individual differences in searching through a spatial-semantic virtual environment. Discusses information visualization in information systems; cognitive factors, including associative memory, spatial ability, and visual memory; user satisfaction; and cognitive abilities and search…

  15. Neural Substrates of Semantic Prospection – Evidence from the Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Muireann; Eyre, Nadine; Dermody, Nadene; O’Callaghan, Claire; Hodges, John R.; Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    lateralization effects depending on the type of information being simulated. Whereas episodic future thinking related to right hippocampal integrity, semantic future thinking was found to relate to left hippocampal integrity. Our findings support previous observations of significant MTL involvement for semantic forms of prospection and point to distinct neurocognitive mechanisms which must be functional to support future-oriented forms of thought across personal and non-personal contexts. PMID:27252632

  16. Neural Substrates of Semantic Prospection - Evidence from the Dementias.

    PubMed

    Irish, Muireann; Eyre, Nadine; Dermody, Nadene; O'Callaghan, Claire; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    lateralization effects depending on the type of information being simulated. Whereas episodic future thinking related to right hippocampal integrity, semantic future thinking was found to relate to left hippocampal integrity. Our findings support previous observations of significant MTL involvement for semantic forms of prospection and point to distinct neurocognitive mechanisms which must be functional to support future-oriented forms of thought across personal and non-personal contexts. PMID:27252632

  17. Learning semantic and visual similarity for endomicroscopy video retrieval.

    PubMed

    Andre, Barbara; Vercauteren, Tom; Buchner, Anna M; Wallace, Michael B; Ayache, Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    . In our resulting retrieval system, we decide to use visual signatures for perceived similarity learning and retrieval, and semantic signatures for the output of an additional information, expressed in the endoscopist own language, which provides a relevant semantic translation of the visual retrieval outputs. PMID:22353403

  18. Semantic query processing and annotation generation for content-based retrieval of histological images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lilian H.; Hanka, Rudolf; Ip, Horace H. S.; Cheung, Kent K. T.; Lam, Ringo

    2000-05-01

    In this paper we present a semantic content representation scheme and the associated techniques for supporting (1) query by image examples or by natural language in a histological image database and (2) automatic annotation generation for images through image semantic analysis. In this research, various types of query are analyzed by either a semantic analyzer or a natural language analyzer to extract high level concepts and histological information, which are subsequently converted into an internal semantic content representation structure code-named 'Papillon.' Papillon serves not only as an intermediate representation scheme but also stores the semantic content of the image that will be used to match against the semantic index structure within the image database during query processing. During the image database population phase, all images that are going to be put into the database will go through the same processing so that every image would have its semantic content represented by a Papillon structure. Since the Papillon structure for an image contains high level semantic information of the image, it forms the basis of the technique that automatically generates textual annotation for the input images. Papillon bridges the gap between different media in the database, allows complicated intelligent browsing to be carried out efficiently, and also provides a well- defined semantic content representation scheme for different content processing engines developed for content-based retrieval.

  19. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

    2006-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert. PMID:16185937

  20. ARGOS Policy Brief on Semantic Interoperability

    PubMed Central

    KALRA, Dipak; MUSEN, Mark; SMITH, Barry; CEUSTERS, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Semantic interoperability is one of the priority themes of the ARGOS Trans-Atlantic Observatory. This topic represents a globally recognised challenge that must be addressed if electronic health records are to be shared among heterogeneous systems, and the information in them exploited to the maximum benefit of patients, professionals, health services, research, and industry. Progress in this multi-faceted challenge has been piecemeal, and valuable lessons have been learned, and approaches discovered, in Europe and in the US that can be shared and combined. Experts from both continents have met at three ARGOS workshops during 2010 and 2011 to share understanding of these issues and how they might be tackled collectively from both sides of the Atlantic. This policy brief summarises the problems and the reasons why they are important to tackle, and also why they are so difficult. It outlines the major areas of semantic innovation that exist and that are available to help address this challenge. It proposes a series of next steps that need to be championed on both sides of the Atlantic if further progress is to be made in sharing and analysing electronic health records meaningfully. Semantic interoperability requires the use of standards, not only for EHR data to be transferred and structurally mapped into a receiving repository, but also for the clinical content of the EHR to be interpreted in conformity with the original meanings intended by its authors. Wide-scale engagement with professional bodies, globally, is needed to develop these clinical information standards. Accurate and complete clinical documentation, faithful to the patient’s situation, and interoperability between systems, require widespread and dependable access to published and maintained collections of coherent and quality-assured semantic resources, including models such as archetypes and templates that would (1) provide clinical context, (2) be mapped to interoperability standards for EHR data

  1. From autopoiesis to semantic closure.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses the question of providing an adequate mathematical formulation for the concepts of autopoiesis and closure under efficient cause. What is required is metaphorically equivalent to reducing the act of writing to a set of mathematical equations, habitually effected by a human mathematician, within the ongoing function of the system itself. This, in turn, raises the question of the relationship between autopoiesis and semantics. The hypothesis suggested is that whereas semantics clearly requires autopoiesis, it may be also be the case that autopoiesis itself can only be materially realized in a system that is characterized by a semantic dimension. PMID:10818567

  2. Conscious and unconscious detection of semantic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    When asked What superhero is associated with bats, Robin, the Penguin, Metropolis, Catwoman, the Riddler, the Joker, and Mr. Freeze? people frequently fail to notice the anomalous word Metropolis. The goals of this study were to determine whether detection of semantic anomalies, like Metropolis, is conscious or unconscious and whether this detection is immediate or delayed. To achieve these goals, participants answered anomalous and nonanomalous questions as their reading times for words were recorded. Comparisons between detected versus undetected anomalies revealed slower reading times for detected anomalies-a finding that suggests that people immediately and consciously detected anomalies. Further, comparisons between first and second words following undetected anomalies versus nonanomalous controls revealed some slower reading times for first and second words-a finding that suggests that people may have unconsciously detected anomalies but this detection was delayed. Taken together, these findings support the idea that when we are immediately aware of a semantic anomaly (i.e., immediate conscious detection) our language processes make immediate adjustments in order to reconcile contradictory information of anomalies with surrounding text; however, even when we are not consciously aware of semantic anomalies, our language processes still make these adjustments, although these adjustments are delayed (i.e., delayed unconscious detection). PMID:25624136

  3. Semantic Search in the Remote Associates Test.

    PubMed

    Davelaar, Eddy J

    2015-07-01

    Searching through semantic memory may involve the use of several retrieval cues. In a verbal fluency task, the set of available cues is limited and every candidate word is a target. Individuals exhibit clustering behavior as predicted by optimal foraging theory. In another semantic search task, the remote associates task (RAT), three cues are presented and a single target word has to be found. Whereas the task has been widely studied as a task of creativity or insight problem solving, in this article, the RAT is treated as a semantic retrieval task and assessed from the perspective of information foraging theory. Experiments are presented that address the superadditive combination of cues and the anti-clustering behavior in the recall sequence. A new type of search behavior in the RAT is put forward that involves maximizing the difference in activation between target and distractors. This type of search is advantageous when the target is weak and cue patches are contaminated with strong competitors. PMID:25982148

  4. Semantic Web for Manufacturing Web Services

    SciTech Connect

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Ivezic, Nenad

    2002-06-01

    As markets become unexpectedly turbulent with a shortened product life cycle and a power shift towards buyers, the need for methods to rapidly and cost-effectively develop products, production facilities and supporting software is becoming urgent. The use of a virtual enterprise plays a vital role in surviving turbulent markets. However, its success requires reliable and large-scale interoperation among trading partners via a semantic web of trading partners' services whose properties, capabilities, and interfaces are encoded in an unambiguous as well as computer-understandable form. This paper demonstrates a promising approach to integration and interoperation between a design house and a manufacturer by developing semantic web services for business and engineering transactions. To this end, detailed activity and information flow diagrams are developed, in which the two trading partners exchange messages and documents. The properties and capabilities of the manufacturer sites are defined using DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) ontology definition language. The prototype development of semantic webs shows that enterprises can widely interoperate in an unambiguous and autonomous manner; hence, virtual enterprise is realizable at a low cost.

  5. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  6. LDRD final report : first application of geospatial semantic graphs to SAR image data.

    SciTech Connect

    Brost, Randolph C.; McLendon, William Clarence,

    2013-01-01

    Modeling geospatial information with semantic graphs enables search for sites of interest based on relationships between features, without requiring strong a priori models of feature shape or other intrinsic properties. Geospatial semantic graphs can be constructed from raw sensor data with suitable preprocessing to obtain a discretized representation. This report describes initial work toward extending geospatial semantic graphs to include temporal information, and initial results applying semantic graph techniques to SAR image data. We describe an efficient graph structure that includes geospatial and temporal information, which is designed to support simultaneous spatial and temporal search queries. We also report a preliminary implementation of feature recognition, semantic graph modeling, and graph search based on input SAR data. The report concludes with lessons learned and suggestions for future improvements.

  7. Mindfulness Training Alters Emotional Memory Recall Compared to Active Controls: Support for an Emotional Information Processing Model of Mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    Roberts-Wolfe, Douglas; Sacchet, Matthew D.; Hastings, Elizabeth; Roth, Harold; Britton, Willoughby

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e., memory) biases in relation to both clinical symptomatology and well-being in comparison to active control conditions. Methods: Fifty-eight university students (28 female, age = 20.1 ± 2.7 years) participated in either a 12-week course containing a “meditation laboratory” or an active control course with similar content or experiential practice laboratory format (music). Participants completed an emotional word recall task and self-report questionnaires of well-being and clinical symptoms before and after the 12-week course. Results: Meditators showed greater increases in positive word recall compared to controls [F(1, 56) = 6.6, p = 0.02]. The meditation group increased significantly more on measures of well-being [F(1, 56) = 6.6, p = 0.01], with a marginal decrease in depression and anxiety [F(1, 56) = 3.0, p = 0.09] compared to controls. Increased positive word recall was associated with increased psychological well-being (r = 0.31, p = 0.02) and decreased clinical symptoms (r = −0.29, p = 0.03). Conclusion: Mindfulness training was associated with greater improvements in processing efficiency for positively valenced stimuli than active control conditions. This change in emotional information processing was associated with improvements in psychological well-being and less depression and anxiety. These data suggest that mindfulness training may improve well-being via changes in emotional information processing. Future

  8. The Nature of Semantic Savings for Items Forgotten from Long-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Thomas O.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The kind of semantic information that facilitates relearning was investigated. The paradigm consisted of three stages: (1) learn a list of number-word pairs; (2) return for a retention test; and (3) relearn a new list of pairs that have various kinds of semantic relatedness to the originally learned pairs. (Author/CTM)

  9. Semantic Similarity of Labels and Inductive Generalization: Taking a Second Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Anna V.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Godwin, Karrie E.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests that preschoolers can generalize object properties based on category information conveyed by semantically-similar labels. However, previous research did not control for co-occurrence probability of labels in natural speech. The current studies re-assessed children's generalization with semantically-similar labels.…

  10. Implicit Word Learning Benefits from Semantic Richness: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabovsky, Milena; Sommer, Werner; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2012-01-01

    Words differ considerably in the amount of associated semantic information. Despite the crucial role of meaning in language, it is still unclear whether and how this variability modulates language learning. Here, we provide initial evidence demonstrating that implicit learning in repetition priming is influenced by the amount of semantic features…

  11. Orthographic Learning in Learning to Spell: The Roles of Semantics and Type of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Gene

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relevance of type of practice and presence of semantic representation for orthographic learning in learning to spell. A total of 36 students in Grade 2 (mean age = 7 years 10 months) were exposed to 10 novel nonwords, 5 of which were paired with semantic information. Half of the participants practiced reading these new…

  12. A Familiar Pattern? Semantic Memory Contributes to the Enhancement of Visuo-Spatial Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Leigh M.; Orme, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this study we quantify for the first time electrophysiological components associated with incorporating long-term semantic knowledge with visuo-spatial information using two variants of a traditional matrix patterns task. Results indicated that the matrix task with greater semantic content was associated with enhanced accuracy and RTs in a…

  13. Intelligibility, Comprehensibility, and Accentedness of L2 Speech: The Role of Listener Experience and Semantic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Sara; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how listener experience (extent of previous exposure to non-native speech) and semantic context (degree and type of semantic information available) influence measures of intelligibility, comprehensibility, and accentedness of non-native (L2) speech. Participants were 24 native English-speaking listeners, half experienced…

  14. On the Grammar and Model-Theoretic Semantics of Children's Noun Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    The paper shows informally how model-theoretical semantics may be used by a computer to give a straight-forward analysis of the meaning of children's language. This approach to semantics grows out of the main thrust of work in mathematical logic. It is discussed in the framework of generative grammar and is based on the application of the…

  15. Does semantic redundancy gain result from multiple semantic priming?

    PubMed

    Schröter, Hannes; Bratzke, Daniel; Fiedler, Anja; Birngruber, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Fiedler, Schröter, and Ulrich (2013) reported faster responses to a single written word when the semantic content of this word (e.g., "elephant") matched both targets (e.g., "animal", "gray") as compared to a single target (e.g., "animal", "brown"). This semantic redundancy gain was explained by statistical facilitation due to a race of independent memory retrieval processes. The present experiment addresses one alternative explanation, namely that semantic redundancy gain results from multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. In different blocks of trials, participants performed a redundant-targets task and a lexical decision task. The targets of the redundant-targets task served as primes in the lexical decision task. Replicating the findings of Fiedler et al., a semantic redundancy gain was observed in the redundant-targets task. Crucially, however, there was no evidence of a multiple semantic priming effect in the lexical decision task. This result suggests that semantic redundancy gain cannot be explained by multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. PMID:26342771

  16. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  17. SAS- Semantic Annotation Service for Geoscience resources on the web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.; Marini, L.; Li, R.; Jiang, P.

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing need for increased integration across the data and model resources that are disseminated on the web to advance their reuse across different earth science applications. Meaningful reuse of resources requires semantic metadata to realize the semantic web vision for allowing pragmatic linkage and integration among resources. Semantic metadata associates standard metadata with resources to turn them into semantically-enabled resources on the web. However, the lack of a common standardized metadata framework as well as the uncoordinated use of metadata fields across different geo-information systems, has led to a situation in which standards and related Standard Names abound. To address this need, we have designed SAS to provide a bridge between the core ontologies required to annotate resources and information systems in order to enable queries and analysis over annotation from a single environment (web). SAS is one of the services that are provided by the Geosematnic framework, which is a decentralized semantic framework to support the integration between models and data and allow semantically heterogeneous to interact with minimum human intervention. Here we present the design of SAS and demonstrate its application for annotating data and models. First we describe how predicates and their attributes are extracted from standards and ingested in the knowledge-base of the Geosemantic framework. Then we illustrate the application of SAS in annotating data managed by SEAD and annotating simulation models that have web interface. SAS is a step in a broader approach to raise the quality of geoscience data and models that are published on the web and allow users to better search, access, and use of the existing resources based on standard vocabularies that are encoded and published using semantic technologies.

  18. Constructing a semantic predication gold standard from the biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic relations increasingly underpin biomedical text mining and knowledge discovery applications. The success of such practical applications crucially depends on the quality of extracted relations, which can be assessed against a gold standard reference. Most such references in biomedical text mining focus on narrow subdomains and adopt different semantic representations, rendering them difficult to use for benchmarking independently developed relation extraction systems. In this article, we present a multi-phase gold standard annotation study, in which we annotated 500 sentences randomly selected from MEDLINE abstracts on a wide range of biomedical topics with 1371 semantic predications. The UMLS Metathesaurus served as the main source for conceptual information and the UMLS Semantic Network for relational information. We measured interannotator agreement and analyzed the annotations closely to identify some of the challenges in annotating biomedical text with relations based on an ontology or a terminology. Results We obtain fair to moderate interannotator agreement in the practice phase (0.378-0.475). With improved guidelines and additional semantic equivalence criteria, the agreement increases by 12% (0.415 to 0.536) in the main annotation phase. In addition, we find that agreement increases to 0.688 when the agreement calculation is limited to those predications that are based only on the explicitly provided UMLS concepts and relations. Conclusions While interannotator agreement in the practice phase confirms that conceptual annotation is a challenging task, the increasing agreement in the main annotation phase points out that an acceptable level of agreement can be achieved in multiple iterations, by setting stricter guidelines and establishing semantic equivalence criteria. Mapping text to ontological concepts emerges as the main challenge in conceptual annotation. Annotating predications involving biomolecular entities and processes is

  19. Introducing glycomics data into the Semantic Web

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glycoscience is a research field focusing on complex carbohydrates (otherwise known as glycans)a, which can, for example, serve as “switches” that toggle between different functions of a glycoprotein or glycolipid. Due to the advancement of glycomics technologies that are used to characterize glycan structures, many glycomics databases are now publicly available and provide useful information for glycoscience research. However, these databases have almost no link to other life science databases. Results In order to implement support for the Semantic Web most efficiently for glycomics research, the developers of major glycomics databases agreed on a minimal standard for representing glycan structure and annotation information using RDF (Resource Description Framework). Moreover, all of the participants implemented this standard prototype and generated preliminary RDF versions of their data. To test the utility of the converted data, all of the data sets were uploaded into a Virtuoso triple store, and several SPARQL queries were tested as “proofs-of-concept” to illustrate the utility of the Semantic Web in querying across databases which were originally difficult to implement. Conclusions We were able to successfully retrieve information by linking UniCarbKB, GlycomeDB and JCGGDB in a single SPARQL query to obtain our target information. We also tested queries linking UniProt with GlycoEpitope as well as lectin data with GlycomeDB through PDB. As a result, we have been able to link proteomics data with glycomics data through the implementation of Semantic Web technologies, allowing for more flexible queries across these domains. PMID:24280648

  20. Active maintenance of semantic representations.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Ryoji

    2014-12-01

    In research on verbal working memory, articulatory rehearsal, a maintenance mechanism for phonological representations, has undergone intensive and excellent study. Possible mechanisms for semantic representation have received less attention. However, several studies have reported a double dissociation in types of memory deficits (semantic memory difficulties vs. phonological memory difficulties). This suggests the separability of two maintenance mechanisms. The present study focused on this separability in individuals with normal memory abilities, using a dual-task interference paradigm. The results indicate a crossover interaction between memory and interference task effects: Preventing articulatory rehearsal more strongly disrupted the phonological memory task, whereas performing a tapping task that interfered with attentional control more strongly disrupted semantic memory. These results suggest that semantic representations are actively maintained by a mechanism other than phonological maintenance. PMID:24687734

  1. Distributed semantic networks and CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, James; Rodriguez, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Semantic networks of frames are commonly used as a method of reasoning in many problems. In most of these applications the semantic network exists as a single entity in a single process environment. Advances in workstation hardware provide support for more sophisticated applications involving multiple processes, interacting in a distributed environment. In these applications the semantic network may well be distributed over several concurrently executing tasks. This paper describes the design and implementation of a frame based, distributed semantic network in which frames are accessed both through C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert systems and procedural C++ language programs. The application area is a knowledge based, cooperative decision making model utilizing both rule based and procedural experts.

  2. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  3. Semantic service-oriented architecture for range operation: evolving the role of semantics in the enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Richard; Bimson, Kent; Hyle, Richard; Thiebauth, Richard

    2009-05-01

    The Knowledge Management Framework (KMF) of the US Air Force 45th Space Wing's Knowledge Management Initiative (KMI) is a semantic service-oriented architecture that provides Eastern Range stakeholders with a semantically unified, web-based view of distributed range information-a Single Integrated Range Picture-through a virtual, federated, ontology-based enterprise model. Design time activities include the creation of physical data services and mapping of those physical data services to logical data services corresponding to the concepts described in an OWLDL[ 1] ontology. The physical data services aggregate and normalize information stored within federated relational databases and XML[2] files. Runtime activities are managed through a single web service providing methods for ontology discovery, ontology inspection and retrieval of concept instances from federated data sources. We present lessons learned and the technology currently under development to support ontology-driven EII, reasoning, and search. We finish by discussing how these lessons have reshaped our thinking about the role of semantics in enriching information to make it more meaningful for stakeholders, and the impact of these new concepts on our evolving KMF architecture.

  4. Semantic wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Nimmala, Venkatarama S R; Penders, Julien; van Hyfte, Dirk; Brands, Michael; Gyselinckx, Bert

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of semantic Wireless Body Area Network (sWBAN). First the method for semantic interpretation of body sensor data is developed. This method is then illustrated for the case of ECG monitoring, providing the user with real-time monitoring and interpretation of heart activity. Finally, possible extensions of the method to data fusion and context-aware monitoring are discussed. PMID:19163441

  5. Enhancing Biomedical Text Summarization Using Semantic Relation Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yue; Li, Yanpeng; Lin, Hongfei; Yang, Zhihao

    2011-01-01

    Automatic text summarization for a biomedical concept can help researchers to get the key points of a certain topic from large amount of biomedical literature efficiently. In this paper, we present a method for generating text summary for a given biomedical concept, e.g., H1N1 disease, from multiple documents based on semantic relation extraction. Our approach includes three stages: 1) We extract semantic relations in each sentence using the semantic knowledge representation tool SemRep. 2) We develop a relation-level retrieval method to select the relations most relevant to each query concept and visualize them in a graphic representation. 3) For relations in the relevant set, we extract informative sentences that can interpret them from the document collection to generate text summary using an information retrieval based method. Our major focus in this work is to investigate the contribution of semantic relation extraction to the task of biomedical text summarization. The experimental results on summarization for a set of diseases show that the introduction of semantic knowledge improves the performance and our results are better than the MEAD system, a well-known tool for text summarization. PMID:21887336

  6. Semantic profiles in mild cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Marco; Paciaroni, Lucia; Paolini, Susy; Scarpino, Osvaldo; Burn, David J

    2015-01-01

    The temporal and the prefrontal cortices have different roles in semantic information processing: the temporal lobe is where knowledge is stored (Graham and Hodges, 1997), whereas the prefrontal cortex is more specifically involved in executive aspects of semantic processing. Relatively little is known about the semantic profiles of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). This observational study investigated naming and semantic questionnaire performances in three groups of subjects: 10 patients with the amnestic-type MCI prodrome of AD (aMCI), 10 patients with early-stage executive-type MCI in PD (MCI-PD), and 10 normal subjects. The MCI-PD subjects demonstrated inferior performances on a semantic questionnaire, whereas the aMCI group displayed modest difficulties in a naming task. These differences may be explained by topographical differences in pathological involvement. Since the frontal areas are more functionally impaired in PD, we hypothesize that the semantic deficit may be a consequence of a deficiency in control of semantic processing. On the other hand, the semantic deficit in aMCI may be related to a lexical-semantic storage dysfunction resulting from pathological involvement of the temporal lobe. PMID:26415783

  7. Semantic profiles in mild cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases

    PubMed Central

    Guidi, Marco; Paciaroni, Lucia; Paolini, Susy; Scarpino, Osvaldo; Burn, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The temporal and the prefrontal cortices have different roles in semantic information processing: the temporal lobe is where knowledge is stored (Graham and Hodges, 1997), whereas the prefrontal cortex is more specifically involved in executive aspects of semantic processing. Relatively little is known about the semantic profiles of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). This observational study investigated naming and semantic questionnaire performances in three groups of subjects: 10 patients with the amnestic-type MCI prodrome of AD (aMCI), 10 patients with early-stage executive-type MCI in PD (MCI-PD), and 10 normal subjects. The MCI-PD subjects demonstrated inferior performances on a semantic questionnaire, whereas the aMCI group displayed modest difficulties in a naming task. These differences may be explained by topographical differences in pathological involvement. Since the frontal areas are more functionally impaired in PD, we hypothesize that the semantic deficit may be a consequence of a deficiency in control of semantic processing. On the other hand, the semantic deficit in aMCI may be related to a lexical-semantic storage dysfunction resulting from pathological involvement of the temporal lobe. PMID:26415783

  8. COTARD SYNDROME IN SEMANTIC DEMENTIA

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Mario F.; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of meaning of words or concepts. semantic dementia can offer potential insights into the mechanisms of content-specific delusions. Objective The authors present a rare case of semantic dementia with Cotard syndrome, a delusion characterized by nihilism or self-negation. Method The semantic deficits and other features of semantic dementia were evaluated in relation to the patient's Cotard syndrome. Results Mrs. A developed the delusional belief that she was wasting and dying. This occurred after she lost knowledge for her somatic discomforts and sensations and for the organs that were the source of these sensations. Her nihilistic beliefs appeared to emerge from her misunderstanding of her somatic sensations. Conclusion This unique patient suggests that a mechanism for Cotard syndrome is difficulty interpreting the nature and source of internal pains and sensations. We propose that loss of semantic knowledge about one's own body may lead to the delusion of nihilism or death. PMID:22054629

  9. Microbial profiling, neural network and semantic web: an integrated information system for human pathogen risk management, prevention and surveillance in food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is estimated that food-borne pathogens cause approximately 76 million cases of gastrointestinal illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths in the United States annually. Genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic studies, particularly, genome sequencing projects are providing valuable inform...

  10. Ranking Biomedical Annotations with Annotator's Semantic Relevancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical annotation is a common and affective artifact for researchers to discuss, show opinion, and share discoveries. It becomes increasing popular in many online research communities, and implies much useful information. Ranking biomedical annotations is a critical problem for data user to efficiently get information. As the annotator's knowledge about the annotated entity normally determines quality of the annotations, we evaluate the knowledge, that is, semantic relationship between them, in two ways. The first is extracting relational information from credible websites by mining association rules between an annotator and a biomedical entity. The second way is frequent pattern mining from historical annotations, which reveals common features of biomedical entities that an annotator can annotate with high quality. We propose a weighted and concept-extended RDF model to represent an annotator, a biomedical entity, and their background attributes and merge information from the two ways as the context of an annotator. Based on that, we present a method to rank the annotations by evaluating their correctness according to user's vote and the semantic relevancy between the annotator and the annotated entity. The experimental results show that the approach is applicable and efficient even when data set is large. PMID:24899918

  11. Ranking biomedical annotations with annotator's semantic relevancy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Aihua

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical annotation is a common and affective artifact for researchers to discuss, show opinion, and share discoveries. It becomes increasing popular in many online research communities, and implies much useful information. Ranking biomedical annotations is a critical problem for data user to efficiently get information. As the annotator's knowledge about the annotated entity normally determines quality of the annotations, we evaluate the knowledge, that is, semantic relationship between them, in two ways. The first is extracting relational information from credible websites by mining association rules between an annotator and a biomedical entity. The second way is frequent pattern mining from historical annotations, which reveals common features of biomedical entities that an annotator can annotate with high quality. We propose a weighted and concept-extended RDF model to represent an annotator, a biomedical entity, and their background attributes and merge information from the two ways as the context of an annotator. Based on that, we present a method to rank the annotations by evaluating their correctness according to user's vote and the semantic relevancy between the annotator and the annotated entity. The experimental results show that the approach is applicable and efficient even when data set is large. PMID:24899918

  12. Semantics-Based Interoperability Framework for the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, A.; Malik, Z.; Raskin, R.; Barnes, C.; Fox, P.; McGuinness, D.; Lin, K.

    2008-12-01

    Interoperability between heterogeneous data, tools and services is required to transform data to knowledge. To meet geoscience-oriented societal challenges such as forcing of climate change induced by volcanic eruptions, we suggest the need to develop semantic interoperability for data, services, and processes. Because such scientific endeavors require integration of multiple data bases associated with global enterprises, implicit semantic-based integration is impossible. Instead, explicit semantics are needed to facilitate interoperability and integration. Although different types of integration models are available (syntactic or semantic) we suggest that semantic interoperability is likely to be the most successful pathway. Clearly, the geoscience community would benefit from utilization of existing XML-based data models, such as GeoSciML, WaterML, etc to rapidly advance semantic interoperability and integration. We recognize that such integration will require a "meanings-based search, reasoning and information brokering", which will be facilitated through inter-ontology relationships (ontologies defined for each discipline). We suggest that Markup languages (MLs) and ontologies can be seen as "data integration facilitators", working at different abstraction levels. Therefore, we propose to use an ontology-based data registration and discovery approach to compliment mark-up languages through semantic data enrichment. Ontologies allow the use of formal and descriptive logic statements which permits expressive query capabilities for data integration through reasoning. We have developed domain ontologies (EPONT) to capture the concept behind data. EPONT ontologies are associated with existing ontologies such as SUMO, DOLCE and SWEET. Although significant efforts have gone into developing data (object) ontologies, we advance the idea of developing semantic frameworks for additional ontologies that deal with processes and services. This evolutionary step will

  13. A framework of Chinese semantic text mining based on ontology learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Hu, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Text mining and ontology learning can be effectively employed to acquire the Chinese semantic information. This paper explores a framework of semantic text mining based on ontology learning to find the potential semantic knowledge from the immensity text information on the Internet. This framework consists of four parts: Data Acquisition, Feature Extraction, Ontology Construction, and Text Knowledge Pattern Discovery. Then the framework is applied into an actual case to try to find out the valuable information, and even to assist the consumers with selecting proper products. The results show that this framework is reasonable and effective.

  14. A framework of Chinese semantic text mining based on ontology learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-feng; Hu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Text mining and ontology learning can be effectively employed to acquire the Chinese semantic information. This paper explores a framework of semantic text mining based on ontology learning to find the potential semantic knowledge from the immensity text information on the Internet. This framework consists of four parts: Data Acquisition, Feature Extraction, Ontology Construction, and Text Knowledge Pattern Discovery. Then the framework is applied into an actual case to try to find out the valuable information, and even to assist the consumers with selecting proper products. The results show that this framework is reasonable and effective.

  15. Semantic elaboration: ERPs reveal rapid transition from novel to known

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Jackson, Felicia L.

    2014-01-01

    Like language, semantic memory is productive: It extends itself through self-derivation of new information through logical processes such as analogy, deduction, and induction, for example. Though it is clear these productive processes occur, little is known about the time course over which newly self-derived information becomes incorporated into semantic knowledge. In the present research, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine this dynamic process. Subjects were presented with separate but related facts that when integrated with one another, supported generation of new information (Integration facts). After two 400 ms presentations, P600 responses to Integration facts differed from responses to Novel facts and did not differ from responses to Well-known facts, suggesting that the newly self-derived information had been incorporated into the knowledge base. The finding of rapid transition from newly self-derived to well-known helps explain the richness of semantic memory. By implication, it also may contribute to the absence of episodic information specifying when and where semantic contents were acquired. PMID:25089741

  16. Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Wu, Stephen; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    experimented with different sliding window models and found the model with parameters that led to best performance in a preliminary sequence labeling task. The evaluation of this approach, performed against the i2b2/VA concept extraction corpus, showed that incorporating features based on the distribution of words across a large unannotated corpus significantly aids concept extraction. Compared to a supervised-only approach as a baseline, the micro-averaged f-measure for exact match increased from 80.3% to 82.3% and the micro-averaged f-measure based on inexact match increased from 89.7% to 91.3%. These improvements are highly significant according to the bootstrap resampling method and also considering the performance of other systems. Thus, distributional semantic features significantly improve the performance of concept extraction from clinical narratives by taking advantage of word distribution information obtained from unannotated data. PMID:22085698

  17. Advancing translational research with the Semantic Web

    PubMed Central

    Ruttenberg, Alan; Clark, Tim; Bug, William; Samwald, Matthias; Bodenreider, Olivier; Chen, Helen; Doherty, Donald; Forsberg, Kerstin; Gao, Yong; Kashyap, Vipul; Kinoshita, June; Luciano, Joanne; Marshall, M Scott; Ogbuji, Chimezie; Rees, Jonathan; Stephens, Susie; Wong, Gwendolyn T; Wu, Elizabeth; Zaccagnini, Davide; Hongsermeier, Tonya; Neumann, Eric; Herman, Ivan; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2007-01-01

    Background A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources by automatic processes. It is based on common formats that support aggregation and integration of data drawn from diverse sources. A variety of technologies have been built on this foundation that, together, support identifying, representing, and reasoning across a wide range of biomedical data. The Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG), set up within the framework of the World Wide Web Consortium, was launched to explore the application of these technologies in a variety of areas. Subgroups focus on making biomedical data available in RDF, working with biomedical ontologies, prototyping clinical decision support systems, working on drug safety and efficacy communication, and supporting disease researchers navigating and annotating the large amount of potentially relevant literature. Results We present a scenario that shows the value of the information environment the Semantic Web can support for aiding neuroscience researchers. We then report on several projects by members of the HCLSIG, in the process illustrating the range of Semantic Web technologies that have applications in areas of biomedicine. Conclusion Semantic Web technologies present both promise and challenges. Current tools and standards are already adequate to implement components of the bench-to-bedside vision. On the other hand, these technologies are young. Gaps in standards and implementations still exist and adoption is limited by typical problems with early technology, such as the need for a critical mass of

  18. [The genetic language: grammar, semantics, evolution].

    PubMed

    Ratner, V A

    1993-05-01

    The genetic language is a collection of rules and regularities of genetic information coding for genetic texts. It is defined by alphabet, grammar, collection of punctuation marks and regulatory sites, semantics. There is a review of these general attributes of genetic language, including also the problems of synonymy and evolution. The main directions of theoretical investigations of genetic language and neighbouring questions are formulated: (1) cryptographic problems, (2) analysis of genetic texts, (3) theoretical-linguistic problems, (4) evolutionary linguistic questions. The problem of genetic language becomes one of the key ones of molecular genetics, molecular biology and gene engineering. PMID:8335231

  19. Semantic Similarity in Biomedical Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falcão, André O.; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies. Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research. PMID:19649320

  20. Technique for information retrieval using enhanced latent semantic analysis generating rank approximation matrix by factorizing the weighted morpheme-by-document matrix

    DOEpatents

    Chew, Peter A; Bader, Brett W

    2012-10-16

    A technique for information retrieval includes parsing a corpus to identify a number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus. A weighted morpheme-by-document matrix is generated based at least in part on the number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus and based at least in part on a weighting function. The weighted morpheme-by-document matrix separately enumerates instances of stems and affixes. Additionally or alternatively, a term-by-term alignment matrix may be generated based at least in part on the number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus. At least one lower rank approximation matrix is generated by factorizing the weighted morpheme-by-document matrix and/or the term-by-term alignment matrix.

  1. Semantic control of feature extraction from natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Neri, Peter

    2014-02-01

    In the early stages of image analysis, visual cortex represents scenes as spatially organized maps of locally defined features (e.g., edge orientation). As image reconstruction unfolds and features are assembled into larger constructs, cortex attempts to recover semantic content for object recognition. It is conceivable that higher level representations may feed back onto early processes and retune their properties to align with the semantic structure projected by the scene; however, there is no clear evidence to either support or discard the applicability of this notion to the human visual system. Obtaining such evidence is challenging because low and higher level processes must be probed simultaneously within the same experimental paradigm. We developed a methodology that targets both levels of analysis by embedding low-level probes within natural scenes. Human observers were required to discriminate probe orientation while semantic interpretation of the scene was selectively disrupted via stimulus inversion or reversed playback. We characterized the orientation tuning properties of the perceptual process supporting probe discrimination; tuning was substantially reshaped by semantic manipulation, demonstrating that low-level feature detectors operate under partial control from higher level modules. The manner in which such control was exerted may be interpreted as a top-down predictive strategy whereby global semantic content guides and refines local image reconstruction. We exploit the novel information gained from data to develop mechanistic accounts of unexplained phenomena such as the classic face inversion effect. PMID:24501376

  2. Interaction between phonological and semantic representations: time matters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Mirman, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Computational modeling and eye-tracking were used to investigate how phonological and semantic information interact to influence the time course of spoken word recognition. We extended our recent models (Chen & Mirman, 2012; Mirman, Britt, & Chen, 2013) to account for new evidence that competition among phonological neighbors influences activation of semantically related concepts during spoken word recognition (Apfelbaum, Blumstein, & McMurray, 2011). The model made a novel prediction: Semantic input modulates the effect of phonological neighbors on target word processing, producing an approximately inverted-U-shaped pattern with a high phonological density advantage at an intermediate level of semantic input-in contrast to the typical disadvantage for high phonological density words in spoken word recognition. This prediction was confirmed with a new analysis of the Apfelbaum et al. data and in a visual world paradigm experiment with preview duration serving as a manipulation of strength of semantic input. These results are consistent with our previous claim that strongly active neighbors produce net inhibitory effects and weakly active neighbors produce net facilitative effects. PMID:25155249

  3. Is semantic preview benefit due to relatedness or plausibility?

    PubMed

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that skilled readers of English benefit from processing a parafoveal preview of a semantically related word. However, in previous investigations of semantic preview benefit using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm the semantic relatedness between the preview and target has been confounded with the plausibility of the preview word in the sentence. In the present study, preview relatedness and plausibility were independently manipulated in neutral sentences read by a large sample of skilled adult readers. Participants were assessed on measures of reading and spelling ability to identify possible sources of individual differences in preview effects. The results showed that readers benefited from a preview of a plausible word, regardless of the semantic relatedness of the preview and the target. However, there was limited evidence of a semantic relatedness benefit when the plausibility of the preview was controlled. The plausibility preview benefit was strongest for low proficiency readers, suggesting that poorer readers were more likely to program a forward saccade based on information extracted from the preview. High proficiency readers showed equivalent disruption from all nonidentical previews suggesting that they were more likely to suffer interference from the orthographic mismatch between preview and target. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26752734

  4. Investigating the Semantic Gap through Query Log Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, Peter; Meij, Edgar; Zaragoza, Hugo

    Significant efforts have focused in the past years on bringing large amounts of metadata online and the success of these efforts can be seen by the impressive number of web sites exposing data in RDFa or RDF/XML. However, little is known about the extent to which this data fits the needs of ordinary web users with everyday information needs. In this paper we study what we perceive as the semantic gap between the supply of data on the Semantic Web and the needs of web users as expressed in the queries submitted to a major Web search engine. We perform our analysis on both the level of instances and ontologies. First, we first look at how much data is actually relevant to Web queries and what kind of data is it. Second, we provide a generic method to extract the attributes that Web users are searching for regarding particular classes of entities. This method allows to contrast class definitions found in Semantic Web vocabularies with the attributes of objects that users are interested in. Our findings are crucial to measuring the potential of semantic search, but also speak to the state of the Semantic Web in general.

  5. Nonverbal sound processing in semantic dementia: A functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Johanna C.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Theunissen, Frederic E.; Warren, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is a unique neurodegenerative syndrome accompanied by relatively selective loss of the meaning of objects and concepts. The brain mechanisms that underpin the syndrome have not been defined: a better understanding of these mechanisms would inform our understanding of both the organisation of the human semantic system and its vulnerability to neurodegenerative disease. In this fMRI study, we investigated brain correlates of sensory object processing in nine patients with SD compared with healthy control subjects, using the paradigm of nonverbal sound. Compared with healthy controls, patients with SD showed differential activation of cortical areas surrounding the superior temporal sulcus, both for perceptual processing of spectrotemporally complex but meaningless sounds and for semantic processing of environmental sound category (animal sounds versus tool sounds). Our findings suggest that defective processing of sound objects in SD spans pre-semantic perceptual processing and semantic category formation. This disease model illustrates that antero-lateral temporal cortical mechanisms are critical for representing and differentiating sound categories. The breakdown of these mechanisms constitutes a network-level functional signature of this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:22405732

  6. Beginning Readers Activate Semantics from Sub-Word Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Kate; Cocksey, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments assessed whether 7-year-old children activate semantic information from sub-word orthography. Children made category decisions to visually-presented words, some of which contained an embedded word (e.g., "hip" in s"hip"). In Experiment 1 children were slower and less accurate to classify words if they contained an embedded word…

  7. Interaction between Phonological and Semantic Representations: Time Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Qi; Mirman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling and eye-tracking were used to investigate how phonological and semantic information interact to influence the time course of spoken word recognition. We extended our recent models (Chen & Mirman, 2012; Mirman, Britt, & Chen, 2013) to account for new evidence that competition among phonological neighbors influences…

  8. Semantic Services in e-Learning: An Argumentation Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreale, Emanuela; Vargas-Vera, Maria

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines an e-Learning services architecture offering semantic-based services to students and tutors, in particular ways to browse and obtain information through web services. Services could include registration, authentication, tutoring systems, smart question answering for students' queries, automated marking systems and a student…

  9. Interference by Process, Not Content, Determines Semantic Auditory Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2009-01-01

    Distraction by irrelevant background sound of visually-based cognitive tasks illustrates the vulnerability of attentional selectivity across modalities. Four experiments centred on auditory distraction during tests of memory for visually-presented semantic information. Meaningful irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic…

  10. E-Learning System Overview Based on Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsultanny, Yas A.

    2006-01-01

    The challenge of the semantic web is the provision of distributed information with well-defined meaning, understandable for different parties. e-Learning is efficient task relevant and just-in-time learning grown from the learning requirements of the new dynamically changing, distributed business world. In this paper we design an e-Learning system…

  11. [Semantic dementia: clinical profile and cognitive-neuropsychological relevance].

    PubMed

    Eisfeld, I S

    2004-07-01

    Semantic Dementia (SD) represents a rare variant of presenile primary degenerative diseases of "frontotemporal lobar degenerations" (FTLD). SD is characterized by anterior-temporal atrophy and a selective semantic deficit. Neuropsychological impairment either bears on fluent aphasia with marked naming and comprehension difficulties or on a disorder of object recognition or on both. Behavioural alterations such as stereotyped behaviour and change in food preference become prominent as the disease progresses and are interpreted as a correlative for the pathological spreading to frontal structures. Since SD is often misclassified as Alzheimer's disease (AD), but calls for a different management, diagnostic consensus criteria by Neary and colleagues are depicted. The neuropsychological profile is described in detail and complemented by a case report. Implications from the dissociation of disturbed memory systems of SD (semantic) and AD (episodic) for models of long-term memory are discussed in terms of connectivity in the medial temporal lobe. SD can contribute to a better understanding of the structure and organisation of the semantic system. PMID:15252752

  12. Semantically Enriching the Search System of a Music Digital Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Juan, Paloma; Iglesias, Carlos

    Traditional search systems are usually based on keywords, a very simple and convenient mechanism to express a need for information. This is the most popular way of searching the Web, although it is not always an easy task to accurately summarize a natural language query in a few keywords. Working with keywords means losing the context, which is the only thing that can help us deal with ambiguity. This is the biggest problem of keyword-based systems. Semantic Web technologies seem a perfect solution to this problem, since they make it possible to represent the semantics of a given domain. In this chapter, we present three projects, Harmos, Semusici and Cantiga, whose aim is to provide access to a music digital library. We will describe two search systems, a traditional one and a semantic one, developed in the context of these projects and compare them in terms of usability and effectiveness.

  13. Semantic-pragmatic disorder: a right hemisphere syndrome?

    PubMed

    Shields, J

    1991-12-01

    Following right hemisphere lesions, adults' speech can become copious and inappropriate, with abnormal prosody, and they may be unable to comprehend metaphor or humour. Their symptoms resemble those of children with semantic-pragmatic language disorder, who use fluent, grammatically complex language, but with poor sensitivity to the communicative situation. The hyperlexia found in some of these children reflects an underlying cognitive problem in integrating semantic information with knowledge of the world. Both groups of patients fail comprehend inferential meaning or to make use of paralinguistic features. It is hypothesised that the disorders of communication and cognition found in semantic-pragmatic language disorder may be linked to right hemisphere dysfunction, but this has yet to be confirmed by research. PMID:1814422

  14. A DNA-Based Semantic Fusion Model for Remote Sensing Data

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Heng; Weng, Jian; Yu, Guangchuang; Massawe, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Semantic technology plays a key role in various domains, from conversation understanding to algorithm analysis. As the most efficient semantic tool, ontology can represent, process and manage the widespread knowledge. Nowadays, many researchers use ontology to collect and organize data's semantic information in order to maximize research productivity. In this paper, we firstly describe our work on the development of a remote sensing data ontology, with a primary focus on semantic fusion-driven research for big data. Our ontology is made up of 1,264 concepts and 2,030 semantic relationships. However, the growth of big data is straining the capacities of current semantic fusion and reasoning practices. Considering the massive parallelism of DNA strands, we propose a novel DNA-based semantic fusion model. In this model, a parallel strategy is developed to encode the semantic information in DNA for a large volume of remote sensing data. The semantic information is read in a parallel and bit-wise manner and an individual bit is converted to a base. By doing so, a considerable amount of conversion time can be saved, i.e., the cluster-based multi-processes program can reduce the conversion time from 81,536 seconds to 4,937 seconds for 4.34 GB source data files. Moreover, the size of result file recording DNA sequences is 54.51 GB for parallel C program compared with 57.89 GB for sequential Perl. This shows that our parallel method can also reduce the DNA synthesis cost. In addition, data types are encoded in our model, which is a basis for building type system in our future DNA computer. Finally, we describe theoretically an algorithm for DNA-based semantic fusion. This algorithm enables the process of integration of the knowledge from disparate remote sensing data sources into a consistent, accurate, and complete representation. This process depends solely on ligation reaction and screening operations instead of the ontology. PMID:24116207

  15. Low-temperature alteration of dredged volcanics from the Southern Chile Ridge: Additional information about early stages of seafloor weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pichler, T.; Ridley, W.I.; Nelson, E.

    1999-01-01

    A suite of submarine volcanic rocks from the Southern Chile Ridge has been examined in order to investigate the early stages of low temperature alteration. Alteration in these samples proceeded as follows: (1) Fe-staining on sample surface and along fractures, (2) filling of vesicles with secondary material, (3) breakdown of glassy matrix, (4) breakdown of microcrystalline matrix, and (5) breakdown and replacement of olivine. Plagioclase and pyroxene were sometimes found to be slightly altered along internal fissures. Secondary or alteration phases generally showed high K (3-5 wt.%), Fe (30-70 wt.%) and low Al ( Rb > K. During initial stages of alteration the behavior of some trace elements such as rare-earth elements (REE), Ba, Zr, Hf, Ta, Nb, and Mo are solely controlled by the precipitation of Mn-rich Fe-oxyhydroxides. The preferred incorporation of Ce into Mn-rich Fe-oxyhydroxides may be a principal factor explaining the Ce depletion in seawater. We conclude that the earliest stages of submarine weathering are controlled by Eh and pH gradients between the rock and seawater. In the absence of a buffer, oxidation of ferrous iron causes a decrease in solution pH.

  16. Exploring the role of the posterior middle temporal gyrus in semantic cognition: Integration of anterior temporal lobe with executive processes.

    PubMed

    Davey, James; Thompson, Hannah E; Hallam, Glyn; Karapanagiotidis, Theodoros; Murphy, Charlotte; De Caso, Irene; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Bernhardt, Boris C; Smallwood, Jonathan; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2016-08-15

    Making sense of the world around us depends upon selectively retrieving information relevant to our current goal or context. However, it is unclear whether selective semantic retrieval relies exclusively on general control mechanisms recruited in demanding non-semantic tasks, or instead on systems specialised for the control of meaning. One hypothesis is that the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) is important in the controlled retrieval of semantic (not non-semantic) information; however this view remains controversial since a parallel literature links this site to event and relational semantics. In a functional neuroimaging study, we demonstrated that an area of pMTG implicated in semantic control by a recent meta-analysis was activated in a conjunction of (i) semantic association over size judgements and (ii) action over colour feature matching. Under these circumstances the same region showed functional coupling with the inferior frontal gyrus - another crucial site for semantic control. Structural and functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that this site is at the nexus of networks recruited in automatic semantic processing (the default mode network) and executively demanding tasks (the multiple-demand network). Moreover, in both task and task-free contexts, pMTG exhibited functional properties that were more similar to ventral parts of inferior frontal cortex, implicated in controlled semantic retrieval, than more dorsal inferior frontal sulcus, implicated in domain-general control. Finally, the pMTG region was functionally correlated at rest with other regions implicated in control-demanding semantic tasks, including inferior frontal gyrus and intraparietal sulcus. We suggest that pMTG may play a crucial role within a large-scale network that allows the integration of automatic retrieval in the default mode network with executively-demanding goal-oriented cognition, and that this could support our ability to understand actions and non

  17. Web Image Re-Ranking UsingQuery-Specific Semantic Signatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Qiu, Shi; Liu, Ke; Tang, Xiaoou

    2014-04-01

    Image re-ranking, as an effective way to improve the results of web-based image search, has been adopted by current commercial search engines such as Bing and Google. Given a query keyword, a pool of images are first retrieved based on textual information. By asking the user to select a query image from the pool, the remaining images are re-ranked based on their visual similarities with the query image. A major challenge is that the similarities of visual features do not well correlate with images' semantic meanings which interpret users' search intention. Recently people proposed to match images in a semantic space which used attributes or reference classes closely related to the semantic meanings of images as basis. However, learning a universal visual semantic space to characterize highly diverse images from the web is difficult and inefficient. In this paper, we propose a novel image re-ranking framework, which automatically offline learns different semantic spaces for different query keywords. The visual features of images are projected into their related semantic spaces to get semantic signatures. At the online stage, images are re-ranked by comparing their semantic signatures obtained from the semantic space specified by the query keyword. The proposed query-specific semantic signatures significantly improve both the accuracy and efficiency of image re-ranking. The original visual features of thousands of dimensions can be projected to the semantic signatures as short as 25 dimensions. Experimental results show that 25-40 percent relative improvement has been achieved on re-ranking precisions compared with the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26353202

  18. Towards a Framework for Developing Semantic Relatedness Reference Standards

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Pedersen, Ted; McInnes, Bridget; Melton, Genevieve B.; Ruggieri, Alexander; Chute, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Our objective is to develop a framework for creating reference standards for functional testing of computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Currently, research on computerized approaches to semantic relatedness between biomedical concepts relies on reference standards created for specific purposes using a variety of methods for their analysis. In most cases, these reference standards are not publicly available and the published information provided in manuscripts that evaluate computerized semantic relatedness measurement approaches is not sufficient to reproduce the results. Our proposed framework is based on the experiences of medical informatics and computational linguistics communities and addresses practical and theoretical issues with creating reference standards for semantic relatedness. We demonstrate the use of the framework on a pilot set of 101 medical term pairs rated for semantic relatedness by 13 medical coding experts. While the reliability of this particular reference standard is in the “moderate” range; we show that using clustering and factor analyses offers a data-driven approach to finding systematic differences among raters and identifying groups of potential outliers. We test two ontology-based measures of relatedness and provide both the reference standard containing individual ratings and the R program used to analyze the ratings as open-source. Currently, these resources are intended to be used to reproduce and compare results of studies involving computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Our framework may be extended to the development of reference standards in other research areas in medical informatics including automatic classification, information retrieval from medical records and vocabulary/ontology development. PMID:21044697

  19. Using Semantic Web Technologies with OPeNDAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, D.; Blumenthal, M. B.; Liu, H.; Potter, N.

    2010-12-01

    Semantic Mapping Framework comprises several distinct elements, it uses RDF/OWL to represent existing XML schema, DAP-accessible data content, and the crosswalk heuristics for performing transformations. The framework is implemented in Java and uses SwiftOWL, SWRL, and a custom layer for its inferencing operations, and has been leveraged onto existing OPeNDAP server components. In this example a standalone WCS service instance was developed providing automated OGC/WCS access to OPeNDAP-accessible data repositories. The framework was designed to be extensible, allowing additional ontologies and constructs for reasoning, and includes an interface for adding functions to provide any missing information required for the semantic reasoning.

  20. Semantic Reasoning with Image Annotations for Tumor Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Mia A.; O’Connor, Martin J.; Rubin, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Identifying, tracking and reasoning about tumor lesions is a central task in cancer research and clinical practice that could potentially be automated. However, information about tumor lesions in imaging studies is not easily accessed by machines for automated reasoning. The Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) information model recently developed for the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid provides a method for encoding the semantic information related to imaging findings, enabling their storage and transfer. However, it is currently not possible to apply automated reasoning methods to image information encoded in AIM. We have developed a methodology and a suite of tools for transforming AIM image annotations into OWL, and an ontology for reasoning with the resulting image annotations for tumor lesion assessment. Our methods enable automated inference of semantic information about cancer lesions in images. PMID:20351880

  1. The semantics of biological forms.

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Canal, Luisa; Dadam, James; Micciolo, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses how certain qualitative perceptual appearances of biological forms are correlated with expressions of natural language. Making use of the Osgood semantic differential, we presented the subjects with 32 drawings of biological forms and a list of 10 pairs of connotative adjectives to be put in correlations with them merely by subjective judgments. The principal components analysis made it possible to group the semantics of forms according to two distinct axes of variability: harmony and dynamicity. Specifically, the nonspiculed, nonholed, and flat forms were perceived as harmonic and static; the rounded ones were harmonic and dynamic. The elongated forms were somewhat disharmonious and somewhat static. The results suggest the existence in the general population of a correspondence between perceptual and semantic processes, and of a nonsymbolic relation between visual forms and their adjectival expressions in natural language. PMID:25669053

  2. A Semantic Web Blackboard System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Craig; Preece, Alun; Gray, Peter

    In this paper, we propose a Blackboard Architecture as a means for coordinating hybrid reasoning over the Semantic Web. We describe the components of traditional blackboard systems (Knowledge Sources, Blackboard, Controller) and then explain how we have enhanced these by incorporating some of the principles of the Semantic Web to pro- duce our Semantic Web Blackboard. Much of the framework is already in place to facilitate our research: the communication protocol (HTTP); the data representation medium (RDF); a rich expressive description language (OWL); and a method of writing rules (SWRL). We further enhance this by adding our own constraint based formalism (CIF/SWRL) into the mix. We provide an example walk-though of our test-bed system, the AKTive Workgroup Builder and Blackboard(AWB+B), illustrating the interaction and cooperation of the Knowledge Sources and providing some context as to how the solution is achieved. We conclude with the strengths and weaknesses of the architecture.

  3. CNTRO 2.0: A Harmonized Semantic Web Ontology for Temporal Relation Inferencing in Clinical Narratives

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Cui; Solbrig, Harold R.; Chute, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    The Clinical Narrative Temporal Relation Ontology (CNTRO) has been developed for the purpose of allowing temporal information of clinical data to be semantically annotated and queried, and using inference to expose new temporal features and relations based on the semantic assertions and definitions of the temporal aspects in the ontology. While CNTRO provides a formal semantic foundation to leverage the semantic-web techniques, it is still necessary to arrive at a shared set of semantics and operational rules with commonly used ontologies for the time domain. This paper introduces CNTRO 2.0, which tries to harmonize CNTRO 1.0 and a list of existing time ontologies or top-level ontologies into a unified model—an OWL based ontology of temporal relations for clinical research. PMID:22211182

  4. An Integrated Model in E-Government Based on Semantic Web, Web Service and Intelligent Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongtao; Su, Fangli

    One urgent problem in E-government service is to improve service efficiency through breaking information islands while constructing integrated service systems. Web Service provides a set of standards for the provision of functionality over the Web, and Web Service descriptions are pure syntactic instead of semantic content. Semantic Web provides interoperability from syntactic level to semantic one not only for human users but also for software agents. Semantic Web and Intelligent Agent are highly complementary, and the existing technologies have made their unification quite feasible, which brings about a good opportunity to the development of E-government. Based on Semantic Web and Intelligent Agent technologies an integrated service model of E-government is suggested in this paper.

  5. CNTRO 2.0: A Harmonized Semantic Web Ontology for Temporal Relation Inferencing in Clinical Narratives.

    PubMed

    Tao, Cui; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

    2011-01-01

    The Clinical Narrative Temporal Relation Ontology (CNTRO) has been developed for the purpose of allowing temporal information of clinical data to be semantically annotated and queried, and using inference to expose new temporal features and relations based on the semantic assertions and definitions of the temporal aspects in the ontology. While CNTRO provides a formal semantic foundation to leverage the semantic-web techniques, it is still necessary to arrive at a shared set of semantics and operational rules with commonly used ontologies for the time domain. This paper introduces CNTRO 2.0, which tries to harmonize CNTRO 1.0 and a list of existing time ontologies or top-level ontologies into a unified model-an OWL based ontology of temporal relations for clinical research. PMID:22211182

  6. Cross-language parafoveal semantic processing: Evidence from Korean-Chinese bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiping; Yeon, Junmo; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Yan, Ming

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we aimed at testing cross-language cognate and semantic preview effects. We tested how native Korean readers who learned Chinese as a second language make use of the parafoveal information during the reading of Chinese sentences. There were 3 types of Korean preview words: cognate translations of the Chinese target words, semantically related noncognate words, and unrelated words. Together with a highly significant cognate preview effect, more critically, we also observed reliable facilitation in processing of the target word from the semantically related previews in all fixation measures. Results from the present study provide first evidence for semantic processing from parafoveally presented Korean words and for cross-language parafoveal semantic processing. PMID:26122894

  7. Scalable Medical Image Understanding by Fusing Cross-Modal Object Recognition with Formal Domain Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Manuel; Sintek, Michael; Buitelaar, Paul; Mukherjee, Saikat; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Freund, Jörg

    Recent advances in medical imaging technology have dramatically increased the amount of clinical image data. In contrast, techniques for efficiently exploiting the rich semantic information in medical images have evolved much slower. Despite the research outcomes in image understanding, current image databases are still indexed by manually assigned subjective keywords instead of the semantics of the images. Indeed, most current content-based image search applications index image features that do not generalize well and use inflexible queries. This slow progress is due to the lack of scalable and generic information representation systems which can abstract over the high dimensional nature of medical images as well as semantically model the results of object recognition techniques. We propose a system combining medical imaging information with ontological formalized semantic knowledge that provides a basis for building universal knowledge repositories and gives clinicians fully cross-lingual and cross-modal access to biomedical information.

  8. CNTRO: A Semantic Web Ontology for Temporal Relation Inferencing in Clinical Narratives

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Cui; Wei, Wei-Qi; Solbrig, Harold R.; Savova, Guergana; Chute, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Using Semantic-Web specifications to represent temporal information in clinical narratives is an important step for temporal reasoning and answering time-oriented queries. Existing temporal models are either not compatible with the powerful reasoning tools developed for the Semantic Web, or designed only for structured clinical data and therefore are not ready to be applied on natural-language-based clinical narrative reports directly. We have developed a Semantic-Web ontology which is called Clinical Narrative Temporal Relation ontology. Using this ontology, temporal information in clinical narratives can be represented as RDF (Resource Description Framework) triples. More temporal information and relations can then be inferred by Semantic-Web based reasoning tools. Experimental results show that this ontology can represent temporal information in real clinical narratives successfully. PMID:21347086

  9. Interconnected growing self-organizing maps for auditory and semantic acquisition modeling

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Mengxue; Li, Aijun; Fang, Qiang; Kaufmann, Emily; Kröger, Bernd J.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the incremental nature of knowledge acquisition, in this study we propose a growing self-organizing neural network approach for modeling the acquisition of auditory and semantic categories. We introduce an Interconnected Growing Self-Organizing Maps (I-GSOM) algorithm, which takes associations between auditory information and semantic information into consideration, in this paper. Direct phonetic–semantic association is simulated in order to model the language acquisition in early phases, such as the babbling and imitation stages, in which no phonological representations exist. Based on the I-GSOM algorithm, we conducted experiments using paired acoustic and semantic training data. We use a cyclical reinforcing and reviewing training procedure to model the teaching and learning process between children and their communication partners. A reinforcing-by-link training procedure and a link-forgetting procedure are introduced to model the acquisition of associative relations between auditory and semantic information. Experimental results indicate that (1) I-GSOM has good ability to learn auditory and semantic categories presented within the training data; (2) clear auditory and semantic boundaries can be found in the network representation; (3) cyclical reinforcing and reviewing training leads to a detailed categorization as well as to a detailed clustering, while keeping the clusters that have already been learned and the network structure that has already been developed stable; and (4) reinforcing-by-link training leads to well-perceived auditory–semantic associations. Our I-GSOM model suggests that it is important to associate auditory information with semantic information during language acquisition. Despite its high level of abstraction, our I-GSOM approach can be interpreted as a biologically-inspired neurocomputational model. PMID:24688478

  10. Distribution of Potential Hydrothermally Altered Rocks in Central Colorado Derived From Landsat Thematic Mapper Data: A Geographic Information System Data Set

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Central Colorado Mineral Resource Assessment Project, the digital image data for four Landsat Thematic Mapper scenes covering central Colorado between Wyoming and New Mexico were acquired and band ratios were calculated after masking pixels dominated by vegetation, snow, and terrain shadows. Ratio values were visually enhanced by contrast stretching, revealing only those areas with strong responses (high ratio values). A color-ratio composite mosaic was prepared for the four scenes so that the distribution of potentially hydrothermally altered rocks could be visually evaluated. To provide a more useful input to a Geographic Information System-based mineral resource assessment, the information contained in the color-ratio composite raster image mosaic was converted to vector-based polygons after thresholding to isolate the strongest ratio responses and spatial filtering to reduce vector complexity and isolate the largest occurrences of potentially hydrothermally altered rocks.

  11. Semantic transcoding of video based on regions of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jeongyeon; Kim, Munchurl; Kim, Jong-Nam; Kim, Kyeongsoo

    2003-06-01

    Traditional transcoding on multimedia has been performed from the perspectives of user terminal capabilities such as display sizes and decoding processing power, and network resources such as available network bandwidth and quality of services (QoS) etc. The adaptation (or transcoding) of multimedia contents to given such constraints has been made by frame dropping and resizing of audiovisual, as well as reduction of SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio) values by saving the resulting bitrates. Not only such traditional transcoding is performed from the perspective of user"s environment, but also we incorporate a method of semantic transcoding of audiovisual based on region of interest (ROI) from user"s perspective. Users can designate their interested parts in images or video so that the corresponding video contents can be adapted focused on the user"s ROI. We incorporate the MPEG-21 DIA (Digital Item Adaptation) framework in which such semantic information of the user"s ROI is represented and delivered to the content provider side as XDI (context digital item). Representation schema of our semantic information of the user"s ROI has been adopted in MPEG-21 DIA Adaptation Model. In this paper, we present the usage of semantic information of user"s ROI for transcoding and show our system implementation with experimental results.

  12. Semplore: An IR Approach to Scalable Hybrid Query of Semantic Web Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Qiaoling; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Haofen; Pan, Yue; Yu, Yong

    As an extension to the current Web, Semantic Web will not only contain structured data with machine understandable semantics but also textual information. While structured queries can be used to find information more precisely on the Semantic Web, keyword searches are still needed to help exploit textual information. It thus becomes very important that we can combine precise structured queries with imprecise keyword searches to have a hybrid query capability. In addition, due to the huge volume of information on the Semantic Web, the hybrid query must be processed in a very scalable way. In this paper, we define such a hybrid query capability that combines unary tree-shaped structured queries with keyword searches. We show how existing information retrieval (IR) index structures and functions can be reused to index semantic web data and its textual information, and how the hybrid query is evaluated on the index structure using IR engines in an efficient and scalable manner. We implemented this IR approach in an engine called Semplore. Comprehensive experiments on its performance show that it is a promising approach. It leads us to believe that it may be possible to evolve current web search engines to query and search the Semantic Web. Finally, we breifly describe how Semplore is used for searching Wikipedia and an IBM customer's product information.

  13. Semantic and Visual Memory After Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donat, Dennis C.

    1986-01-01

    Compared the relative performance of 40 patients with a history of alcohol abuse on tasks of short-term semantic and visual memory. Performance on the visual memory tasks was impaired significantly relative to the semantic memory task in a within-subjects analysis of variance. Semantic memory was unimpaired. (Author/ABB)

  14. Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

  15. Semantic Relatedness for Evaluation of Course Equivalencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Beibei

    2012-01-01

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the…

  16. Metasemantics: On the Limits of Semantic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, T.

    2009-01-01

    METASEMANTICS is a wake-up call for semantic theory: It reveals that some semantic questions have no adequate answer. (This is meant to be the "epistemic" point that certain semantic questions cannot be "settled"--not a metaphysical point about whether there is a fact-of-the-matter.) METASEMANTICS thus checks our default "optimism" that any…

  17. Bootstrapping to a Semantic Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Schwidder, Jens; Talbott, Tara; Myers, James D.

    2005-02-28

    The Scientific Annotation Middleware (SAM) is a set of components and services that enable researchers, applications, problem solving environments (PSE) and software agents to create metadata and annotations about data objects and document the semantic relationships between them. Developed starting in 2001, SAM allows applications to encode metadata within files or to manage metadata at the level of individual relationships as desired. SAM then provides mechanisms to expose metadata and relation¬ships encoded either way as WebDAV properties. In this paper, we report on work to further map this metadata into RDF and discuss the role of middleware such as SAM in bridging between traditional and semantic grid applications.

  18. Attentional sensitization of unconscious cognition: task sets modulate subsequent masked semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Markus; Martens, Ulla

    2010-08-01

    According to classical theories, automatic processes are autonomous and independent of higher level cognitive influence. In contrast, the authors propose that automatic processing depends on attentional sensitization of task-congruent processing pathways. In 3 experiments, the authors tested this hypothesis with a modified masked semantic priming paradigm during a lexical decision task by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs): Before masked prime presentation, participants attended an induction task either to semantic or perceptual stimulus features designed to activate a semantic or perceptual task set, respectively. Semantic priming effects on the N400 ERP component, an electrophysiological index of semantic processing, were obtained when a semantic task set was induced immediately before subliminal prime presentation, whereas a previously induced perceptual task set attenuated N400 priming. Across experiments, comparable results were obtained regardless of the difficulty level and the verbal or nonverbal nature of the induction tasks. In line with the proposed attentional sensitization model, unconscious semantic processing is enhanced by a semantic and attenuated by a perceptual task set. Hence, automatic processing of unconscious stimuli is susceptible to top-down control for optimizing goal-related information processing. PMID:20677895

  19. Natural speech reveals the semantic maps that tile human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Huth, Alexander G; de Heer, Wendy A; Griffiths, Thomas L; Theunissen, Frédéric E; Gallant, Jack L

    2016-04-28

    The meaning of language is represented in regions of the cerebral cortex collectively known as the 'semantic system'. However, little of the semantic system has been mapped comprehensively, and the semantic selectivity of most regions is unknown. Here we systematically map semantic selectivity across the cortex using voxel-wise modelling of functional MRI (fMRI) data collected while subjects listened to hours of narrative stories. We show that the semantic system is organized into intricate patterns that seem to be consistent across individuals. We then use a novel generative model to create a detailed semantic atlas. Our results suggest that most areas within the semantic system represent information about specific semantic domains, or groups of related concepts, and our atlas shows which domains are represented in each area. This study demonstrates that data-driven methods--commonplace in studies of human neuroanatomy and functional connectivity--provide a powerful and efficient means for mapping functional representations in the brain. PMID:27121839

  20. Learning contextualized semantics from co-occurring terms via a Siamese architecture.

    PubMed

    Sandouk, Ubai; Chen, Ke

    2016-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges in Multimedia information retrieval and understanding is to bridge the semantic gap by properly modeling concept semantics in context. The presence of out of vocabulary (OOV) concepts exacerbates this difficulty. To address the semantic gap issues, we formulate a problem on learning contextualized semantics from descriptive terms and propose a novel Siamese architecture to model the contextualized semantics from descriptive terms. By means of pattern aggregation and probabilistic topic models, our Siamese architecture captures contextualized semantics from the co-occurring descriptive terms via unsupervised learning, which leads to a concept embedding space of the terms in context. Furthermore, the co-occurring OOV concepts can be easily represented in the learnt concept embedding space. The main properties of the concept embedding space are demonstrated via visualization. Using various settings in semantic priming, we have carried out a thorough evaluation by comparing our approach to a number of state-of-the-art methods on six annotation corpora in different domains, i.e., MagTag5K, CAL500 and Million Song Dataset in the music domain as well as Corel5K, LabelMe and SUNDatabase in the image domain. Experimental results on semantic priming suggest that our approach outperforms those state-of-the-art methods considerably in various aspects. PMID:26874967

  1. Behavioural and magnetoencephalographic evidence for the interaction between semantic and episodic memory in healthy elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    La Corte, Valentina; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco; Lemaréchal, Jean-Didier; Garnero, Line; George, Nathalie

    2012-10-01

    The relationship between episodic and semantic memory systems has long been debated. Some authors argue that episodic memory is contingent on semantic memory (Tulving 1984), while others postulate that both systems are independent since they can be selectively damaged (Squire 1987). The interaction between these memory systems is particularly important in the elderly, since the dissociation of episodic and semantic memory defects characterize different aging-related pathologies. Here, we investigated the interaction between semantic knowledge and episodic memory processes associated with faces in elderly subjects using an experimental paradigm where the semantic encoding of famous and unknown faces was compared to their episodic recognition. Results showed that the level of semantic awareness of items affected the recognition of those items in the episodic memory task. Event-related magnetic fields confirmed this interaction between episodic and semantic memory: ERFs related to the old/new effect during the episodic task were markedly different for famous and unknown faces. The old/new effect for famous faces involved sustained activities maximal over right temporal sensors, showing a spatio-temporal pattern partly similar to that found for famous versus unknown faces during the semantic task. By contrast, an old/new effect for unknown faces was observed on left parieto-occipital sensors. These findings suggest that the episodic memory for famous faces activated the retrieval of stored semantic information, whereas it was based on items' perceptual features for unknown faces. Overall, our results show that semantic information interfered markedly with episodic memory processes and suggested that the neural substrates of these two memory systems overlap. PMID:22426946

  2. A semantic web framework to integrate cancer omics data with biological knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The RDF triple provides a simple linguistic means of describing limitless types of information. Triples can be flexibly combined into a unified data source we call a semantic model. Semantic models open new possibilities for the integration of variegated biological data. We use Semantic Web technology to explicate high throughput clinical data in the context of fundamental biological knowledge. We have extended Corvus, a data warehouse which provides a uniform interface to various forms of Omics data, by providing a SPARQL endpoint. With the querying and reasoning tools made possible by the Semantic Web, we were able to explore quantitative semantic models retrieved from Corvus in the light of systematic biological knowledge. Results For this paper, we merged semantic models containing genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic data from melanoma samples with two semantic models of functional data - one containing Gene Ontology (GO) data, the other, regulatory networks constructed from transcription factor binding information. These two semantic models were created in an ad hoc manner but support a common interface for integration with the quantitative semantic models. Such combined semantic models allow us to pose significant translational medicine questions. Here, we study the interplay between a cell's molecular state and its response to anti-cancer therapy by exploring the resistance of cancer cells to Decitabine, a demethylating agent. Conclusions We were able to generate a testable hypothesis to explain how Decitabine fights cancer - namely, that it targets apoptosis-related gene promoters predominantly in Decitabine-sensitive cell lines, thus conveying its cytotoxic effect by activating the apoptosis pathway. Our research provides a framework whereby similar hypotheses can be developed easily. PMID:22373303

  3. A framework for semantic reconciliation of disparate earth observation thematic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbha, S. S.; King, R. L.; Shah, V. P.; Younan, N. H.

    2009-04-01

    There is a growing demand for digital databases of topographic and thematic information for a multitude of applications in environmental management, and also in data integration and efficient updating of other spatially oriented data. These thematic data sets are highly heterogeneous in syntax, structure and semantics as they are produced and provided by a variety of agencies having different definitions, standards and applications of the data. In this paper, we focus on the semantic heterogeneity in thematic information sources, as it has been widely recognized that the semantic conflicts are responsible for the most serious data heterogeneity problems hindering the efficient interoperability between heterogeneous information sources. In particular, we focus on the semantic heterogeneities present in the land cover classification schemes corresponding to the global land cover characterization data. We propose a framework (semantics enabled thematic data Integration (SETI)) that describes in depth the methodology involved in the reconciliation of such semantic conflicts by adopting the emerging semantic web technologies. Ontologies were developed for the classification schemes and a shared-ontology approach for integrating the application level ontologies as described. We employ description logics (DL)-based reasoning on the terminological knowledge base developed for the land cover characterization which enables querying and retrieval that goes beyond keyword-based searches.

  4. Semantics, pragmatics, and formal thought disorders in people with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Salavera, Carlos; Puyuelo, Miguel; Antoñanzas, José L; Teruel, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to analyze how formal thought disorders (FTD) affect semantics and pragmatics in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: The sample comprised subjects with schizophrenia (n = 102) who met the criteria for the disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Text Revision. In the research process, the following scales were used: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for psychopathology measurements; the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication (TLC) for FTD, Word Accentuation Test (WAT), System for the Behavioral Evaluation of Social Skills (SECHS), the pragmatics section of the Objective Criteria Language Battery (BLOC-SR) and the verbal sections of the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS) III, for assessment of semantics and pragmatics. Results: The results in the semantics and pragmatics sections were inferior to the average values obtained in the general population. Our data demonstrated that the more serious the FTD, the worse the performances in the Verbal-WAIS tests (particularly in its vocabulary, similarities, and comprehension sections), SECHS, and BLOC-SR, indicating that FTD affects semantics and pragmatics, although the results of the WAT indicated good premorbid language skills. Conclusion: The principal conclusion we can draw from this study is the evidence that in schizophrenia the superior level of language structure seems to be compromised, and that this level is related to semantics and pragmatics; when there is an alteration in this level, symptoms of FTD appear, with a wide-ranging relationship between both language and FTD. The second conclusion is that the subject’s language is affected by the disorder and rules out the possibility of a previous verbal impairment. PMID:23430043

  5. Visualization of semantic relations in geosicences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritschel, Bernd; Pfeiffer, Sabine; Mende, Vivien

    2010-05-01

    The discovery of semantic relations related to the content and context of scientific geophysical and geodetic data and information is a fundamental concept for an integrated scientific approach for the research of multidisciplinary and complex questions of the permanent changing Earth system. Large high-quality and multi-domain geosciences datasets which are qualified by significant and standardized metadata describing the content and especially the context of the data are suitable for the search and discovery of semantic relations. Nowadays such data collections are ingested and provided by many national and international geoscientific data centers, such as e.g. the GFZ ISDC(1). Beside automatic and machine-based algorithm for the discovery of semantic relations, the graphical visualization of such relations are extremely capable for scientist in order to analyze complex datasets and to find sophisticated relations as well as for the public in order to understand the relations within geosciences and between geosciences and societal domains. There are different tools for the visualization of relations, especially in the object-oriented based analysis and development of systems and software. The tool eyePlorer(2) is an awarded program for the visualization of multi-domain semantic relations in the public world of Wikipedia. The data and information for the visualization of keyword based terms and concepts within one domain or topic as well as the relations to other topics are mainly based on wiki content and appropriate structures. eyePlorer's main topics structured and combined in super topics are Health, Species and Life Sciences, Persons and Organisations, Work and Society, Science & Technology as well as Time and Places. Considering the domains or topics of the conceptual model of the GFZ ISDC's data collection, such topics as geosciences-related project, platform, instrument, product type, publication and institution as well as space and time are disjunct and

  6. Chinese Deaf Readers Have Early Access to Parafoveal Semantics

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ming; Pan, Jinger; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Shu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we manipulated different types of information available in the parafovea during the reading of Chinese sentences and examined how deaf readers make use of the parafoveal information. Results clearly indicate that, although the reading-level matched hearing readers make greater use of orthographic information in the parafovea, parafoveal semantic information is obtained earlier among the deaf readers. In addition, a phonological PB effect was found for the better deaf readers (relative to less-skilled deaf readers) though we also provide an alternative explanation for this effect. Providing evidence that Chinese deaf readers have higher efficiency when processing parafoveal semantics, the study indicates flexibility across individuals in the mechanisms underlying word recognition adapting to the inputs available in the linguistic environment. PMID:24999711

  7. Altered Sense of Humor in Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Camilla N.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Gordon, Elizabeth; Golden, Hannah L.; Cohen, Miriam H.; Woodward, Felix J.; Macpherson, Kirsty; Slattery, Catherine F.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Sense of humor is potentially relevant to social functioning in dementias, but has been little studied in these diseases. We designed a semi-structured informant questionnaire to assess humor behavior and preferences in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 15), semantic dementia (SD; n = 7), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 10), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD; n = 16) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 21). Altered (including frankly inappropriate) humor responses were significantly more frequent in bvFTD and SD (all patients) than PNFA or AD (around 40% of patients). All patient groups liked satirical and absurdist comedy significantly less than did healthy controls. This pattern was reported premorbidly for satirical comedy in bvFTD, PNFA, and AD. Liking for slapstick comedy did not differ between groups. Altered sense of humor is particularly salient in bvFTD and SD, but also frequent in AD and PNFA. Humor may be a sensitive probe of social cognitive impairment in dementia, with diagnostic, biomarker and social implications. PMID:26444779

  8. Using Semantic Web technologies to bridge the Language Gap between Academia and Industry in the Construction Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüello, M.; El-Hasia, A.; Lees, M.

    Semantic Web technologies are emerging technologies which can considerably improve the information sharing process by overcoming the problems of current Web portals. Portals based on Semantic Web technologies represent the next generation of Web portals, however, before industry is willing to adopt Semantic Web technologies it is essential to demonstrate that Semantic Web portals are significantly better than Web portals. This paper focuses on a case study which compares the performance of a traditional Web portal using a keyword-based search engine and a Semantic Web portal using an ontology-based search engine. The empirical results of the comparison performed between these two search engines over an input data set of 100 data provides strong evidence of the tangible benefits of using Semantic Web technologies.

  9. Scientific Knowledge Discovery in Complex Semantic Networks of Geophysical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P.

    2012-04-01

    The vast majority of explorations of the Earth's systems are limited in their ability to effectively explore the most important (often most difficult) problems because they are forced to interconnect at the data-element, or syntactic, level rather than at a higher scientific, or semantic, level. Recent successes in the application of complex network theory and algorithms to climate data, raise expectations that more general graph-based approaches offer the opportunity for new discoveries. In the past ~ 5 years in the natural sciences there has substantial progress in providing both specialists and non-specialists the ability to describe in machine readable form, geophysical quantities and relations among them in meaningful and natural ways, effectively breaking the prior syntax barrier. The corresponding open-world semantics and reasoning provide higher-level interconnections. That is, semantics provided around the data structures, using semantically-equipped tools, and semantically aware interfaces between science application components allowing for discovery at the knowledge level. More recently, formal semantic approaches to continuous and aggregate physical processes are beginning to show promise and are soon likely to be ready to apply to geoscientific systems. To illustrate these opportunities, this presentation presents two application examples featuring domain vocabulary (ontology) and property relations (named and typed edges in the graphs). First, a climate knowledge discovery pilot encoding and exploration of CMIP5 catalog information with the eventual goal to encode and explore CMIP5 data. Second, a multi-stakeholder knowledge network for integrated assessments in marine ecosystems, where the data is highly inter-disciplinary.

  10. Generative Semantics and Dialect Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, James W.

    An extrinsic relationship between generative semantics and dialect geography should be exploited because contemporary transformational grammarians have too easily ignored the work of the dialectologist and have been too readily satisfied with what might be called armchair evidence. The work of the dialect geographers needs to be taken into…

  11. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders. PMID:26111737

  12. Incrementally Dissociating Syntax and Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    A basic challenge for research into the neurobiology of language is understanding how the brain combines words to make complex representations. Linguistic theory divides this task into several computations including syntactic structure building and semantic composition. The close relationship between these computations, however, poses a strong…

  13. Semantic Relationships between Contextual Synonyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Xian-mo

    2007-01-01

    Contextual synonym is a linguistic phenomenon often applied but rarely discussed. This paper is to discuss the semantic relationships between contextual synonyms and the requirements under which words can be used as contextual synonyms between each other. The three basic relationships are embedment, intersection and non-coherence. The requirements…

  14. Semantic Annotation of Computational Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Peter; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology to specify machine-processable semantic descriptions of computational components to enable them to be shared and reused. A particular focus of this scheme is to enable automatic compositon of such components into simple work-flows.

  15. Semantic Segmentation of Aerial Images with AN Ensemble of Cnns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmanis, D.; Wegner, J. D.; Galliani, S.; Schindler, K.; Datcu, M.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a deep learning approach to semantic segmentation of very high resolution (aerial) images. Deep neural architectures hold the promise of end-to-end learning from raw images, making heuristic feature design obsolete. Over the last decade this idea has seen a revival, and in recent years deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have emerged as the method of choice for a range of image interpretation tasks like visual recognition and object detection. Still, standard CNNs do not lend themselves to per-pixel semantic segmentation, mainly because one of their fundamental principles is to gradually aggregate information over larger and larger image regions, making it hard to disentangle contributions from different pixels. Very recently two extensions of the CNN framework have made it possible to trace the semantic information back to a precise pixel position: deconvolutional network layers undo the spatial downsampling, and Fully Convolution Networks (FCNs) modify the fully connected classification layers of the network in such a way that the location of individual activations remains explicit. We design a FCN which takes as input intensity and range data and, with the help of aggressive deconvolution and recycling of early network layers, converts them into a pixelwise classification at full resolution. We discuss design choices and intricacies of such a network, and demonstrate that an ensemble of several networks achieves excellent results on challenging data such as the ISPRS semantic labeling benchmark, using only the raw data as input.

  16. A health analytics semantic ETL service for obesity surveillance.

    PubMed

    Poulymenopoulou, M; Papakonstantinou, D; Malamateniou, F; Vassilacopoulos, G

    2015-01-01

    The increasingly large amount of data produced in healthcare (e.g. collected through health information systems such as electronic medical records - EMRs or collected through novel data sources such as personal health records - PHRs, social media, web resources) enable the creation of detailed records about people's health, sentiments and activities (e.g. physical activity, diet, sleep quality) that can be used in the public health area among others. However, despite the transformative potential of big data in public health surveillance there are several challenges in integrating big data. In this paper, the interoperability challenge is tackled and a semantic Extract Transform Load (ETL) service is proposed that seeks to semantically annotate big data to result into valuable data for analysis. This service is considered as part of a health analytics engine on the cloud that interacts with existing healthcare information exchange networks, like the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), PHRs, sensors, mobile applications, and other web resources to retrieve patient health, behavioral and daily activity data. The semantic ETL service aims at semantically integrating big data for use by analytic mechanisms. An illustrative implementation of the service on big data which is potentially relevant to human obesity, enables using appropriate analytic techniques (e.g. machine learning, text mining) that are expected to assist in identifying patterns and contributing factors (e.g. genetic background, social, environmental) for this social phenomenon and, hence, drive health policy changes and promote healthy behaviors where residents live, work, learn, shop and play. PMID:25991273

  17. Project Integration Architecture: Formulation of Dimensionality in Semantic Parameters Outline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    One of several key elements of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is the formulation of parameter objects which convey meaningful semantic information. The infusion of measurement dimensionality into such objects is an important part of that effort since it promises to automate the conversion of units between cooperating applications and, thereby, eliminate the mistakes that have occasionally beset other systems of information transport. This paper discusses the conceptualization of dimensionality developed as a result of that effort.

  18. Moving Controlled Vocabularies into the Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R.; Lowry, R. K.; Kokkinaki, A.

    2015-12-01

    One of the issues with legacy oceanographic data formats is that the only tool available for describing what a measurement is and how it was made is a single metadata tag known as the parameter code. The British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) has been supporting the international oceanographic community gain maximum benefit from this through a controlled vocabulary known as the BODC Parameter Usage Vocabulary (PUV). Over time this has grown to over 34,000 entries some of which have preferred labels with over 400 bytes of descriptive information detailing what was measured and how. A decade ago the BODC pioneered making this information available in a more useful form with the implementation of a prototype vocabulary server (NVS) that referenced each 'parameter code' as a URL. This developed into the current server (NVS V2) in which the parameter URL resolves into an RDF document based on the SKOS data model which includes a list of resource URLs mapped to the 'parameter'. For example the parameter code for a contaminant in biota, such as 'cadmium in Mytilus edulis', carries RDF triples leading to the entry for Mytilus edulis in the WoRMS and for cadmium in the ChEBI ontologies. By providing links into these external ontologies the information captured in a 1980s parameter code now conforms to the Linked Data paradigm of the Semantic Web, vastly increasing the descriptive information accessible to a user. This presentation will describe the next steps along the road to the Semantic Web with the development of a SPARQL end point1 to expose the PUV plus the 190 other controlled vocabularies held in NVS. Whilst this is ideal for those fluent in SPARQL, most users require something a little more user-friendly and so the NVS browser2 was developed over the end point to allow less technical users to query the vocabularies and navigate the NVS ontology. This tool integrates into an editor that allows vocabulary content to be manipulated by authorised users outside BODC

  19. Metadata Management and Semantics in Microarray Repositories

    PubMed Central

    Kocabaş, F; Can, T; Baykal, N

    2011-01-01

    The number of microarray and other high-throughput experiments on primary repositories keeps increasing as do the size and complexity of the results in response to biomedical investigations. Initiatives have been started on standardization of content, object model, exchange format and ontology. However, there are backlogs and inability to exchange data between microarray repositories, which indicate that there is a great need for a standard format and data management. We have introduced a metadata framework that includes a metadata card and semantic nets that make experimental results visible, understandable and usable. These are encoded in syntax encoding schemes and represented in RDF (Resource Description Frame-word), can be integrated with other metadata cards and semantic nets, and can be exchanged, shared and queried. We demonstrated the performance and potential benefits through a case study on a selected microarray repository. We concluded that the backlogs can be reduced and that exchange of information and asking of knowledge discovery questions can become possible with the use of this metadata framework. PMID:24052712

  20. RDFScape: Semantic Web meets Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Splendiani, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Background The recent availability of high-throughput data in molecular biology has increased the need for a formal representation of this knowledge domain. New ontologies are being developed to formalize knowledge, e.g. about the functions of proteins. As the Semantic Web is being introduced into the Life Sciences, the basis for a distributed knowledge-base that can foster biological data analysis is laid. However, there still is a dichotomy, in tools and methodologies, between the use of ontologies in biological investigation, that is, in relation to experimental observations, and their use as a knowledge-base. Results RDFScape is a plugin that has been developed to extend a software oriented to biological analysis with support for reasoning on ontologies in the semantic web framework. We show with this plugin how the use of ontological knowledge in biological analysis can be extended through the use of inference. In particular, we present two examples relative to ontologies representing biological pathways: we demonstrate how these can be abstracted and visualized as interaction networks, and how reasoning on causal dependencies within elements of pathways can be implemented. Conclusions The use of ontologies for the interpretation of high-throughput biological data can be improved through the use of inference. This allows the use of ontologies not only as annotations, but as a knowledge-base from which new information relevant for specific analysis can be derived. PMID:18460179