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Sample records for semantic knowledge management

  1. The Application of Semantics Web in Digital Library Knowledge Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liangxian, Du; Junxia, Qi; Pengfei, Guo

    The semantic grid can bring different community together to solve the problem, so large human interest is increasing, and based on the grid technology suppliers, to share information of urgent need. TIn this article, we will discuss the details of the research status and technical support HBUTiGrid project, elaborate design scheme of software architecture, HBUTiGrid infrastructure. We also exist vital experience HBUTiGrid project construction, introduces the software tools, support it.

  2. A Semantic Web Framework to Support Knowledge Management in Chronic Disease Healthcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buranarach, Marut; Supnithi, Thepchai; Chalortham, Noppadol; Khunthong, Vasuthep; Varasai, Patcharee; Kawtrakul, Asanee

    Improving quality of healthcare for people with chronic conditions requires informed and knowledgeable healthcare providers and patients. Decision support and clinical information system are two of the main components to support improving chronic care. In this paper, we describe an ongoing initiative that emphasizes the need for healthcare knowledge management to support both components. Ontology-based knowledge acquisition and modeling based on knowledge engineering approach provides an effective mechanism in capturing expert opinion in form of clinical practice guidelines. The Semantic Web framework is adopted in building a knowledge management platform that allows integration between the knowledge with patient databases and supported publications. We discuss one of the challenges, which is to apply the healthcare knowledge into existing healthcare provider environments by focusing on augmenting decision making and improving quality of patient care services.

  3. Closed-Loop Lifecycle Management of Service and Product in the Internet of Things: Semantic Framework for Knowledge Integration.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Min-Jung; Grozel, Clément; Kiritsis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes our conceptual framework of closed-loop lifecycle information sharing for product-service in the Internet of Things (IoT). The framework is based on the ontology model of product-service and a type of IoT message standard, Open Messaging Interface (O-MI) and Open Data Format (O-DF), which ensures data communication. (1) BACKGROUND: Based on an existing product lifecycle management (PLM) methodology, we enhanced the ontology model for the purpose of integrating efficiently the product-service ontology model that was newly developed; (2) METHODS: The IoT message transfer layer is vertically integrated into a semantic knowledge framework inside which a Semantic Info-Node Agent (SINA) uses the message format as a common protocol of product-service lifecycle data transfer; (3) RESULTS: The product-service ontology model facilitates information retrieval and knowledge extraction during the product lifecycle, while making more information available for the sake of service business creation. The vertical integration of IoT message transfer, encompassing all semantic layers, helps achieve a more flexible and modular approach to knowledge sharing in an IoT environment; (4) Contribution: A semantic data annotation applied to IoT can contribute to enhancing collected data types, which entails a richer knowledge extraction. The ontology-based PLM model enables as well the horizontal integration of heterogeneous PLM data while breaking traditional vertical information silos; (5) CONCLUSION: The framework was applied to a fictive case study with an electric car service for the purpose of demonstration. For the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of the approach, the semantic model is implemented in Sesame APIs, which play the role of an Internet-connected Resource Description Framework (RDF) database. PMID:27399717

  4. Closed-Loop Lifecycle Management of Service and Product in the Internet of Things: Semantic Framework for Knowledge Integration

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Min-Jung; Grozel, Clément; Kiritsis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes our conceptual framework of closed-loop lifecycle information sharing for product-service in the Internet of Things (IoT). The framework is based on the ontology model of product-service and a type of IoT message standard, Open Messaging Interface (O-MI) and Open Data Format (O-DF), which ensures data communication. (1) Background: Based on an existing product lifecycle management (PLM) methodology, we enhanced the ontology model for the purpose of integrating efficiently the product-service ontology model that was newly developed; (2) Methods: The IoT message transfer layer is vertically integrated into a semantic knowledge framework inside which a Semantic Info-Node Agent (SINA) uses the message format as a common protocol of product-service lifecycle data transfer; (3) Results: The product-service ontology model facilitates information retrieval and knowledge extraction during the product lifecycle, while making more information available for the sake of service business creation. The vertical integration of IoT message transfer, encompassing all semantic layers, helps achieve a more flexible and modular approach to knowledge sharing in an IoT environment; (4) Contribution: A semantic data annotation applied to IoT can contribute to enhancing collected data types, which entails a richer knowledge extraction. The ontology-based PLM model enables as well the horizontal integration of heterogeneous PLM data while breaking traditional vertical information silos; (5) Conclusion: The framework was applied to a fictive case study with an electric car service for the purpose of demonstration. For the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of the approach, the semantic model is implemented in Sesame APIs, which play the role of an Internet-connected Resource Description Framework (RDF) database. PMID:27399717

  5. Semantic-Based Knowledge Management in E-Government: Modeling Attention for Proactive Information Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samiotis, Konstantinos; Stojanovic, Nenad

    E-government has become almost synonymous with a consumer-led revolution of government services inspired and made possible by the Internet. With technology being the least of the worries for government organizations nowadays, attention is shifting towards managing complexity as one of the basic antecedents of operational and decision-making inefficiency. Complexity has been traditionally preoccupying public administrations and owes its origins to several sources. Among them we encounter primarily the cross-functional nature and the degree of legal structuring of administrative work. Both of them have strong reliance to the underlying process and information infrastructure of public organizations. Managing public administration work thus implies managing its processes and information. Knowledge management (KM) and business process reengineering (BPR) have been deployed already by private organizations with success for the same purposes and certainly comprise improvement practices that are worthwhile investigating. Our contribution through this paper is on the utilization of KM for the e-government.

  6. Semantics-enabled knowledge management for global Earth observation system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Roger L.; Durbha, Surya S.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is a distributed system of systems built on current international cooperation efforts among existing Earth observing and processing systems. The goal is to formulate an end-to-end process that enables the collection and distribution of accurate, reliable Earth Observation data, information, products, and services to both suppliers and consumers worldwide. One of the critical components in the development of such systems is the ability to obtain seamless access of data across geopolitical boundaries. In order to gain support and willingness to participate by countries around the world in such an endeavor, it is necessary to devise mechanisms whereby the data and the intellectual capital is protected through procedures that implement the policies specific to a country. Earth Observations (EO) are obtained from a multitude of sources and requires coordination among different agencies and user groups to come to a shared understanding on a set of concepts involved in a domain. It is envisaged that the data and information in a GEOSS context will be unprecedented and the current data archiving and delivery methods need to be transformed into one that allows realization of seamless interoperability. Thus, EO data integration is dependent on the resolution of conflicts arising from a variety of areas. Modularization is inevitable in distributed environments to facilitate flexible and efficient reuse of existing ontologies. Therefore, we propose a framework for modular ontologies based knowledge management approach for GEOSS and present methods to enable efficient reasoning in such systems.

  7. Semantics for E-Learning: An Advanced Knowledge Management Oriented Metadata Schema for Learning Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    The research described in this paper is concentrated on the demand for high quality interchangeable knowledge objects capable of supporting dynamic learning initiatives. The general metadata models (Dublin Core, IMS, LOM, SCORM) for knowledge objects enrichment are reviewed and a critique is provided in order to claim the importance of the…

  8. Semantic Document Model to Enhance Data and Knowledge Interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nešić, Saša

    To enable document data and knowledge to be efficiently shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries, desktop documents should be completely open and queryable resources, whose data and knowledge are represented in a form understandable to both humans and machines. At the same time, these are the requirements that desktop documents need to satisfy in order to contribute to the visions of the Semantic Web. With the aim of achieving this goal, we have developed the Semantic Document Model (SDM), which turns desktop documents into Semantic Documents as uniquely identified and semantically annotated composite resources, that can be instantiated into human-readable (HR) and machine-processable (MP) forms. In this paper, we present the SDM along with an RDF and ontology-based solution for the MP document instance. Moreover, on top of the proposed model, we have built the Semantic Document Management System (SDMS), which provides a set of services that exploit the model. As an application example that takes advantage of SDMS services, we have extended MS Office with a set of tools that enables users to transform MS Office documents (e.g., MS Word and MS PowerPoint) into Semantic Documents, and to search local and distant semantic document repositories for document content units (CUs) over Semantic Web protocols.

  9. Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual framework for…

  10. Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytras, Miltiadis, Ed.; Naeve, Ambjorn, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of Knowledge Society, the convergence of knowledge and learning management is a critical milestone. "Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective" provides state-of-the art knowledge through a balanced theoretical and technological discussion. The semantic web perspective…

  11. Developmental changes in semantic knowledge organization.

    PubMed

    Unger, Layla; Fisher, Anna V; Nugent, Rebecca; Ventura, Samuel L; MacLellan, Christopher J

    2016-06-01

    Semantic knowledge is a crucial aspect of higher cognition. Theoretical accounts of semantic knowledge posit that relations between concepts provide organizational structure that converts information known about individual entities into an interconnected network in which concepts can be linked by many types of relations (e.g., taxonomic, thematic). The goal of the current research was to address several methodological shortcomings of prior studies on the development of semantic organization, by using a variant of the spatial arrangement method (SpAM) to collect graded judgments of relatedness for a set of entities that can be cross-classified into either taxonomic or thematic groups. In Experiment 1, we used the cross-classify SpAM (CC-SpAM) to obtain graded relatedness judgments and derive a representation of developmental changes in the organization of semantic knowledge. In Experiment 2, we validated the findings of Experiment 1 by using a more traditional pairwise similarity judgment paradigm. Across both experiments, we found that an early recognition of links between entities that are both taxonomically and thematically related preceded an increasing recognition of links based on a single type of relation. The utility of CC-SpAM for evaluating theoretical accounts of semantic development is discussed. PMID:26974015

  12. Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  13. Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) is the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and knowledge-based assets. Frequently generating value from such assets means sharing them among employees, divisions and even with other companies in order to develop best practices. This article discusses three basic aspects of…

  14. Making Semantic Waves: A Key to Cumulative Knowledge-Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maton, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The paper begins by arguing that knowledge-blindness in educational research represents a serious obstacle to understanding knowledge-building. It then offers sociological concepts from Legitimation Code Theory--"semantic gravity" and "semantic density"--that systematically conceptualize one set of organizing principles underlying knowledge…

  15. Modeling Semantic and Structural Knowledge in Web Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvina, Ion; van Oostendorp, Herre

    2008-01-01

    Research on cognitive modeling of information search and Web navigation emphasizes the importance of "information scent" (the relevance of semantic cues such as link labels and headings to a reader's goal; Pirolli & Card, 1999). This article shows that not only semantic but also structural knowledge is involved in navigating the Web (Juvina,…

  16. Semantics driven approach for knowledge acquisition from EMRs.

    PubMed

    Perera, Sujan; Henson, Cory; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Sheth, Amit; Nair, Suhas

    2014-03-01

    Semantic computing technologies have matured to be applicable to many critical domains such as national security, life sciences, and health care. However, the key to their success is the availability of a rich domain knowledge base. The creation and refinement of domain knowledge bases pose difficult challenges. The existing knowledge bases in the health care domain are rich in taxonomic relationships, but they lack nontaxonomic (domain) relationships. In this paper, we describe a semiautomatic technique for enriching existing domain knowledge bases with causal relationships gleaned from Electronic Medical Records (EMR) data. We determine missing causal relationships between domain concepts by validating domain knowledge against EMR data sources and leveraging semantic-based techniques to derive plausible relationships that can rectify knowledge gaps. Our evaluation demonstrates that semantic techniques can be employed to improve the efficiency of knowledge acquisition. PMID:24058038

  17. Metadata Management and Semantics in Microarray Repositories

    PubMed Central

    Kocabaş, F; Can, T; Baykal, N

    2011-01-01

    The number of microarray and other high-throughput experiments on primary repositories keeps increasing as do the size and complexity of the results in response to biomedical investigations. Initiatives have been started on standardization of content, object model, exchange format and ontology. However, there are backlogs and inability to exchange data between microarray repositories, which indicate that there is a great need for a standard format and data management. We have introduced a metadata framework that includes a metadata card and semantic nets that make experimental results visible, understandable and usable. These are encoded in syntax encoding schemes and represented in RDF (Resource Description Frame-word), can be integrated with other metadata cards and semantic nets, and can be exchanged, shared and queried. We demonstrated the performance and potential benefits through a case study on a selected microarray repository. We concluded that the backlogs can be reduced and that exchange of information and asking of knowledge discovery questions can become possible with the use of this metadata framework. PMID:24052712

  18. Semantic Knowledge Influences Prewired Hedonic Responses to Odors

    PubMed Central

    Poncelet, Johan; Rinck, Fanny; Ziessel, Anne; Joussain, Pauline; Thévenet, Marc; Rouby, Catherine; Bensafi, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    Background Odor hedonic perception relies on decoding the physicochemical properties of odorant molecules and can be influenced in humans by semantic knowledge. The effect of semantic knowledge on such prewired hedonic processing over the life span has remained unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study measured hedonic response to odors in different age groups (children, teenagers, young adults, and seniors) and found that children and seniors, two age groups characterized by either low level of (children) or weak access to (seniors) odor semantic knowledge, processed odor hedonics more on the basis of their physicochemical properties. In contrast, in teenagers and young adults, who show better levels of semantic odor representation, the role of physicochemical properties was less marked. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate for the first time that the biological determinants that make an odor pleasant or unpleasant are more powerful at either end of the life span. PMID:21079734

  19. Arithmetic knowledge in semantic dementia: is it invariably preserved?

    PubMed

    Julien, C L; Thompson, J C; Neary, D; Snowden, J S

    2008-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence of preserved arithmetic knowledge in semantic dementia (SD), contrasting with patients' striking impairment in other domains of semantic memory. This important finding exemplifies domain specificity in the breakdown of semantic memory and supports notions of the functional independence of semantic number knowledge. Nevertheless, evidence for preserved arithmetic knowledge in SD comes largely from single case studies. It is not known whether such preservation is a universal finding, or whether it persists irrespective of disease severity. The present study examined performance of 14 SD patients, varying in the severity of their semantic impairment, on tasks assessing knowledge of arithmetic signs, and on single-digit and multi-digit calculation problems, permitting evaluation of fact retrieval and use of procedures. SD patients performed generally well compared to 10 healthy controls on tests of addition and subtraction. However, abnormalities were elicited, which were not explained by education or hemispheric side of atrophy, but increased as a function of semantic severity. Patients had difficulty identifying arithmetic signs. They used increasingly basic, inflexible strategies to retrieve multiplication table 'facts', and in multi-digit calculations they made procedural errors that pointed to a failure to understand the differential weighting of left and right hand columns. The pattern of responses and error types mirrors in reverse that found in children as they acquire arithmetic competence, and suggests a progressive degradation in conceptual understanding of arithmetic. Longitudinal study of two SD patients demonstrated an association between semantic decline and impaired arithmetic performance. The findings challenge the notion of arithmetic knowledge as a totally separate semantic domain and suggest that the temporal lobes play an important role in arithmetic understanding. PMID:18586284

  20. Semantic Knowledge for Famous Names in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Seidenberg, Michael; Guidotti, Leslie; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Durgerian, Sally; Zhang, Qi; Gander, Amelia; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Person identification represents a unique category of semantic knowledge that is commonly impaired in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but has received relatively little investigation in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The current study examined the retrieval of semantic knowledge for famous names from three time epochs (recent, remote, and enduring) in two participant groups; 23 aMCI patients and 23 healthy elderly controls. The aMCI group was less accurate and produced less semantic knowledge than controls for famous names. Names from the enduring period were recognized faster than both recent and remote names in both groups, and remote names were recognized more quickly than recent names. Episodic memory performance was correlated with greater semantic knowledge particularly for recent names. We suggest that the anterograde memory deficits in the aMCI group interferes with learning of recent famous names and as a result produces difficulties with updating and integrating new semantic information with previously stored information. The implications of these findings for characterizing semantic memory deficits in MCI are discussed. PMID:19128524

  1. Knowledge Representation Issues in Semantic Graphs for Relationship Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Barthelemy, M; Chow, E; Eliassi-Rad, T

    2005-02-02

    An important task for Homeland Security is the prediction of threat vulnerabilities, such as through the detection of relationships between seemingly disjoint entities. A structure used for this task is a ''semantic graph'', also known as a ''relational data graph'' or an ''attributed relational graph''. These graphs encode relationships as typed links between a pair of typed nodes. Indeed, semantic graphs are very similar to semantic networks used in AI. The node and link types are related through an ontology graph (also known as a schema). Furthermore, each node has a set of attributes associated with it (e.g., ''age'' may be an attribute of a node of type ''person''). Unfortunately, the selection of types and attributes for both nodes and links depends on human expertise and is somewhat subjective and even arbitrary. This subjectiveness introduces biases into any algorithm that operates on semantic graphs. Here, we raise some knowledge representation issues for semantic graphs and provide some possible solutions using recently developed ideas in the field of complex networks. In particular, we use the concept of transitivity to evaluate the relevance of individual links in the semantic graph for detecting relationships. We also propose new statistical measures for semantic graphs and illustrate these semantic measures on graphs constructed from movies and terrorism data.

  2. Semantically-enabled Knowledge Discovery in the Deep Carbon Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Chen, Y.; Ma, X.; Erickson, J. S.; West, P.; Fox, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) is a decadal effort aimed at transforming scientific and public understanding of carbon in the complex deep earth system from the perspectives of Deep Energy, Deep Life, Extreme Physics and Chemistry, and Reservoirs and Fluxes. Over the course of the decade DCO scientific activities will generate a massive volume of data across a variety of disciplines, presenting significant challenges in terms of data integration, management, analysis and visualization, and ultimately limiting the ability of scientists across disciplines to make insights and unlock new knowledge. The DCO Data Science Team (DCO-DS) is applying Semantic Web methodologies to construct a knowledge representation focused on the DCO Earth science disciplines, and use it together with other technologies (e.g. natural language processing and data mining) to create a more expressive representation of the distributed corpus of DCO artifacts including datasets, metadata, instruments, sensors, platforms, deployments, researchers, organizations, funding agencies, grants and various awards. The embodiment of this knowledge representation is the DCO Data Science Infrastructure, in which unique entities within the DCO domain and the relations between them are recognized and explicitly identified. The DCO-DS Infrastructure will serve as a platform for more efficient and reliable searching, discovery, access, and publication of information and knowledge for the DCO scientific community and beyond.

  3. Overview of Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serban, Andreea M.; Luan, Jing

    2002-01-01

    Defines knowledge management, its components, processes, and outcomes. Addresses the importance of knowledge management for higher education in general and for institutional research in particular. (EV)

  4. Knowledge represented using RDF semantic network in the concept of semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukasova, A.; Vajgl, M.; Zacek, M.

    2016-06-01

    The RDF(S) model has been declared as the basic model to capture knowledge of the semantic web. It provides a common and flexible way to decompose composed knowledge to elementary statements, which can be represented by RDF triples or by RDF graph vectors. From the logical point of view, elements of knowledge can be expressed using at most binary predicates, which can be converted to RDF-triples or graph vectors. However, it is not able to capture implicit knowledge representable by logical formulas. This contribution shows how existing approaches (semantic networks and clausal form logic) can be combined together with RDF to obtain RDF-compatible system with ability to represent implicit knowledge and inference over knowledge base.

  5. Semantically Enabling Knowledge Representation of Metamorphic Petrology Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P.; Fox, P. A.; Spear, F. S.; Adali, S.; Nguyen, C.; Hallett, B. W.; Horkley, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    More and more metamorphic petrology data is being collected around the world, and is now being organized together into different virtual data portals by means of virtual organizations. For example, there is the virtual data portal Petrological Database (PetDB, http://www.petdb.org) of the Ocean Floor that is organizing scientific information about geochemical data of ocean floor igneous and metamorphic rocks; and also The Metamorphic Petrology Database (MetPetDB, http://metpetdb.rpi.edu) that is being created by a global community of metamorphic petrologists in collaboration with software engineers and data managers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The current focus is to provide the ability for scientists and researchers to register their data and search the databases for information regarding sample collections. What we present here is the next step in evolution of the MetPetDB portal, utilizing semantically enabled features such as discovery, data casting, faceted search, knowledge representation, and linked data as well as organizing information about the community and collaboration within the virtual community itself. We take the information that is currently represented in a relational database and make it available through web services, SPARQL endpoints, semantic and triple-stores where inferencing is enabled. We will be leveraging research that has taken place in virtual observatories, such as the Virtual Solar Terrestrial Observatory (VSTO) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO); vocabulary work done in various communities such as Observations and Measurements (ISO 19156), FOAF (Friend of a Friend), Bibo (Bibliography Ontology), and domain specific ontologies; enabling provenance traces of samples and subsamples using the different provenance ontologies; and providing the much needed linking of data from the various research organizations into a common, collaborative virtual observatory. In addition to better

  6. Semantic Knowledge as a Determinant of Developmental Differences in Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceci, Stephen J.; Howe, Michael J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments examined the possible role of children's semantic knowledge and their ability to encode it in a cued-recall test. Performance of children aged 7, 10, and 13 years was observed in encoding specificity tasks which used homographs as the to-be-remembered words. (MP)

  7. Scientific Knowledge Discovery in Complex Semantic Networks of Geophysical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P.

    2012-04-01

    The vast majority of explorations of the Earth's systems are limited in their ability to effectively explore the most important (often most difficult) problems because they are forced to interconnect at the data-element, or syntactic, level rather than at a higher scientific, or semantic, level. Recent successes in the application of complex network theory and algorithms to climate data, raise expectations that more general graph-based approaches offer the opportunity for new discoveries. In the past ~ 5 years in the natural sciences there has substantial progress in providing both specialists and non-specialists the ability to describe in machine readable form, geophysical quantities and relations among them in meaningful and natural ways, effectively breaking the prior syntax barrier. The corresponding open-world semantics and reasoning provide higher-level interconnections. That is, semantics provided around the data structures, using semantically-equipped tools, and semantically aware interfaces between science application components allowing for discovery at the knowledge level. More recently, formal semantic approaches to continuous and aggregate physical processes are beginning to show promise and are soon likely to be ready to apply to geoscientific systems. To illustrate these opportunities, this presentation presents two application examples featuring domain vocabulary (ontology) and property relations (named and typed edges in the graphs). First, a climate knowledge discovery pilot encoding and exploration of CMIP5 catalog information with the eventual goal to encode and explore CMIP5 data. Second, a multi-stakeholder knowledge network for integrated assessments in marine ecosystems, where the data is highly inter-disciplinary.

  8. RKB: a Semantic Web knowledge base for RNA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly sophisticated knowledge about RNA structure and function requires an inclusive knowledge representation that facilitates the integration of independently –generated information arising from such efforts as genome sequencing projects, microarray analyses, structure determination and RNA SELEX experiments. While RNAML, an XML-based representation, has been proposed as an exchange format for a select subset of information, it lacks domain-specific semantics that are essential for answering questions that require expert knowledge. Here, we describe an RNA knowledge base (RKB) for structure-based knowledge using RDF/OWL Semantic Web technologies. RKB extends a number of ontologies and contains basic terminology for nucleic acid composition along with context/model-specific structural features such as sugar conformations, base pairings and base stackings. RKB (available at http://semanticscience.org/projects/rkb) is populated with PDB entries and MC-Annotate structural annotation. We show queries to the RKB using description logic reasoning, thus opening the door to question answering over independently-published RNA knowledge using Semantic Web technologies. PMID:20626922

  9. Semantics vs. World Knowledge in Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pylkkanen, Liina; Oliveri, Bridget; Smart, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Humans have knowledge about the properties of their native language at various levels of representation; sound, structure, and meaning computation constitute the core components of any linguistic theory. Although the brain sciences have engaged with representational theories of sound and syntactic structure, the study of the neural bases of…

  10. Semantic-Based RFID Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Virgilio, Roberto; di Sciascio, Eugenio; Ruta, Michele; Scioscia, Floriano; Torlone, Riccardo

    Traditional Radio-Frequency IDentification (RFID) applications have been focused on replacing bar codes in supply chain management. Leveraging a ubiquitous computing architecture, the chapter presents a framework allowing both quick decentralized on-line item discovery and centralized off-line massive business logic analysis, according to needs and requirements of supply chain actors. A semantic-based environment, where tagged objects become resources exposing to an RFID reader not a trivial identification code but a semantic annotation, enables tagged objects to describe themselves on the fly without depending on a centralized infrastructure. On the other hand, facing on data management issues, a proposal is formulated for an effective off-line multidimensional analysis of huge amounts of RFID data generated and stored along the supply chain.

  11. Chemical Entity Semantic Specification: Knowledge representation for efficient semantic cheminformatics and facile data integration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past several centuries, chemistry has permeated virtually every facet of human lifestyle, enriching fields as diverse as medicine, agriculture, manufacturing, warfare, and electronics, among numerous others. Unfortunately, application-specific, incompatible chemical information formats and representation strategies have emerged as a result of such diverse adoption of chemistry. Although a number of efforts have been dedicated to unifying the computational representation of chemical information, disparities between the various chemical databases still persist and stand in the way of cross-domain, interdisciplinary investigations. Through a common syntax and formal semantics, Semantic Web technology offers the ability to accurately represent, integrate, reason about and query across diverse chemical information. Results Here we specify and implement the Chemical Entity Semantic Specification (CHESS) for the representation of polyatomic chemical entities, their substructures, bonds, atoms, and reactions using Semantic Web technologies. CHESS provides means to capture aspects of their corresponding chemical descriptors, connectivity, functional composition, and geometric structure while specifying mechanisms for data provenance. We demonstrate that using our readily extensible specification, it is possible to efficiently integrate multiple disparate chemical data sources, while retaining appropriate correspondence of chemical descriptors, with very little additional effort. We demonstrate the impact of some of our representational decisions on the performance of chemically-aware knowledgebase searching and rudimentary reaction candidate selection. Finally, we provide access to the tools necessary to carry out chemical entity encoding in CHESS, along with a sample knowledgebase. Conclusions By harnessing the power of Semantic Web technologies with CHESS, it is possible to provide a means of facile cross-domain chemical knowledge integration with full

  12. Semantic Enhancement for Enterprise Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Li; Sun, Xingzhi; Cao, Feng; Wang, Chen; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Kanellos, Nick; Wolfson, Dan; Pan, Yue

    Taking customer data as an example, the paper presents an approach to enhance the management of enterprise data by using Semantic Web technologies. Customer data is the most important kind of core business entity a company uses repeatedly across many business processes and systems, and customer data management (CDM) is becoming critical for enterprises because it keeps a single, complete and accurate record of customers across the enterprise. Existing CDM systems focus on integrating customer data from all customer-facing channels and front and back office systems through multiple interfaces, as well as publishing customer data to different applications. To make the effective use of the CDM system, this paper investigates semantic query and analysis over the integrated and centralized customer data, enabling automatic classification and relationship discovery. We have implemented these features over IBM Websphere Customer Center, and shown the prototype to our clients. We believe that our study and experiences are valuable for both Semantic Web community and data management community.

  13. Semantic Maps Capturing Organization Knowledge in e-Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavridis, Androklis; Koumpis, Adamantios; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    e-learning, shows much promise in accessibility and opportunity to learn, due to its asynchronous nature and its ability to transmit knowledge fast and effectively. However without a universal standard for online learning and teaching, many systems are proclaimed as “e-learning-compliant”, offering nothing more than automated services for delivering courses online, providing no additional enhancement to reusability and learner personalization. Hence, the focus is not on providing reusable and learner-centered content, but on developing the technology aspects of e-learning. This current trend has made it crucial to find a more refined definition of what constitutes knowledge in the e-learning context. We propose an e-learning system architecture that makes use of a knowledge model to facilitate continuous dialogue and inquiry-based knowledge learning, by exploiting the full benefits of the semantic web as a medium capable for supplying the web with formalized knowledge.

  14. [Knowledge management (I)].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Moreno, J; Cruz Martín Delgado, M

    2001-09-01

    Beyond to be in fashion, the knowledge management (KM) is by itself a powerful strategic weapon for managing organizations. In a first part, the authors analyze strategic concepts related to management, emphasizing the attachment between KM and competitive advantage. Finally, the authors tie the KM to learning process ("tacit knowledge", "socialization", "externalization", "combination", and "internationalization"). PMID:12150129

  15. Organizational Knowledge Management Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczak, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To propose and evaluate a novel management structure that encourages knowledge sharing across an organization. Design/methodology/approach: The extant literature on the impact of organizational culture and its link to management structure is examined and used to develop a new knowledge sharing management structure. Roadblocks to…

  16. Preservation of Person-Specific Semantic Knowledge in Semantic Dementia: Does Direct Personal Experience Have a Specific Role?

    PubMed Central

    Péron, Julie A.; Piolino, Pascale; Moal-Boursiquot, Sandrine Le; Biseul, Isabelle; Leray, Emmanuelle; Bon, Laetitia; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis; Belliard, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Semantic dementia patients seem to have better knowledge of information linked to the self. More specifically, despite having severe semantic impairment, these patients show that they have more general information about the people they know personally by direct experience than they do about other individuals they know indirectly. However, the role of direct personal experience remains debated because of confounding factors such as frequency, recency of exposure, and affective relevance. We performed an exploratory study comparing the performance of five semantic dementia patients with that of 10 matched healthy controls on the recognition (familiarity judgment) and identification (biographic information recall) of personally familiar names vs. famous names. As expected, intergroup comparisons indicated a semantic breakdown in semantic dementia patients as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, unlike healthy controls, the semantic dementia patients recognized and identified personally familiar names better than they did famous names. This pattern of results suggests that direct personal experience indeed plays a specific role in the relative preservation of person-specific semantic meaning in semantic dementia. We discuss the role of direct personal experience on the preservation of semantic knowledge and the potential neurophysiological mechanisms underlying these processes. PMID:26635578

  17. A computational modeling of semantic knowledge in reading comprehension: Integrating the landscape model with latent semantic analysis.

    PubMed

    Yeari, Menahem; van den Broek, Paul

    2016-09-01

    It is a well-accepted view that the prior semantic (general) knowledge that readers possess plays a central role in reading comprehension. Nevertheless, computational models of reading comprehension have not integrated the simulation of semantic knowledge and online comprehension processes under a unified mathematical algorithm. The present article introduces a computational model that integrates the landscape model of comprehension processes with latent semantic analysis representation of semantic knowledge. In three sets of simulations of previous behavioral findings, the integrated model successfully simulated the activation and attenuation of predictive and bridging inferences during reading, as well as centrality estimations and recall of textual information after reading. Analyses of the computational results revealed new theoretical insights regarding the underlying mechanisms of the various comprehension phenomena. PMID:27383752

  18. Teaching Knowledge Management (SIG KM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Claire

    2000-01-01

    Presents an abstract of a planned session on teaching knowledge management, including knowledge management for information professionals; differences between teaching knowledge management in library schools and in business schools; knowledge practices for small groups; and current research. (LRW)

  19. Managing knowledge in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Crasto, Chiquito J; Shepherd, Gordon M

    2007-01-01

    Processing text from scientific literature has become a necessity due to the burgeoning amounts of information that are fast becoming available, stemming from advances in electronic information technology. We created a program, NeuroText ( http://senselab.med.yale.edu/textmine/neurotext.pl ), designed specifically to extract information relevant to neuroscience-specific databases, NeuronDB and CellPropDB ( http://senselab.med.yale.edu/senselab/ ), housed at the Yale University School of Medicine. NeuroText extracts relevant information from the Neuroscience literature in a two-step process: each step parses text at different levels of granularity. NeuroText uses an expert-mediated knowledge base and combines the techniques of indexing, contextual parsing, semantic and lexical parsing, and supervised and non-supervised learning to extract information. The constrains, metadata elements, and rules for information extraction are stored in the knowledge base. NeuroText was created as a pilot project to process 3 years of publications in Journal of Neuroscience and was subsequently tested for 40,000 PubMed abstracts. We also present here a template to create domain non-specific knowledge base that when linked to a text-processing tool like NeuroText can be used to extract knowledge in other fields of research. PMID:18368357

  20. Knowledge Management, Codification and Tacit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimble, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method: The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who…

  1. Essays on Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Wenli

    2012-01-01

    For many firms, particularly those operating in high technology and competitive markets, knowledge is cited as the most important strategic asset to the firm, which significantly drives its survival and success (Grant 1996, Webber 1993). Knowledge management (KM) impacts the firm's ability to develop process features that reduce manufacturing…

  2. Knowledge Management: A Skeptic's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation discussing knowledge management is shown. The topics include: 1) What is Knowledge Management? 2) Why Manage Knowledge? The Presenting Problems; 3) What Gets Called Knowledge Management? 4) Attempts to Rethink Assumptions about Knowledgs; 5) What is Knowledge? 6) Knowledge Management and INstitutional Memory; 7) Knowledge Management and Culture; 8) To solve a social problem, it's easier to call for cultural rather than organizational change; 9) Will the Knowledge Management Effort Succeed? and 10) Backup: Metrics for Valuing Intellectural Capital i.e. Knowledge.

  3. Changes in Knowledge Structures from Building Semantic Net versus Production Rule Representations of Subject Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the effects on the knowledge structure of the learners of using two different Mindtools--semantic networks and rule-based expert systems--for representing the content of a course. Results showed that students in the semantic network class possessed more hierarchical knowledge structures than the other group. (Contains 29 references.) (JLB)

  4. Receptive vocabulary and semantic knowledge in children with SLI and children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laws, Glynis; Briscoe, Josie; Ang, Su-Yin; Brown, Heather; Hermena, Ehab; Kapikian, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary and associated semantic knowledge were compared within and between groups of children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with Down syndrome (DS), and typically developing children. To overcome the potential confounding effects of speech or language difficulties on verbal tests of semantic knowledge, a novel task was devised based on picture-based semantic association tests used to assess adult patients with semantic dementia. Receptive vocabulary, measured by word-picture matching, of children with SLI was weak relative to chronological age and to nonverbal mental age but their semantic knowledge, probed across the same lexical items, did not differ significantly from that of vocabulary-matched typically developing children. By contrast, although receptive vocabulary of children with DS was a relative strength compared to nonverbal cognitive abilities (p < .0001), DS was associated with a significant deficit in semantic knowledge (p < .0001) indicative of dissociation between word-picture matching vocabulary and depth of semantic knowledge. Overall, these data challenge the integrity of semantic-conceptual development in DS and imply that contemporary theories of semantic cognition should also seek to incorporate evidence from atypical conceptual development. PMID:24830646

  5. Development of a semantic-based search system for immunization knowledge.

    PubMed

    Lee, Li-Hui; Chu, Hsing-Yi; Liou, Der-Ming

    2013-01-01

    This study developed and implemented a children's immunization management system with English and Traditional Chinese immunization ontology for semantic-based search of immunization knowledge. Parents and guardians are able to search vaccination-related information effectively. Jena Java Application Programming Interface (API) was used to search for synonyms and associated classes in this domain and then use them for searching by Google Search API. The searching results do not only contain suggested web links but also include a basic introduction to vaccine and related preventable diseases. Compared with the Google keyword-based search, over half of the 31 trial users prefer using semantic-based search of this system. Although the search runtime on this system is not as fast as well-known search engines such as Google or Yahoo, it can accurately focus on searching for child vaccination information to provide search results that better conform to the needs of users. Furthermore, the system is also one of the few health knowledge platforms that support Traditional Chinese semantic-based search. PMID:23920556

  6. Knowledge Evolution in Distributed Geoscience Datasets and the Role of Semantic Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge evolves in geoscience, and the evolution is reflected in datasets. In a context with distributed data sources, the evolution of knowledge may cause considerable challenges to data management and re-use. For example, a short news published in 2009 (Mascarelli, 2009) revealed the geoscience community's concern that the International Commission on Stratigraphy's change to the definition of Quaternary may bring heavy reworking of geologic maps. Now we are in the era of the World Wide Web, and geoscience knowledge is increasingly modeled and encoded in the form of ontologies and vocabularies by using semantic technologies. Accordingly, knowledge evolution leads to a consequence called ontology dynamics. Flouris et al. (2008) summarized 10 topics of general ontology changes/dynamics such as: ontology mapping, morphism, evolution, debugging and versioning, etc. Ontology dynamics makes impacts at several stages of a data life cycle and causes challenges, such as: the request for reworking of the extant data in a data center, semantic mismatch among data sources, differentiated understanding of a same piece of dataset between data providers and data users, as well as error propagation in cross-discipline data discovery and re-use (Ma et al., 2014). This presentation will analyze the best practices in the geoscience community so far and summarize a few recommendations to reduce the negative impacts of ontology dynamics in a data life cycle, including: communities of practice and collaboration on ontology and vocabulary building, link data records to standardized terms, and methods for (semi-)automatic reworking of datasets using semantic technologies. References: Flouris, G., Manakanatas, D., Kondylakis, H., Plexousakis, D., Antoniou, G., 2008. Ontology change: classification and survey. The Knowledge Engineering Review 23 (2), 117-152. Ma, X., Fox, P., Rozell, E., West, P., Zednik, S., 2014. Ontology dynamics in a data life cycle: Challenges and recommendations

  7. A Semantic Web Management Model for Integrative Biomedical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Deus, Helena F.; Stanislaus, Romesh; Veiga, Diogo F.; Behrens, Carmen; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Minna, John D.; Garner, Harold R.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Roth, Jack A.; Correa, Arlene M.; Broom, Bradley; Coombes, Kevin; Chang, Allen; Vogel, Lynn H.; Almeida, Jonas S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Data, data everywhere. The diversity and magnitude of the data generated in the Life Sciences defies automated articulation among complementary efforts. The additional need in this field for managing property and access permissions compounds the difficulty very significantly. This is particularly the case when the integration involves multiple domains and disciplines, even more so when it includes clinical and high throughput molecular data. Methodology/Principal Findings The emergence of Semantic Web technologies brings the promise of meaningful interoperation between data and analysis resources. In this report we identify a core model for biomedical Knowledge Engineering applications and demonstrate how this new technology can be used to weave a management model where multiple intertwined data structures can be hosted and managed by multiple authorities in a distributed management infrastructure. Specifically, the demonstration is performed by linking data sources associated with the Lung Cancer SPORE awarded to The University of Texas MDAnderson Cancer Center at Houston and the Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. A software prototype, available with open source at www.s3db.org, was developed and its proposed design has been made publicly available as an open source instrument for shared, distributed data management. Conclusions/Significance The Semantic Web technologies have the potential to addresses the need for distributed and evolvable representations that are critical for systems Biology and translational biomedical research. As this technology is incorporated into application development we can expect that both general purpose productivity software and domain specific software installed on our personal computers will become increasingly integrated with the relevant remote resources. In this scenario, the acquisition of a new dataset should automatically trigger the delegation of its analysis. PMID:18698353

  8. Implementation of a metadata architecture and knowledge collection to support semantic interoperability in an enterprise data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Dhaval, Rakesh; Borlawsky, Tara; Ostrander, Michael; Santangelo, Jennifer; Kamal, Jyoti; Payne, Philip R O

    2008-01-01

    In order to enhance interoperability between enterprise systems, and improve data validity and reliability throughout The Ohio State University Medical Center (OSUMC), we have initiated the development of an ontology-anchored metadata architecture and knowledge collection for our enterprise data warehouse. The metadata and corresponding semantic relationships stored in the OSUMC knowledge collection are intended to promote consistency and interoperability across the heterogeneous clinical, research, business and education information managed within the data warehouse. PMID:18999040

  9. Utilizing knowledge-base semantics in graph-based algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Darwiche, A.

    1996-12-31

    Graph-based algorithms convert a knowledge base with a graph structure into one with a tree structure (a join-tree) and then apply tree-inference on the result. Nodes in the join-tree are cliques of variables and tree-inference is exponential in w*, the size of the maximal clique in the join-tree. A central property of join-trees that validates tree-inference is the running-intersection property: the intersection of any two cliques must belong to every clique on the path between them. We present two key results in connection to graph-based algorithms. First, we show that the running-intersection property, although sufficient, is not necessary for validating tree-inference. We present a weaker property for this purpose, called running-interaction, that depends on non-structural (semantical) properties of a knowledge base. We also present a linear algorithm that may reduce w* of a join-tree, possibly destroying its running-intersection property, while maintaining its running-interaction property and, hence, its validity for tree-inference. Second, we develop a simple algorithm for generating trees satisfying the running-interaction property. The algorithm bypasses triangulation (the standard technique for constructing join-trees) and does not construct a join-tree first. We show that the proposed algorithm may in some cases generate trees that are more efficient than those generated by modifying a join-tree.

  10. Doing Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Joseph M.; McElroy, Mark W.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge management (KM) as a field has been characterized by great confusion about its conceptual foundations and scope, much to the detriment of assessments of its impact and track record. The purpose of this paper is to contribute toward defining the scope of KM and ending the confusion, by presenting a conceptual framework and set of…

  11. Knowledge management across domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfillan, Lynne G.; Haddock, Gail; Borek, Stan

    2001-02-01

    This paper presents a secure, Internet-enabled, third wave knowledge management system. TheResearchPlaceTM, that will facilitate a collaborative, strategic approach to analyzing public safety problems and developing interventions to reduce them. TheResearchPlace, currently being developed under Government and private funding for use by the National Cancer Institute, Federal agencies, and the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, will augment Geographic Information Systems and analytical tool capabilities by providing a synergistic workspace where teams of multidisciplinary professions can manage portfolios of existing knowledge resources, locate and create new knowledge resources that are added to portfolios, and collaborate with colleagues to leverage evolving portfolios' capabilities on team missions. TheResearchPlace is currently in use by selected alpha users at selected federal sites, and by the faculty of Howard University.

  12. Information Semantic Tools for Coastal Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbha, S. S.; King, R. L.; Younan, N. H.; Rajender, S. K.; Bheemireddy, S.

    2007-12-01

    In a coastal disaster event, it is necessary to obtain information about water level (depth), winds, currents, waves, temperature-salinity stratification in real time and predictions of water level (12-24 hrs), storm surge (48-72 hours) in advance. It has been estimated that better preparation, response, and mitigation will reduce average costs of storm-related disasters by 10%. The dissemination of information that is time critical calls for systems that will facilitate quick assessment of the scenario from multiple perspectives. Sensor data are obtained from a multitude of distributed sensor networks. Our current work funded by Northern Gulf Institute (NGI) on Sensor Web tools for coastal buoys based on OGC sensor web enablement framework enables the use of real or near real time data derived from coastal sensor networks and dynamic selection and aggregation of multiple sensor systems, meteorological and oceanographic simulations and other decision support systems in a web services- based environment. In addition, we pursue the semantic web approaches to understand the context of the data, resolve the meaning, interpretation or usage of the same or related data and develop knowledge-based tools for access to the information sources. Observations from satellites provide a variety of measurements that are not otherwise available or affordable. However, the use of such valuable information in a rapid assessment scenario is hindered by the fact that it is cumbersome to explore huge image databases through manual or semi automated methods. The Rapid Image information mining (RIIM) tool that we developed for this purpose is demonstrated with imagery data from Landsat ETM+ of post Katrina hurricane.

  13. Knowledge of Natural Kinds in Semantic Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Katy; Smith, Edward E.; Grossman, Murray

    2008-01-01

    We examined the semantic impairment for natural kinds in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and semantic dementia (SD) using an inductive reasoning paradigm. To learn about the relationships between natural kind exemplars and how these are distinguished from manufactured artifacts, subjects judged the strength of arguments such as…

  14. Detailed Clinical Models: Representing Knowledge, Data and Semantics in Healthcare Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper will present an overview of the developmental effort in harmonizing clinical knowledge modeling using the Detailed Clinical Models (DCMs), and will explain how it can contribute to the preservation of Electronic Health Records (EHR) data. Methods Clinical knowledge modeling is vital for the management and preservation of EHR and data. Such modeling provides common data elements and terminology binding with the intention of capturing and managing clinical information over time and location independent from technology. Any EHR data exchange without an agreed clinical knowledge modeling will potentially result in loss of information. Results Many attempts exist from the past to model clinical knowledge for the benefits of semantic interoperability using standardized data representation and common terminologies. The objective of each project is similar with respect to consistent representation of clinical data, using standardized terminologies, and an overall logical approach. However, the conceptual, logical, and the technical expressions are quite different in one clinical knowledge modeling approach versus another. There currently are synergies under the Clinical Information Modeling Initiative (CIMI) in order to create a harmonized reference model for clinical knowledge models. Conclusions The goal for the CIMI is to create a reference model and formalisms based on for instance the DCM (ISO/TS 13972), among other work. A global repository of DCMs may potentially be established in the future. PMID:25152829

  15. Semantic Knowledge Use in Discourse Produced by Individuals with Anomic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kintz, Stephen; Wright, Heather Harris; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2015-01-01

    Background Researchers have demonstrated that people with aphasia (PWA) have preserved semantic knowledge (Dell et al., 1997; Jefferies & Lambon Ralph, 2006). However, Antonucci (2014) demonstrated that some PWA have impaired access to certain types of knowledge more than others. Yet, all these studies used single concepts. It has not been demonstrated whether PWA have difficulty accessing certain types of features within a discourse sample. Aims The main goals of this study were to determine if semantic knowledge and two category types were used differently within discourse produced by participants with anomic aphasia and healthy controls. Method & Procedures Participants with anomic aphasia (n=19) and healthy controls (n=19) told stories that were transcribed and coded for 10 types of semantic knowledge and two category types, living and nonliving things. Outcomes & Results A Poisson regression model was conducted. The results indicated a significant difference between the groups for the semantic knowledge types, sound and internal state, but no difference was found for category types. Yet the distribution of semantic knowledge and category types produced within the discourse samples were similar between the groups. Conclusion PWA might have differential access to certain types of semantic knowledge within discourse production, but it does not rise to the level of categorical deficits. These findings extend single-concept research into the realm of discourse.

  16. A Metamodel Approach to Semantic Web Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Virgilio, Roberto; Del Nostro, Pierluigi; Gianforme, Giorgio; Paolozzi, Stefano

    The Semantic Web is gaining increasing interest to fulfill the need of sharing, retrieving and reusing information. In this context, the Resource Description Framework (RDF) has been conceived to provide an easy way to represent any kind of data and metadata, according to a lightweight model and syntaxes for serialization (RDF/XML, N3, etc.). Despite RDF has the advantage of being general and simple, it cannot be used as a storage model as it is, since it can be easily shown that even simple management operations involve serious performance limitations. In this paper, we present a novel approach for storing, managing and processing RDF data in an effective and efficient way. The approach is based on the notion of construct, that represents a concept of the domain of interest. This makes the approach easily extensible and independent from the specific knowledge representation language. We refer to real world scenarios in which we consider complex data management operations, which go beyond simple selections or projections and involve the navigation of huge portions of RDF data sources.

  17. European Managers' Interpretations of Participation: A Semantic Network Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohl, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Explores cultural variations in managers' interpretations of a key communicative process: worker participation. Finds that semantic patterns derived from structural analyses indicate cultural differences in meanings managers from five European Community nations attach to the term "participation." Supports two of G. Hofstede's dimensions of…

  18. Preserved Tool Knowledge in the Context of Impaired Action Knowledge: Implications for Models of Semantic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Garcea, Frank E.; Dombovy, Mary; Mahon, Bradford Z.

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have observed that the motor system is activated when processing the semantics of manipulable objects. Such phenomena have been taken as evidence that simulation over motor representations is a necessary and intermediary step in the process of conceptual understanding. Cognitive neuropsychological evaluations of patients with impairments for action knowledge permit a direct test of the necessity of motor simulation in conceptual processing. Here, we report the performance of a 47-year-old male individual (Case AA) and six age-matched control participants on a number of tests probing action and object knowledge. Case AA had a large left-hemisphere frontal-parietal lesion and hemiplegia affecting his right arm and leg. Case AA presented with impairments for object-associated action production, and his conceptual knowledge of actions was severely impaired. In contrast, his knowledge of objects such as tools and other manipulable objects was largely preserved. The dissociation between action and object knowledge is difficult to reconcile with strong forms of the embodied cognition hypothesis. We suggest that these, and other similar findings, point to the need to develop tractable hypotheses about the dynamics of information exchange among sensory, motor and conceptual processes. PMID:23641205

  19. Knowledge to Manage the Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minati, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to make evident the inadequateness of concepts and language based on industrial knowledge still used in current practices by managers to cope with problems of the post-industrial societies characterised by non-linear process of emergence and acquisition of properties. The purpose is to allow management to…

  20. Modality specific semantic knowledge loss for unique items.

    PubMed

    Kartsounis, L D; Shallice, T

    1996-03-01

    We report the case of a man who, following a major myocardial infarction, suffered anoxia followed by significant event memory impairment. Investigations indicated that his semantic memory for word concepts and object meanings was well preserved. However, he had great difficulty in identifying in the visual (but not verbal) modality historically known people, such as Queen Elizabeth I and Napoleon, and well known world and London landmarks, such as the Parthenon and Buckingham Palace. This selective impairment could not be accounted for in terms of prosopagnosia or high level visual perceptual deficits and we interpret it as a modality specific semantic memory loss for unique objects. PMID:8697742

  1. A semantic web framework to integrate cancer omics data with biological knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The RDF triple provides a simple linguistic means of describing limitless types of information. Triples can be flexibly combined into a unified data source we call a semantic model. Semantic models open new possibilities for the integration of variegated biological data. We use Semantic Web technology to explicate high throughput clinical data in the context of fundamental biological knowledge. We have extended Corvus, a data warehouse which provides a uniform interface to various forms of Omics data, by providing a SPARQL endpoint. With the querying and reasoning tools made possible by the Semantic Web, we were able to explore quantitative semantic models retrieved from Corvus in the light of systematic biological knowledge. Results For this paper, we merged semantic models containing genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic data from melanoma samples with two semantic models of functional data - one containing Gene Ontology (GO) data, the other, regulatory networks constructed from transcription factor binding information. These two semantic models were created in an ad hoc manner but support a common interface for integration with the quantitative semantic models. Such combined semantic models allow us to pose significant translational medicine questions. Here, we study the interplay between a cell's molecular state and its response to anti-cancer therapy by exploring the resistance of cancer cells to Decitabine, a demethylating agent. Conclusions We were able to generate a testable hypothesis to explain how Decitabine fights cancer - namely, that it targets apoptosis-related gene promoters predominantly in Decitabine-sensitive cell lines, thus conveying its cytotoxic effect by activating the apoptosis pathway. Our research provides a framework whereby similar hypotheses can be developed easily. PMID:22373303

  2. Service Knowledge Spaces for Semantic Collaboration in Web-based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Devis; de Antonellis, Valeria; Melchiori, Michele

    Semantic Web technologies have been applied to enable collaboration in open distributed systems, where interoperability issues raise due to the absence of a global view of the shared resources. Adoption of service-oriented technologies has improved interoperability at the application level by exporting systems functionalities as Web services. In fact, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) constitutes an appropriate platform-independent approach to implement collaboration activities by means of automatic service discovery and composition. Recently, service discovery has been applied to collaborative environments such as the P2P one, where independent partners need cooperate through resource sharing without a stable network configuration and adopting different semantic models. Model-based techniques relying on Semantic Web need be defined to generate semantic service descriptions, allowing collaborative partners to export their functionalities in a semantic way. Semantic-based service matchmaking techniques are in charge of effectively and efficiently evaluating similarity between service requests and service offers in a huge, dynamic distributed environment. The result is an evolving service knowledge space where collaborative partners that provide similar services are semantically related and constitute synergic service centres in a given domain. Specific modeling requirements related to Semantic Web, service-oriented and P2P technologies must be considered.

  3. Knowledge Management: Usefulness of Knowledge to Organizational Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Roy L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge-usefulness to organizational managers. The determination of the level of usefulness provided organizational managers with a reliable measure of their decision-making. Organizational workers' perceptions of knowledge accessibility, quality of knowledge content, timeliness, and user…

  4. JournalMap: Geo-semantic searching for relevant knowledge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecologists struggling to understand rapidly changing environments and evolving ecosystem threats need quick access to relevant research and documentation of natural systems. The advent of semantic and aggregation searching (e.g., Google Scholar, Web of Science) has made it easier to find useful lite...

  5. The Construction of Knowledge, Contributions to Conceptual Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasersfeld, Ernst von

    This book contains 15 essays written between 1969 through 1983. The essays included are: (1) "Semantic Analysis of Verbs in Terms of Conceptual Situations"; (2) "'Because' and the Concepts of Causation"; (3) "The Development of Language as Purposive Behavior"; (4) "Adaptation and Viability"; (5) "On the Concept of Interpretation"; (6) "Piaget and…

  6. Development of Category-based Induction and Semantic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Anna V.; Godwin, Karrie E.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Unger, Layla

    2015-01-01

    Category-based induction is a hallmark of mature cognition; however, little is known about its origins. This study evaluated the hypothesis that category-based induction is related to semantic development. Computational studies suggest that early on there is little differentiation among concepts, but learning and development lead to increased…

  7. Developing an Intelligent Parking Management Application Based on Multi-agent Systems and Semantic Web Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Andrés; Botía, Juan A.

    Multi-agent systems (MAS) are being adopted in multiple areas to deal with knowledge-based applications. On the other hand, Semantic Web technologies such as OWL and SWRL have shown to be useful in managing knowledge and reasoning about it. This paper proposes an architecture based on these technologies to develop an intelligent parking management application, where agents interact to reach a consensus about the assignment of a parking area to a vehicle. Moreover, this paper tackles the inherent problem related to the rise of conflicts in MAS by means of the integration of an argumentation system called ASBO (which is part of our previous work) into the proposed architecture.

  8. Contribution of Prior Semantic Knowledge to New Episodic Learning in Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Irene P.; Alexander, Michael P.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether prior semantic knowledge would enhance episodic learning in amnesia. Subjects studied prices that are either congruent or incongruent with prior price knowledge for grocery and household items and then performed a forced-choice recognition test for the studied prices. Consistent with a previous report, healthy controls'…

  9. Local Semantic Trace: A Method to Analyze Very Small and Unstructured Texts for Propositional Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirnay-Dummer, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    A local semantic trace is a certain quasi-propositional structure that can still be reconstructed from written content that is incomplete or does not follow a proper grammar. It can also retrace bits of knowledge from text containing only very few words, making the microstructure of these artifacts of knowledge externalization available for…

  10. Investigating the Knowledge Management Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Vasso; Savva, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) efforts aim at leveraging an organization into a knowledge organization thereby presenting knowledge employees with a very powerful tool; organized valuable knowledge accessible when and where needed in flexible, technologically-enhanced modes. The attainment of this aim, i.e., the transformation into a knowledge…

  11. Semantic Repositories for eGovernment Initiatives: Integrating Knowledge and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmonari, Matteo; Viscusi, Gianluigi

    In recent years, public sector investments in eGovernment initiatives have depended on making more reliable existing governmental ICT systems and infrastructures. Furthermore, we assist at a change in the focus of public sector management, from the disaggregation, competition and performance measurements typical of the New Public Management (NPM), to new models of governance, aiming for the reintegration of services under a new perspective in bureaucracy, namely a holistic approach to policy making which exploits the extensive digitalization of administrative operations. In this scenario, major challenges are related to support effective access to information both at the front-end level, by means of highly modular and customizable content provision, and at the back-end level, by means of information integration initiatives. Repositories of information about data and services that exploit semantic models and technologies can support these goals by bridging the gap between the data-level representations and the human-level knowledge involved in accessing information and in searching for services. Moreover, semantic repository technologies can reach a new level of automation for different tasks involved in interoperability programs, both related to data integration techniques and service-oriented computing approaches. In this chapter, we discuss the above topics by referring to techniques and experiences where repositories based on conceptual models and ontologies are used at different levels in eGovernment initiatives: at the back-end level to produce a comprehensive view of the information managed in the public administrations' (PA) information systems, and at the front-end level to support effective service delivery.

  12. Knowledge of the Semantic Constraints on Adjective Order Can Be Selectively Impaired

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, David; Tranel, Daniel; Zdanczyk, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    When multiple adjectives are used to modify a noun, they tend to be sequenced in the following way according to semantic class: value > size > dimension > various physical properties > color. To investigate the neural substrates of these semantic constraints on adjective order, we administered a battery of three tests to 34 brain-damaged patients and 19 healthy participants. Six patients manifested the following performance profile. First, they failed a test that required them to discriminate between semantically determined correct and incorrect sequences of adjectives—e.g., thick blue towel vs. *blue thick towel. Second, they passed a test that assessed their knowledge of two purely syntactic aspects of adjective order—specifically, that adjectives can precede nouns, and that adjectives can precede other adjectives. Finally, they also passed a test that assessed their knowledge of the categorical (i.e., class-level) features of adjective meanings that interact with the semantic constraints underlying adjective order—e.g., that thick is a dimensional adjective and that blue is a color adjective. Taken together, these behavioral findings suggest that the six patients have selectively impaired knowledge of the abstract principles that determine how different semantic classes of adjectives are typically mapped onto different syntactic positions in NPs. To identify the neuroanatomical lesion patterns that tend to correlate with defective processing of adjective order, we combined lesion data from the six patients just described with lesion data from six other patients who we reported in a previous study as having similar impairments [Kemmerer, D. (2000). Selective impairment of knowledge underlying adjective order: Evidence for the autonomy of grammatical semantics. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 13, 57–82.] We found that the most common areas of damage included the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus and the left inferior parietal lobule. Overall, these

  13. ADEpedia: A Scalable and Standardized Knowledge Base of Adverse Drug Events Using Semantic Web Technology

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guoqian; Solbrig, Harold R.; Chute, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    A source of semantically coded Adverse Drug Event (ADE) data can be useful for identifying common phenotypes related to ADEs. We proposed a comprehensive framework for building a standardized ADE knowledge base (called ADEpedia) through combining ontology-based approach with semantic web technology. The framework comprises four primary modules: 1) an XML2RDF transformation module; 2) a data normalization module based on NCBO Open Biomedical Annotator; 3) a RDF store based persistence module; and 4) a front-end module based on a Semantic Wiki for the review and curation. A prototype is successfully implemented to demonstrate the capability of the system to integrate multiple drug data and ontology resources and open web services for the ADE data standardization. A preliminary evaluation is performed to demonstrate the usefulness of the system, including the performance of the NCBO annotator. In conclusion, the semantic web technology provides a highly scalable framework for ADE data source integration and standard query service. PMID:22195116

  14. ADEpedia: a scalable and standardized knowledge base of Adverse Drug Events using semantic web technology.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoqian; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

    2011-01-01

    A source of semantically coded Adverse Drug Event (ADE) data can be useful for identifying common phenotypes related to ADEs. We proposed a comprehensive framework for building a standardized ADE knowledge base (called ADEpedia) through combining ontology-based approach with semantic web technology. The framework comprises four primary modules: 1) an XML2RDF transformation module; 2) a data normalization module based on NCBO Open Biomedical Annotator; 3) a RDF store based persistence module; and 4) a front-end module based on a Semantic Wiki for the review and curation. A prototype is successfully implemented to demonstrate the capability of the system to integrate multiple drug data and ontology resources and open web services for the ADE data standardization. A preliminary evaluation is performed to demonstrate the usefulness of the system, including the performance of the NCBO annotator. In conclusion, the semantic web technology provides a highly scalable framework for ADE data source integration and standard query service. PMID:22195116

  15. The role of the temporal lobe semantic system in number knowledge: evidence from late-stage semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Bateman, David; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2005-01-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated that many aspects of number knowledge remain unimpaired in semantic dementia, despite severe comprehension problems in other domains. It is argued that this advantage for numbers arises because the disease spares the parietal lobe magnitude system thought to be critical for number processing. Models of numerical cognition that favour a separation between verbal and magnitude representations of number might, however, predict a restricted impairment of the verbal number code in this condition. We obtained support for this hypothesis in a patient with late-stage semantic dementia. She was impaired at a variety of tasks tapping the verbal number code; for example, reading and writing Arabic numerals, naming and word-picture matching with dot pictures, reading aloud number words, digit span and magnitude comparison/serial ordering tasks with number words. In contrast, she demonstrated good understanding of the magnitude and serial order of numbers when tested with Arabic numerals and non-symbolic representations. These findings suggest that although the magnitude meaning of numbers is isolated from the temporal lobe semantic system, the anterior infero-temporal lobe may play a critical role in binding English number words to their non-symbolic magnitude meaning. PMID:15716160

  16. Knowledge representation in the semantic web for Earth and environmental terminology (SWEET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, Robert G.; Pan, Michael J.

    2005-11-01

    The semantic web for Earth and environmental terminology (SWEET) is an investigation in improving discovery and use of Earth science data, through software understanding of the semantics of web resources. Semantic understanding is enabled through the use of ontologies, or formal representations of technical concepts and their interrelations in a form that supports domain knowledge. The ultimate vision of the semantic web consists of web pages with XML namespace tags around terms, enabling search tools to ascertain their meanings by following the link to the defining ontologies. Such a scenario both reduces the number of false hits (where a search returns alternative, unintended meanings of a term) and increases the number of successful hits (where searcher and information provider have a syntax mismatch of the same concept). For SWEET, we developed a collection of ontologies using the web ontology language (OWL) that include both orthogonal concepts (space, time, Earth realms, physical quantities, etc.) and integrative science knowledge concepts (phenomena, events, etc.). This paper describes the development of a knowledge space for Earth system science and related concepts (such as data properties). Some of the ontology contents are "virtual" by means of an OWL wrapper associated with terms in large external databases (including gazetteers and Earthquake databases). We developed a search tool that finds alternative search terms (based on the semantics) and redirects the expanded set of terms to a search engine.

  17. The KMAT: Benchmarking Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jager, Martha

    Provides an overview of knowledge management and benchmarking, including the benefits and methods of benchmarking (e.g., competitive, cooperative, collaborative, and internal benchmarking). Arthur Andersen's KMAT (Knowledge Management Assessment Tool) is described. The KMAT is a collaborative benchmarking tool, designed to help organizations make…

  18. A multi-agent-based, semantic-driven system for decision support in epidemic management.

    PubMed

    Li, Sen; Mackaness, William A

    2015-09-01

    Issues in epidemiology are truly multidisciplinary, requiring knowledge from diverse disciplines such as sociology, medicine, biology, geography and information science. Such inherent complexity has led to a challenge in developing decision support systems for epidemic information management, especially when data are from heterogeneous origins. In order to achieve a solution, an integrative framework is proposed. The Semantic Web is introduced in the context of enriching meaningful and machine-readable descriptions of epidemiological data. Software agents are utilised to achieve automation in semantic discovery, composition of data and process services. The objective is to enhance the performance in information retrieval in a dynamic decision-making environment while concealing technical complexity from inexperienced users. We illustrate how a prototype system can be developed by considering an epidemiology management scenario in which spatio-temporal analysis is undertaken of a specified epidemic. PMID:24448277

  19. The accessibility of semantic knowledge for odours that can and cannot be named.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J; Mahmut, Mehmet K

    2013-01-01

    When faces, objects, or voices are encountered, naming lapses can occur, but this does not preclude knowing other specific semantic information about the nameless thing. In the experiments reported here, we examined whether this is also the case for odours, using a procedure based upon the Pyramid and Palm Trees test. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with a target odour, then two pictures, and had to pick the picture semantically associated with the target. In Experiment 2, participants were presented with a target odour, then two test odours, and again had to pick the semantically associated test stimulus. In each experiment, other tests followed, including a parallel verbal-based test, an odour-naming test, and various ratings. Neither experiment found any evidence of specific semantic knowledge about a target odour, unless the target odour name (Experiment 1) or all of the odour names (Experiment 2) were known. Additional tests suggested that these effects were independent of odour familiarity and similarity. We suggest that the absence of specific semantic information in the absence of a name may reflect poor connectivity between olfactory perceptual and semantic memory systems. PMID:23259738

  20. Availability of Semantic Knowledge in Familiar-Only Experiences for Names

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Ben; Köhler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Situations in which the name of a person is perceived as familiar but does not trigger recall of pertinent semantic knowledge are common in daily life. In current connectionist models of person recognition, such "familiar-only" experiences reflect supra-threshold activation at person-identity nodes but subthreshold activation at nodes…

  1. The Role of Accessibility of Semantic Word Knowledge in Monolingual and Bilingual Fifth-Grade Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremer, M.; Schoonen, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influences of word decoding, availability, and accessibility of semantic word knowledge on reading comprehension were investigated for monolingual "("n = 65) and bilingual children ("n" = 70). Despite equal decoding abilities, monolingual children outperformed bilingual children with regard to reading comprehension and…

  2. Impaired Semantic Knowledge Underlies the Reduced Verbal Short-Term Storage Capacity in Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve; De Baerdemaeker, Julie; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during encoding and maintenance, the progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge in early stages of AD may also be an important determinant of poor…

  3. Knowledge management: an innovative risk management strategy.

    PubMed

    Zipperer, Lorri; Amori, Geri

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management effectively lends itself to the enterprise risk process. The authors introduce the concept of knowledge management as a strategy to drive innovation and support risk management. They align this work with organizational efforts to improve patient safety and quality through the effective sharing of experience and lessons learned. The article closes with suggestions on how to develop a knowledge management initiative at an organization, who should be on the team, and how to sustain this effort and build the culture it requires to drive success. PMID:21506198

  4. Increase Productivity Through Knowledge Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrikova, N. A.; Dolgih, I. N.; Dyrina, E. N.

    2016-04-01

    Increase in competition level requires companies to improve the efficiency of work force use characterized by labor productivity. Professional knowledge of staff and its experience play the key role in it. The results of Extrusion Line operator’s working time analysis are performed in this article. The analysis revealed that the reasons of working time ineffective use connected with inadequate information exchange and knowledge management in the company. Authors suggest the way to solve this problem: the main sources of knowledge in engineering enterprise have been defined, the conditions of success and the stages of knowledge management control have been stated.

  5. Knowledge Management as Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutay, Cat

    2007-01-01

    Indigenous people have been for a long time deprived of financial benefit from their knowledge. Campaigns around the stolen wages and the "Pay the Rent" campaign highlight this. As does the endemic poverty and economic disenfranchisement experienced by many Indigenous people and communities in Australia. Recent enterprises developed by Indigenous…

  6. Semantically Documenting Virtual Reconstruction: Building a Path to Knowledge Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruseker, G.; Guillem, A.; Carboni, N.

    2015-08-01

    The outcomes of virtual reconstructions of archaeological monuments are not just images for aesthetic consumption but rather present a scholarly argument and decision making process. They are based on complex chains of reasoning grounded in primary and secondary evidence that enable a historically probable whole to be reconstructed from the partial remains left in the archaeological record. This paper will explore the possibilities for documenting and storing in an information system the phases of the reasoning, decision and procedures that a modeler, with the support of an archaeologist, uses during the virtual reconstruction process and how they can be linked to the reconstruction output. The goal is to present a documentation model such that the foundations of evidence for the reconstructed elements, and the reasoning around them, are made not only explicit and interrogable but also can be updated, extended and reused by other researchers in future work. Using as a case-study the reconstruction of a kitchen in a Roman domus in Grand, we will examine the necessary documentation requirements, and the capacity to express it using semantic technologies. For our study we adopt the CIDOC-CRM ontological model, and its extensions CRMinf, CRMBa and CRMgeo as a starting point for modelling the arguments and relations.

  7. Modular Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in the Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafini, Luciano; Homola, Martin

    Construction of modular ontologies by combining different modules is becoming a necessity in ontology engineering in order to cope with the increasing complexity of the ontologies and the domains they represent. The modular ontology approach takes inspiration from software engineering, where modularization is a widely acknowledged feature. Distributed reasoning is the other side of the coin of modular ontologies: given an ontology comprising of a set of modules, it is desired to perform reasoning by combination of multiple reasoning processes performed locally on each of the modules. In the last ten years, a number of approaches for combining logics has been developed in order to formalize modular ontologies. In this chapter, we survey and compare the main formalisms for modular ontologies and distributed reasoning in the Semantic Web. We select four formalisms build on formal logical grounds of Description Logics: Distributed Description Logics, ℰ-connections, Package-based Description Logics and Integrated Distributed Description Logics. We concentrate on expressivity and distinctive modeling features of each framework. We also discuss reasoning capabilities of each framework.

  8. Knowledge-oriented semantics modelling towards uncertainty reasoning.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Abdul-Wahid; Xu, Yang; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Distributed reasoning in M2M leverages the expressive power of ontology to enable semantic interoperability between heterogeneous systems of connected devices. Ontology, however, lacks the built-in, principled support to effectively handle the uncertainty inherent in M2M application domains. Thus, efficient reasoning can be achieved by integrating the inferential reasoning power of probabilistic representations with the first-order expressiveness of ontology. But there remains a gap with current probabilistic ontologies since state-of-the-art provides no compatible representation for simultaneous handling of discrete and continuous quantities in ontology. This requirement is paramount, especially in smart homes, where continuous quantities cannot be avoided, and simply mapping continuous information to discrete states through quantization can cause a great deal of information loss. In this paper, we propose a hybrid probabilistic ontology that can simultaneously handle distributions over discrete and continuous quantities in ontology. We call this new framework HyProb-Ontology, and it specifies distributions over properties of classes, which serve as templates for instances of classes to inherit as well as overwrite some aspects. Since there cannot be restriction on the dependency topology of models that HyProb-Ontology can induce across different domains, we can achieve a unified Ground Hybrid Probabilistic Model by conditional Gaussian fuzzification of the distributions of the continuous variables in ontology. From the results of our experiments, this unified model can achieve exact inference with better performance over classical Bayesian networks. PMID:27350935

  9. Social Web and Knowledge Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolog, Peter; Krötzsch, Markus; Schaffert, Sebastian; Vrandečić, Denny

    Knowledge Management is the study and practice of representing, communicating, organizing, and applying knowledge in organizations. Moreover, being used by organizations, it is inherently social. The Web, as a medium, enables new forms of communications and interactions and requires new ways to represent knowledge assets. It is therefore obvious that the Web will influence and change Knowledge Management, but it is very unclear what the impact of these changes will be. This chapter raises questions and discusses visions in the area that connects the Social Web and Knowledge Management - an area of research that is only just emerging. The World Wide Web conference 2008 in Beijing hosted a workshop on that question, bringing together researchers and practitioners to gain first insights toward answering questions of that area.

  10. Towards virtual knowledge broker services for semantic integration of life science literature and data sources.

    PubMed

    Harrow, Ian; Filsell, Wendy; Woollard, Peter; Dix, Ian; Braxenthaler, Michael; Gedye, Richard; Hoole, David; Kidd, Richard; Wilson, Jabe; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2013-05-01

    Research in the life sciences requires ready access to primary data, derived information and relevant knowledge from a multitude of sources. Integration and interoperability of such resources are crucial for sharing content across research domains relevant to the life sciences. In this article we present a perspective review of data integration with emphasis on a semantics driven approach to data integration that pushes content into a shared infrastructure, reduces data redundancy and clarifies any inconsistencies. This enables much improved access to life science data from numerous primary sources. The Semantic Enrichment of the Scientific Literature (SESL) pilot project demonstrates feasibility for using already available open semantic web standards and technologies to integrate public and proprietary data resources, which span structured and unstructured content. This has been accomplished through a precompetitive consortium, which provides a cost effective approach for numerous stakeholders to work together to solve common problems. PMID:23247259

  11. Knowledge management in health care.

    PubMed

    Guptill, Janet

    2005-01-01

    It is a long-term, sustainable commitment to changing the culture of health care to become more collaborative, more transparent, and more proactive. Knowledge management, implemented well, will transform the health care delivery system over the next few decades, into a more cost-effective, error-averse, and accountable public resource. For the sake of simplicity, this article will limit the application of knowledge management principles to the context of hospitals, hospital systems or associations, or other groupings of hospitals based on a common interest or focus. The field of knowledge management has tremendous application and value to the health care industry, particularly for hospitals and hospital systems. For many who have invested in a knowledge management infrastructure, it has become the measure of value of belonging to a hospital system or membership organization. PMID:16080410

  12. Knowledge Management in Academic Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adhikari, Dev Raj

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a concept of knowledge among the campus chiefs and other university leaders to make them aware of how important knowledge management (KM) is to achieve quality education criteria. Design/methodology/approach: The approach of the article is basically conceptual and descriptive. The article was…

  13. Uncovering Knowledge of Core Syntactic and Semantic Principles in Individuals With Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Musolino, Julien; Chunyo, Gitana; Landau, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We investigate knowledge of core syntactic and semantic principles in individuals with Williams Syndrome (WS). Our study focuses on the logico-syntactic properties of negation and disjunction (or) and tests knowledge of (a) core syntactic relations (scope and c-command), (b) core semantic relations (entailment relations and DeMorgan’s laws of propositional logic), and (c) the relationship between (a) and (b). We examine the performance of individuals with WS, children matched for mental age (MA), and typical adult native speakers of English. Performance on all conditions suggests that knowledge of (a-c) is present and engaged in all three groups. Results also indicate slightly depressed performance on (c) for the WS group, compared to MA, consistent with limitation in processing resources. Implications of these results for competing accounts of language development in WS, as well as for the relevance of WS to the study of cognitive architecture and development are discussed. PMID:21866219

  14. Multiple Influences of Semantic Memory on Sentence Processing: Distinct Effects of Semantic Relatedness on Violations of Real-World Event/State Knowledge and Animacy Selection Restrictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paczynski, Martin; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether semantic relatedness between an incoming word and its preceding context can override expectations based on two types of stored knowledge: real-world knowledge about the specific events and states conveyed by a verb, and the verb's broader selection restrictions on the animacy of its argument. We recorded event-related…

  15. Approach for ontological modeling of database schema for the generation of semantic knowledge on the web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozeva, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Currently there is large quantity of content on web pages that is generated from relational databases. Conceptual domain models provide for the integration of heterogeneous content on semantic level. The use of ontology as conceptual model of a relational data sources makes them available to web agents and services and provides for the employment of ontological techniques for data access, navigation and reasoning. The achievement of interoperability between relational databases and ontologies enriches the web with semantic knowledge. The establishment of semantic database conceptual model based on ontology facilitates the development of data integration systems that use ontology as unified global view. Approach for generation of ontologically based conceptual model is presented. The ontology representing the database schema is obtained by matching schema elements to ontology concepts. Algorithm of the matching process is designed. Infrastructure for the inclusion of mediation between database and ontology for bridging legacy data with formal semantic meaning is presented. Implementation of the knowledge modeling approach on sample database is performed.

  16. Managing Knowledge through "Hoshin Kanri"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant C.; Roberts P.

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental challenge within business organizations (whether manufacturing or service, large or small) is posed by the difficulties associated with managing knowledge to integrate the long-term vision and strategic goals with daily working processes and with people. The traditional Western approach of "Management by Objectives" (MbO) is…

  17. Turning Search into Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, David

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of knowledge management for electronic data focuses on creating a high quality similarity ranking algorithm. Topics include similarity ranking and unstructured data management; searching, categorization, and summarization of documents; query evaluation; considering sentences in addition to keywords; and vector models. (LRW)

  18. The Politics of Management Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Stewart R., Ed.; Palmer, Gill, Ed.

    This book recognizes the political nature of management knowledge, as a discourse produced from, and reproducing, power processes within and between organizations. Critical examinations of certain current management theories--lean production, excellence, entrepreneurship--are examples of relations of power that intermingle with relations of…

  19. Modeling and formal representation of geospatial knowledge for the Geospatial Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong; Gong, Jianya

    2008-12-01

    GML can only achieve geospatial interoperation at syntactic level. However, it is necessary to resolve difference of spatial cognition in the first place in most occasions, so ontology was introduced to describe geospatial information and services. But it is obviously difficult and improper to let users to find, match and compose services, especially in some occasions there are complicated business logics. Currently, with the gradual introduction of Semantic Web technology (e.g., OWL, SWRL), the focus of the interoperation of geospatial information has shifted from syntactic level to Semantic and even automatic, intelligent level. In this way, Geospatial Semantic Web (GSM) can be put forward as an augmentation to the Semantic Web that additionally includes geospatial abstractions as well as related reasoning, representation and query mechanisms. To advance the implementation of GSM, we first attempt to construct the mechanism of modeling and formal representation of geospatial knowledge, which are also two mostly foundational phases in knowledge engineering (KE). Our attitude in this paper is quite pragmatical: we argue that geospatial context is a formal model of the discriminate environment characters of geospatial knowledge, and the derivation, understanding and using of geospatial knowledge are located in geospatial context. Therefore, first, we put forward a primitive hierarchy of geospatial knowledge referencing first order logic, formal ontologies, rules and GML. Second, a metamodel of geospatial context is proposed and we use the modeling methods and representation languages of formal ontologies to process geospatial context. Thirdly, we extend Web Process Service (WPS) to be compatible with local DLL for geoprocessing and possess inference capability based on OWL.

  20. The Roles of Knowledge Professionals for Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seonghee

    This paper starts by exploring the definition of knowledge and knowledge management; examples of acquisition, creation, packaging, application, and reuse of knowledge are provided. It then considers the partnership for knowledge management and especially how librarians as knowledge professionals, users, and technology experts can contribute to…

  1. Knowledge Management Technology: Making Good Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Linda D. R.; Coukos, Eleni D.; Pisapia, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the reliability of technology products that support knowledge management, particularly in higher education. Presents a conceptual framework for knowledge management technology, evaluates available software products, concludes that most products perform poorly, and offers recommendations for knowledge management strategies. (LRW)

  2. Syntactic and Semantic Validation without a Metadata Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, Janine; Gokey, Christopher D.; Kendig, David; Olsen, Lola; Wharton, Stephen W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The ability to maintain quality information is essential to securing the confidence in any system for which the information serves as a data source. NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD), an online Earth science data locator, holds over 9000 data set descriptions and is in a constant state of flux as metadata are created and updated on a daily basis. In such a system, the importance of maintaining the consistency and integrity of these-metadata is crucial. The GCMD has developed a metadata management system utilizing XML, controlled vocabulary, and Java technologies to ensure the metadata not only adhere to valid syntax, but also exhibit proper semantics.

  3. Knowledge Extraction and Semantic Annotation of Text from the Encyclopedia of Life

    PubMed Central

    Thessen, Anne E.; Parr, Cynthia Sims

    2014-01-01

    Numerous digitization and ontological initiatives have focused on translating biological knowledge from narrative text to machine-readable formats. In this paper, we describe two workflows for knowledge extraction and semantic annotation of text data objects featured in an online biodiversity aggregator, the Encyclopedia of Life. One workflow tags text with DBpedia URIs based on keywords. Another workflow finds taxon names in text using GNRD for the purpose of building a species association network. Both workflows work well: the annotation workflow has an F1 Score of 0.941 and the association algorithm has an F1 Score of 0.885. Existing text annotators such as Terminizer and DBpedia Spotlight performed well, but require some optimization to be useful in the ecology and evolution domain. Important future work includes scaling up and improving accuracy through the use of distributional semantics. PMID:24594988

  4. The neural network associated with lexical-semantic knowledge about social groups.

    PubMed

    Piretti, Luca; Carnaghi, Andrea; Campanella, Fabio; Ambron, Elisabetta; Skrap, Miran; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2015-09-01

    A person can be appraised as an individual or as a member of a social group. In the present study we tested whether the knowledge about social groups is represented independently of the living and non-living things. Patients with frontal and temporal lobe tumors involving either the left or the right hemisphere performed three tasks--picture naming, word-to-picture matching and picture sorting--tapping the lexical semantic knowledge of living things, non-living things and social groups. Both behavioral and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analyses suggested that social groups might be represented differently from other categories. VLSM analysis carried out on naming errors revealed that left-lateralized lesions in the inferior frontal gyrus, amygdala, insula and basal ganglia were associated with the lexical-semantic processing of social groups. These findings indicate that the social group representation may rely on areas associated with affective processing. PMID:26211435

  5. Knowledge extraction and semantic annotation of text from the encyclopedia of life.

    PubMed

    Thessen, Anne E; Parr, Cynthia Sims

    2014-01-01

    Numerous digitization and ontological initiatives have focused on translating biological knowledge from narrative text to machine-readable formats. In this paper, we describe two workflows for knowledge extraction and semantic annotation of text data objects featured in an online biodiversity aggregator, the Encyclopedia of Life. One workflow tags text with DBpedia URIs based on keywords. Another workflow finds taxon names in text using GNRD for the purpose of building a species association network. Both workflows work well: the annotation workflow has an F1 Score of 0.941 and the association algorithm has an F1 Score of 0.885. Existing text annotators such as Terminizer and DBpedia Spotlight performed well, but require some optimization to be useful in the ecology and evolution domain. Important future work includes scaling up and improving accuracy through the use of distributional semantics. PMID:24594988

  6. Integration and Querying of Genomic and Proteomic Semantic Annotations for Biomedical Knowledge Extraction.

    PubMed

    Masseroli, Marco; Canakoglu, Arif; Ceri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Understanding complex biological phenomena involves answering complex biomedical questions on multiple biomolecular information simultaneously, which are expressed through multiple genomic and proteomic semantic annotations scattered in many distributed and heterogeneous data sources; such heterogeneity and dispersion hamper the biologists' ability of asking global queries and performing global evaluations. To overcome this problem, we developed a software architecture to create and maintain a Genomic and Proteomic Knowledge Base (GPKB), which integrates several of the most relevant sources of such dispersed information (including Entrez Gene, UniProt, IntAct, Expasy Enzyme, GO, GOA, BioCyc, KEGG, Reactome, and OMIM). Our solution is general, as it uses a flexible, modular, and multilevel global data schema based on abstraction and generalization of integrated data features, and a set of automatic procedures for easing data integration and maintenance, also when the integrated data sources evolve in data content, structure, and number. These procedures also assure consistency, quality, and provenance tracking of all integrated data, and perform the semantic closure of the hierarchical relationships of the integrated biomedical ontologies. At http://www.bioinformatics.deib.polimi.it/GPKB/, a Web interface allows graphical easy composition of queries, although complex, on the knowledge base, supporting also semantic query expansion and comprehensive explorative search of the integrated data to better sustain biomedical knowledge extraction. PMID:27045824

  7. Effects of Emotional and Sensorimotor Knowledge in Semantic Processing of Concrete and Abstract Nouns

    PubMed Central

    Newcombe, P. Ian; Campbell, Cale; Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.

    2012-01-01

    There is much empirical evidence that words’ relative imageability and body-object interaction (BOI) facilitate lexical processing for concrete nouns (e.g., Bennett et al., 2011). These findings are consistent with a grounded cognition framework (e.g., Barsalou, 2008), in which sensorimotor knowledge is integral to lexical processing. In the present study, we examined whether lexical processing is also sensitive to the dimension of emotional experience (i.e., the ease with which words evoke emotional experience), which is also derived from a grounded cognition framework. We examined the effects of emotional experience, imageability, and BOI in semantic categorization for concrete and abstract nouns. Our results indicate that for concrete nouns, emotional experience was associated with less accurate categorization, whereas imageability and BOI were associated with faster and more accurate categorization. For abstract nouns, emotional experience was associated with faster and more accurate categorization, whereas BOI was associated with slower and less accurate categorization. This pattern of results was observed even with many other lexical and semantic dimensions statistically controlled. These findings are consistent with Vigliocco et al.’s (2009) theory of semantic representation, which states that emotional knowledge underlies meanings for abstract concepts, whereas sensorimotor knowledge underlies meanings for concrete concepts. PMID:23060778

  8. Knowledge Management and Reference Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandhi, Smiti

    2004-01-01

    Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for reference work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for reference services, and reviews various KM initiatives for reference services.

  9. Knowledge Management in Small Firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panyasorn, Jessada; Panteli, Niki; Powell, Philip

    This paper explores knowledge management in small and medium-sized firms (SMEs). It investigates the use of Lotus Notes in SMEs of a developing country as a counterpoint to the large firm, developed country emphasis of existing research. It develops taxonomy of Lotus Notes use within the context of different knowledge management processes; notably communicating, co-ordinating and collaborating. The study employs an interpretive approach using three case studies. The key findings suggest that publishing, searching, sharing and retrieving are the user modes for enabling sharing and storing information. Evidence of knowledge creation is found at the departmental level but not at the organizational level. Further, small firms may explore more groupware potential than large organizations and this reflects their different context. Finally, implications for further research are identified.

  10. Knowledge Management Analysis: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecha, Ezi I.; Desai, Mayur S.; Richards, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    It is imperative for businesses to manage knowledge and stay competitive in the marketplace. Knowledge management is critical and is a key to prevent organizations from duplicating their efforts with a subsequent improvement in their efficiency. This study focuses on overview of knowledge management, analyzes the current knowledge management in…

  11. Total Quality Management in a Knowledge Management Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav

    2000-01-01

    Presents theoretical considerations on both similarities and differences between information management and knowledge management and presents a conceptual model of basic knowledge management processes. Discusses total quality management and quality control in the context of information management. (Author/LRW)

  12. Pragmatically-Structured, Lexical-Semantic Knowledge Bases for Unified Medical Language Systems

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Unified medical language systems must accommodate expressions ranging from fixed-form standardised vocabularies to the free-text, natural language of medical charts. Such ability will depend on the identification, representation, and organisation of the concepts that form the useful core of the biomedical conceptual domain. The MedSORT-II and UMLS Projects at Carnegie Mellon University have established a feasibile design for the development of lexicons and knowledge bases to support the automated processing of varieties of expressions (in the subdomain of clinical findings) into uniform representations. The essential principle involves incorporating lexical-semantic typing restrictions in a pragmatically-structured knowledge base. The approach does not depend on exhaustive knowledge representation, rather takes advantage of selective, limited relations among concepts. In particular, the projects have demonstrated that practical, comprehensive, and accurate processing of natural-language expressions is attainable with partial knowledge bases, which can be rapidly prototyped.

  13. Managing Corporate Risk through Better Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neef, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explain how progressive companies are using a combination of knowledge and risk management (KRM) systems and techniques in order to help them to prevent, or respond most effectively to, ethical or reputation-damaging incidents. Design/methodology/approach: The paper explains KRM, develops a corporate integrity framework, and then…

  14. Structural semantic interconnections: a knowledge-based approach to word sense disambiguation.

    PubMed

    Navigli, Roberto; Velardi, Paola

    2005-07-01

    Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) is traditionally considered an Al-hard problem. A break-through in this field would have a significant impact on many relevant Web-based applications, such as Web information retrieval, improved access to Web services, information extraction, etc. Early approaches to WSD, based on knowledge representation techniques, have been replaced in the past few years by more robust machine learning and statistical techniques. The results of recent comparative evaluations of WSD systems, however, show that these methods have inherent limitations. On the other hand, the increasing availability of large-scale, rich lexical knowledge resources seems to provide new challenges to knowledge-based approaches. In this paper, we present a method, called structural semantic interconnections (SSI), which creates structural specifications of the possible senses for each word in a context and selects the best hypothesis according to a grammar G, describing relations between sense specifications. Sense specifications are created from several available lexical resources that we integrated in part manually, in part with the help of automatic procedures. The SSI algorithm has been applied to different semantic disambiguation problems, like automatic ontology population, disambiguation of sentences in generic texts, disambiguation of words in glossary definitions. Evaluation experiments have been performed on specific knowledge domains (e.g., tourism, computer networks, enterprise interoperability), as well as on standard disambiguation test sets. PMID:16013755

  15. The relationship between naming and semantic knowledge for different categories in dementia of Alzheimer's type.

    PubMed

    Lambon Ralph, M A; Patterson, K; Hodges, J R

    1997-09-01

    We studied the relationship between naming and semantic memory in a group of 10 patients with dementia of Alzheimer's type. In an extension to a previous cross-sectional study (Hodges, J. R. et al., Brain and Language, 1996, 54, 302-325), this relationship was investigated at two longitudinal points within each patient's cognitive decline. Two types of naming performance were compared: items that each patient named correctly at the first stage but failed to name at the second stage, as contrasted with items named correctly at both stages (thereby providing a control for cognitive decline in general). Semantic knowledge of the concepts represented by the pictures in the naming test was investigated at each stage using definitions to the spoken object name, scored particularly for the number of sensory and associative/functional features provided by the patient. At stage 2, an analysis of the definitions for named-->unnamed items as contrasted with named-->named objects revealed a significant loss of both sensory and associative information. A comparison between natural kinds (animals and birds) and artefacts (household objects, vehicles, etc.), however, demonstrated a striking interaction between category and type of information contained in the definitions. Specifically, stage 2 definitions of artefacts in the named-->unnamed set showed a disproportionate loss of associative/functional information, while definitions of animal names that patients failed to produce in response to the pictures were notably lacking in sensory features. This pattern supports the notion that successful naming relies on a subset of critical semantic features which vary somewhat across different categories of semantic knowledge. We suggest that these findings are best encompassed by a conception of semantic organization, Weighted Overlappingly Organized Features (WOOF), in which (i) knowledge about all objects is represented by a central, distributed network of features activated by both

  16. A Semantic Approach with Decision Support for Safety Service in Smart Home Management.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoci; Yi, Jianjun; Zhu, Xiaomin; Chen, Shaoli

    2016-01-01

    Research on smart homes (SHs) has increased significantly in recent years because of the convenience provided by having an assisted living environment. The functions of SHs as mentioned in previous studies, particularly safety services, are seldom discussed or mentioned. Thus, this study proposes a semantic approach with decision support for safety service in SH management. The focus of this contribution is to explore a context awareness and reasoning approach for risk recognition in SH that enables the proper decision support for flexible safety service provision. The framework of SH based on a wireless sensor network is described from the perspective of neighbourhood management. This approach is based on the integration of semantic knowledge in which a reasoner can make decisions about risk recognition and safety service. We present a management ontology for a SH and relevant monitoring contextual information, which considers its suitability in a pervasive computing environment and is service-oriented. We also propose a rule-based reasoning method to provide decision support through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. A system prototype is developed to evaluate the feasibility, time response and extendibility of the approach. The evaluation of our approach shows that it is more effective in daily risk event recognition. The decisions for service provision are shown to be accurate. PMID:27527170

  17. Knowledge Management in Higher Education: A Knowledge Repository Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedman, John; Wang, Feng-Kwei

    2005-01-01

    One might expect higher education, where the discovery and dissemination of new and useful knowledge is vital, to be among the first to implement knowledge management practices. Surprisingly, higher education has been slow to implement knowledge management practices (Townley, 2003). This article describes an ongoing research and development effort…

  18. Frogs Jump Forward: Semantic Knowledge Influences the Perception of Element Motion in the Ternus Display.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Patty; Taylor, J Eric T; Pratt, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The Ternus effect is a robust illusion of motion that produces element motion at short interstimulus intervals (ISIs; < 50 ms) and group motion at longer ISIs (> 50 ms). Previous research has shown that the nature of the stimuli (e.g., similarity, grouping), not just ISI, can influence the likelihood of perceiving element or group motion. We examined if semantic knowledge can also influence what type of illusory motion is perceived. In Experiment I, we used a modified Ternus display with pictures of frogs in a jump-ready pose facing forwards or backwards to the direction of illusory motion. Participants perceived more element motion with the forward-facing frogs and more group motion with the backward-facing frogs. Experiment 2 tested whether this effect would still occur with line drawings of frogs, or if a more life-like image was necessary. Experiment 3 tested whether this effect was due to visual asymmetries inherent in the jumping pose. Experiment 4 tested whether frogs in a "non-jumping," sedentary pose would replicate the original effect. These experiments elucidate the role of semantic knowledge in the Ternus effect. Prior knowledge of the movement of certain animate objects, in this case, frogs can also bias the perception of element or group motion. PMID:26541055

  19. Mental Representations of HPV in Appalachia: Gender, Semantic Network Analysis, and Knowledge Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel A; Parrott, Roxanne

    2013-01-01

    Media coverage has emphasized human papillomavirus (HPV) as a vaccine-preventable, sexually transmitted virus causing cervical cancer. Appalachian undergraduate students (N = 309, 50% female) were surveyed on their knowledge of HPV; analyses of mental representations were similar to content analyses of media coverage of HPV, suggesting media cultivation. Semantic network analysis revealed linkages between vaccine, disease causation and prevention, women's centrality in the representations, and structural differences that varied between vaccinated women, unvaccinated women, and men. The findings provided insights into gaps in the public's understanding of HPV, potential stigmatization of those testing HPV+, and future challenges in vaccinating men. PMID:22169895

  20. Charting the acquisition of semantic knowledge in a case of developmental amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, John M.; Brandt, Karen R.; Baddeley, Alan D.; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2009-01-01

    We report the acquisition and recall of novel facts by Jon, a young adult with early onset developmental amnesia whose episodic memory is gravely impaired due to selective bilateral hippocampal damage. Jon succeeded in learning some novel facts but compared with a control group his intertrial retention was impaired during acquisition and, except for the most frequently repeated facts, he was also less accurate in correctly sourcing these facts to the experiment. The results further support the hypothesis that despite a severely compromised episodic memory and hippocampal system, there is nevertheless the capacity to accrue semantic knowledge available to recall. PMID:18589461

  1. Charting the acquisition of semantic knowledge in a case of developmental amnesia.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, John M; Brandt, Karen R; Baddeley, Alan D; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2008-09-01

    We report the acquisition and recall of novel facts by Jon, a young adult with early onset developmental amnesia whose episodic memory is gravely impaired due to selective bilateral hippocampal damage. Jon succeeded in learning some novel facts but compared with a control group his intertrial retention was impaired during acquisition and, except for the most frequently repeated facts, he was also less accurate in correctly sourcing these facts to the experiment. The results further support the hypothesis that despite a severely compromised episodic memory and hippocampal system, there is nevertheless the capacity to accrue semantic knowledge available to recall. PMID:18589461

  2. The Development of Object Function and Manipulation Knowledge: Evidence from a Semantic Priming Study.

    PubMed

    Collette, Cynthia; Bonnotte, Isabelle; Jacquemont, Charlotte; Kalénine, Solène; Bartolo, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Object semantics include object function and manipulation knowledge. Function knowledge refers to the goal attainable by using an object (e.g., the function of a key is to open or close a door) while manipulation knowledge refers to gestures one has to execute to use an object appropriately (e.g., a key is held between the thumb and the index, inserted into the door lock and then turned). To date, several studies have assessed function and manipulation knowledge in brain lesion patients as well as in healthy adult populations. In patients with left brain damage, a double dissociation between these two types of knowledge has been reported; on the other hand, behavioral studies in healthy adults show that function knowledge is processed faster than manipulation knowledge. Empirical evidence has shown that object interaction in children differs from that in adults, suggesting that the access to function and manipulation knowledge in children might also differ. To investigate the development of object function and manipulation knowledge, 51 typically developing 8-9-10 year-old children and 17 healthy young adults were tested on a naming task associated with a semantic priming paradigm (190-ms SOA; prime duration: 90 ms) in which a series of line drawings of manipulable objects were used. Target objects could be preceded by three priming contexts: related (e.g., knife-scissors for function; key-screwdriver for manipulation), unrelated but visually similar (e.g., glasses-scissors; baseball bat-screwdriver), and purely unrelated (e.g., die-scissors; tissue-screwdriver). Results showed a different developmental pattern of function and manipulation priming effects. Function priming effects were not present in children and emerged only in adults, with faster naming responses for targets preceded by objects sharing the same function. In contrast, manipulation priming effects were already present in 8-year-olds with faster naming responses for targets preceded by objects

  3. The Development of Object Function and Manipulation Knowledge: Evidence from a Semantic Priming Study

    PubMed Central

    Collette, Cynthia; Bonnotte, Isabelle; Jacquemont, Charlotte; Kalénine, Solène; Bartolo, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Object semantics include object function and manipulation knowledge. Function knowledge refers to the goal attainable by using an object (e.g., the function of a key is to open or close a door) while manipulation knowledge refers to gestures one has to execute to use an object appropriately (e.g., a key is held between the thumb and the index, inserted into the door lock and then turned). To date, several studies have assessed function and manipulation knowledge in brain lesion patients as well as in healthy adult populations. In patients with left brain damage, a double dissociation between these two types of knowledge has been reported; on the other hand, behavioral studies in healthy adults show that function knowledge is processed faster than manipulation knowledge. Empirical evidence has shown that object interaction in children differs from that in adults, suggesting that the access to function and manipulation knowledge in children might also differ. To investigate the development of object function and manipulation knowledge, 51 typically developing 8-9-10 year-old children and 17 healthy young adults were tested on a naming task associated with a semantic priming paradigm (190-ms SOA; prime duration: 90 ms) in which a series of line drawings of manipulable objects were used. Target objects could be preceded by three priming contexts: related (e.g., knife-scissors for function; key-screwdriver for manipulation), unrelated but visually similar (e.g., glasses-scissors; baseball bat-screwdriver), and purely unrelated (e.g., die-scissors; tissue-screwdriver). Results showed a different developmental pattern of function and manipulation priming effects. Function priming effects were not present in children and emerged only in adults, with faster naming responses for targets preceded by objects sharing the same function. In contrast, manipulation priming effects were already present in 8-year-olds with faster naming responses for targets preceded by objects

  4. Corporate Semantic Web: Towards the Deployment of Semantic Technologies in Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschke, Adrian; Coskun, Gökhan; Heese, Ralf; Luczak-Rösch, Markus; Oldakowski, Radoslaw; Schäfermeier, Ralph; Streibel, Olga

    The amount of information that companies have to produce, acquire, maintain, propagate, and use has increased dramatically over the last decades. Nowadays, companies seek more capable approaches for gaining, managing, and utilizing knowledge, and the Semantic Web offers promising solutions. While the global Semantic Web still remains an unfulfilled vision for the present, the Corporate Semantic Web idea aims at bringing semantic technologies to enterprises. The expected results are a competitive advantage for enterprises using semantic technologies and a boost for the evolution of the global Semantic Web.

  5. The Effect of Teaching Vocabulary through Semantic Mapping on EFL Learners' Awareness of the Affective Dimensions of Deep Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilforoushan, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of teaching vocabulary through semantic mapping on the awareness of two affective dimensions, evaluation and potency dimensions of deep vocabulary knowledge as well as the general vocabulary knowledge of EFL students. Sixty intermediate EFL female adult learners participated in this study; they were chosen among 90…

  6. Applications of Ontologies in Knowledge Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Zobia; Kifor, Claudiu V.

    2014-12-01

    Enterprises are realizing that their core asset in 21st century is knowledge. In an organization knowledge resides in databases, knowledge bases, filing cabinets and peoples' head. Organizational knowledge is distributed in nature and its poor management causes repetition of activities across the enterprise. To get true benefits from this asset, it is important for an organization to "know what they know". That's why many organizations are investing a lot in managing their knowledge. Artificial intelligence techniques have a huge contribution in organizational knowledge management. In this article we are reviewing the applications of ontologies in knowledge management realm

  7. Designing a Semantic Bliki System to Support Different Types of Knowledge and Adaptive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shiu-Li; Yang, Chia-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Though blogs and wikis have been used to support knowledge management and e-learning, existing blogs and wikis cannot support different types of knowledge and adaptive learning. A case in point, types of knowledge vary greatly in category and viewpoints. Additionally, adaptive learning is crucial to improving one's learning performance. This study…

  8. Knowledge Representation and Management. From Ontology to Annotation

    PubMed Central

    Darmoni, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective To summarize the best papers in the field of Knowledge Representation and Management (KRM). Methods A comprehensive review of medical informatics literature was performed to select some of the most interesting papers of KRM published in 2014. Results Four articles were selected, two focused on annotation and information retrieval using an ontology. The two others focused mainly on ontologies, one dealing with the usage of a temporal ontology in order to analyze the content of narrative document, one describing a methodology for building multilingual ontologies. Conclusion Semantic models began to show their efficiency, coupled with annotation tools. PMID:26293860

  9. Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications.

    PubMed

    Weichselbraun, A; Gindl, S; Scharl, A

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a domain-specific training corpus, and (iii) ground this contextual information to structured background knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and WordNet. A quantitative evaluation shows a significant improvement when using an enriched version of SenticNet for polarity classification. Crowdsourced gold standard data in conjunction with a qualitative evaluation sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the concept grounding, and on the quality of the enrichment process. PMID:25431524

  10. Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications

    PubMed Central

    Weichselbraun, A.; Gindl, S.; Scharl, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a domain-specific training corpus, and (iii) ground this contextual information to structured background knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and WordNet. A quantitative evaluation shows a significant improvement when using an enriched version of SenticNet for polarity classification. Crowdsourced gold standard data in conjunction with a qualitative evaluation sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the concept grounding, and on the quality of the enrichment process. PMID:25431524

  11. Knowledge Management: A Teacher Educator's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Radha

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge Management can be defined as a systematic process that creates, captures, shares, and analyzes knowledge in ways that directly improve performance. The goal of Knowledge Management is to improve the creation, dissemination, and exploitation of knowledge for the purpose of building competitive advantage. The proper use of knowledge…

  12. Personal Knowledge Management for Employee Commoditization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schild, Susie A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge management thinking has resulted in the perception that the organization is the relevant beneficiary of knowledge. Individual approaches to and experiences with personal knowledge management are not well documented in empirical studies, which uncovered the specific problem that the situatedness of knowledge worker contemporaries within…

  13. MetaShare: Enabling Knowledge-Based Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, D. D.; Salayandia, L.; Gates, A.; Osuna, F.

    2013-12-01

    MetaShare is a free and open source knowledge-based system for supporting data management planning, now required by some agencies and publishers. MetaShare supports users as they describe the types of data they will collect, expected standards, and expected policies for sharing. MetaShare's semantic model captures relationships between disciplines, tools, data types, data formats, and metadata standards. As the user plans their data management activities, MetaShare recommends choices based on practices and decisions from a community that has used the system for similar purposes, and extends the knowledge base to capture new relationships. The MetaShare knowledge base is being seeded with information for geoscience and environmental science domains, and is currently undergoing testing on at the University of Texas at El Paso. Through time and usage, it is expected to grow to support a variety of research domains, enabling community-based learning of data management practices. Knowledge of a user's choices during the planning phase can be used to support other tasks in the data life cycle, e.g., collecting, disseminating, and archiving data. A key barrier to scientific data sharing is the lack of sufficient metadata that provides context under which data were collected. The next phase of MetaShare development will automatically generate data collection instruments with embedded metadata and semantic annotations based on the information provided during the planning phase. While not comprehensive, this metadata will be sufficient for discovery and will enable user's to focus on more detailed descriptions of their data. Details are available at: Salayandia, L., Pennington, D., Gates, A., and Osuna, F. (accepted). MetaShare: From data management plans to knowledge base systems. AAAI Fall Symposium Series Workshop on Discovery Informatics, November 15-17, 2013, Arlington, VA.

  14. Implementation of Knowledge Management in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Katrin; Mandl, Heinz

    2007-01-01

    In the context of learning implementation of new ideas e.g. knowledge management in organizations often is neglected. Concerning knowledge management measures we demonstrate its implementation in organizations. A theoretical framework was developed showing the necessary basic conditions for implementing knowledge management. Subsequently we…

  15. Technologies, Products, and Models Supporting Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luan, Jing; Serban, Andreea M.

    2002-01-01

    Based on a taxonomy of knowledge management processes, provides a synopsis of technologies and vendors that support knowledge management. Proposes a model for classifying the various types of technologies related to knowledge management that are most often used in institutional research. (EV)

  16. Towards a Collaborative Knowledge Discovery System for Enriching Semantic Information about Risks of Geospatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grira, J.; Bédard, Y.; Roche, S.; Devillers, R.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research is to design and implement a knowledge discovery system that facilitates, using a web 2.0 collaborative approach, the identification of new risks of geospatial data misuse based on a contributed knowledge repository fed by application domain experts. [Context/Motivation] This research is motivated by the irregularity of risk analysis efforts and the poor semantic of the collected information about risks. In the context of risk analysis during geospatial database design, the knowledge about risks of geospatial data misuse is typically held by domain application experts. The collection and record of that knowledge are usually considered as optional activities. It is usually performed through face-to-face risk assessment meetings and reports. Such techniques end up by restricting the scope of risk analysis to a set of obvious risks usually already identified. Besides, little consideration is devoted to the storage of risk information in an appropriate format for automatic reasoning and new risk information discovery. As a consequence, many foreseeable risky aspects inherent to the data remain overlooked leading to ill-defined specification and faulty decisions. [Principal ideas/results] In this paper, we present a contributed knowledge discovery system that aims at enriching the semantic information about risks of geospatial data misuse in order to identify foreseeable risks. The proposed web-based system relies on a systematic and more active involvement of users in risk analysis. The approach consists of 1) providing an overview of the related work in the domains of risk analysis within the context of geospatial database design, 2) presenting an ontology-based knowledge discovery system that helps experts in risks identification based on an upper-level risk ontology and on a structured representation of the domain-specific knowledge and, 3) presenting the components of the proposed system architecture and how it may be implemented and used

  17. Generating Executable Knowledge for Evidence-Based Medicine Using Natural Language and Semantic Processing

    PubMed Central

    Borlawsky, Tara; Friedman, Carol; Lussier, Yves A.

    2006-01-01

    With an increase in the prevalence of patients having multiple medical conditions, along with the increasing number of medical information sources, an intelligent approach is required to integrate the answers to physicians' patient-related questions into clinical practice in the shortest, most specific way possible. Cochrane Scientific Reviews are currently considered to be the “gold standard” for evidence-based medicine (EBM), because of their well-defined systematic approach to assessing the available medical information. In order to develop semantic approaches for enabling the reuse of these Reviews, a system for producing executable knowledge was designed using a natural language processing (NLP) system we developed (BioMedLEE), and semantic processing techniques. Though BioMedLEE was not designed for or trained over the Cochrane Reviews, this study shows that disease, therapy and drug concepts can be extracted and correlated with an overall recall of 80.3%, coding precision of 94.1%, and concept-concept relationship precision of 87.3%. PMID:17238302

  18. From linear possibility distributions to a non-infinitesimal probabilistic semantics of conditional knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Benferhat, S.; Dubois, D.; Prade, H.

    1996-12-31

    The authors have proposed in their previous works to view a set of default information of the form, {open_quotes}generally, from {alpha}{sub i} deduce {beta}{sub i}{close_quotes}, as the family of possibility distributions satisfying constraints expressing that the situations where {alpha}{sub 1} {beta}{sub i} is true are more possible than the situations where {alpha}{sub i} {beta}{sub i} is true. This provides a representation theorem for default reasoning obeying the System P of postulates proposed by Lehmann et al., and for which it also exists a semantics in terms of infinitesimal probabilities. This paper offers a detailed analysis of the structure of this family of possibility distributions by making use of two different orderings between them: the specificity ordering and the refinement ordering. It is shown that from a representation point of view, it is sufficient to consider the subset of linear possibility distributions which corresponds to all the possible completions of the default knowledge in agreement with the constraints. Surprisingly, it is also shown that a standard probabilistic semantics can be equivalently given to System P, without referring to infinitesimals, by using a special family of probability measures, here called acceptance functions, and that has been also recently considered by Snow in that perspective.

  19. Evaluation of need for ontologies to manage domain content for the Reportable Conditions Knowledge Management System

    PubMed Central

    Eilbeck, Karen L.; Lipstein, Julie; McGarvey, Sunanda; Staes, Catherine J.

    2014-01-01

    The Reportable Condition Knowledge Management System (RCKMS) is envisioned to be a single, comprehensive, authoritative, real-time portal to author, view and access computable information about reportable conditions. The system is designed for use by hospitals, laboratories, health information exchanges, and providers to meet public health reporting requirements. The RCKMS Knowledge Representation Workgroup was tasked to explore the need for ontologies to support RCKMS functionality. The workgroup reviewed relevant projects and defined criteria to evaluate candidate knowledge domain areas for ontology development. The use of ontologies is justified for this project to unify the semantics used to describe similar reportable events and concepts between different jurisdictions and over time, to aid data integration, and to manage large, unwieldy datasets that evolve, and are sometimes externally managed. PMID:25954354

  20. Knowledge Management and Global Information Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    The paper looked at knowledge management and global information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge management knowledge…

  1. Measuring the ROI on Knowledge Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickhorst, Vickie

    2002-01-01

    Defines knowledge management and corporate portals and provides a model that can be applied to assessing return on investment (ROI) for a knowledge management solution. Highlights include leveraging knowledge in an organization; assessing the value of human capital; and the Intellectual Capital Performance Measurement Model. (LRW)

  2. Librarians Are the Ultimate Knowledge Managers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koina, Cathie

    2003-01-01

    Librarians are the ultimate knowledge managers. Everyone knows that. After all, haven't they been the custodians of documented knowledge for centuries? Who could possibly do it better than them? Well, then why aren't people knocking down their doors, begging them to be the knowledge managers of the organisation? Are they just ignorant of how…

  3. Evaluation of Participants' Contributions in Knowledge Creation Based on Semantic Authoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamimaeda, Naoki; Izumi, Noriaki; Hasida, Koiti

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate participants' contributions to the development of discussion and knowledge creation as organizational knowledge management, and thereby help them better develop the discussion. Design/methodology/approach: To evaluate participants' contributions more accurately, a method which analyzes discussion…

  4. An Ontology of Quality Initiatives and a Model for Decentralized, Collaborative Quality Management on the (Semantic) World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    This editorial provides a model of how quality initiatives concerned with health information on the World Wide Web may in the future interact with each other. This vision fits into the evolving "Semantic Web" architecture - ie, the prospective that the World Wide Web may evolve from a mess of unstructured, human-readable information sources into a global knowledge base with an additional layer providing richer and more meaningful relationships between resources. One first prerequisite for forming such a "Semantic Web" or "web of trust" among the players active in quality management of health information is that these initiatives make statements about themselves and about each other in a machine-processable language. I present a concrete model on how this collaboration could look, and provide some recommendations on what the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other policy makers in this framework could be. PMID:11772549

  5. Semantic Competitor Priming within and across Languages: The Interplay of Vocabulary Knowledge, Learning Experience and Working Memory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Li; MacWhinney, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports three studies of bilingual lexical processing, using the semantic competitor priming (SCP) method of Lee and Williams (2001). Study 1 found a trend of within-language SCP effect for Chinese-English bilinguals with both higher and lower levels of vocabulary knowledge. There was also a cross-language SCP effect, but this was…

  6. Interpretation of Logical Words in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Uncovering Knowledge of Semantics and Pragmatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Yi; Su, Lin-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the interpretation of the logical words "some" and "every…or…" in 4-15-year-old high-functioning Mandarin-speaking children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD performed similarly to typical controls in demonstrating semantic knowledge of simple sentences with "some", and…

  7. A Personnel Centric Knowledge Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Baisakhi; Gautam, Meghbartma

    A Knowledge Management System (KMS) is designed to serve as an effective tool for the proper extraction, utilization and dissemination of knowledge. Traditional KMS models incur cost overhead on the extraction of tacit knowledge and conversion to explicit knowledge. The proposed model in this paper takes the concept of mining the tacit knowledge and using it in the KMS instead of following conventional KMS norms. Through interactions and socialization of the personnel participating in the system, the tacit knowledge is extracted, converted to explicit knowledge and preserved in the Knowledge Management System through proper maintenance of knowledge repository. Our model is based on the technology that encourages active participation and sharing of tacit knowledge through interactions of individuals in the knowledge environment. The model builds a database of queries based on user feedback and the database is enhanced and maintained through creation of tags that makes the KMS dynamic and easily maintainable.

  8. The distinction between linguistic and conceptual semantics in medical terminology and its implication for NLP-based knowledge acquisition.

    PubMed

    Ceusters, W; Buekens, F; De Moor, G; Waagmeester, A

    1998-11-01

    Natural language understanding systems have to exploit various kinds of knowledge in order to represent the meaning behind texts. Getting this knowledge in place is often such a huge enterprise that it is tempting to look for systems that can discover such knowledge automatically. We describe how the distinction between conceptual and linguistic semantics may assist in reaching this objective, provided that distinguishing between them is not done too rigorously. We present several examples to support this view and argue that in a multilingual environment, linguistic ontologies should be designed as interfaces between domain conceptualizations and linguistic knowledge bases. PMID:9865030

  9. Thematic knowledge, artifact concepts, and the left posterior temporal lobe: Where action and object semantics converge.

    PubMed

    Kalénine, Solène; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2016-09-01

    Converging evidence supports the existence of functionally and neuroanatomically distinct taxonomic (similarity-based; e.g., hammer-screwdriver) and thematic (event-based; e.g., hammer-nail) semantic systems. Processing of thematic relations between objects has been shown to selectively recruit the left posterior temporoparietal cortex. Similar posterior regions have also been shown to be critical for knowledge of relationships between actions and manipulable human-made objects (artifacts). Based on the hypothesis that thematic relationships for artifacts rely, at least in part, on action relationships, we assessed the prediction that the same regions of the left posterior temporoparietal cortex would be critical for conceptual processing of artifact-related actions and thematic relations for artifacts. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated processing of taxonomic and thematic relations for artifacts and natural objects as well as artifact action knowledge (gesture recognition) abilities in a large sample of 48 stroke patients with a range of lesion foci in the left hemisphere. Like control participants, patients identified thematic relations faster than taxonomic relations for artifacts, whereas they identified taxonomic relations faster than thematic relations for natural objects. Moreover, response times (RTs) for identifying thematic relations for artifacts selectively predicted performance in gesture recognition. Whole brain Voxel-based Lesion-Symptom Mapping (VLSM) analyses and Region of Interest (ROI) regression analyses further demonstrated that lesions to the left posterior temporal cortex, overlapping with LTO and visual motion area hMT+, were associated both with relatively slower RTs in identifying thematic relations for artifacts and poorer artifact action knowledge in patients. These findings provide novel insights into the functional role of left posterior temporal cortex in thematic knowledge, and suggest that the close association between thematic

  10. Does this ring a bell? Music-cued retrieval of semantic knowledge and metamemory judgments.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Maya; Levy, Daniel A; Tibon, Roni; Reggev, Niv; Maril, Anat

    2012-11-01

    Failed knowledge recall attempts are sometimes accompanied by a strong feeling of imminent success, giving rise to a "tip-of-the-tongue" (TOT) experience. Similar to successful retrieval (i.e., the Know state, K), a TOT commences with strong cue familiarity but involves only partial retrieval of related information. We sought to characterize the cognitive processes and temporal dynamics of these retrieval states and to extend the applicability of previous findings about TOT to the auditory modality. Participants heard 3-sec initial segments of popular songs and were asked to recall their names. EEG was recorded while participants indicated their retrieval state via button press. Stimulus-locked analyses revealed a significant early left fronto-central difference between TOT and K, at 300-550 msec postcue onset. Post hoc analysis revealed that, in this time window, TOT also differed from DK (Don't Know) responses, which themselves were similar to the K responses. This finding indicates that neural processes, which may reflect strategy selection, ease of semantic processing, familiarity-related processes, or conflict monitoring, are indicative of the fate of our knowledge judgments long before we actually execute them. PMID:22816368

  11. A Hybrid Knowledge-Based and Data-Driven Approach to Identifying Semantically Similar Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Pivovarov, Rimma; Elhadad, Noémie

    2012-01-01

    An open research question when leveraging ontological knowledge is when to treat different concepts separately from each other and when to aggregate them. For instance, concepts for the terms "paroxysmal cough" and "nocturnal cough" might be aggregated in a kidney disease study, but should be left separate in a pneumonia study. Determining whether two concepts are similar enough to be aggregated can help build better datasets for data mining purposes and avoid signal dilution. Quantifying the similarity among concepts is a difficult task, however, in part because such similarity is context-dependent. We propose a comprehensive method, which computes a similarity score for a concept pair by combining data-driven and ontology-driven knowledge. We demonstrate our method on concepts from SNOMED-CT and on a corpus of clinical notes of patients with chronic kidney disease. By combining information from usage patterns in clinical notes and from ontological structure, the method can prune out concepts that are simply related from those which are semantically similar. When evaluated against a list of concept pairs annotated for similarity, our method reaches an AUC (area under the curve) of 92%. PMID:22289420

  12. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design. PMID:24311971

  13. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2010-12-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design. PMID:24311971

  14. SemanticOrganizer Brings Teams Together

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufenberg, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    SemanticOrganizer enables researchers in different locations to share, search for, and integrate data. Its customizable semantic links offer fast access to interrelated information. This knowledge management and information integration tool also supports real-time instrument data collection and collaborative image annotation.

  15. Knowledge information management toolkit and method

    DOEpatents

    Hempstead, Antoinette R.; Brown, Kenneth L.

    2006-08-15

    A system is provided for managing user entry and/or modification of knowledge information into a knowledge base file having an integrator support component and a data source access support component. The system includes processing circuitry, memory, a user interface, and a knowledge base toolkit. The memory communicates with the processing circuitry and is configured to store at least one knowledge base. The user interface communicates with the processing circuitry and is configured for user entry and/or modification of knowledge pieces within a knowledge base. The knowledge base toolkit is configured for converting knowledge in at least one knowledge base from a first knowledge base form into a second knowledge base form. A method is also provided.

  16. Interpretation of Logical Words in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Uncovering Knowledge of Semantics and Pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi Esther; Su, Lin-Yan

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the interpretation of the logical words 'some' and 'every…or…' in 4-15-year-old high-functioning Mandarin-speaking children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD performed similarly to typical controls in demonstrating semantic knowledge of simple sentences with 'some', and they had delayed knowledge of the complex sentences with 'every…or…'. Interestingly, the children with ASD had pragmatic knowledge of the scalar implicatures of these logical words, parallel to those of the typical controls. Taken together, the interpretation of logical words may be a relative strength in children with ASD. It is possible that some aspects of semantics and pragmatics may be selectively spared in ASD, due to the contribution the language faculty makes to language acquisition in the ASD population. PMID:25577515

  17. Principles for Designing Pragmatic Knowledge Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaleri, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge management continues to evolve as a discipline, yet even basic features that define a discipline have to be established. Developing a shared understanding of core concepts, such as the meaning of "knowledge", has been elusive in this field. In the absence of reaching a universal definition, surrogates for knowledge are adopted because of…

  18. Knowledge Management: A System Dynamics Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saurabh, Kumar

    2005-01-01

    In the present day market scenario of intense competition, organizations need to know what they know and be able to leverage on its knowledge base to gain competitive advantage. In this knowledge era, organisations can create and sustain competitive advantage through initiation of appropriate knowledge management processes. The organisations that…

  19. Perspectives on Education for Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Abdus Sattar; Higgins, Susan Ellen

    This paper looks at the state of education in knowledge management (KM). It reports findings from a study of knowledge management courses included in the curriculum of academic disciplines of business, computing, and information that was conducted at the Nanyang Technological University (Singapore). Based on a review of course descriptions…

  20. Information and Knowledge Management: Dimensions and Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlögl, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Though literature on information and knowledge management is vast, there is much confusion concerning the meaning of these terms. Hence, this article should give some orientation and work out the main aspects of information and knowledge management. Method: An author co-citation analysis, which identified the main dimensions of…

  1. Knowtes: The Knowledge Management Thinkletter, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowtes: The Knowledge Management Thinkletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document contains four issues of a newsletter focusing on knowledge management (KM). Articles include: "Profile on Management: 'Sharing Knowledge is Power'"; "Emotional Intelligence in KM"; "KM on the Road: Perspectives of a KM Consultant"; "The Company Role as a School"; "Profile on Human Resources: Relationships Are Key to Results"; "KM…

  2. Managing knowledge workers in clinical systems.

    PubMed

    Snyder, J R

    2001-01-01

    In Future Work, Coates and colleagues cite seven forces that are reshaping work and the workforce. One is the advent of "knowledge workers," who gather, distribute, and add value to information. In health care, the transition to integrated delivery systems, replete with care plans, critical paths, and assessment of clinical outcomes supported by information technology, is driving the need to reeducate for a knowledge-based workforce. Managers of clinical systems need to be familiar with the characteristics of knowledge workers affecting the delivery environment, organizational structure, and culture of an organization. These same managers will be expected to develop strategies to manage the transition to a knowledge-based workforce. PMID:11299904

  3. Explaining semantic short-term memory deficits: Evidence for the critical role of semantic control

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought and can occur as a result of mild disruption to semantic control processes, i.e., mechanisms that bias semantic processing towards task-relevant aspects of knowledge and away from irrelevant information. We tested three semantic STM patients with tasks that tapped four aspects of semantic control: (i) resolving ambiguity between word meanings, (ii) sensitivity to cues, (iii) ignoring irrelevant information and (iv) detecting weak semantic associations. All were impaired in conditions requiring more semantic control, irrespective of the STM demands of the task, suggesting a mild, but task-general, deficit in regulating semantic knowledge. This mild deficit has a disproportionate effect on STM tasks because they have high intrinsic control demands: in STM tasks, control is required to keep information active when it is no longer available in the environment and to manage competition between items held in memory simultaneously. By re-interpreting the core deficit in semantic STM patients in this way, we are able to explain their apparently selective impairment without the need for a specialised STM store. Instead, we argue that semantic STM patients occupy the mildest end of spectrum of semantic control disorders. PMID:21195105

  4. Action semantics: A unifying conceptual framework for the selective use of multimodal and modality-specific object knowledge.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-06-01

    Our capacity to use tools and objects is often considered one of the hallmarks of the human species. Many objects greatly extend our bodily capabilities to act in the physical world, such as when using a hammer or a saw. In addition, humans have the remarkable capability to use objects in a flexible fashion and to combine multiple objects in complex actions. We prepare coffee, cook dinner and drive our car. In this review we propose that humans have developed declarative and procedural knowledge, i.e. action semantics that enables us to use objects in a meaningful way. A state-of-the-art review of research on object use is provided, involving behavioral, developmental, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We show that research in each of these domains is characterized by similar discussions regarding (1) the role of object affordances, (2) the relation between goals and means in object use and (3) the functional and neural organization of action semantics. We propose a novel conceptual framework of action semantics to address these issues and to integrate the previous findings. We argue that action semantics entails both multimodal object representations and modality-specific sub-systems, involving manipulation knowledge, functional knowledge and representations of the sensory and proprioceptive consequences of object use. Furthermore, we argue that action semantics are hierarchically organized and selectively activated and used depending on the action intention of the actor and the current task context. Our framework presents an integrative account of multiple findings and perspectives on object use that may guide future studies in this interdisciplinary domain. PMID:24461373

  5. Action semantics: A unifying conceptual framework for the selective use of multimodal and modality-specific object knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-06-01

    Our capacity to use tools and objects is often considered one of the hallmarks of the human species. Many objects greatly extend our bodily capabilities to act in the physical world, such as when using a hammer or a saw. In addition, humans have the remarkable capability to use objects in a flexible fashion and to combine multiple objects in complex actions. We prepare coffee, cook dinner and drive our car. In this review we propose that humans have developed declarative and procedural knowledge, i.e. action semantics that enables us to use objects in a meaningful way. A state-of-the-art review of research on object use is provided, involving behavioral, developmental, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We show that research in each of these domains is characterized by similar discussions regarding (1) the role of object affordances, (2) the relation between goals and means in object use and (3) the functional and neural organization of action semantics. We propose a novel conceptual framework of action semantics to address these issues and to integrate the previous findings. We argue that action semantics entails both multimodal object representations and modality-specific sub-systems, involving manipulation knowledge, functional knowledge and representations of the sensory and proprioceptive consequences of object use. Furthermore, we argue that action semantics are hierarchically organized and selectively activated and used depending on the action intention of the actor and the current task context. Our framework presents an integrative account of multiple findings and perspectives on object use that may guide future studies in this interdisciplinary domain.

  6. What's your strategy for managing knowledge?

    PubMed

    Hansen, M T; Nohria, N; Tierney, T

    1999-01-01

    The rise of the computer and the increasing importance of intellectual assets have compelled executives to examine the knowledge underlying their businesses and how it is used. Because knowledge management as a conscious practice is so young, however, executives have lacked models to use as guides. To help fill that gap, the authors recently studied knowledge management practices at management consulting firms, health care providers, and computer manufacturers. They found two very different knowledge management strategies in place. In companies that sell relatively standardized products that fill common needs, knowledge is carefully codified and stored in databases, where it can be accessed and used--over and over again--by anyone in the organization. The authors call this the codification strategy. In companies that provide highly customized solutions to unique problems, knowledge is shared mainly through person-to-person contacts; the chief purpose of computers is to help people communicate. They call this the personalization strategy. A company's choice of knowledge management strategy is not arbitrary--it must be driven by the company's competitive strategy. Emphasizing the wrong approach or trying to pursue both can quickly undermine a business. The authors warn that knowledge management should not be isolated in a functional department like HR or IT. They emphasize that the benefits are greatest--to both the company and its customers--when a CEO and other general managers actively choose one of the approaches as a primary strategy. PMID:10387767

  7. The Benefits of Sensorimotor Knowledge: Body-Object Interaction Facilitates Semantic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.; Sears, Christopher R.; Wilson, Kim; Locheed, Keri; Owen, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examined the effects of body-object interaction (BOI) on semantic processing. BOI measures perceptions of the ease with which a human body can physically interact with a word's referent. In Experiment 1, BOI effects were examined in 2 semantic categorization tasks (SCT) in which participants decided if words are easily imageable.…

  8. Selective Impairment of Living Things and Musical Instruments on a Verbal "Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire" in a Case of Apperceptive Visual Agnosia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masullo, Carlo; Piccininni, Chiara; Quaranta, Davide; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Gaudino, Simona; Gainotti, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Semantic memory was investigated in a patient (MR) affected by a severe apperceptive visual agnosia, due to an ischemic cerebral lesion, bilaterally affecting the infero-mesial parts of the temporo-occipital cortices. The study was made by means of a Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire (Laiacona, Barbarotto, Trivelli, & Capitani, 1993), which takes…

  9. "What-Where-Which" Episodic Retrieval Requires Conscious Recollection and Is Promoted by Semantic Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Saive, Anne-Lise; Royet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia, Samuel; Thévenet, Marc; Plailly, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory is defined as the conscious retrieval of specific past events. Whether accurate episodic retrieval requires a recollective experience or if a feeling of knowing is sufficient remains unresolved. We recently devised an ecological approach to investigate the controlled cued-retrieval of episodes composed of unnamable odors (What) located spatially (Where) within a visual context (Which context). By combining the Remember/Know procedure with our laboratory-ecological approach in an original way, the present study demonstrated that the accurate odor-evoked retrieval of complex and multimodal episodes overwhelmingly required conscious recollection. A feeling of knowing, even when associated with a high level of confidence, was not sufficient to generate accurate episodic retrieval. Interestingly, we demonstrated that the recollection of accurate episodic memories was promoted by odor retrieval-cue familiarity and describability. In conclusion, our study suggested that semantic knowledge about retrieval-cues increased the recollection which is the state of awareness required for the accurate retrieval of complex episodic memories. PMID:26630170

  10. The knowledge workstation: an electronic environment for knowledge management.

    PubMed Central

    Lucier, R E; Matheson, N W; Butter, K A; Reynolds, R E

    1988-01-01

    This paper focuses on the creation of the IAIMS workstation in the context of the outcomes of a year-long IAIMS strategic planning process at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI). These outcomes include a long-term institutional vision for a functional knowledge management environment, a JHMI IAIMS model, a strategic plan, and two model prototypes. The functional requirements and specific implementation strategies for the IAIMS workstation, the prototype for managing the knowledge base of the published biomedical literature, are discussed in detail. PMID:3416102

  11. Semantic Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes semantic mapping, an effective strategy for vocabulary instruction that involves the categorical structuring of information in graphic form and requires students to relate new words to their own experience and prior knowledge. (HOD)

  12. Critical Management in Knowledge Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Reynold

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to invite educational managers and management educators to reflect critically on practice. Design/methodology/approach: Using the point of Socrates' death, the paper suggests ways of reflecting on actions using ethically-critical, socially-critical, environmentally-critical, politically-critical and…

  13. Librarians' Attitudes toward Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an understanding of the factors that support or constrain the individual's sharing knowledge in the organization. The current study seeks to explore whether personality (self-efficacy and self-esteem) and situational (cognitive appraisal: threat versus challenge) characteristics influence participants'…

  14. Knowledge Management and the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy J.; Branin, Joseph J.; Sherman, W. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Universities and colleges generate extraordinary quantities of knowledge and innovation, but in many ways the academy struggles to keep pace with the digital revolution. Growing pressures are reshaping how universities must do business--students expecting enhanced access and support, administrators eager to make data-driven strategic decisions,…

  15. Psycho-Semantics of Management Constructs: Expression of Democracy among Schoolteachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saparnis, Gintaras

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to disclose the psycho-semantics of the opinions held by school educators in Lithuania on the expression of democracy in education management. Methodology: A non-standardized questionnaire asked teachers the open-ended question: "Are there any manifestations of democracy in your school? If yes (or…

  16. Systematizing Semantic Knowledge: Changes over Time in the Child's Organization of Word Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowerman, Melissa

    1978-01-01

    Selected spontaneous errors of word choice made between the ages of two and five by two children whose language development had been followed longitudinally were analyzed for clues to semantic developmnet. (JMB)

  17. Safety and Mission Assurance Knowledge Management Retention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Teresa A.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the issues surrounding the management of knowledge in regards to safety and mission assurance. The JSC workers who were hired in the 1960's are slated to retire in the next two to three years. The experiences and knowledge of these NASA workers must be identified, and disseminated. This paper reviews some of the strategies that the S&MA is developing to capture that valuable institutional knowledge.

  18. Applying Knowledge Management in Teacher Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essandoh, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Teacher evaluations are underused in public schools, resulting in the loss of knowledge critical to professional development. Knowledge management (KM) theory offers approaches that can lead to improvements in the effectiveness of evaluations and teacher performance. This multiple case study of 9 campuses in an exemplary school district…

  19. MSFC Propulsion Systems Department Knowledge Management Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccioli, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Knowledge Management (KM) project of the Propulsion Systems Department at Marshall Space Flight Center. KM is needed to support knowledge capture, preservation and to support an information sharing culture. The presentation includes the strategic plan for the KM initiative, the system requirements, the technology description, the User Interface and custom features, and a search demonstration.

  20. Confirming the Stankosky Knowledge Management Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ternes, Carl D., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    As a managerial construct, knowledge management (KM) optimizes organizational knowledge assets to achieve sustainable business advantages by connecting people with the intellectual resources needed to operate more effectively. Yet KM may have its greatest impact when used with repeatable, systems engineering-based "frameworks." As such, this study…

  1. Knowledge Management in Higher Education in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chumjit, Surat

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how knowledge management (KM) is applied to higher education in Thailand, and it will also examine whether higher education in Thailand is ready to combine KM with their educational missions in terms of teaching, research, administration, and strategic planning. Knowledge creation and social networking frameworks are used to…

  2. Determining the Business Impact of Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, Bruce C.

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes an evaluation of business impact and return on investment (ROI) for the Knowledge Exchange, a knowledge management (KM) system within Accenture. The evaluation used a continuous measurement design to allow impact and ROI to be tracked across time and groups. The results demonstrated a significant positive impact on…

  3. A Tool for Managing Software Architecture Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Babar, Muhammad A.; Gorton, Ian

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes a tool for managing architectural knowledge and rationale. The tool has been developed to support a framework for capturing and using architectural knowledge to improve the architecture process. This paper describes the main architectural components and features of the tool. The paper also provides examples of using the tool for supporting wellknown architecture design and analysis methods.

  4. Knowledge Management in Libraries in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanhong, Tang

    This paper begins with a section that describes characteristics of knowledge management in libraries, including: human resource management is the core of knowledge management in libraries; the objective of knowledge management in libraries is to promote knowledge innovation; and information technology is a tool for knowledge management in…

  5. Applying Knowledge Management to an Organization's Transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Shannon; Gill, Tracy; Fritsche, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Although workers in the information age have more information at their fingertips than ever before, the ability to effectively capture and reuse actual knowledge is still a surmounting challenge for many organizations. As high tech organizations transform from providing complex products and services in an established domain to providing them in new domains, knowledge remains an increasingly valuable commodity. This paper explores the supply and demand elements of the "knowledge market" within the International Space Station and Spacecraft Processing Directorate (ISSSPD) of NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). It examines how knowledge supply and knowledge demand determine the success of an organization's knowledge management (KM) activities, and how the elements of a KM infrastructure (tools, culture, and training), can be used to create and sustain knowledge supply and demand

  6. How concepts are encoded in the human brain: A modality independent, category-based cortical organization of semantic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Handjaras, Giacomo; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Leo, Andrea; Lenci, Alessandro; Cecchetti, Luca; Cosottini, Mirco; Marotta, Giovanna; Pietrini, Pietro

    2016-07-15

    How conceptual knowledge is represented in the human brain remains to be determined. To address the differential role of low-level sensory-based and high-level abstract features in semantic processing, we combined behavioral studies of linguistic production and brain activity measures by functional magnetic resonance imaging in sighted and congenitally blind individuals while they performed a property-generation task with concrete nouns from eight categories, presented through visual and/or auditory modalities. Patterns of neural activity within a large semantic cortical network that comprised parahippocampal, lateral occipital, temporo-parieto-occipital and inferior parietal cortices correlated with linguistic production and were independent both from the modality of stimulus presentation (either visual or auditory) and the (lack of) visual experience. In contrast, selected modality-dependent differences were observed only when the analysis was limited to the individual regions within the semantic cortical network. We conclude that conceptual knowledge in the human brain relies on a distributed, modality-independent cortical representation that integrates the partial category and modality specific information retained at a regional level. PMID:27132545

  7. A hierarchical knowledge-based approach for retrieving similar medical images described with semantic annotations

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Camille; Beaulieu, Christopher F.; Napel, Sandy; Rubin, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted image retrieval applications could assist radiologist interpretations by identifying similar images in large archives as a means to providing decision support. However, the semantic gap between low-level image features and their high level semantics may impair the system performances. Indeed, it can be challenging to comprehensively characterize the images using low-level imaging features to fully capture the visual appearance of diseases on images, and recently the use of semantic terms has been advocated to provide semantic descriptions of the visual contents of images. However, most of the existing image retrieval strategies do not consider the intrinsic properties of these terms during the comparison of the images beyond treating them as simple binary (presence/absence) features. We propose a new framework that includes semantic features in images and that enables retrieval of similar images in large databases based on their semantic relations. It is based on two main steps: (1) annotation of the images with semantic terms extracted from an ontology, and (2) evaluation of the similarity of image pairs by computing the similarity between the terms using the Hierarchical Semantic-Based Distance (HSBD) coupled to an ontological measure. The combination of these two steps provides a means of capturing the semantic correlations among the terms used to characterize the images that can be considered as a potential solution to deal with the semantic gap problem. We validate this approach in the context of the retrieval and the classification of 2D regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from computed tomographic (CT) images of the liver. Under this framework, retrieval accuracy of more than 0.96 was obtained on a 30-images dataset using the Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain (NDCG) index that is a standard technique used to measure the effectiveness of information retrieval algorithms when a separate reference standard is available. Classification

  8. The Semantic SPASE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S.; Crichton, D.; Thieman, J.; Ramirez, P.; King, T.; Weiss, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Semantic SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) prototype demonstrates the use of semantic web technologies to capture, document, and manage the SPASE data model, support facet- and text-based search, and provide flexible and intuitive user interfaces. The SPASE data model, under development since late 2003 by a consortium of space physics domain experts, is intended to serve as the basis for interoperability between independent data systems. To develop the Semantic SPASE prototype, the data model was first analyzed to determine the inherit object classes and their attributes. These were entered into Stanford Medical Informatics' Protege ontology tool and annotated using definitions from the SPASE documentation. Further analysis of the data model resulted in the addition of class relationships. Finally attributes and relationships that support broad-scope interoperability were added from research associated with the Object-Oriented Data Technology task. To validate the ontology and produce a knowledge base, example data products were ingested. The capture of the data model as an ontology results in a more formal specification of the model. The Protege software is also a powerful management tool and supports plug-ins that produce several graphical notations as output. The stated purpose of the semantic web is to support machine understanding of web-based information. Protege provides an export capability to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML for this purpose. Several research efforts use RDF/XML knowledge bases to provide semantic search. MIT's Simile/Longwell project provides both facet- and text-based search using a suite of metadata browsers and the text-based search engine Lucene. Using the Protege generated RDF knowledge-base a semantic search application was easily built and deployed to run as a web application. Configuration files specify the object attributes and values to be designated as facets (i.e. search) constraints. Semantic web technologies provide

  9. Turning information into knowledge for rangeland management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kind of knowledge system that will be capable of meeting the needs of rangeland managers will evolve as scientists, technology specialists, managers, and biologists find ways to integrate the ever expanding array of information systems and tools to meet their needs. The tools and techniques high...

  10. Knowledge Management: Changing Cultures, Changing Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidorf, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of knowledge management focuses on a case study of an organizational research department that began implementing information management initiatives. Highlights include the role of the department, including organizing and disseminating different types of information; identifying stakeholders; upgrading skills; communications to all…

  11. A Design Thinking Approach to Teaching Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

    2008-01-01

    Pedagogies for knowledge management courses are still undeveloped. This Teaching Tip introduces a design thinking approach to teaching knowledge management. An induction model used to guide students' real-life projects for knowledge management is presented. (Contains 1 figure.)

  12. Distinct neural substrates for semantic knowledge and naming in the temporoparietal network.

    PubMed

    Gesierich, Benno; Jovicich, Jorge; Riello, Marianna; Adriani, Michela; Monti, Alessia; Brentari, Valentina; Robinson, Simon D; Wilson, Stephen M; Fairhall, Scott L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2012-10-01

    Patients with anterior temporal lobe (ATL) lesions show semantic and lexical retrieval deficits, and the differential role of this area in the 2 processes is debated. Functional neuroimaging in healthy individuals has not clarified the matter because semantic and lexical processes usually occur simultaneously and automatically. Furthermore, the ATL is a region challenging for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) due to susceptibility artifacts, especially at high fields. In this study, we established an optimized ATL-sensitive fMRI acquisition protocol at 4 T and applied an event-related paradigm to study the identification (i.e., association of semantic biographical information) of celebrities, with and without the ability to retrieve their proper names. While semantic processing reliably activated the ATL, only more posterior areas in the left temporal and temporal-parietal junction were significantly modulated by covert lexical retrieval. These results suggest that within a temporoparietal network, the ATL is relatively more important for semantic processing, and posterior language regions are relatively more important for lexical retrieval. PMID:22047967

  13. Risk Management In Perspective Of Knowledge Management A Brief Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Zobia; Kifor, Claudiu V.

    2015-09-01

    This article explains the application of knowledge management for project risk management in industry. Combination of knowledge management and risk management is becoming a dire need for industries nowadays, because it has become necessary to make information reach timely to its destined users to achieve the desired goals. Quick decisions are needed throughout a project life cycle to mitigate or avoid a risk, but they are only possible when knowledge about it is in hand and can be inferred for fruitful decisions. Quality engineers make huge effort in analyzing and mitigating the risk and prepare various documents about different risk management stages. But this knowledge resides in documents or underutilized databases without any relation to each other that makes it useless for complex decision making. This article shall explain how knowledge management activities are helpful in risk management and the advantages of their fusion. It will also present a conceptual architecture of an Information Technology based solution for risk management and knowledge management combination.

  14. The Impact of Trust on the Practice of Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iivonen, Mirja; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2000-01-01

    Considers the role of trust in managing knowledge in organizations. Topics include the problematic nature of the concept of knowledge management; human resource management and information management; personal knowledge and organizational knowledge; collaboration and knowledge sharing; and organizational culture and climate. (Contains 25…

  15. Preserved Musical Semantic Memory in Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Design Case study. Setting Academic medical center. Patient A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Main Outcome Measures Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Results Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Conclusion Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music. PMID:21320991

  16. Knowledge management model for teleconsulting in telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Pico, Lilia Edith Aparicio; Cuenca, Orlando Rodriguez; Alvarez, Daniel José Salas; Salgado, Piere Augusto Peña

    2008-01-01

    The present article shows a study about requirements for teleconsulting in a telemedicine solution in order to create a knowledge management system. Several concepts have been found related to the term teleconsulting in telemedicine which will serve to clear up their corresponding applications, potentialities, and scope. Afterwards, different theories about the art state in knowledge management have been considered by exploring methodologies and architectures to establish the trends of knowledge management and the possibilities of using them in teleconsulting. Furthermore, local and international experiences have been examined to assess knowledge management systems focused on telemedicine. The objective of this study is to obtain a model for developing teleconsulting systems in Colombia because we have many health-information management systems but they don't offer telemedicine services for remote areas. In Colombia there are many people in rural areas with different necessities and they don't have medicine services, teleconsulting will be a good solution to this problem. Lastly, a model of a knowledge system is proposed for teleconsulting in telemedicine. The model has philosophical principles and architecture that shows the fundamental layers for its development. PMID:18560075

  17. Data Mining and Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luan, Jing; Willett, Terrence

    This paper discusses data mining--an end-to-end (ETE) data analysis tool that is used by researchers in higher education. It also relates data mining and other software programs to a brand new concept called "Knowledge Management." The paper culminates in the Tier Knowledge Management Model (TKMM), which seeks to provide a stable structure with…

  18. Managing Knowledge Performance: Testing the Components of a Knowledge Management System on Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Taejun; Korte, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the current study is to validate the framework of knowledge management (KM) capabilities created by Gold ("Towards a theory of organizational knowledge management capabilities." Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill) 2001) in a study of South Korean companies. However, the original framework…

  19. Paced Reading in Semantic Dementia: Word Knowledge Contributes to Phoneme Binding in Rapid Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Grogan, John; Mapelli, Cristina; Isella, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia (SD) show deficits in phoneme binding in immediate serial recall: when attempting to reproduce a sequence of words that they no longer fully understand, they show frequent migrations of phonemes between items (e.g., cap, frog recalled as "frap, cog"). This suggests that verbal short-term memory emerges directly from…

  20. Action Semantic Knowledge about Objects Is Supported by Functional Motor Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein T.; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed the functional organization of action semantics by asking subjects to categorize pictures of an actor holding objects with a correct or incorrect grip at either a correct or incorrect goal location. Overall, reaction times were slower if the object was presented with an inappropriate posture, and this effect was stronger…

  1. [Creation and management of organizational knowledge].

    PubMed

    Shinyashiki, Gilberto Tadeu; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora; Mendes, Isabel Amélia

    2003-01-01

    With a view to creating and establishing a sustainable position of competitive advantage, the best organizations are increasingly investing in the application of concepts such as learning, knowledge and competency. The organization's creation or acquisition of knowledge about its actions represents an intangible resource that is capable of conferring a competitive advantage upon them. This knowledge derives from interactions developed in learning processes that occur in the organizational environment. The more specific characteristics this knowledge demonstrates in relation to the organization, the more it will become the foundation of its core competencies and, consequently, an important strategic asset. This article emphasizes nurses' role in the process of knowledge management, placing them in the intersection between horizontal and vertical information levels as well as in the creation of a sustainable competitive advantage. Authors believe that this contribution may represent an opportunity for a reflection about its implications for the scenarious of health and nursing practices. PMID:14748169

  2. Semantic interrogation of a multi knowledge domain ontological model of tendinopathy identifies four strong candidate risk genes

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Colleen J.; Jalali Sefid Dashti, Mahjoubeh; Gamieldien, Junaid

    2016-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a multifactorial syndrome characterised by tendon pain and thickening, and impaired performance during activity. Candidate gene association studies have identified genetic factors that contribute to intrinsic risk of developing tendinopathy upon exposure to extrinsic factors. Bioinformatics approaches that data-mine existing knowledge for biological relationships may assist with the identification of candidate genes. The aim of this study was to data-mine functional annotation of human genes and identify candidate genes by ontology-seeded queries capturing the features of tendinopathy. Our BioOntological Relationship Graph database (BORG) integrates multiple sources of genomic and biomedical knowledge into an on-disk semantic network where human genes and their orthologs in mouse and rat are central concepts mapped to ontology terms. The BORG was used to screen all human genes for potential links to tendinopathy. Following further prioritisation, four strong candidate genes (COL11A2, ELN, ITGB3, LOX) were identified. These genes are differentially expressed in tendinopathy, functionally linked to features of tendinopathy and previously implicated in other connective tissue diseases. In conclusion, cross-domain semantic integration of multiple sources of biomedical knowledge, and interrogation of phenotypes and gene functions associated with disease, may significantly increase the probability of identifying strong and unobvious candidate genes in genetic association studies. PMID:26804977

  3. Semantic interrogation of a multi knowledge domain ontological model of tendinopathy identifies four strong candidate risk genes.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Colleen J; Jalali Sefid Dashti, Mahjoubeh; Gamieldien, Junaid

    2016-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a multifactorial syndrome characterised by tendon pain and thickening, and impaired performance during activity. Candidate gene association studies have identified genetic factors that contribute to intrinsic risk of developing tendinopathy upon exposure to extrinsic factors. Bioinformatics approaches that data-mine existing knowledge for biological relationships may assist with the identification of candidate genes. The aim of this study was to data-mine functional annotation of human genes and identify candidate genes by ontology-seeded queries capturing the features of tendinopathy. Our BioOntological Relationship Graph database (BORG) integrates multiple sources of genomic and biomedical knowledge into an on-disk semantic network where human genes and their orthologs in mouse and rat are central concepts mapped to ontology terms. The BORG was used to screen all human genes for potential links to tendinopathy. Following further prioritisation, four strong candidate genes (COL11A2, ELN, ITGB3, LOX) were identified. These genes are differentially expressed in tendinopathy, functionally linked to features of tendinopathy and previously implicated in other connective tissue diseases. In conclusion, cross-domain semantic integration of multiple sources of biomedical knowledge, and interrogation of phenotypes and gene functions associated with disease, may significantly increase the probability of identifying strong and unobvious candidate genes in genetic association studies. PMID:26804977

  4. Knowledge Management within the Medical University.

    PubMed

    Rauzina, Svetlana Ye; Tikhonova, Tatiana A; Karpenko, Dmitriy S; Bogopolskiy, Gennady A; Zarubina, Tatiana V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work is studying the possibilities of ontological engineering in managing of medical knowledge. And also practical implementation of knowledge management system (KMS) in medical university. The educational process model is established that allows analyzing learning results within time scale. Glossary sub-system has been developed; ontologies of educational disciplines are constructed; environment for setup and solution of situational cases is established; ontological approach to assess competencies is developed. The possibilities of the system for solving situation tasks have been described. The approach to the evaluation of competence has been developed. PMID:26152966

  5. From Management to Leadership: Semantic or Meaningful Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Educational management was still a relatively new field of study and practice in the UK at the time of the Education Reform Act (ERA) 1988. The field focused on "management" and not leadership. This emphasis very much reflected the business world and its use in education illustrated the "policy borrowing" characteristic of an emerging field. This…

  6. A holonic view of knowledge management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paggi, Horacio; Paolino, Lilyam; Alonso, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    This paper reviews the knowledge management at the light of the concepts of the holon-informon paradigm, presents some of its problems (especially the ones related with the distributed one) and challenges and shows how they can be alleviated using tools or methodologies proper of the holonic field.

  7. Bringing Knowledge Management into an Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winberg, S. L.; Schach, S. R.; Inggs, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    The use of effective knowledge management is becoming an essential part of technical development projects in order to enable developers to handle the growing complexity of these projects. In this article we discuss an innovative approach to address this concern from the perspective of an undergraduate engineering curriculum. Instead of adding…

  8. Overcoming Learning Barriers through Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dror, Itiel E.; Makany, Tamas; Kemp, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn highly depends on how knowledge is managed. Specifically, different techniques for note-taking utilize different cognitive processes and strategies. In this paper, we compared dyslexic and control participants when using linear and non-linear note-taking. All our participants were professionals working in the banking and…

  9. Knowledge Management for Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milam, John H., Jr.

    This digest describes the emerging study of Knowledge Management (KM), a field that has much to offer administrators in higher education. KM principles recognize that it is important for organizations to "know what they know." It is the organized complexity of collaborative work to share and use information across all aspects of an institution…

  10. Knowledge Management Initiatives at a Small University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Avninder

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the knowledge management (KM) challenges faced by the administration of a small university which does not have a mature research culture. Design/methodology/approach: The paper follows both technocratic as well as ecological approaches to develop a sustainable KM. Strengths, weaknesses,…

  11. Knowledge Management, User Education, and Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Michael E. D.

    This paper discusses the potential role of librarians in user education and training in the context of knowledge management (KM) initiatives. The paper first summarizes the results of a recent study of KM systems that found a high failure and disappointment rate, with more than half of the failures attributable to inadequate user training and…

  12. Knowledge Management, User Education and Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Michael E. D.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the role of librarians in knowledge management in terms of designing information systems, creating classification systems and taxonomies, and implementing and operating the systems. Suggests the need for librarians to be involved in user education and training, including database searching, using current awareness services, and using…

  13. Knowledge Management Tolls for Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, J. Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discusses knowledge management systems (KMS) and their application to instructional design. Highlights include a history of computing and instructional systems; computer-supported collaborative work environments; object-oriented systems; reusability; a conceptual framework for distributed instructional design; and examples of support tools.…

  14. A Critique of Knowledge Management: Using a Social Constructionist Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdam, Rodney; McCreedy, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    Examines knowledge management from a critical perspective using a model of knowledge construction, embodiment, dissemination, and use. Concludes that organizations should clarify how knowledge is defined, evaluate benefits expected of knowledge management and approaches to knowledge capture, recognize employees as knowledge workers, and view…

  15. Semantic Desktop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauermann, Leo; Kiesel, Malte; Schumacher, Kinga; Bernardi, Ansgar

    In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, wie der Arbeitsplatz der Zukunft aussehen könnte und wo das Semantic Web neue Möglichkeiten eröffnet. Dazu werden Ansätze aus dem Bereich Semantic Web, Knowledge Representation, Desktop-Anwendungen und Visualisierung vorgestellt, die es uns ermöglichen, die bestehenden Daten eines Benutzers neu zu interpretieren und zu verwenden. Dabei bringt die Kombination von Semantic Web und Desktop Computern besondere Vorteile - ein Paradigma, das unter dem Titel Semantic Desktop bekannt ist. Die beschriebenen Möglichkeiten der Applikationsintegration sind aber nicht auf den Desktop beschränkt, sondern können genauso in Web-Anwendungen Verwendung finden.

  16. Knowledge management in the engineering design environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    2006-01-01

    The Aerospace and Defense industry is experiencing an increasing loss of knowledge through workforce reductions associated with business consolidation and retirement of senior personnel. Significant effort is being placed on process definition as part of ISO certification and, more recently, CMMI certification. The process knowledge in these efforts represents the simplest of engineering knowledge and many organizations are trying to get senior engineers to write more significant guidelines, best practices and design manuals. A new generation of design software, known as Product Lifecycle Management systems, has many mechanisms for capturing and deploying a wider variety of engineering knowledge than simple process definitions. These hold the promise of significant improvements through reuse of prior designs, codification of practices in workflows, and placement of detailed how-tos at the point of application.

  17. SemanticOrganizer: A Customizable Semantic Repository for Distributed NASA Project Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Berrios, Daniel C.; Carvalho, Robert E.; Hall, David R.; Rich, Stephen J.; Sturken, Ian B.; Swanson, Keith J.; Wolfe, Shawn R.

    2004-01-01

    SemanticOrganizer is a collaborative knowledge management system designed to support distributed NASA projects, including diverse teams of scientists, engineers, and accident investigators. The system provides a customizable, semantically structured information repository that stores work products relevant to multiple projects of differing types. SemanticOrganizer is one of the earliest and largest semantic web applications deployed at NASA to date, and has been used in diverse contexts ranging from the investigation of Space Shuttle Columbia's accident to the search for life on other planets. Although the underlying repository employs a single unified ontology, access control and ontology customization mechanisms make the repository contents appear different for each project team. This paper describes SemanticOrganizer, its customization facilities, and a sampling of its applications. The paper also summarizes some key lessons learned from building and fielding a successful semantic web application across a wide-ranging set of domains with diverse users.

  18. Building a knowledge base of severe adverse drug events based on AERS reporting data using semantic web technologies.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoqian; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Hongfang; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    A semantically coded knowledge base of adverse drug events (ADEs) with severity information is critical for clinical decision support systems and translational research applications. However it remains challenging to measure and identify the severity information of ADEs. The objective of the study is to develop and evaluate a semantic web based approach for building a knowledge base of severe ADEs based on the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) reporting data. We utilized a normalized AERS reporting dataset and extracted putative drug-ADE pairs and their associated outcome codes in the domain of cardiac disorders. We validated the drug-ADE associations using ADE datasets from SIDe Effect Resource (SIDER) and the UMLS. We leveraged the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event (CTCAE) grading system and classified the ADEs into the CTCAE in the Web Ontology Language (OWL). We identified and validated 2,444 unique Drug-ADE pairs in the domain of cardiac disorders, of which 760 pairs are in Grade 5, 775 pairs in Grade 4 and 2,196 pairs in Grade 3. PMID:23920604

  19. A Semantic Based Policy Management Framework for Cloud Computing Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takabi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing paradigm has gained tremendous momentum and generated intensive interest. Although security issues are delaying its fast adoption, cloud computing is an unstoppable force and we need to provide security mechanisms to ensure its secure adoption. In this dissertation, we mainly focus on issues related to policy management and access…

  20. The Eighth Stage of Information Management: Information Resources Management (IRM) vs. Knowledge Management (KM), and the Chief Information Officer (CIO) vs. the Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Rui

    1998-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the transfer point of information management to knowledge management (KM), what information resources management (IRM) does, and compares information and knowledge management and the roles of chief information officer (CIO) and chief knowledge officer (CKO). (PEN)

  1. Analysis on the Management of College Teachers' Tacit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Linying; Han, Zhijun

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge management, especially, tacit knowledge management, is a significant guarantee for the sustainable development of universities. The transfer of college teachers' tacit knowledge is the key and difficult point in tacit knowledge management of universities. This paper starts from the existence and application condition of college teachers'…

  2. Mining Genotype-Phenotype Associations from Public Knowledge Sources via Semantic Web Querying.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Richard C; Freimuth, Robert R; Chute, Christopher G; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2013-01-01

    Gene Wiki Plus (GeneWiki+) and the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) are publicly available resources for sharing information about disease-gene and gene-SNP associations in humans. While immensely useful to the scientific community, both resources are manually curated, thereby making the data entry and publication process time-consuming, and to some degree, error-prone. To this end, this study investigates Semantic Web technologies to validate existing and potentially discover new genotype-phenotype associations in GWP and OMIM. In particular, we demonstrate the applicability of SPARQL queries for identifying associations not explicitly stated for commonly occurring chronic diseases in GWP and OMIM, and report our preliminary findings for coverage, completeness, and validity of the associations. Our results highlight the benefits of Semantic Web querying technology to validate existing disease-gene associations as well as identify novel associations although further evaluation and analysis is required before such information can be applied and used effectively. PMID:24303249

  3. Mining Genotype-Phenotype Associations from Public Knowledge Sources via Semantic Web Querying

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Richard C.; Freimuth, Robert R.; Chute, Christopher G; Pathak, Jyotishman

    Gene Wiki Plus (GeneWiki+) and the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) are publicly available resources for sharing information about disease-gene and gene-SNP associations in humans. While immensely useful to the scientific community, both resources are manually curated, thereby making the data entry and publication process time-consuming, and to some degree, error-prone. To this end, this study investigates Semantic Web technologies to validate existing and potentially discover new genotype-phenotype associations in GWP and OMIM. In particular, we demonstrate the applicability of SPARQL queries for identifying associations not explicitly stated for commonly occurring chronic diseases in GWP and OMIM, and report our preliminary findings for coverage, completeness, and validity of the associations. Our results highlight the benefits of Semantic Web querying technology to validate existing disease-gene associations as well as identify novel associations although further evaluation and analysis is required before such information can be applied and used effectively. PMID:24303249

  4. Semantic Interoperability and Dynamic Resource Discovery in P2P Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Devis; de Antonellis, Valeria; Melchiori, Michele

    Service-oriented architectures and Semantic Web technologies are widely recognized as strategic means to enable effective search and access to data and services in P2P systems. In this paper we present SERVANT, a reference architecture to support SERVice-based semANTic search, by means of a semantic distributed service registry. Specifically, SERVANT supports the automatic discovery of services, available in the P2P network, apt to satisfy user's requests for information searches. The SERVANT architecture is based on: a distributed service registry, DSR, composed of semantic-enriched peer registries and semantic links between peer registries holding similar services; a Service Knowledge Evolution Manager, to update peer knowledge; a Semantic Search Assistant, to find services satisfying a user's request, to suggest possible alternative services and to propose possible related services for composition. The proposed architecture allows for efficient semantic search based on service discovery throughout the network and is able to manage P2P network evolution.

  5. Ontology Language to Support Description of Experiment Control System Semantics, Collaborative Knowledge-Base Design and Ontology Reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Vardan Gyurjyan, D Abbott, G Heyes, E Jastrzembski, B Moffit, C Timmer, E Wolin

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we discuss the control domain specific ontology that is built on top of the domain-neutral Resource Definition Framework (RDF). Specifically, we will discuss the relevant set of ontology concepts along with the relationships among them in order to describe experiment control components and generic event-based state machines. Control Oriented Ontology Language (COOL) is a meta-data modeling language that provides generic means for representation of physics experiment control processes and components, and their relationships, rules and axioms. It provides a semantic reference frame that is useful for automating the communication of information for configuration, deployment and operation. COOL has been successfully used to develop a complete and dynamic knowledge-base for experiment control systems, developed using the AFECS framework.

  6. Fair process: managing in the knowledge economy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1997-01-01

    Unlike the traditional factors of production--land, labor, and capital--knowledge is a resource that can't be forced out of people. But creating and sharing knowledge is essential to fostering innovation, the key challenge of the knowledge-based economy. To create a climate in which employees volunteer their creativity and expertise, managers need to look beyond the traditional tools at their disposal. They need to build trust. The authors have studied the links between trust, idea sharing, and corporate performance for more than a decade. They have explored the question of why managers of local subsidiaries so often fail to share information with executives at headquarters. They have studied the dynamics of idea sharing in product development teams, joint ventures, supplier partnerships, and corporate transformations. They offer an explanation for why people resist change even when it would benefit them directly. In every case, the decisive factor was what the authors call fair process--fairness in the way a company makes and executes decisions. The elements of fair process are simple: Engage people's input in decisions that directly affect them. Explain why decisions are made the way they are. Make clear what will be expected of employees after the changes are made. Fair process may sound like a soft issue, but it is crucial to building trust and unlocking ideas. Without it, people are apt to withhold their full cooperation and their creativity. The results are costly: ideas that never see daylight and initiatives that are never seized. PMID:10168337

  7. Knowledge and information management for integrated water resource management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed information systems that integrate data and analytical tools are critical enabling technologies to support Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) by converting data into information, and information into knowledge. Many factors bring people to the table to participate in an IWRM fra...

  8. Turning Knowledge into Success: The Role of Collaboration in Knowledge Management Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hizmetli, Handan

    2014-01-01

    This case study describes five phases that a community college went through in developing its use of knowledge management practices to improve their student outcomes and recommends how other colleges can similarly benefit from knowledge management in meeting their goals.

  9. Knowledge Management and the Practice of Knowledge Sharing and Learning at Work: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmholdt, Claus

    2004-01-01

    This article offers a critique of knowledge management. The critique is empirically based on the case study of a Danish software production company's (A-Soft) knowledge management strategy of implementing an information technology (IT) tool known as 'knowledge centre' (KC). The article argues: (1) the discourses on knowledge and learning informing…

  10. Knowledge Retrieval Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Kamran

    1998-01-01

    Excalibur RetrievalWare offers true knowledge retrieval solutions. Its fundamental technologies, Adaptive Pattern Recognition Processing and Semantic Networks, have capabilities for knowledge discovery and knowledge management of full-text, structured and visual information. The software delivers a combination of accuracy, extensibility,…

  11. Motor Knowledge Is One Dimension for Concept Organization: Further Evidence from a Chinese Semantic Dementia Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Nan; Guo, Qihao; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have indicated that motor knowledge is one potential dimension along which concepts are organized. Here we present further direct evidence for the effects of motor knowledge in accounting for categorical patterns across object domains (living vs. nonliving) and grammatical domains (nouns vs. verbs), as…

  12. For Performance through Learning, Knowledge Management Is Critical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorelick, Carol; Tantawy-Monsou, Brigitte

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper proposes that knowledge management is a system that integrates people, process and technology for sustainable results by increasing performance through learning. Definitions of knowledge, knowledge management and performance serve as a foundation. Design/methodology/approach: The model for the knowledge era proposed in this…

  13. Knowledge Management in Pursuit of Performance: The Challenge of Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degler, Duane; Battle, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the integration of knowledge management into business applications. Topics include the difference between knowledge and information; performance-centered design (PCD); applying knowledge to support business outcomes, including context, experience, and information quality; techniques for merging PCD and knowledge management, including…

  14. Effects of Induced Orthographic and Semantic Knowledge on Subsequent Learning: A Test of the Partial Knowledge Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlof, Suzanne; Frishkoff, Gwen; Dandy, Jennifer; Perfetti, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Word learning can build the high-quality word representations that support skilled reading and language comprehension. According to the partial knowledge hypothesis, words that are partially known, also known as "frontier words" (Durso & Shore, 1991), may be good targets for instruction precisely because they are already familiar.…

  15. Application of Knowledge Management: Pressing questions and practical answers

    SciTech Connect

    FROMM-LEWIS,MICHELLE

    2000-02-11

    Sandia National Laboratory are working on ways to increase production using Knowledge Management. Knowledge Management is: finding ways to create, identify, capture, and distribute organizational knowledge to the people who need it; to help information and knowledge flow to the right people at the right time so they can act more efficiently and effectively; recognizing, documenting and distributing explicit knowledge (explicit knowledge is quantifiable and definable, it makes up reports, manuals, instructional materials, etc.) and tacit knowledge (tacit knowledge is doing and performing, it is a combination of experience, hunches, intuition, emotions, and beliefs) in order to improve organizational performance and a systematic approach to find, understand and use knowledge to create value.

  16. A Semantic Approach for Knowledge Discovery to Help Mitigate Habitat Loss in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Graves, S.; Hardin, D.

    2008-12-01

    Noesis is a meta-search engine and a resource aggregator that uses domain ontologies to provide scoped search capabilities. Ontologies enable Noesis to help users refine their searches for information on the open web and in hidden web locations such as data catalogues with standardized, but discipline specific vocabularies. Through its ontologies Noesis provides a guided refinement of search queries which produces complete and accurate searches while reducing the user's burden to experiment with different search strings. All search results are organized by categories (e. g. all results from Google are grouped together) which may be selected or omitted according to the desire of the user. During the past two years ontologies were developed for sea grasses in the Gulf of Mexico and were used to support a habitat restoration demonstration project. Currently these ontologies are being augmented to address the special characteristics of mangroves. These new ontologies will extend the demonstration project to broader regions of the Gulf including protected mangrove locations in coastal Mexico. Noesis contributes to the decision making process by producing a comprehensive list of relevant resources based on the semantic information contained in the ontologies. Ontologies are organized in a tree like taxonomies, where the child nodes represent the Specializations and the parent nodes represent the Generalizations of a node or concept. Specializations can be used to provide more detailed search, while generalizations are used to make the search broader. Ontologies are also used to link two syntactically different terms to one semantic concept (synonyms). Appending a synonym to the query expands the search, thus providing better search coverage. Every concept has a set of properties that are neither in the same inheritance hierarchy (Specializations / Generalizations) nor equivalent (synonyms). These are called Related Concepts and they are captured in the ontology through

  17. Applying a Knowledge Management Taxonomy to Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thambi, Melinda; O'Toole, Paddy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of a corporate-based taxonomy of knowledge management to secondary schooling. Do the principles of knowledge management from the corporate world translate to the world of education; specifically, secondary schooling? This article examines categories of knowledge management articulated in…

  18. Open Source for Knowledge and Learning Management: Strategies beyond Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytras, Miltiadis, Ed.; Naeve, Ambjorn, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    In the last years, knowledge and learning management have made a significant impact on the IT research community. "Open Source for Knowledge and Learning Management: Strategies Beyond Tools" presents learning and knowledge management from a point of view where the basic tools and applications are provided by open source technologies. This book…

  19. Social Semantics for an Effective Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike

    2012-01-01

    An evolution of the Semantic Web, the Social Semantic Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social Semantic Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of semantic markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social Semantic Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a semantic system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social Semantic Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a semantic system are also modeled.

  20. Adaptive Knowledge Management of Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilchin, Oleg; Kittany, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The goal of an approach to Adaptive Knowledge Management (AKM) of project-based learning (PBL) is to intensify subject study through guiding, inducing, and facilitating development knowledge, accountability skills, and collaborative skills of students. Knowledge development is attained by knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge…

  1. BIM: Enabling Sustainability and Asset Management through Knowledge Management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the use of virtual building information models to develop building design solutions and design documentation and to analyse construction processes. Recent advances in IT have enabled advanced knowledge management, which in turn facilitates sustainability and improves asset management in the civil construction industry. There are several important qualifiers and some disadvantages of the current suite of technologies. This paper outlines the benefits, enablers, and barriers associated with BIM and makes suggestions about how these issues may be addressed. The paper highlights the advantages of BIM, particularly the increased utility and speed, enhanced fault finding in all construction phases, and enhanced collaborations and visualisation of data. The paper additionally identifies a range of issues concerning the implementation of BIM as follows: IP, liability, risks, and contracts and the authenticity of users. Implementing BIM requires investment in new technology, skills training, and development of new ways of collaboration and Trade Practices concerns. However, when these challenges are overcome, BIM as a new information technology promises a new level of collaborative engineering knowledge management, designed to facilitate sustainability and asset management issues in design, construction, asset management practices, and eventually decommissioning for the civil engineering industry. PMID:24324392

  2. COMPASS: A Geospatial Knowledge Infrastructure Managed with Ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, K.

    2009-04-01

    COMPASS: A Geospatial Knowledge Infrastructure Managed with Ontologies Dr Kristin Stock Allworlds Geothinking, United Kingdom and EDINA, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom and Centre for Geospatial Science University of Nottingham Nottingham United Kingdom The research and decision-making process in any discipline is supported by a vast quantity and diversity of scientific resources, including journal articles; scientific models; scientific theories; data sets and web services that implement scientific models or provide other functionality. Improved discovery and access to these scientific resources has the potential to make the process of using and developing scientific knowledge more effective and efficient. Current scientific research or decision making that relies on scientific resources requires an extensive search for relevant resources. Published journal papers may be discovered using web searches on the basis of words that appear in the title or metadata, but this approach is limited by the need to select the appropriate words, and does not identify articles that may be of interest because they use a similar approach, methodology or technique but are in a different discipline, or that are likely to be helpful despite not sharing the same keywords. The COMPASS project is developing a knowledge infrastructure that is intended to enhance the user experience in discovering scientific resources. This is being achieved with an approach that uses ontologies to manage the knowledge infrastructure in two ways: 1. A set of ontologies describe the resources in the knowledge infrastructure (for example, publications and web services) in terms of the domain concepts to which they relate, the scientific theories and models that they depend on, and the characteristics of the resources themselves. These ontologies are provided to users either directly or with assisted search tools to aid them in the discovery process. OWL-S ontologies are being used to describe web

  3. Knowledge Management in Preserving Ecosystems: The Case of Seoul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeongseok

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the utility of employing knowledge management as a framework for understanding how public managers perform ecosystem management. It applies the grounded theory method to build a model. The model is generated by applying the concept of knowledge process to an investigation of how the urban ecosystem is publicly managed by civil…

  4. Towards knowledge-based retrieval of medical images. The role of semantic indexing, image content representation and knowledge-based retrieval.

    PubMed

    Lowe, H J; Antipov, I; Hersh, W; Smith, C A

    1998-01-01

    Medicine is increasingly image-intensive. The central importance of imaging technologies such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in clinical decision making, combined with the trend to store many "traditional" clinical images such as conventional radiographs, microscopic pathology and dermatology images in digital format present both challenges and an opportunities for the designers of clinical information systems. The emergence of Multimedia Electronic Medical Record Systems (MEMRS), architectures that integrate medical images with text-based clinical data, will further hasten this trend. The development of these systems, storing a large and diverse set of medical images, suggests that in the future MEMRS will become important digital libraries supporting patient care, research and education. The representation and retrieval of clinical images within these systems is problematic as conventional database architectures and information retrieval models have, until recently, focused largely on text-based data. Medical imaging data differs in many ways from text-based medical data but perhaps the most important difference is that the information contained within imaging data is fundamentally knowledge-based. New representational and retrieval models for clinical images will be required to address this issue. Within the Image Engine multimedia medical record system project at the University of Pittsburgh we are evolving an approach to representation and retrieval of medical images which combines semantic indexing using the UMLS Metathesuarus, image content-based representation and knowledge-based image analysis. PMID:9929345

  5. Safety and Mission Assurance Knowledge Management Retention: Managing Knowledge for Successful Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Teresa A.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge Management is a proactive pursuit for the future success of any large organization faced with the imminent possibility that their senior managers/engineers with gained experiences and lessons learned plan to retire in the near term. Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) is proactively pursuing unique mechanism to ensure knowledge learned is retained and lessons learned captured and documented. Knowledge Capture Event/Activities/Management helps to provide a gateway between future retirees and our next generation of managers/engineers. S&MA hosted two Knowledge Capture Events during 2005 featuring three of its retiring fellows (Axel Larsen, Dave Whittle and Gary Johnson). The first Knowledge Capture Event February 24, 2005 focused on two Safety and Mission Assurance Safety Panels (Space Shuttle System Safety Review Panel (SSRP); Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) and the latter event December 15, 2005 featured lessons learned during Apollo, Skylab, and Space Shuttle which could be applicable in the newly created Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)/Constellation development program. Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and the Space Shuttle promised and delivered exciting human advances in space and benefits of space in people s everyday lives on earth. Johnson Space Center's Safety & Mission Assurance team work over the last 20 years has been mostly focused on operations we are now beginning the Exploration development program. S&MA will promote an atmosphere of knowledge sharing in its formal and informal cultures and work processes, and reward the open dissemination and sharing of information; we are asking "Why embrace relearning the "lessons learned" in the past?" On the Exploration program the focus will be on Design, Development, Test, & Evaluation (DDT&E); therefore, it is critical to understand the lessons from these past programs during the DDT&E phase.

  6. System Development by Process Integrated Knowledge Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Margareth; Laner, Dietmar

    Due to globalization and ever shorter change cycle's organizations improve increasingly faster their products, services, technologies, IT and organization according to customer requirements, optimize their efficiency, effectiveness and reduce costs. Thus the largest potential is the continually improvement and the management of information, data and knowledge. Long time organizations had developed lot separate and frequently independent IT applications. In the last years they were integrated by interfaces and always more by common databases. In large sized enterprises or in the public administration IT must operate various different applications, which requires a lot of personal and cost. Many organizations improve their IT starting from the lived processes using new technologies, but ask not, how they can use technology to support new processes.

  7. Workplan and Annex: Solar Resource Knowledge Management

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, D.

    2005-01-01

    ''Solar Resource Knowledge Management'' will be a new task under the International Energy Agency's Solar Heating and Cooling Programme. The task development has involved researchers from Germany, France, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Canada, the U.S. that have been engaged in the use of satellite imagery to develop solar resource maps and datasets around the world. The task will address three major areas: (1) ''Benchmarking'' of satellite-based solar resource methods so that resource information derived from approaches developed in one country or based on a specific satellite can be quantitatively intercompared with methods from other countries using different satellites, as well as with ground data; (2) Data archiving and dissemination procedures, especially focusing on access to the data by end users; and (3) basic R&D for improving the reliability and usability of the data, and for examining new types of products important to the solar industry, such as solar resource forecasts.

  8. Verbal Mediation of Number Knowledge: Evidence from Semantic Dementia and Corticobasal Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Casey; Clark, Robin; Moore, Peachie; Antani, Shweta; Colcher, Amy; Grossman, Murray

    2004-01-01

    Patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) appear to have impaired number knowledge. We examined the nature of their number deficit while we tested the hypothesis that comprehension of larger numbers depends in part on verbal mediation. We evaluated magnitude judgments and performance on number conservation measures rooted in Piagetian theory…

  9. Moving Past "Right" or "Wrong" toward a Continuum of Young Children's Semantic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary development is a critical goal for early childhood education. However, it is difficult for researchers and teachers to determine whether this goal is being met, given the limitations of current assessment tools. These tools tend to view word knowledge dichotomously--as right or wrong. A clear sense of children's depth of semantic…

  10. Semantic Representation and Scale-Up of Integrated Air Traffic Management Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Ranjan, Shubha; Wei, Mie; Eshow, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Each day, the global air transportation industry generates a vast amount of heterogeneous data from air carriers, air traffic control providers, and secondary aviation entities handling baggage, ticketing, catering, fuel delivery, and other services. Generally, these data are stored in isolated data systems, separated from each other by significant political, regulatory, economic, and technological divides. These realities aside, integrating aviation data into a single, queryable, big data store could enable insights leading to major efficiency, safety, and cost advantages. In this paper, we describe an implemented system for combining heterogeneous air traffic management data using semantic integration techniques. The system transforms data from its original disparate source formats into a unified semantic representation within an ontology-based triple store. Our initial prototype stores only a small sliver of air traffic data covering one day of operations at a major airport. The paper also describes our analysis of difficulties ahead as we prepare to scale up data storage to accommodate successively larger quantities of data -- eventually covering all US commercial domestic flights over an extended multi-year timeframe. We review several approaches to mitigating scale-up related query performance concerns.

  11. Toward a Conceptual Knowledge Management Framework in Health

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Francis

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual organizing scheme for managing knowledge within the health setting. First, a brief review of the notions of knowledge and knowledge management is provided. This is followed by a detailed depiction of our proposed knowledge management framework, which focuses on the concepts of production, use, and refinement of three specific knowledge sources-policy, evidence, and experience. These concepts are operationalized through a set of knowledge management methods and tools tailored for the health setting. We include two case studies around knowledge translation on parent-child relations and virtual networks in community health research to illustrate how this knowledge management framework can be operationalized within specific contexts and the issues involved. We conclude with the lessons learned and implications. PMID:18066388

  12. Knowledge management: An abstraction of knowledge base and database management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedesel, Joel D.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial intelligence application requirements demand powerful representation capabilities as well as efficiency for real-time domains. Many tools exist, the most prevalent being expert systems tools such as ART, KEE, OPS5, and CLIPS. Other tools just emerging from the research environment are truth maintenance systems for representing non-monotonic knowledge, constraint systems, object oriented programming, and qualitative reasoning. Unfortunately, as many knowledge engineers have experienced, simply applying a tool to an application requires a large amount of effort to bend the application to fit. Much work goes into supporting work to make the tool integrate effectively. A Knowledge Management Design System (KNOMAD), is described which is a collection of tools built in layers. The layered architecture provides two major benefits; the ability to flexibly apply only those tools that are necessary for an application, and the ability to keep overhead, and thus inefficiency, to a minimum. KNOMAD is designed to manage many knowledge bases in a distributed environment providing maximum flexibility and expressivity to the knowledge engineer while also providing support for efficiency.

  13. Knowledge Management Platform in Advanced Product Quality Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiliban, Bogdan; Baral, Lal Mohan; Kifor, Claudiu

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge is an essential part of organizational competitiveness. This vital resource must be managed correctly within organizations in order to achieve desired performance levels within all undertakings. The process of managing knowledge is a very difficult one due to the illusive nature of the resource itself. Knowledge is stored within every aspect of an organization starting from people and ending with documents and processes. The Knowledge Management Platform is designed as a facilitator for managers and employees in all endeavours knowledge related within the Advanced Product Quality Planning Procedure

  14. Congruent Knowledge Management Behaviors as Discriminate Sources of Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnier-Watanabe, Remy; Senoo, Dai

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: While knowledge management has been shown to be a strategic source of competitive advantage, processes designed to enhance the productivity of knowledge do not, however, equally contribute to the organization's capabilities. Consequently, this research aims to focus on the relationship between each mode of the knowledge management process…

  15. School Management Related Knowledge Levels of Primary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugurlu, Celal Teyyar

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge levels of the teachers affect the qualifications of operations and transactions in schools. School management related knowledge of the teachers is an essential tool to reach the targets of the school. The objective of this study was to determine the school management related knowledge levels of the teachers. Qualitative and…

  16. A Model of Values and Actions for Personal Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a "soft methodology" model in knowledge management that addresses the problem of accessing and managing one particular type of knowledge: personal (implicit/tacit) knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on the theories and methodologies of grounded theory, adult learning,…

  17. The Organization and Dissolution of Semantic-Conceptual Knowledge: Is the "Amodal Hub" the Only Plausible Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainotti, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the anatomical and functional bases of conceptual activity have attracted a growing interest. In particular, Patterson and Lambon-Ralph have proposed the existence, in the anterior parts of the temporal lobes, of a mechanism (the "amodal semantic hub") supporting the interactive activation of semantic representations in all…

  18. Ontology-based approaches for cross-enterprise collaboration: a literature review on semantic business process management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Hanh H.; Jung, Jason J.; Tran, Chi P.

    2014-11-01

    Based on an in-depth analysis of the existing approaches in applying semantic technologies to business process management (BPM) research in the perspective of cross-enterprise collaboration or so-called business-to-business integration, we analyse, discuss and compare methodologies, applications and best practices of the surveyed approaches with the proposed criteria. This article identifies various relevant research directions in semantic BPM (SBPM). Founded on the result of our investigation, we summarise the state of art of SBPM. We also address areas and directions for further research activities.

  19. Towards a typology of business process management professionals: identifying patterns of competences through latent semantic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Oliver; Schmiedel, Theresa; Gorbacheva, Elena; vom Brocke, Jan

    2016-01-01

    While researchers have analysed the organisational competences that are required for successful Business Process Management (BPM) initiatives, individual BPM competences have not yet been studied in detail. In this study, latent semantic analysis is used to examine a collection of 1507 BPM-related job advertisements in order to develop a typology of BPM professionals. This empirical analysis reveals distinct ideal types and profiles of BPM professionals on several levels of abstraction. A closer look at these ideal types and profiles confirms that BPM is a boundary-spanning field that requires interdisciplinary sets of competence that range from technical competences to business and systems competences. Based on the study's findings, it is posited that individual and organisational alignment with the identified ideal types and profiles is likely to result in high employability and organisational BPM success.

  20. Developing a Framework For Managing Knowledge in Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Toit, Adeline

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the strategic management of knowledge assets for competitive advantage in enterprises. Presents an integrative, systematic approach that can be followed in order to improve the business value of the knowledge assets of an enterprise. (Author/AEF)

  1. Integration of E-education and Knowledge Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Liyong; Zhao, Chengling; Guo, Wei

    With the realization that knowledge is a core resource, organizations are now attempting to manage knowledge in a more systematic and more effective way. However, managing knowledge is not always an easy task. In particular contexts, such as online e-education, knowledge is distributed across both time and space and may be constrained by social, cultural and language differences. This paper demonstrated the common characters of knowledge management and e-education, and proposed the current potential problems in e-education. The authors tried to develop a set of guidelines to help overcome problems using tools and techniques from KM, they proposed three strategies: corporate explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge; use the theory of KM to guide e-education resource management; use the theory of KM to guide e-education resource management. These strategies will help us to develop a better e-education framework.

  2. A hybrid system using symbolic and numeric knowledge for the semantic annotation of sulco-gyral anatomy in brain MRI images.

    PubMed

    Mechouche, Ammar; Morandi, Xavier; Golbreich, Christine; Gibaud, Bernard

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes an interactive system for the semantic annotation of brain magnetic resonance images. The system uses both a numerical atlas and symbolic knowledge of brain anatomical structures depicted using the Semantic Web standards. This knowledge is combined with graphical data, automatically extracted from the images by imaging tools. The annotations of parts of gyri and sulci, in a region of interest, rely on constraint satisfaction problem solving and description logics inferences. The system is run on a client-server architecture, using Web services and including a sophisticated visualization tool. An evaluation of the system was done using normal (healthy) and pathological cases. The results obtained so far demonstrate that the system produces annotations with high precision and quality. PMID:19622437

  3. Integrated Risk and Knowledge Management Program -- IRKM-P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lengyel, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) IRKM-P tightly couples risk management and knowledge management processes and tools to produce an effective "modern" work environment. IRKM-P objectives include: (1) to learn lessons from past and current programs (Apollo, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station); (2) to generate and share new engineering design, operations, and management best practices through preexisting Continuous Risk Management (CRM) procedures and knowledge-management practices; and (3) to infuse those lessons and best practices into current activities. The conceptual framework of the IRKM-P is based on the assumption that risks highlight potential knowledge gaps that might be mitigated through one or more knowledge management practices or artifacts. These same risks also serve as cues for collection of knowledge particularly, knowledge of technical or programmatic challenges that might recur.

  4. Semantically Interoperable XML Data.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-09-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  5. Semantically Interoperable XML Data

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  6. What Can Knowledge Management Systems Deliver?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsham, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    Argues that knowledge resides in human beings, not in computer systems, and communication is a complex process of human sense reading and sense giving, not the simple transfer of knowledge from one person to another. Identifies positive opportunities for information and communication technologies to support human knowledgeability, followed by…

  7. From Knowledge Sharing to Knowledge Creation: A Blended Knowledge-Management Model for Improving University Students' Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-chu; Yeh, Yi-ling; Chen, Yu-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Creativity and knowledge management are both important competences that university students need to strive to develop. This study therefore developed and evaluated an instructional program for improving university students' creativity based on a blended knowledge-management (KM) model that integrates e-learning and three core processes of KM:…

  8. Sentence understanding depends on contextual use of semantic and real world knowledge.

    PubMed

    Tune, Sarah; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Nagels, Arne; Small, Steven L; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2016-08-01

    Human language allows us to express our thoughts and ideas by combining entities, concepts and actions into multi-event episodes. Yet, the functional neuroanatomy engaged in interpretation of such high-level linguistic input remains poorly understood. Here, we used easy to detect and more subtle "borderline" anomalies to investigate the brain regions and mechanistic principles involved in the use of real-world event knowledge in language comprehension. Overall, the results showed that the processing of sentences in context engages a complex set of bilateral brain regions in the frontal, temporal and inferior parietal lobes. Easy anomalies preferentially engaged lower-order cortical areas adjacent to the primary auditory cortex. In addition, the left supramarginal gyrus and anterior temporal sulcus as well as the right posterior middle temporal gyrus contributed to the processing of easy and borderline anomalies. The observed pattern of results is explained in terms of (i) hierarchical processing along a dorsal-ventral axis and (ii) the assumption of high-order association areas serving as cortical hubs in the convergence of information in a distributed network. Finally, the observed modulation of BOLD signal in prefrontal areas provides support for their role in the implementation of executive control processes. PMID:27177762

  9. Semantic World Modelling and Data Management in a 4d Forest Simulation and Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roßmann, J.; Hoppen, M.; Bücken, A.

    2013-08-01

    Various types of 3D simulation applications benefit from realistic forest models. They range from flight simulators for entertainment to harvester simulators for training and tree growth simulations for research and planning. Our 4D forest simulation and information system integrates the necessary methods for data extraction, modelling and management. Using modern methods of semantic world modelling, tree data can efficiently be extracted from remote sensing data. The derived forest models contain position, height, crown volume, type and diameter of each tree. This data is modelled using GML-based data models to assure compatibility and exchangeability. A flexible approach for database synchronization is used to manage the data and provide caching, persistence, a central communication hub for change distribution, and a versioning mechanism. Combining various simulation techniques and data versioning, the 4D forest simulation and information system can provide applications with "both directions" of the fourth dimension. Our paper outlines the current state, new developments, and integration of tree extraction, data modelling, and data management. It also shows several applications realized with the system.

  10. Concurrent engineering design and management knowledge capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: real-time management, personnel management, project management, conceptual design and decision making; the SITRF design problem; and the electronic-design notebook.

  11. Is there a difference between stripy journeys and stripy ladybirds? The N400 response to semantic and world-knowledge violations during sentence processing.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; Maienborn, Claudia; Kaup, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    The distinction between linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge is particularly relevant because it is related to the principle of compositionality during sentence comprehension. Hagoort, Hald, Bastiaansen, and Petersson (2004) challenged the distinction between linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge. Here, we investigate how linguistic and non-linguistic violations are processed in a setting adapted from Hagoort et al., whilst in contrast to Hagoort, keeping the critical word identical. In line with the findings by Hagoort et al., our results showed largest N400 amplitudes for semantic violations ('Journeys are stripy'), followed by non-linguistic world-knowledge violations ('Ladybirds are stripy') and contingent sentences ('Trousers are stripy'), and finally by correct sentences ('Zebras are stripy'). Traditional fractional area and relative criterion measures of peak and onset latencies showed no effect of violation type. Interestingly, the semantic violation condition crossed a fixed criterion earlier than the word-knowledge violation condition. In conclusion, our data suggests that the question regarding the distinction between linguistic- and non-linguistic knowledge in terms of language integration remains open. Implications for future studies addressing the difference between linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge are discussed. PMID:26812249

  12. A Web-Based Learning Information System Resource and Knowledge Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego, Hugo; Moreira, Tiago; Garcia, Francisco José

    AHKME e-learning system main aim is to provide a modular and extensible system with adaptive and knowledge management abilities for students and teachers. This system is based on the IMS specifications representing information through metadata, granting semantics to all contents in it, giving them meaning. Metadata is used to satisfy requirements like reusability, interoperability and multipurpose. The system provides authoring tools to define learning methods with adaptive characteristics, and tools to create courses allowing users with different roles, promoting several types of collaborative and group learning. It is also endowed with tools to retrieve, import and evaluate learning objects based on metadata, where students can use quality educational contents fitting their characteristics, and teachers have the possibility of using quality educational contents to structure courses. The metadata management and evaluation play an important role in order to get the best results in the teaching/learning process.

  13. Building a Foundation for Knowledge Management Research: Developing, Validating, and Applying the Knowledge Internalization Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wipawayangkool, Kamphol

    2011-01-01

    The notion of knowledge internalization (KI), albeit a critical link in Nonaka's (1994) organizational knowledge creation theory, has not been rigorously conceptualized and defined, let alone operationalized. To strengthen the foundation for knowledge management (KM) research, we attempt to fulfill the following research objectives in the three…

  14. The Business School in Transition: New Opportunities in Management Development, Knowledge Transfer and Knowledge Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Denis; Kearney, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to consider the extent to which business school transition has created new opportunities in management development, knowledge transfer and knowledge creation. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a critical review of knowledge exchange in a business school context with a particular focus on the "translation or…

  15. Construction of a Conceptualization of Personal Knowledge within a Knowledge Management Perspective Using Grounded Theory Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straw, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The current research used grounded theory methodology (GTM) to construct a conceptualization of personal knowledge within a knowledge management (KM) perspective. The need for the current research was based on the use of just two categories of knowledge, explicit and tacit, within KM literature to explain diverse characteristics of personal…

  16. Rethinking Knowledge Management: Strategies for Enhancing District-Level Teacher and Leader Tacit Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Grounded within knowledge management (KM) theory and conceptions of tacit and explicit knowledge, this article draws on historical evidence from the Early Years Literacy Project (EYLP), a four-year instructional renewal strategy implemented across 100 schools in a large Canadian school district. The EYLP management approach included a series of…

  17. Knowledge Management: An Imperative for Schools of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santo, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of knowledge management (KM) in the era of the knowledge organization, a place where generating, sharing and storing knowledge is a valued part of the organizational culture. The author enumerates the benefits and barriers of KM, explains the basic approaches to KM and describes what has been…

  18. An integrated system to represent and manage medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Fiore, M; Sicurello, F; Indorato, G

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated system in Prolog that permits the creation of a personal Knowledge Base to express and formalize specialist knowledge in medicine. Formalisms used are production rules and frames. The integrated system is able to manage data and knowledge stored in a database built in M Technology (MUMPS). PMID:8591590

  19. Workplace Learning: The Roles of Knowledge Accessibility and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jessica; Brake, Gary; Champion, Angeline; Fuller, Tony; Gabel, Sandy; Hatcher-Busch, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how knowledge management systems have been used by the studied organizations to improve knowledge accessibility and knowledge sharing in order to increase workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: The study relies on a qualitative multisite case study method. Data were obtained from five…

  20. Knowledge Management Systems: Linking Contribution, Refinement and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Ting-ting

    2009-01-01

    Electronic knowledge repositories represent one of the fundamental tools for knowledge management (KM) initiatives. Existing research, however, has largely focused on supply-side driven research questions, such as employee motivation to contribute knowledge to a repository. This research turns attention to the dynamic relationship between the…

  1. Elements of a Knowledge Management Guide for Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark Cameron

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the factors that are critical to the success of public (government) sector knowledge management initiatives and the lessons from private sector knowledge management and organizational learning that apply in the public sector. The goal was to create a concise guide, based on research-validated success factors, to aid government…

  2. Management Studies Educational Knowledge: Technical, Elite or Political?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hordern, Jim

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on the technical, elite and political interpretations of the purpose of management, to identify demands for particular forms of educational knowledge in the management studies curriculum. The varied character of this knowledge is discussed using Bernsteinian concepts of verticality, grammaticality, classification and framing, and…

  3. Mundane Knowledge Management and Microlevel Organizational Learning: An Ethological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    Discusses knowledge management in the context of articulation work, that is routine interactions in groups of local practice. Explores the concepts of mundane knowledge management and organizational ethology in a case study of a project to promote virtual enterprise formation based on online cooperative work. (Contains 50 references.) (Author/LRW)

  4. Managing Intranets To Encourage Knowledge Sharing: Opportunities and Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddart, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how intranets are being used based on a survey of corporations and international organizations. Discusses good management practices for the development of intranets which stimulate knowledge sharing and the role they could play in facilitating knowledge management initiatives, and considers the role of libraries and information…

  5. Knowledge Management: A Conceptual Platform for the Sharing of Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdjoubi, Darius; Harmon, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    The concept of the learning organization and intellectual capital were instrumental in the beginning stage of knowledge management, about 1995. From the spontaneous combination of these two fields, the modern concept of knowledge management as a conceptual platform emerged. The seven main fields that are so far most intimately connected to…

  6. Knowledge Management & Its Applications in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxena, Anurag

    2007-01-01

    It is the digital economy age in which we are living presently. Thus, traditional thinking is proving futile and newer methods are substituting the older ones. If one has to achieve developmental goals, one has to build a knowledge repository. Success of any system today is defined by its knowledge capital. For example for a university, knowledge…

  7. Managing environmental knowledge through learning processes in Spanish hospitality companies.

    PubMed

    Cegarra-Navarro, Juan Gabriel; Martinez Martinez, Aurora

    2010-11-01

    The major focus of this research is to investigate whether environmental knowledge has any impact on organizational outcomes through an empirical investigation of 127 Spanish hospitality companies, using structural equation models. Our results show that environmental knowledge is an important determiner for developing organizational outcomes. However, this relationship is completed with just two related constructs: Firstly, the company's acquisition process plays a key role in managing the tension between the knowledge necessary to develop the appropriated environmental initiatives and current knowledge. Secondly, the company's distribution process also sheds light on tangible means for managers to enhance their company's outcomes through environmental knowledge. PMID:20977031

  8. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  9. Synergy optimization and operation management on syndicate complementary knowledge cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Kai-Jan

    2014-10-01

    The number of multi enterprises knowledge cooperation has grown steadily, as a result of global innovation competitions. I have conducted research based on optimization and operation studies in this article, and gained the conclusion that synergy management is effective means to break through various management barriers and solve cooperation's chaotic systems. Enterprises must communicate system vision and access complementary knowledge. These are crucial considerations for enterprises to exert their optimization and operation knowledge cooperation synergy to meet global marketing challenges.

  10. Developing Visualization Techniques for Semantics-based Information Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Hall, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Information systems incorporating complex network structured information spaces with a semantic underpinning - such as hypermedia networks, semantic networks, topic maps, and concept maps - are being deployed to solve some of NASA s critical information management problems. This paper describes some of the human interaction and navigation problems associated with complex semantic information spaces and describes a set of new visual interface approaches to address these problems. A key strategy is to leverage semantic knowledge represented within these information spaces to construct abstractions and views that will be meaningful to the human user. Human-computer interaction methodologies will guide the development and evaluation of these approaches, which will benefit deployed NASA systems and also apply to information systems based on the emerging Semantic Web.

  11. Technical Knowledge Management Platform Based on Ontology Engineering and XML Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takafuji, Sunao; Kitamura, Yoshinobu; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    We propose new knowledge management system, which is based on ontology engineering and XML technology, for manufacturing field. The purpose of this system is to support to externalize implicit functional knowledge of a product that a designer creates, to share the knowledge among those who are involved in the product development, and utilize the knowledge for any designer to collaboratively create or invent new products. It is true, however, there are not a few superior design tool such as CAD/CAE software, simulation tools, etc. Though such tools are indispensable to complete a product, they are insufficient to reveal design rational of a designer that indicates the reason why he/she adopted the function, the structure, materials, etc. Ontology engineering contributes to clarify design rational of any designer by describing a function decomposition tree (hereinafter FDT), which has the specific feature of separating function and way, that is a kind of tree to show functional structure based on device ontology and functional ontology. While the functional modeling framework is independent to any data representation infrastructure, XML has a synergy with the framework because of being able to handle semantics of the framework such as subject, object, function, etc. In addition to the semantic view point, XML also has flexibility to compound a document from multiple information fragments, so that it allows FDT to adapt to any application of manufacturing tasks. From those view point, we created OntoGear which is the foundation system that supports a designer or developer to author, share, and use FDT by using xfy technology that JustSystems, Corp. has developed as an XML application development framework.

  12. GENESIS SciFlo: Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid Using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Tang, B.; Mazzoni, D.; Fetzer, E.; Dobinson, E.; Yunck, T.

    2005-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* & Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling

  13. Knowledge Management, Human Resource Management, and Higher Education: A Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Peggy D.; Brewer, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written on the importance of knowledge management, the challenges facing organizations, and the important human resource management activities involved in assuring the acquisition and transfer of knowledge. Higher business education plays an important role in preparing students to assume the knowledge management and human resource…

  14. New knowledge network evaluation method for design rationale management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Shikai; Zhan, Hongfei; Liu, Jihong; Wang, Kuan; Jiang, Hao; Zhou, Jingtao

    2015-01-01

    Current design rationale (DR) systems have not demonstrated the value of the approach in practice since little attention is put to the evaluation method of DR knowledge. To systematize knowledge management process for future computer-aided DR applications, a prerequisite is to provide the measure for the DR knowledge. In this paper, a new knowledge network evaluation method for DR management is presented. The method characterizes the DR knowledge value from four perspectives, namely, the design rationale structure scale, association knowledge and reasoning ability, degree of design justification support and degree of knowledge representation conciseness. The DR knowledge comprehensive value is also measured by the proposed method. To validate the proposed method, different style of DR knowledge network and the performance of the proposed measure are discussed. The evaluation method has been applied in two realistic design cases and compared with the structural measures. The research proposes the DR knowledge evaluation method which can provide object metric and selection basis for the DR knowledge reuse during the product design process. In addition, the method is proved to be more effective guidance and support for the application and management of DR knowledge.

  15. Some Consideration On Knowledge Management Implication On Organization's Competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draghici, Anca; Ciortan, Marius Areta; Florea, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    The research described in this paper has been focused on two objectives: to debate the knowledge management's active role for organizations competitive advantage and to describe information technology's capabilities in leveraging the knowledge worker's competencies. For the purposes of this article, competitive advantage is perceived as a strength that provides a market advantage relative to a competitor. Often competitive advantage is related to the core competencies of the organisation, which are frequently based on implicit know-how or tacit knowledge. This intangible, unstructured knowledge is difficult to manage; consequently management has ignored it when designing business strategy. However, the increased competitive pressures of the post-industrial global economy and the exponential advances in computing power have increased management's interest in knowledge as a sustainable source of competitive advantage.

  16. Knowledge-based systems for power management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, L. F.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Marshall's Electrical Power Branch has undertaken the development of expert systems in support of further advancements in electrical power system automation. Attention is given to the features (1) of the Fault Recovery and Management Expert System, (2) a resource scheduler or Master of Automated Expert Scheduling Through Resource Orchestration, and (3) an adaptive load-priority manager, or Load Priority List Management System. The characteristics of an advisory battery manager for the Hubble Space Telescope, designated the 'nickel-hydrogen expert system', are also noted.

  17. Dynamic knowledge management from multiple sources in crowdsourcing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mucheol; Rho, Seungmin

    2015-10-01

    Due to the spread of smart devices and the development of network technology, a large number of people can now easily utilize the web for acquiring information and various services. Further, collective intelligence has emerged as a core player in the evolution of technology in web 2.0 generation. It means that people who are interested in a specific domain of knowledge can not only make use of the information, but they can also participate in the knowledge production processes. Since a large volume of knowledge is produced by multiple contributors, it is important to integrate and manage knowledge efficiently. In this paper, we propose a social tagging-based dynamic knowledge management system in crowdsourcing environments. The approach here is to categorize and package knowledge from multiple sources, in such a way that it easily links to target knowledge.

  18. Neuro-Fuzzy Support of Knowledge Management in Social Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovic-Lazarevic, Sonja; Coghill, Ken; Abraham, Ajith

    2002-09-01

    The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the neuro-fuzzy support of knowledge management in social regulation. Knowledge could be understood for social regulation purposes as explicit and tacit. Explicit knowledge relates to the community culture indicating how things work in the community based on social policies and procedures. Tacit knowledge is ethics and norms of the community. The former could be codified, stored and transferable in order to support decision making, while the latter being based on personal knowledge, experience and judgments is difficult to codify and store. Tacit knowledge expressed through linguistic information can be stored and used to support knowledge management in social regulation through the application of fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy logic.

  19. Semantic aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: towards sharing knowledge and unifying information.

    PubMed

    Andronache, Adrian Stefan; Simoncello, Andrea; Della Mea, Vincenzo; Daffara, Carlo; Francescutti, Carlo

    2012-02-01

    During the last decade, under the World Health Organization's direction, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has become a reference tool for monitoring and developing various policies addressing people with disability. This article presents three steps to increase the semantic interoperability of ICF: first, the representation of ICF using ontology tools; second, the alignment to upper-level ontologies; and third, the use of these tools to implement semantic mappings between ICF and other tools, such as disability assessment instruments, health classifications, and at least partially formalized terminologies. PMID:22193319

  20. Management of Knowledge Representation Standards Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patil, Ramesh S.

    1993-01-01

    Ever since the mid-seventies, researchers have recognized that capturing knowledge is the key to building large and powerful AI systems. In the years since, we have also found that representing knowledge is difficult and time consuming. In spite of the tools developed to help with knowledge acquisition, knowledge base construction remains one of the major costs in building an Al system: For almost every system we build, a new knowledge base must be constructed from scratch. As a result, most systems remain small to medium in size. Even if we build several systems within a general area, such as medicine or electronics diagnosis, significant portions of the domain must be represented for every system we create. The cost of this duplication of effort has been high and will become prohibitive as we attempt to build larger and larger systems. To overcome this barrier we must find ways of preserving existing knowledge bases and of sharing, re-using, and building on them. This report describes the efforts undertaken over the last two years to identify the issues underlying the current difficulties in sharing and reuse, and a community wide initiative to overcome them. First, we discuss four bottlenecks to sharing and reuse, present a vision of a future in which these bottlenecks have been ameliorated, and describe the efforts of the initiative's four working groups to address these bottlenecks. We then address the supporting technology and infrastructure that is critical to enabling the vision of the future. Finally, we consider topics of longer-range interest by reviewing some of the research issues raised by our vision.

  1. A Proposal of CAD Mechanism for Design Knowledge Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomaguchi, Yutaka; Yoshioka, Masaharu; Tomiyama, Tetsuo

    In this paper, we propose a fundamental idea of a new CAD mechanism to facilitate design knowledge management. This mechanism encourages a designer to externalise his/her knowledge during a design process and facilitates sharing and reuse of such externalised design knowledge in later stages. We also describe the implementation of this idea called DDMS (Design Documentation Management System). DDMS works as a front end to KIEF (Knowledge Intensive Engineering Framework), which we have been developing. We also illustrate an example of machining tool design to demonstrate the features of DDMS.

  2. Knowledge representation and management enabling intelligent interoperability - principles and standards.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Based on the paradigm changes for health, health services and underlying technologies as well as the need for at best comprehensive and increasingly automated interoperability, the paper addresses the challenge of knowledge representation and management for medical decision support. After introducing related definitions, a system-theoretical, architecture-centric approach to decision support systems (DSSs) and appropriate ways for representing them using systems of ontologies is given. Finally, existing and emerging knowledge representation and management standards are presented. The paper focuses on the knowledge representation and management part of DSSs, excluding the reasoning part from consideration. PMID:23542959

  3. Managing Knowledge And Information In The Sustainable Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, Valentin

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge and information management are essential for the success of organizations and bring significant competitive advantages. There has been significant investments in setting up technological platforms that support business processes and increase the efficiency of operational structure in many organizations through an efficient management of knowledge and information. This research highlights the importance of using knowledge and information management in order to increase the competitiveness of organizations and to foster the transition towards the sustainable organization, as nowadays an organization that wants to be competitive needs to be sustainable.

  4. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th. PMID:21388570

  5. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences? We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th. PMID:21388570

  6. Knowledge Management and the Learning College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treat, Tod; Kristovich, Sharon; Henry, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Society today is facing unprecedented challenges. Organizations are facing internal and external pressures from globalization, changing technologies, reassessment of mission and values, changing demographics and competition. Such pressures are indicative of a transformation from an industrial society to a knowledge society. Organizations can…

  7. New Challenges for Educational Research. Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report explores, in particular, the educational R&D systems in two countries, England and New Zealand, both members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). OECD review teams have been assessing the effectiveness of the educational R&D systems in these two countries in developing and applying usable knowledge to…

  8. Managing Skills and Knowledge Using Online Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Dave; Holland, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore a structured approach to measuring skills and knowledge, and to outline how such an approach can be beneficial for improving performance and supporting strategy. It also seeks to examine how online tools can help with this process and to look at implications for the wider UK and European skills development…

  9. On Building an Ontological Knowledge Base for Managing Patient Safety Events.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chen; Gong, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, improving healthcare quality and safety through patient safety event reporting systems has drawn much attention. Unfortunately, such systems are suffering from low data quality, inefficient data entry and ineffective information retrieval. For improving the systems, we develop a semantic web ontology based on the WHO International Classification for Patient Safety (ICPS) and AHRQ Common Formats for patient safety event reporting. The ontology holds potential in enhancing knowledge management and information retrieval, as well as providing flexible data entry and case analysis for both reporters and reviewers of patient safety events. In this paper, we detailed our efforts in data acquisition, transformation, implementation and initial evaluation of the ontology. PMID:26262039

  10. Enhancing Knowledge Sharing Management Using BIM Technology in Construction

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Shih-Ping; Tserng, Hui-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Construction knowledge can be communicated and reused among project managers and jobsite engineers to alleviate problems on a construction jobsite and reduce the time and cost of solving problems related to constructability. This paper proposes a new methodology for the sharing of construction knowledge by using Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology. The main characteristics of BIM include illustrating 3D CAD-based presentations and keeping information in a digital format and facilitation of easy updating and transfer of information in the BIM environment. Using the BIM technology, project managers and engineers can gain knowledge related to BIM and obtain feedback provided by jobsite engineers for future reference. This study addresses the application of knowledge sharing management using BIM technology and proposes a BIM-based Knowledge Sharing Management (BIMKSM) system for project managers and engineers. The BIMKSM system is then applied in a selected case study of a construction project in Taiwan to demonstrate the effectiveness of sharing knowledge in the BIM environment. The results demonstrate that the BIMKSM system can be used as a visual BIM-based knowledge sharing management platform by utilizing the BIM technology. PMID:24723790

  11. Enhancing knowledge sharing management using BIM technology in construction.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Ping; Tserng, Hui-Ping; Jan, Shu-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Construction knowledge can be communicated and reused among project managers and jobsite engineers to alleviate problems on a construction jobsite and reduce the time and cost of solving problems related to constructability. This paper proposes a new methodology for the sharing of construction knowledge by using Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology. The main characteristics of BIM include illustrating 3D CAD-based presentations and keeping information in a digital format and facilitation of easy updating and transfer of information in the BIM environment. Using the BIM technology, project managers and engineers can gain knowledge related to BIM and obtain feedback provided by jobsite engineers for future reference. This study addresses the application of knowledge sharing management using BIM technology and proposes a BIM-based Knowledge Sharing Management (BIMKSM) system for project managers and engineers. The BIMKSM system is then applied in a selected case study of a construction project in Taiwan to demonstrate the effectiveness of sharing knowledge in the BIM environment. The results demonstrate that the BIMKSM system can be used as a visual BIM-based knowledge sharing management platform by utilizing the BIM technology. PMID:24723790

  12. Packaging and Unpackaging Knowledge in Mass Higher Education--A Knowledge Management Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman, Gustavo; Trivelato, Luiz F.

    2011-01-01

    The progressive deployment of market-oriented regulatory frameworks in mass Higher Education Institutions (MHEI hereafter) triggered, in a wide variety of forms and degrees, the application of Knowledge Management principles in MHEI. This means the application of the knowledge "codification strategy", where the focus is on the economies of the…

  13. Enhancing Knowledge Sharing and Research Collaboration among Academics: The Role of Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Christine Nya-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Although knowledge sharing (KS) has been acknowledged as important, universities face issues that may hinder active sharing among its faculty members such as the absence of trust among its members or insufficient incentives rewarded to those who deserved it. The aim of this research is to focus on the impact of knowledge management (KM) factors in…

  14. Are Librarians the Ultimate Knowledge Managers? A Study of Knowledge, Skills, Practice and Mindset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Stuart; Hider, Philip; Lloyd, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to establish the state of knowledge of Knowledge Management (KM) among Library and Information Services (LIS) professionals, the extent to which they find positions in the KM sector, the extent to which they practise identifiable KM processes in their work and the adequacy of educational preparation and professional development…

  15. Knowledge Producers or Knowledge Consumers? Argumentation and Decision Making about Environmental Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria-Pilar; Pereiro-Munoz, Cristina

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study involving decision making and argumentation in the context of wetland environmental management by 11th grade students. Focuses on knowledge and skills needed to reach a decision in socio-scientific contexts and to identify them in classroom discourse. Explores using relevant knowledge to understand and make decisions about a…

  16. The World's Best Anglo-American Universities' Knowledge Management Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Greg; Plummer, Julie; Ridgewell, Brenda; Goforth, Emily; Tower, Spence

    2008-01-01

    Key knowledge management attributes of the world's most prestigious Anglo-American universities are surprisingly under-reported especially by best ranked USA institutions. This leads to calls for more transparency. (Contains 2 tables.)

  17. The World's Best Anglo-American Universities' Knowledge Management Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Greg; Plummer, Julie; Ridgewell, Brenda; Goforth, Emily; Tower, Spence

    2009-01-01

    Key knowledge management attributes of the world's most prestigious Anglo-American universities are surprisingly under-reported especially by best ranked USA institutions. This leads to calls for more transparency.

  18. The Digital Space Shuttle, 3D Graphics, and Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Julian E.; Keller, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    The Digital Shuttle is a knowledge management project that seeks to define symbiotic relationships between 3D graphics and formal knowledge representations (ontologies). 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content, in 2D and 3D CAD forms, and the capability to display systems knowledge. Because the data is so heterogeneous, and the interrelated data structures are complex, 3D graphics combined with ontologies provides mechanisms for navigating the data and visualizing relationships.

  19. Knowledge discovery based on experiential learning corporate culture management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Kai-Jan

    2014-10-01

    A good corporate culture based on humanistic theory can make the enterprise's management very effective, all enterprise's members have strong cohesion and centripetal force. With experiential learning model, the enterprise can establish an enthusiastic learning spirit corporate culture, have innovation ability to gain the positive knowledge growth effect, and to meet the fierce global marketing competition. A case study on Trend's corporate culture can offer the proof of industry knowledge growth rate equation as the contribution to experiential learning corporate culture management.

  20. How Knowledge Management Is Affected by Organizational Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmoudsalehi, Mehdi; Moradkhannejad, Roya; Safari, Khalil

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying the impact of organizational structure on knowledge management (KM) is the aim of this study, as well as recognizing the importance of each variable indicator in creating, sharing and utility of knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: For understanding relationships between the main variables (organizational structure-KM), the…

  1. The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumtuma, Chamnan; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Yeamsang, Theerawat

    2015-01-01

    The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand was created by research and development. The quantitative and qualitative data were collected via the following steps: a participatory workshop meeting, the formation of a team according to knowledge base, field study, brainstorming, group discussion, activities carried out…

  2. Modeling Social Influences in a Knowledge Management Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Giacomo; Maresca, Paolo; Nota, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    The issue of knowledge management in a distributed network is receiving increasing attention from both scientific and industrial organizations. Research efforts in this field are motivated by the awareness that knowledge is more and more perceived as a primary economic resource and that, in the context of organization of organizations, the…

  3. Managing Knowledge in Internationalizing Universities through Foreign Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Brendan; McDonnell, Anthony; Mitchell, Rebecca; Nicholas, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article discusses the opportunities presented by the globalization of education and the role of knowledge management in successful global expansion. It seeks to explain why the tacit dimensions of the knowledge transferred during international education provision makes it difficult to provide educational services in offshore…

  4. Teachers' Professional Learning: The Role of Knowledge Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehoff, Karissa

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the degree to which knowledge management strategies addressed teacher professional learning at the high school level. In the setting of a Connecticut public high school, interviews were conducted which explored teacher perceptions of knowledge sharing practices in the school and how those practices influenced their…

  5. Applying Corporate Knowledge Management Practices in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Jillinda J.; Vander Linde, Karen; Johnson, Sandra L.

    2000-01-01

    Asserting that there is tremendous value to higher education institutions that develop initiatives to share knowledge to achieve business objectives, this article outlines the basic concepts of knowledge management as it is applied in the corporate sector, considers trends, and explores how it might be applied in higher education and whether…

  6. Human Performance Technology and Knowledge Management: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Anne P.; Montoya-Weiss, Mitzi M.; O'Driscoll, Tony M.

    2005-01-01

    As organizations respond to competitive environments and strive to enhance performance, knowledge management (KM) has increasingly become a strategic activity. A KM strategy entails consciously helping people share and put knowledge into action. A key challenge is how to develop and implement KM solutions that provide performance support to…

  7. Transforming Quality in Research Supervision: A Knowledge-Management Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Fang

    2003-01-01

    Constructed a research supervision framework to help transform research students into knowledge workers and managers. The framework, which shows close synergies between the knowledge conversion process and research supervision, is to be tested in an empirical case study in Australia. (SLD)

  8. Management Planning and Control: Supporting Knowledge-Intensive Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herremans, Irene M.; Isaac, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop propositions for empirical validation regarding appropriate management planning and control systems (MPACS) in knowledge-intensive organizations. Design/methodology/approach: The propositions were developed from interviews with members of a knowledge-intensive virtual organization that is known for…

  9. Legacy2Drupal - Conversion of an existing oceanographic relational database to a semantically enabled Drupal content management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Work, T.; Allen, J.; Groman, R. C.; Fox, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Content Management Systems (CMSs) provide powerful features that can be of use to oceanographic (and other geo-science) data managers. However, in many instances, geo-science data management offices have previously designed customized schemas for their metadata. The WHOI Ocean Informatics initiative and the NSF funded Biological Chemical and Biological Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) have jointly sponsored a project to port an existing, relational database containing oceanographic metadata, along with an existing interface coded in Cold Fusion middleware, to a Drupal6 Content Management System. The goal was to translate all the existing database tables, input forms, website reports, and other features present in the existing system to employ Drupal CMS features. The replacement features include Drupal content types, CCK node-reference fields, themes, RDB, SPARQL, workflow, and a number of other supporting modules. Strategic use of some Drupal6 CMS features enables three separate but complementary interfaces that provide access to oceanographic research metadata via the MySQL database: 1) a Drupal6-powered front-end; 2) a standard SQL port (used to provide a Mapserver interface to the metadata and data; and 3) a SPARQL port (feeding a new faceted search capability being developed). Future plans include the creation of science ontologies, by scientist/technologist teams, that will drive semantically-enabled faceted search capabilities planned for the site. Incorporation of semantic technologies included in the future Drupal 7 core release is also anticipated. Using a public domain CMS as opposed to proprietary middleware, and taking advantage of the many features of Drupal 6 that are designed to support semantically-enabled interfaces will help prepare the BCO-DMO database for interoperability with other ecosystem databases.

  10. Knowledge Management in E-Learning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Yucel

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to extension of IT in educational activities, the difficulties based on time and space are disappearing and the management and the execution of these activities can be implemented more effectively and beneficially. Even though there are significant developments about e-learning both in academic and professional platforms, there are some…

  11. Analysis of a Knowledge-Management-Based Process of Transferring Project Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioi, Toshihiro; Ono, Masakazu; Ishii, Kota; Kato, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a method for the transfer of knowledge and skills in project management (PM) based on techniques in knowledge management (KM). Design/methodology/approach: The literature contains studies on methods to extract experiential knowledge in PM, but few studies exist that focus on methods to convert…

  12. Semantic Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya

  13. How to assess abstract conceptual knowledge: construction, standardization and validation of a new battery of semantic memory tests.

    PubMed

    Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Catricalà, Eleonora; De Battisti, Silvia; Vinson, David; Vigliocco, Gabriela; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-01-01

    The neuropsychological investigation of semantic memory has mainly focused on concrete concepts, while abstract concepts have been relatively neglected. We describe a new battery for assessing abstract concepts in brain-damaged patients. The battery includes three different tests: an association task, a multiplechoice naming-to-description task and a sentence completion task. The three tasks are based on the same 40 stimuli belonging to different categories of abstract concepts and they are tightly controlled for variables that can account for quantitative differences between abstract concepts (i.e. concreteness, imageability, context availability, familiarity, age of acquisition, mode of acquisition, emotional valence and arousal). The three tasks showed high reliability. Normative data were collected from 108 healthy Italian adults. To assess its sensitivity, the battery was administered to 13 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease who performed worse than matched controls. Significant correlations were also found between the tests and other semantic memory tests, supporting the validity of the battery. PMID:25014049

  14. Exploiting Recurring Structure in a Semantic Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing popularity of the Semantic Web, an increasing amount of information is becoming available in machine interpretable, semantically structured networks. Within these semantic networks are recurring structures that could be mined by existing or novel knowledge discovery methods. The mining of these semantic structures represents an interesting area that focuses on mining both for and from the Semantic Web, with surprising applicability to problems confronting the developers of Semantic Web applications. In this paper, we present representative examples of recurring structures and show how these structures could be used to increase the utility of a semantic repository deployed at NASA.

  15. Knowledge Management in Role Based Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kır, Hüseyin; Ekinci, Erdem Eser; Dikenelli, Oguz

    In multi-agent system literature, the role concept is getting increasingly researched to provide an abstraction to scope beliefs, norms, goals of agents and to shape relationships of the agents in the organization. In this research, we propose a knowledgebase architecture to increase applicability of roles in MAS domain by drawing inspiration from the self concept in the role theory of sociology. The proposed knowledgebase architecture has granulated structure that is dynamically organized according to the agent's identification in a social environment. Thanks to this dynamic structure, agents are enabled to work on consistent knowledge in spite of inevitable conflicts between roles and the agent. The knowledgebase architecture is also implemented and incorporated into the SEAGENT multi-agent system development framework.

  16. Things to come: postmodern digital knowledge management and medical informatics.

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, N W

    1995-01-01

    The overarching informatics grand challenge facing society is the creation of knowledge management systems that can acquire, conserve, organize, retrieve, display, and distribute what is known today in a manner that informs and educates, facilitates the discovery and creation of new knowledge, and contributes to the health and welfare of the planet. At one time the private, national, and university libraries of the world collectively constituted the memory of society's intellectual history. In the future, these new digital knowledge management systems will constitute human memory in its entirety. The current model of multiple local collections of duplicated resources will give way to specialized sole-source servers. In this new environment all scholarly scientific knowledge should be public domain knowledge: managed by scientists, organized for the advancement of knowledge, and readily available to all. Over the next decade, the challenge for the field of medical informatics and for the libraries that serve as the continuous memory for the biomedical sciences will be to come together to form a new organization that will lead to the development of postmodern digital knowledge management systems for medicine. These systems will form a portion of the evolving world brain of the 21st century. PMID:7743318

  17. Converging evidence from fMRI and aphasia that the left temporoparietal cortex has an essential role in representing abstract semantic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Mirman, Dan; Olson, Ingrid R

    2015-08-01

    While the neural underpinnings of concrete semantic knowledge have been studied extensively, abstract conceptual knowledge remains enigmatic. We present two experiments that provide converging evidence for the involvement of key regions in the temporoparietal cortex (TPC) in abstract semantic representations. First, we carried out a neuroimaging study in which participants thought deeply about abstract and concrete words. A functional connectivity analysis revealed a cortical network, including portions of the TPC, that showed coordinated activity specific to abstract word processing. In a second experiment, we tested participants with lesions involving the left TPC on a spoken-to-written word matching task using abstract and concrete target words presented in arrays of related or unrelated distractors. The results revealed an interaction between concreteness and relatedness: participants with TPC lesions were significantly less accurate for abstract words presented in related arrays than in unrelated arrays, but exhibited no effect of relatedness for concrete words. These results confirm that the TPC plays an important role in abstract concept representation and that it is part of a larger network of functionally cooperative regions needed for abstract word processing. PMID:26026619

  18. Converging Evidence from fMRI and Aphasia that the Left Temporoparietal Cortex has an Essential Role in Representing Abstract Semantic Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Skipper-Kallal, L.M.; Mirman, D.; Olson, I.R.

    2015-01-01

    While the neural underpinnings of concrete semantic knowledge have been studied extensively, abstract conceptual knowledge remains enigmatic. We present two experiments that provide converging evidence for the involvement of key regions in the temporoparietal cortex (TPC) in abstract semantic representations. First, we carried out a neuroimaging study in which participants thought deeply about abstract and concrete words. A functional connectivity analysis revealed a cortical network, including portions of the TPC, that showed coordinated activity specific to abstract word processing. In a second experiment, we tested participants with lesions involving the left TPC on a spoken-to-written word matching task using abstract and concrete target words presented in arrays of related or unrelated distractors. The results revealed an interaction between concreteness and relatedness: participants with TPC lesions were significantly less accurate for abstract words presented in related arrays than in unrelated arrays, but exhibited no effect of relatedness for concrete words. These results confirm that the TPC plays an important role in abstract concept representation and that it is part of a larger network of functionally cooperative regions needed for abstract word processing. PMID:26026619

  19. An Analysis of Knowledge Management Mechanisms in Healthcare Portals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chei Sian; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian; Chua, Alton Y. K.

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare portals are becoming increasingly popular with Internet users since they play an important role in supporting interaction between individuals and healthcare organizations with a Web presence. Additionally, many of these organizations make use of knowledge management mechanisms on their healthcare portals to manage the abundance of…

  20. Knowledge Capture and Management for Space Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of knowledge capture and knowledge management strategies early in the development phase of an exploration program is necessary for safe and successful missions of human and robotic exploration vehicles over the life of a program. Following the transition from the development to the flight phase, loss of underlying theory and rationale governing design and requirements occur through a number of mechanisms. This degrades the quality of engineering work resulting in increased life cycle costs and risk to mission success and safety of flight. Due to budget constraints, concerned personnel in legacy programs often have to improvise methods for knowledge capture and management using existing, but often sub-optimal, information technology and archival resources. Application of advanced information technology to perform knowledge capture and management would be most effective if program wide requirements are defined at the beginning of a program.

  1. Marine Planning and Service Platform: specific ontology based semantic search engine serving data management and sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, Giuseppe M. R.; Bartolini, Andrea; Bustaffa, Franco; D'Angelo, Paolo; De Mattei, Maurizio; Frontini, Francesca; Maltese, Maurizio; Medone, Daniele; Monachini, Monica; Novellino, Antonio; Spada, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The MAPS (Marine Planning and Service Platform) project is aiming at building a computer platform supporting a Marine Information and Knowledge System. One of the main objective of the project is to develop a repository that should gather, classify and structure marine scientific literature and data thus guaranteeing their accessibility to researchers and institutions by means of standard protocols. In oceanography the cost related to data collection is very high and the new paradigm is based on the concept to collect once and re-use many times (for re-analysis, marine environment assessment, studies on trends, etc). This concept requires the access to quality controlled data and to information that is provided in reports (grey literature) and/or in relevant scientific literature. Hence, creation of new technology is needed by integrating several disciplines such as data management, information systems, knowledge management. In one of the most important EC projects on data management, namely SeaDataNet (www.seadatanet.org), an initial example of knowledge management is provided through the Common Data Index, that is providing links to data and (eventually) to papers. There are efforts to develop search engines to find author's contributions to scientific literature or publications. This implies the use of persistent identifiers (such as DOI), as is done in ORCID. However very few efforts are dedicated to link publications to the data cited or used or that can be of importance for the published studies. This is the objective of MAPS. Full-text technologies are often unsuccessful since they assume the presence of specific keywords in the text; in order to fix this problem, the MAPS project suggests to use different semantic technologies for retrieving the text and data and thus getting much more complying results. The main parts of our design of the search engine are: • Syntactic parser - This module is responsible for the extraction of "rich words" from the text

  2. Marine Planning and Service Platform: specific ontology based semantic search engine serving data management and sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, Giuseppe M. R.; Bartolini, Andrea; Bustaffa, Franco; D'Angelo, Paolo; De Mattei, Maurizio; Frontini, Francesca; Maltese, Maurizio; Medone, Daniele; Monachini, Monica; Novellino, Antonio; Spada, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The MAPS (Marine Planning and Service Platform) project is aiming at building a computer platform supporting a Marine Information and Knowledge System. One of the main objective of the project is to develop a repository that should gather, classify and structure marine scientific literature and data thus guaranteeing their accessibility to researchers and institutions by means of standard protocols. In oceanography the cost related to data collection is very high and the new paradigm is based on the concept to collect once and re-use many times (for re-analysis, marine environment assessment, studies on trends, etc). This concept requires the access to quality controlled data and to information that is provided in reports (grey literature) and/or in relevant scientific literature. Hence, creation of new technology is needed by integrating several disciplines such as data management, information systems, knowledge management. In one of the most important EC projects on data management, namely SeaDataNet (www.seadatanet.org), an initial example of knowledge management is provided through the Common Data Index, that is providing links to data and (eventually) to papers. There are efforts to develop search engines to find author's contributions to scientific literature or publications. This implies the use of persistent identifiers (such as DOI), as is done in ORCID. However very few efforts are dedicated to link publications to the data cited or used or that can be of importance for the published studies. This is the objective of MAPS. Full-text technologies are often unsuccessful since they assume the presence of specific keywords in the text; in order to fix this problem, the MAPS project suggests to use different semantic technologies for retrieving the text and data and thus getting much more complying results. The main parts of our design of the search engine are: • Syntactic parser - This module is responsible for the extraction of "rich words" from the text

  3. Assessing Local Knowledge Use in Agroforestry Management with Cognitive Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaac, Marney E.; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

    2009-06-01

    Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 ± 3 variables and 19 ± 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

  4. The Study on University Financial Management under Knowledge Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongfan, Xu

    The coming of knowledge economy creates unprecedented situation of economy development. The trend of education's globalization as well as communication means frequently updated severely hit the system of financial management. Along with the deep going of education industrialization, and development of logistics management socialization, system and content of university financial management are increasingly expending and getting more and more complex that result in new challenge and problems to financial management. In order to step up with university development of internationalization and the logistics development of socialization, the financial management has to reform in response to this new challenge and trend.

  5. Alzheimer's disease: current knowledge, management and research

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, S; Panisset, M; Nalbantoglu, J; Poirier, J

    1997-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a common neurological condition, appearing as early as age 40 but increasing dramatically in incidence over age 85. Different genetic factors are at play, modified by events over a lifetime. Clinical diagnosis is possible through careful history taking with a reliable informant and a minimum number of laboratory tests. A relatively predictable natural history can be observed, with progression through stages of cognitive loss, functional impairment and behavioural disinhibition or apathy. New medications such as donepezil offer hope for improving or stabilizing symptoms. Such treatment can be administered by primary care physicians with experience in the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's disease. Disease stabilization, or even prevention, may be possible in the future. PMID:9347775

  6. GS3: A Knowledge Management Architecture for Collaborative Geologic Sequestration Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Black, Gary D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Wurstner, Signe K.; Hui, Peter SY

    2010-01-10

    Modern scientific enterprises are inherently knowledge-intensive. In general, scientific studies in domains such as groundwater, climate, and other environmental modeling as well as fundamental research in chemistry, physics, and biology require the acquisition and manipulation of large amounts of experimental and field data in order to create inputs for large-scale computational simulations. The results of these simulations must then be analyzed, leading to refinements of inputs and models and further simulations. In this paper we describe our efforts in creating a knowledge management platform to support collaborative, wide-scale studies in the area of geologic sequestration. The platform, known as GS3 (Geologic Sequestration Software Suite), exploits and integrates off-the-shelf software components including semantic wikis, content management systems and open source middleware to create the core architecture. We then extend the wiki environment to support the capture of provenance, the ability to incorporate various analysis tools, and the ability to launch simulations on supercomputers. The paper describes the key components of GS3 and demonstrates its use through illustrative examples. We conclude by assessing the suitability of our approach for geologic sequestration modeling and generalization to other scientific problem domains

  7. Semantic querying of relational data for clinical intelligence: a semantic web services-based approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical Intelligence, as a research and engineering discipline, is dedicated to the development of tools for data analysis for the purposes of clinical research, surveillance, and effective health care management. Self-service ad hoc querying of clinical data is one desirable type of functionality. Since most of the data are currently stored in relational or similar form, ad hoc querying is problematic as it requires specialised technical skills and the knowledge of particular data schemas. Results A possible solution is semantic querying where the user formulates queries in terms of domain ontologies that are much easier to navigate and comprehend than data schemas. In this article, we are exploring the possibility of using SADI Semantic Web services for semantic querying of clinical data. We have developed a prototype of a semantic querying infrastructure for the surveillance of, and research on, hospital-acquired infections. Conclusions Our results suggest that SADI can support ad-hoc, self-service, semantic queries of relational data in a Clinical Intelligence context. The use of SADI compares favourably with approaches based on declarative semantic mappings from data schemas to ontologies, such as query rewriting and RDFizing by materialisation, because it can easily cope with situations when (i) some computation is required to turn relational data into RDF or OWL, e.g., to implement temporal reasoning, or (ii) integration with external data sources is necessary. PMID:23497556

  8. A Conceptual Framework for Examining Knowledge Management in Higher Education Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hae-Young; Roth, Gene L.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge management is an on-going process that involves varied activities: diagnosis, design, and implementation of knowledge creation, knowledge transfer, and knowledge sharing. The primary goal of knowledge management, like other management theories or models, is to identify and leverage organizational and individual knowledge for the…

  9. Knowledge-based system for flight information management. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Wendell R.

    1990-01-01

    The use of knowledge-based system (KBS) architectures to manage information on the primary flight display (PFD) of commercial aircraft is described. The PFD information management strategy used tailored the information on the PFD to the tasks the pilot performed. The KBS design and implementation of the task-tailored PFD information management application is described. The knowledge acquisition and subsequent system design of a flight-phase-detection KBS is also described. The flight-phase output of this KBS was used as input to the task-tailored PFD information management KBS. The implementation and integration of this KBS with existing aircraft systems and the other KBS is described. The flight tests are examined of both KBS's, collectively called the Task-Tailored Flight Information Manager (TTFIM), which verified their implementation and integration, and validated the software engineering advantages of the KBS approach in an operational environment.

  10. Verb Production during Action Naming in Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meligne, D.; Fossard, M.; Belliard, S.; Moreaud, O.; Duvignau, K.; Demonet, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with widely documented deficits of semantic knowledge relating to object concepts and the corresponding nouns in semantic dementia (SD), little is known about action semantics and verb production in SD. The degradation of action semantic knowledge was studied in 5 patients with SD compared with 17 matched control participants in an…

  11. Managing Project Landscapes in Knowledge-Based Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stantchev, Vladimir; Franke, Marc Roman

    Knowledge-based enterprises are typically conducting a large number of research and development projects simultaneously. This is a particularly challenging task in complex and diverse project landscapes. Project Portfolio Management (PPM) can be a viable framework for knowledge and innovation management in such landscapes. A standardized process with defined functions such as project data repository, project assessment, selection, reporting, and portfolio reevaluation can serve as a starting point. In this work we discuss the benefits a multidimensional evaluation framework can provide for knowledge-based enterprises. Furthermore, we describe a knowledge and learning strategy and process in the context of PPM and evaluate their practical applicability at different stages of the PPM process.

  12. Library and Information Professionals and Knowledge Management: Conceptions, Challenges and Conflicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southon, Gray; Todd, Ross

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of knowledge management focuses on a study that identified perceptions of knowledge management held by library and information science professionals in Australia. Reports on levels of awareness of the term knowledge management; perceptions of knowledge management and its relation to information management; and institutional…

  13. A knowledge continuity management program for the energy, infrastructure and knowledge systems center, Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, David F.

    2006-07-01

    A growing recognition exists in companies worldwide that, when employees leave, they take with them valuable knowledge that is difficult and expensive to recreate. The concern is now particularly acute as the large ''baby boomer'' generation is reaching retirement age. A new field of science, Knowledge Continuity Management (KCM), is designed to capture and catalog the acquired knowledge and wisdom from experience of these employees before they leave. The KCM concept is in the final stages of being adopted by the Energy, Infrastructure, and Knowledge Systems Center and a program is being applied that should produce significant annual cost savings. This report discusses how the Center can use KCM to mitigate knowledge loss from employee departures, including a concise description of a proposed plan tailored to the Center's specific needs and resources.

  14. Evolution in clinical knowledge management strategy at Intermountain Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Hulse, Nathan C; Galland, Joel; Borsato, Emerson P

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present an overview of the clinical knowledge management strategy at Intermountain Healthcare in support of our electronic medical record systems. Intermountain first initiated efforts in developing a centralized enterprise knowledge repository in 2001. Applications developed, areas of emphasis served, and key areas of focus are presented. We also detail historical and current areas of emphasis, in response to business needs. PMID:23304309

  15. A Knowledge Tree Model and Its Application for Continuous Management Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yun; Bao, Zhen-Qiang; Zhao, Yu-Qin; Wang, Yan; Wang, Gui-Jun

    This chapter analyzes the relationship of organizational knowledge and brings forward that organizational knowledge consists of three layers: core knowledge, structural knowledge, and implicit knowledge. According to the principle of knowledge maps, a dynamic management model of organizational knowledge based on knowledge tree is introduced and the definition of the value of knowledge node is given so that the quantitative management on knowledge is realized, which lays a foundation for performance evaluation of knowledge management. We also carefully study the application of knowledge tree in service quality management of hospital organizations and management innovation process and give the example of cooperation in endoscopic surgery to establish a knowledge tree about operational cooperation degree, which states the principle of organizational knowledge management and the knowledge innovation process of continuous management improvement.

  16. How to assess abstract conceptual knowledge: construction, standardization and validation of a new battery of semantic memory tests

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Pasquale Anthony Della; Catricalà, Eleonora; De Battisti, Silvia; Vinson, David; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Cappa, Stefano F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The neuropsychological investigation of semantic memory has mainly focused on concrete concepts, while abstract concepts have been relatively neglected. We describe a new battery for assessing abstract concepts in brain-damaged patients. The battery includes three different tests: an association task, a multiple-choice naming-to-description task and a sentence completion task. The three tasks are based on the same 40 stimuli belonging to different categories of abstract concepts and they are tightly controlled for variables that can account for quantitative differences between abstract concepts (i.e. concreteness, imageability, context availability, familiarity, age of acquisition, mode of acquisition, emotional valence and arousal). The three tasks showed high reliability. Normative data were collected from 108 healthy Italian adults. To assess its sensitivity, the battery was administered to 13 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease who performed worse than matched controls. Significant correlations were also found between the tests and other semantic memory tests, supporting the validity of the battery. PMID:25014049

  17. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    PubMed

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-11-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands. PMID:21767061

  18. Office of Nuclear Energy Knowledge Management Program Situational Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge management (KM) has been a high priority for the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the past several years. NE Programs are moving toward well-established knowledge management practices and a formal knowledge management program has been established. Knowledge management is being practiced to some level within each of the NE programs. Although it continues to evolve as NE programs evolve, a formal strategic plan that guides the implementation of KM has been developed. Despite the acceptance of KM within DOE NE, more work is necessary before the NE KM program can be considered fully successful. Per Dr. David J. Skyrme[1], an organization typically moves through the following evolutionary phases: (1) Ad-hoc - KM is being practiced to some level in some parts of the organization; (2) Formal - KM is established as a formal project or program; (3) Expanding - the use of KM as a discipline grows in practice across different parts of the organization; (4) Cohesive - there is a degree of coordination of KM; (5) Integrated - there are formal standards and approaches that give every individual access to most organizational knowledge through common interfaces; and (6) Embedded - KM is part-and-parcel of everyday tasks; it blends seamlessly into the background. According to the evolutionary phases, the NE KM program is operating at the two lower levels, Ad-hoc and Formal. Although KM is being practiced to some level, it is not being practiced in a consistent manner across the NE programs. To be fully successful, more emphasis must be placed on establishing KM standards and processes for collecting, organizing, sharing and accessing NE knowledge. Existing knowledge needs to be prioritized and gathered on a routine basis, its existence formally recorded in a knowledge inventory. Governance to ensure the quality of the knowledge being used must also be considered. For easy retrieval, knowledge must be organized according to a taxonomy that

  19. The State of Knowledge Management in Czech Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maresova, P.; Hedvicakova, M.

    In the globalised world, Czech economy faces many challenges brought by the processes of integration. The crucial factors for companies that want to succeed in the global competition are knowledge and abilities to use the knowledge in the best possible way. The purpose of the work is a familiarization with the results of a questionnaire survey with the topic of "Research of the state of knowledge management in companies in the Czech Republic" realized in the spring 2009 in the cooperation of the University of Hradec Králové and the consulting company Per Partes Consulting, Ltd under the patronage of the European Union.

  20. Neuro-Semantics and Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stewart W.

    1987-01-01

    Draws distinctions between the terms semantics (dealing with such verbal parameters as dictionaries and "laws" of logic and rhetoric), general semantics (semantics, plus the complex, dynamic, organismal properties of human beings and their physical environment), and neurosemantics (names for relations-based input from the neurosensory system, and…

  1. Cohort Selection and Management Application Leveraging Standards-based Semantic Interoperability and a Groovy DSL.

    PubMed

    Bucur, Anca; van Leeuwen, Jasper; Chen, Njin-Zu; Claerhout, Brecht; de Schepper, Kristof; Perez-Rey, David; Paraiso-Medina, Sergio; Alonso-Calvo, Raul; Mehta, Keyur; Krykwinski, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new Cohort Selection application implemented to support streamlining the definition phase of multi-centric clinical research in oncology. Our approach aims at both ease of use and precision in defining the selection filters expressing the characteristics of the desired population. The application leverages our standards-based Semantic Interoperability Solution and a Groovy DSL to provide high expressiveness in the definition of filters and flexibility in their composition into complex selection graphs including splits and merges. Widely-adopted ontologies such as SNOMED-CT are used to represent the semantics of the data and to express concepts in the application filters, facilitating data sharing and collaboration on joint research questions in large communities of clinical users. The application supports patient data exploration and efficient collaboration in multi-site, heterogeneous and distributed data environments. PMID:27570644

  2. Cohort Selection and Management Application Leveraging Standards-based Semantic Interoperability and a Groovy DSL

    PubMed Central

    Bucur, Anca; van Leeuwen, Jasper; Chen, Njin-Zu; Claerhout, Brecht; de Schepper, Kristof; Perez-Rey, David; Paraiso-Medina, Sergio; Alonso-Calvo, Raul; Mehta, Keyur; Krykwinski, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new Cohort Selection application implemented to support streamlining the definition phase of multi-centric clinical research in oncology. Our approach aims at both ease of use and precision in defining the selection filters expressing the characteristics of the desired population. The application leverages our standards-based Semantic Interoperability Solution and a Groovy DSL to provide high expressiveness in the definition of filters and flexibility in their composition into complex selection graphs including splits and merges. Widely-adopted ontologies such as SNOMED-CT are used to represent the semantics of the data and to express concepts in the application filters, facilitating data sharing and collaboration on joint research questions in large communities of clinical users. The application supports patient data exploration and efficient collaboration in multi-site, heterogeneous and distributed data environments. PMID:27570644

  3. Instructional Design as Knowledge Management: A Knowledge-in-Practice Approach to Choosing Instructional Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIver, Derrick; Fitzsimmons, Stacey; Flanagan, David

    2016-01-01

    Decisions about instructional methods are becoming more complex, with options ranging from problem sets to experiential service-learning projects. However, instructors not trained in instructional design may make these important decisions based on convenience, comfort, or trends. Instead, this article draws on the knowledge management literature…

  4. General Orientation to New Knowledge Utilization Fields of Informatics, Knowledge Management, and Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    One of a series of booklets on disability research, this paper explores two major developments in the application of information technology: health care informatics and knowledge management. Both of these concepts focus on maximizing the value of, and access to, information resources. Both use technology to create interactive systems through which…

  5. Determinants of nurses' knowledge gap on pain management in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aziato, Lydia; Adejumo, Oluyinka

    2014-03-01

    There are concerns about adequacy of nurses' knowledge and skill in effective pain management since effective pain management promotes early recovery after surgery. This study explores factors that accounted for Ghanaian nurses' inadequate knowledge of postoperative pain management using a focused ethnographic design for data collection at a tertiary teaching hospital in Ghana. Fourteen nurses designated as key informants with different backgrounds as nurse educators and leaders were purposively sampled to participate. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews; all interviews were conducted in English, audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. The study revealed that nurses' inadequate pain management knowledge might have resulted from curriculum gaps during training; inadequate clinical supervision, study days, and workshops for practising nurses; lack of funding for organising regular workshops; and, negative attitudes of nurses whereby new information learned at workshops was not readily applied in clinical practice. It was concluded that nursing curricula at all levels of training in Ghana should incorporate credit-bearing courses on pain management, and appropriate pain management education programmes should be instituted for practising nurses. Regular monitoring and evaluation of the impact of such education programs is required. PMID:24011564

  6. Surface and semantic processing of cellular transport representations by high school students with low and high prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Michelle Patrick

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of prior knowledge of cell transport processes on how students viewed and interpreted visual representations related to that topic. The participants were high school students (n=65) enrolled in Advanced Placement biology. Prior knowledge was assessed using a modified version of the Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (Odom & Barrow, 1995). Eye movements were measured to reveal how students distribute their visual attention as they perceive and interpret graphics; in addition, interviews and questionnaires were employed to provide more interpretive data sources. The first manuscript of the study investigates the relationship between prior knowledge and students' ability to perceive salient features and interpret graphic representations of cellular transport. The results from eye tracking data, interviews, and questionnaire responses were triangulated and revealed differences in how high and low prior knowledge students attended to and interpreted various features of the graphic representations. Without adequate domain knowledge, low prior knowledge students focused on surface features of the graphics to build an understanding of the concepts represented. High prior knowledge students, with more abundant and better organized domain knowledge, were more likely to attend to thematically relevant content in the graphics and construct deeper understandings. The second manuscript of the study examines the influence of prior knowledge on how students transitioned among the macroscopic and molecular representations of selected graphics. Eye tracking and sequential analysis results indicated that high prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between the molecular representations, where as low prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between the macroscopic representations. In addition, low prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between macroscopic and molecular representations

  7. Experience as Knowledge in a New Product Development Team: Implications for Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to better understand how New Product Development (NPD) team members apply their experiences to meet the task needs of their project. Although "experience" is highly valued in team members, little research has looked specifically at experiences as a type of knowledge, and how this knowledge is used in work settings. This research evaluated nearly 200 instances where team members referenced past experiences during team meetings. During these experience exchanges, team members structured the sharing of their experiences to include three common elements: the source of the experience, the nature of the experience, and the degree of relevance to the current work of the team. The experiences fell into four categories: people (relationships), process, product, and politics. This paper describes how team members structured, applied, and integrated their individual experiences and presents the resulting implications for knowledge management systems that wish to exploit experience knowledge.

  8. A semantic Grid Infrastructure Enabling Integrated Access and Knowledge Discovery from Multilevel Data in Ppost-Genomic Clinical Trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiknakis, Manolis; Sfakianakis, Stelios; Potamias, George; Zacharioudakis, Giorgos; Kafetzopoulos, Dimitris

    This paper reports on original results of the ACGT integrated project focusing on the design and development of a European Biomedical Grid infrastructure in support of multicentric, post genomic clinical trials on Cancer. The paper provides a presentation of the needs of users involved in post-genomic CTs, and presents such needs in the form of scenarios which drive the requirements engineering phase of the project. Subsequently, the initial architecture specified by the project is presented and its services are classified and discussed. The Master Ontology on Cancer, been developed by the project, is presented and our approach to develop the required metadata registries, which provide semantically rich information about available data and computational services, is provided. Finally, a short discussion of the work lying ahead is included.

  9. Libraries, Knowledge Management, and Higher Education in an Electronic Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Brian

    This paper discusses transformational change in academic libraries, as digital technology alters how services are provided, research is conducted, and learning occurs. Highlights include: advantages of libraries over the World Wide Web; redefining the knowledge management paradigm; two different types of information (i.e., explicit and tacit); a…

  10. Enhancing the Teaching-Learning Process: A Knowledge Management Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhusry, Mamta; Ranjan, Jayanthi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the need for knowledge management (KM) in the teaching-learning process in technical educational institutions (TEIs) in India, and to assert the impact of information technology (IT) based KM intervention in the teaching-learning process. Design/methodology/approach: The approach of the paper is…

  11. Order Out of Chaos: A Practitioner's Guide to Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfer, Joe

    1998-01-01

    Discusses knowledge management (KM) and provides a framework to determine what the varied viewpoints of a KM system entail as well as a framework for the economic valuation of KM projects. Highlights include case studies; entropy (measure extent of missing information); business process modeling; and technologies used in KM systems, including…

  12. Cultivating Knowledge Sharing through the Relationship Management Maturity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Valerie A.; Hatzakis, Tally; Lycett, Mark; Macredie, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the development of the relationship management maturity model (RMMM), the output of an initiative aimed at bridging the gap between business units and the IT organisation. It does this through improving and assessing knowledge sharing between business and IT staff in Finco, a large financial…

  13. Knowledge Management and Higher Education: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Rather than focusing on functional issues relating to implementation of knowledge management (KM) techniques, this book addresses the social aspects of KM. Using various social science perspectives, the volume provides critical analyses of KM in higher education, with an emphasis on unintended consequences and future implications. Fifteen chapters…

  14. Results of a Citation Analysis of Knowledge Management in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzunboylu, Huseyin; Eris, Hasan; Ozcinar, Zehra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine research and trends in knowledge management in education (KME) published in selected professional sources during the period 1990-2008. Citation analysis was used in this study to investigate documents related to KME, which were indexed in the Web of Science, Education Researches Information Center and…

  15. Draft position paper on knowledge management in space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Jeanne; Moura, Denis

    2003-01-01

    As other fields of industry, space activities are facing the challenge of Knowledge Management and the International Academy of Astronautics decided to settle in 2002 a Study Group to analyse the problem and issue general guidelines. This communication presents the draft position paper of this group in view to be discussed during the 2003 IAF Congress.

  16. Fusion of E-Learning & Knowledge Management. Innovative Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Steve; Stuedemann, Reed; Van Buren, Mark; Wentling, Tim L.

    Knowledge management (KM) has traditionally been well positioned within corporations. What has been less certain is how to use the information retained by KM practices to improve employee performance. Researchers are investigating how KM data/objects can be fused with e-learning practices to produce meaningful, effective, performance-enhancing…

  17. An Integrated Model for Effective Knowledge Management in Chinese Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Xiaomi; Deng, Hepu; Wang, Yiwen; Chao, Lemen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide organizations in the Chinese cultural context with a conceptual model for an integrated adoption of existing knowledge management (KM) methods and to improve the effectiveness of their KM activities. Design/methodology/approaches: A comparative analysis is conducted between China and the western…

  18. The Challenges of Knowledge Management to Human Performance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past year the author has conducted user, task and context analyses as part of a larger project to develop a knowledge management (KM) system for the U.S. Navy. In this piece he shares that experience as well as point out a few of the challenges that he encountered. Ideally, this account will provide the opportunity for others to compare…

  19. Knowledge Management for the Analysis of Complex Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R.; Schacher, G.; Gallup, S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a knowledge management system that was developed to help provide structure for dynamic and static data and to aid in the analysis of complex experimentation. Topics include quantitative and qualitative data; mining operations using artificial intelligence techniques; information architecture of the system; and transforming data into…

  20. The Impact of Management on Knowledge and Patient Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Hans Petter

    2011-01-01

    How do approaches to management affect knowledge and patient care? In this paper, the establishment and dismantling of an organisational unit for research and development (R&D) in a mental health department of a Norwegian health enterprise are analysed. The characteristics of two adverse treatment ideologies and their coherence with approaches to…

  1. Can Schools Realize the Learning Potential of Knowledge Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Alan; Parkes, Robert John

    2006-01-01

    In this position paper, reservations are presented regarding the potential of knowledge management (KM) as it is currently applied to the learning and teaching activity of schools. We contend that effective KM is contingent upon the explication of a deep and shared understanding of the learning and teaching process. We argue that the most…

  2. Knowledge Management and the Competitive Strategy of the Firm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halawi, Leila A.; McCarthy, Richard V.; Aronson, Jay E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge management (KM) has emerged as a strategy to improve organizational competitiveness. Our purpose is to identify the relationship between KM and the firm's competitive advantage. Design/methodology/approach: We review the existing literature on KM and strategy formulation. We utilize the resource-based view approach as a lens for…

  3. Teaching Knowledge Management by Combining Wikis and Screen Capture Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makkonen, Pekka; Siakas, Kerstin; Vaidya, Shakespeare

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on the design and creation of a knowledge management course aimed at facilitating student creation and use of social interactive learning tools for enhanced learning. Design/methodology/approach: The era of social media and web 2.0 has enabled a bottom-up collaborative approach and new ways to publish work on the…

  4. Using Knowledge Management to Revise Software-Testing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogeste, Kersti; Walker, Derek H. T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to use a knowledge management (KM) approach to effectively revise a utility retailer's software testing process. This paper presents a case study of how the utility organisation's customer services IT production support group improved their test planning skills through applying the American Productivity and Quality Center…

  5. Teachers' Practical Knowledge about Classroom Management in Multicultural Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Tartwijk, Jan; den Brok, Perry; Veldman, Ietje; Wubbels, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Creating a positive working atmosphere in the classroom is the first concern of many student and beginning teachers in secondary education. Teaching in multicultural classrooms provides additional challenges for these teachers. This study identified shared practical knowledge about classroom management strategies of teachers who were successful in…

  6. Data Mining and Knowledge Management in Higher Education -Potential Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luan, Jing

    This paper introduces a new decision support tool, data mining, in the context of knowledge management. The most striking features of data mining techniques are clustering and prediction. The clustering aspect of data mining offers comprehensive characteristics analysis of students, while the predicting function estimates the likelihood for a…

  7. E-Learning and Knowledge Management: The MEMORAe Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Marie-Helene; Lenne, Dominique; Cisse, Omar

    E-learning leads to changes in the way courses are conceived. Diffused through the Web, course content cannot be the pure transcription of a "classical" course. The students need to personalize it and to access it when they need it (just-in-time). The MEMORAe project aims at applying knowledge management techniques to improve the structure of the…

  8. Knowledge Management Model: Practical Application for Competency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustri, Denise; Miura, Irene; Takahashi, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present a knowledge management (KM) conceptual model for competency development and a case study in a law service firm, which implemented the KM model in a competencies development program. Design/methodology/approach: The case study method was applied according to Yin (2003) concepts, focusing a six-professional group…

  9. Semantics in support of biodiversity knowledge discovery: an introduction to the biological collections ontology and related ontologies.

    PubMed

    Walls, Ramona L; Deck, John; Guralnick, Robert; Baskauf, Steve; Beaman, Reed; Blum, Stanley; Bowers, Shawn; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Davies, Neil; Endresen, Dag; Gandolfo, Maria Alejandra; Hanner, Robert; Janning, Alyssa; Krishtalka, Leonard; Matsunaga, Andréa; Midford, Peter; Morrison, Norman; Ó Tuama, Éamonn; Schildhauer, Mark; Smith, Barry; Stucky, Brian J; Thomer, Andrea; Wieczorek, John; Whitacre, Jamie; Wooley, John

    2014-01-01

    The study of biodiversity spans many disciplines and includes data pertaining to species distributions and abundances, genetic sequences, trait measurements, and ecological niches, complemented by information on collection and measurement protocols. A review of the current landscape of metadata standards and ontologies in biodiversity science suggests that existing standards such as the Darwin Core terminology are inadequate for describing biodiversity data in a semantically meaningful and computationally useful way. Existing ontologies, such as the Gene Ontology and others in the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry library, provide a semantic structure but lack many of the necessary terms to describe biodiversity data in all its dimensions. In this paper, we describe the motivation for and ongoing development of a new Biological Collections Ontology, the Environment Ontology, and the Population and Community Ontology. These ontologies share the aim of improving data aggregation and integration across the biodiversity domain and can be used to describe physical samples and sampling processes (for example, collection, extraction, and preservation techniques), as well as biodiversity observations that involve no physical sampling. Together they encompass studies of: 1) individual organisms, including voucher specimens from ecological studies and museum specimens, 2) bulk or environmental samples (e.g., gut contents, soil, water) that include DNA, other molecules, and potentially many organisms, especially microbes, and 3) survey-based ecological observations. We discuss how these ontologies can be applied to biodiversity use cases that span genetic, organismal, and ecosystem levels of organization. We argue that if adopted as a standard and rigorously applied and enriched by the biodiversity community, these ontologies would significantly reduce barriers to data discovery, integration, and exchange among biodiversity resources and researchers

  10. Semantics in Support of Biodiversity Knowledge Discovery: An Introduction to the Biological Collections Ontology and Related Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Baskauf, Steve; Blum, Stanley; Bowers, Shawn; Davies, Neil; Endresen, Dag; Gandolfo, Maria Alejandra; Hanner, Robert; Janning, Alyssa; Krishtalka, Leonard; Matsunaga, Andréa; Midford, Peter; Tuama, Éamonn Ó.; Schildhauer, Mark; Smith, Barry; Stucky, Brian J.; Thomer, Andrea; Wieczorek, John; Whitacre, Jamie; Wooley, John

    2014-01-01

    The study of biodiversity spans many disciplines and includes data pertaining to species distributions and abundances, genetic sequences, trait measurements, and ecological niches, complemented by information on collection and measurement protocols. A review of the current landscape of metadata standards and ontologies in biodiversity science suggests that existing standards such as the Darwin Core terminology are inadequate for describing biodiversity data in a semantically meaningful and computationally useful way. Existing ontologies, such as the Gene Ontology and others in the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry library, provide a semantic structure but lack many of the necessary terms to describe biodiversity data in all its dimensions. In this paper, we describe the motivation for and ongoing development of a new Biological Collections Ontology, the Environment Ontology, and the Population and Community Ontology. These ontologies share the aim of improving data aggregation and integration across the biodiversity domain and can be used to describe physical samples and sampling processes (for example, collection, extraction, and preservation techniques), as well as biodiversity observations that involve no physical sampling. Together they encompass studies of: 1) individual organisms, including voucher specimens from ecological studies and museum specimens, 2) bulk or environmental samples (e.g., gut contents, soil, water) that include DNA, other molecules, and potentially many organisms, especially microbes, and 3) survey-based ecological observations. We discuss how these ontologies can be applied to biodiversity use cases that span genetic, organismal, and ecosystem levels of organization. We argue that if adopted as a standard and rigorously applied and enriched by the biodiversity community, these ontologies would significantly reduce barriers to data discovery, integration, and exchange among biodiversity resources and researchers

  11. Clinical Decision Support Knowledge Management: Strategies for Success.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Alswailem, Osama

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Decision Support Systems have been shown to increase quality of care, patient safety, improve adherence to guidelines for prevention and treatment, and avoid medication errors. Such systems depend mainly on two types of content; the clinical information related to patients and the medical knowledge related to the specialty that informs the system rules and alerts. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Saudi Arabia, the Health Information Technology Affairs worked on identifying best strategies and recommendations for successful CDSS knowledge management. A review of literature was conducted to identify main areas of challenges and factors of success. A qualitative survey was used over six months' duration to collect opinions, experiences and suggestions from both IT and healthcare professionals. Recommendations were categorized into ten main topics that should be addressed during the development and implementation of CDSS knowledge management tools in the hospital. PMID:26152955

  12. Semantic Research for Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need for semantic research in digital libraries to help overcome interoperability problems. Highlights include federal initiatives; semantic analysis; knowledge representations; human-computer interactions and information visualization; and the University of Illinois DLI (Digital Libraries Initiative) project through partnership with…

  13. Overview of the knowledge management system in ESA/ESOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, Roberta Mugellesi; Pallaschke, Siegmar; Merri, Mario; Montagnon, Elsa; Schabe, Melanie; Belingheri, Maurizio; Bucher, Michael

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the knowledge management (KM) system as implemented in a pilot project at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency (ESA). By means of audits, we have identified the main knowledge fields in our domain, weighted their importance in the short, medium and long terms, and derived KM requirements in order to preserve, maintain, share and enhance relevant knowledge. The preliminary results from the knowledge audits were analysed and discussed by domain experts, showing that the KM process put in place has been successfully validated and appropriate measures, like continuous training, have to be put in place. The KM requirements were then mapped on the existing KM infrastructure and the available KM resources in order to assess the status of KM at ESOC and to recommend its evolution. Finally, some additional suggestions are made regarding the future of the initiative and potential steps that might be taken to further support KM within ESOC.

  14. Knowledge management for chronic patient control and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedreira, Nieves; Aguiar-Pulido, Vanessa; Dorado, Julián; Pazos, Alejandro; Pereira, Javier

    2014-10-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) can be seen as the process of capturing, developing, sharing, and effectively using organizational knowledge. In this context, the work presented here proposes a KM System to be used in the scope of chronic patient control and monitoring for distributed research projects. It was designed in order to enable communication between patient and doctors, as well as to be usedbythe researchers involved in the project for its management. The proposed model integrates all the information concerning every patient and project management tasks in the Institutional Memory of a KMSystem and uses an ontology to maintain the information and its categorization independently. Furthermore, taking the philosophy of intelligent agents, the system will interact with the user to show him the information according to his preferences and access rights. Finally, three different scenarios of application are described.

  15. Semantic Relatedness for Evaluation of Course Equivalencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Beibei

    2012-01-01

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the…

  16. A Semantic Lexicon-Based Approach for Sense Disambiguation and Its WWW Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Lecce, Vincenzo; Calabrese, Marco; Soldo, Domenico

    This work proposes a basic framework for resolving sense disambiguation through the use of Semantic Lexicon, a machine readable dictionary managing both word senses and lexico-semantic relations. More specifically, polysemous ambiguity characterizing Web documents is discussed. The adopted Semantic Lexicon is WordNet, a lexical knowledge-base of English words widely adopted in many research studies referring to knowledge discovery. The proposed approach extends recent works on knowledge discovery by focusing on the sense disambiguation aspect. By exploiting the structure of WordNet database, lexico-semantic features are used to resolve the inherent sense ambiguity of written text with particular reference to HTML resources. The obtained results may be extended to generic hypertextual repositories as well. Experiments show that polysemy reduction can be used to hint about the meaning of specific senses in given contexts.

  17. PROCESS DOCUMENTATION: A MODEL FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIZATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Haddadpoor, Asefeh; Taheri, Behjat; Nasri, Mehran; Heydari, Kamal; Bahrami, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous and interconnected processes are a chain of activities that turn the inputs of an organization to its outputs and help achieve partial and overall goals of the organization. These activates are carried out by two types of knowledge in the organization called explicit and implicit knowledge. Among these, implicit knowledge is the knowledge that controls a major part of the activities of an organization, controls these activities internally and will not be transferred to the process owners unless they are present during the organization’s work. Therefore the goal of this study is identification of implicit knowledge and its integration with explicit knowledge in order to improve human resources management, physical resource management, information resource management, training of new employees and other activities of Isfahan University of Medical Science. Methods: The project for documentation of activities in department of health of Isfahan University of Medical Science was carried out in several stages. First the main processes and related sub processes were identified and categorized with the help of planning expert. The categorization was carried out from smaller processes to larger ones. In this stage the experts of each process wrote down all their daily activities and organized them into general categories based on logical and physical relations between different activities. Then each activity was assigned a specific code. The computer software was designed after understanding the different parts of the processes, including main and sup processes, and categorization, which will be explained in the following sections. Results: The findings of this study showed that documentation of activities can help expose implicit knowledge because all of inputs and outputs of a process along with the length, location, tools and different stages of the process, exchanged information, storage location of the information and information flow can be

  18. Find the Picture of Eight Turtles: A Link between Children's Counting and Their Knowledge of Number Word Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusser, Emily B.; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

    2011-01-01

    An essential part of understanding number words (e.g., "eight") is understanding that all number words refer to the dimension of experience we call numerosity. Knowledge of this general principle may be separable from knowledge of individual number word meanings. That is, children may learn the meanings of at least a few individual number words…

  19. From Data to Semantic Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floridi, Luciano

    2003-06-01

    There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI) as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information) is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

  20. Developing Knowledge and Value in Management Consulting. Research in Management Consulting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buono, Anthony F., Ed.

    This document contains 11 papers that explore knowledge and value development in the field of management consulting, with particular emphasis on trends and techniques in the practice of management consulting and the current theory and dynamics of management consulting. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Anthony F. Buono);…

  1. NCI's national environmental research data collection: metadata management built on standards and preparing for the semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingbo; Bastrakova, Irina; Evans, Ben; Gohar, Kashif; Santana, Fabiana; Wyborn, Lesley

    2015-04-01

    National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) manages national environmental research data collections (10+ PB) as part of its specialized high performance data node of the Research Data Storage Infrastructure (RDSI) program. We manage 40+ data collections using NCI's Data Management Plan (DMP), which is compatible with the ISO 19100 metadata standards. We utilize ISO standards to make sure our metadata is transferable and interoperable for sharing and harvesting. The DMP is used along with metadata from the data itself, to create a hierarchy of data collection, dataset and time series catalogues that is then exposed through GeoNetwork for standard discoverability. This hierarchy catalogues are linked using a parent-child relationship. The hierarchical infrastructure of our GeoNetwork catalogues system aims to address both discoverability and in-house administrative use-cases. At NCI, we are currently improving the metadata interoperability in our catalogue by linking with standardized community vocabulary services. These emerging vocabulary services are being established to help harmonise data from different national and international scientific communities. One such vocabulary service is currently being established by the Australian National Data Services (ANDS). Data citation is another important aspect of the NCI data infrastructure, which allows tracking of data usage and infrastructure investment, encourage data sharing, and increasing trust in research that is reliant on these data collections. We incorporate the standard vocabularies into the data citation metadata so that the data citation become machine readable and semantically friendly for web-search purpose as well. By standardizing our metadata structure across our entire data corpus, we are laying the foundation to enable the application of appropriate semantic mechanisms to enhance discovery and analysis of NCI's national environmental research data information. We expect that this will further

  2. Ecological Knowledge Among Communities, Managers and Scientists: Bridging Divergent Perspectives to Improve Forest Management Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, Lucy; Shackleton, Charlie; Gadamus, Lily; Chapin, F. Stuart; Gowda, C. Made; Setty, Siddappa; Kannan, Ramesh; Shaanker, R. Uma

    2016-04-01

    Multiple actors are typically involved in forest management, namely communities, managers and researchers. In such cases, suboptimal management outcomes may, in addition to other factors, be symptomatic of a divergence in perspectives among these actors driven by fundamental differences in ecological knowledge. We examine the degree of congruence between the understandings of actors surrounding key issues of management concern in three case studies from tropical, subtropical and boreal forests. We identify commonly encountered points of divergence in ecological knowledge relating to key management processes and issues. We use these to formulate seven hypotheses about differences in the bodies of knowledge that frequently underlie communication and learning failures in forest management contexts where multiple actors are involved and outcomes are judged to be suboptimal. Finally, we present a set of propositions to acknowledge and narrow these differences. A more complete recognition of the full triangulation between all actors involved, and of the influence that fundamental differences in ecological knowledge can exert, may help lead to a more fruitful integration between local knowledge and practice, manager knowledge and practice, and contemporary science in forest management.

  3. Ecological Knowledge Among Communities, Managers and Scientists: Bridging Divergent Perspectives to Improve Forest Management Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lucy; Shackleton, Charlie; Gadamus, Lily; Chapin, F Stuart; Gowda, C Made; Setty, Siddappa; Kannan, Ramesh; Shaanker, R Uma

    2016-04-01

    Multiple actors are typically involved in forest management, namely communities, managers and researchers. In such cases, suboptimal management outcomes may, in addition to other factors, be symptomatic of a divergence in perspectives among these actors driven by fundamental differences in ecological knowledge. We examine the degree of congruence between the understandings of actors surrounding key issues of management concern in three case studies from tropical, subtropical and boreal forests. We identify commonly encountered points of divergence in ecological knowledge relating to key management processes and issues. We use these to formulate seven hypotheses about differences in the bodies of knowledge that frequently underlie communication and learning failures in forest management contexts where multiple actors are involved and outcomes are judged to be suboptimal. Finally, we present a set of propositions to acknowledge and narrow these differences. A more complete recognition of the full triangulation between all actors involved, and of the influence that fundamental differences in ecological knowledge can exert, may help lead to a more fruitful integration between local knowledge and practice, manager knowledge and practice, and contemporary science in forest management. PMID:26661453

  4. The effects of knowledge management on surgeon behavior.

    PubMed

    Melick, Clifford F; Buchbinder, Dale; Coll, David P; Moore, Sylvia; Lee, Chih-Chen; Surysekar, Krishnamurthy; Wang, Te-Wei; Forgione, Dana A

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge management is an important process for health care researchers and administrators. The way we manage and transfer knowledge in an organization can have a substantial impact on behavior and performance. In this article, we examine the behavioral effects of transferring performance-efficiency knowledge to a group of hospital-based surgeons. We observe the way the knowledge transfer impacts their sense of professional accountability and practice patterns for a limited set of diagnoses. We defined performance efficiency for a surgeon as the deviation from expected average length of inpatient hospital stay, and from expected average hospital charges (adjusted for risk and outcomes) for three of the most frequently performed and most costly surgical procedures in our subject hospital. We communicated knowledge of their performance efficiency to the group of hospital-based surgeons, along with benchmarked professional best practices, and included an identification of dimensions where performance could be improved. We then measured and compared their performance efficiency one year later. We did observe differences in performance efficiency, but not in consistent directions, and not in statistically significant magnitudes. Also, surgeons who initially had low levels of efficiency continued to have low levels of efficiency one year later. Within a professional accountability system, transfer of performance-efficiency knowledge alone did not provide sufficient motivation to induce consistent, significant change in practice behaviors among the group of surgeons. We conclude that medical opinion leaders and individualized strategies for surgeon motivation may have greater promise for improving performance efficiency if linked to the knowledge transfer system. PMID:15816227

  5. A Survey of Knowledge Management Research & Development at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This chapter catalogs knowledge management research and development activities at NASA Ames Research Center as of April 2002. A general categorization scheme for knowledge management systems is first introduced. This categorization scheme divides knowledge management capabilities into five broad categories: knowledge capture, knowledge preservation, knowledge augmentation, knowledge dissemination, and knowledge infrastructure. Each of nearly 30 knowledge management systems developed at Ames is then classified according to this system. Finally, a capsule description of each system is presented along with information on deployment status, funding sources, contact information, and both published and internet-based references.

  6. C-Speak Aphasia Alternative Communication Program for People with Severe Aphasia: Importance of Executive Functioning and Semantic Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Marjorie; Sinotte, Michele P.; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Learning how to use a computer-based communication system can be challenging for people with severe aphasia even if the system is not word-based. This study explored cognitive and linguistic factors relative to how they affected individual patients’ ability to communicate expressively using C-Speak Aphasia, (CSA), an alternative communication computer program that is primarily picture-based. Ten individuals with severe non-fluent aphasia received at least six months of training with CSA. To assess carryover of training, untrained functional communication tasks (i.e., answering autobiographical questions, describing pictures, making telephone calls, describing a short video, and two writing tasks) were repeatedly probed in two conditions: 1) using CSA in addition to natural forms of communication, and 2) using only natural forms of communication, e.g., speaking, writing, gesturing, drawing. Four of the ten participants communicated more information on selected probe tasks using CSA than they did without the computer. Response to treatment also was examined in relation to baseline measures of non-linguistic executive function skills, pictorial semantic abilities, and auditory comprehension. Only nonlinguistic executive function skills were significantly correlated with treatment response. PMID:21506045

  7. A Distributed Reasoning Engine Ecosystem for Semantic Context-Management in Smart Environments

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego

    2012-01-01

    To be able to react adequately a smart environment must be aware of the context and its changes. Modeling the context allows applications to better understand it and to adapt to its changes. In order to do this an appropriate formal representation method is needed. Ontologies have proven themselves to be one of the best tools to do it. Semantic inference provides a powerful framework to reason over the context data. But there are some problems with this approach. The inference over semantic context information can be cumbersome when working with a large amount of data. This situation has become more common in modern smart environments where there are a lot sensors and devices available. In order to tackle this problem we have developed a mechanism to distribute the context reasoning problem into smaller parts in order to reduce the inference time. In this paper we describe a distributed peer-to-peer agent architecture of context consumers and context providers. We explain how this inference sharing process works, partitioning the context information according to the interests of the agents, location and a certainty factor. We also discuss the system architecture, analyzing the negotiation process between the agents. Finally we compare the distributed reasoning with the centralized one, analyzing in which situations is more suitable each approach. PMID:23112596

  8. A distributed reasoning engine ecosystem for semantic context-management in smart environments.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego

    2012-01-01

    To be able to react adequately a smart environment must be aware of the context and its changes. Modeling the context allows applications to better understand it and to adapt to its changes. In order to do this an appropriate formal representation method is needed. Ontologies have proven themselves to be one of the best tools to do it. Semantic inference provides a powerful framework to reason over the context data. But there are some problems with this approach. The inference over semantic context information can be cumbersome when working with a large amount of data. This situation has become more common in modern smart environments where there are a lot sensors and devices available. In order to tackle this problem we have developed a mechanism to distribute the context reasoning problem into smaller parts in order to reduce the inference time. In this paper we describe a distributed peer-to-peer agent architecture of context consumers and context providers. We explain how this inference sharing process works, partitioning the context information according to the interests of the agents, location and a certainty factor. We also discuss the system architecture, analyzing the negotiation process between the agents. Finally we compare the distributed reasoning with the centralized one, analyzing in which situations is more suitable each approach. PMID:23112596

  9. [Knowledge of breastfeeding management among residents in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Temboury Molina, M C

    2003-03-01

    The staff of maternity wards and clinics for maternal and child health should receive appropriate basic and in-service training on the health benefits of breastfeeding and on lactation management. Pediatricians should not only be knowledgeable about the health, nutritional and physiological aspects of appropriate feeding, they should also be familiar with the mechanics of breastfeeding, its various psychosocial influences, possible difficulties and how to overcome them. To evaluate knowledge of breastfeeding among pediatrics residents throughout Spain, a survey was conducted. A total of 250 questionnaires were collected. Significant differences were observed among provinces. In most areas, residents' training was insufficient. To achieve an appropriate level of knowledge among pediatrics residents in a subject as important to mother and child health as breastfeeding, courses should be given and repeated at regular intervals. Professional associations should be actively involved in promoting appropriate training for health professionals. PMID:12628099

  10. State of knowledge of coastal aquifer management in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocanegra, Emilia; da Silva, Gerson Cardoso; Custodio, Emilio; Manzano, Marisol; Montenegro, Suzana

    2010-02-01

    A comparative analysis of the existing hydrogeological and management information from 15 coastal aquifers in South America was performed in order to obtain insight into common features of the sub-continent coastal zones. Some knowledge from other areas has been incorporated. There is a very variable degree of knowledge and management practice, ranging from almost no data and no action (the most common case), to sound conceptual models about aquifer behaviour and comprehensive management actions such as relocation of abstractions, pumping brackish groundwater, and aquifer vulnerability mapping. Some common features are: intensive groundwater exploitation; lack of characterization studies to support resource planning and management; lack of monitoring networks; and the need for raising awareness within society and its involvement in resource planning and management action programmes. Quality and quantity problems arising in heavily populated areas associated with coastal aquifers in South America point to unsustainable groundwater development. The sustainable use of those aquifers must rely on adequate evaluation of aquifer characteristics and monitoring.

  11. The Oil and Natural Gas Knowledge Management Database from NETL

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Knowledge Management Database (KMD) Portal provides four options for searching the documents and data that NETL-managed oil and gas research has produced over the years for DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy. Information includes R&D carried out under both historical and ongoing DOE oil and gas research and development (R&D). The Document Repository, the CD/DVD Library, the Project Summaries from 1990 to the present, and the Oil and Natural Gas Program Reference Shelf provide a wide range of flexibility and coverage.

  12. Clinical management of dilated cardiomyopathy: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Marco; Cannatá, Antonio; Vitagliano, Alice; Zambon, Elena; Lardieri, Gerardina; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a primary heart muscle disease characterized by a progressive dilation and dysfunction of either the left or both ventricles. The management of DCM is currently challenging for clinicians. The persistent lack of knowledge about the etiology and pathophysiology of this disease continues to determine important fields of uncertainty in managing this condition. Molecular cardiology and genetics currently represent the most crucial horizon of increasing knowledge. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the disease allows clinicians to treat this disease more effectively and to further improve outcomes of DCM patients through advancements in etiologic characterization, prognostic stratification and individualized therapy. Left ventricular reverse remodeling predicts a lower rate of major cardiac adverse events independently from other factors. Optimized medical treatment and device implantation are pivotal in inducing left ventricular reverse remodeling. Newly identified targets, such as angiotensin-neprilysin inhibition, phosphodiesterase inhibition and calcium sensitizing are important in improving prognosis in patients affected by DCM. PMID:26606394

  13. Knowledge Management tools integration within DLR's concurrent engineering facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, R. P.; Soragavi, G.; Deshmukh, M.; Ludtke, D.

    The complexity of space endeavors has increased the need for Knowledge Management (KM) tools. The concept of KM involves not only the electronic storage of knowledge, but also the process of making this knowledge available, reusable and traceable. Establishing a KM concept within the Concurrent Engineering Facility (CEF) has been a research topic of the German Aerospace Centre (DLR). This paper presents the current KM tools of the CEF: the Software Platform for Organizing and Capturing Knowledge (S.P.O.C.K.), the data model Virtual Satellite (VirSat), and the Simulation Model Library (SimMoLib), and how their usage improved the Concurrent Engineering (CE) process. This paper also exposes the lessons learned from the introduction of KM practices into the CEF and elaborates a roadmap for the further development of KM in CE activities at DLR. The results of the application of the Knowledge Management tools have shown the potential of merging the three software platforms with their functionalities, as the next step towards the fully integration of KM practices into the CE process. VirSat will stay as the main software platform used within a CE study, and S.P.O.C.K. and SimMoLib will be integrated into VirSat. These tools will support the data model as a reference and documentation source, and as an access to simulation and calculation models. The use of KM tools in the CEF aims to become a basic practice during the CE process. The settlement of this practice will result in a much more extended knowledge and experience exchange within the Concurrent Engineering environment and, consequently, the outcome of the studies will comprise higher quality in the design of space systems.

  14. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  15. Citation and Recognition of contributions using Semantic Provenance Knowledge Captured in the OPeNDAP Software Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P.; Michaelis, J.; Lebot, T.; McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Providing proper citation and attribution for published data, derived data products, and the software tools used to generate them, has always been an important aspect of scientific research. However, It is often the case that this type of detailed citation and attribution is lacking. This is in part because it often requires manual markup since dynamic generation of this type of provenance information is not typically done by the tools used to access, manipulate, transform, and visualize data. In addition, the tools themselves lack the information needed to be properly cited themselves. The OPeNDAP Hyrax Software Framework is a tool that provides access to and the ability to constrain, manipulate, and transform, different types of data from different data formats, into a common format, the DAP (Data Access Protocol), in order to derive new data products. A user, or another software client, specifies an HTTP URL in order to access a particular piece of data, and appropriately transform it to suit a specific purpose of use. The resulting data products, however, do not contain any information about what data was used to create it, or the software process used to generate it, let alone information that would allow the proper citing and attribution to down stream researchers and tool developers. We will present our approach to provenance capture in Hyrax including a mechanism that can be used to report back to the hosting site any derived products, such as publications and reports, using the W3C PROV recommendation pingback service. We will demonstrate our utilization of Semantic Web and Web standards, the development of an information model that extends the PROV model for provenance capture, and the development of the pingback service. We will present our findings, as well as our practices for providing provenance information, visualization of the provenance information, and the development of pingback services, to better enable scientists and tool developers to be

  16. Improving data management and dissemination in web based information systems by semantic enrichment of descriptive data aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Steffen; Wehrmann, Thilo; Klinger, Verena; Schettler, Ingo; Huth, Juliane; Künzer, Claudia; Dech, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    The German-Vietnamese water-related information system for the Mekong Delta (WISDOM) project supports business processes in Integrated Water Resources Management in Vietnam. Multiple disciplines bring together earth and ground based observation themes, such as environmental monitoring, water management, demographics, economy, information technology, and infrastructural systems. This paper introduces the components of the web-based WISDOM system including data, logic and presentation tier. It focuses on the data models upon which the database management system is built, including techniques for tagging or linking metadata with the stored information. The model also uses ordered groupings of spatial, thematic and temporal reference objects to semantically tag datasets to enable fast data retrieval, such as finding all data in a specific administrative unit belonging to a specific theme. A spatial database extension is employed by the PostgreSQL database. This object-oriented database was chosen over a relational database to tag spatial objects to tabular data, improving the retrieval of census and observational data at regional, provincial, and local areas. While the spatial database hinders processing raster data, a "work-around" was built into WISDOM to permit efficient management of both raster and vector data. The data model also incorporates styling aspects of the spatial datasets through styled layer descriptions (SLD) and web mapping service (WMS) layer specifications, allowing retrieval of rendered maps. Metadata elements of the spatial data are based on the ISO19115 standard. XML structured information of the SLD and metadata are stored in an XML database. The data models and the data management system are robust for managing the large quantity of spatial objects, sensor observations, census and document data. The operational WISDOM information system prototype contains modules for data management, automatic data integration, and web services for data

  17. Velo: Riding the Knowledge Management Wave for Simulation and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Black, Gary D.; White, Signe K.; Purohit, Sumit; Madison, Michael C.; Schuchardt, Karen L.

    2011-05-28

    Modern scientific enterprises are inherently knowledge-intensive. In general, scientific studies in domains such as geosciences, climate, and biology require the acquisition and manipulation of large amounts of experimental and field data in order to create inputs for large-scale computational simulations. The results of these simulations must then be analyzed, leading to refinements of inputs and models and further simulations. Further, these results must be managed and archived to provide justifications for publications and regulatory decisions that are based on these models. In this paper we describe our Velo framework that is designed as a reusable, domain independent knowledge management infrastructure for modeling and simulation. Velo leverages, integrates, and extends open source collaborative and content management technologies to create a scalable and flexible core platform that can be tailored to specific scientific domains. In this paper we describe the architecture of Velo for managing and associating the various types of data that are used and created in modeling and simulation projects, as well as the framework for integrating domain-specific tools. To demonstrate a realization of Velo, we describe the Geologic Sequestration Software Suite (GS3) that has been developed to support geologic sequestration modeling. This provides a concrete example of the inherent extensibility and utility of our approach.

  18. Velo: A Knowledge Management Framework for Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Black, Gary D.; White, Signe K.; Purohit, Sumit; Lansing, Carina S.; Madison, Michael C.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Liu, Yan

    2012-03-01

    Modern scientific enterprises are inherently knowledge-intensive. Scientific studies in domains such as geosciences, climate, and biology require the acquisition and manipulation of large amounts of experimental and field data to create inputs for large-scale computational simulations. The results of these simulations are then analyzed, leading to refinements of inputs and models and additional simulations. The results of this process must be managed and archived to provide justifications for regulatory decisions and publications that are based on the models. In this paper we introduce our Velo framework that is designed as a reusable, domain independent knowledge management infrastructure for modeling and simulation. Velo leverages, integrates and extends open source collaborative and content management technologies to create a scalable and flexible core platform that can be tailored to specific scientific domains. We describe the architecture of Velo for managing and associating the various types of data that are used and created in modeling and simulation projects, as well as the framework for integrating domain-specific tools. To demonstrate realizations of Velo, we describe examples from two deployed sites for carbon sequestration and climate modeling. These provide concrete example of the inherent extensibility and utility of our approach.

  19. L2 and Deaf Learners' Knowledge of Numerically Quantified English Sentences: Acquisitional Parallels at the Semantics/Discourse-Pragmatics Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Gerald P.; Kelly, Ronald R.; Schueler-Choukairi, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed knowledge of numerically quantified English sentences in two learner populations--second language (L2) learners and deaf learners--whose acquisition of English occurs under conditions of restricted access to the target language input. Under the experimental test conditions, interlanguage parallels were predicted to arise from…

  20. The Semantic Management of Environmental Resources within the Interoperable Context of the EuroGEOSS: Alignment of GEMET and the GEOSS SBAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cialone, Claudia; Stock, Kristin

    2010-05-01

    -source application to assist thematic experts in defining the mappings between concepts in the two classification schemes. The application will then generate SKOS mappings (exactMatch, closeMatch, broadMatch, narrowMatch, relatedMatch) based on thematic expert selections between the concepts in GEMET with the SBAs (including both the general Societal Benefit Areas and their subcategories). Once these mappings are defined and the SKOS files generated, resource providers will be able to select concepts from either GEMET or the SBAs (or a mixture) to describe their resources, and discovery approaches will support selection of concepts from either classification scheme, also returning results classified using the other scheme. While the focus of our work has been on the SBAs and GEMET, we also plan to provide a method for resource providers to further extend the semantic infrastructure by defining alignments to new classification schemes if these are required to support particular specialized thematic areas that are not covered by GEMET. In this way, the approach is flexible and suited to the general scope of EuroGEOSS, allowing specialists to increase at will the level of semantic quality and specificity of data to the initial infrastructural skeleton of the project. References ____________________________________________ Joint research Centre (JRC), 2008. INSPIRE Metadata Editor User Guide Pérez-Gómez A., Fernandez-Lopez M., Corcho O. Ontological engineering: With Examples from the Areas of Knowledge Management, e-Commerce and the Semantic Web.Spinger: London, 2004

  1. Dentists and eating disorders--knowledge, attitudes, management and experience.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Nohlert, Eva; Johansson, Anders; Norring, Claes; Tegelberg, Ake

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to explore the level of knowledge and attitudes among dentists in relation to patients with eating disorders (ED) and evaluate the extent to which patients with ED are identified and/or treated in the dental setting. A postal questionnaire was constructed and sent to all dentists (n = 367) in two Swedish counties during November 2005. The questionnaire comprised 29 questions or statements in the following categories: demographics, general knowledge of ED and its oral consequences, experience of and attitudes towards patients with ED and interaction within the health care system, for example, referrals and treatment options regarding this patient group. The response rate was 70% (n = 258). Perceived knowledge about ED was most commonly obtained from media sources, namely newspapers, television, etc. Few dentists knew that there existed specialized referral units for ED patients in their county. The majority of dentists stated that they had seen only a few such patients during their practice. Even though the perceived level of general knowledge about ED among female dentists appeared to be better than among male dentists, they also found it more difficult to inform the patient/relatives about their suspicion of the condition. Female dentists referred to specialists significantly more frequently than did males. Eighty-six percent of responders reported that they needed more training in dental management of patients with ED. Knowledge and clinical experience of dentists as regards patients with ED were found to be low. The level of education in this area needs to be improved, which would have the potential to encourage dentists to become more involved in secondary and tertiary prevention and management of ED. PMID:19522312

  2. Providing Knowledge Recommendations: An Approach for Informal Electronic Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Casado-Lumbreras, Cristina; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Misra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The use of Web 2.0 technologies for knowledge management is invading the corporate sphere. The Web 2.0 is the most adopted knowledge transfer tool within knowledge intensive firms and is starting to be used for mentoring. This paper presents IM-TAG, a Web 2.0 tool, based on semantic technologies, for informal mentoring. The tool offers…

  3. Developing Knowledge Management (KM): Contributions by Organizational Learning and Total Quality Management (TQM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Lien, Bella Ya-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge management is an integral business function for many organizations to manage intellectual resources effectively. From a resource-based perspective, organizational learning and TQM are antecedents that are closely related to KM. The purposes of this study were to explain the contents of KM, and explore the relationship between KM-related…

  4. Dynamic composition of semantic pathways for medical computational problem solving by means of semantic rules.

    PubMed

    Bratsas, Charalampos; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Kehagias, Dionisis D; Kaimakamis, Evangelos; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a semantic rule-based system for the composition of successful algorithmic pathways capable of solving medical computational problems (MCPs). A subset of medical algorithms referring to MCP solving concerns well-known medical problems and their computational algorithmic solutions. These solutions result from computations within mathematical models aiming to enhance healthcare quality via support for diagnosis and treatment automation, especially useful for educational purposes. Currently, there is a plethora of computational algorithms on the web, which pertain to MCPs and provide all computational facilities required to solve a medical problem. An inherent requirement for the successful construction of algorithmic pathways for managing real medical cases is the composition of a sequence of computational algorithms. The aim of this paper is to approach the composition of such pathways via the design of appropriate finite-state machines (FSMs), the use of ontologies, and SWRL semantic rules. The goal of semantic rules is to automatically associate different algorithms that are represented as different states of the FSM in order to result in a successful pathway. The rule-based approach is herein implemented on top of Knowledge-Based System for Intelligent Computational Search in Medicine (KnowBaSICS-M), an ontology-based system for MCP semantic management. Preliminary results have shown that the proposed system adequately produces algorithmic pathways in agreement with current international medical guidelines. PMID:21335316

  5. Semantic service-oriented architecture for range operation: evolving the role of semantics in the enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Richard; Bimson, Kent; Hyle, Richard; Thiebauth, Richard

    2009-05-01

    The Knowledge Management Framework (KMF) of the US Air Force 45th Space Wing's Knowledge Management Initiative (KMI) is a semantic service-oriented architecture that provides Eastern Range stakeholders with a semantically unified, web-based view of distributed range information-a Single Integrated Range Picture-through a virtual, federated, ontology-based enterprise model. Design time activities include the creation of physical data services and mapping of those physical data services to logical data services corresponding to the concepts described in an OWLDL[ 1] ontology. The physical data services aggregate and normalize information stored within federated relational databases and XML[2] files. Runtime activities are managed through a single web service providing methods for ontology discovery, ontology inspection and retrieval of concept instances from federated data sources. We present lessons learned and the technology currently under development to support ontology-driven EII, reasoning, and search. We finish by discussing how these lessons have reshaped our thinking about the role of semantics in enriching information to make it more meaningful for stakeholders, and the impact of these new concepts on our evolving KMF architecture.

  6. [Radiological knowledge management with the help of departmental wikis].

    PubMed

    Schuster, A; Brachthäuser, D; Mansour, M; Alfke, H

    2016-09-01

    In times of RIS (radiology information system) and KIS (hospital information system) systems, patient-related data are at the radiologist's disposal at the push of a button. However, this is not the case for other important data. The increasing complexity of modern medicine demands that up-to-date information like protocols, SOPs (Standards of Practice), news and modifications are constantly accessible to all employees. This aspect of quality assurance becomes increasingly important in the context of certification. For such knowledge management purposes we have built a wiki in our department. Here we report our positive experiences with this technology. PMID:27495785

  7. UMLS as Knowledge Base-A Rule-Based Expert System Approach to Controlled Medical Vocabulary Management

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J.; Hripcsak, George; Johnson, Stephen B.; Friedman, Carol; Fink, Daniel J.; Clayton, Paul D.

    1990-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine is developing a Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) which addresses the need for integration of several large, nationally accepted vocabularies. This is important to the clinical information system under development at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (CPMC). We are using UMLS components as the core of our effort to integrate existing local CPMC vocabularies which are not among the source vocabularies of the UMLS. We are also using the UMLS to build a knowledge base of vocabulary structure and content such that logical rules can be developed to assist in the management of our integrated vocabularies. At present, the UMLS Semantic Network is used to organize terms which describe laboratory procedures. We have developed a set of rules for identifying undesirable conditions in our vocabulary. We have applied these rules to 526 laboratory test terms and have found ten cases (2%) of definite redundancy and sixty-eight cases (13%) of potential redundancy. The rules have also been used to organize the terminology in new ways that facilitate its management. Using the UMLS model as a vocabulary knowledge base allows us to apply an expert system approach to vocabulary integration and management.

  8. Using ICT to Enhance Knowledge Management in Higher Education: A Conceptual Framework and Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omona, Walter; van der Weide, Theo; Lubega, Jude

    2010-01-01

    The adoption and use of ICT to enhance and facilitate Knowledge Management (KM) has brought to focus the urgent need to come out with new methods, tools and techniques in the development of KM systems frameworks, knowledge processes and knowledge technologies to promote effective management of knowledge for improved service deliveries in higher…

  9. The Impact of Knowledge Management and Technology: An Analysis of Administrative Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurluoz, Ozdem; Birol, Cem

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management is crucial in higher education practices that refer knowledge sharing, feedback and communication process as part of the quality improvements. In this process, technology has a role to diffuse knowledge and create a link for sharing within the knowledge management process. In this respect, this research study aims to examine…

  10. A DNA-Based Semantic Fusion Model for Remote Sensing Data

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Heng; Weng, Jian; Yu, Guangchuang; Massawe, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Semantic technology plays a key role in various domains, from conversation understanding to algorithm analysis. As the most efficient semantic tool, ontology can represent, process and manage the widespread knowledge. Nowadays, many researchers use ontology to collect and organize data's semantic information in order to maximize research productivity. In this paper, we firstly describe our work on the development of a remote sensing data ontology, with a primary focus on semantic fusion-driven research for big data. Our ontology is made up of 1,264 concepts and 2,030 semantic relationships. However, the growth of big data is straining the capacities of current semantic fusion and reasoning practices. Considering the massive parallelism of DNA strands, we propose a novel DNA-based semantic fusion model. In this model, a parallel strategy is developed to encode the semantic information in DNA for a large volume of remote sensing data. The semantic information is read in a parallel and bit-wise manner and an individual bit is converted to a base. By doing so, a considerable amount of conversion time can be saved, i.e., the cluster-based multi-processes program can reduce the conversion time from 81,536 seconds to 4,937 seconds for 4.34 GB source data files. Moreover, the size of result file recording DNA sequences is 54.51 GB for parallel C program compared with 57.89 GB for sequential Perl. This shows that our parallel method can also reduce the DNA synthesis cost. In addition, data types are encoded in our model, which is a basis for building type system in our future DNA computer. Finally, we describe theoretically an algorithm for DNA-based semantic fusion. This algorithm enables the process of integration of the knowledge from disparate remote sensing data sources into a consistent, accurate, and complete representation. This process depends solely on ligation reaction and screening operations instead of the ontology. PMID:24116207

  11. A Process-Based Knowledge Management System for Schools: A Case Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chi-Lung; Lu, Hsi-Peng; Yang, Chyan; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge management systems, or KMSs, have been widely adopted in business organizations, yet little research exists on the actual integration of the knowledge management model and the application of KMSs in secondary schools. In the present study, the common difficulties and limitations regarding the implementation of knowledge management into…

  12. Knowledge Management: Education for Information Professionals in the Age of the Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.; Southon, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of knowledge management focuses on the program for professional education for knowledge management at the University of Technology, Sydney (Australia). Considers attributes of graduates, industry trends that inform the program, the information-knowledge debate, information management, organizational culture, and learning principles and…

  13. The Research for Knowledge Management System of Virtual Enterprise Based on Multi-agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Yang; Xu, Shenghua

    By analyzing the features and knowledge management system of virtual enterprise, the research introduces the complex adaptive systems into the knowledge management system of virtual enterprise. It offers a model based on the knowledge management system of virtual enterprise and discusses the functions of each agent as well as mutual communication and coordination mechanism.

  14. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Knowledge Management and Performance Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, James; Rossett, Allison

    2000-01-01

    Discusses knowledge management and considers how the profession has developed from job aids and documentation. Topics include organizational culture and policies; access to information; enabling technologies; customer focus; training for knowledge management; and leadership roles played by knowledge management and performance professionals.…

  15. Social Ontology Documentation for Knowledge Externalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda-Corral, Gonzalo A.; Borrego-Díaz, Joaquín; Jiménez-Mavillard, Antonio

    Knowledge externalization and organization is a major challenge that companies must face. Also, they have to ask whether is possible to enhance its management. Mechanical processing of information represents a chance to carry out these tasks, as well as to turn intangible knowledge assets into real assets. Machine-readable knowledge provides a basis to enhance knowledge management. A promising approach is the empowering of Knowledge Externalization by the community (users, employees). In this paper, a social semantic tool (called OntoxicWiki) for enhancing the quality of knowledge is presented.

  16. Knowledge, attitude and practice of hospital staff management.

    PubMed

    Lakbala, Parvin; Lakbala, Mahboobeh

    2013-07-01

    The proper handling and disposal of biomedical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There is a defined set of rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in the execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of hospital staff to BMW management. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 healthcare workers from 9 hospitals, which were randomized from 32 hospitals. The most important finding was a significant (P < 0.05) relationship between the level of education attainments and training in BMW management. Twenty-nine (19.9%) members of government hospital staff and 37 (32.2%) members of staff from the private sector agreed that BMW management is not just the government's responsibility, but one that every member of personnel should share. This finding will help to address the issue more appropriately, and plan for better training programs and monitoring of BMW management systems in hospitals. PMID:23585502

  17. X-Informatics: Practical Semantic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    The discipline of data science is merging with multiple science disciplines to form new X-informatics research disciplines. They are almost too numerous to name, but they include geoinformatics, bioinformatics, cheminformatics, biodiversity informatics, ecoinformatics, materials informatics, and the emerging discipline of astroinformatics. Within any X-informatics discipline, the information granules are unique to that discipline -- e.g., gene sequences in bio, the sky object in astro, and the spatial object in geo (such as points, lines, and polygons in the vector model, and pixels in the raster model). Nevertheless the goals are similar: transparent data re-use across subdisciplines and within education settings, information and data integration and fusion, personalization of user interactions with the data collection, semantic search and retrieval, and knowledge discovery. The implementation of an X-informatics framework enables these semantic e-science research goals. We describe the concepts, challenges, and new developments associated with the new discipline of astroinformatics, and how geoinformatics provides valuable lessons learned and a model for practical semantic science within a traditional science discipline through the accretion of data science methodologies (such as formal metadata creation, data models, data mining, information retrieval, knowledge engineering, provenance, taxonomies, and ontologies). The emerging concept of data-as-a-service (DaaS) builds upon the concept of smart data (or data DNA) for intelligent data management, automated workflows, and intelligent processing. Smart data, defined through X-informatics, enables several practical semantic science use cases, including self-discovery, data intelligence, automatic recommendations, relevance analysis, dimension reduction, feature selection, constraint-based mining, interdisciplinary data re-use, knowledge-sharing, data use in education, and more. We describe these concepts within the

  18. Semantic Categorization: A Comparison between Deaf and Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen A.; Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Hermans, Daan; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2010-01-01

    Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In the present study, the quality of the semantic…

  19. The Knowledge Dictionary: A KBMS architecture for the many-to-many coupling of knowledge based-systems to databases

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The effective management and leveraging of organizational knowledge has become the focus of much research in the computer industry. One specific area is the creation of information systems that combine the ability to manage large stores of data, making it available to many users, with the ability to reason and make inferences over bodies of knowledge capturing specific expertise in some problem domain. A Knowledge Base Management System (KBMS) is a system providing management of a large shared knowledge base for (potentially) many knowledge-based systems (KBS). A KBMS architecture for coupling knowledge-based systems to databases has been developed. The architecture is built around a repository known as the Knowledge Dictionary-a multi-level self-describing framework that facilitates the KBS-DBMS integration. Th Knowledge Dictionary architecture allows the following enhancements to be made to be made to the KBS environment: knowledge sharing among multiple KBS applications; knowledge management of semantic integrity over large-scale (declarative) knowledge bases; and, knowledge maintenance as the declarative portion of the shared knowledge base evolves over time. This dissertation discusses the architecture of the Knowledge Dictionary, and the underlying knowledge representation framework, focusing on how it is used to provide knowledge management services to the KBS applications having their declarative knowledge base components stored as databases in the DBMS. The specific service investigated is the management of semantic integrity of the knowledge base.

  20. Creation of a knowledge management system for QT analyses.

    PubMed

    Tornøe, Christoffer W; Garnett, Christine E; Wang, Yaning; Florian, Jeffry; Li, Michael; Gobburu, Jogarao V

    2011-07-01

    An increasing number of thorough QT (TQT) reports are being submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration's interdisciplinary review team for QT (IRT-QT), requiring time-intensive quantitative analyses by a multidisciplinary review team within 45 days. This calls for systematic learning to guide future trials and policies by standardizing and automating the QT analyses to improve review efficiency, provide consistent advice, and enable pooled data analyses to answer key regulatory questions. The QT interval represents the time from initiation of ventricular depolarization to completion of ventricular repolarization recorded by electrocardiograph (ECG) and is used in the proarrhythmic risk assessment. The developed QT knowledge management system is implemented in the R package "QT." Data from 11 crossover TQT studies including time-matched ECGs and pharmacokinetic measurements following single doses of 400 to 1200 mg moxifloxacin were used for the QT analysis example. The automated workflow was divided into 3 components (data management, analysis, and archival). The generated data sets, scripts, tables, and graphs are automatically stored in a queryable repository and summarized in an analysis report. More than 100 TQT studies have been analyzed using the system since 2007. This has dramatically reduced the time needed to review TQT studies and has made the IRT-QT reviews consistent across reviewers. Furthermore, the system enables leveraging prior knowledge through pooled data analyses to answer policy-related questions and to understand the various effects that influence study results. PMID:20978278

  1. Water management simulation games and the construction of knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusca, M.; Heun, J.; Schwartz, K.

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, simulations have become an important part of teaching activities. The reasons behind the popularity of simulation games are twofold. On the one hand, emerging theories on how people learn have called for an experienced-based learning approach. On the other hand, the demand for water management professionals has changed. Three important developments are having considerable consequences for water management programmes, which educate and train these professionals. These developments are the increasing emphasis on integration in water management, the characteristics and speed of reforms in the public sector and the shifting state-society relations in many countries. In response to these developments, demand from the labour market is oriented toward water professionals who need to have both a specialist in-depth knowledge in their own field, as well as the ability to understand and interact with other disciplines and interests. In this context, skills in negotiating, consensus building and working in teams are considered essential for all professionals. In this paper, we argue that simulation games have an important role to play in (actively) educating students and training the new generation of water professionals to respond to the above-mentioned challenges. At the same time, simulations are not a panacea for learners and teachers. Challenges of using simulation games include the demands it places on the teacher. Setting up the simulation game, facilitating the delivery and ensuring that learning objectives are achieved require considerable knowledge and experience as well as considerable time-inputs of the teacher. Moreover, simulation games usually incorporate a case-based learning model, which may neglect or underemphasize theories and conceptualizations. For simulations to be effective, they have to be embedded in this larger theoretical and conceptual framework. Simulations, therefore, complement rather than substitute traditional teaching

  2. Water management simulation games and the construction of knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusca, M.; Heun, J.; Schwartz, K.

    2012-03-01

    In recent years simulations have become an important part of teaching activities. The reasons behind the popularity of simulation games are twofold. On the one hand, emerging theories on how people learn have called for an experienced-based learning approach. On the other hand, the demand for water management professionals has changed. Three important developments are having considerable consequences for water management programmes, which educate and train these professionals. These developments are the increasing emphasis on integration in water management, the characteristics and speed of reforms in the public sector and the shifting state-society relations in many countries. In response to these developments, demand from the labour market is oriented toward water professionals who need to have both a specialist in-depth knowledge in their own field, as well as the ability to understand and interact with other disciplines and interests. In this context, skills in negotiating, consensus building and working in teams are considered essential for all professionals. In this paper we argue that simulation games have an important role to play in (actively) educating students and training the new generation of water professionals to respond to the above-mentioned challenges. At the same time, simulations are not a panacea for learners and teachers. Challenges of using simulations games include the demands it places on the teacher. Setting up the simulation game, facilitating the delivery and ensuring that learning objectives are achieved requires considerable knowledge and experience as well as considerable time-inputs of the teacher. Moreover, simulation games usually incorporate a case-based learning model, which may neglect or underemphasize theories and conceptualization. For simulations to be effective they have to be embedded in this larger theoretical and conceptual framework. Simulations, therefore, complement rather than substitute traditional teaching methods.

  3. Knowledge management impact of information technology Web 2.0/3.0. The case study of agent software technology usability in knowledge management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sołtysik-Piorunkiewicz, Anna

    2015-02-01

    How we can measure the impact of internet technology Web 2.0/3.0 for knowledge management? How we can use the Web 2.0/3.0 technologies for generating, evaluating, sharing, organizing knowledge in knowledge-based organization? How we can evaluate it from user-centered perspective? Article aims to provide a method for evaluate the usability of web technologies to support knowledge management in knowledge-based organizations of the various stages of the cycle knowledge management, taking into account: generating knowledge, evaluating knowledge, sharing knowledge, etc. for the modern Internet technologies based on the example of agent technologies. The method focuses on five areas of evaluation: GUI, functional structure, the way of content publication, organizational aspect, technological aspect. The method is based on the proposed indicators relating respectively to assess specific areas of evaluation, taking into account the individual characteristics of the scoring. Each of the features identified in the evaluation is judged first point wise, then this score is subject to verification and clarification by means of appropriate indicators of a given feature. The article proposes appropriate indicators to measure the impact of Web 2.0/3.0 technologies for knowledge management and verification them in an example of agent technology usability in knowledge management system.

  4. Knowledge Management in Healthcare Zipperer Lorri Knowledge Management in Healthcare 250pp £70 Gower Publishing 9781409438830 140943883X [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2014-10-30

    AN INTENSE academic review of knowledge management is provided by this book, covering the nature of knowledge-sharing environments, insights from healthcare workers, and advice on how to initiate and measure knowledge sharing. While many of the contributors are academic leaders in the US, it will translate to the UK and NHS. PMID:25355116

  5. Designing and Developing a NASA Research Projects Knowledge Base and Implementing Knowledge Management and Discovery Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabiru, L.; O'Hara, C. G.; Shaw, D.; Katragadda, S.; Anderson, D.; Kim, S.; Shrestha, B.; Aanstoos, J.; Frisbie, T.; Policelli, F.; Keblawi, N.

    2006-12-01

    The Research Project Knowledge Base (RPKB) is currently being designed and will be implemented in a manner that is fully compatible and interoperable with enterprise architecture tools developed to support NASA's Applied Sciences Program. Through user needs assessment, collaboration with Stennis Space Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, and NASA's DEVELOP Staff personnel insight to information needs for the RPKB were gathered from across NASA scientific communities of practice. To enable efficient, consistent, standard, structured, and managed data entry and research results compilation a prototype RPKB has been designed and fully integrated with the existing NASA Earth Science Systems Components database. The RPKB will compile research project and keyword information of relevance to the six major science focus areas, 12 national applications, and the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). The RPKB will include information about projects awarded from NASA research solicitations, project investigator information, research publications, NASA data products employed, and model or decision support tools used or developed as well as new data product information. The RPKB will be developed in a multi-tier architecture that will include a SQL Server relational database backend, middleware, and front end client interfaces for data entry. The purpose of this project is to intelligently harvest the results of research sponsored by the NASA Applied Sciences Program and related research program results. We present various approaches for a wide spectrum of knowledge discovery of research results, publications, projects, etc. from the NASA Systems Components database and global information systems and show how this is implemented in SQL Server database. The application of knowledge discovery is useful for intelligent query answering and multiple-layered database construction. Using advanced EA tools such as the Earth Science Architecture Tool (ESAT), RPKB will enable NASA and

  6. Acts and knowledge management in the NUCLEUS hospital information system.

    PubMed Central

    Kanoui, H.; Joubert, M.; Favard, R.; Maury, G.; Pelletier, M.

    1995-01-01

    NUCLEUS is a project completed in June 1995 in the frame of the European Community programme AIM (Advanced Informatics in Medicine). The main result of NUCLEUS is a prototype of an integrated patient dossier. Together with this patient dossier, facilities have been developed for its customisation by the various categories of end-users. A semantic model has been designed to guide and control the exploitation of data, and ensures the overall integrity of the information system. PMID:8563297

  7. Managing Social Capital as Knowledge Management - Some Specification and Representation Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Graham, Martin; Kennedy, Jessie; Taylor, Katharine

    2003-01-01

    This research attempts to identify how social capital is manifest within the contexts of small firm networks that rely on rapid turnover of projects. Presents work to date that converts tacit knowledge into sets of explicit and manageable local data, and provides examples of information visualizations for profiling and retrieval that support the…

  8. Knowledge Management Capabilities and Organizational Performance: An Investigation into the Effects of Knowledge Infrastructure and Processes on Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Taejun

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge is one of the most important assets for surviving in the modern business environment. The effective management of that asset mandates continuous adaptation by organizations, and requires employees to strive to improve the company's work processes. Organizations attempt to coordinate their unique knowledge with traditional means as well…

  9. Developing Organisational Knowledge Management Initiatives: A Collaborative Research Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linger, Henry

    The articulation of the knowledge management (KM) concept has occurred in the context of a radical shift away from goods and services to an information- based economy (Porter and Millar, 1985; Drucker, 1993 Boisot 1995; Boisot 1998) The organisational response to this shift has been a move towards global enterprises with very flat structures that, in principle, enable enterprises to react rapidly to changes in their operating environments (Drucker, 1988; Scott Morton, 1991; Galliers and Baets, 1998). Organisations that operate in the information economy require an ability to generate, access and utilise the volumes of information that are now readily available without the constraint of media, geography or time (Boisot, 1995). A critical factor is the speed at which they are able to productively process such information.

  10. A Semantic Analysis Method for Scientific and Engineering Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a procedure to statically analyze aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. The analysis involves adding semantic declarations to a user's code and parsing this semantic knowledge with the original code using multiple expert parsers. These semantic parsers are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. In practice, a user would submit code with semantic declarations of primitive variables to the analysis procedure, and its semantic parsers would automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. A prototype implementation of this analysis procedure is demonstrated. Further, the relationship between the fundamental algebraic manipulations of equations and the parsing of expressions is explained. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  11. Knowledge Management at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.

    2013-06-01

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, initiated under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) and continued under the Advanced Reactor Concepts Program (ARC) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs) that could support the development of an environmentally and economically sound nuclear fuel cycle. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent LMR to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992, and was designed as a fully instrumented test reactor with on-line, real time test control and performance monitoring of components and tests installed in the reactor. The 10 years of operation of the FFTF provided a very useful framework for testing the advances in LMR safety technology based on passive safety features that may be of increased importance to new designs after the events at Fukushima. Knowledge preservation at the FFTF is focused on the areas of design, construction, and startup of the reactor, as well as on preserving information obtained from 10 years of successful operating history and extensive irradiation testing of fuels and materials. In order to ensure protection of information at risk, the program to date has sequestered reports, files, tapes, and drawings to allow for secure retrieval. The FFTF knowledge management program includes a disciplined and orderly approach to respond to client’s requests for documents and data in order to minimize the search effort and ensure that future requests for this information can be readily accommodated.

  12. Improving HIV/AIDS Knowledge Management Using EHRs

    PubMed Central

    Malmberg, Erik D.; Phan, Thao M.; Harmon, Glynn; Nauert, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Background A primary goal for the development of EHRs and EHR-related technologies should be to facilitate greater knowledge management for improving individual and community health outcomes associated with HIV / AIDS. Most of the current developments of EHR have focused on providing data for research, patient care and prioritization of healthcare provider resources in other areas. More attention should be paid to using information from EHRs to assist local, state, national, and international entities engaged in HIV / AIDS care, research and prevention strategies. Unfortunately the technology and standards for HIV-specific reporting modules are still being developed. Methods: A literature search and review supplemented by the author’s own experiences with electronic health records and HIV / AIDS prevention strategies will be used. This data was used to identify both opportunities and challenges for improving public health informatics primarily through the use of latest innovations in EHRs. Qualitative analysis and suggestions are offered for how EHRs can support knowledge management and prevention strategies associated with HIV infection. Results: EHR information, including demographics, medical history, medication and allergies, immunization status, and other vital statistics can help public health practitioners to more quickly identify at-risk populations or environments; allocate scarce resources in the most efficient way; share information about successful, evidenced-based prevention strategies; and increase longevity and quality of life. Conclusion: Local, state, and federal entities need to work more collaboratively with NGOs, community-based organizations, and the private sector to eliminate barriers to implementation including cost, interoperability, accessibility, and information security. PMID:23569643

  13. Advances in knowledge management for pharmaceutical research and development.

    PubMed

    Torr-Brown, Sheryl

    2005-05-01

    There are two assumptions that are taken for granted in the pharmaceutical industry today. Firstly, that we can generate an unprecedented amount of drug-related information along the research and development (R&D) pipeline, and secondly, that researchers are more connected to each other than they have ever been, owing to the internet revolution of the past 15 years or so. Both of these aspects of the modern pharmaceutical company have brought many benefits to the business. However, the pharmaceutical industry is currently under fire due to allegations of decreased productivity despite significant investments in R&D, which if left to continue at the present pace, will reach almost US 60 billion dollars by 2006. This article explores the role of knowledge in the industry and reviews recent developments and emerging opportunities in the field of knowledge management (KM) as it applies to pharmaceutical R&D. It is argued that systematic KM will be increasingly necessary to optimize the value of preceding advances in high-throughput approaches to R&D, and to fully realize the anticipated increase in productivity. The application of KM principles and practices to the business can highlight opportunities for balancing the current reliance on blockbuster drugs with a more patient-centric focus on human health, which is now becoming possible. PMID:15892246

  14. Capturing and integrating knowledge for managing risks in tunnel works.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Ibsen Chivatá; Al-Jibouri, Saad S H; Halman, Johannes I M; van Tol, Frits A

    2013-01-01

    Risk-related knowledge gained from past construction projects is regarded as potentially extremely useful in risk management. This article describes a proposed approach to capture and integrate risk-related knowledge to support decision making in construction projects. To ameliorate the problem related to the scarcity of risks information often encountered in construction projects, Bayesian Belief Networks are used and expert judgment is elicited to augment available information. Particularly, the article provides an overview of judgment-based biases that can appear in the elicitation of judgments for constructing Bayesian Networks and the provisos that can be made in this respect to minimize these types of bias. The proposed approach is successfully applied to develop six models for top risks in tunnel works. More than 30 tunneling experts in the Netherlands and Germany were involved in the investigation to provide information on identifying relevant scenarios than can lead to failure events associated with tunneling risks. The article has provided an illustration of the applicability of the developed approach for the case of "face instability in soft soils using slurry shields." PMID:22571494

  15. Knowledge and management of fever among Moroccan parents.

    PubMed

    Rkain, M; Rkain, I; Safi, M; Kabiri, M; Ahid, S; Benjelloun, B D S

    2014-06-01

    Parents often have misperceptions about childhood fever, and little information is available about the home management of feverish children in Morocco. In this study of the perceptions, knowledge and practices of families regarding children's fever, the parents of 264 febrile children aged 0-16 years were interviewed in a paediatric emergency department in Rabat in 2011. Only 3.5% of parents knew the correct temperature definition for fever, 54.4% determined their children's fever using a thermometer, and the preferred site was rectal. Most of them (96.8%) considered that fever was a very serious condition, which could lead to side-effects such as brain damage (28.9%), seizures (18.8%) paralysis (19.5%), dyspnoea (14.8%) and coma (14.8%). Paracetamol was used by 85.9% and traditional treatments by 45.1%. Knowledge about the correct definition of fever was significantly associated with parents' profession, educational level and receipt of previous information and advice from health professionals. PMID:24960517

  16. Key success factors for clinical knowledge management systems: Comparing physician and hospital manager viewpoints.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sho-Fang; Hsieh, Ping-Jung; Chen, Hui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The study explores the perceptions of physicians and hospital managers regarding the key success factors (KSFs) of a clinical knowledge management system (CKMS). It aims to eliminate the perception gap and gain more insights for a successful CKMS.A survey was conducted in four medical centers in Taiwan. A total of 340 questionnaires, including 15 for hospital managers and 70 for physicians in each hospital, were administered. The effective response rates are 78.3% and 56.1% respectively. Partial least square (PLS) were used to analyze the data.The results identified six KSFs of CKMS including system software and hardware, knowledge quality, system quality, organizational factors, user satisfaction, and policy factors. User satisfaction and policy factors have direct effects on perceived CKMS performance. Knowledge quality is regarded as an antecedent to user satisfaction, while system quality is the antecedent to both user satisfaction and policy factors. System software and hardware was supported only by managers, and organizational factors were supported only by physicians.Among the factors, this study highlighted the policy factor. Besides, the study provides hospital managers additional insights into physician requirements for organizational support. Third, more physician participation and involvement are recommended when introducing and developing a CKMS. PMID:26444813

  17. Extending TOPS: Knowledge Management System for Anomaly Detection and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.; Michaelis, A.

    2009-12-01

    Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) is a flexible modeling software system that integrates ecosystem models with frequent satellite and surface weather observations to produce ecosystem nowcasts (assessments of current conditions) and forecasts useful in natural resources management, public health and disaster management. We have been extending the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to include capability for automated anomaly detection and analysis of both on-line (streaming) and off-line data. While there are large numbers of anomaly detection algorithms for multivariate datasets, we are extending this capability beyond the anomaly detection itself and towards an automated analysis that would discover the possible causes of the anomalies. There are often indirect connections between datasets that manifest themselves during occurrence of external events and rather than searching exhaustively throughout all the datasets, our goal is to capture this knowledge and provide it to the system during automated analysis. This results in more efficient processing. Since we don’t need to process all the datasets using the original anomaly detection algorithms, which is often compute intensive; we achieve data reduction as we don’t need to store all the datasets in order to search for possible connections but we can download selected data on-demand based on our analysis. For example, an anomaly observed in vegetation Net Primary Production (NPP) can relate to an anomaly in vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is a fairly direct connection, as LAI is one of the inputs for NPP, however the change in LAI could be caused by a fire event, which is not directly connected with NPP. Because we are able to capture this knowledge we can analyze fire datasets and if there is a match with the NPP anomaly, we can infer that a fire is a likely cause. The knowledge is captured using OWL ontology language, where connections are defined in a schema

  18. Knowledge management in healthcare: what does it involve? How is it measured?

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Melanie

    2003-01-01

    While knowledge exists in all healthcare organizations, it often remains in silos or on the sidelines, neither used to its maximum potential nor purposefully focused on strategic results. In order to facilitate the development of strategically valuable knowledge, this article outlines seven knowledge-building dimensions that create a solid knowledge-management lever within the organization. Additionally, the article helps readers to come to grips with accountability by suggesting strategic outcomes for knowledge management. A particular focus is on lead or forward-looking indicators that track the progress and success of knowledge management. PMID:14618826

  19. A Framework for Integrating Knowledge Management with Risk Management for Information Technology Projects (RiskManiT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadsheh, Louay A.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on the challenges experienced when executing risk management activities for information technology projects. The lack of adequate knowledge management support of risk management activities has caused many project failures in the past. The research objective was to propose a conceptual framework of the Knowledge-Based Risk…

  20. Knowledge Management as an Indication of Organizational Maturity in Project Management: An Enhancement of the OPM3(c) Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dedrick A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reviews the knowledge management's role in organizational maturity in project management. It draws a direct linked between organizational maturity knowledge channels both informal and then formal and organizational project management maturity. The study uses a mixed method approach through online and telephone surveys that draws…

  1. A Mode of Combined ERP and KMS Knowledge Management System Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuena, Kang; Yangeng, Wen; Qun, Zhou

    The core of ERP and knowledge management is quite similar; both will send appropriate knowledge (goods, funds) to the right people (position) at the right time. It is reasonable to believe that increase the knowledge management system in ERP will help companies achieve their goals better. This paper compares the concept of logical point of hall three-dimensional structure of the knowledge management system and the ERP in methodology level. And found they are very similar in the time dimension, logic dimension and knowledge dimension. This laid the basis of methodology in the simultaneous planning, implementation and applications. And then proposed a knowledge-based ERP Multi-Agent Management System Model. Finally, the paper described the process from planning to implementation of knowledge management ERP system with multi-Agent interaction and impact from three concepts, management thinking, software and system.

  2. A Collaborative Extensible User Environment for Simulation and Knowledge Management

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Lansing, Carina S.; Porter, Ellen A.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Guillen, Zoe C.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Gorton, Ian

    2015-06-01

    In scientific simulation, scientists use measured data to create numerical models, execute simulations and analyze results from advanced simulators executing on high performance computing platforms. This process usually requires a team of scientists collaborating on data collection, model creation and analysis, and on authorship of publications and data. This paper shows that scientific teams can benefit from a user environment called Akuna that permits subsurface scientists in disparate locations to collaborate on numerical modeling and analysis projects. The Akuna user environment is built on the Velo framework that provides both a rich client environment for conducting and analyzing simulations and a Web environment for data sharing and annotation. Akuna is an extensible toolset that integrates with Velo, and is designed to support any type of simulator. This is achieved through data-driven user interface generation, use of a customizable knowledge management platform, and an extensible framework for simulation execution, monitoring and analysis. This paper describes how the customized Velo content management system and the Akuna toolset are used to integrate and enhance an effective collaborative research and application environment. The extensible architecture of Akuna is also described and demonstrates its usage for creation and execution of a 3D subsurface simulation.

  3. Nanoinformatics knowledge infrastructures: bringing efficient information management to nanomedical research.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, D; Cachau, R E; García-Remesal, M; Maojo, V

    2013-11-27

    Nanotechnology represents an area of particular promise and significant opportunity across multiple scientific disciplines. Ongoing nanotechnology research ranges from the characterization of nanoparticles and nanomaterials to the analysis and processing of experimental data seeking correlations between nanoparticles and their functionalities and side effects. Due to their special properties, nanoparticles are suitable for cellular-level diagnostics and therapy, offering numerous applications in medicine, e.g. development of biomedical devices, tissue repair, drug delivery systems and biosensors. In nanomedicine, recent studies are producing large amounts of structural and property data, highlighting the role for computational approaches in information management. While in vitro and in vivo assays are expensive, the cost of computing is falling. Furthermore, improvements in the accuracy of computational methods (e.g. data mining, knowledge discovery, modeling and simulation) have enabled effective tools to automate the extraction, management and storage of these vast data volumes. Since this information is widely distributed, one major issue is how to locate and access data where it resides (which also poses data-sharing limitations). The novel discipline of nanoinformatics addresses the information challenges related to nanotechnology research. In this paper, we summarize the needs and challenges in the field and present an overview of extant initiatives and efforts. PMID:24932210

  4. Nanoinformatics knowledge infrastructures: bringing efficient information management to nanomedical research

    PubMed Central

    de la Iglesia, D; Cachau, R E; García-Remesal, M; Maojo, V

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology represents an area of particular promise and significant opportunity across multiple scientific disciplines. Ongoing nanotechnology research ranges from the characterization of nanoparticles and nanomaterials to the analysis and processing of experimental data seeking correlations between nanoparticles and their functionalities and side effects. Due to their special properties, nanoparticles are suitable for cellular-level diagnostics and therapy, offering numerous applications in medicine, e.g. development of biomedical devices, tissue repair, drug delivery systems and biosensors. In nanomedicine, recent studies are producing large amounts of structural and property data, highlighting the role for computational approaches in information management. While in vitro and in vivo assays are expensive, the cost of computing is falling. Furthermore, improvements in the accuracy of computational methods (e.g. data mining, knowledge discovery, modeling and simulation) have enabled effective tools to automate the extraction, management and storage of these vast data volumes. Since this information is widely distributed, one major issue is how to locate and access data where it resides (which also poses data-sharing limitations). The novel discipline of nanoinformatics addresses the information challenges related to nanotechnology research. In this paper, we summarize the needs and challenges in the field and present an overview of extant initiatives and efforts. PMID:24932210

  5. Learning Semantic Query Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meij, Edgar; Bron, Marc; Hollink, Laura; Huurnink, Bouke; de Rijke, Maarten

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide facilities that let users complete, specify, or reformulate their queries. We study the problem of semantic query suggestion, a special type of query transformation based on identifying semantic concepts contained in user queries. We use a feature-based approach in conjunction with supervised machine learning, augmenting term-based features with search history-based and concept-specific features. We apply our method to the task of linking queries from real-world query logs (the transaction logs of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision) to the DBpedia knowledge base. We evaluate the utility of different machine learning algorithms, features, and feature types in identifying semantic concepts using a manually developed test bed and show significant improvements over an already high baseline. The resources developed for this paper, i.e., queries, human assessments, and extracted features, are available for download.

  6. Institutional Researchers as Knowledge Managers in Universities: Envisioning New Roles for the IR Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodorescu, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Using concepts from Davenport and Prusak's "Working Knowledge" and other recent research on knowledge management, this article discusses the processes through which institutional knowledge is created, managed and transferred throughout the university and ways in which institutional researchers can improve these processes. A special emphasis is…

  7. The Internet Knowledge Manager, Dynamic Digital Libraries, and Agents You Can Understand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Internet Knowledge Manager (IKM) which provides an understandable way of representing knowledge, as readable software agents. Gives an example of writing and running an IKM agent for transfer pricing in corporations. Describes how the technology works. Concludes that the IKM could trigger new ways of performing knowledge management,…

  8. How do we Remain Us in a Time of Change: Culture and Knowledge Management at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation presents an overview of findings of a NASA agency-wide Knowledge Management Team considering culture and knowledge management issues at the agency. Specific issues identified by the team include: (1) NASA must move from being a knowledge hoarding culture to a knowledge sharing culture; (2) NASA must move from being center focused to being Agency focused; (3) NASA must capture the knowledge of a departing workforce. Topics considered include: what must NASA know to remain NASA, what were previous forms of knowledge reproduction and how has technological innovations changed these systems, and what changes in funding and relationships between contractors and NASA affected knowledge reproduction.

  9. Semantics-based composition of EMBOSS services

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background More than in other domains the heterogeneous services world in bioinformatics demands for a methodology to classify and relate resources in a both human and machine accessible manner. The Semantic Web, which is meant to address exactly this challenge, is currently one of the most ambitious projects in computer science. Collective efforts within the community have already led to a basis of standards for semantic service descriptions and meta-information. In combination with process synthesis and planning methods, such knowledge about types and services can facilitate the automatic composition of workflows for particular research questions. Results In this study we apply the synthesis methodology that is available in the Bio-jETI workflow management framework for the semantics-based composition of EMBOSS services. EMBOSS (European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite) is a collection of 350 tools (March 2010) for various sequence analysis tasks, and thus a rich source of services and types that imply comprehensive domain models for planning and synthesis approaches. We use and compare two different setups of our EMBOSS synthesis domain: 1) a manually defined domain setup where an intuitive, high-level, semantically meaningful nomenclature is applied to describe the input/output behavior of the single EMBOSS tools and their classifications, and 2) a domain setup where this information has been automatically derived from the EMBOSS Ajax Command Definition (ACD) files and the EMBRACE Data and Methods ontology (EDAM). Our experiments demonstrate that these domain models in combination with our synthesis methodology greatly simplify working with the large, heterogeneous, and hence manually intractable EMBOSS collection. However, they also show that with the information that can be derived from the (current) ACD files and EDAM ontology alone, some essential connections between services can not be recognized. Conclusions Our results show that adequate domain

  10. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

    2006-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert. PMID:16185937

  11. SAS- Semantic Annotation Service for Geoscience resources on the web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.; Marini, L.; Li, R.; Jiang, P.

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing need for increased integration across the data and model resources that are disseminated on the web to advance their reuse across different earth science applications. Meaningful reuse of resources requires semantic metadata to realize the semantic web vision for allowing pragmatic linkage and integration among resources. Semantic metadata associates standard metadata with resources to turn them into semantically-enabled resources on the web. However, the lack of a common standardized metadata framework as well as the uncoordinated use of metadata fields across different geo-information systems, has led to a situation in which standards and related Standard Names abound. To address this need, we have designed SAS to provide a bridge between the core ontologies required to annotate resources and information systems in order to enable queries and analysis over annotation from a single environment (web). SAS is one of the services that are provided by the Geosematnic framework, which is a decentralized semantic framework to support the integration between models and data and allow semantically heterogeneous to interact with minimum human intervention. Here we present the design of SAS and demonstrate its application for annotating data and models. First we describe how predicates and their attributes are extracted from standards and ingested in the knowledge-base of the Geosemantic framework. Then we illustrate the application of SAS in annotating data managed by SEAD and annotating simulation models that have web interface. SAS is a step in a broader approach to raise the quality of geoscience data and models that are published on the web and allow users to better search, access, and use of the existing resources based on standard vocabularies that are encoded and published using semantic technologies.

  12. Higher Education System and the "Open" Knowledge Transfer: A View from Perception of Senior Managers at University Knowledge Transfer Offices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharifi, Hossein; Liu, Weisheng; Ismail, Hossam S.

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) have become increasingly entrepreneurial. Such a shift is highly dependent on the managers of university knowledge transfer offices whose perceptions can be critical in this transformation. This study examines such senior managers' perceptions concerning the "open" paradigm in relation with the…

  13. Knowledge Management Formal and Informal Mentoring: An Empirical Investigation in Lebanese Banks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkoulian, Silva; Halawi, Leila A.; McCarthy, Richard V.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: As businesses continue to forge ahead in the twenty-first century, knowledge management (KM) has materialized as a significant differentiator. The process of creating new knowledge, sharing, and preserving such knowledge, is crucial for achieving competitive advantage. To gain maximum benefit from new knowledge, it must be efficiently…

  14. Generative Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  15. COTARD SYNDROME IN SEMANTIC DEMENTIA

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Mario F.; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of meaning of words or concepts. semantic dementia can offer potential insights into the mechanisms of content-specific delusions. Objective The authors present a rare case of semantic dementia with Cotard syndrome, a delusion characterized by nihilism or self-negation. Method The semantic deficits and other features of semantic dementia were evaluated in relation to the patient's Cotard syndrome. Results Mrs. A developed the delusional belief that she was wasting and dying. This occurred after she lost knowledge for her somatic discomforts and sensations and for the organs that were the source of these sensations. Her nihilistic beliefs appeared to emerge from her misunderstanding of her somatic sensations. Conclusion This unique patient suggests that a mechanism for Cotard syndrome is difficulty interpreting the nature and source of internal pains and sensations. We propose that loss of semantic knowledge about one's own body may lead to the delusion of nihilism or death. PMID:22054629

  16. Towards the Reconciliation of Knowledge Management and e-Collaboration Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Dinh, Thang; Rinfret, Louis; Raymond, Louis; Dong Thi, Bich-Thuy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose an intelligent infrastructure for the reconciliation of knowledge management and e-collaboration systems. Design/Methodology/Approach:Literature on e-collaboration, information management, knowledge management, learning process, and intellectual capital is mobilised in order to build the conceptual…

  17. Organizational Measures as a Form of Knowledge Management: A Multitheoretic, Communication-Based Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Jennifer K.; Rice, Ronald E.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of measures in knowledge management and summarizes and applies four theoretical approaches-- organizational learning, sense-making, quality management, and critical theory-to explore how measures are constructed, interpreted, and used within organizational settings as forms of knowledge management. Summarizes primary principles,…

  18. Knowledge Management ERP Curriculum Design/Mapping (Theory and Development Tools)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Zane; Hepner, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a knowledge management framework for developing and managing enterprise resource planning (ERP) curriculum within business schools. Both theory and a practical implementation are addressed. The knowledge management (KM) framework has two components which utilize ERP from a big picture curriculum overview and a ground level…

  19. Knowledge Management Antecedents and Its Impact on Employee Satisfaction: A Study on Indian Telecommunication Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ajay Kr.; Sharma, Vandna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Managers in many organizations have indicated that in today's highly competitive environment, knowledge management will be the key to organizational success in this millennium. This paper aims to analyze how the organizational culture and organizational learning impacts knowledge management, and ultimately the satisfaction of employees…

  20. NASA and The Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  1. A framework for semantic reconciliation of disparate earth observation thematic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbha, S. S.; King, R. L.; Shah, V. P.; Younan, N. H.

    2009-04-01

    There is a growing demand for digital databases of topographic and thematic information for a multitude of applications in environmental management, and also in data integration and efficient updating of other spatially oriented data. These thematic data sets are highly heterogeneous in syntax, structure and semantics as they are produced and provided by a variety of agencies having different definitions, standards and applications of the data. In this paper, we focus on the semantic heterogeneity in thematic information sources, as it has been widely recognized that the semantic conflicts are responsible for the most serious data heterogeneity problems hindering the efficient interoperability between heterogeneous information sources. In particular, we focus on the semantic heterogeneities present in the land cover classification schemes corresponding to the global land cover characterization data. We propose a framework (semantics enabled thematic data Integration (SETI)) that describes in depth the methodology involved in the reconciliation of such semantic conflicts by adopting the emerging semantic web technologies. Ontologies were developed for the classification schemes and a shared-ontology approach for integrating the application level ontologies as described. We employ description logics (DL)-based reasoning on the terminological knowledge base developed for the land cover characterization which enables querying and retrieval that goes beyond keyword-based searches.

  2. Distributed semantic networks and CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, James; Rodriguez, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Semantic networks of frames are commonly used as a method of reasoning in many problems. In most of these applications the semantic network exists as a single entity in a single process environment. Advances in workstation hardware provide support for more sophisticated applications involving multiple processes, interacting in a distributed environment. In these applications the semantic network may well be distributed over several concurrently executing tasks. This paper describes the design and implementation of a frame based, distributed semantic network in which frames are accessed both through C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert systems and procedural C++ language programs. The application area is a knowledge based, cooperative decision making model utilizing both rule based and procedural experts.

  3. Data Sciences Technology for Homeland Security Information Management and Knowledge Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Kolda, T; Brown, D; Corones, J; Critchlow, T; Eliassi-Rad, T; Getoor, L; Hendrickson, B; Kumar, V; Lambert, D; Matarazzo, C; McCurley, K; Merrill, M; Samatova, N; Speck, D; Srikant, R; Thomas, J; Wertheimer, M; Wong, P C

    2005-01-06

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has vast amounts of data available, but its ultimate value cannot be realized without powerful technologies for knowledge discovery to enable better decision making by analysts. Past evidence has shown that terrorist activities leave detectable footprints, but these footprints generally have not been discovered until the opportunity for maximum benefit has passed. The challenge faced by the DHS is to discover the money transfers, border crossings, and other activities in advance of an attack and use that information to identify potential threats and vulnerabilities. The data to be analyzed by DHS comes from many sources ranging from news feeds, to raw sensors, to intelligence reports, and more. The amount of data is staggering; some estimates place the number of entities to be processed at 1015. The uses for the data are varied as well, including entity tracking over space and time, identifying complex and evolving relationships between entities, and identifying organization structure, to name a few. Because they are ideal for representing relationship and linkage information, semantic graphs have emerged as a key technology for fusing and organizing DHS data. A semantic graph organizes relational data by using nodes to represent entities and edges to connect related entities. Hidden relationships in the data are then uncovered by examining the structure and properties of the semantic graph.

  4. A Case Study: Leadership Style and Practice Leveraging Knowledge Management in Multigenerational Professional Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles-Weeks, Veda

    2014-01-01

    Age related demographic changes, within public school organizations are resulting in leadership challenges in leveraging organizational knowledge across four unique generational cohorts. Competitive success within schools has linkages to organizational cohesiveness and knowledge management (KM). Generational cohorts maintain values affecting…

  5. Generative Knowledge Interviewing: A Method for Knowledge Transfer and Talent Management at the University of Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, Melissa R.; Walsh, Katherine; Sober, Robin; Rawak, Christine S.

    2010-01-01

    Experts and leaders within most fields possess knowledge that is largely tacit and unconscious in nature. The leaders of most organizations do not "know what they know" and cannot share their knowledge with others. The loss of this essential knowledge is of major concern to organizations. This study tested an innovative method of tacit knowledge…

  6. Towards a Reactive Semantic Execution Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komazec, Srdjan; Facca, Federico Michele

    Managing complex and distributed software systems built on top of the service-oriented paradigm has never been more challenging. While Semantic Web Service technologies offer a promising set of languages and tools as a foundation to resolve the heterogeneity and scalability issues, they are still failing to provide an autonomic execution environment. In this paper we present an approach based on Semantic Web Services to enable the monitoring and self-management of a Semantic Execution Environment (SEE), a brokerage system for Semantic Web Services. Our approach is founded on the event-triggered reactivity paradigm in order to facilitate environment control, thus contributing to its autonomicity, robustness and flexibility.

  7. A Collaborative Knowledge Management Process for Implementing Healthcare Enterprise Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Po-Hsun; Chen, Sao-Jie; Lai, Jin-Shin; Lai, Feipei

    This paper illustrates a feasible health informatics domain knowledge management process which helps gather useful technology information and reduce many knowledge misunderstandings among engineers who have participated in the IBM mainframe rightsizing project at National Taiwan University (NTU) Hospital. We design an asynchronously sharing mechanism to facilitate the knowledge transfer and our health informatics domain knowledge management process can be used to publish and retrieve documents dynamically. It effectively creates an acceptable discussion environment and even lessens the traditional meeting burden among development engineers. An overall description on the current software development status is presented. Then, the knowledge management implementation of health information systems is proposed.

  8. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  9. Development of a knowledge management system for complex domains.

    PubMed

    Perott, André; Schader, Nils; Bruder, Ralph; Leonhardt, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Deutsche Flugsicherung GmbH, the German Air Navigation Service Provider, follows a systematic approach, called HERA, for investigating incidents. The HERA analysis shows a distinctive occurrence of incidents in German air traffic control in which the visual perception of information plays a key role. The reasons can be partially traced back to workstation design, where basic ergonomic rules and principles are not sufficiently followed by the designers in some cases. In cooperation with the Institute of Ergonomics in Darmstadt the DFS investigated possible approaches that may support designers to implement ergonomic systems. None of the currently available tools were found to be able to meet the identified user requirements holistically. Therefore it was suggested to develop an enhanced software tool called Design Process Guide. The name Design Process Guide indicates that this tool exceeds the classic functions of currently available Knowledge Management Systems. It offers "design element" based access, shows processual and content related topics, and shows the implications of certain design decisions. Furthermore, it serves as documentation, detailing why a designer made to a decision under a particular set of conditions. PMID:22317137

  10. Knowledge-based operation and management of communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heggestad, Harold M.

    1988-01-01

    Expert systems techniques are being applied in operation and control of the Defense Communications System (DCS), which has the mission of providing reliable worldwide voice, data and message services for U.S. forces and commands. Thousands of personnel operate DCS facilities, and many of their functions match the classical expert system scenario: complex, skill-intensive environments with a full spectrum of problems in training and retention, cost containment, modernization, and so on. Two of these functions are: (1) fault isolation and restoral of dedicated circuits at Tech Control Centers, and (2) network management for the Defense Switched Network (the modernized dial-up voice system currently replacing AUTOVON). An expert system for the first of these is deployed for evaluation purposes at Andrews Air Force Base, and plans are being made for procurement of operational systems. In the second area, knowledge obtained with a sophisticated simulator is being embedded in an expert system. The background, design and status of both projects are described.

  11. Knowledge-based operation and management of communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggestad, Harold M.

    1988-11-01

    Expert systems techniques are being applied in operation and control of the Defense Communications System (DCS), which has the mission of providing reliable worldwide voice, data and message services for U.S. forces and commands. Thousands of personnel operate DCS facilities, and many of their functions match the classical expert system scenario: complex, skill-intensive environments with a full spectrum of problems in training and retention, cost containment, modernization, and so on. Two of these functions are: (1) fault isolation and restoral of dedicated circuits at Tech Control Centers, and (2) network management for the Defense Switched Network (the modernized dial-up voice system currently replacing AUTOVON). An expert system for the first of these is deployed for evaluation purposes at Andrews Air Force Base, and plans are being made for procurement of operational systems. In the second area, knowledge obtained with a sophisticated simulator is being embedded in an expert system. The background, design and status of both projects are described.

  12. Large trials, new knowledge: the changing face of COPD management.

    PubMed

    De Soyza, Anthony; Calverley, Peter M A

    2015-06-01

    Large, well-designed, drug-treatment trials have allowed useful advances to be made in the treatment and diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The two main clinical trial designs that provide evidence of effectiveness are randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. RCTs are generally considered to provide more robust evidence than that obtained from observational studies and can generate informative secondary analyses in addition to the primary research query. In COPD, however, well-designed comparator-controlled RCTs, although successful, have been shown to have some limitations, such as a lack of generalisability. The findings of observational studies, whilst prone to bias, can generate valuable data and have also provided useful information relating to the efficacy of treatments in the current COPD management guidelines. This review focuses on major COPD studies published since 2007 (including UPLIFT, TIOSPIR, ECLIPSE and COPDGene), and assesses the influence such RCTs and large observational studies have had on our knowledge of COPD, and how these may impact future trial designs. PMID:25792640

  13. Importance of Knowledge Management in the Higher Educational Institutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namdev Dhamdhere, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Every academic institution contributes to knowledge. The generated information and knowledge is to be compiled at a central place and disseminated among the society for further growth. It is observed that the generated knowledge in the academic institute is not stored or captured properly. It is also observed that many a times generated…

  14. Educational Administration and the Management of Knowledge: 1980 Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits the thesis of a 1980 paper that suggested a new approach to educational administration based upon the New Sociology of Education. In particular it updates answers to the six key questions asked by that paper: what counts as knowledge; how is what counts as knowledge organised; how is what counts as knowledge transmitted; how is…

  15. Living With Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Karen; Wilkinson, Ray; Keady, John

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia is a variant of frontotemporal dementia and is a recently recognized diagnostic condition. There has been some research quantitatively examining care partner stress and burden in frontotemporal dementia. There are, however, few studies exploring the subjective experiences of family members caring for those with frontotemporal dementia. Increased knowledge of such experiences would allow service providers to tailor intervention, support, and information better. We used a case study design, with thematic narrative analysis applied to interview data, to describe the experiences of a wife and son caring for a husband/father with semantic dementia. Using this approach, we identified four themes: (a) living with routines, (b) policing and protecting, (c) making connections, and (d) being adaptive and flexible. Each of these themes were shared and extended, with the importance of routines in everyday life highlighted. The implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed. PMID:24532121

  16. Semantic interpretation of nominalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.D.; Gomez, F.

    1996-12-31

    A computational approach to the semantic interpretation of nominalizations is described. Interpretation of normalizations involves three tasks: deciding whether the normalization is being used in a verbal or non-verbal sense; disambiguating the normalized verb when a verbal sense is used; and determining the fillers of the thematic roles of the verbal concept or predicate of the nominalization. A verbal sense can be recognized by the presence of modifiers that represent the arguments of the verbal concept. It is these same modifiers which provide the semantic clues to disambiguate the normalized verb. In the absence of explicit modifiers, heuristics are used to discriminate between verbal and non-verbal senses. A correspondence between verbs and their nominalizations is exploited so that only a small amount of additional knowledge is needed to handle the nominal form. These methods are tested in the domain of encyclopedic texts and the results are shown.

  17. Practical Semantic Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew; Gray, N.; Burke, D.

    2010-01-01

    Many activities in the era of data-intensive astronomy are predicated upon some transference of domain knowledge and expertise from human to machine. The semantic infrastructure required to support this is no longer a pipe dream of computer science but a set of practical engineering challenges, more concerned with deployment and performance details than AI abstractions. The application of such ideas promises to help in such areas as contextual data access, exploiting distributed annotation and heterogeneous sources, and intelligent data dissemination and discovery. In this talk, we will review the status and use of semantic technologies in astronomy, particularly to address current problems in astroinformatics, with such projects as SKUA and AstroCollation.

  18. Bilingual Lexical Access during L1 Sentence Reading: The Effects of L2 Knowledge, Semantic Constraint, and L1-L2 Intermixing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function…

  19. Knowledge Management and Law Enforcement: An Examination of Knowledge Management Strategies of the Police Information System (POLNET) in the Turkish National Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gultekin, Kubra

    2009-01-01

    This research study explores knowledge management (KM) in law enforcement, focusing on the POLNET system established by the Turkish National Police as a knowledge-sharing tool. This study employs a qualitative case study for exploratory and descriptive purposes. The qualitative data set came from semi-structured face-to-face and telephone…

  20. Nurse Managers’ Work Life Quality and Their Participation in Knowledge Management: A Correlational Study

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi Dehaghi, Zahra; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Dehnavi, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between quality of work life and participation in knowledge management is unknown. Objectives: This study aimed to discover the association between quality of work life of nurse managers and their participation in implementing knowledge management. Materials and Methods: This was a correlational study. All nurse managers (71 people) from 11 hospitals affiliated with the Social Security Organization in Tehran, Iran, were included. They were asked to rate their participation in knowledge management and their quality of work life. Data was gathered by a researcher-made questionnaire (May-June 2012). The questionnaire was validated by content and construct validity approaches. Cronbach’s alpha was used to evaluate reliability. Finally, 50 questionnaires were analyzed. The answers were scored and analyzed using mean of scores, T-test, ANOVA (or nonparametric test, if appropriate), Pearson’s correlation coefficient and linear regression. Results: Nurse managers’ performance to implement knowledge management strategies was moderate. A significant correlation was found between quality of work life of nurse managers and their participation in implementing knowledge management strategies (r = 0.82; P < 0.001). The strongest correlations were found between implementation of knowledge management and participation of nurse managers in decision making (r = 0.82; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Improvement of nurse managers’ work life quality, especially in decision-making, may increase their participation in implementing knowledge management. PMID:25763267