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Sample records for semen quality reproductive

  1. Semen quality assessments and their significance in reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Kordan, W; Fraser, L; Wysocki, P; Strzezek, R; Lecewicz, M; Mogielnicka-Brzozowska, M; Dziekońska, A; Soliwoda, D; Koziorowska-Gilun, M

    2013-01-01

    Semen quality assessment methods are very important in predicting the fertilizing ability of persevered spermatozoa and to improve animal reproductive technology. This review discusses some of the current laboratory methods used for semen quality assessments, with references to their relevance in the evaluation of male fertility and semen preservation technologies. Semen quality assessment methods include sperm motility evaluations, analyzed with the computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) system, and plasma membrane integrity evaluations using fluorescent stains, such as Hoechst 33258 (H33258), SYBR-14, propidium iodide (PI), ethidium homodimer (EthD) and 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA), and biochemical tests, such as the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) level. This review addresses the significance of specific fluorochromes and ATP measurements for the evaluation of the sperm mitochondrial status. Laboratory methods used for the evaluation of chromatin status, DNA integrity, and apoptotic changes in spermatozoa have been discussed. Special emphasis has been focused on the application of proteomic techniques, such as two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), for the identification of the properties and functions of seminal plasma proteins in order to define their role in the fertilization-related processes. PMID:24597323

  2. SEMEN QUALITY AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH OF YOUNG CZECH MEN EXPOSED TO SEASONAL AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semen quality and reproductive health of young Czech men exposed to seasonal air pollution.

    Selevan SG, Borkovec L, Slott VL, Zudova Z, Rubes J, Evenson DP, Perreault SD.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, USA.

    This study of male repr...

  3. [The spinal cord injured patient: semen quality and management by Assisted Reproductive Technology].

    PubMed

    Perrin, J; Saïas-Magnan, J; Thiry-Escudié, I; Gamerre, M; Serment, G; Grillo, J-M; Guillemain, C; Karsenty, G

    2010-09-01

    Men with spinal cord injury present a unique infertile population. Only 10 % of them can father children without medical assistance, owing to potential impairments in erection, ejaculation and semen quality. The algorithm typically followed is to retrieve semen by Penile Vibratory Stimulation, in case of failure by Electro Ejaculation. Most of these patients have normal sperm concentrations but abnormally low sperm motility and vitality in the ejaculate. The reasons for poor semen quality in spinal cord injured men are reviewed. If semen cannot be obtained by Electro Ejaculation, or if the ejaculate from Penile Vibratory Stimulation or Electro Ejaculation contains an insufficient quantity or quality of sperm for in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection, then retrieval of sperm from reproductive tissues is attempted. Despite abnormal semen quality, successful pregnancies with sperm from spinal cord injured male partners have occurred by intravaginal insemination, intrauterine insemination, and in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The prevailing pregnancy and fecundity rates in couples with a spinal cord injured male partner are reviewed. PMID:20705499

  4. Urinary Bisphenol A Levels in Young Men: Association with Reproductive Hormones and Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Joensen, Ulla N.; Main, Katharina M.; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Juul, Anders; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few human studies have examined bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in men, and results are divergent. Objectives: We examined associations between urinary BPA concentration and reproductive hormones, as well as semen quality, in young men from the general population. Methods: Our study population consisted of 308 young men from the general population. Urinary BPA concentration was measured by isotope dilution TurboFlow-liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analysis to estimate associations between BPA concentration and reproductive hormones and semen quality, adjusting for confounding factors. Results: We found that 98% of the men had detectable urinary levels of BPA. Median (5th–95th percentiles) BPA concentration was 3.25 ng/mL (0.59–14.89 ng/mL). Men with BPA concentrations above the lowest quartile had higher concentrations of serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and free testosterone compared with the lowest quartile (ptrend ≤ 0.02). Men in the highest quartile of BPA excretion had on average 18% higher total testosterone (95% CI: 8, 28%), 22% higher LH (95% CI: 6, 39%), and 13% higher estradiol (95% CI: 4, 24%) compared with lowest quartile. Men in the highest quartile of BPA also had significantly lower percentage progressive motile spermatozoa compared with men in the lowest quartile (–6.7 percentage points, 95% CI: –11.76, –1.63). BPA was not associated with other semen parameters. Adjusting for dietary patterns did not influence the results. Conclusions: The pattern of associations between BPA and reproductive hormones could indicate an antiandrogenic or antiestrogenic effect, or both, of BPA on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal hormone feedback system, possibly through a competitive inhibition at the receptor level. However, additional research is needed to confirm our findings and to further test the suggested

  5. Semen quality and reproductive hormones in Faroese men: a cross-sectional population-based study of 481 men

    PubMed Central

    Halling, Jónrit; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Jørgensen, Niels; Jensen, Tina Kold; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young Faroese men. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study of Faroese men compared with Danish men. Setting Faroese one-centre study. Participants 481 men born from 1981 to 1987 and investigated from 2007 to 2010. Outcome measures Sperm concentration, semen volume, total sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology and reproductive hormone levels. Results Sperm concentrations for the Faroese men were lower than for the Danish men (crude median 40 vs 48 mill/ml, p<0.0005). Semen volume was higher, and thus the total sperm counts did not differ (159 vs 151 mill, p=0.2). Motility and morphology did not differ between the Faroese and Danes. The inhibin B/follicle-stimulating hormone ratios for the Faroese men were lower than for the Danes (64 vs 76, p=0.001). Similarly, lower total testosterone/luteinising hormone (LH) ratio (4.6 vs 6.0, p<0.0005) and lower calculated free-testosterone/LH ratio (94 vs 134, p<0.0005) were detected for the Faroese men. Conclusions Semen quality among the Faroese men is at the same low level as reported for Danish men, and the reproductive hormone levels furthermore indicated a lower Leydig cell capacity for testosterone production. The influence of environmental exposure and genetic factors on semen quality has to be studied further. PMID:23457323

  6. EXPOSURE TO INTERMITTENT AIR POLLUTION AND CHANGES IN SEMEN QUALITY: EVIDENCE FOR AN ASSOCIATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR REPRODUCTIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to Intermittent Air Pollution and Changes in Semen Quality:
    Evidence for an Association and Implications for Reproductive Risk Assessment.

    S. D. Perreault1, S.G. Selevan2, J. Rubes3, D. Zudova3, and D.P. Evenson4
    1US EPA, ORD/NHEERL, Research Triangle Pa...

  7. Associations of in Utero Exposure to Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids with Human Semen Quality and Reproductive Hormones in Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Becher, Georg; Haug, Line Småstuen; Ernst, Emil Hagen; Toft, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), persistent chemicals with unique water-, dirt-, and oil-repellent properties, are suspected of having endocrine-disrupting activity. The PFAA compounds perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are found globally in humans; because they readily cross the placental barrier, in utero exposure may be a cause for concern. Objectives: We investigated whether in utero exposure to PFOA and PFOS affects semen quality, testicular volume, and reproductive hormone levels. Methods: We recruited 169 male offspring (19–21 years of age) from a pregnancy cohort established in Aarhus, Denmark, in 1988–1989, corresponding to 37.6% of the eligible sons. Each man provided a semen sample and a blood sample. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and blood samples were used to measure reproductive hormones. As a proxy for in utero exposure, PFOA and PFOS were measured in maternal blood samples from pregnancy week 30. Results: Multivariable linear regression analysis suggested that in utero exposure to PFOA was associated with lower adjusted sperm concentration (ptrend = 0.01) and total sperm count (ptrend = 0.001) and with higher adjusted levels of luteinizing hormone (ptrend = 0.03) and follicle-stimulating hormone (ptrend = 0.01). PFOS did not appear to be associated with any of the outcomes assessed, before or after adjustment. Conclusions: The results suggest that in utero exposure to PFOA may affect adult human male semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. PMID:23360585

  8. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Y.H.; Afeiche, M.C.; Gaskins, A.J.; Williams, P.L.; Mendiola, J.; Jørgensen, N.; Swan, S.H.; Chavarro, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) associated with semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER Higher consumption of SSB was associated with lower sperm motility among healthy, young men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The existing literature on the potential role of SSBs on male reproductive function is scarce and primarily focused on the relation between caffeinated beverages and semen quality. However, a rodent model suggests that SSBs may hamper male fertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The Rochester Young Men's Study; a cross-sectional study of 189 healthy young men carried out at the University of Rochester during 2009–2010. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Men aged 18–22 years provided semen and blood samples, underwent a physical examination and completed a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Linear regression was used to analyze the association of SSBs with sperm parameters and reproductive hormone levels while adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE SSB intake was inversely related to progressive sperm motility. Men in the highest quartile of SSB intake (≥1.3 serving/day) had 9.8 (95% CI: 1.9,17.8) percentage units lower progressive sperm motility than men in the lowest quartile of intake (<0.2 serving/day) (P, trend = 0.03). This association was stronger among lean men (P, trend = 0.005) but absent among overweight or obese men (P, trend = 0.98). SSB intake was unrelated to other semen quality parameters or reproductive hormones levels. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION As in all cross-sectional studies, causal inference is limited. An additional problem is that only single semen sample was obtained from each subject. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relation between SSB intake and low semen quality beyond the contribution of caffeinated beverages. While our findings are in agreement with recent experimental data in rodents

  9. DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AND HUMAN SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project, also called the Healthy Men Study will examine potential associations between human exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts, particularly haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs), and male reproductive health as indicated by semen quality. Sinc...

  10. Age-related changes in semen quality characteristics and expectations of reproductive longevity in Duroc boars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu Hung; Lo, Ling Ling; Liu, Shyh Hwa; Yang, Tien Shuh

    2010-08-01

    Quadratic fitting was used to regress semen characteristics of 1441 samples consisting of 12-month collection from 58 Duroc boars against animal age varied from 10 to 80 months. Data was divided into two groups of cool (14.0-22.7 degrees C, RH 81.5%) and hot season (22.9-29.9 degrees C, RH 86.6%), to test effects of age, season and their interactions. Results revealed that young boars of around 1 year old could endure the hot season. The endurance gradually diminished as animals grew. In the hot season animals exhibited peak performance at age around 33 month and it remained for 1 month, while cool-season kept boars could last for 48 months from 16 months old onward. The reproductive longevity should be 51 month in a subtropical environment and it may extend to 70 month if heat stress can be avoided. The estimated total sperm contribution of a Duroc boar would be 1.8 times more when kept below 22 degrees C than in a natural subtropical environment. It is concluded that to maintain Duroc boars as semen donor to at least 4 years of age is feasible in a subtropical environment and boar longevity could reach 6 years old if well kept in a temperate region. PMID:20662811

  11. Effects on boar semen quality after infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on semen quality was examined in a group of 11 spontaneously infected boars in a commercial boar stud. Semen samples were collected 4 weeks prior to 4 weeks post-infection (wpi). Infection with PRRSV of the European genotype subtype 1 (EU-1) was verified by specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 36% of the serum samples. All boars seroconverted before 4 wpi and remained in normal condition throughout the study. Comparison of the percentage of morphologically intact spermatozoa revealed an increase of acrosome-defective spermatozoa (P = 0.012) between −4 and 4 wpi. Significant deleterious effects on semen quality were detected for membrane integrity when semen had been stored for 2 days after sampling. Analysis of sperm subpopulations in a thermoresistance test on day 7 after sampling revealed alterations in the percentage of circular, progressively motile spermatozoa (P = 0.013), in the percentage of non-linear, progressively motile spermatozoa (P = 0.01), and on the amplitude of lateral sperm head displacement (P = 0.047). There was no difference in the incidence of mitochondrially active spermatozoa (P = 0.075). Investigation of routine production data between pre- and post-infection status showed no differences on ejaculate volume (P = 0.417), sperm concentration (P = 0.788), and percentage of motile spermatozoa (P = 0.321). This case report provides insights into a potential control strategy for PRRSV outbreaks in boar studs. PMID:23442207

  12. Selenium in pig nutrition and reproduction: boars and semen quality-a review.

    PubMed

    Surai, Peter F; Fisinin, Vladimir I

    2015-05-01

    Selenium plays an important role in boar nutrition via participating in selenoprotein synthesis. It seems likely that selenoproteins are central for antioxidant system regulation in the body. Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) is the most studied selenoprotein in swine production. However, roles of other selenoproteins in boar semen production and maintenance of semen quality also need to be studied. Boar semen is characterised by a high proportion of easily oxidized long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and requires an effective antioxidant defense. The requirement of swine for selenium varies depending on many environmental and other conditions and, in general, is considered to be 0.15 to 0.30 mg/kg feed. It seems likely that reproducing sows and boars are especially sensitive to Se deficiency, and meeting their requirements is an important challenge for pig nutritionists. In fact, in many countries there are legal limits as to how much Se may be included into the diet and this restricts flexibility in terms of addressing the Se needs of the developing and reproducing swine. The analysis of data of various boar trials with different Se sources indicates that in some cases when background Se levels were low, there were advantages of Se dietary supplementation. It is necessary to take into account that only an optimal Se status of animals is associated with the best antioxidant protection and could have positive effects on boar semen production and its quality. However, in many cases, background Se levels were not determined and therefore, it is difficult to judge if the basic diets were deficient in Se. It can also be suggested that, because of higher efficacy of assimilation from the diet, and possibilities of building Se reserves in the body, organic selenium in the form of selenomethionine (SeMet) provided by a range of products, including Se-Yeast and SeMet preparations is an important source of Se to better meet the needs of modern pig

  13. Omeprazole and Semen Quality.

    PubMed

    Banihani, Saleem A

    2016-03-01

    A number of studies have linked omeprazole, a commonly used acid reducer under the brand name Prilosec, with semen quality. This MiniReview systematically addresses and summarizes the effect of omeprazole on semen quality, and male infertility. We searched the MEDLINE electronic database for English-language articles using the keywords 'omeprazole' versus 'sperm' and 'testosterone' and the references from selected articles were reviewed, if relevant. In summary, omeprazole does not appear to change semen quality. This may be because, at least in part, it does not alter the basal levels of pituitary-gonadal hormones; in addition, it counteracts the damaging effect of reactive oxygen species. However, further research is still required to confirm this effect. PMID:26572503

  14. Dairy food intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels among physically active young men

    PubMed Central

    Afeiche, M.; Williams, P.L.; Mendiola, J.; Gaskins, A.J.; Jørgensen, N.; Swan, S.H.; Chavarro, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    FOR CAUTION As it was a cross-sectional study, causal inference is limited. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Further research is needed to prove a causal link between a high consumption of full-fat dairy foods and detrimental effects on semen quality. If verified our findings would mean that intake of full-fat dairy foods should be considered in attempts to explain secular trends in semen quality and that men trying to have children should restrict their intake. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) European Union Seventh Framework Program (Environment), ‘Developmental Effects of Environment on Reproductive Health’ (DEER) grant 212844. Grant P30 DK046200 and Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award T32 DK007703-16 from the National Institutes of Health. None of the authors has any conflicts of interest to declare. PMID:23670169

  15. Exposure to Hypoxia at High Altitude (5380 m) for 1 Year Induces Reversible Effects on Semen Quality and Serum Reproductive Hormone Levels in Young Male Adults.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Cui, Jianhua; Wang, Rui; Gao, Liang; Gao, Xiaokang; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Qiong; Cao, Jinjun; Yu, Wuzhong

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypoxia at high altitude on the semen quality and the serum reproductive hormone levels in male adults. A total of 52 male soldiers were enrolled in this cohort study. They were exposed to hypoxia at high altitude (5380 m) for 12 months when undergoing a service. After exposure, they were followed up for 6 months. The samples of semen and peripheral blood were collected at 1 month before exposure (M0), 6 months of exposure (M6), 12 months of exposure (M12), and 6 months after exposure (M18). The semen quality was assessed with computer-assisted analysis system, and the serum levels of reproductive hormones, including prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were analyzed by ELISA. Compared with those at M0, total sperm count, sperm density, motility, survival rate, and serum levels of LH, PRL and testosterone were significantly decreased, whereas the liquefaction time was significantly prolonged and serum FSH level was significantly increased at M6 (p<0.05). At M12, total sperm count and sperm density increased, whereas sperm motility, survival rate, and the liquefaction time further decreased. Sperm velocities, progression ratios, and lateral head displacements were also decreased. Serum FSH level decreased while serum LH, PRL, and testosterone levels increased. Compared with those at M6, the changes in these detected parameters of semen and hormone at M12 were significant (p<0.05). At M18, all these detected parameters except testosterone level returned to levels comparable to those before exposure. In conclusion, hypoxia at high altitude causes adverse effects on semen quality and reproductive hormones, and these effects are reversible. PMID:26288097

  16. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  17. Semen analysis: its place in modern reproductive medical practice.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Robert I; Baker, H W Gordon; Clarke, Gary N; Harrison, Keith L; Matson, Phillip L; Holden, Carol A; de Kretser, David M

    2003-02-01

    Semen analysis is the most important laboratory investigation for men when assessing the infertile couple. Advances in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) techniques, particularly intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) involving the direct injection of a single spermatozoon into an egg, have not diminished the role of semen analysis in modern reproductive practice. Semen analysis is the most basic laboratory investigation undertaken and is descriptive in terms of semen volume, appearance, viscosity, sperm concentration, sperm motility and morphology. Since the results are used by clinicians to choose appropriate treatment options, a reliable service is imperative. It is crucial that the laboratory is experienced in the performance of semen analyses to ensure an accurate result. To ensure a quality semen analysis service, laboratories must participate in internal and external quality assurance activities, incorporate rigorous training protocols for technical staff and use reliable procedures. The World Health Organization laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm cervical mucous interaction, clearly describes the variables that need to be assessed and the methods of analysis and quality assurance to be used. PMID:12701680

  18. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS AND SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are common byproducts of chlorinating drinking water. The effects of disinfection byproducts on semen quality have not yet been studied in humans, despite animal studies linking exposure to sperm abnormalities. We are currently analyzing the relationship of...

  19. Stainless steel welding and semen quality

    SciTech Connect

    Jelnes, J.E.; Knudsen, L.E. )

    1988-01-01

    Questionnaire studies of patients from fertility clinics suggest that welders may have an increased risk of reduced semen quality. In this study, welders and nonwelders from the same plants were asked to provide blood, urine, and semen samples. Urine was analyzed for chromium and nickel, and for mutagenic activity and metal concentration; blood for metal concentrations, immunoglobulin G, total protein, and measures of genotoxicity in lymphocytes; and semen was evaluated by standard semen analysis. Results of the semen evaluation, presented here, showed no difference in semen quality between welders and nonwelders. Because the metal dust exposure of nonwelders in the plant may be higher than that in the general population, welders were also compared to referents not working in the metal industry. Again, no decrease in semen quality associated with welding was demonstrated.

  20. Histamine-2 Receptor Antagonists and Semen Quality.

    PubMed

    Banihani, Saleem A

    2016-01-01

    Histamine-2 receptor antagonists are a class of drugs used to treat the acid-related gastrointestinal diseases such as ulcer and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Although such drugs, especially ranitidine and famotidine, are still widely used, their effects on semen quality, and hence on male infertility, is still unclear. This MiniReview systematically addresses and summarizes the effect of histamine-2 receptor antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine, nizatidine and famotidine) on semen quality, particularly, on sperm function. Cimetidine appears to have adverse effects on semen quality. While the effects of ranitidine and nizatidine on semen quality are still controversial, famotidine does not appear to change semen quality. Therefore, additional studies will be required to clarify whether histamine-2 receptor-independent effects of these drugs play a role in semen quality as well as further clinical studies including direct comparison of the histamine-2 receptor antagonists. PMID:26176290

  1. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenting; Zhang, Hao; Tong, Chuanliang; Xie, Chong; Fan, Guohua; Zhao, Shasha; Yu, Xiaogang; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1) (interquartile range, 0.41-2.95 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1)). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln) transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS) and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = -0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) (-0.32, -0.02). Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = -0.35; 95% CI (-0.68, -0.03)), percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = -1.64; 95% CI (-3.05, -0.23)), as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26901211

  2. Semen quality and sperm functional parameters in fertile Indian men.

    PubMed

    Pal, P C; Rajalakshmi, M; Manocha, M; Sharma, R S; Mittal, S; Rao, D N

    2006-02-01

    The reports of a decline in the reproductive health of men worldwide prompted the present study to be undertaken so that baseline semen parameters could be established in Indian men. Semen profile and sperm function parameters were evaluated in 368 Indian men of proven fertility, settled in Delhi. The results of the study were compared with available published information from Indian men. The mean sperm concentration and semen volumes were 68.22 +/- 15.14 x 10(6) ml(-1) and 3.20 +/- 0.94 ml, respectively. Rapid, linear progressive motility and sluggish linear motility were 40.95 +/- 9.15% and 24.95 +/- 7.01%, respectively. A comparison of the results of the present study with earlier published data did not support the contention of a decrease in the semen quality in Indian men. PMID:16420238

  3. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenting; Zhang, Hao; Tong, Chuanliang; Xie, Chong; Fan, Guohua; Zhao, Shasha; Yu, Xiaogang; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine)−1 (interquartile range, 0.41–2.95 ng (mg·creatinine)−1). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln) transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS) and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = −0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) (−0.32, −0.02). Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = −0.35; 95% CI (−0.68, −0.03)), percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = −1.64; 95% CI (−3.05, −0.23)), as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26901211

  4. Lead level in seminal plasma may affect semen quality for men without occupational exposure to lead

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infertility affects approximately 10–15% of reproductive-age couples. Poor semen quality contributes to about 25% of infertile cases. Resulting from the direct effect on testicular function or hormonal alterations, heavy metals exposure has been related to impaired semen quality. The objective of this study was to assess the level of lead in the seminal plasma in men without occupational exposure to lead, and to determine the relationship between semen quality and lead concentration in the semen. Methods This is a prospective and nonrandomized clinical study conducted in University infertility clinic and academic research laboratory. Three hundred and forty-one male partners of infertile couples undergoing infertility evaluation and management were recruited to the study. Semen samples collected for the analyses of semen quality were also used for the measurement of lead concentrations. Semen samples were evaluated according to the WHO standards. Results All subjects were married and from infertile couples without occupational exposure to lead. There is a significant inverse correlation between the lead concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count. A higher semen lead concentration was correlated with lower sperm count, but not with semen volume, sperm motility or sperm morphology as assessed by simple linear regression. Conclusions We found that semen lead concentration was significantly higher among the patients with lower sperm count. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a high level of lead accumulation in semen may reduce the sperm count contributing to infertility of men without occupational exposure to lead. PMID:23137356

  5. Does a boar's season of birth determine semen parameters and reproductive performance?

    PubMed

    Knecht, D; Środoń, S; Duziński, K

    2014-04-01

    This article studies the effect of a boar's birth season and breed on semen parameters and its further reproductive performance. Research material consisted of 72 boars from three breeds (24 Polish Large White PLW, 24 Polish Landrace PL, 24 Duroc × Pietrain D × P). During the whole period of the study, selected semen parameters were analysed: semen volume, spermatozoa concentration, total number of spermatozoa, total number of motile spermatozoa, number of insemination doses and also reproductive indicators: farrowing rate, total born litter size, total number of piglets born live and still, and average piglet weight. Boars born in the winter and summer months demonstrated the highest spermatozoa concentrations (383.25 and 392.37 × 10(6)/ml), total number of spermatozoa (91.75 and 93.21 × 10(9)), total number of motile spermatozoa (76.10 and 77.99 × 10(9)) and number of insemination doses (24.53 and 24.89; p ≤ 0.01). Statistically lower values for these parameters were observed for boars born in the spring and especially in autumn (p ≤ 0.01). The significant impact of birth season on farrowing rate (p ≤ 0.05) and average piglet weight (p ≤ 0.05) was confirmed for PLW boars. For the PL breed, only the total number of piglets born live was proven to be significantly affected (p ≤ 0.05). No impact of birth season was shown on semen quality or reproductive performance for D × P boars. In our study, we showed that the birth season of a boar had a more impact on the level of semen parameters, and less on the reproductive performance indicators. The results indicated that both the quality of semen and reproductive performance varied in terms of the study factors, as well as between individual breeds of boars involved in the experiment. PMID:24237255

  6. Effects of age and environmental factors on semen production and semen quality of Austrian Simmental bulls.

    PubMed

    Fuerst-Waltl, Birgit; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Perner, Christa; Sölkner, Johann

    2006-09-01

    More than 90% of the breeding stock of Austrian dual purpose Simmental cows is artificially inseminated. Knowledge of factors affecting sperm production and semen quality is of importance with regard to reproductive efficiency and thus genetic improvement as well as for the productivity and profitability of AI centers. Hence, semen data from two Austrian AI centres collected in the years 2000 and 2001 were evaluated. In total, 3625 and 3654 ejaculates from 147 and 127 AI bulls, respectively, were analysed regarding ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, percentage of viable spermatozoa in the ejaculate, total spermatozoa per ejaculate and motility. Effects accounted for were the bull (random), age of bull, collection interval, number of collection on collection day, bull handler, semen collector, temperature on day of semen collection, in the course of epididymal maturation (average temperature of days 1-11 before collection) and during spermatogenesis (average temperature of days 12-65 before collection). Age of bull significantly affected all traits (P<0.01 to P<0.001) except motility score in center 2. Ejaculate volume and total number of spermatozoa increased with age of bull while sperm concentration was lower in higher age classes (center 1). The collection team was also found to significantly influence semen quality traits. With increasing collection interval ejaculate volume and total number of spermatozoa increased significantly (P<0.05 to P<0.001) while collection intervals between 4-9 days and 1-6 days were superior with regard to sperm concentration and percentage of viable spermatozoa, respectively (P<0.10 to P<0.001). First ejaculates were superior with respect to ejaculate volumes, sperm concentrations and total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate (P<0.001). Temperature, either on day of semen collection or during epididymal maturation or spermatogenesis, had important but inconsistent effects on semen production and sperm quality. Overall, however

  7. Lifestyle and semen quality: role of modifiable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Sobala, Wojciech; Ligocka, Danuta; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between exposure to lifestyle factors and adverse effects on human reproductive health is debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have increased public and regulatory attention. The aim of the study was to examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and main semen parameters, sperm morphology, and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 344 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes with normal semen concentration of 20-300 M/ml or with slight oligozoospermia (semen total concentration of 15-20 M/ml) [WHO 1999]. Participants were interviewed and provided semen samples. The interview included questions about demographics, socio-economic status, medical history, lifestyle factors (consumption of alcohol, tobacco, coffee intake, cell phone and sauna usage), and physical activity. The results of the study suggest that lifestyle factors may affect semen quality. A negative association was found between increased body mass index (BMI) and semen volume (p = 0.03). Leisure time activity was positively associated with sperm concentration (p = 0.04) and coffee drinking with the percentage of motile sperm cells, and the percentage of sperm head and neck abnormalities (p = 0.01, p = 0.05, and p = 0.03, respectively). Drinking red wine 1-3 times per week was negatively related to sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.01). Additionally, using a cell phone more than 10 years decreased the percentage of motile sperm cells (p = 0.02). Men who wore boxer shorts had a lower percentage of sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.002) and percentage of sperm with DNA damage (p = 0.02). These findings may have important implications for semen quality and lifestyle. PMID:24074254

  8. Exposure to Environmental Ozone Alters Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Sokol, Rebecca Z.; Kraft, Peter; Fowler, Ian M.; Mamet, Rizvan; Kim, Elizabeth; Berhane, Kiros T.

    2006-01-01

    Idiopathic male infertility may be due to exposure to environmental toxicants that alter spermatogenesis or sperm function. We studied the relationship between air pollutant levels and semen quality over a 2-year period in Los Angeles, California, by analyzing repeated semen samples collected by sperm donors. Semen analysis data derived from 5,134 semen samples from a sperm donor bank were correlated with air pollutant levels (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter < 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter) measured 0–9, 10–14, and 70–90 days before semen collection dates in Los Angeles between January 1996 and December 1998. A linear mixed-effects model was used to model average sperm concentration and total motile sperm count for the donation from each subject. Changes were analyzed in relationship to biologically relevant time points during spermatogenesis, 0–9, 10–14, and 70–90 days before the day of semen collection. We estimated temperature and seasonality effects after adjusting for a base model, which included donor’s date of birth and age at donation. Forty-eight donors from Los Angeles were included as subjects. Donors were included if they collected repeated semen samples over a 12-month period between January 1996 and December 1998. There was a significant negative correlation between ozone levels at 0–9, 10–14, and 70–90 days before donation and average sperm concentration, which was maintained after correction for donor’s birth date, age at donation, temperature, and seasonality (p < 0.01). No other pollutant measures were significantly associated with sperm quality outcomes. Exposure to ambient ozone levels adversely affects semen quality. PMID:16507458

  9. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  10. Urinary Bisphenol A and Semen Quality, The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, Alexandra E.; Chen, Zhen; Perry, Melissa J.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a high-production volume industrial chemical found in several consumer products, has been negatively associated with sperm quality. This study aimed to estimate the association between BPA and 35 measures of semen quality among reproductive aged men recruited from 16 counties in Michigan and Texas, 2005–2009. Of 501 enrolled males, 418 (83.4%) provided a urine sample and at least one semen sample. Linear and logistic regression models assessed the association between urinary BPA levels and individual semen quality endpoints. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to account for repeated measures of semen quality and adjusted models accounted for 11 a priori covariates. Geometric mean total urinary BPA concentration among participants was 0.55 ng/mL (95% CI 0.49–0.63). A negative relation between BPA and DNA fragmentation was the sole significant finding in adjusted linear regression (β=−0.0544, p=0.035) and suggestive of less sperm DNA damage. PMID:25462789

  11. Comparative Examination of Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) Behaviour Responses and Semen Quality to Two Methods of Semen Collection

    PubMed Central

    Łukaszewicz, Ewa Teresa; Kowalczyk, Artur Mikołaj; Rzońca, Zenon

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is very helpful in solving the reproductive and biodiversity problems observed in small, closed avian populations. The successful production of fertilized eggs using AI is dependent on the collection of good quality semen. Two methods of male sexual stimulation and semen collection from captive kept capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.), one of the most seriously endangered grouse species in Europe, are compared in this study. Ejaculates were obtained either with the use of a dummy female or by the dorso-abdominal massage method. Differences in the individual responses of the males to the two methods of semen collection as well as in their semen quality were noted. Only sperm concentration (432.4 x 106 mL-1 with dummy female and 614.5 x 106 mL-1 for massage method) was significantly affected by capercaillie stimulation method. Sperm motility and morphology were not affected (P≥0.05). Thus, for semen collection from captive kept capercaillie both methods can be used successfully. The dummy female can be an alternative to dorso-abdominal massage method, commonly used for semen collection from domesticated bird species. PMID:26397704

  12. COMPARATIVE ANTIVIRAL AND PROVIRAL FACTORS IN SEMEN AND VACCINES FOR PREVENTING VIRAL DISSEMINATION FROM THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND SEMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many animal and human viruses are disseminated via semen, but there is little information on how to measure and stimulate protective anti-viral immunity in the male reproductive tract and semen. This information is important since successful vaccination through the stimulation of protective immune ...

  13. Correlation of phthalate exposures with semen quality

    SciTech Connect

    Pant, Niraj Shukla, Manju; Kumar Patel, Devendra; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Mathur, Neeraj; Kumar Gupta, Yogendra; Saxena, Daya Krishna

    2008-08-15

    Phthalates are widely used man-made chemical released in the environment and human exposure is mainly through diet. As the phthalate plasticizers are not covalently bound to PVC, they can leach, migrate or evaporate into the environment and as a result have become ubiquitously contaminants. The present study investigates the correlation, if any, between the phthalate esters (DEP, DEHP, DBP, DMP, DOP) and sperm mitochondrial status, ROS, LPO, SCSA, and sperm quality. The study was conducted in the urban/rural population of Lucknow visiting Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, CSMMU, Lucknow. Semen analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines while phthalate analysis by HPLC and LPO by spectrophotometer and the sperm mitochondrial status, ROS, SCSA using flow cytometry. The questionnaire data showed no significant difference in the demographic characteristics among the groups. In general, urban population was found to have statistically significant higher levels of phthalate esters than the rural. Further, infertile men showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) higher levels of pollutants in the semen than fertile men. A negative correlation between semen phthalate level viz DEHP and sperm quality and positive association with depolarized mitochondria, elevation in ROS production and LPO, DNA fragmentation was established. The findings are suggestive that phthalates might be one among the contributing factors associated with the deterioration in semen quality and these adverse effects might be ROS, LPO and mitochondrial dysfunction mediated.

  14. Quality parameters for alpaca (Vicugna pacos) semen are affected by semen collection procedure.

    PubMed

    Morton, K M; Thomson, P C; Bailey, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2010-08-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is poorly developed in camelids owing to the difficulty in collecting high quality semen and the highly viscous nature of the semen. Semen collected by artificial vagina (AV) is often of low quality and must be improved before any further development of AI technology can occur. The present study investigated the effects of adding a cervix-like stricture to the AV, presence of females, collecting semen into Androhep, skim-milk or Tris diluents, and catalase supplementation (0, 100, 200 or 600 units/ml) of Tris diluent on alpaca semen quality parameters. The addition of a cervix-like stricture increased mating length (p < 0.05), whilst the presence of females during semen collection did not improve semen quality parameters (p > 0.05). Collection of semen into Tris diluent improved sperm motility (58.0 +/- 11.9%) compared with the control (34.0 +/- 10.8%; p < 0.05), Androhep (33.5 +/- 10.7%) and skim-milk diluents (28.2 +/- 10.4%). Semen viscosity was reduced by collection into Androhep (4.6 +/- 1.7 mm) and skim-milk diluents (3.6 +/- 1.3 mm) compared with Tris diluent (5.7 +/- 2.1 mm) and no collection medium (9.3 +/- 3.5 mm; p < 0.05). Tris diluent supplemented with 100, 200 or 600 units/ml catalase increased semen viscosity (5.0 +/- 3.2 and 4.9 +/- 3.2 mm). Collection of alpaca semen by AV into Tris diluent increased semen quality facilitating further development of AI technology in alpacas. PMID:19144029

  15. Influence of boar breeds or hybrid genetic composition on semen quality and seminal plasma biochemical variables.

    PubMed

    Žaja, Ivona Žura; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Majić-Balić, Ivanka; Vilić, Marinko; Đuričić, Dražen; Milinković-Tur, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme concentrations of seminal plasma are important for spermatozoa metabolism and function in boars. The need has arisen for introducing a biochemical evaluation of semen, along with the usual standard semen analyses. There are no data on the influence of boar breeds on the seminal plasma biochemical variables investigated in this study. Therefore, the objective was to determine the influence of breed and hybrid genetic composition of boars on semen quality and seminal plasma biochemical variables. Semen samples of 27 boars (Swedish Landrace, German Landrace, Large White, Pietrain and Pig Improvement Company hybrid-PIC-hybrid), aged between 1.5 and 3 years, were collected. After evaluation of semen quality, the seminal plasma was separated from the spermatozoa by centrifugation of semen. The seminal plasma was subjected to spectrophotometric analysis to determine alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and to atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis to measure the concentration of calcium and magnesium. Conventional semen quality variables differed depending on breed and PIC-hybrid genetic composition, though these differences were typically insignificant. In the seminal plasma, significant differences were determined in enzyme activity (ALP, GGT, CK and LDH) and in calcium concentration among boars of different breeds. There are, therefore, differences in semen quality and significant differences in the seminal plasma biochemical variables among boars of different breeds and PIC-hybrid genetic composition. The data and differences in semen variables detected in the present study provide knowledge for enhancing evaluation and monitoring of boar reproductive potential, semen quality and explain the potential causes of boar infertility. PMID:26692346

  16. Semen quality in Peruvian pesticide applicators: association between urinary organophosphate metabolites and semen parameters

    PubMed Central

    Yucra, Sandra; Gasco, Manuel; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2008-01-01

    Background Organophosphates are broad class of chemicals widely used as pesticides throughout the world. We performed a cross-sectional study of associations between dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphates and semen quality among pesticide applicators in Majes (Arequipa), Peru. Methods Thirty-one men exposed to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and 31 non-exposed were recruited (age, 20–60 years). In exposed subjects, semen and a blood sample were obtained one day after the last pesticide application. Subjects were grouped according to levels of OP metabolites in urine. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility, percentage of normal morphology, semen leucocytes and concentrations of fructose and zinc. Exposure to OP was assessed by measuring six urinary OP metabolites (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates and thiophosphates) by gas chromatography using a single flame photometric detector. Results Diethyldithiophosphate (p = 0.04) and diethylthiophosphate (p = 0.02) better reflected occupational pesticide exposure than other OP metabolites. Semen analysis revealed a significant reduction of semen volume and an increase in semen pH in men with OP metabolites. Multiple regression analysis showed that both occupational exposure to pesticides and the time of exposure to pesticides were more closely related to alterations in semen quality parameters than the single measurement of OP metabolites in urine. Conclusion The study demonstrated that occupational exposure to OP pesticides was more closely related to alterations in semen quality than a single measurement of urine OP metabolites. Current measurement of OP metabolites in urine may not reflect the full risk. PMID:19014632

  17. Seasonal and cryopreservation impacts on semen quality in boars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal boar infertility occurs worldwide and contributes to economic loss to the pork industry. The current study evaluated cooled vs cryopreserved semen quality of 11 Duroc boars collected in June (cool season) and August 2014 (warm season). Semen was cooled to 16°C (cooled) or frozen over liquid...

  18. Perfluorochemicals and Human Semen Quality: The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Kim, Sungduk; Sweeney, Anne M.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Lynch, Courtney D.; Gore-Langton, Robert E.; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relation between persistent environmental chemicals and semen quality is evolving, although limited data exist for men recruited from general populations. Objectives: We examined the relation between perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) and semen quality among 501 male partners of couples planning pregnancy. Methods: Using population-based sampling strategies, we recruited 501 couples discontinuing contraception from two U.S. geographic regions from 2005 through 2009. Baseline interviews and anthropometric assessments were conducted, followed by blood collection for the quantification of seven serum PFCs (perfluorosulfonates, perfluorocarboxylates, and perfluorosulfonamides) using tandem mass spectrometry. Men collected a baseline semen sample and another approximately 1 month later. Semen samples were shipped with freezer packs, and analyses were performed on the day after collection. We used linear regression to estimate the difference in each semen parameter associated with a one unit increase in the natural log–transformed PFC concentration after adjusting for confounders and modeling repeated semen samples. Sensitivity analyses included optimal Box-Cox transformation of semen quality end points. Results: Six PFCs [2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH), perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)] were associated with 17 semen quality end points before Box-Cox transformation. PFOSA was associated with smaller sperm head area and perimeter, a lower percentage of DNA stainability, and a higher percentage of bicephalic and immature sperm. PFDeA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFOS were associated with a lower percentage of sperm with coiled tails. Conclusions: Select PFCs were associated with certain semen end points, with the most significant associations observed for PFOSA but with results in varying directions. Citation

  19. Replication of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in the bovine reproductive tract and excretion of virus in semen during acute and chronic infections.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, P D; Richards, S G; Rothwell, J T; Stanley, D F

    1991-06-22

    Five mature bulls were studied during an acute transient infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The bulls had been infected experimentally by the intranasal instillation of blood and serum from a cow which was a persistent carrier of the virus. Infection was confirmed by the demonstration of a low titred viraemia in four of the five animals and by the seroconversion of all five. Semen samples were collected from each bull on four occasions between seven and 14 days after infection. The virus was isolated from the semen of three of the five bulls and from nine of 12 batches of semen from them. In contrast to other studies of the infection of semen, BVDV was isolated with similar efficiency from raw, unprocessed semen and from diluted, extended semen. The titres of virus in the semen ranged from 5 to 75 TCID50/ml. The infection did not appear to affect the quality of the semen. Shedding of virus continued after the end of the period of viraemia and appeared to be a consequence of the replication of the virus in the reproductive tract and its subsequent excretion in the seminal fluid. Virological studies of the reproductive tracts of these bulls suggested that the most productive sites of virus replication were the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland. Concurrent studies in a persistently infected bull supported these findings. PMID:1654660

  20. Semen quality in welders before and after three weeks of non-exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, J P

    1990-01-01

    In a cross sectional field study concerning the male reproductive system in metalworkers, the major findings were a moderate deterioration of semen quality in mild steel welders and less reliable changes in semen quality in low exposed stainless steel welders. In the present study, a longitudinal design was adopted to deal with methodological drawbacks inherent in the cross sectional approach. The study relies on the assumption that the effect of welding is causal and reversible. The semen quality of 19 mild steel welders, 18 stainless steel welders and 16 non-welding metal-workers, was examined before and three, five, and eight weeks after a three week break in exposure (summer vacation). No consistent improvement in any semen parameter in the follow up period relative to the prevacation period was found in either mild steel or stainless steel welders. The results indicate either a non-causal nature of reported associations between welding exposure and poor semen quality, or that the effect of welding is non-reversible within the rather short non-exposure period. PMID:2393629

  1. Alpaca semen quality in relation to different diets.

    PubMed

    Juyena, N S; Vencato, J; Pasini, G; Vazzana, I; Stelletta, C

    2013-01-01

    were not present in all samples of alpaca seminal plasma. There were no significant changes in the concentration of any protein fractions during the four periods. Moreover, the protein fraction of the 60-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 60-kDa, TP3) band was the most prevalent in all periods. These results demonstrate that there are marked changes in semen quality, as well as some parameters related to the composition of alpaca seminal plasma, that are dependent on diet, which may indicate the need for specific diet formulation to improve reproductive performance. We hypothesise that, in alpacas, the mechanisms underlying the changes in some reproductive traits in response to feeding regimens could be related to changes in the endocrine-gonadal system. PMID:22951252

  2. Detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in boar semen by PCR.

    PubMed

    Christopher-Hennings, J; Nelson, E A; Nelson, J K; Hines, R J; Swenson, S L; Hill, H T; Zimmerman, J J; Katz, J B; Yaeger, M J; Chase, C C

    1995-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a devastating disease in swine. The presence and transmission of PRRSV by boar semen has been demonstrated by using a swine bioassay. In this assay, 4- to 8-week-old pigs were inoculated intraperitoneally with semen from PRRSV-infected boars. Seroconversion of these piglets indicated the presence of PRRSV in semen. Seroconversion in gilts has also been demonstrated following artificial insemination with semen from PRRSV-infected boars. These methods of detecting PRRSV in boar semen are time-consuming, laborious, and expensive. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable and sensitive PCR assay to directly detect PRRSV in boar semen. Primers from open reading frames 1b and 7 of the PRRSV genome were used in nested PCRs. Virus was detected at concentrations as low as 10 infectious virions per ml in PRRSV-spiked semen. Specificity was confirmed by using a nested PCR and a 32P-labeled oligonucleotide probe. The primers did not react with related arteriviruses or other swine viruses. The PCR assay showed good correlation with the swine bioassay, and both methods were superior to virus isolation. To consistently identify PRRSV in boar semen, the cell fraction was separated by centrifugation at 600 x g for 20 min, a lysis buffer without a reducing agent (2-mercaptoethanol) was used, and nondiluted and 1:20-diluted cell fractions were evaluated by PCR. PRRSV was not reliably detected in the seminal plasma fraction of boar semen. PMID:7665637

  3. Evaluation of sperm DNA damage in bulls by TUNEL assay as a parameter of semen quality

    PubMed Central

    TAKEDA, Kumiko; UCHIYAMA, Kyoko; KINUKAWA, Masashi; TAGAMI, Takahiro; KANEDA, Masahiro; WATANABE, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Sperm DNA damage affects the conception rate resulting from human assisted reproduction technology. The objective of this study was to adapt the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay to provide a quality parameter for bull semen based on the detection of sperm DNA damage. Fresh semen was collected from two Japanese Black bulls (A, B) several times over the course of a year, and the percentage of TUNEL-positive spermatozoa (sperm TUNEL index) was determined. Individual differences in semen were detected using the sperm TUNEL index in these bulls (P < 0.01). The sperm TUNEL index of cryopreserved semen obtained from test-mated Japanese Black (n = 30, including two bulls with a conception rate lower than 10%) and Holstein (n = 34) bulls were analyzed. The average sperm TUNEL index and conception rate resulting from artificial insemination (AI) were 4.7% and 55.7% for Japanese Black, and 4.9% and 39.5% for Holstein, respectively. A weak negative correlation between sperm TUNEL index and conception rate was observed in Holstein bulls (P < 0.05). Semen samples from six bulls with more than 10% sperm TUNEL index were studied, and these samples showed low sperm viability. However, semen resulting in a very low conception rate did not have a high sperm TUNEL index. Although it would be difficult to predict a low conception rate resulting from AI using the sperm TUNEL index alone, the index can be used as an additional parameter to provide a more comprehensive description of semen quality. PMID:25739957

  4. Reference value of semen quality in Chinese young men.

    PubMed

    Junqing, Wu; Qiuying, Yang; Jianguo, Tao; Wei, Yuan; Liwei, Bo; Yuxian, Li; Yumei, Zhou; Kangshou, Yao; Weiqun, Lu; Lu, Chen; Ersheng, Gao

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate semen quality in young Chinese men and to establish reference values. Normal healthy young men from seven geographical areas were enrolled. The study showed that the mean sperm volume was 2.61 mL, and mean percent of sperm with forward progression was 59.89, while median of semen viability was 79.0%, and geometric mean of semen density was 55.45 x 10(6)/mL. Proportion of routine semen indexes that met World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were as follows: 81.9% for semen volume, 91.1% for liquefaction time, 93.4% for viscosity, 90.8% for pH, 81.3% for sperm with forward progression, 65.3% for sperm viability, 93.8% for semen density, 98.8% for normal sperm morphology, and 89.1% for total sperm count. Participants whose sperm met all WHO standard parameters accounted for 42.3%. Because the infertility rate in China is about 10-15%, the fifteenth percentile of semen parameters might be used as the lower limit of reference values, which may be more appropriate for young Chinese men. The fifteenth percentiles of parameters in this study were as follows: 1.5 mL for semen volume, 7.2 for pH value, 45% for proportion of sperm with forward progression, 68% for sperm viability, 30 x 10(6)/mL for semen density, 68% for proportion of sperm with normal morphology, and 50 x 10(6) for total sperm count. PMID:12057790

  5. Cadmium, Chromium, and Copper Concentration plus Semen-Quality in Environmental Pollution Site, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Yan; GAO, Qiaoyan; LI, Mingcai; LI, Mengyang; GAO, Xueming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The environmental pollution is one of the factors contributing to the decrease of sperm quality for human beings. The aim of this study was to assess cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) concentration of man in environmental pollution site, and explore relationships between men exposure to Cd, Cr, and Cu and semen-quality parameters in environmental pollution site. Methods Ninety five men were recruited through pollution area and controls in 2011. We measured semen quality using Computer-aided Semen Quality Analysis, and Cd, Cr, and Cu levels in seminal plasma using Graphite Gurnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Cd, Cr and Cu concentration in seminal plasma and semen quality. Results The mean of seminal plasma Cd, Cr, and Cu values in pollution area was higher than the controls. Seminal plasma Cr values displayed a significant negative correlation with total motility and normomorph sperm rate. Seminal plasma Cu values also displayed a negative correlation with normomorph sperm rate. Conclusions Male reproductive health may be threatened by environmental pollution, and it may be influence local population diathesis. PMID:26060677

  6. Semen residual viral load and reproductive outcomes in HIV-infected men undergoing ICSI after extended semen preparation.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Maria Jose; Obradors, Albert; Woodward, Bryan; Vernaeve, Valerie; Vassena, Rita

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual presence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) following a triple gradient extended semen wash from ejaculates of serodiscordant couples, and analyse their reproductive outcomes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). For this purpose, a retrospective analysis of our database was performed in serodiscordant couples, with HIV-infected men and non-infected women, using fresh or frozen sperm with ICSI in oocytes from either the patients or donors from January 2006 to September 2013. Overall, the rate of positive HIV test after semen washing was 1.86%. The positive beta human chorionic gonadotrophin, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates in patients with their own oocytes were 47.1%, 37.5% and 30.8%, respectively, and 58.6%, 50.8% and 39.1%, respectively, in oocyte donation cycles. To summarize, the described method of sperm washing based on triple gradient sperm selection coupled with extensive centrifugations is a highly reliable technique for HIV removal, as it provides lower than reported post-wash positive tests while maintaining high pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction cycles. Despite extensive personnel training and effectiveness of the washing protocol, post-wash HIV test on semen is recommended to identify residual positive samples. PMID:26995657

  7. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, N; Vierula, M; Jacobsen, R; Pukkala, E; Perheentupa, A; Virtanen, H E; Skakkebæk, N E; Toppari, J

    2011-01-01

    Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study of testis cancer incidence among Finnish men to explore recent trends. A total of 858 men were investigated in the semen quality study during 1998–2006. Median sperm concentrations were 67 (95% CI 57–80) million/mL, 60 (51–71) and 48 (39–60) for birth cohorts 1979–81, 1982–83 and 1987; total sperm counts 227 (189–272) million, 202 (170–240) and 165 (132–207); total number of morphologically normal spermatozoa 18 (14–23) million, 15 (12–19) and 11 (8–15). Men aged 10–59 years at the time of diagnosis with testicular cancer during 1954–2008 were included in the registry study, which confirmed the increasing incidence of testicular cancer in recent cohorts. These simultaneous and rapidly occurring adverse trends suggest that the underlying causes are environmental and, as such, preventable. Our findings necessitate not only further surveillance of male reproductive health but also research to detect and remove the underlying factors. PMID:21366607

  8. Semen cryopreservation and usage rate for assisted reproductive technology in 898 men with cancer.

    PubMed

    Muller, Iris; Oude Ophuis, Ralph J A; Broekmans, Frank J M; Lock, Tycho M T W

    2016-02-01

    An undesired side effect of cancer treatment is potential subfertility or infertility. Timely cryopreservation of semen is the best modality to ensure fertility. This retrospective data analysis established the usage rate of cryopreserved semen from cancer patients. Pubertal and post-pubertal patients who could become infertile as a result of cancer (treatment) were offered the option to cryopreserve semen prior to treatment. Of the 898 patients who cryopreserved their semen in our hospital, 96 (10.7%) used this for assisted reproductive technology. The live birth rates for intrauterine insemination, in-vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection and cryopreserved embryo transfer were 13%, 29%, 32% and 17%, respectively. Of all couples involved, 77% achieved parenthood, i.e. 60 of the 78 patients (with complete follow-up) fathered at least one child. PMID:26687904

  9. An Outbreak of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Switzerland Following Import of Boar Semen.

    PubMed

    Nathues, C; Perler, L; Bruhn, S; Suter, D; Eichhorn, L; Hofmann, M; Nathues, H; Baechlein, C; Ritzmann, M; Palzer, A; Grossmann, K; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Thür, B

    2016-04-01

    An outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) occurred in November 2012 in Switzerland (CH), traditionally PRRSV-free. It was detected after a German boar stud informed a semen importer about the detection of PRRSV during routine monitoring. Tracing of semen deliveries revealed 26 Swiss sow herds that had used semen from this stud after its last negative routine monitoring and 62 further contact herds. All herds were put under movement restrictions and examined serologically and virologically. As a first measure, 59 sows from five herds that had previously been inseminated with suspicious semen were slaughtered and tested immediately. Investigations in the stud resulted in 8 positive boars with recent semen deliveries to CH (Seven with antibodies and virus, one with antibodies only). In one boar out of six tested, virus was detected in semen. Of the 59 slaughtered sows, five from three herds were virus-positive. In one herd, the virus had spread, and all pigs were slaughtered or non-marketable animals euthanized. In the remaining herds, no further infections were detected. After confirmatory testings in all herds 3 weeks after the first examination gave negative results, restrictions were lifted in January 2013, and Switzerland regained its PRRSV-free status. The events demonstrate that import of semen from non-PRRS-free countries - even from negative studs - poses a risk, because monitoring protocols in boar studs are often insufficient to timely detect an infection, and infections of sows/herds occur even with low numbers of semen doses. The outbreak was eradicated successfully mainly due to the high disease awareness of the importer and because immediate actions were taken before clinical or laboratory diagnosis of a single case in the country was made. To minimize the risk of an introduction of PRRSV in the future, stricter import guidelines for boar semen have been implemented. PMID:25209832

  10. Rotation of Boar Semen Doses During Storage Affects Sperm Quality.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Rüdiger, K; Waberski, D

    2015-08-01

    It is common practice to rotate boar semen doses during storage for prevention of sperm sedimentation. In this study, the effect of rotation of boar semen doses during storage on sperm quality was investigated. Manual turning twice daily and automatic rotation five times per hour resulted in the following effects: alkalinization of the BTS-extender, loss of membrane integrity at day 3, and loss of motility and changes in sperm kinematics during a thermoresistance test at day 5. Using a pH-stabilized variant of BTS extender, sperm motility and velocity decreased in continuously rotated samples, whereas membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity remain unaffected. It is concluded that rotation of semen samples adversely affects sperm quality and, therefore, should no longer be recommended for AI practice. PMID:25974759

  11. Semen quality and sex hormones among mild steel and stainless steel welders: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, J P

    1990-01-01

    Welding may be detrimental to the male reproductive system. To test this hypothesis, semen quality was examined in 35 stainless steel welders, 46 mild steel welders, and 54 non-welding metal workers and electricians. These figures represent a participation rate of 37.1% in welders and 36.7% in non-welding subjects. The mean exposure to welding fume particulates was 1.3 mg/m3 (SD 0.8) in stainless steel welders using tungsten inert gas, 3.2 mg/m3 (SD 1.0) in low exposed mild steel welders using manual metal arc or metal active gas (n = 31), and 4.7 mg/m3 (SD 2.1) in high exposed mild steel welders (n = 15). The semen quality of each participant was defined in terms of the mean values of the particular semen parameters in three semen samples delivered at monthly intervals in a period with occupational exposure in a steady state. The sperm concentration was not reduced in either mild steel or stainless steel welders. The sperm count per ejaculate, the proportion of normal sperm forms, the degree of sperm motility, and the linear penetration rate of the sperm were significantly decreased and the sperm concentration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was non-significantly increased in mild steel welders. A dose response relation between exposure to welding fumes and these semen parameters (sperm count excepted) was found. Semen quality decreased and FSH concentrations increased with increasing exposure. Significant deteriorations in some semen parameters were also observed in stainless steel welders. An analysis of information from questionnaires obtained from the whole population including subjects who declined to participate indicated an underestimation of effects due to selection bias. Potential confounding was treated by restriction and statistical analysis. The results support the hypothesis that mild steel welding and to a lesser extent stainless steel welding with tungsten inert gas is associated with reduced semen quality at exposure in the range of the

  12. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN HOME TAP WATER AND SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trihalomethane Levels in Home Tap Water and Semen Quality
    Laura Fenster, 1 Kirsten Waller, 2 Gayle Windham, 1 Tanya Henneman, 2 Meredith Anderson, 2 Pauline Mendola, 3 James W. Overstreet, 4 Shanna H. Swan5

    1California Department of Health Services, Division of Environm...

  13. [Effects of occupational exposure to pesticides on semen quality of workers in an agricultural community of Merida state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Miranda-Contreras, Leticia; Cruz, Ibis; Osuna, Jesús A; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham; Colmenares, Melisa; Barreto, Silvio; Balza, Alirio; Morales, Yasmin; Zavala, Leisalba; Labarca, Emilitza; García, Nelly; Sanchez, Beluardi; Contreras, Carlos A; Andrade, Henry

    2015-06-01

    Numerous studies report adverse effects of pesticides on male reproductive health. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether there is a relationship between occupational exposure to pesticides and semen quality, and to determine whether chronic exposure to pesticides differentially affects semen quality in men of different ages. A comparative study of 64 farmers and 64 control men was performed. The farmers were interviewed to determine their occupational history and particularly, activities that may involve exposure to pesticides. Semen parameters were evaluated and a comparative analysis of semen variables between exposed and control groups, as well as between age groups: 18-29, 30-37 and 38-60 years was done. Significant alterations of some semen parameters in the exposed group were found, such as: decreases in sperm concentration, slow progressive motility and sperm membrane integrity; at the same time, increases in eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index. The results obtained by age groups showed significant differences between exposed and control groups for the parameters of membrane integrity, eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index, being the exposed group between 18-29 years that showed the highest altered cases of these parameters. Our results prove that occupational pesticide exposure is associated with alterations in sperm quality, creating a risk to farm workers in their reproductive capacity. PMID:26299054

  14. Glycol ethers and semen quality: a cross‐sectional study among male workers in the Paris Municipality

    PubMed Central

    Multigner, L; Brik, E Ben; Arnaud, I; Haguenoer, J M; Jouannet, P; Auger, J; Eustache, F

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Apparent increases in human male reproductive disorders, including low sperm production, may have occurred because of increased chemical exposure. Various glycol ether‐based solvents have pronounced adverse effects on sperm production and male fertility in laboratory animals. The authors investigated the effects of past and current exposure to glycol ether‐containing products on semen quality and reproductive hormones among men employed by the Paris Municipality. Methods Between 2000 and 2001 the authors recruited 109 men who gave semen, blood and urine samples and underwent an andrological examination. Information on lifestyle, occupation, exposure and medical history was obtained by interview. According to their job and chemical products used during the period 1990–2000, men were classified as either occupationally exposed or non‐exposed. Current exposure levels to glycol ethers at the time of the study were evaluated by biological monitoring of six urinary metabolites. Results Previous exposure to glycol ethers was associated with an increased risk for sperm concentration, for rapid progressive motility and for morphologically normal sperm below the World Health Organization semen reference values. No effect of previous glycol ether exposure on hormones levels was observed. By contrast, current glycol ether exposure levels were low and not correlated with either seminal quality or hormone levels. Conclusions This study suggests that most glycol ethers currently used do not impact on human semen characteristics. Those that were more prevalent from the 1960s until recently may have long lasting negative effects on human semen quality. PMID:17332140

  15. Inverse U-shaped Association between Sleep Duration and Semen Quality: Longitudinal Observational Study (MARHCS) in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing; Yang, Huan; Zhou, Niya; Sun, Lei; Bao, Huaqiong; Tan, Lu; Chen, Hongqiang; Ling, Xi; Zhang, Guowei; Huang, Linping; Li, Lianbing; Ma, Mingfu; Yang, Hao; Wang, Xiaogang; Zou, Peng; Peng, Kaige; Liu, Taixiu; Cui, Zhihong; Ao, Lin; Roenneberg, Till; Zhou, Ziyuan; Cao, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the association between sleep duration and semen parameters as well as reproductive hormone levels. Methods: We designed a cohort of male college students in Chongqing, China. A total of 796 subjects were recruited in 2013 and 656 (82.4%) were followed up in 2014. Each time, semen and peripheral blood samples were collected for semen quality and reproductive hormone measurement. Sleep duration was estimated by revised Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. In 2014, sleep quality was also measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results: There was a substantial inverse U-shaped association between sleep duration and two semen parameters (semen volume and total sperm number), with 7.0–7.5 h/day of sleep showing highest parameters. Either longer or shorter sleep was associated with decreased semen parameters in a dose-response manner (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Sleeping > 9.0 h was associated with a 21.5% (95% confidence interval 9.2, 32.2) reduction in semen volume and 39.4% (23.3, 52.1) reduction in total sperm number; sleeping ≤ 6.5 h was associated with 4.6% (−10.5, 22.3) and 25.7% (−1.2, 60.1) reduction. Increase of the two parameters was found in those who changed sleep duration toward 7.0–7.5 h/day from 2013 to 2014. The U-shaped association was independent from PSQI and was replicated in another dataset of 1,346 males. No association found between sleep duration and reproductive hormone. Conclusions: Either restricted or excessive sleep may impair semen quality. Further research is needed to validate this finding. Citation: Chen Q, Yang H, Zhou N, Sun L, Bao H, Tan L, Chen H, Ling X, Zhang G, Huang L, Li L, Ma M, Yang H, Wang X, Zou P, Peng K, Liu T, Cui Z, Ao L, Roenneberg T, Zhou Z, Cao J. Inverse u-shaped association between sleep duration and semen quality: longitudinal observational study (MARHCS) in Chongqing, China. SLEEP 2016;39(1):79–86. PMID:26350472

  16. Lifestyles Associated With Human Semen Quality: Results From MARHCS Cohort Study in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huan; Chen, Qing; Zhou, Niya; Sun, Lei; Bao, Huaqiong; Tan, Lu; Chen, Hongqiang; Zhang, Guowei; Ling, Xi; Huang, Linping; Li, Lianbing; Ma, Mingfu; Yang, Hao; Wang, Xiaogang; Zou, Peng; Peng, Kaige; Liu, Kaijun; Liu, Taixiu; Cui, Zhihong; Liu, Jinyi; Ao, Lin; Zhou, Ziyuan; Cao, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Decline of semen quality in past decades is suggested to be potentially associated with environmental and sociopsychobehavioral factors, but data from population-based cohort studies is limited. The male reproductive health in Chongqing College students (MARHCS) study was established in June 2013 as a perspective cohort study that recruited voluntary male healthy college students from 3 universities in Chongqing. The primary objectives of the MARHCS study are to investigate the associations of male reproductive health in young adults with sociopsychobehavioral factors, as well as changes of environmental exposure due to the relocation from rural campus (in University Town) to metro-campus (in central downtown). A 93-item questionnaire was used to collect sociopsychobehavioral information in manner of interviewer–interviewing, and blood, urine and semen samples were collected at the same time. The study was initiated with 796 healthy young men screened from 872 participants, with a median age of 20. About 81.8% of this population met the WHO 2010 criteria on semen quality given to the 6 routine parameters. Decreases of 12.7%, 19.8%, and 17.0%, and decreases of 7.7%, 17.6%, and 14.7% in total sperm count and sperm concentration, respectively, were found to be associated with the tertiles of accumulated smoking amount. Fried food consumption (1–2 times/wk or ≥3 times/wk vs nonconsumers) was found to be associated with decreased total sperm count (10.2% or 24.5%) and sperm concentration (13.7% or 17.2%), respectively. Coffee consumption was found to be associated with increased progressive and nonprogressive motility of 8.9% or 15.4% for subjects consuming 1–2 cups/wk or ≥3 cups/wk of coffee, respectively. Cola consumption appeared an association with decreased semen volume at 4.1% or 12.5% for 1–2 bottles/wk or ≥3 bottles/wk. A cohort to investigate the effects of environmental/sociopsychobehavioral factors act on semen quality was

  17. Lifestyles Associated With Human Semen Quality: Results From MARHCS Cohort Study in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Chen, Qing; Zhou, Niya; Sun, Lei; Bao, Huaqiong; Tan, Lu; Chen, Hongqiang; Zhang, Guowei; Ling, Xi; Huang, Linping; Li, Lianbing; Ma, Mingfu; Yang, Hao; Wang, Xiaogang; Zou, Peng; Peng, Kaige; Liu, Kaijun; Liu, Taixiu; Cui, Zhihong; Liu, Jinyi; Ao, Lin; Zhou, Ziyuan; Cao, Jia

    2015-07-01

    Decline of semen quality in past decades is suggested to be potentially associated with environmental and sociopsychobehavioral factors, but data from population-based cohort studies is limited. The male reproductive health in Chongqing College students (MARHCS) study was established in June 2013 as a perspective cohort study that recruited voluntary male healthy college students from 3 universities in Chongqing. The primary objectives of the MARHCS study are to investigate the associations of male reproductive health in young adults with sociopsychobehavioral factors, as well as changes of environmental exposure due to the relocation from rural campus (in University Town) to metro-campus (in central downtown). A 93-item questionnaire was used to collect sociopsychobehavioral information in manner of interviewer-interviewing, and blood, urine and semen samples were collected at the same time. The study was initiated with 796 healthy young men screened from 872 participants, with a median age of 20. About 81.8% of this population met the WHO 2010 criteria on semen quality given to the 6 routine parameters. Decreases of 12.7%, 19.8%, and 17.0%, and decreases of 7.7%, 17.6%, and 14.7% in total sperm count and sperm concentration, respectively, were found to be associated with the tertiles of accumulated smoking amount. Fried food consumption (1-2  times/wk or ≥3  times/wk vs nonconsumers) was found to be associated with decreased total sperm count (10.2% or 24.5%) and sperm concentration (13.7% or 17.2%), respectively. Coffee consumption was found to be associated with increased progressive and nonprogressive motility of 8.9% or 15.4% for subjects consuming 1-2  cups/wk or ≥3  cups/wk of coffee, respectively. Cola consumption appeared an association with decreased semen volume at 4.1% or 12.5% for 1-2  bottles/wk or ≥3  bottles/wk. A cohort to investigate the effects of environmental/sociopsychobehavioral factors act on semen quality was successfully

  18. Breeding and Genetics Symposium: a systems biology definition for chicken semen quality.

    PubMed

    Froman, D P; Rhoads, D D

    2013-02-01

    Rooster semen is an effluent from paired reproductive tracts. Each tract includes a testis, epididymis, and deferent duct. Upon ejaculation, efficacy of sperm propulsion varies among roosters. This phenotype is sperm mobility, that is, the movement of sperm against resistance at body temperature. The present work 1) compares reproductive tract throughput between lines of chickens selected for low and high sperm mobility, 2) demonstrates how semen quality can be defined in terms of an interaction between reproductive tract throughput and the proportion of mobile sperm ejaculated, 3) confirms that phenotype can be linked to genomewide differences in SNPlotype, and 4) shows how breeding can affect semen quality. Sperm mobility phenotype distributions were based on the average of duplicate observations per male (n = 241 and 262 roosters for low and high lines, respectively). Distributions were skewed and normal for low and high lines, respectively. Subsequent analyses used these base populations as sources for test subjects. In the first analysis, 10 males were selected from the mode of each distribution, and sperm mobility data were evaluated by nested ANOVA. Variation was observed between lines (P < 0.0001) but not among males within lines (P = 0.980). Sperm mobility data along with data from paired reproductive tracts were used to estimate combined reproductive tract throughput. Whereas testicular output was 1.2-fold greater in the low line (P = 0.037), the output of mobile sperm per day was 10.5-fold greater in the high line (P < 0.0001). Deferent duct transit differed between tails of the low line (P < 0.0001) but not between the tails of the high line (P = 0.514). Males from the mode and upper tail of the low line were SNPlotyped using a 60k chip by DNA Landmarks. These test subjects were used to associate phenotype with SNPlotype because founder effects and genetic drift could be discounted. Loci of interest were found on multiple chromosomes. Loci on chromosome

  19. Bacterial Communities in Semen from Men of Infertile Couples: Metagenomic Sequencing Reveals Relationships of Seminal Microbiota to Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shun-Long; Chiu, Chih-Min; Lin, Feng-Mao; Huang, Wei-Chih; Liang, Chao; Yang, Ting; Yang, Tzu-Ling; Liu, Chia-Yu; Wu, Wei-Yun; Chang, Yi-An; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Huang, Hsien-Da

    2014-01-01

    Some previous studies have identified bacteria in semen as being a potential factor in male infertility. However, only few types of bacteria were taken into consideration while using PCR-based or culturing methods. Here we present an analysis approach using next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis to investigate the associations between bacterial communities and semen quality. Ninety-six semen samples collected were examined for bacterial communities, measuring seven clinical criteria for semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, Kruger's strict morphology, antisperm antibody (IgA), Atypical, and leukocytes). Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was also performed. Results showed that the most abundant genera among all samples were Lactobacillus (19.9%), Pseudomonas (9.85%), Prevotella (8.51%) and Gardnerella (4.21%). The proportion of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella was significantly higher in the normal samples, while that of Prevotella was significantly higher in the low quality samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis demonstrated that the seminal bacterial communities were clustered into three main groups: Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, and Prevotella predominant group. Remarkably, most normal samples (80.6%) were clustered in Lactobacillus predominant group. The analysis results showed seminal bacteria community types were highly associated with semen health. Lactobacillus might not only be a potential probiotic for semen quality maintenance, but also might be helpful in countering the negative influence of Prevotella and Pseudomonas. In this study, we investigated whole seminal bacterial communities and provided the most comprehensive analysis of the association between bacterial community and semen quality. The study significantly contributes to the current understanding of the etiology of male fertility. PMID:25340531

  20. Semen quality in relation to biomarkers of pesticide exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Shanna H; Kruse, Robin L; Liu, Fan; Barr, Dana B; Drobnis, Erma Z; Redmon, J Bruce; Wang, Christina; Brazil, Charlene; Overstreet, James W

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported reduced sperm concentration and motility in fertile men in a U.S. agrarian area (Columbia, MO) relative to men from U.S. urban centers (Minneapolis, MN; Los Angeles, CA; New York, NY). In the present study we address the hypothesis that pesticides currently used in agriculture in the Midwest contributed to these differences in semen quality. We selected men in whom all semen parameters (concentration, percentage sperm with normal morphology, and percentage motile sperm) were low (cases) and men in whom all semen parameters were within normal limits (controls) within Missouri and Minnesota (sample sizes of 50 and 36, respectively) and measured metabolites of eight current-use pesticides in urine samples provided at the time of semen collection. All pesticide analyses were conducted blind with respect to center and case-control status. Pesticide metabolite levels were elevated in Missouri cases, compared with controls, for the herbicides alachlor and atrazine and for the insecticide diazinon [2-isopropoxy-4-methyl-pyrimidinol (IMPY)]; for Wilcoxon rank test, p = 0.0007, 0.012, and 0.0004 for alachlor, atrazine, and IMPY, respectively. Men from Missouri with high levels of alachlor or IMPY were significantly more likely to be cases than were men with low levels [odds ratios (ORs) = 30.0 and 16.7 for alachlor and IMPY, respectively], as were men with atrazine levels higher than the limit of detection (OR = 11.3). The herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and metolachlor were also associated with poor semen quality in some analyses, whereas acetochlor levels were lower in cases than in controls (p = 0.04). No significant associations were seen for any pesticides within Minnesota, where levels of agricultural pesticides were low, or for the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) or the malathion metabolite malathion dicarboxylic acid. These associations between current-use pesticides and reduced semen quality suggest that

  1. Human semen quality in the new millennium: a prospective cross-sectional population-based study of 4867 men

    PubMed Central

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Jensen, Tina Kold; Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Almstrup, Kristian; Olesen, Inge Ahlmann; Juul, Anders; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Toppari, Jorma; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Considerable interest and controversy over a possible decline in semen quality during the 20th century raised concern that semen quality could have reached a critically low level where it might affect human reproduction. The authors therefore initiated a study to assess reproductive health in men from the general population and to monitor changes in semen quality over time. Design Cross-sectional study of men from the general Danish population. Inclusion criteria were place of residence in the Copenhagen area, and both the man and his mother being born and raised in Denmark. Men with severe or chronic diseases were not included. Setting Danish one-centre study. Participants 4867 men, median age 19 years, included from 1996 to 2010. Outcome measures Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility and sperm morphology. Results Only 23% of participants had optimal sperm concentration and sperm morphology. Comparing with historic data of men attending a Copenhagen infertility clinic in the 1940s and men who recently became fathers, these two groups had significantly better semen quality than our study group from the general population. Over the 15 years, median sperm concentration increased from 43 to 48 million/ml (p=0.02) and total sperm count from 132 to 151 million (p=0.001). The median percentage of motile spermatozoa and abnormal spermatozoa were 68% and 93%, and did not change during the study period. Conclusions This large prospective study of semen quality among young men of the general population showed an increasing trend in sperm concentration and total sperm count. However, only one in four men had optimal semen quality. In addition, one in four will most likely face a prolonged waiting time to pregnancy if they in the future want to father a child and another 15% are at risk of the need of fertility treatment. Thus, reduced semen quality seems so frequent that it may impair the fertility rates and further increase the

  2. Environmental exposure to arsenic may reduce human semen quality: associations derived from a Chinese cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent observations in in vitro and in vivo models suggest that arsenic (As) is an endocrine disruptor at environmentally-relevant levels. When exposed to As, male rats and mice show steroidogenic dysfunction that can lead to infertility. However, the possible effects of As on human male semen quality remain obscure. Methods We monitored the profile of As species in the urine of a reproductive-age human cohort and assessed its association with semen quality. Men (n = 96) were recruited in an infertility clinic from July 2009 to August 2010 in the Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Institute for Population and Family Planning. Five urinary As species were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Clinical information on the semen volume, sperm concentration and motility was employed to catalogue and evaluate semen quality according to WHO guidelines. As species concentrations in addition to other continuous variables were dichotomized by the medians and modelled as categorical variables in order to explore using the binary logistic regression possible associations between As exposure and semen quality. Results Urinary concentrations (geometric mean ± SD, μg g-1 creatinine) of different As species were 7.49 (±24.8) for AsB, 20.9 (±13.7) for DMA, 2.77 (±3.33) for MMA, and 4.03 (±3.67) for Asi (AsiIII and AsiV). DMA concentrations above the median were significantly associated with below-reference sperm concentrations (P =0.02) after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), abstinence, smoking and drinking habits. In addition, smoking was positively associated with MMA. Conclusion Reduced parameters in human semen quality are positively associated with As exposure in a reproductive-age Chinese cohort. PMID:22776062

  3. Palmitoleate enhances quality of rooster semen during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Rad, Hamed Mirzaei; Eslami, Mohsen; Ghanie, Abolfazl

    2016-02-01

    The practice of artificial insemination is widely utilized in poultry; and this requires a broad use of semen storage techniques to prevent the reduction of fertilizing ability of stored semen. The antioxidant activity of palmitoleic acid with in vitro experiments has been shown. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of palmitoleic acid on the quality of rooster semen stored at 4C. Semen was collected from ten roosters twice a week. Ejaculates with greater than 80% forward spermatozoa motility were pooled and after dilution semen was enriched with 0 (control), 0.125 (P 0.125), 0.25 (P 0.25), 0.5 (P 0.5) and 1 (P 1) millimolar palmitoleate. Forward spermatozoa progressive motility and viability, as well as amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant activity (AOA) were evaluated in seminal plasma and spermatozoa at 0, 24 and 48h of storage. Motility was 78.5±2.21, 77.5±1.04, and 69.5±2.32% at 24h and 58.66±1.35, 49.33±1.36 and 43.00±2.08% at 48h in P 0.125, P 0.25 and control, respectively (P<0.02). There were no significant differences in amount of MDA in the seminal plasma among groups, while the amounts of MDA in spermatozoa were less in the P 0.125, P 0.25 and P 0.5 groups compared to the control group at 24 and 48h of storage (P<0.002). Total amounts of AOA in seminal plasma were greater in palmitoleate treatment groups than the control at 24 and 48h (P<0.01). Moreover, palmitoleate treatment groups had greater values of total AOA in spermatozoa compared to the control group at 24 and 48h of storage (P<0.05). In conclusion, enrichment of rooster semen with small doses of palmitoleate has beneficial effects on the semen quality during cold storage. PMID:26723480

  4. Effects of monochromatic light sources on sex hormone levels in serum and on semen quality of ganders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shen-Chang; Zhuang, Zi-Xuan; Lin, Min-Jung; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Lin, Tsung-Yi; Jea, Yu-Shine; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Light is an essential external factor influencing various physiological processes, including reproductive performance, in birds. Although several attempts have been made to understand the effect of light on poultry production, the effect of light of a particular wavelength (color) on the reproductive function in geese remains unclear. This study evaluated the effect of various monochromatic light sources on the levels of sex hormone and on semen quality of ganders. Of 30 male White Roman geese in their third reproductive season (average age=3 years), 27 were divided into three groups receiving monochromatic white or red or blue lights. The birds were kept in an environmentally controlled house with a lighting photoperiod of 7L:17D for six weeks as the adaptation period. The photoperiod was subsequently changed to 9L:15D and maintained for 24 weeks. Three ganders at the beginning of the study and three from each group at the end of the adjusting period and the 20th and 30th week of the study period were sacrificed, and their testes and blood samples were collected for determining the sex hormone levels. Semen samples were collected for determining semen quality parameters, including the semen collection index, sperm concentration, semen volume, sperm motility, sperm viability, sperm morphology, and semen quality factor. The results showed that the testosterone and estradiol levels remained unchanged in all three groups at all time points. The ratio of testosterone to estradiol of ganders exposed to white light was significantly higher than that of ganders exposed to red light at the 30th week (P<0.05). Semen collection index and sperm viability of ganders exposed to blue light were significantly the lowest (P<0.05). Moreover, sperm motility, sperm viability, and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa of ganders in white light were the highest (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that artificial illumination with white light may

  5. Joint effects of trihalomethanes and trichloroacetic acid on semen quality: A population-based cross-sectional study in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiang; Zhou, Bin; He, Dong-Liang; Wang, Yi-Xin; Wang, Mu; Yang, Pan; Huang, Zhen; Li, Jin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) has been individually associated with adverse male reproductive effects; however, their joint male reproductive toxicity is largely unknown. This study aimed to explore the joint effects of THMs and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) on semen quality in a Chinese population. A total of 337 men presenting to the Reproductive Center of Tongjing Hospital, in Wuhan, China to seek semen analysis were included this study. Baseline blood THMs [chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM)] and urinary TCAA were analyzed and dichotomized at their median levels. The joint effects of THMs and TCAA on below-reference semen quality parameters were evaluated by calculating the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). After adjusting for potential confounders, we found a suggestive synergistic effect between Br-THMs (sum of BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) and TCAA for below-reference sperm count (RERI = 2.14, 95% CI: -0.37, 4.91) (P = 0.076); men with high Br-THMs and TCAA levels (above the median) had 3.31 times (95% CI: 1.21, 9.07) elevated risk of having below-reference sperm count than men with low Br-THMs and TCAA levels (below the median). No apparent joint effects were observed between THMs and TCAA for other semen quality parameters. Our results suggest that co-exposure to Br-THMs and TCAA is associated with additive effects on decreased semen quality. However, further studies in a larger sample size and mechanistic studies are needed to confirm the findings. PMID:26975004

  6. The use of semen evaluation and assisted reproduction in Spix's macaws in terms of species conservation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dominik; Neumann, Daniel; Purchase, Cromwell; Bouts, Tim; Meinecke-Tillmann, Sabine; Wehrend, Axel; Lierz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) is the rarest parrot on earth. The remaining captive population consists of 79 individuals. Captive propagation is ongoing to increase the number of individuals for future reintroduction back into the wild. Unfortunately, from 2004 to 2012, only 33 chicks hatched from 331 eggs. Semen evaluation and assisted reproduction might help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a recently developed electro-stimulated semen collection technique was used in Spix's macaws. Semen collection was successful in 39 of 78 attempts in 10 out of 17 males. Examination of the semen included evaluation of volume, color, consistency, contaminations and pH, as well as determination of motility, viability, morphology, concentration, and total count of spermatozoa. The median volume of semen samples was 5.6 µl. On average, 34.7 ± 21.9% (median 30%) of the sperm were motile and 23.1 ± 22.1% (median 16.5%) were progressively motile. In addition to spermatozoa, round cells were detected in the samples. Median sperm concentration was 15,500/µl (range 500-97,500/µl) and median viability was 50% (range 5-87%). Morphological examination revealed in 26.5% normal spermatozoa, high numbers of malformations of the head (50.2%) and tail region (20.5%), with 29% of all sperm showing multiple abnormalities. Artificial insemination was performed in three females; two eggs laid after artificial insemination had spermatozoa present on the perivitelline layer, suggesting the possible success of the insemination technique. Although no fertilization could be demonstrated, these preliminary results are promising, as they indicate that assisted reproduction might be a tool for species conservation in the Spix's macaw. PMID:24752991

  7. Prospective surveillance of semen quality in the workplace

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Perkins, C.; Lewis, E.L.; Katz, D.F.; Overstreet, J.W.

    1988-04-01

    We performed a prospective surveillance of semen quality among workers in the plant where 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane was first recognized as an occupational cause of impaired semen quality and of infertility. All male employees of the Agricultural Chemical Division were required to participate. Ninety-seven workers (92% participation) provided 258 semen samples over the 4 years of the program. Most samples were analyzed at the plant with a mini-laboratory designed for the study. Motility and shape measures were made objectively. Sixty-six subjects (68%) were non-azoospermic. Generalized multiple regression showed no significant predictors for any response, with the exception of the motility measures, which were reduced with longer times between ejaculation and assay. Between- and within-person standard deviations and correlations were calculated. Comparison of this population with fertile artificial insemination donors (16 men, 498 ejaculates) revealed generally higher ejaculate-to-ejaculate standard deviations in the worker samples. This is probably due to less well controlled conditions of sperm collection in the workplace setting. For cross-sectional studies, one ejaculate per worker is recommended as sufficient; for estimating an individual worker's mean, even three ejaculates may not provide enough precision.

  8. Associations between occupation exposure to Formaldehyde and semen quality, a primary study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-xu; Li, He-cheng; Lv, Mo-qi; Zhou, Dang-xia; Bai, Li-zhi; Du, Liang-zhi; Xue, Xia; Lin, Pu; Qiu, Shu-dong

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has long been suspected of having male reproductive toxicity. However, FA male reproductive toxicity was inconclusive due to dearth of human studies. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether occupational exposure to FA affects semen quality. Semen quality including five conventional parameters and seven kinematics parameters were compared between 114 male workers occupationally exposed to FA and 76 referents. FA exposure index (FEI) was measured and calculated. Our results showed that sperm progressive motility, total sperm motility, VCL, VSL and VAP were statistically significant decreased in FA exposure workers compared with the referents. Moreover, FEI was significantly negative associated with sperm progressive motility (β = −0.19, P = 0.01) and total sperm motility (β = −0.23, P = 0.004). In addition, a significant elevated risk of abnormal sperm progressive motility were observed in both low- (OR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.11–5.97) and high-FA-exposed group (OR = 3.41; 95% CI: 1.45–7.92) respectively. Furthermore, a significant increased risk was also estimated for abnormal total sperm motility in both low- (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.24–8.28) and high-FA-exposed group (OR = 4.84; 95% CI: 1.83–12.81) respectively. In conclusion, our study revealed the adverse effects of FA occupation exposure on semen quality, especially on sperm motion parameters. PMID:26515386

  9. Decreases in Human Semen Quality with Age Among Healthy Men

    SciTech Connect

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kidd, S.A.; Moore, L.; Young, S.S.; Moore, D.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the associations between age and semen quality among healthy active men after controlling for identified covariates. Ninety-seven healthy, nonsmoking men between 22 and 80 years without known fertility problems who worked for or retired from a large research laboratory. There was a gradual decrease in all semen parameters from 22-80 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, volume decreased 0.03 ml per year (p = 0.001); sperm concentration decreased 2.5% per year (p = 0.005); total count decreased 3.6% per year of age (p < 0.001); motility decreased 0.7% per year (P < 0.001); progressive motility decreased 3.1% per year (p < 0.001); and total progressively motile sperm decreased 4.8% per year (p < 0.001). In a group of healthy active men, semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility decrease continuously between 22-80 years of age, with no evidence of a threshold.

  10. Semen quality in men from subfertile couples from the region of Łódź (Poland) according to the new reference values recommended by WHO 2010

    PubMed Central

    Różański, Waldemar; Szymczak, Wiesław; Wójt, Małgorzata; Sobakiewicz, Sławomir; Lipiński, Marek; Marchlewska, Katarzyna; Gołąb-Lipińska, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    The semen analysis is the main diagnostic tool for evaluating the male fertility potential. The standard semen analysis includes evaluation of the sperm concentration, motility, and their morphology. The most important question is whether the results from semen analysis may be accurate markers for male fertility. Therefore, we retrospectively studied sperm quality among men attending the infertility clinic due to reproductive problems consistent with the WHO manual from 1999, which were reassessed according to the manual from 2010. Semen results from 571 males from couples undergoing fertility investigation were analyzed. All subjects included in the study had no abnormalities during examination. In 64 samples (11.2%), a leukocyte count above 1 x 106/ml was found and their semen volume (median 3.2 ml) was significantly lower in comparison with the group without leukocytes (3.6 ml; p <0.001). Normal semen parameters were found in 290 subjects (50.8%) according to the 1999 manual and in 362 men (63.4%) according to the 2010 manual. The normozoospermia group, according to the 2010 manual, had a significantly lower percentage of sperm with progressive motility, motile sperm concentration, and total number of motile sperm in comparison with the normozoospermia group according to the manual from 1999. It seems that routine semen analysis is not sufficient to estimate male fertility potential and some men with normal semen parameters may be subfertile. Further investigations are needed. PMID:24578858

  11. Comparison of RNA extraction methods for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from boar semen.

    PubMed

    Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Dammen, Matthew; Nelson, Eric; Rowland, Raymond; Oberst, Richard

    2006-09-01

    To detect Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) in semen, various RNA extraction techniques have been utilized for RT-PCR, but rarely compared, to determine an optimized extraction protocol. Due to the viscosity, non-homogeneity, high cellularity and large volume of boar semen produced, difficulties can be encountered in obtaining RNA from the seminal cell fraction. This study compared six RNA extractions, five which used a commercially available kit (RNeasy, Qiagen Inc.) for use on highly cellular samples and a traditional phenol/chloroform procedure. All extractions were compared on serially diluted PRRSV "spiked" seminal cell fractions. The two methods resulting in recovery of the highest amount of RNA, which included a Qiashredder (Qiagen Inc.) (protocol 1) or cell lysis/centrifugation technique (protocol 3) preceding the RNeasy procedure were then compared using naturally infected semen samples from experimentally infected boars. Both protocols detected similar amounts of virus in "spiked" samples, but protocol 1 detected eight additional PRRSV-positive semen samples in naturally infected semen. This study demonstrated that semen "spiked" with PRRSV (cell-free virus) may not be representative of naturally infected semen samples (cell associated virus) for comparing extraction protocols, but did identify a useful extraction technique for boar semen. PMID:16621036

  12. Semen quality in workers exposed to 2-ethoxyethanol.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, J M; Schrader, S M; Clapp, D E; Halperin, W E; Turner, T W; Hornung, R W

    1989-06-01

    To evaluate whether long term exposure to 2-ethoxyethanol (2EE) may affect semen quality, a cross sectional study was conducted among men exposed to 2EE used as a binder slurry in a metal castings process. Full shift breathing zone exposures to 2EE ranged from non-detectable to 24 ppm (geometric mean 6.6 ppm). Because of the potential for substantial absorption of 2EE through skin exposure, urine measurements of the metabolite of 2EE, 2-ethoxyacetic acid (2EAA) were conducted, showing levels of 2EAA ranging from non-detectable to 163 mg 2EAA/g creatinine. Only 37 exposed men (50% participation) and 39 non-exposed comparison (26% participation) from elsewhere in the plant provided a sperm sample. A questionnaire to determine personal habits, and medical and work histories, and a physical examination of the urogenital tract were also administered. The average sperm count per ejaculate among the workers exposed to 2EE was significantly lower than that of the unexposed group (113 v 154 million sperm per ejaculate respectively; p = 0.05) after consideration of abstinence, sample age, subjects' age, tobacco, alcohol and caffeine use, urogenital disorders, fever, and other illnesses. The mean sperm concentrations of the exposed and unexposed groups did not significantly differ from each other (44 and 53 million/ml respectively). No effect of exposure to 2EE on semen volume, sperm viability, motility, velocity, and normal morphology or testicular volume was detected, although some differences in the proportion of abnormal sperm shapes were observed. These data suggest that there may be an effect of 2EE on sperm count among these workers, although the possibility that other factors may be affecting the semen quality in both exposed and unexposed men in this population or that the results reflect bias introduced by the low participation rates cannot be excluded. PMID:2818974

  13. Influence of pre-cryopreservation pH and temperature on boar semen quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of shipping temperature and pH on semen quality parameters could determine the effectiveness of current National Animal Germplasm Program protocols. The purpose of this project is to determine associations between pH, shipping temperature, and boar semen quality: cell size, cell inte...

  14. House Dust Concentrations of Organophosphate Flame Retardants in Relation to Hormone Levels and Semen Quality Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP), are commonly used as additive flame retardants and plasticizers in a wide range of materials. Although widespread human exposure to OP flame retardants is likely, there is a lack of human and animal data on potential health effects. Objective We explored relationships of TDCPP and TPP concentrations in house dust with hormone levels and semen quality parameters. Methods We analyzed house dust from 50 men recruited through a U.S. infertility clinic for TDCPP and TPP. Relationships with reproductive and thyroid hormone levels, as well as semen quality parameters, were assessed using crude and multivariable linear regression. Results TDCPP and TPP were detected in 96% and 98% of samples, respectively, with widely varying concentrations up to 1.8 mg/g. In models adjusted for age and body mass index, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in TDCPP was associated with a 3% [95% confidence interval (CI), −5% to −1%) decline in free thyroxine and a 17% (95% CI, 4–32%) increase in prolactin. There was a suggestive inverse association between TDCPP and free androgen index that became less evident in adjusted models. In the adjusted models, an IQR increase in TPP was associated with a 10% (95% CI, 2–19%) increase in prolactin and a 19% (95% CI, −30% to −5%) decrease in sperm concentration. Conclusion OP flame retardants may be associated with altered hormone levels and decreased semen quality in men. More research on sources and levels of human exposure to OP flame retardants and associated health outcomes are needed. PMID:20194068

  15. Phthalate exposure and semen quality in fertile US men.

    PubMed

    Thurston, S W; Mendiola, J; Bellamy, A R; Levine, H; Wang, C; Sparks, A; Redmon, J B; Drobnis, E Z; Swan, S H

    2016-07-01

    Several experimental and observational studies have demonstrated the antiandrogenicity of several phthalates. However, there is limited evidence of an association between phthalate exposure in adult life and semen quality. The aim of this study was to examine phthalate exposure during adulthood in relation to semen quality in fertile US men. This multi-center cross-sectional study included 420 partners of pregnant women who attended a prenatal clinic in one of five US cities during 1999-2001. Nine phthalate metabolites [mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono (2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP)], as well as mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono (three carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)] were measured in urine collected at the same time as the semen sample. We regressed natural log-transformed (ln) sperm concentration, ln(total sperm count), ln(total motile sperm count), percent motile spermatozoa, and percent spermatozoa with normal morphology on each of the nine natural log-transformed metabolite concentrations and on the molar-weighted sum of DEHP metabolites in separate models. We fit unadjusted models and models that adjusted for confounders determined a priori. In unadjusted models, ln(MiBP) was significantly and positively associated with motility and ln(MBzP) significantly negatively associated with ln(total sperm count). In adjusted linear models, urinary metabolite concentrations of DEHP, DBP, DEP, and DOP were not associated with any semen parameter. We found an inverse association between ln(MBzP) concentrations and sperm motility (β = -1.47, 95% CI: -2.61, -0.33), adjusted for ln(creatinine concentration), geographic location, age, race, smoking status, stress, recent fever, time from sample collection and time to complete analysis. Several sensitivity

  16. Minimal residues of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pig carcases and boar semen.

    PubMed

    Wang, F I

    1999-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious disease that affects pigs of all ages worldwide. One of the key features of PRRS pathogenesis is the prolonged viremia in which the virus coexists with antibody. Prolonged viremia raises the concern that porcine products and boar semen may be contaminated by residues of the PRRS virus serving as vehicles for spreading of the virus. To answer this question, we sampled blood, muscles and viscera organs from market pigs slaughtered using an on-the-rail system and utilized a direct reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect residual viral RNA. We found that the overall seropositive rate of the market pigs was 85.4% (205/240), yet only 7.9% (11/140) of the blood samples contained detectable amounts of virus residues, and all tested carcase specimens (n = 472) were negative. The clinical sensitivity of this PCR varied with the tissues tested, with 5 TCID50 per 50 microliters of serum, as determined by means of a spiking experiment. Semen samples (n = 38) of clinically healthy seropositive and seronegative boars were collected from six herds which were routinely subjected to artificial insemination for production purposes. None of the seminal plasma or sperm-rich fractions contained PCR detectable virus residues. However, the possibility of PRRS virus present in semen cannot be totally excluded. We conclude that in naturally infected albeit clinically healthy pigs, the amounts of PRRS virus residues in carcases or semen are minimal. Thus, the risk of these products causing animal health hazards is low. PMID:10518317

  17. Assessment of semen quality in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Umesh; Gawande, Ajay P.; Sahatpure, Sunil K.; Patil, Manoj S.; Lakde, Chetan K.; Bonde, Sachin W.; Borkar, Pradnyankur L.; Poharkar, Ajay J.; Ramteke, Baldeo R.

    2015-01-01

    integrity percentage among breeds. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the quality of pure Jersey bull semen was comparatively better than the crossbred Jersey bulls. PMID:27047028

  18. Effect of Long-Term Fish Oil Supplementation on Semen Quality and Serum Testosterone Concentrations in Male Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Analía; Pellegrino, Francisco Javier; Relling, Alejandro Enrique; Corrada, Yanina

    2016-01-01

    Background Manipulating the dietary fatty acid (FA) content can alter FA profiles of reproductive tissues. Numerous researchers have evaluated the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation on reproductive characteristics in domestic animals, but reliable information concerning dietary FO effects on semen quality and testosterone concentrations in dogs has not been reported. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of dietary FO on semen quality and serum testosterone concentrations in dogs. Materials and Methods In this cross-over experimental study, 5 male dogs consumed either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 54 mg FO/kg metabolic body weight (BW) for 120 days. After the 120-day wash-out period, control (C) dogs received FO and FO-fed dogs consumed the control diet. In the first period, 2 dogs were allocated to the FO group and 3 to the C group. In the second period, 3 dogs were allocated to the FO group and 2 to the C group. Semen samples collected on days 0, 60, 90 and 120 were evaluated by standard methods. Day 120 semen samples were analyzed for FA profiles. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 to measure serum testosterone concentrations. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures using the Mixed Models procedure of SAS (version 9.0, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Animals and period of time (first or second 120 days) were random variables; and treatment, time, and the treatment by time interaction were considered fixed effects. Results FO supplementation increased the percentage of motile sperm (P=0.02), total sperm count (P<0.01), total sperm viability (P<0.01), and total morphologically normal sperm (P<0.01). Supplementation decreased the percentage of viable sperm (P=0.03) and serum testosterone concentration (P<0.01). FO supplementation also increased the percentage of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, (EPA) and total n-3 in semen samples (P≤0.05). Conclusion These results are

  19. Drinking-Water Disinfection By-products and Semen Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Yi-Xin; Xie, Shao-Hua; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yong-Zhe; Li, Min; Yue, Jing; Li, Yu-Feng; Liu, Ai-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) has been demonstrated to impair male reproductive health in animals, but human evidence is limited and inconsistent. Objective: We examined the association between exposure to drinking-water DBPs and semen quality in a Chinese population. Methods: We recruited 2,009 men seeking semen analysis from the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China, between April 2011 and May 2012. Each man provided a semen sample and a urine sample. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm count. As a biomarker of exposure to drinking-water DBPs, trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) was measured in the urine samples. Results: The mean (median) urinary TCAA concentration was 9.58 (7.97) μg/L (interquartile range, 6.01–10.96 μg/L). Compared with men with urine TCAA in the lowest quartile, increased adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for below-reference sperm concentration in men with TCAA in the second and fourth quartiles (OR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.69 and OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.31, respectively), for below-reference sperm motility in men with TCAA in the second and third quartiles (OR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.90 and OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.70, respectively), and for below-reference sperm count in men with TCAA in the second quartile (OR 1.62; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.55). Nonmonotonic associations with TCAA quartiles were also estimated for semen parameters modeled as continuous outcomes, although significant negative associations were estimated for all quartiles above the reference level for sperm motility. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that exposure to drinking-water DBPs may contribute to decreased semen quality in humans. Citation: Zeng Q, Wang YX, Xie SH, Xu L, Chen YZ, Li M, Yue J, Li YF, Liu AL, Lu WQ. 2014. Drinking-water disinfection by-products and semen quality: a cross-sectional study in China. Environ Health Perspect 122:741–746; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  20. EFFECTS OF GENETICS ON QUALITY AND CRYOPRESERVATION OF SEMEN FROM PEDIGREED CHICKEN LAYER LINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fertility rates of cryopreserved poultry semen are highly variable and not reliable for use in commercial production or preservation of genetic stocks. The objective of the present work was to compare semen quality from 4 pedigreed layer lines (Lines 1, 2, 3, and 4) before and after freezing. A ...

  1. Semen Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Other share options Semen analysis is a test on the fluid that is released when a man has an orgasm ©1996 - 2016 SART, Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology . All Rights Reserved. ASRM/SART Nondiscrimination Policy ASRM/ ...

  2. Body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio cannot predict male semen quality: a report of 1231 subfertile Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Lu, J-C; Jing, J; Dai, J-Y; Zhao, A Z; Yao, Q; Fan, K; Wang, G-H; Liang, Y-J; Chen, L; Ge, Y-F; Yao, B

    2015-11-01

    There were controversial results between obesity-associated markers and semen quality. In this study, we investigated the correlations between age, obesity-associated markers including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC), the combination of age and obesity-associated markers, semen parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels in 1231 subfertile men. The results showed that BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR were positively related to age, and there were also positive relations between BMI, WHR, WC and WHtR and between sperm concentration (SC), total sperm count (TSC), progressive motility (PR), sperm motility and per cent of normal sperm morphology (NSM). However, age, each of obesity-associated markers and the combination of obesity-associated markers and age were unrelated to any of semen parameters including total normal-progressively motile sperm count (TNPMS). Age, BMI, WHR, WC and WHtR were negatively related to serum testosterone and SHBG levels. However, only serum LH and FSH levels were negatively related to sperm concentration, NSM and sperm motility. In a conclusion, although age and obesity have significant impacts on reproductive hormones such as testosterone, SHBG and oestradiol, semen parameters related to FSH and LH could not be influenced, indicating that obesity-associated markers could not predict male semen quality. PMID:25418484

  3. Detection of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus in Semen, Urethra, and Male Reproductive Organs during Efficient Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Matusali, G.; Dereuddre-Bosquet, N.; Le Tortorec, A.; Moreau, M.; Satie, A.-P.; Mahé, D.; Roumaud, P.; Bourry, O.; Sylla, N.; Bernard-Stoecklin, S.; Pruvost, A.; Le Grand, R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A number of men receiving prolonged suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) still shed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in semen. To investigate whether this seminal shedding may be due to poor drug penetration and/or viral production by long-lived cells within male genital tissues, we analyzed semen and reproductive tissues from macaques chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus mac251 (SIVmac251) who were treated for 4 months with HAART, which was intensified over the last 7 weeks with an integrase inhibitor. We showed that a subset of treated animals continued shedding SIV in semen despite efficient HAART. This shedding was not associated with low antiretroviral drug concentrations in semen or in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate. HAART had no significant impact on SIV RNA in the urethra, whereas it drastically reduced SIV RNA levels in the prostate and vas deferens and to a lesser extent in the epididymis and seminal vesicle. The only detectable SIV RNA-positive cells within the male genital tract after HAART were urethral macrophages. SIV DNA levels in genital tissues were not decreased by HAART, suggesting the presence throughout the male genital tract of nonproductively infected cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that 4 months of HAART induced variable and limited control of viral infection in the male reproductive organs, particularly in the urethra, and suggest that infected long-lived cells in the male genital tract may be involved in persistent seminal shedding during HAART. These results pave the way for further investigations of male genital organ infection in long-term-treated infected individuals. IMPORTANCE A substantial subset of men receiving prolonged HAART suppressing viral loads in the blood still harbor HIV in semen, and cases of sexual transmission have been reported. To understand the origin of this persistence, we analyzed the semen and male reproductive tissues from SIV

  4. The in vitro effect of leptin on semen quality of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls

    PubMed Central

    Khaki, Amir; Batavani, Rooz Ali; Najafi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probable effects of leptin addition in different levels to the semen extender on sperm quality (motility and motility parameters, viability, sperm membrane integrity, and DNA damage). Semen specimens were evaluated immediately after leptin addition, equilibration time and after thawing the frozen semen. Five healthy buffalo bulls (5 ejaculates from each bull) were used. Each ejaculate was diluted at 37 ˚C with tris-based extender containing 0 (control), 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 ng mL-1 leptin. The diluted semen was kept 4 hr in refrigerator to reach to the equilibration time and then packed in 0.5 mL French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Our results showed that, in the fresh semen, no significant difference was observed in all sperm quality parameters evaluated among all of the examined leptin concentrations. Addition of 10 ng mL-1 leptin into semen extender significantly preserved sperm motility, all of the motility parameters, and viability in equilibrated semen compared to that of control group. However, in vitro addition of 200 ng mL-1 leptin, significantly decreased theses parameters. In the frozen thawed semen, all leptin concentrations decreased sperm motility and viability, but significant decrease was observed in concentrations of 100 and 200 ng mL-1. Adding leptin to semen extender did not have any significant influence on sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane integrity in all examined groups. These findings suggest that in vitro addition of 10 ng mL-1 leptin could preserve sperm motility and viability in cooled semen of buffaloes. PMID:25593679

  5. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Human Sperm and Association with Semen Quality.

    PubMed

    Marzec-Wróblewska, Urszula; Kamiński, Piotr; Łakota, Paweł; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Szymański, Marek; Wasilow, Karolina; Stuczyński, Tomasz; Buciński, Adam; Jerzak, Leszek

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), europium (Eu), and gadolinium (Gd) concentrations in human semen and correlate the results with sperm quality. The median semen content of La was 19.5 µg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) (range 2.27-269), of Ce was 41.9 µg kg(-1) dw (range 4.52 to 167), of Eu was 0.68 µg kg(-1) dw (range 0.06-1.95), of Gd was 3.19 µg kg(-1) dw (range 0.38-12.0), and of calcium (Ca) was 4063 mg kg(-1) dw (range 484-17,191). Concentrations of La, Ce, Eu, Gd, and Ca were significantly lower in nondrinkers' semen than in semen from drinkers. Significant differences were detected between La, Ce, Eu, Gd, and Ca concentrations in semen from nondrinkers and moderate drinkers. Concentrations of La, Ce, and Gd in semen of short-term smokers were significantly lower than those in extremely long-term smokers. Significant differences were also detected between La concentration in semen from a group of short-term smokers and that of a group of long-term smokers. Positive correlations were found between La, Ce, Eu, Gd, and Ca concentrations in semen. La, Ce, Gd, and Ca concentrations in semen were positively associated with progressive motility and percentage of normal spermatozoa. Positive correlations were found between Ca and sperm concentration. Concentrations of La, Ce, and Gd were negatively associated with sperm concentration, whilst Ca concentration was negatively associated with volume of ejaculate. At the examined level, La, Ce, Eu, and Gd did not affect sperm quality, whereas alcohol consumption and smoking might have increased the level of rare earth elements in semen. PMID:25762379

  6. Do malignant diseases affect semen quality? Sperm parameters of men with cancers.

    PubMed

    Caponecchia, L; Cimino, G; Sacchetto, R; Fiori, C; Sebastianelli, A; Salacone, P; Marcucci, I; Tomassini, S; Rago, R

    2016-04-01

    The advent of modern treatments together with the improvement of the surgical techniques has significantly increased 5-year survival rates of young patients with cancer. Although the deleterious effects of chemotherapy and radiation are well documented, controversies exist about the effect of cancer itself on semen parameters before treatment. We collected data on 236 patients representative of different types of cancers reoffered at our institution for sperm cryopreservation with the aim to correlate the pre-freeze semen parameters with type of cancer, disease stage and with semen quality of 102 fertile and healthy men. The median baseline semen parameters of all our patients with cancer are placed above the 5th percentile of the World Health Organization reference value, but the type of cancer may impact the sperm parameters. In testicular tumours and in Hodgkin lymphoma, we show a semen concentration statistically lower than in the fertile population, while in patients with other cancers, there is no difference with the healthy men. We found no correlation between semen quality and disease stage. Eighty-six per cent of our patients do not have children at the time of semen cryopreservation, and the only established clinical option for preserving fertility of these men is cryopreservation of spermatozoa. PMID:26173956

  7. Selenium in Pig Nutrition and Reproduction: Boars and Semen Quality—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Surai, Peter F.; Fisinin, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    Selenium plays an important role in boar nutrition via participating in selenoprotein synthesis. It seems likely that selenoproteins are central for antioxidant system regulation in the body. Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) is the most studied selenoprotein in swine production. However, roles of other selenoproteins in boar semen production and maintenance of semen quality also need to be studied. Boar semen is characterised by a high proportion of easily oxidized long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and requires an effective antioxidant defense. The requirement of swine for selenium varies depending on many environmental and other conditions and, in general, is considered to be 0.15 to 0.30 mg/kg feed. It seems likely that reproducing sows and boars are especially sensitive to Se deficiency, and meeting their requirements is an important challenge for pig nutritionists. In fact, in many countries there are legal limits as to how much Se may be included into the diet and this restricts flexibility in terms of addressing the Se needs of the developing and reproducing swine. The analysis of data of various boar trials with different Se sources indicates that in some cases when background Se levels were low, there were advantages of Se dietary supplementation. It is necessary to take into account that only an optimal Se status of animals is associated with the best antioxidant protection and could have positive effects on boar semen production and its quality. However, in many cases, background Se levels were not determined and therefore, it is difficult to judge if the basic diets were deficient in Se. It can also be suggested that, because of higher efficacy of assimilation from the diet, and possibilities of building Se reserves in the body, organic selenium in the form of selenomethionine (SeMet) provided by a range of products, including Se-Yeast and SeMet preparations is an important source of Se to better meet the needs of modern pig

  8. Urinary trichloroacetic acid levels and semen quality: A hospital-based cross-sectional study in Wuhan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Li, Yu-Feng; Tan, Yin-Feng; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Ai-Lin; Xie, Hong; and others

    2011-02-15

    Toxicological studies indicate an association between exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) and impaired male reproductive health in animals. However, epidemiological evidence in humans is still limited. We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study to investigate the effect of exposure to DBPs on semen quality in humans. Between May 2008 and July 2008, we recruited 418 male partners in sub-fertile couples seeking infertility medical instruction or assisted reproduction services from the Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Major semen parameters analyzed included sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. Exposure to DBPs was estimated by their urinary creatinine-adjusted trichloroacetic (TCAA) concentrations that were measured with the gas chromatography/electron capture detection method. We used linear regression to assess the relationship between exposure to DBPs and semen quality. According to the World Health Organization criteria (<20 million/mL for sperm concentration and <50% motile for sperm motility) and threshold value recommended by Guzick (<9% for sperm morphology), there were 265 men with all parameters at or above the reference values, 33 men below the reference sperm concentration, 151 men below the reference sperm motility, and 6 men below the reference sperm morphology. The mean (median) urinary creatinine-adjusted TCAA concentration was 9.2 (5.1) {mu}g/g creatinine. Linear regression analyses indicated no significant association of sperm concentration, sperm count, and sperm morphology with urinary TCAA levels. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA concentrations, subjects in the second and third quartiles had a decrease of 5.1% (95% CI: 0.6%, 9.7%) and 4.7% (95% CI: 0.2%, 9.2%) in percent motility, respectively. However, these associations were not significant after adjustment for age, abstinence time, and smoking status. The present study provides suggestive but inconclusive evidence of the

  9. Human semen quality and sperm DNA damage in relation to urinary metabolites of pyrethroid insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.; Barr, Dana B.; Hauser, Russ

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Exposure to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides is widespread, and is expected to increase among the general population due to the need to replace other common insecticides following regulatory use restrictions. On the basis of limited studies, there is animal and human evidence for altered reproductive or endocrine function following pyrethroid exposure. METHODS The present study measured urinary pyrethroid metabolites [3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) and cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (CDCCA and TDCCA)], semen quality, sperm motion parameters and sperm DNA damage with the neutral comet assay in 207 men recruited from an infertility clinic. RESULTS In multivariate analysis, the highest 3PBA quartile was associated with a suggestive 20.2 million sperm/ml reduction (95% confidence interval −37.1 to + 2.6) in sperm concentration compared with men below the 3PBA median. There were significant inverse associations between TDCCA and sperm motility and sperm motion parameters when adjusting for CDCCA and other covariates. The highest TDCCA quartile was associated with a 15.5% decline (95% confidence interval −26.2 to −4.8) in sperm motility compared with men below the median. In multiple logistic analyses, there were dose-dependent increased odds for below reference sperm concentration, motility and morphology in relation to TDCCA. Among the comet assay measures, 3PBA and CDCCA were associated with increased sperm DNA damage, measured as percent DNA in the comet tail. CONCLUSIONS We found evidence for reduced semen quality and increased sperm DNA damage in relation to urinary metabolites of pyrethroid insecticides. These findings may be of concern due to increased pyrethroid use and prevalent human exposure. PMID:18579513

  10. Dioxin Exposure, from Infancy through Puberty, Produces Endocrine Disruption and Affects Human Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Mocarelli, Paolo; Gerthoux, Pier Mario; Patterson, Donald G.; Milani, Silvano; Limonta, Giuseppe; Bertona, Maria; Signorini, Stefano; Tramacere, Pierluigi; Colombo, Laura; Crespi, Carla; Brambilla, Paolo; Sarto, Cecilia; Carreri, Vittorio; Sampson, Eric J.; Turner, Wayman E.; Needham, Larry L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Environmental toxicants are allegedly involved in decreasing semen quality in recent decades; however, definitive proof is not yet available. In 1976 an accident exposed residents in Seveso, Italy, to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate reproductive hormones and sperm quality in exposed males. Methods We studied 135 males exposed to TCDD at three age groups, infancy/prepuberty (1–9 years), puberty (10–17 years), and adulthood (18–26 years), and 184 healthy male comparisons using 1976 serum TCDD levels and semen quality and reproductive hormones from samples collected 22 years later. Results Relative to comparisons, 71 men (mean age at exposure, 6.2 years; median serum TCDD, 210 ppt) at 22–31 years of age showed reductions in sperm concentration (53.6 vs. 72.5 million/mL; p = 0.025); percent progressive motility (33.2% vs. 40.8%; p < 0.001); total motile sperm count (44.2 vs. 77.5 × 106; p = 0.018); estradiol (76.2 vs. 95.9 pmol/L; p = 0.001); and an increase in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; 3.58 vs. 2.98 IU/L; p = 0.055). Forty-four men (mean age at exposure, 13.2 years; median serum TCDD, 164 ppt) at 32–39 years of age showed increased total sperm count (272 vs. 191.9 × 106; p = 0.042), total motile sperm count (105 vs. 64.9 ×106; p = 0.036), FSH (4.1 vs. 3.2 UI/L; p = 0.038), and reduced estradiol (74.4 vs. 92.9 pmol/L; p < 0.001). No effects were observed in 20 men, 40–47 years of age, who were exposed to TCDD (median, 123 ppt) as adults (mean age at exposure, 21.5 years). Conclusions Exposure to TCDD in infancy reduces sperm concentration and motility, and an opposite effect is seen with exposure during puberty. Exposure in either period leads to permanent reduction of estradiol and increased FSH. These effects are permanent and occur at TCDD concentrations < 68 ppt, which is within one order of magnitude of those in the industrialized world in the 1970s and 1980s and

  11. Reproduction in nondomestic birds: Physiology, semen collection, artificial insemination and cryopreservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Bertschinger, H.; Donoghue, A.M.; Blanco, J.; Soley, J.

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering work by Quinn and Burrows in the late 1930s led to successful artificial insemination (AI) programs in the domestic poultry industry. A variety of species specific modifications to the Quinn and Burrows massage technique made AI possible in nondomestic birds. Massage semen collection and insemination techniques span the entire range of species from sparrows to ostriches. Also, cooperative semen collection and electroejaculation have found limited use in some nondomestic species. Artificial insemination produces good fertility, often exceeding fertility levels in naturally copulating populations. However, aviculturists should explore other ways to improve fertility before resorting to AI. Artificial insemination is labor intensive and may pose risks to nondomestic birds as well as handlers associated with capture and insemination. Semen collection and AI makes semen cryopreservation and germ plasma preservation possible. Yet, semen cryopreservation techniques need improvement before fertility with frozen-thawed semen will equal fertility from AI with fresh semen.

  12. 59 Effect of storage duration on post-thaw parameters of bull semen. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 25: 177.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been proposed that once good-quality sperm are collected, extended, and cryopreserved that the post-thaw quality will remain high regardless of the duration of storage. A previous study has suggested that there is no effect on post-thaw sperm motility of bovine semen stored in liquid nitrogen...

  13. Effects of different cryoprotectants and freezing methods on post-thaw boar semen quality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung-Hsun; Wu, Ting-Wen; Cheng, Feng-Pang; Wang, Jiann-Hsiung; Wu, Jui-Te

    2016-03-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of glycerol (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 5%) and dimethylacetamide (DMA: 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%) on post-sperm quality characteristics following semen freezing in dry ice (D) or liquid nitrogen (N). Semen was collected from Duroc boars and was allocated to 32 treatment groups for cryopreservation. Analysis of post-thaw semen quality and fertility after artificial insemination (AI) was used to examine the combinatorial effects of different treatments. The best scores for post-thaw sperm motility, sperm viability, and sperm acrosomal integrity were observed in semen frozen in: (a) dry ice in the presence of 5% glycerol and no DMA (16D-treatment); (b) dry ice in the presence of 3% glycerol and no DMA (9D-treatment); and (c) liquid nitrogen in the presence of 3% glycerol and 1% DMA (10N-treatment), with no significant difference observed among these three treatments. The farrowing rates after AI with post-thawed semen after 9D- and 10N-treatments were 33% and 50%, respectively. To summarize, the results of the present study indicated that the freezing extender containing 3% glycerol in combination with the straw-freezing method using dry ice produced the best post-thaw quality parameters of boar semen. Combinations of glycerol and DMA did not enhance the cryosurvival of boar spermatozoa. PMID:26952752

  14. In vivo adverse effects of alpha-tocopherol on the semen quality of male bucks.

    PubMed

    Majid, A; Qureshi, M S; Khan, R U

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress has detrimental effects on semen quality during spermatogenesis and semen processing for artificial insemination. This work was conducted to study the effect of different levels of vitamin E on the semen traits, oxidative status and trace minerals in Beetal bucks. Thirty-six bucks of similar body weight and age (1 year) were randomly divided into four groups. One group was kept as control with no supplementation (group 1), and the others were supplemented with 200 (group 2), 400 (group 3) and 800 IU (group 4) vitamin E/animal/day for 2 months. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and evaluated. Seminal plasma was separated to study the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe). Group 3 showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) semen volume and per cent motility and lower dead sperm percentage compared to control group. Superoxide dismutase, GPx, Zn, Cu and Mn were higher in the same group. The level of AST decreased in group 3 without any change on the concentration of ALT. It is suggested that vitamin E at the rate of 400 IU/buck/day supported higher semen volume, per cent motility, per cent live spermatozoa, antioxidants (SOD, GPx) and trace mineral levels (Zn, Cu, Mn) in the seminal plasma. The increased supplementation from 0 to 400 showed a general increasing trend in improving semen quality. However, the dose of 800 IU/kg had no useful effect in further improving the semen quality. PMID:25580862

  15. The relationship between sperm quality in cool-shipped semen and embryo recovery rate in horses.

    PubMed

    Love, C C; Noble, J K; Standridge, S A; Bearden, C T; Blanchard, T L; Varner, D D; Cavinder, C A

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between the quality of cool-shipped stallion semen and fertility has not been adequately described. This study evaluated sperm quality of cool-shipped semen from 459 ejaculates (N = 130 stallions) that were used for insemination of 196 embryo donor mares (n = 496 estrous cycles). Embryo recovery rate (ERR; %) increased, as all sperm measures (e.g., motility, viability, DNA quality, morphology, concentration, and total number) increased. Threshold values are reported for each sperm quality measure (e.g., total sperm motility ≥ 65%) that separate two ERR groups (e.g., average: ∼50% ERR; high: ∼65% ERR). PMID:26363735

  16. Influence of genetic abnormalities on semen quality and male fertility: A four-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Elfateh, Fadlalla; Wang, Ruixue; Zhang, Zhihong; Jiang, Yuting; Chen, Shuang; Liu, Ruizhi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wide range of disorders ranging from genetic disorders to coital difficulties can influence male fertility. In this regard, genetic factors are highlighted as the most frequent, contributed to 10-15%, of male infertility causes. Objective: To investigate the influence of genetic abnormalities on semen quality and reproductive hormone levels of infertile men from Northeast China. Materials and Methods: 2034 infertile men including 691 patients with abnormal sperm parameters were investigated retrospectively. Semen analysis was performed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Y chromosome micro deletions were detected by polymerase chain reaction assays. Chromosome analysis was performed using G-banding. Results: The incidence of abnormal chromosomal karyotype in the patients with abnormal sperm parameters was 12.01% (83/691). The most frequent cause was Klinefelter's syndrome 37.35% (31/83). As the same as chromosomal abnormalities group, the volumes of testes (p=0.000 and 0.000, respectively) and the levels of testosterone (T) (p=0.000), and testosterone/ luteinizing hormone (T/LH) (p=0.000) of patients with Y chromosome micro deletions were significantly lower than those of fertile group. In addition, the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (p=0.000), and luteinizing hormone (LH) (p=0.000) were significantly higher in patients with Y chromosome micro deletions than those in the fertile group. Translocation abnormalities displayed slight effect on sperm motility. Conclusion: Y chromosome micro deletions and sex chromosome disorders particularly Klinefelter’s (47, XXY), have severe adverse influence on normal hormone levels, testicular volume and sperm count, whereas translocation abnormalities may inversely correlate with sperm motility. PMID:24799866

  17. Geographic differences in semen quality of fertile U.S. males.

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Shanna H; Brazil, Charlene; Drobnis, Erma Z; Liu, Fan; Kruse, Robin L; Hatch, Maureen; Redmon, J Bruce; Wang, Christina; Overstreet, James W

    2003-01-01

    Although geographic variation in semen quality has been reported, this is the first study in the United States to compare semen quality among study centers using standardized methods and strict quality control. We evaluated semen specimens from partners of 512 pregnant women recruited through prenatal clinics in four U.S. cities during 1999-2001; 91% of men provided two specimens. Sperm concentration, semen volume, and motility were determined at the centers, and morphology was assessed at a central laboratory. Study protocols were identical across centers, and quality control was rigorously maintained. Sperm concentration was significantly lower in Columbia, Missouri, than in New York, New York; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Los Angeles, California. Mean counts were 58.7, 102.9, 98.6, and 80.8 X 10(6)/mL (medians 53.5, 88.5, 81.8, and 64.8 X 10(6)/mL) in Missouri, New York, Minnesota, and California, respectively. The total number of motile sperm was also lower in Missouri than in other centers: 113, 196, 201, and 162 X 10(6) in Missouri, New York, Minnesota, and California, respectively. Semen volume and the percent morphologically normal sperm did not differ appreciably among centers. These between-center differences remained significant in multivariate models that controlled for abstinence time, semen analysis time, age, race, smoking, history of sexually transmitted disease, and recent fever (all p-values < 0.01). Confounding factors and differences in study methods are unlikely to account for the lower semen quality seen in this mid-Missouri population. These data suggest that sperm concentration and motility may be reduced in semirural and agricultural areas relative to more urban and less agriculturally exposed areas. PMID:12676592

  18. Urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations and semen quality of male partners of subfertile couples in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Toshima, Hiroki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi; Hatakeyama, Shota; Tokuoka, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been known as a testicular toxicant in experimental rodents. Possible association between iAs exposure and semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, and sperm motility) was explored in male partners of couples (n = 42) who visited a gynecology clinic in Tokyo for infertility consultation. Semen parameters were measured according to WHO guideline at the clinic, and urinary iAs and methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-hydride generation-ICP mass spectrometry. Biological attributes, dietary habits, and exposure levels to other chemicals with known effects on semen parameters were taken into consideration as covariates. Multiple regression analyses and logistic regression analyses did not find iAs exposure as significant contributor to semen parameters. Lower exposure level of subjects (estimated to be 0.5 μg kg(-1) day(-1)) was considered a reason of the absence of adverse effects on semen parameters, which were seen in rodents dosed with 4-7.5 mg kg(-1). PMID:26865228

  19. Genome-wide association study for semen quality traits in German Warmblood stallions.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Maren; Metzger, Julia; Martinsson, Gunilla; Sieme, Harald; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-08-01

    We performed a genome-wide association study for semen quality traits in 139 German Warmblood stallions. Stallions were genotyped using the Illumina equine SNP50 Beadchip. Traits analysed were de-regressed estimated breeding values (EBVs) for gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility and the total number of progressively motile sperm. The GWAS revealed 29 SNPs on 12 different chromosomes as genome-wide significantly associated with semen quality traits. For ten genomic regions we could retrieve candidate genes influencing stallion fertility. Among the candidate genes, we could find the genes encoding cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP1, CRISP2 and CRISP3). This was the first GWAS in horses performed for semen quality traits. PMID:27334685

  20. Environmental chemicals impact dog semen quality in vitro and may be associated with a temporal decline in sperm motility and increased cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Richard G.; Byers, Andrew S.; Sumner, Rebecca N.; Rhind, Stewart M.; Zhang, Zulin; Freeman, Sarah L.; Moxon, Rachel; Richardson, Holly M.; Green, Martin; Craigon, Jim; England, Gary C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse temporal trends in human semen quality and cryptorchidism in infants have been associated with exposure to environmental chemicals (ECs) during development. Here we report that a population of breeding dogs exhibit a 26 year (1988–2014) decline in sperm quality and a concurrent increased incidence of cryptorchidism in male offspring (1995–2014). A decline in the number of males born relative to the number of females was also observed. ECs, including diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and polychlorinated bisphenol 153 (PCB153), were detected in adult dog testes and commercial dog foods at concentrations reported to perturb reproductive function in other species. Testicular concentrations of DEHP and PCB153 perturbed sperm viability, motility and DNA integrity in vitro but did not affect LH stimulated testosterone secretion from adult testis explants. The direct effects of chemicals on sperm may therefore contribute to the decline in canine semen quality that parallels that reported in the human. PMID:27503122

  1. Environmental chemicals impact dog semen quality in vitro and may be associated with a temporal decline in sperm motility and increased cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Lea, Richard G; Byers, Andrew S; Sumner, Rebecca N; Rhind, Stewart M; Zhang, Zulin; Freeman, Sarah L; Moxon, Rachel; Richardson, Holly M; Green, Martin; Craigon, Jim; England, Gary C W

    2016-01-01

    Adverse temporal trends in human semen quality and cryptorchidism in infants have been associated with exposure to environmental chemicals (ECs) during development. Here we report that a population of breeding dogs exhibit a 26 year (1988-2014) decline in sperm quality and a concurrent increased incidence of cryptorchidism in male offspring (1995-2014). A decline in the number of males born relative to the number of females was also observed. ECs, including diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and polychlorinated bisphenol 153 (PCB153), were detected in adult dog testes and commercial dog foods at concentrations reported to perturb reproductive function in other species. Testicular concentrations of DEHP and PCB153 perturbed sperm viability, motility and DNA integrity in vitro but did not affect LH stimulated testosterone secretion from adult testis explants. The direct effects of chemicals on sperm may therefore contribute to the decline in canine semen quality that parallels that reported in the human. PMID:27503122

  2. Characterization and cryopreservation of semen from endangered markhor goats (Capra falconeri heptneri) with evaluation of reproductive seasonality.

    PubMed

    Bezjian, Marisa; Abou-Madi, Noha; Kollias, George V; Parks, John E; Cheong, Soon Hon; Beltaire, Katherine A

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the reproductive seasonality of four captive markhor goats (Capra falconeri heptneri), to characterize semen collected by electroejaculation, and to compare extenders and processing techniques for semen cryopreservation. Over the course of 1 yr, mean monthly scrotal circumference, serum testosterone, and fecal testosterone were measured and found to be inversely associated with day length. Maximum scrotal circumference (25.2 +/- 0.9 cm), serum testosterone (521.0 +/- 103.4 ng/dl), and fecal testosterone (382.5 +/- 90.3 ng/g) occurred in November, when day length was short (9.7 +/- 0.1 hr). Once a month for 3 mo (December, January, and February), bucks were anesthetized for electroejaculation and semen evaluation. Semen samples were divided into six aliquots for extension and cryopreservation in soy-based Bioxcell or Tris-based extender with 5 or 15% egg yolk, with and without centrifugation. Samples were then thawed for repeat evaluation 1-3 mo later. Postthaw evaluation revealed no significant differences between centrifuged and noncentrifuged samples. Sperm in Tris 5% and 15% egg yolk displayed higher total motility at 0, 3, and 6 hr postthaw and higher progressive motility postthaw compared with sperm in Bioxcell (P < 0.05). Sperm in Bioxcell displayed higher viability than sperm in both Tris-egg yolk extenders (P < 0.01), more intact acrosomes than sperm in Tris-15% egg yolk (P < 0.05), and a tendency for more intact acrosomes than sperm in Tris-5% egg yolk (P < 0.10). Sperm in Tris-5% egg yolk tended to have a higher percentage of morphologically normal sperm compared with Bioxcell (P < 0.10). This study provides evidence that markhor goats exhibit seasonality in scrotal circumference and testosterone levels and that centrifugation may be eliminated from the processing of markhor semen. PMID:24063096

  3. [Advances in researches on polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase in semen].

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui-xiang; Lu, Kun-gang; Zhang, Hong-ye; Lu, Jin-chun

    2011-11-01

    Reproductive tract infection is one of the important factors of male reproduction. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase (PMNE) in semen, as a marker of male reproductive tract inflammation, especially recessive infection, potentially affects male fertility. The concentration of PMNE in semen is correlated significantly not only with semen white blood cell count and seminal plasma ROS level, but also with the levels of other inflammation related cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha. Furthermore, PMNE has a negative impact on sperm quality by decreasing sperm motility, increasing the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm and interfering with DNA integrity. PMNE inhibitors in semen can form a compound with PMNE, and the imbalanced proportions of the two may promote the development of chronic inflammation, and consequently lead to male infertility. At present, PMNE in semen is detected mainly by enzyme immunoassay, but this method still needs to be standardized, and the diagnostic standards to be unified. PMID:22141276

  4. Effect of in vitro exposure to lead chloride on semen quality and sperm DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, M; Gonçalves, A; Rocha, E; Sá, R; Alves, A; Silva, J; Barros, A; Pereira, M L; Sousa, M

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to lead may cause changes in the male reproductive system. We evaluated the effect of lead chloride (PbCl2) in vitro on semen quality from 31 individuals. Samples were incubated at room temperature for two exposure times (4 h and 8 h) and with two concentrations of PbCl2 (15 μg/ml or 30 μg/ml). Results showed that PbCl2 significantly inhibited rapid progressive motility and caused an increase in the percentage of tail anomalies in both times and concentrations assessed, as well as a decrease in vitality in the group exposed to 30 μg/ml PbCl2. A significant increase in immotile sperm was also observed between the group control and the groups submitted to lead. Total motility and DNA fragmentation also showed a significant decrease and increase, respectively, after 4 h of incubation in the group exposed to 30 μg/ml and in both groups after 8 h of incubation. In conclusion, PbCl2 affected sperm parameters and DNA integrity, which are essential for male fertility. PMID:24521979

  5. Use of new field methods of semen analysis in the study of occupational hazards to reproduction: the example of ethylene dibromide

    SciTech Connect

    Schrader, S.M.; Ratcliffe, J.M.; Turner, T.W.; Hornung, R.W.

    1987-12-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to the use of semen analysis as an indicator of exposure to potential mutagenic and reproductive hazards. In the infertility clinic setting, semen evaluations include the measurement of sperm concentration, volume, pH, motility, velocity and morphology, the analysis of seminal plasma to evaluate accessory sex gland function and, in some cases, the in vitro evaluation of fertilization capacity and sperm-cervical mucus interaction. To date, however, the study of semen characteristics of occupationally exposed populations has been confined principally to the measurement of sperm concentration and sperm morphology. This has been largely due to the unavailability of portable equipment suitable for the measurement of other semen characteristics and the difficulty of obtaining fresh semen samples in the field setting. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health researchers have developed mobile laboratory facilities which enable us to evaluate fresh samples, in the field, for semen characteristics in addition to concentration and morphology. This paper describes the application of these methods using the example of our recent cross-sectional study of workers occupationally exposed to ethylene dibromide in the papaya fumigation industry. We discuss our findings in the context of the usefulness of semen analysis as an indicator of occupational hazards to male reproduction.

  6. Effects of Carthamus tinctorius on Semen Quality and Gonadal Hormone Levels in Partially Sterile Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Zahra; Panjehshahin, Mohamad Reza; Hoballah, Hassan; Kassas, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Traditional herbal medicine is just one of the many different approaches using plants in the remedy of diseases. Carthamus tinctorius (CT) or safflower is a popular plant that is used for coloring and flavoring in food industries. The effect of CT on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters has been reported in traditional medicine but has not yet been confirmed scientifically. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the effects of CT on spermatogenesis and the male reproductive system in an animal model. Materials and Methods Sixty male rats were divided into five groups. Four groups were injected with 5 mg/kg of busulfan as a model of partial infertility. Then, the experimental groups were treated with 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 50 mg/kg of CT extract for 35 days. The control was treated with busulfan (infertile control) or distilled water only. After this period, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples were taken for hormonal assay. The semen was collected from the epididymis and the reproductive organs were assessed. Sperm count and motility were measured and smears were prepared for assessment of the other parameters. Results The results indicated that the percentage of sperm with good morphology, motility, and count increased significantly in the group treated with 10 mg/kg CT (p=0.002, p=0.03, and p=0.00001, respectively). The effects on hormonal changes and genital organ weights were also positive. Conclusions It is probable that the CT extract affects spermatogenesis and as a result sperm quality. Further studies are needed. PMID:23136631

  7. Effect of boron supplementation on semen quality estimates in mature boars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of dietary boron supplementation on sperm production and semen quality estimates in mature boars. Twelve crossbred boars (Landrace x Large White x Duroc x Hampshire) that were 2.5 +/- 0.2 years of age and 215 +/- 5 kg were randomly assigned to ...

  8. Selenium Supplementation Does Not Affect Testicular Selenium Status or Semen Quality in North American Men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although selenium (Se) is essential for sperm function experimental animals, high Se intake in humans has been associated with both improvements and impairments in semen quality. We previously reported a decrease in sperm motility in five men fed high-Se foods in a metabolic research unit, but could...

  9. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION. J. Rubes*, D. Zudova*, Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, CR, S.G. Selevan*, US EPA/ORD/NCEA, Washington, DC, D.P. Evenson, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, and S.D. Perreault, US ...

  10. Relationship between self-reported residential indoor remodeling and semen quality: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Mao-Hua; Li, Zheng; Li, De-Kun; Yan, Bei; Liang, Hong; Zhi, Er-Lei; Du, Hong-Wei; Yuan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the association between residential indoor remodeling and poor semen quality. Sperm donors aged 18–45 years old were recruited in Shanghai, China. Semen specimens were collected and analyzed. An in-person interview was conducted to obtain information on the history of indoor remodeling and potential confounders. A total of 70 participants with abnormal semen quality (case group) and 68 controls were examined. A total of 20 subjects reported indoor remodeling in the recent 24 months, and among them 17 subjects reported indoor remodeling in the recent 12 months. Compared with participants with no history of indoor remodeling, participants with a history of indoor remodeling in the recent 24 months were more than three times as likely to have poor sperm quality (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3–12.0) after controlling for potential confounders. The association was strengthened when the analysis was restricted to those who had indoor remodeling in the recent 12 months. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that indoor remodeling has an adverse effect on semen quality. PMID:25432500

  11. Sex hormones and semen quality in welders exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Bonde, J P; Ernst, E

    1992-07-01

    Recent experimental studies in rodents document the spermatotoxic effects of water-soluble hexavalent chromium. Welders comprise, worldwide, a major occupational group with acknowledged exposure to chromium. This study examines the relationship between semen quality and chromium in the urine and blood of a population of 30 tungsten inert gas (TIG) stainless steel welders, 30 mild steel welders and 47 non-welding workers. Each subject provided two to three semen samples. The chromium concentration ranged from 0.17 to 4.74 nmol mmol1 creatinine (median 1.08) in post-shift spot urine and from 6.0 to 46.4 nmol l-1 in blood. None of several semen parameters deteriorated with increasing level of internal exposure to chromium. Low-level exposure to hexavalent chromium associated with TIG stainless steel and mild steel welding do not appear to be a major hazard for human spermatogenesis. PMID:1354973

  12. Effect of lycopene on semen quality, fertility and native immunity of broiler breeder.

    PubMed

    Mangiagalli, M G; Martino, P A; Smajlovic, T; Guidobono Cavalchini, L; Marelli, S P

    2010-02-01

    1. The effect of drinking water supplementation with lycopene on the semen quality, fertility and immunity of broiler breeders was evaluated. 2. Broiler breeder males were individually caged from 25 to 42 weeks old and divided into two group: L group, treated birds (lycopene 0.5 g/l) and C group, control birds. Laying hens were divided into two groups and artificially inseminated. 3. Semen variables were evaluated and daily fertility recorded. Serum bactericidal activity was tested. 4. Semen production and viability were affected by lycopene supplementation. Serum bactericidal activity was better in L than in C group. The fertility rate curve of the L group displayed a positive trend. PMID:20390581

  13. The effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation of rams on semen quality and subsequent quality of liquid stored semen.

    PubMed

    Fair, S; Doyle, D N; Diskin, M G; Hennessy, A A; Kenny, D A

    2014-01-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation of rams on semen quality and subsequent sperm function of liquid stored semen. Mature rams of proven fertility were individually housed and were blocked according to breed, body weight, and body condition score and randomly allocated within block to one of two dietary treatments (N = 7 per treatment). Rams were offered a base diet of hay and concentrate, with the concentrate enriched with either: (1) saturated palmitic acid (CON) or (2) high n-3 PUFA fish oil (FO) supplements. Both lipid supplements were added at 2% (wt/wt) of the total diet as fed and both were partially rumen-protected. The animals were fed their respective diets for a total of 9 weeks and blood samples were collected on weeks 0 (pre-experimental), 4, and 9, relative to initial allocation of diet (week 0), for measurement of plasma concentration of fatty acids, metabolites, insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin. Semen was collected from each ram (on 1 day in each week) in weeks 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9, and each ejaculate was assessed for volume, wave motion, and concentration of sperm, after which it was diluted in a skim milk-based extender and stored at 4 °C. A second ejaculate was collected on weeks 4, 7, and 9, centrifuged, and the sperm frozen for subsequent lipid analysis. A sample of semen from each ram was assessed at 24, 48, and 72 hours after collection for sperm progressive linear motion, ability to penetrate artificial mucus, and the ability to resist lipid peroxidation (at 24 and 48 hours only) using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay. There was no effect of diet on plasma insulin concentrations or on any of the metabolites measured, however, there was a diet by week interaction for plasma IGF-1 concentration (P < 0.05). This was manifested as the FO supplemented rams having higher IGF-1 concentrations on week 9 compared with the control

  14. Human urinary/seminal phthalates or their metabolite levels and semen quality: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hongquan; Zheng, Weiwei; Zheng, Pai; Wang, Shu; Tan, Hui; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

    2015-10-01

    Health concerns surrounding human exposure to phthalates include diminished semen quality. Epidemiological findings remain inconsistent. We have performed a quality appraisal and meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize evidence for associations between phthalate exposures and human semen quality. Pubmed and Web of Science were searched for pertinent studies through October 2014. Cited references were reviewed to identify secondary studies. Studies that reported quantitative estimates of the association between phthalates or their metabolite levels in humans and semen quality were eligible. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled effects estimates. Overall, 20 studies met our inclusion criteria. Subsequently, 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Urinary monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) were associated with reduced sperm concentration (MBP [7.4-25.3 µg/L], pooled odds ratio [OR]=2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.32-5.15; MBzP [14.0-540.2 µg/L], pooled OR=2.23, 95% CI=1.16-4.30). Both MBP (24.6-14,459.0 µg/L) and MEHP (3.1-208.1 µg/L) were inversely associated with straight line velocity (VSL; MBP, pooled β=-2.51, 95% CI=-4.44, -0.59; MEHP, pooled β=-1.06, 95% CI=-1.99, -0.12). An IQR increase in MBzP and MEP levels (MBzP, IQR=11.35 µg/L; MEP, IQR=449.4 µg/L) was associated with an increase in comet extent (CE; MBzP, pooled β=3.57, 95% CI=0.89-6.25; MEP, pooled β=4.22, 95% CI=1.66-6.77). No associations were observed between monomethyl phthalate and any semen parameters. Our meta-analysis strengthens the evidence that specific phthalates or their metabolite levels may affect semen quality. PMID:26275958

  15. Cryopreserving turkey semen in straws and nitrogen vapour using DMSO or DMA: effects of cryoprotectant concentration, freezing rate and thawing rate on post-thaw semen quality.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, N; Di Iorio, M; Miranda, M; Zaniboni, L; Manchisi, A; Cerolini, S

    2016-04-01

    1. This study was designed to identify a suitable protocol for freezing turkey semen in straws exposed to nitrogen vapour by examining the effects of dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as cryoprotectant (CPA), CPA concentration, freezing rate and thawing rate on in vitro post-thaw semen quality. 2. Pooled semen samples were diluted 1:1 (v:v) with a freezing extender composed of Tselutin diluent containing DMA or DMSO to give final concentrations of 8% or 18% DMA and 4% or 10% DMSO. The semen was packaged in 0.25 ml plastic straws and frozen at different heights above the liquid nitrogen (LN2) surface (1, 5 and 10 cm) for 10 min. Semen samples were thawed at 4°C for 5 min or at 50°C for 10 s. After thawing, sperm motility, viability and osmotic tolerance were determined. 3. Cryosurvival of turkey sperm was affected by DMSO concentration. Freezing rate affected the motility of sperm cryopreserved using both CPAs, while thawing rates showed an effect on the motility of sperm cryopreserved using DMA and on the viability of sperm cryopreserved using DMSO. Significant interactions between freezing rate × thawing rate on sperm viability in the DMA protocol were found. 4. The most effective freezing protocol was the use of 18% DMA or 10% DMSO with freezing 10 cm above the LN2 surface and a thawing temperature of 50°C. An efficient protocol for turkey semen would improve prospects for sperm cryobanks and the commercial use of frozen turkey semen. PMID:26872498

  16. Effect of goserelin and leuprolide added to the semen on reproductive performance in rabbits - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Gogol, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of two synthetic GnRH analogues, goserelin and leuprolide, to induce ovulation in rabbit does using intravaginal administration. A total of 252 primiparous lactating does were randomly divided into five groups that, at the time of insemination, received the following treatments for ovulation induction: 1 µg of buserelin administered intramuscularly (control group), 5 µg of goserelin added to the semen dose (Group G5), 10 µg of goserelin added to the semen dose (Group G10), 5 µg of leuprolide added to the semen dose (Group L5), and 10 µg of leuprolide added to the semen dose (Group L10). The kindling rate was 80.5% in Group G10 and 75.0% in Group L10; these values are comparable to the kindling rate obtained in the control group (85.9%). The kindling rates in Groups G5 and L5 were significantly lower than in the control group (60.0%, 54.2% and 85.9%, respectively). The number of live-born rabbits was not significantly affected by the ovulation induction treatment. As regards the total number of rabbits born the only significant difference was observed between Groups G5 and L5. This study shows the possibility of inducing ovulation in rabbits by adding goserelin and leuprolide directly to the semen dose. PMID:26919148

  17. Reproductive performance of totally confined sheep bred with semen extended in a lactose-egg yolk-glycerol buffer and stored at 5 degrees C.

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, A J; Wolynetz, M S

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in January and May 1975 to study reproductive performance (fertility, prolificacy and fecundity) of totally confined sheep synchronized for estrus. The main objective of the first experiment was to compare reproductive performance of ewes bred naturally to those bred by artificial insemination. Semen for artificial insemination was collected by either artificial vagina or electroejaculation and stored for up to 36 hours at 5 degrees C. A second objective was to evaluate the effect of pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin on the reproductive performance of ewes synchronized for estrus. Fertility was 53% for ewes bred by natural mating, 34% for ewes receiving pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin and bred by artificial insemination, and 9% for those not receiving pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin and bred by artificial insemination. There was no difference in fertility between ewes bred with semen collected by artificial vagina or by electroejaculation. A similar pattern was observed for fecundity. Average prolificacy was 2.0 with no significant differences among mating methods or pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin application being observed. In the second experiment, the reproductive performance of ewes inseminated with semen stores at 5 degrees C for 48 to 60 hours was compared to that of ewes inseminated with semen stores for 24 to 36 hours. No significant differences in the reproductive performance were detected. Although average fertility (9%) and fecundity (19%) were low, prolificacy averaged 2.0 lambs per ewe lambing. PMID:7127197

  18. Decline in semen quality among infertile men in Brazil during the past 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Edson; Setti, Amanda Souza; Braga, Daniela Paes de Almeida Ferreira; Figueira, Rita de Cassia Savio; Iaconelli, Assumpto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate whether the semen quality of men undergoing conventional semen analysis is deteriorating over time. Materials and Methods: We analyzed and compared the sperm count, motility and morphology of 2300 semen samples provided by males undergoing conventional seminal analysis, from years 2000 to 2002 and 2010 to 2012. The incidences of severe oligozoospermia and azoospermia over time were also compared. Results: A total of 764 sperm samples were analyzed in 2000-2002 and 1536 in 20102012. Over time, the mean sperm concentration/ml decreased significantly from 61.7 million in 2000-2002 to 26.7 million in 2010-2012 (R2=11.4%, p<0.001), the total sperm concentration decreased significantly from 183.0 million to 82.8 million (R2=11.3%, p<0.001), and the percentage of normal forms decreased significantly from 4.6% to 2.7% (R2=9.8%, p<0.001). The incidence of severe oligozoospermia significantly increased from 15.7% to 30.3% (OR: 1.09, p<0.001) and the incidence of azoospermia increased from 4.9% to 8.5% (OR: 1.06, p=0.001). Conclusions: This study demonstrated a significant time-related decline in semen quality of infertile patients. This finding might have implications on fertility and emphasizes the need for further studies addressing subject's life-style in order to find and reduce the causative agents. Future prospective and multicenter studies including representative samples of the general population are needed to confirm whether semen quality is really declining. PMID:26401870

  19. Effect of thawing methods on frozen semen quality of yak (Poephagus grunniens L.) bulls

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Binod Kumar Dutta; Deka, Bharat Chandra; Biswas, Ranjan Kumar; Chakravarty, Prithiviraj; Deori, Sourabh; Sinha, Sudip; Ahmed, Kutubuddin

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate different thawing temperatures and duration on the post-thaw semen quality of Indian yaks bulls. Materials and Methods: Semen ejaculates from four different yak bulls were collected using artificial vagina method and extended with tris extender containing 6.4% glycerol at 35°C, cooled gradually from 35°C to 5°C at 1°C/3 min and equilibrated at 4-5°C for 4 h and frozen in French mini straws using a programmable bio-freezer and finally stored in liquid nitrogen. Thawing of frozen semen straws was carried out using three methods i.e., 35°C for 60 s (thawing method I), 37°C for 30 s (thawing method II) and 75°C for 9 s (thawing method III). The post-thaw semen quality parameters assessed were sperm motility, percent live sperm, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST)-reacted sperm, acrosomal changes, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in the extracellular media. Results: The percent sperm motility, total incidence of acrosomal changes, and extracellular release of AST varied significantly (p<0.01) between thawing methods but live sperm and HOST-reacted sperm did not vary significantly between thawing methods. The percent sperm motility of frozen yak semen for thawing method III was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that for thawing methods I and II, the difference between thawing methods I and II being non-significant. The critical difference test revealed that the total incidence of acrosomal changes and extracellular release of AST were significantly (p<0.05) lower when thawing was done using methods I and II than in method III. Conclusion: On the basis of the present experiment, we can conclude that barring the post-thaw sperm motility, thawing of frozen yak semen in water either at 35°C for 60 s or 37°C for 30 s gives better post-thaw semen quality than at 75°C for 09 s. PMID:27047161

  20. Semen quality and fertility of men employed in a South African lead acid battery plant.

    PubMed

    Robins, T G; Bornman, M S; Ehrlich, R I; Cantrell, A C; Pienaar, E; Vallabh, J; Miller, S

    1997-10-01

    Previous studies of the associations of measures of occupational lead exposure with measures of semen quality and infertility among male workers have produced conflicting results. The current study was undertaken to examine these associations among a population of workers with a broad range of measures of current and historical lead exposure. Ninety-seven lead-exposed workers from a South African lead acid battery facility provided semen samples that were analyzed for sperm density, sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and presence of antisperm antibodies. Questionnaire data were collected for reported histories of sub- or infertility. Current blood leads ranged from 28 to 93 micrograms/dl. Semen lead ranged from 1 to 87 micrograms/dl. Reasonably consistent and significant associations were found between an increased percentage of sperm with abnormal morphology and higher measures of current blood lead, cumulative blood lead, and duration of exposure. An increased percent of immotile sperm was associated only with zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) among the lead exposure measures. There were no associations of sperm density or sperm count with any of the lead exposure measures. A weak association of increased percent of sperm with antisperm antibodies with increased semen lead was present. There were no consistent associations of measures of lead exposure with measures of fertility or procreativity. This study, while supporting the association of lead exposure with increased risk of abnormal sperm morphology seen in some previous studies, does not lend support to previously reported associations of sperm density or count or infertility with measures of lead exposure. However, the relatively high range of current blood leads, high prevalence of abnormalities in semen quality, and the lack of a control population, suggest that these negative findings should be interpreted with caution. PMID:9258391

  1. Preliminary examination of polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTZ1 in relation to semen quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Environmental, lifestyle, and occupational exposures on semen quality have been investigated in epidemiological studies with inconsistent results. Genetic factors involved in toxicant activation and detoxification have been examined in relation to the risk of outcomes...

  2. Fertility and semen quality of workers exposed to high temperatures in the ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Figà-Talamanca, I; Dell'Orco, V; Pupi, A; Dondero, F; Gandini, L; Lenzi, A; Lombardo, F; Scavalli, P; Mancini, G

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic occupational exposure to high temperatures may be detrimental to male reproduction. The study was based on 92 healthy ceramics oven operators with a long exposure to high temperatures, and 87 controls, recruited from the shipment department of the same industry. Interviews with all subjects provided data on sociodemographic characteristics, health status, and fertility problems. Semen analysis was carried out on 46 of the workers exposed to high temperatures, and 14 of the controls, and included evaluation of the sperm concentration, morphology, and motility, including computer-assisted sperm motion analysis (velocity, linearity, ALH, BCF). The results of the questionnaire showed that exposed individuals had a higher incidence of childlessness and of self-reported difficulty in conceiving than controls. The semen analysis showed no significant differences except in sperm velocity. Although differences in semen parameters, taken singly, were not statistically significant, the overall evaluation of the sperm parameters indicated a higher prevalence of pathologic sperm profiles among the exposed compared to the controls. PMID:1288761

  3. Testicular endocrine function, seasonality and semen quality of the stallion.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, B; Landeck, A

    1999-10-31

    To gain further information on gonadal function of the stallion, concentrations of testicular steroids in blood plasma (bpl) and seminal plasma (spl) and their distribution in the ejaculate were determined. Blood and semen samples from a total of 11 stallions were collected from November to July. Estrone (E1), estrone sulfate (E1S), estradiol-17beta (E2beta) and testosterone (T) were determined in bpl and spl, and in addition androstenedione (A), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alpha-DHT) were measured in spl. At certain points of time, aliquots of an ejaculate were centrifuged, washed and the distribution of E1, E1S, E2beta and T into seminal plasma and the sperm fraction was assessed. Hormone assay was by RIA, partly after prior separation by HPLC. Mean concentrations (X(g) x DF) were as follows: E2beta (bpl) 31.1 (1.16), (spl) 24.2 (1.42) pg ml(-1); E1 (bpl) 143.3 (1.21), (spl) 117.7 (1.53) pg ml(-1); E1S (bpl) 157.3 (1.44), (spl) 2.92 (1.42) ng ml(-1); T (bpl) 570.6 (1.43), (spl) 23.1 (1.68) pg ml(-1); A (spl) 17.9 (1.39) pg ml(-1); DHEH (spl) 12.4 (1.51) pg ml(-1); 5alpha-DHT (spl) 9.7 (1.29) pg ml(-1). Except for E2beta and A in seminal plasma, a seasonal pattern was established for all other steroids with lowest mean values occurring from November to April. From the semen parameters determined, only motility was correlated to season. There was a higher correlation among oestrogen in blp than in spl and the only correlation identified between oestrogenic and androgenic steroids was between T and E2beta in blp. In spl, T was correlated with A and 5alpha-DHT. T was the dominant free steroid in bpl while it was E1 in spl; T and E1S concentrations were about 23- and 54-fold lower in spl compared to bpl with E1S, however, showing the highest absolute values in both fluids. In the fractionated ejaculate an association of free oestrogens, particularly E2beta, with spermatozoa was observed. PMID:10565441

  4. PON1Q192R genetic polymorphism modifies organophosphorous pesticide effects on semen quality and DNA integrity in agricultural workers from southern Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Herrera, N.; Polanco-Minaya, H. |; Salazar-Arredondo, E. |; Solis-Heredia, M.J.; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Rojas-Garcia, E.; Alvarado-Mejia, J.; Borja-Aburto, V.H.; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2008-07-15

    Pesticide exposure, including organophosphorous (OP) insecticides, has been associated with poor semen quality, and paraoxonase (PON1), an enzyme involved in OP deactivation, may have a role on their susceptibility, due to PON1 polymorphisms. Our objective was to evaluate the role of PON1Q192R polymorphism on the susceptibility to OP toxicity on semen quality and DNA integrity in agricultural workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in farmers with Mayan ascendancy from southeastern Mexico chronically exposed to pesticides; mostly OP. Fifty four agricultural workers (18-55 years old) were included, who provided semen and blood samples. Semen quality was evaluated according to WHO, sperm DNA damage by in situ-nick translation (NT-positive cells), PON1Q192R polymorphism by real-time PCR and serum PON1 activity by using phenylacetate and paraoxon. Two OP exposure indexes were created: at the month of sampling and during 3 months before sampling, representing the exposure to spermatids-spermatozoa and to cells at one spermatogenic cycle, respectively. PON1 192R and 192Q allele frequencies were 0.54 and 0.46, respectively. Significant associations were found between OP exposure at the month of sampling and NT-positive cells and sperm viability in homozygote 192RR subjects, and dose-effect relationships were observed between OP exposure during 3 months before sampling and sperm quality parameters and NT-positive cells in homozygote 192RR farmers. This suggests that cells at all stages of spermatogenesis are target of OP, and that there exists an interaction between OP exposure and PON1Q192R polymorphism on these effects; farmers featuring the 192RR genotype were more susceptible to develop reproductive toxic effects by OP exposure.

  5. Interactions between CYP2E1, GSTZ1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and exposure to drinking water trihalomethanes and their association with semen quality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pan; Zeng, Qiang; Cao, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Yi-Xin; Huang, Zhen; Li, Jin; Liu, Chong; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-05-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) have been reported to be associated with altered semen quality, and this association may be modified by inherited differences in cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1) and glutathione S-transferase (GSTZ1 and GSTT1), which metabolize THMs. We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the interactions between CYP2E1, GSTZ1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and exposure to THMs on semen quality among 401 men from the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan China. The baseline blood concentrations of four individual THMs, chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and bromoform (TBM), were measured as biomarkers of exposure to drinking water THMs. Genotypes were determined by real-time PCR, and semen-quality parameters were evaluated according to the World Health Organization guidelines. GSTT1 genotype significantly modified the association between exposure to Br-THMs (sum of BDCM, DBCM and TBM) and below-reference sperm motility (Pint=0.02). Men with above-median blood Br-THM levels had an increased odds ratio (OR) of below-reference sperm compared to men with below-median blood Br-THM levels (OR=2.15, 95% CI: 1.11, 4.19) in the GSTT1 null genotype only. In addition, we found that men with a TT of CYP2E1 rs 915,906 had higher blood TCM and TTHM (sum of TCM, BDCM, DBCM and TBM) concentrations than men with a CT/CC of CYP2E1 rs 915,906. Our results suggest that GSTT1 polymorphisms modify Br-THM exposure relation with semen quality, and CYP2E1 polymorphisms are associated with internal levels of exposure to THMs. PMID:26970898

  6. Sexual behavior and its relationship with semen quality parameters in Sahiwal breeding bulls

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shushant; Bhakat, M.; Mohanty, T. K.; Kumar, A.; Gupta, A. K.; Chakravarty, A. K.; Singh, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, NDRI, Karnal, to determine the sexual behavior and its relationship with semen quality parameters in Sahiwal breeding bulls. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 ejaculates were collected from six adult Sahiwal bulls (age ~47 mo and bwt ~466 kg), to study the relationship of sexual behavior and semen quality. The degree of association between different variables was estimated by Pearson’s correlation coefficient method. Results: The results depicted that, sexual aggressiveness showed significantly high positive correlation with libido score (LS) and sexual behavior score (SBS). Reaction time (RT) and total time taken in mounts (TTTM) had a significant negative correlation with LS and SBS. Penile erection score and penile protrusion score (PPS) both had a significant positive correlation with ejaculatory thrust score, mating ability score, and SBS. Results of correlation among seminal attributes and with sexual behavior depicted that ejaculate volume had positive significant correlation with initial progressive motility (IPM), sperm concentration (SCON), head abnormality, total abnormality, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST), acrosomal integrity (AI) whereas, mass activity had positive significant correlation with IPM, SCON, non-eosinophilic spermatozoa count (NESC), HOST, AI, RT and TTTM and IPM had positive significant correlation with SCON, NESC, HOST, AI, and TTTM, whereas and HOST had positive significant correlation with AI. Among seminal attributes, SCON had a positive significant correlation with PPS where as head abnormalities had a positive significant correlation with RT and TTTM. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the relationship of sexual behavior and semen quality parameters are reflecting that the sexual behavior of individual bulls is important to harvest good quality and quantity of semen as desired type of sexual preparation can be provided. PMID:27065641

  7. Effect of Camellia sinensis supplementation and increasing holding time on quality of cryopreserved boar semen.

    PubMed

    Gale, I; Gil, L; Malo, C; González, N; Martínez, F

    2015-06-01

    Cryopreservation of boar semen is still considered suboptimal due to the low fertility when compared with fresh semen. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) supplementation of the freezing extender at different concentration (0, 2.5%, 5%, 10%) and also to determine the influence of increasing holding time from 2 to 24 h at 15 °C. Seventeen ejaculates from nine boars were used to make pools of three of them and then cryopreserved. Sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, membrane functionality (HOST) and capacitation status were determined before freezing and at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after thawing. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated just after thawing. The main findings emerging from this study were the following: (i) no improvement in quality of thawed spermatozoa with addition of tea to the freezing extender, (ii) no improvement in quality of thawed spermatozoa with prolonged holding time, (iii) lower peroxidation rate in presence of tea 5% and (iv) a decrease in the number of uncapacited viable spermatozoa with any tea supplementation. We conclude that amplification of holding time in semen cryopreservation process does not vary results, facilitating freezing protocol. Tea supplementation reduces lipoxidation but did not improve quality parameters. PMID:24909203

  8. Male facial attractiveness and masculinity may provide sex- and culture-independent cues to semen quality.

    PubMed

    Soler, C; Kekäläinen, J; Núñez, M; Sancho, M; Álvarez, J G; Núñez, J; Yaber, I; Gutiérrez, R

    2014-09-01

    Phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis (PLFH) predicts that male secondary sexual traits reveal honest information about male fertilization ability. However, PLFH has rarely been studied in humans. The aim of the present study was to test PLFH in humans and to investigate whether potential ability to select fertile partners is independent of sex or cultural background. We found that on the contrary to the hypothesis, facial masculinity was negatively associated with semen quality. As increased levels of testosterone have been demonstrated to impair sperm production, this finding may indicate a trade-off between investments in secondary sexual signalling (i.e. facial masculinity) and fertility or status-dependent differences in investments in semen quality. In both sexes and nationalities (Spanish and Colombian), ranked male facial attractiveness predicted male semen quality. However, Spanish males and females estimated facial images generally more attractive (gave higher ranks) than Colombian raters, and in both nationalities, males gave higher ranks than females. This suggests that male facial cues may provide culture- and sex-independent information about male fertility. However, our results also indicate that humans may be more sensitive to facial attractiveness cues within their own populations and also that males may generally overestimate the attractiveness of other men to females. PMID:25056484

  9. MALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN THE MAGELLANIC PENGUIN (SPHENISCUS MAGELLANICUS) USING CHILLED-STORED SEMEN.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Justine K; Nollens, Hendrik H; Schmitt, Todd L; Steinman, Karen J; Dubach, Jean M; Robeck, Todd R

    2016-03-01

    Research was performed to increase our understanding of male Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) reproductive biology and to develop artificial insemination (AI) technology to assist with maintaining the species' genetic diversity. Seminal traits were characterized from seven males with noncontaminated ejaculates (n = 123) displaying high in vitro motion parameters, membrane integrity, and morphology. Seven females were maintained in nest sites that permitted visual, auditory, and tactile contact with their paired male but not copulation for 18.3 ± 2.4 days before egg lay. After cloacal AI (2.6 ± 0.4 inseminations/female) with semen chilled for up to 20.5 hr at 5°C, all females produced one to two fertile eggs, with the first oviposition occurring within 7 days of plasma progesterone concentrations exceeding 0.8 ng/ml. Overall fertility was 91.7%, hatchability was 63.6%, and genetic analyses confirmed that all embryos and hatchlings were sired by AI males. The heterospermic AI design demonstrated that eggs were fertilized by spermatozoa chilled for 1.5-19.8 hr before AI and were laid 4.5-11.5 days post AI. These results contribute new data on Magellanic penguin sperm biology and demonstrate that high fertility rates after AI of chilled semen can be achieved with females remaining in proximity to their paired mate. PMID:27010281

  10. Influences of a diet supplemented with linseed oil and antioxidants on quality of equine semen after cooling and cryopreservation during winter.

    PubMed

    Schmid-Lausigk, Yvonne; Aurich, Christine

    2014-04-15

    Seasonal changes in the reproductive physiology of stallions contribute to a decrease in the quality of frozen-thawed semen during late winter. Changes in the lipid composition of the sperm plasma membrane may contribute to this phenomenon. In the present study, we have, therefore, investigated the effects of adding linseed oil (LO) in combination with antioxidants to the diet of breeding stallions on the motility and membrane integrity of cooled-stored and cryopreserved semen. Starting in November, the diet of LO stallions (n = 6) but not control (C) stallions (n = 5) was supplemented with LO (100 mL once daily) plus an antioxidant (Myostem Protect; Audevard, Clichy, France) for a total of 84 days. Before (November) and at the end of this period (February), ejaculates were processed for cryopreservation (n = 3 ejaculates per stallion) and cooled shipping at 5 °C. Frozen-thawed and cooled-shipped semen was sent to the laboratory for computer-assisted semen analysis of total motility, progressive motility, and velocity parameters (average path velocity [VAP], curved line velocity [VCL], and straight-line velocity [VSL]) and evaluation of membrane integrity. The quality of frozen-thawed semen decreased (P < 0.05) from November (e.g., total motility LO 69 ± 3% and C 67 ± 3%) to February (total motility: LO 55 ± 4% and C 59 ± 3%) independent of treatment (P > 0.05). A decrease in the velocity parameters VAP, VCL, and VSL was more pronounced in LO stallions than in C stallions (e.g., VSL: November LO 67 ± 1 μm/s, C 64 ± 2 μm/s; February LO 59 ± 2 μm/s, C 63 ± 2 μm/s; interaction month by treatment, P < 0.05). In cooled-stored semen, total motility, progressive motility, and membrane integrity were lower in February than in November (P < 0.001 for all parameters). Supplementation of the diet with LO and antioxidants attenuated this decrease (e.g., Day 1 of cooled storage = 24 hours after semen collection: total motility in November LO 88 ± 1% and C 87

  11. Effects of month of breeding on reproductive efficiency of Holstein cows and heifers inseminated with sex-sorted or conventional semen in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; Sepulveda, Edgar; Macias-Cruz, Ulises; Avendaño, Leonel; Garcia, Jose E; Veliz, Francisco G; Rodríguez, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of month of breeding on reproduction performance of Holstein heifers and cows inseminated with sex-sorted or conventional semen in a hot environment. Pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI; 64,666 services over an 8-year period) both in heifers (n = 22,313) and cows (n = 42,353) from a large dairy herd in northern Mexico (26°N) were evaluated with the GENMOD procedure of SAS, with respect to month of AI. Overall, P/AI with sex-sorted semen was greater (P < 0.01) in heifers (41.6 %) than cows (17.3 %). P/AI for cows serviced with conventional semen was 10 % points higher (P < 0.01) in January and December (31 vs. 21 %) than cows serviced with sex-sorted semen. While there was no difference in P/AI between the sex-sorted sperm and conventional semen in cows inseminated in July (16 and 18 %, respectively), P/AI plummeted for both groups of cows during the summer and fall (more severe heat stress). P/AI was not different between heifers serviced with sex-sorted or conventional semen during the hottest months of the year (July to October). However, during the coldest month of the year (January and February), P/AI was 10 percentage points greater (P < 0.01) in heifers serviced with conventional than sex-sorted semen. It was concluded that in this hot climate cow and heifer fertility declined in the summer and fall when inseminated with conventional semen. However, the use of sex-sorted semen during summer and fall did not compromise the breeding success in heifers. Thus, this data suggest that sex-sorted semen promotes some embryonic thermoprotective mechanism, which leads to a marginal summer and fall fertility depression with this type of semen in this particular hot environment. PMID:24048822

  12. Effects of occupational exposure - is there a link between exposure based on an occupational questionnaire and semen quality?

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have suggested that human semen quality has declined over past decades and some have associated decline with occupational exposures. Many studies have been conducted in occupational settings, where exposure to occupational pollutants is intense. Our objective was to examine the association between exposure to occupational factors based on an occupational exposure questionnaire, and semen quality parameters (sperm concentration, motility, sperm morphology) and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 336 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes and who had a normal semen concentration of ≥15 mln/ml according to WHO criteria. All participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. Additionally, a detailed questionnaire about the exposure to occupational factors was performed among the study participants. The results of the study suggest that occupational factors may affect semen quality. The exposure to noise during work was associated with decreased motility and increased DNA damage (p = 0.005 and p = 0.02, respectively). Exposure to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) decreased sperm concentration and motility (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). Whereas exposure to high temperatures and sitting for more than 6 hours during work was positively associated with DNA fragmentation index (DFI) (p = 0.03 and p = 0.001, respectively). After applying the correction for multiple comparisons only the exposure to noise and sitting ≥6 hours during work was associated with poorer semen quality (decreased motility and increased DFI, respectively). This study showed associations between self-reported occupational exposures and impaired semen parameters. The occupational exposure questionnaire may be useful in clinical practice for patients and physicians to identify the work factors associated with poorer semen quality. PMID:24702586

  13. Ejaculate collection efficiency and post-thaw semen quality in wild-caught Griffon vultures from the Sardinian population

    PubMed Central

    Madeddu, Manuela; Berlinguer, Fiammetta; Ledda, Massimo; Leoni, Giovanni G; Satta, Valentina; Succu, Sara; Rotta, Andrea; Pasciu, Valeria; Zinellu, Angelo; Muzzeddu, Marco; Carru, Ciriaco; Naitana, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to test the feasibility of a programme of semen collection and cryopreservation in Griffon vultures. Four wild-caught individuals kept in captivity because of unrecoverable traumas were used. Semen collection attempts were made twice a week during three consecutive reproductive seasons (December – March) using the abdominal massage method. Ejaculation was successfully induced between late January and late February. Semen collection efficiency was rather low (27.9%) and it did not vary among individuals (p > 0.05). No differences were found in ejaculate volumes (12.5 +/- 9.1 μl), spermatozoa concentration (28.4 +/- 30.9 million cells/ml) and viability (61.3 +/- 13.9%) among the 4 vultures. ATP values differed among the four vultures (p < 0.001); B showed higher nucleotide concentration than both C and D, while it did not differ form A, whose values were higher compared with D. After freezing and thawing, semen in vitro viability, DNA integrity and ATP intracellular concentration were determined. Spermatozoa viability after thawing did not differ among the four individuals (52.6 +/- 5.8 in A, 53.4 +/- 4.6 in B, 50.4 +/- 3.2 in C, 42.5 +/- 2.7 in D), but it decreased significantly compared to fresh semen (p < 0.05). During 4 hrs in vitro culture, spermatozoa collected from B maintained over time a higher viability in vitro when compared to A, C and D. As evaluated by the comet assay method, DNA fragmentation after freezing and thawing did not differ in the 4 vultures. ATP concentration in frozen/thawed semen was significantly lower than in fresh semen (p < 0.0001). This study indicates that semen cryopreservation can be considered as a useful tool in the conservation of Griffon vulture genetic resources, but further studies are needed to optimize this technique. PMID:19228408

  14. Correlation between biochemical indicators of lead exposure and semen quality in a lead-poisoned firearms instructor

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Fischbein, J.; Fischbein, A.; Melnick, H.D.; Bardin, C.W.

    1987-02-13

    Lead poisoning is a disease of great public health concern, particularly because of the hazards that lead can pose to children as a result of ingestion of lead-based paint and perhaps as a consequence of the effects of lead pollution of the ambient air. However, lead poisoning is also a common occupational disease among adults. Persons who work as instructors at indoor firing ranges are likewise at high risk for occupational lead poisoning. The typical biochemical features of lead poisoning include inhibition of heme synthesis manifested by elevated levels of erythrocyte protoporphyrin and decreased activity of sigma-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Reproductive effects of lead have been reported in both men and women, but these effects rarely present themselves as practical clinical problems in occupational medicine practice. The current Department of Labor standard for occupational exposure to inorganic lead has been promulgated with special emphasis on the protection of the worker from damage to the reproductive system. The authors had the opportunity of measuring biologic indicators of lead exposure and of assessing semen quality in a firearms instructor with lead poisoning and infertility, who was treated and who fathered a child. They report herein the results of these longitudinal observations.

  15. Relationship between sperm quality traits and field-fertility of porcine semen

    PubMed Central

    Lymberopoulos, A. G.; Khalifa, T. A. A.

    2010-01-01

    An investigation involving seven boars, active in artificial insemination, and 1,350 multiparous sows was conducted at a private farm and aimed at examining the relationship between sperm quality traits and boar fertility in terms of farrowing rate and litter size. This experiment was done for 6 months. The semen samples were evaluated for subjective sperm motility and concentration. Ejaculates with at least 1 × 108 sperm/mL and 70% sperm progressive motility were extended with a commercial medium to 30 × 106 sperm/mL and used for artificial insemination (AI). AI dose was 100 mL semen containing 3 × 109 spermatozoa. Aliquots of diluted semen were assessed for live morphologically normal spermatozoa (LMNS, eosin-nigrosin stain exclusion assay) and sperm chromatin instability (SCI, acridine orange assay). Farrowing rates according to different boar sperm varied (p < 0.001) from 59.3 to 88.92%. The mean values of LMNS (47.2~76.5%) and SCI (0.16~4.67%) differed significantly among boars. LMNS (r = 0.79, p < 0.05) and SCI (r = -0.90, p < 0.02) accounted for 62.2 and 81.7% of the variability in farrowing rates, respectively. After the combination of sperm traits, the relationship between percentage of LMNS with stable chromatin structure and farrowing rate was significant (r = 0.86, p < 0.05). The number of live piglets per parturition was not significantly correlated with sperm quality attributes. In conclusion, boar fertility after AI with freshly diluted semen can be predicted based on the evaluation of sperm morphology and chromatin integrity. PMID:20458156

  16. Seminal Plasma Heparin Binding Proteins Improve Semen Quality by Reducing Oxidative Stress during Cryopreservation of Cattle Bull Semen

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Maulikkumar; Gandotra, Vinod K.; Cheema, Ranjna S.; Bansal, Amrit K.; Kumar, Ajeet

    2016-01-01

    Heparin binding proteins (HBPs) are produced by accessory glands. These are secreted into the seminal fluid, bind to the spermatozoa at the time of ejaculation, favour capacitation, acrosome reaction, and alter the immune system response toward the sperm. The present study was conducted with an objective to assess the effect of purified seminal plasma-HBPs (SP-HBPs) on cross bred cattle bull sperm attributes during two phases of cryopreservation: Pre freezing and freezing-thawing. SP-HBPs were purified from pooled seminal plasma by heparin affinity chromatography. Three doses of SP-HBPs i.e. 10, 20, 40 μg/mL semen were standardized to find out the optimum dose and 20 μg/mL was found to be an optimum dose. Semen as such and treated with SP-HBPs was diluted with sodium citrate-egg yolk diluter and cryopreserved as per the standard protocol. Sperm parameters i.e. motility, viability, Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST), acrosome damage, in vitro capacitation and lipid peroxidation were evaluated in SP-HBP treated and untreated (control) semen at both phases of cryopreservation. A considerable variation in percent sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity (HOST), acrosome damage, acrosome reaction and lipid peroxidation was observed at both phases among the bulls irrespective of the treatment. Incubation of neat semen with 20 μg/mL SP-HBP before processing for cryopreservation enhanced the average motility, viability, membrane integrity by 7.2%, 1.5%, 7.9%, and 5.6%, 6.6%, 7.4% in pre-frozen and frozen-thawed semen in comparison to control. There was also an average increase of 4.1%/3.9% in in vitro capacitation and acrosome reaction in SP-HBPs-treated frozen-thawed semen as compared to control. However, binding of SP-HBPs to the sperm declined acrosome damage and lipid peroxidation by 1.3%/4.1% and 22.1/32.7 μM/109 spermatozoa in SP-HBP treated pre-frozen/frozen-thawed semen as compared to control, respectively. Significant (p<0.05) effects were observed only in

  17. Enhanced early-life nutrition of Holstein bulls increases sperm production potential without decreasing postpubertal semen quality.

    PubMed

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

    2016-08-01

    Enhanced early-life nutrition (∼130% of required energy and protein) increased testes size and weight (∼20-25%) and reduced age at puberty (∼1 month) in beef and dairy bulls, compared with those fed 70% of dietary requirements. The objective was to determine effects of early-life (2-31 weeks) nutritional modulation on feed costs, predicted number of harvestable sperm and doses of semen, and semen quality. Calves (∼1 week old) were randomly allocated into three groups that were fed 4, 6, or 8 L/day of milk (low [n = 8], medium [n = 9], and high groups [n = 9], respectively) from ages 2 to 8 weeks. Thereafter, they were weaned, transitioned onto barley silage-based diets, to receive ∼70, 100, or 130% of recommended amounts of energy and protein (feed costs were ∼CDN$280 more per bull to feed high versus low diets from 2 to 31 weeks). After 31 weeks, all bulls were fed a medium diet. Semen was collected, by electroejaculation, from 51 to 73 weeks, extended, chilled, and cryopreserved. Bulls fed high nutrition were numerically younger (P = 0.45) at sexual maturity (sperm with ≥30% progressive motility, ≥70% morphologically normal, and ≤20% abnormal heads), first acceptable post-chill sperm motility (>50%; P = 0.66) and first acceptable post-thaw motility (>25% progressive; P = 0.25) than bulls in the low-nutrition group. Semen from three bulls per group was used for in vitro fertilization (total of 1249 bovine oocytes); there were no significant differences among groups in fertilization percentage (mean ± SEM of 68.0 ± 8.7, 77.1 ± 3.5, and 68.7 ± 4.5% for low, medium, and high, respectively) or blastocyst yield (31.5 ± 5.6, 41.4 ± 4.9, and 33.7 ± 4.6%). On the basis of analysis of 2D gels of sperm proteins, 380 spots were identified on the fused master gel, but no spots were differentially expressed across groups. Overall, there were no significant differences in semen quality or sperm function among bulls fed

  18. Long term storage of bee semen – A six month assessment of cryopreserved semen quality using motility as an index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bee (Apis mellifera Linn.) spermatozoa is known for its ability to remain viable for at the least two years within the spermatheca as attested to by the queens’ continued laying of fertile eggs without remating over two to three (Woyke 1960; Winston 1987). However, the semen collected from the dron...

  19. Effect of smoking on reproductive hormones and semen parameters of infertile Saudi Arabians

    PubMed Central

    Al-Turki, Haifa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this retrospective study is to look into the effect of smoking on semen and hormonal profile of Saudi Arabians attending infertility clinics. Materials and Methods: Medical record numbers of patients who attended infertility clinics and who underwent full assessment were identified rom Quadramed system and out-patient log books between January 2010 and December 2012. The standard protocol of the patients include full history, age, number of years of marriage personal habits of smoking, alcohol consumption, primary or secondary infertility. Standard laboratory tests which were performed, included, complete blood picture, random blood sugar, testosterone, follicle stimulation hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin level and semen analysis; volume, count, progressive motility and morphology. The data was entered in the database and analyzed. Results: During the study period, 279 patients attended and infertility clinic and only 258 gave the sample for analysis. The average age of patients in the smoking group was 34.23 ± 7.66 and in the nonsmokers 34.07 ± 7.92 years. Primary infertility was more common in smokers versus nonsmokers P < 0.001 confidence interval (CI)< −44.0705, total serum testosterone level was lower 383.8 ± 239.5 versus 422.5 ± 139.2 ng/dL (0.009 CI< −9.9415), serum prolactin level was higher 18.68 ± 13.28 versus 12.85 ± 12.34 ng/mL (0.001 CI < 8.3794). The average volume of the semen among the smokers was 2.8 ± 1.35 mL and in nonsmokers it was 3.08 ± 0.76 mL (P < 0.008 CI< −0.123). The mean progressive motility in smokers was 31.5 ± 23.1 compared to nonsmokers 40.05 ± 25.43% (0.002 CI< −3.2962) and total sperm count was 119.52 ± 114.12 and 139.71 ± 104.82 million/mL (0.07 CI < 1.4657). Conclusions: This study shows that the effect of smoking is dramatic reduction in the hormonal levels and semen parameters. It is recommended that smoking men undergoing fertility treatment should stop smoking to increase

  20. Conventional and fluorescent based semen quality assessment in Karan Fries bulls

    PubMed Central

    Panmei, A.; Gupta, A. K.; Shivahre, P. R.; Bhakat, M.; Upadhyay, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out on semen ejaculates of 15 Karan Fries (KF) bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India with an objective to evaluate the relationship between the conventional and fluorescent based semen quality analysis of the bulls. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 ejaculates were collected from 15 KF (Holstein Friesian [HF] crossbred) bulls. Semen were evaluated for color, volume, mass activity (MA) and percentage of individual motility (IM), sperm concentration, percent live spermatozoa, hypo-osmotic swelling test and acrosome integrity, chromatin integrity, sperm viability, and membrane integrity. Data were analyzed using SPSS software package for descriptive analysis. The correlation between rankings of sires based on conventional and fluorescent semen parameters were calculated by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Results: The average ejaculates volume (ml), sperm concentration (106/ml), MA, IM (%), live (%), morphological abnormalities (%), host (%), acrosome integrity (%), chromomycin A3 (CMA3) (%), SYBR-PI (%), and fluorescent isothiocyanate-peanut agglutinin (FITC-PNA) (%) were 4.57±0.36, 1162.98±97.93, 2.95±0.09, 60.8±1.22, 71.41±2.10, 9.31±1.15, 65.5±1.81, 86.6±1.59, 3.53±0.43, 65.39±2.23 and 74.47±2.53, respectively. Rank correlations were found to be significant for SYBR-PI and FITC-PNA with most of the parameters evaluated by conventional methods. Overall, among conventional criteria, IM revealed ranking of bulls almost similar to that of fluorescent criteria. Conclusion: Overview of our results indicated that, among conventional criteria, MA and IM revealed ranking of bulls almost similar to that of fluorescent criteria. PMID:27047025

  1. Developmental toxicity of toluene in male rats: effects on semen quality, testis morphology, and apoptotic neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, M; Hossaini, A; Hougaard, K S; Hass, U; Ladefoged, O

    2001-04-01

    In one study, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 1200 ppm toluene by inhalation 6 h a day from gestational day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 18. Sperm analysis was performed in the adult male offspring at PND 110 by using computer-assisted sperm analysis. Toluene did not affect the semen quality of exposed rats. In another study, pregnant rats were exposed to 1800 ppm from GD 7 to GD 20, and the male offspring were killed at PND 11, 21 or 90. Paired testes weight, histopathology and immunoexpression of vimentin in Sertoli cells were used as markers of testis toxicity. In the brain, the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus and cerebellum were counted after visualisation by means of the TUNEL assay. Mean body weight in pups of exposed dams was lower than in pups from control litters. This decrease was still statistically significant at PND 11, but at PND 21 and 90 the body weight of toluene-exposed males tended to approach that of the controls. Absolute and relative testes weights were reduced in all three age groups, although not to a statistically significant degree. Histopathological examinations of the testis and immuno-expression of vimentin did not reveal any differences between toluene-exposed animals and control animals. In the hippocampus, almost no apoptosis was observed in any age group, and there were no differences in apoptotic neurodegeneration between male rats exposed to 1800 ppm and control animals at PND 11, 21 or 90. Generally, a marked increase in number of apoptotic cells was observed in cerebellar granule cells at PND 21 compared with the other age groups. Toluene induced a statistically significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the cerebellar granule layer at PND 21. The mean was increased from 37 in the control group to 71 in the toluene-exposed group. Thus, the granular cell layer in cerebellum is a highly relevant tissue with which to study toluene-induced apoptosis, because of the continuous migration of neurons and

  2. Association of Smoking With Semen Quality and µ-Calpain Level in Normospermia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Noorbehbahani, Mozhgan; Alipour, Meysam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Calpains are a family of Ca2+ dependent proteases. There is some evidence that calpains involved in fusion process that occurs between spermatozoa and the oocyte. The current study aimed to investigate the association of smoking with semen quality and µ-calpain level. Materials and methods: This case-control study was conducted on 117 normospermia males between June 2013 and march 2014 in Jahad Laboratory in ahvaz, Iran. The semen samples were collected from male smokers (n = 50) and non-smokers (n = 67). We divided these participants as light, moderate, or heavy smokers based on their cigarettes per day (CPD). ELISA assays were used to measure µ-calpain concentration. All semen samples were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines. Results: The analysis of semen showed the volume, concentration, motility and morphology of semen were significantly lower among the smoker men than the non-smoker men. Also this significant difference was observed based on the number (light, moderate and heavy smokers) and duration (short term and long term smoker) of smoking. Although, showed no significant difference between µ-calpain of smoker men and non-smoker men. CPD showed negatively correlation with semen volume, concentration, motility and morphology of sperm. Conclusion: Sperm quality was negatively correlated with CPD and duration of smoking. However, there is no significant correlation between smoking and µ-calpain concentration. PMID:27385969

  3. Relationship between seminal plasma zinc and semen quality in a subfertile population

    PubMed Central

    Dissanayake, DMAB; Wijesinghe, PS; Ratnasooriya, WD; Wimalasena, S

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Current knowledge on the relationship between seminal zinc levels and different parameters of human semen is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and semen quality using two markers; zinc concentration (Zn-C) and total zinc per ejaculate (Zn-T). DESIGN: The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Semen parameters of 152 healthy men undergoing evaluation for subfertility were assessed. Seminal plasma zinc levels were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Zn-C, expressed as μg/mL, was multiplied by ejaculated volume to calculate Zn-T. Mann Whitney U test and Chi-square test were used to compare the zinc levels between different seminal groups when appropriate. Correlations were observed with Pearson’s correlation of coefficient. Analysis was carried out using SPSS 10.0 for windows software. RESULTS: Zn-C was low in 23 (15%) samples, while in 32 (21%) of the samples Zn-T was abnormal. The number of subnormal samples was high in the low-zinc groups compared with the normal-zinc groups, 15 vs. 8 (P > 0.05) for Zn-C and 28 vs. 4 (P < 0.001) for Zn-T. Zn-C was significantly high in the asthenozoospermics compared with the normal motile group; 138.11 μg/mL (83.92) vs. 110.69 11 μg/mL (54.59) (P < 0.05). Zn-T was significantly low in samples with hyperviscosity compared with samples with normal viscosity; 220.06 μg (144.09) vs. 336.34 μg (236.33) (P < 0.05). Conversely, Zn-T was high in samples with low viability compared with those with normal viability; 437.67 μg (283.88) vs. 305.15 μg (221.19) (P < 0.05). Weak correlations were found between Zn and some semen parameters. However, the correlation was negative between pH and Zn-C (r = –0.193, P < 0.05) as well as Zn-T (r = –0.280, P < 0.01). On the other hand, correlations were positive between Zn-T and sperm count (r = 0.211, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Count, motility, viability, pH and viscosity are affected

  4. Breeding period-associated changes in semen quality, concentrations of LH, PRL, gonadal steroid and thyroid hormones in domestic goose ganders (Anser anser f. domesticus).

    PubMed

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Rozenboim, Israel

    2015-03-01

    In flocks of geese fertility decreases in the second half of the breeding season. The reasons for this reduction in reproduction ability are still unclear. This study measured changes in semen quality variables throughout the period of intensive breeding in relation to hormonal concentrations associated with the sexual activity of ganders. Semen was collected (2×/week) from 2-year-old ganders in the period February-June. Standard ejaculation parameters and spermatozoa (spz) membrane integrity after E/N and SYBR-14/PI staining were evaluated. The DNA Fragmentation Index was measured by flow cytometry and sperm quality factors (SQF). The plasma levels of T, E2, P4, LH, PRL, THs in relation to semen parameters were evaluated. In ejaculate collected at the onset of the second half of breeding (April - spring period), a reduction in sperm concentration and % of liveE/N and liveSYBR-14+/PI- spz was shown. At this time, decrease in concentrations of LH and T and increase in PRL were found as well as moderate changes in THs were observed. However, in May a second peak in T and sperm production occurred. The DFI-% was higher in the middle part of breeding. Gonadal steroids concentration were not good prognostic marker of the reproductive potential of ganders. We suggest that a marked decline in LH and T in the spring period indicated the onset of endocrine changes mediated by PRL and THs resulting in progressive regression of testis functions. The lowest SQF in the spring/summer period coincided with the highest PRL suggesting an anti-spermatogenic action of PRL in ganders. PMID:25600146

  5. Lactotransferrin in Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Seminal Plasma Correlates with Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kiso, Wendy K.; Selvaraj, Vimal; Nagashima, Jennifer; Asano, Atsushi; Brown, Janine L.; Schmitt, Dennis L.; Leszyk, John; Travis, Alexander J.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.

    2013-01-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (≥65%) expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8%) and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%), in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml) and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×106 cells ml−1) compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (≤10%; P<0.05). Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ∼80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05). We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species. PMID:23976974

  6. A study of the effect of perchloroethylene exposure on semen quality in dry cleaning workers

    SciTech Connect

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Fenster, L.; Katz, D.F.; Sadler, M.; Lee, J.; Hudes, M.; Rempel, D.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of perchloroethylene (PCE) exposure on human semen quality. We compared the semen quality of 34 dry cleaners with that of 48 laundry workers. We examined the relationships of 17 semen parameters to expired air levels of PCE and to an index of exposure based on job tasks in the last three months. The average sperm concentration was over 80 million for both dry cleaners and laundry workers, but approximately one-quarter of each group was oligospermic. The overall percentage of abnormal forms was similar for the two groups; however, sperm of dry cleaners were significantly more likely to be round (t = -3.29, p = 0.002) and less likely to be narrow (t = 2.35, p = 0.02) than the sperm of laundry workers. These effects were dose-related to expired air levels and to the exposure index after controlling for potential confounders (e.g., heat exposure). The average percent motile sperm for both groups was slightly over 60%; however, sperm of dry cleaners tended to swim with greater amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) than those of laundry workers (t = -1.73, p = 0.09), and level of PCE in expired air was a significant predictor of ALH in the multiple regression model (t = 2.00, p = 0.05). In addition, exposure index was a significant negative predictor of the sperm linearity parameter (t = -2.57, p = 0.01). These results suggest that occupational exposures to PCE can have subtle effects on sperm quality. Additional analyses are required to determine whether these effects are associated with changes in fertility.

  7. New Approaches to Boar Semen Evaluation, Processing and Improvement.

    PubMed

    Sutovsky, P

    2015-07-01

    The improvement of boar reproductive performance may be the next frontier in reproductive management of swine herd in Unites States, facilitated by better understanding of boar sperm function and by the introduction of new advanced instrumentation in the andrology field. Objective single ejaculate evaluation and individual boar fertility prediction may be possible by introducing automated flow cytometric semen analysis with vital stains (e.g. acrosomal integrity and mito-potential), DNA fragmentation analysis and biomarkers (ubiquitin, PAWP, ALOX15, aggresome) associated with normal or defective sperm phenotypes. Measurement of sperm-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a helpful indicator of normal semen sample. Semen ROS levels could be managed by the addition of ROS-scavenging antioxidants. Alternative energy regeneration substrates and sperm stimulants such as inorganic pyrophosphate and caffeine could increase sperm lifespan in extended semen and within the female reproductive system. Such technology could be combined with timed sperm release in the female reproductive system after artificial insemination. Sperm phenotype analysis by the image-based flow cytometry will go hand in hand with the advancement of swine genomics, linking aberrant sperm phenotype to the fertility influencing gene polymorphisms. Finally, poor-quality ejaculates could be rescued and acceptable ejaculates improved by semen purification methods such as the nanoparticle-based semen purification and magnetic-activated sperm sorting. Altogether, these scientific and technological advances could benefit swine industry, provided that the challenges of new technology adoption, dissemination and cost reduction are met. PMID:26174914

  8. Effects of in vitro storage time and semen-extender on membrane quality of boar sperm assessed by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, K E; De Angelis, P M; Haugan, T; Paulenz, H; Hofmo, P O; Farstad, W

    2004-12-01

    The Norwegian AI company Norsvin has used the short-term semen-extender BTS to extend and store boar semen since the late 1980s. Fertility results have been consistent when extended semen has been used for AI within 3 days after collection, however, from a production and economic point of view it is preferable that semen stored for up to 5 days can be used. The aim of this study was to compare membrane quality of sperm stored in BTS for 3 days with sperm stored in the long-term semen-extenders Androstar, Mulberry III and X-cell for 5 days. Using a split-sample design, plasma membrane- and acrosome-integrity were assessed flow cytometrically by use of Yo-Pro-1 and PNA-FITC, and fluidity and phospholipid asymmetry of the membrane were assessed by use of MC540 and Annexin V-FITC. Due to observed sperm fragmentation in Androstar after Day 1, the data for Androstar were excluded from the analyses. After 5 days of storage, the membrane quality of X-cell-stored sperm was not statistically different from that of sperm stored in BTS for 3 days, while membrane quality of sperm stored in Mulberry III was statistically better on Day 5 compared to BTS on Day 3. In conclusion, Mulberry III and X-cell preserve sperm quality, as well as that of BTS on Day 3, for up to 5 days after collection. PMID:15511551

  9. Characterization of two Indian native chicken breeds for production, egg and semen quality, and welfare traits.

    PubMed

    Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Shanmugam, M; Padhi, M K; Reddy, M R; Sunitha, R; Rajkumar, U; Panda, A K

    2011-02-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize 2 important native chicken breeds from India and compare them on growth, production, egg and semen quality, and welfare traits. The Aseel breed showed (P < 0.001) higher BW at different ages; higher shank, radius, and toe lengths at 40 wk of age; and greater egg weights at 28, 32, and 40 wk of age than did the Kadaknath breed. The Kadaknath breed reached sexual maturity at an early age, and it had higher 40-wk egg production (P < 0.001). Higher egg specific gravity (P < 0.05) and higher albumen (P < 0.001) and shell (P < 0.009) percentages in the Kadaknath were observed, whereas the Aseel breed had a higher yolk index (P < 0.004), higher yolk percentage (P < 0.001), and higher yolk-to-albumen ratio (P < 0.001). Concentration of sperm (P < 0.01), live sperm counts (P < 0.05), and semen appearance scores (P < 0.05) were higher in the Aseel breed than in the Kadaknath breed. The Aseel breed showed a greater incidence of feather-pecking behavior under floor rearing, and this was negligible or mild in the Kadaknath breed. Broodiness under cage rearing was observed (8.42%) in the Aseel breed. With regard to welfare traits, male Aseel birds had a significantly shorter (P < 0.05) duration of tonic immobility (TI) than did male Kadaknath birds. Furthermore, male Aseel birds had a shorter (P < 0.001) duration of TI than did female Aseel birds, whereas female Aseel birds had a longer (P < 0.05) duration of TI than did female and male Kadaknath birds. From this study, it was concluded that the breeds differed on various growth, production, egg and semen quality, and behavioral traits, but not on welfare traits, although female Aseel birds exhibited a greater fear response. PMID:21248327

  10. Dietary fatty acids affect semen quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A H; Moghadasian, M H; Alizadeh, A R

    2015-05-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa are characterized by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which play a crucial role in fertilization. This review focuses on analysis of sperm fatty acid profiles and the effects of omega-3, saturated and trans dietary and sperm fatty acids on sperm parameters. Two major points have been pivotal points of investigation in the field of sperm fatty acid profiles: first, the comparison between fatty acid profiles of fertile and infertile men and second, the effect of dietary fatty acids on sperm fatty acid profiles as well as sperm quality and quantity. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3), and palmitic acid (C16:0) are the predominant PUFA and saturated fatty acids, respectively, in human sperm cells. Higher levels of DHA are concentrated on the sperm's head or tail varying among different species. However, the human sperm head contains a higher concentration of DHA. Dietary fatty acids influence on sperm fatty acid profiles and it seems that sperm fatty acid profiles are most sensitive to dietary omega-3 PUFA. Although improvements in sperm parameters are a response to omega-3 sources after more than 4 weeks of supplementation in the male diet, time-dependent and dose-dependent responses may explain the failure in some experiments. In human spermatozoa, elevated saturated or trans fatty acid concentration and a low DHA level is a concern. The regulations of the sperm fatty acid mean melting point as well as expression regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) alongside with spermatozoon assembly, anti-apoptosis effects, eicosanoid formation, and hormone activity are the putative key factors that induce a response by inclusion of omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25951427

  11. Semen quality improves marginally during young adulthood: a longitudinal follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Perheentupa, Antti; Sadov, Sergey; Rönkä, Riitta; Virtanen, Helena E.; Rodprasert, Wiwat; Vierula, Matti; Jørgensen, Niels; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Toppari, Jorma

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does semen quality improve during early adulthood? SUMMARY ANSWER Semen variables change little during the third decade of life, however some improvement in sperm morphology and motility may occur. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY A suspicion of deteriorating semen quality has been raised in several studies. The longitudinal development of semen quality in early adulthood is insufficiently understood. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A longitudinal follow-up of two cohorts of volunteer young adult Finnish men representing the general population was carried out. Cohorts A (discovery cohort, born 1979–1981, n = 336) and B (validation cohort, born 1983, n = 197) were followed up from the age of 19 years onward for 10 years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Inclusion criteria included that both the men and their mothers were born in Finland. Semen analysis was performed in cohorts A and B at 2–4 year intervals over a period of 10 years. Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, total motile count and morphology were the variables assessed in the analysis. A physical examination was carried out at each visit to detect any significant andrological abnormalities. The overall participation rate was 13.4%. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE During the follow-up, the percentage of sperm with normal morphology and the percentage of motile sperm increased significantly both in the discovery (A) (P < 0.001 at 19 versus 29 years for both) and validation (B) (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03 at 19 versus 29 years, respectively) cohort. Sperm concentration and total sperm count showed a significant increase with age only in cohort B (P = 0.03 at 21 versus 29 years, P = 0.009 at 19 versus 29 years, respectively). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION A limited number of men participated both in the first round and in the final fourth round (cohort A, n = 111 and cohort B, n = 90 men) and in all four rounds (cohort A, n = 61 and cohort B, n = 52). WIDER

  12. Fatty acid composition of spermatozoa is associated with BMI and with semen quality.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J M; Rønning, P O; Herning, H; Bekken, S D; Haugen, T B; Witczak, O

    2016-09-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is negatively associated with semen quality. In addition, the composition of fatty acids of spermatozoa has been shown to be important for their function. The aim of the study was to examine the association between BMI and the composition of spermatozoa fatty acids in men spanning a broad BMI range. We also analysed the relation between fatty acid composition of spermatozoa and semen characteristics, and the relationship between serum fatty acids and spermatozoa fatty acids. One hundred forty-four men with unknown fertility status were recruited from the general population, from couples with identified female infertility and from morbid obesity centres. Standard semen analysis (WHO) and sperm DNA integrity (DFI) analysis were performed. Fatty acid compositions were assessed by gas chromatography. When adjusted for possible confounders, BMI was negatively associated with levels of sperm docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (p < 0.001) and palmitic acid (p < 0.001). The amount of sperm DHA correlated positively with total sperm count (r = 0.482), sperm concentration (r = 0.469), sperm vitality (r = 0.354), progressive sperm motility (r = 0.431) and normal sperm morphology (r = 0.265). A negative association was seen between DHA levels and DNA fragmentation index (r = -0.247). Levels of spermatozoa palmitic acid correlated positively with total sperm count (r = 0.227), while levels of linoleic acid correlated negatively (r = -0.254). When adjusted for possible confounders, only the levels of arachidonic acid showed positive correlation between spermatozoa and serum phospholipids (r = 0.262). Changes in the fatty acid composition of spermatozoa could be one of the mechanisms underlying the negative association between BMI and semen quality. The relationship between fatty acids of spermatozoa and serum phospholipids was minor, which indicates that BMI affects fatty acid composition of spermatozoa through regulation of fatty acid

  13. Male gonadal function in coeliac disease: 1. Sexual dysfunction, infertility, and semen quality.

    PubMed

    Farthing, M J; Edwards, C R; Rees, L H; Dawson, A M

    1982-07-01

    The prevalence of hypogonadism, sexual dysfunction and abnormalities of semen quality was determined in 28 consecutive males with coeliac disease. These observations were related to jejunal morphology and nutritional status, and were compared with findings in 19 men with Crohn's disease of similar age and nutritional status. Two of the 28 coeliacs (7%) had clinical evidence of hypogonadism but impotence and decreased sexual activity occurred more commonly, the latter apparently improving after gluten withdrawal. Of the married coeliacs, 19% had infertile marriages, a value greater than expected in the general population. Hypogonadism and sexual dysfunction were not detected in our patients with Crohn's disease. Seminal analysis in coeliacs revealed marked abnormalities of sperm morphology and motility, but only the former appeared to improve after gluten withdrawal. Similar abnormalities, however, were also detected in patients with Crohn's disease, although, unlike the coeliacs, 46% also had reduced concentrations of spermatozoa. Semen quality in coeliac disease could not be clearly related to general or specific (serum vitamin B(12) and red cell folate) nutritional deficiencies or to fertility, although sperm motility was markedly reduced in two of the three coeliacs with infertile marriages. The presence of antisperm antibodies did not appear to be an important aetiological factor in male infertility in coeliac disease. The pathogenesis of infertility and sexual dysfunction in coeliac disease remains unclear, suggesting that factors such as endocrine dysfunction or other specific nutritional deficiency may be involved. PMID:7200931

  14. Reduction in semen quality after mixed exposure to bisphenol A and isobutylparaben in utero and during lactation periods.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Jung; Hong, Yeon-Pyo; Chae, Soo Ahn

    2016-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of low-level exposure to a mixture of bisphenol A (BPA) and isobutylparaben (IBP) on male reproduction. Corn oil, BPA (0.05 mg/kg/day), IBP (2.5 mg/kg/day), and a BPA/IBP mixture (BPA 0.05 mg/kg/day and IBP 2.5 mg/kg/day) were administered once daily by oral gavage to female rats for 5 weeks from gestation day 6 to lactation day 21. Male pups were killed at postnatal day 70 and examined for developmental characteristics, body weight, testis and epididymis weight, steroid hormones, epididymal sperm count and motility, and histological changes in testis and epididymis. The BPA/IBP mixture produced a significant downregulation of epididymal sperm count and motility. BPA or IBP alone also reduced epididymal sperm count and motility compared to control. These results indicate that exposure to low-level BPA/IBP mixture, which showed no notable physiological response in early life stages, can decrease semen quality in adulthood. PMID:26519482

  15. A Preliminary Study: N-acetyl-L-cysteine Improves Semen Quality following Varicocelectomy

    PubMed Central

    Barekat, Foroogh; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Deemeh, Mohammad Reza; Bahreinian, Mahsa; Azadi, Leila; Abbasi, Homayoun; Rozbahani, Shahla; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgery is considered the primary treatment for male infertility from clinical varicocele. One of the main events associated with varicocele is excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant that scavenges free radicals, is considered a supplement to alleviate glutathione (GSH) depletion during oxidative stress. Despite beneficial effects of NAC in other pathological events, there is no report on the effect of NAC in individuals with varicocele. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of NAC on semen quality, protamine content, DNA damage, oxidative stress and fertility following varicocelectomy. Materials and Methods This prospective clinical trial included 35 infertile men with varicocele randomly divided into control (n=20) and NAC (n=15) groups. We assessed semen parameters, protamine content [chromomycin A3 (CMA3)], DNA integrity [terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)] and oxidative stress [2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA)] before and three months after varicocelectomy. Results Percentage of abnormal semen parameters, protamine deficiency, DNA fragmentation and oxidative stress were significantly decreased in both groups compared to before surgery. We calculated the percentage of improvement in these parameters compared to before surgery for each group, then compared the results between the groups. Only percentage of protamine deficiency and DNA fragmentation significantly differed between the NAC and control groups. Conclusion The results of this study, for the first time, revealed that NAC improved chromatin integrity and pregnancy rate when administered as adjunct therapy post-varico- celectomy (Registeration Number: IRCT201508177223N5). PMID:27123209

  16. Effects of alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist (tamsulosin) on incident of ejaculation and semen quality in the goat.

    PubMed

    Kimsakulvech, S; Suttiyotin, P; Pinyopummin, A

    2015-04-01

    Male temporary contraception is occasionally required in some animals. Alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist (tamsulosin) can cause ejaculation disorder. Two sets of Latin square were applied to six male goats to received either normal saline, dimethylsulphoxide or tamsulosin (179.8 nmol kg(-1) ) at 1-week interval. Semen collection and libido scoring were undertaken at 3, 6 and 24 h post-injection. For ejaculated semen, its quality was evaluated. Physiological measurements including body temperature, respiration and heart rates were measured before injection and at 30 min before semen collection. The results showed that libido score and physiological changes were not affected by treatments and time periods. Anejaculation was observed in 11 (91.7%), 5 (41.7%) and 1 (8.3%) males at 3, 6 and 24 h post-tamsulosin injection respectively. The incidence returned to normal when compared with control groups at 24 h. The percentages of motile and live spermatozoa at 6 h post-tamsulosin injection were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of normal saline group. At 24 h post-injection, there were no significant differences of all semen parameters among treatments. This study demonstrated that tamsulosin had temporary effects on ejaculation and semen quality without reducing sex desire and physiological functions in male goats. PMID:24684217

  17. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam . E-mail: subbi100@yahoo.co.uk; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-09-15

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm.

  18. Porcine semen as a vector for transmission of viral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Maes, Dominiek; Van Soom, Ann; Appeltant, Ruth; Arsenakis, Ioannis; Nauwynck, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Different viruses have been detected in porcine semen. Some of them are on the list of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and consequently, these pathogens are of socioeconomic and/or public health importance and are of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. Artificial insemination (AI) is one of the most commonly used assisted reproductive technologies in pig production worldwide. This extensive use has enabled pig producers to benefit from superior genetics at a lower cost compared to natural breeding. However, the broad distribution of processed semen doses for field AI has increased the risk of widespread transmission of swine viral pathogens. Contamination of semen can be due to infections of the boar or can occur during semen collection, processing, and storage. It can result in reduced semen quality, embryonic mortality, endometritis, and systemic infection and/or disease in the recipient female. The presence of viral pathogens in semen can be assessed by demonstration of viable virus, nucleic acid of virus, or indirectly by measuring serum antibodies in the boar. The best way to prevent disease transmission via the semen is to assure that the boars in AI centers are free from the disease, to enforce very strict biosecurity protocols, and to perform routine health monitoring of boars. Prevention of viral semen contamination should be the primary focus because it is easier to prevent contamination than to eliminate viruses once present in semen. Nevertheless, research and development of novel semen processing treatments such as single-layer centrifugation is ongoing and may allow in the future to decontaminate semen. PMID:26506911

  19. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian

    2016-06-01

    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled.

  20. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian

    2016-01-01

    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled. PMID:27313137

  1. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian

    2016-01-01

    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled. PMID:27313137

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGIC EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBP) AND SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic Evaluation of the Potential Association between Exposure to Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products and Semen Quality
    *Morris, R; +Olshan, A; +Lansdell, L; *Jeffay, S; *Strader, L; *Klinefelter, G; *Perreault, S.

    * U.S. EPA/ORD/NHEERL/RTD/GEEBB, Research ...

  3. Digital image analysis of testicular and prostatic ultrasonographic echogencity and heterogeneity in dogs and the relation to semen quality.

    PubMed

    Moxon, Rachel; Bright, Lucy; Pritchard, Beth; Bowen, I Mark; de Souza, Mírley Barbosa; da Silva, Lúcia Daniel Machado; England, Gary C W

    2015-09-01

    A semi-automated ultrasonographic method was developed to measure echogenicity and heterogeneity of the testes and prostate gland and relationships of these measures with semen quality were assessed in 43 fertile dogs. The relationship between animal age and body weight upon the volume of the testes, epididymal tail volume and prostate volume were also established. Mean testicular echogenicity was negatively correlated with the percentage of morphologically normal live spermatozoa (more echogenic testes were associated with fewer normal sperm) but not with any other semen quality measure. Mean testicular heterogeneity was positively correlated with the total spermatozoal output (more heterogenous testes, being those with anechoic parenchyma and prominent echogenic stippling, were associated with greater sperm output) but not with any other semen quality measure. There was no relationship between either mean prostatic echogenicity or mean prostatic heterogeneity and any semen quality measure. There was no relationship between age and any testicular or prostatic parameter; however bodyweight was significantly correlated with total testicular volume, total epididymal tail volume and total prostatic volume. Testicular and prostatic ultrasonographic echogenicity and heterogeneity can be objectively assessed using digital image analysis and testicular echogenicity and heterogeneity may be useful adjunct measurements in a breeding soundness examination. PMID:26282522

  4. EPISODIC AIR POLLUTION IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED DNA FRAGMENTATION IN HUMAN SPERM WITHOUT OTHER CHANGES IN SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was motivated by a previous report of associations between episodes of high air pollution and alterations in semen quality in young men living in an industrial district of the Czech Republic. Using a repeated measures study design, a cohort of men from this district we...

  5. The benefits of cooling boar semen in long-term extenders prior to cryopreservation on sperm quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wasilewska, K; Zasiadczyk, Ł; Fraser, L; Mogielnicka-Brzozowska, M; Kordan, W

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term extenders on post-thaw sperm quality characteristics following different holding times (HT) of boar semen at 17 and 10°C. Sperm-rich fractions, collected from five boars, were diluted in Androhep(®) Plus (AHP), Androstar(®) Plus (ASP), Safecell(®) Plus and TRIXcell(®) Plus (TCP) extenders. The extended semen samples were held for 2 hr at 17°C (HT 1) and additionally for 24 hr at 10°C (HT 2), after they were evaluated and frozen. CASA sperm motility and motion patterns, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal apical ridge (NAR) acrosome integrity were assessed in the pre-freeze and frozen-thawed semen. The Vybrant Apoptosis Assay Kit was used to analyse the proportions of viable and plasma membrane apoptotic-like changes in spermatozoa. Results indicated that boar variability, extender and HT significantly affected the sperm quality characteristics, particularly after freezing-thawing. Differences in the pre-freeze semen were more marked in the sperm motion patterns between the HTs. Pre-freeze semen in HT 2 showed significantly higher VCL and VAP, whereas no marked effects were observed in the sperm membrane integrity and viability (YO-PRO-1(-) /PI(-) ) among the extenders. Post-thaw sperm TMOT and PMOT were significantly higher in the AHP and ASP extenders of HT 2 group, whereas VSL, VCL and VAP were markedly lower in the TCP extender. Furthermore, spermatozoa from the AHP- and ASP-extended semen of HT 2 group were characterized by higher MMP, PMI and NAR acrosome integrity following freezing-thawing. In most of the extenders, the incidence of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with apoptotic-like changes was greater in HT 1. The findings of this study indicate that holding of boar semen at 10°C for 24 hr in long-term preservation extenders modulates post-thaw sperm quality characteristics in an extender-dependent manner. These results will further contribute to the

  6. Semen quality parameters as fertility predictors of water buffalo bull spermatozoa during low-breeding season.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hussain; Andrabi, S Murtaza Hassan; Jahan, Sarwat

    2016-10-01

    The present study was carried out to assess various postthaw semen quality parameters for the prediction of fertility in buffalo bull during low-breeding season. Semen (30 ejaculates) was collected from five adult buffalo bulls with artificial vagina (42 °C). Sperm motility parameters, velocity distribution, motion kinematics, and subpopulations were analyzed by computer-aided sperm motion analyzer (CASA). Moreover, sperm visual motility, supravital plasma membrane integrity, viability/acrosome integrity, viability/mitochondrial transmembrane potential, DNA fragmentation/integrity, and morphology were analyzed by phase-contrast microscope, supravital hypoosmotic swelling test, Trypan blue/Giemsa staining, propidium iodide/"5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl carbocyanine iodide" (JC-1) fluorochromes, neutral comet assay/acridine orange assay and wet mount technique, respectively. Outcome of 528 inseminations was analyzed for in vivo fertility. Pearson's correlation coefficients revealed that sperm progressive motility (%), rapid velocity (%), average path velocity (μm/s), straight line velocity (μm/s), subpopulation one (most rapid, and progressive) of motile spermatozoa (%), supravital plasma membrane integrity (%), and viable spermatozoa with intact acrosome (%) were significantly correlated with in vivo fertility (r = 0.64, P < 0.01; r = 0.57, P < 0.01; r = 0.52, P < 0.01; r = 0.56, P < 0.01; r = 0.73, P < 0.001; r = 0.74, P < 0.001; r = 0.88, P < 0.001); whereas nonviable spermatozoa with damaged acrosome or low-mitochondrial transmembrane potential and comet length (μm) of neutral comet assay were negatively associated with in vivo fertility (r = -0.79, r = -0.75, P < 0.001, and r = -0.60, P < 0.05, respectively). Multiple regression analysis reported that combination of semen quality parameters as predictor of fertility were better (R(2) adjusted = 81.30%, P < 0.001) as compared with single parameter (R(2

  7. Dietary fat and semen quality among men attending a fertility clinic

    PubMed Central

    Attaman, Jill A.; Toth, Thomas L.; Furtado, Jeremy; Campos, Hannia; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge. E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to examine the relation between dietary fats and semen quality parameters. METHODS Data from 99 men with complete dietary and semen quality data were analyzed. Fatty acid levels in sperm and seminal plasma were measured using gas chromatography in a subgroup of men (n = 23). Linear regression was used to determine associations while adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS Men were primarily Caucasian (89%) with a mean (SD) age of 36.4 (5.3) years; 71% were overweight or obese; and 67% were never smokers. Higher total fat intake was negatively related to total sperm count and concentration. Men in the highest third of total fat intake had 43% (95% confidence interval (CI): 62–14%) lower total sperm count and 38% (95% CI: 58–10%) lower sperm concentration than men in the lowest third (Ptrend = 0.01). This association was driven by intake of saturated fats. Levels of saturated fatty acids in sperm were also negatively related to sperm concentration (r= −0.53), but saturated fat intake was unrelated to sperm levels (r = 0.09). Higher intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fats was related to a more favorable sperm morphology. Men in the highest third of omega-3 fatty acids had 1.9% (0.4–3.5%) higher normal morphology than men in the lowest third (Ptrend = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS In this preliminary cross-sectional study, high intake of saturated fats was negatively related to sperm concentration whereas higher intake of omega-3 fats was positively related to sperm morphology. Further, studies with larger samples are now required to confirm these findings. PMID:22416013

  8. Alpha-linolenic acid supplementation in tris extender can improve frozen-thawed bull semen quality.

    PubMed

    Kaka, A; Wahid, H; Rosnina, Y; Yimer, N; Khumran, A M; Behan, A A; Ebrahimi, M

    2015-02-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of α-linolenic acid (ALA) on frozen-thawed quality and fatty acid composition of bull sperm. For that, twenty-four ejaculates obtained from three bulls were diluted in a Tris extender containing 0 (control), 3, 5, 10 and 15 ng/ml of ALA. Extended semen was incubated at 37°C for 15 min, to allow absorption of ALA by sperm cell membrane. The sample was chilled for 2 h, packed into 0.25-ml straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen for 24 h. Subsequently, straws were thawed and evaluated for total sperm motility (computer-assisted semen analysis), membrane functional integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test), viability (eosin-nigrosin), fatty acid composition (gas chromatography) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)). A higher (p < 0.05) percentage of total sperm motility was observed in ALA groups 5 ng/ml (47.74 ± 07) and 10 ng/ml (44.90 ± 0.7) in comparison with control (34.53 ± 3.0), 3 ng/ml (34.40 ± 2.6) and 15 ng/ml (34.60 ± 2.9). Still, the 5 ng/ml ALA group presented a higher (p < 0.05) percentage of viable sperms (74.13 ± 0.8) and sperms with intact membrane (74.46 ± 09) than all other experimental groups. ALA concentration and lipid peroxidation in post-thawed sperm was higher in all treated groups when compared to the control group. As such, the addition of 5 ng/ml of ALA to Tris extender improved quality of frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa. PMID:25366298

  9. Beneficial Effects of Nitric Oxide Induced Mild Oxidative Stress on Post-Thawed Bull Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Sharafi, Mohsen; Zhandi, Mahdi; Shahverdi, Abdolhossein; Shakeri, Malak

    2015-01-01

    Background Cryopreservation of semen requires optimized conditions to minimize the harmful effects of various stresses. The main approach for protection of sperm against stress is based on the use of antioxidants and cryoprotectants, which are described as defensive methods. Recently, the application of controlled mild stressors has been de- scribed for activation of a temporary response in oocyte, embryo and somatic cells. In this study a sub-lethal oxidative stress induced by precise concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) has been evaluated for sperm during cryopreservation. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we used different concentrations of NO [0 µM (NO-0), 0.01 µM (NO-0.01), 0.1 µM (NO-0.1), 1 µM (NO-1), 10 µM (NO-10) and 100 µM (NO-100)] during cryopreservation of bull semen. Their effects on post-thawed sperm quality that included motility and velocity parameters, plasma mem- brane functionality, acrosome integrity, apoptosis status, mitochondrial activity and lipid peroxidation after freezing-thawing were investigated. Results Exposure of sperm before freezing to NO-1 significantly increased total motility (88.4 ± 2.8%), progressive motility (50.4 ± 3.2%) and average path velocity (VAP, 53.8 ± 3.1 µm/s) compared to other extenders. In addition, NO-1 significantly increased plasma mem- brane functionality (89.3 ± 2.9%) compared to NO-0 (75.3 ± 2.9%), NO-0.01 (78.3 ± 2.9%), NO-0.1 (76.4 ± 2.9%), NO-10 (64 ± 2.9%) and NO-100 (42 ± 2.9%). Sperm exposed to NO-1 produced the highest percentage of viable (85.6 ± 2.3%) and the lowest percentage of apoptotic (10.8 ± 2.4%) spermatozoa compared to the other extenders. Also, NO-100 resulted in a higher percentage of dead spermatozoa (27.1 ± 2.7%) compared to the other extenders. In terms of mitochondrial activity, there was no significant difference among NO-0 (53.4 ± 3.2), NO-0.01 (52.1 ± 3.2), NO-0.1 (50.8 ± 3.2) and NO-1 (53.1 ± 3.2). For acrosome integrity, no significant

  10. Increased cortisol release and transport stress do not influence semen quality and testosterone release in pony stallions.

    PubMed

    Deichsel, Katharina; Pasing, Stephanie; Erber, Regina; Ille, Natascha; Palme, Rupert; Aurich, Jörg; Aurich, Christine

    2015-07-01

    The use of breeding stallions for equestrian competitions requires that fertility is not negatively affected by competition or transport to the competition site. In this study, effects of cortisol release induced by road transport (600 km), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration (3 × 0.5 mg synthetic ACTH) and placebo treatment on semen quality and testosterone release were investigated in Shetland stallions (N = 13) using a crossover design. Saliva for cortisol and blood for testosterone analysis were collected for 10 weeks after treatments. Semen was collected daily for 5 days directly after treatments and twice weekly for another 9 weeks. Total sperm count, sperm morphology, motility, and membrane integrity were analyzed. We hypothesized that elevated cortisol decreases testosterone concentration and semen quality. Cortisol concentrations increased in response to transport and ACTH (P < 0.001) but not control treatments (peak concentration, transport: 7.6 ± 2.4, ACTH: 13.7 ± 1.5, control: 3.8 ± 0.9 ng/mL). No treatment effects on testosterone existed. Total sperm count decreased with daily semen collections in week 1 (P < 0.01) but did not differ between the treatments. The percentage of motile, progressively motile, membrane-intact, and morphologically defective spermatozoa did not change over time from Days 2 to 6, and there existed no differences between the treatments. In conclusion, road transport evoked a stress response which was mimicked by ACTH treatment. Both treatments had no effect on testosterone release and semen quality. Testicular function in stallions is apparently well protected against transiently elevated cortisol concentrations, and stallions can be transported over longer distances without negatively affecting their fertility. PMID:25794840

  11. Effects of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk and L-cysteine supplementation on quality of cryopreserved boar semen

    PubMed Central

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched hen egg yolks and L-cysteine supplementation on the qualities of the cryopreserved boar semen. A total of 15 ejaculates from 5 Pietrain boars were divided into 4 groups according to the compositions of the freezing extenders used, that is, normal hen egg yolk (group I), DHA-enriched hen egg yolk (group II), normal hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L−1 of cysteine supplementation (group III) and DHA-enriched hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L−1 of cysteine supplementation (group IV). The semen was cryopreserved using controlled rate freezer and was thawed at 50°C for 12 s. Progressive motility, sperm viability, acrosome integrity and functional integrity of sperm plasma membrane of the post-thawed semen were evaluated. The supplementation of L-cysteine in the freezing extender alone (group III) improved progressive motility (P < 0.05), and the supplementation of L-cysteine in combination with DHA-enriched hen egg yolk (group IV) improved both progressive motility (P < 0.05) and acrosome integrity (P < 0.01). The use of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk alone (group II) did not enhance any of the post-thawed semen qualities (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of antioxidant L-cysteine alone or in combination with DHA-enriched hen egg yolk significantly improved the post-thawed semen qualities, especially progressive motility and acrosome integrity. PMID:19633681

  12. The Association between Dietary Patterns and Semen Quality in a General Asian Population of 7282 Males

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chin-Yu; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chao, Jane C. -J.; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Cha, Tai-Lung; Tsao, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations between different dietary patterns and semen quality in a general Asian male population. Methods Cross-sectional study. Healthy Taiwanese men aged 18 years or older who participated in a standard medical screening program from 2008-2013 run by a private firm were included in this study. Semen parameters including sperm concentration (SC), total sperm motility (TSM), progressive motility (PRM) and normal sperm morphology (NSM) were recorded. A dietary questionnaire was used to categorize the participants into 5 groups: “Healthy diet”, “Western diet”, “High-carbohydrate diet”, “High sweet snacks & sugar-sweetened drinks” and “High-sodium diet”. Results A total of 7282 men completed the questionnaire regarding dietary pattern, and examination of anthropometric indexes was performed and laboratory data were obtained. A high intake of a “Western diet” resulted in statistically linear declines of SC and NSM (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). Similarly, a greater intake of “High sweet snacks & sugar-sweetened drinks” was associated with a lower SC (P = 0.001). Increased intake of a “High-carbohydrate diet” was related to higher prevalences of abnormal TSM and PRM (P = 0.012 and P = 0.025). Similarly, a greater intake of a “High-sodium diet” was correlated with an elevated prevalence of abnormal NSM (P = 0.035). Conclusions This study showed that a greater intake of a “Western diet” is associated with poorer SC and NSM, a “High sweet snacks and sugar-sweetened drinks” intake is correlated with a lower SC, and high-carbohydrate food is related to elevated prevalences of abnormal TSM and PRM. PMID:26218796

  13. Quality control in boar semen production by use of the FACSCount AF system.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Preben; Knudsen, Dorte B; Wachmann, Henrik; Madsen, Mads T

    2004-10-01

    A simple and rapid flow cytometric method has recently been developed for simultaneous determination of sperm concentration and viability in semen from domestic animals. Use of SYBR-14 trade mark in combination with propidium iodide (PI) allows estimation of the proportion of live sperm (viability). An internal standard of fluorescent microspheres (beads) makes it possible to determine the sperm concentration during the same analysis. In the first experiment, the relationship between sperm viability and litter size was investigated. The second experiment explored whether a smaller variation in the number of motile sperm per insemination dose could be obtained using the FACSCount AF flow cytometer than using a spectrophotometer. Results in the first experiment show that sperm viability is closer related to litter size than is the traditionally used motility parameter. Although the flow cytometer is precise and objective, a limited effect on litter size should be anticipated if ejaculates are selected for insemination according to the percentage of viable sperm. However, the present trial used large insemination doses (2.3 x 10(9) motile sperm/dose) which partially compensate for the differences in motility and viability between boars and ejaculates. In the second experiment it was found that variation in the number of motile sperm per insemination dose could be reduced significantly if the FACSCount AF flow cytometer rather than the Corning 254 spectrophotometer was used for determination of sperm concentration in the raw semen. It is concluded that the FACSCount AF flow cytometer is a strong tool for improvement of the quality control in artificial insemination (AI) centres. PMID:15325548

  14. Characterization of the Influence of Semen-Derived Enhancer of Virus Infection on the Interaction of HIV-1 with Female Reproductive Tract Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Shannon A.; Carias, Ann M.; Anderson, Meegan R.; Okocha, Eneniziaogochukwu A.; Benning, Lorie; McRaven, Michael D.; Kelley, Z L.; Lurain, John; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The majority of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission events occur in women when semen harboring infectious virus is deposited onto the mucosal barriers of the vaginal, ectocervical, and endocervical epithelia. Seminal factors such as semen-derived enhancer of virus infection (SEVI) fibrils were previously shown to greatly enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 in cell culture systems. However, when SEVI is intravaginally applied to living animals, there is no effect on vaginal transmission. To define how SEVI might function in the context of sexual transmission, we applied HIV-1 and SEVI to intact human and rhesus macaque reproductive tract tissues to determine how it influences virus interactions with these barriers. We show that SEVI binds HIV-1 and sequesters most virions to the luminal surface of the stratified squamous epithelium, significantly reducing the number of virions that penetrated the tissue. In the simple columnar epithelium, SEVI was no longer fibrillar in structure and was detached from virions but allowed significantly deeper epithelial virus penetration. These observations reveal that the action of SEVI in intact tissues is very different in the anatomical context of sexual transmission and begin to explain the lack of stimulation of infection observed in the highly relevant mucosal transmission model. IMPORTANCE The most common mode of HIV-1 transmission in women occurs via genital exposure to the semen of HIV-infected men. A productive infection requires the virus to penetrate female reproductive tract epithelial barriers to infect underlying target cells. Certain factors identified within semen, termed semen-derived enhancers of virus infection (SEVI), have been shown to significantly enhance HIV-1 infectivity in cell culture. However, when applied to the genital tracts of living female macaques, SEVI did not enhance virus transmission. Here we show that SEVI functions very differently in the context of intact mucosal

  15. Effect of dietary vitamin E and prey supplementation on semen quality in male black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes).

    PubMed

    Santymire, Rachel M; Lavin, Shana R; Branvold-Faber, Heather; Kreeger, Julie; Marinari, Paul

    2015-07-15

    Over the recent years, the captive population of the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes; ferret) has experienced a decline in normal sperm (NS) morphology (from 50% to 16%), which may be linked to inbreeding depression or it may have been a dietary change. We examined the role of dietary vitamin E, selenium (SE), and vitamin A on serum levels of vitamin E, SE, and vitamin A and semen quality. Ferrets (n = 55 males) were randomly assigned to one of five diet treatments (n = 11 per treatment): (1) horsemeat diet (control); (2) horsemeat diet + vitamin E (400 IU/kg Dry Matter) daily; (3) horsemeat diet + whole prey; (4) horsemeat diet + vitamin E daily + whole prey; and (5) beef diet. Both blood (prediet and postdiet change) and diets were analyzed for vitamin E, vitamin A, and SE concentrations. Electroejaculates were collected monthly and evaluated for sperm concentration, sperm motility index (includes percent motile and forward progression), and percent NS. Results reveal that the beef and horsemeat diets had comparable (P = 0.05) vitamin E and SE concentrations and all diets met most nutrient requirements for small carnivores; however, the horsemeat diet was excessive in vitamin A and the beef diet was deficient in vitamin A. Vitamin E supplementation increased (χ1(2)=25.83; P < 0.001) serum vitamin E. Ferrets fed the beef diet or prey had improved (H4 = 15.596; P = 0.004) sperm motility index than the horsemeat control group, and ferrets fed the horsemeat diet supplemented with vitamin E had the lowest (H4 = 18.408; P = 0.001) NS. In conclusion, the high levels of vitamin A in the horsemeat diet could compete with vitamin E as evidence by serum levels, which may reduce reproductive success in this endangered species. PMID:25890779

  16. Seasonal evaluations of urinary androgen metabolites and semen quality in domestic long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) under natural photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Dominchin, M F; Bianconi, S; Ponzio, M F; Fiol de Cuneo, M F; Ruiz, R D; Busso, J M

    2014-02-01

    Chinchilla spp. is a South American hystricomorph rodent genus currently considered almost extinct in the wild. The high quality of chinchilla fur motivated the harvesting of chinchillas for the fur market. Reproductive biology advances come from studies on commercially exploited animals, especially Chinchilla lanigera. We studied seasonal variation of urinary androgen metabolites, sperm concentration and sperm functional activity in males of domestic Chinchilla lanigera under natural photoperiod. In Córdoba city (31° S-64° W; Argentina), within the same latitudes as those of the historic Andean distribution (tropical deserts; 15°-34° S), domestic males (n=7) were studied in May (autumn), August (winter), November (spring), and February (summer). Urine was seasonally collected (over 24h; once for season, 4 in total) to measure urinary androgen metabolites (RIA), before semen collection by electroejaculation. The results indicated that although testicular volume (relative to body weight) and values of sperm functional activity did not show seasonal changes, a seasonal variation in androgen excretion was detected, with the highest values occurring during "short" light/dark cycles (autumn-winter). In addition, viable spermatozoa with intact acrosome mean values during winter-spring were higher than in autumn or summer. This study provides information that might contribute to the assessment of testicular activity in male chinchilla subjected to genetic selection in the fur industry. In addition, since domestic chinchilla still share some genomic characteristics with their counterparts in the wild, results presented may alsocontribute to ex situ breeding program of endangered chinchilla. In conclusion, natural photoperiod cycle affects testicular activity in domestic chinchilla. PMID:24503344

  17. Low Pitched Voices Are Perceived as Masculine and Attractive but Do They Predict Semen Quality in Men?

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Leigh W.; Peters, Marianne; Rhodes, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    Women find masculinity in men's faces, bodies, and voices attractive, and women's preferences for men's masculine features are thought to be biological adaptations for finding a high quality mate. Fertility is an important aspect of mate quality. Here we test the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis, which proposes that male secondary sexual characters are positively related to semen quality, allowing females to obtain direct benefits from mate choice. Specifically, we examined women's preferences for men's voice pitch, and its relationship with men's semen quality. Consistent with previous voice research, women judged lower pitched voices as more masculine and more attractive. However men with lower pitched voices did not have better semen quality. On the contrary, men whose voices were rated as more attractive tended to have lower concentrations of sperm in their ejaculate. These data are more consistent with a trade off between sperm production and male investment in competing for and attracting females, than with the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis. PMID:22216228

  18. Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: high-quality females always do better.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2009-01-01

    1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus), we assessed how individual quality affects the probability of detecting a cost of current reproduction on future reproduction for females. We used a composite measure of individual quality based on variations in longevity (all species), success in the last breeding opportunity before death (goats and sheep), adult mass (all species), and social rank (goats only). 3. In all species, high-quality females consistently had a higher probability of reproduction, irrespective of previous reproductive status. In mountain goats, we detected a cost of reproduction only after accounting for differences in individual quality. Only low-quality female goats were less likely to reproduce following years of breeding than of nonbreeding. Offspring survival was lower in bighorn ewes following years of successful breeding than after years when no lamb was produced, but only for low-quality females, suggesting that a cost of reproduction only occurred for low-quality females. 4. Because costs of reproduction differ among females, studies of life-history evolution must account for heterogeneity in individual quality. PMID:18700872

  19. Comparative studies on egg, meat, and semen qualities of native and improved chicken varieties developed for backyard poultry production.

    PubMed

    Haunshi, Santosh; Doley, Sunil; Kadirvel, G

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate/compare the sensory attributes of eggs and meat, egg qualities, proximate composition of eggs, and semen qualities of slow growing native (Miri and Mizo-local) and fast growing improved chicken varieties (Gramapriya and Vanaraja) under hill ecosystem of northeastern India. Significantly higher egg weight, egg volume, and albumen volume were observed in Gramapriya followed by Vanaraja, Mizo-local, and Miri chickens. However, yolk volume was significantly higher in Vanaraja and Gramapriya varieties as compared to native chickens. Yolk to albumen ratio was significantly lower in Gramapriya as compared to Vanaraja and Miri chicken. Consumer liking of eggs for aroma, flavor, and overall acceptability of Miri, Mizo-local, and Vanaraja were significantly higher than that of Gramapriya. Genetic groups did not differ significantly in appearance and proximate composition of eggs. No significant differences were observed between various genetic groups for sensory attributes of meat samples. Semen volume was significantly (p < or = 0.01) lower while sperm concentration was significantly (p < or = 0.01) higher in native chicken as compared to the improved chicken varieties. However, pH, mass activity, sperm motility, and livability did not differ significantly among genetic groups although Mizo-local had significantly higher abnormal sperm count. The study concluded that the genetic groups with different growth rate differed significantly for various egg quality parameters and semen characteristics but not for sensory attributes of meat and proximate composition of eggs. PMID:20063057

  20. Withania somnifera Improves Semen Quality in Stress-Related Male Fertility.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Rajender, Singh; Shankhwar, Satya Narain; Singh, Vishwajeet; Dalela, Deepansh

    2009-09-29

    Stress has been reported to be a causative factor for male infertility. Withania somnifera has been documented in Ayurveda and Unani medicine system for its stress-combating properties. However, limited scientific literature is available on this aspect of W. somnifera. We undertook the present study to understand the role of stress in male infertility, and to test the ability of W. somnifera to combat stress and treat male infertility. We selected normozoospermic but infertile individuals (N = 60), further categorized in three groups: normozoospermic heavy smokers (N = 20), normozoospermics under psychological stress (N = 20) and normozoospermics with infertility of unknown etiology (N = 20). Normozoospermic fertile men (N = 60) were recruited as controls. The subjects were given root powder of W. somnifera at a rate of 5 g/day for 3 months. Measuring various biochemical and stress parameters before and after treatment, suggested a definite role of stress in male infertility and the ability of W. somnifera to treat stress-related infertility. Treatment resulted in a decrease in stress, improved the level of anti-oxidants and improved overall semen quality in a significant number of individuals. The treatment resulted in pregnancy in the partners of 14% of the patients. PMID:19789214

  1. Improvement of bovine semen quality by removal of membrane-damaged sperm cells with DNA aptamers and magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Farini, Veronica L; Camaño, Carla V; Ybarra, Gabriel; Viale, Diego L; Vichera, Gabriel; Yakisich, Juan S; Radrizzani, Martín

    2016-07-10

    In cattle, cryopreservation of semen and sex-sorting kill up to 50% of spermatozoa and decrease the success of assisted insemination (AI). Therefore, significant efforts are being carried out to improve the quality of semen prior to AI. In this work we used the Cell-SELEX technique to select single strand DNA aptamers able to recognize with high affinity and specificity damaged sperm cells generated by heat-treatment. We first isolated aptamers with a conserved two motifs of 6 nucleotides of length that bind to the membrane of heat-treated spermatozoa. Then, we used synthetic biotin-labeled aptamers containing the conserved motif to recognize membrane-damaged cells and separate them from viable cells by the use of avidin-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). This procedure improved the quality of semen by significantly increasing the percentage of healthy sperm cells without affecting the rate of blastocyst cleavage. This technique was successfully applied to both unsorted and sex-sorted sperm suspension. PMID:27164256

  2. Quality evaluation of Semen Cassiae (Cassia obtusifolia L.) by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Dong; Wang, Ying; Wang, Qing; Yang, Wan-Jun; Gu, Yi; Wang, Rong; Song, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2012-08-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and partially validated to evaluate the quality of Semen Cassiae (Cassia obtusifolia L.) through simultaneous determination of 11 anthraquinones and two naphtha-γ-pyrone compounds. The analysis was achieved on a Poroshell 120 EC-C(18) column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.7 μm; Agilent, Palo Alto, CA, USA) with gradient elution using a mobile phase that consisted of acetonitrile-water (30 mM ammonium acetate) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. For quantitative analysis, all calibration curves showed perfect linear regression (r(2) > 0.99) within the testing range. This method was also validated with respect to precision and accuracy, and was successfully applied to quantify the 13 components in nine batches of Semen Cassiae samples from different areas. The performance of developed method was compared with that of conventional high-performance liquid chromatography method. The significant advantages of the former include high-speed chromatographic separation, four times faster than high-performance liquid chromatography with conventional columns, and great enhancement in sensitivity. This developed method provided a new basis for overall assessment on quality of Semen Cassiae. PMID:22753381

  3. Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon level in blood and semen quality for residents in Pearl River Delta Region in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao Fei; Chen, Zhi Yuan; Zang, Zhi Jun; Zhang, Ya Nan; Zeng, Feng; Peng, Yen Ping; Yang, Chen

    2013-10-01

    This study is the first one investigating the correlation between the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in blood and semen qualities for residents in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in China. Blood samples from 53 infertile volunteers were studied for measures of semen quality and 16 PAHs. Information on the study subjects' living habits (such as smoking, drinking and preference of consumption for food) and general information (age, body-mass-index (BMI) and educational background) were also collected. Statistical results showed that age and BMI were significantly and negatively related to semen motilities. The total concentrations of PAHs (∑16 PAHs) in the blood were 12,010, 7493, 9105 and 8647ng/g for factory workers, office workers, technicians and salespersons, respectively. In addition, ∑16 PAHs in the blood of smokers, drinkers and heavy-taste food consumers were 11,950, 11,266 and 12,141ng/g, which were higher than those observed in nonsmokers (10,457ng/g), nondrinkers (10,920ng/g) and light-taste food consumers (9202ng/g), individually. Furthermore, the Pearson correlation analysis results showed significant positive correlations between BMI and ∑16 PAHs in the blood. Statistically significant correlations were observed between semen motilities and ∑16 PAHs in the blood as well. Logistic regression results showed that for each 1ng/g increase in ∑16 PAHs in blood samples, the log odds of experiencing a pregnancy decrease by 0.039 on average. However, more evidences are needed to clarify the impact of PAHs in the blood to male infertility. PMID:24021720

  4. Potential effect of smoking on semen quality through DNA damage and the downregulation of Chk1 in sperm

    PubMed Central

    CUI, XIANGRONG; JING, XUAN; WU, XUEQING; WANG, ZHENQIANG; LI, QIANG

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that smoking is associated with decreased male fertility via altering the quality of semen. However, the mechanism by which cigarette smoking affects semen quality remains to be fully elucidated. Heavy smoking-induced DNA damage has been reported to correlate with abnormal spermatozoa and male infertility. It has been reported that, in response to DNA damage, activation of the checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) facilitates S and G2 checkpoint arrest. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression levels of Chk1 in sperm cells of smoking and non-smoking men, and to further examine the correlation between DNA fragmentation rates and the expression levels of Chk1 with smoking. The present study was performed on a cohort of 841 smoking men and 287 non-smoking men. In the investigation, sperm concentration, motility, viability, seminal plasma zinc concentration, acrosin activity and sperm DNA fragmentation were examined. The gene and protein expression levels of Chk1 were detected using reverse transcription quantitative-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, respectively. It was observed that the progressive motility of the sperm was significantly decreased in the moderate and heavy smoking groups, whereas no significant changes were observed in the mild smoking group. The sperm in the medium-term smoking group had significantly decreased progressive motility, and the semen concentration, sperm count and progressive motility vitality were markedly decreased in the long-term smoking group. Compared with the non-smoking group, the abnormal head rates in the heavy smoking group and long-term smoking group were significantly increased. The sperm viability and seminal plasma zinc concentration were markedly increased in the smoking group. Increased DNA fragmentation rates were found in the smoking group. The expression of Chk1 was significantly decreased in the smoking group, compared with the non-smoking group. Progressive

  5. Potential effect of smoking on semen quality through DNA damage and the downregulation of Chk1 in sperm.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Wang, Zhenqiang; Li, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have found that smoking is associated with decreased male fertility via altering the quality of semen. However, the mechanism by which cigarette smoking affects semen quality remains to be fully elucidated. Heavy smoking-induced DNA damage has been reported to correlate with abnormal spermatozoa and male infertility. It has been reported that, in response to DNA damage, activation of the checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) facilitates S and G2 checkpoint arrest. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression levels of Chk1 in sperm cells of smoking and non‑smoking men, and to further examine the correlation between DNA fragmentation rates and the expression levels of Chk1 with smoking. The present study was performed on a cohort of 841 smoking men and 287 non‑smoking men. In the investigation, sperm concentration, motility, viability, seminal plasma zinc concentration, acrosin activity and sperm DNA fragmentation were examined. The gene and protein expression levels of Chk1 were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, respectively. It was observed that the progressive motility of the sperm was significantly decreased in the moderate and heavy smoking groups, whereas no significant changes were observed in the mild smoking group. The sperm in the medium‑term smoking group had significantly decreased progressive motility, and the semen concentration, sperm count and progressive motility vitality were markedly decreased in the long‑term smoking group. Compared with the non‑smoking group, the abnormal head rates in the heavy smoking group and long‑term smoking group were significantly increased. The sperm viability and seminal plasma zinc concentration were markedly increased in the smoking group. Increased DNA fragmentation rates were found in the smoking group. The expression of Chk1 was significantly decreased in the smoking group, compared with the non

  6. Systems Toxicology of Male Reproductive Development: Profiling 774 Chemicals for Molecular Targets and Adverse Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumor, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. An association with prenatal environmental exposure has been inferred from human and animal studies underlying male...

  7. TOXICOLOGY OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT: PROFILING 774 CHEMICALS FOR MOLECULAR TARGETS AND ADVERSE OUTCOMES (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumor, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. An association with prenatal environmental exposure has been inferred from human and animal studies underlying male...

  8. The use of oxytocin in liquid semen doses to reduce seasonal fluctuations in the reproductive performance of sows and improve litter parameters--a 2-year study.

    PubMed

    Duziński, Kamil; Knecht, Damian; Srodoń, Sebastian

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the present research was to eliminate seasonal fluctuations in year-round reproductive performance of sows and to improve litter parameters by administration of oxytocin into liquid semen insemination doses. A 2-year experiment was performed on crossbreed sows, Polish Large White × Polish Landrace, which were partitioned into two groups: control, insemination without any modification with 100 mL semen doses and oxytocin, insemination with 100 mL semen doses to which 5 IU of oxytocin was added just before insemination. A total of 10,486 inseminations were made. The farrowing rate and obtained litter parameters, including the effect of season, were analyzed. For each litter, the following factors were defined: average litter size, percentage of fetal death and mummified piglets, average piglet birth weight, percentage of piglet mortality, fecundity index, average number of piglets weaned, weaned piglet weight, and daily gain. Sows presented a positive reaction to the experimental factor. A statistically higher farrowing rate for oxytocin group in summer and autumn seasons was confirmed (P ≤ 0.01). Regardless of the season, a higher average litter size was observed in the oxytocin group with the most evident differences for winter, spring (P ≤ 0.01), and summer (P ≤ 0.05). The effect of oxytocin on the percentage of fetal death and mummified piglets born was not confirmed statistically except for winter. Analyzing the fecundity index, higher values were obtained for the oxytocin group in all seasons (P ≤ 0.01), including the lowest difference between groups for winter (51.43) and the highest for summer (100.61). A higher average birth piglet weight and weaned piglet weight were recorded for the oxytocin group in all seasons. The highest differences in birth piglet weight between groups were noted for spring (0.22 kg; P ≤ 0.01) and winter (0.17 kg; P ≤ 0.05) and in weaned piglet weight for winter and spring (0.58 kg and 0.52 kg; for

  9. Single layer centrifugation (SLC) improves sperm quality of cryopreserved Blanca-Celtibérica buck semen.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rabadán, P; Morrell, J M; Johannisson, A; Ramón, M; García-Álvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; Alvaro-García, P J; Pérez-Guzmán, M D; Fernández-Santos, M R; Garde, J J; Soler, A J

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sperm selection by means of single layer centrifugation (SLC) on sperm quality after cryopreservation, either when SLC is used before freezing or after thawing, using Blanca-Celtibérica buck semen collected by electroejaculation (EE). Ejaculates from six bucks were collected by EE and divided into two aliquots. One of them (unselected) was diluted with Biladyl(®) by the two-step method and frozen over nitrogen vapor. The other aliquot was selected by the SLC technique and subsequently frozen in the same way as the unselected samples (SLC before freezing). In a further treatment, two unselected straws were thawed and SLC was carried out (SLC after thawing). At thawing, sperm motility of all samples ((i) unselected; (ii) selected before freezing and (iii) selected after thawing) was evaluated by CASA. In addition, integrity of the plasma membrane, mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production and DNA fragmentation index were assessed by flow cytometry. Most of the sperm parameters were improved (P≤0.001) in samples selected by SLC after thawing in relation to unselected or selected by SLC before freezing. The percentage of progressive motile spermatozoa was greater (86%) for sperm samples selected after thawing compared with unselected (58%) or selected before freezing (54%). Moreover, percentages of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane and spermatozoa with high mitochondrial membrane potential (hMMP) were also greater for sperm samples selected after thawing compared to sperm samples unselected or selected before freezing (spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane: 80% vs. 32% vs. 12%; spermatozoa with hMMP: 54% vs. 1% vs. 15%; respectively). Therefore, sperm quality after cryopreservation is improved in Blanca-Celtibérica buck ejaculates collected by EE when a sperm selection technique such as SLC is carried out after thawing. PMID:23084569

  10. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  11. Estimation of genetic parameters for semen quality traits and growth rate in a paternal rabbit line.

    PubMed

    Lavara, R; Vicente, J S; Baselga, M

    2012-08-01

    HPD(95%). Litter birth correlations between DG with LIN and STR showed that a favorable effect for growth could be detrimental for them (-0.47 and -0.53). Therefore, as the magnitude of the genetic correlations does not seem very high, it may be possible to define a selection index, including some sperm quality traits that allow improvement of DG without diminishing the semen quality. PMID:22626776

  12. Effects of storage in different semen extenders on the pre-freezing and post-thawing quality of boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Dziekońska, A; Zasiadczyk, Ł; Lecewicz, M; Strzeżek, R; Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Fraser, L; Mogielnicka-Brzozowska, M; Kordan, W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of storage of semen in different commercial extenders on the pre-freezing and post-thawing quality of boar spermatozoa. Semen was diluted in BTS, Androhep (AH) and Gedil (GD), stored for 24 h at 17°C, and then frozen in accordance with the cryopreservation protocol. Analyses of the quality of spermatozoa included: motility, normal apical ridge (NAR) acrosome, plasma membrane integrity (PMI), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), measurements of ATP content and activity of superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Prior to the freezing process, no significant effect of the extender on the sperm quality parameters was noted. After thawing the spermatozoa it was demonstrated that the type of extender used influenced PMI, MMP, ATP content and activity of GPx. In the AH extender the percentage of spermatozoa with PMI and ATP content in spermatozoa was significantly higher (P<0.05) as compared to the BTS or GD extenders. In addition, semen stored in the AH was characterised by a statistically higher (P<0.05) percentage of spermatozoa with MMP and increased activity of GPx as compared with the BTS. The results obtained indicate that for the cryopreservation process, boar spermatozoa stored for 24 hours in liquid state can be used. However, the type of extender used prior to freezing may have a significant effect on the post-thawing quality of the spermatozoa. The AH extender better secured the quality of thawed boar spermatozoa as compared with the BTS or GD. PMID:26812814

  13. In vivo validation of in vitro quality tests for cryopreserved honey bee semen.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jakob; May, Tanja; Knollmann, Ulrich; Kamp, Günter; Müller, Karin; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2012-10-01

    Development of cryopreservation protocols for honey bee semen is hampered by the lack of validated laboratory tests that allow the prediction of in vivo performance of frozen-thawed semen. Here we analyzed correlations between seven in vitro tests and indicators of semen performance after insemination. These tests included measures of motility, cell conformation, and membrane permeability before and after exposure to physiochemical stress. We show that the proposed protocol for motility measurement yields results that correlate well with the number of sperm reaching the storage organ of queens (correlation coefficient ρ=0.67) and the proportion of viable eggs in inseminated queens (ρ=0.48). The conventional live/dead assay of membrane permeability by dual fluorescent staining and a new test based on the leakage of the glycolytic enzyme glucose-phosphate-isomerase (GPI) from damaged cells were also correlated to the number of sperm reaching the spermatheca (ρ=0.54 and -0.61, respectively). We conclude that motility, live/dead-staining and the assay for GPI-leakage are valuable tools for the improvement of cryopreservation of honey bee semen. PMID:22575668

  14. The effect of nocturnal sampling on semen quality and the efficiency of collection in bovine species.

    PubMed

    Yates, Jennifer H; Chandler, John E; Canal, Anita L; Braden Paul, J

    2003-12-01

    This study evaluated night and day semen collection regimes in Holstein and Brahman bulls (four bulls of each breed) that were collected weekly, each during a morning and a night collection. Ejaculates (n=64) were obtained via artificial vagina over 4 weeks. The first collection of each week alternated between night and day. Two collection teams were employed. Bull behavior parameters included reaction time to first mount, time to ejaculation, a refractory period test, and a thrust intensity test. The numbers of interruptions were counted as a managerial parameter. Pre-freeze semen parameters included total volume, initial motility and concentration. Post-freeze semen parameters measured were: 0- and 3-h post-thaw motility; percent intact acrosomes; and percent sperm abnormalities. Data were analyzed by least squares methods. The bull within breed effect differed (P<0.05) for behavior parameters. The bull within breed effect for total motile sperm harvested was not significant. The bull within breed response was mixed for post-freeze semen viability parameters. Bull within breed was not significant for sperm abnormalities. The night versus day treatment was significant for the managerial parameter (P=0.002). Although a different collection schedule for Bos indicus cattle was not warranted, the efficiency of the collection process was affected by extraneous environmental conditions. PMID:14580649

  15. Reproductive technologies and the quality of offspring in Asia: reproductive pioneering and moral pragmatism?

    PubMed

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2010-02-01

    This paper highlights a number of theoretical issues relevant to this special issue of Culture, Health & Sexuality on the quality of offspring, including gender selection, ecofeminism, eugenics, reproductive agency, moral pioneering and reproductive pragmatism in China, India and Japan. First, it discusses various approaches to choice in sex selection, focusing on an instrumentalist and an ecofeminist approach. Second, it discusses issues of reproductive choice in the light of various concepts of eugenics and power, which have been used to characterise the relationship between the state, the individual and prenatal genetic testing. Third, it queries Foucault's notion of biopower in relation to reproductive agency. In reviewing the evidence, the chapter raises questions about how women and parents in Asian societies can be understood in terms of 'reproductive pragmatism', 'empowerment' and/or 'moral pioneering' when faced with the use of new reproductive technologies in modern societies. PMID:19499397

  16. Therapeutic effects of vitamin E supplementation in 4 dogs with poor semen quality and low superoxide dismutase activity in seminal plasma

    PubMed Central

    KAWAKAMI, Eiichi; KOBAYASHI, Masanori; HORI, Tatsuya; KANEDA, Takeharu

    2015-01-01

    Four dogs with poor semen quality, low seminal plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and low blood plasma testosterone (T) levels were orally administered one vitamin E tablet containing 50 mg α-tocopheryl acetate per dog daily for 4 weeks. The mean values of semen quality were temporarily improved after the start of vitamin E treatment and the values of 4, and 5 weeks after that were significantly different from those before the treatment (P<0.05–0.001). The mean blood plasma T and seminal plasma SOD activity values slightly increased in the 4 dogs after the treatment. The results of the present study indicate that poor semen quality in dogs with low seminal plasma SOD can be improved by vitamin E treatment. PMID:26234739

  17. Analysis of PAEs in semen of infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Yuan; Wang, Yu; Xie, Fang-Qin; Li, Yan-Xing; Wan, Xue-Lian; Ma, Wei-Wei; Wang, De-Cai; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Phthalates are environmental chemicals with reproductive toxicity and estrogenic effects in animals. They are of increasing concern to human health. Aim: To determine whether phthalate levels in semen were associated with infertility. Methods: Using semen samples from 107 infertile and 94 fertile men, the presence and quantity of five phthalate esters were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using data collected from questionnaires and clinical examinations, the correlation between phthalate exposure and semen quality was analyzed. Results: The cumulative levels of the measured phthalate esters were significantly higher in the infertility group compared to the control group (P<0·05). Concentrations of the five phthalate esters in men varied by age with older men showing higher cumulative levels. Conclusions: The presence of phthalates may contribute to male infertility in our study population. PMID:25384258

  18. Interaction of selenium with cadmium and mercury in semen and reproductive tissues: in vivo and in vitro studies

    SciTech Connect

    Alabi, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the metabolism of selenium (Se), and the influences of Se on the metabolism of cadmium (Cd) and inorganic mercury (Hg) in rats, and in ram semen in vitro. Se-deficient (-Se) or Se-adequate (+Se) rats were injected intraperitoneally with either /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ or /sup 203/HgNO/sub 3/. Semen ejaculates from yearling Suffolk rams were used for the in vitro studies. Whole-body retention of Cd and Hg in rats was significantly increased by Se. However, regardless of the Se status, the predominant route of Cd and Hg excretion was feces. Data on whole tissue Cd retention for both -Se and +Se rats gave the following order of decreasing tissue Cd levels: liver > kidney > testis > epididymis > seminal vesicles > prostate > brain. Cd and Hg concentrations ranging from 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -2/ M were shown to be injurious to ram sperm in vitro as indicated by the depressed motility and reduced oxygen uptake.

  19. Cryopreservation of turkey semen: effect of breeding line and freezing method on post-thaw sperm quality, fertilization, and hatching.

    PubMed

    Long, Julie A; Purdy, Phillip H; Zuidberg, Kees; Hiemstra, Sipke-Joost; Velleman, Sandra G; Woelders, Henri

    2014-06-01

    Cryopreservation methods for poultry semen are not reliable for germplasm preservation, especially for turkeys, where fertility rates from frozen/thawed semen are particularly low. The objective was to evaluate cryopreservation methods for effectiveness in promoting cryosurvival and post-thaw function of sperm from five turkey lines: one commercial line and four research (RBC1; E; RBC2; F) lines from Ohio State University (OSU). The model for cryopreservation was set up as a 2×2×2×5 design for cryoprotectant (glycerol or dimethylacetamide (DMA)), cryopreservation medium (Lake or ASG), method of dilution (fixed dilution volume versus fixed sperm concentration) and turkey line, respectively. The final cryoprotectant concentrations were 11% glycerol or 6% DMA. Thawed sperm were evaluated for plasma membrane integrity and quality, motility, acrosome integrity and, after artificial insemination, for egg fertility and hatchability. Commercial turkey hens were used for all fertility trials, regardless of semen source. Turkey sperm frozen with glycerol exhibited higher membrane integrity and membrane quality upon thawing than turkey sperm frozen with DMA although no differences in total motility, and only minimal differences in progressive motility, were detected among the eight cryopreservation treatments. Within line, fertility was affected by cryoprotectant, medium and dilution method, where the overall highest percentages of fertile, viable embryos (Day 7) occurred for the DMA/ASG/fixed sperm concentration method, while high percentages (15.8-31.5%) of fertile, non-viable embryos (Day 1-6) were observed for multiple cryopreservation methods, including two glycerol treatments. From a single insemination, the duration of true and viable fertility in all lines was 10-13 weeks and 9-10 weeks, respectively. The duration of hatchability was 4-6 weeks after insemination for four of the turkey lines. The highest percentage of viable embryos was observed for the commercial

  20. Semen Quality and Sperm DNA Damage in Relation to Urinary Bisphenol A among Men from an Infertility Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.; Ehrlich, Shelley; Toth, Thomas L.; Wright, Diane L.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Trisini, Ana T.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Hauser, Russ

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) impairs spermatogenesis in animals, but human studies are lacking. We measured urinary BPA concentrations, semen quality, and sperm DNA damage (comet assay) in 190 men recruited through an infertility clinic. BPA was detected in 89% of samples, with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) concentration of 1.3 (0.8 – 2.5) ng/mL. Urinary BPA concentration was associated with slightly elevated, though not statistically significant, odds for below reference sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. When modeled as continuous dependent variables, an IQR increase in urinary BPA concentration was associated with declines in sperm concentration, motility, and morphology of 23% (95%CI –40%, -0.3%), 7.5% (-17%, +1.5%), and 13% (-26%, -0.1%), respectively, along with a 10% (0.03%, 19%) increase in sperm DNA damage measured as the percentage of DNA in comet tail. In conclusion, urinary BPA may be associated with declined semen quality and increased sperm DNA damage, but confirmatory studies are needed. PMID:20656017

  1. Semen quality detection using time of flight and acoustic wave sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, M. I.; Evans, C. R.; Simons, J. J.; Hughes, D. C.

    2007-04-01

    The authors report a real-time technique for assessing the number of motile sperm in a semen sample. The time of flight technique uses a flow channel with detection at the end of the channel using quartz crystal microbalances. Data presented suggest that a simple rigid mass model may be used in interpreting the change in resonant frequency using an effective mass for the sperm.

  2. Semen quality detection using time of flight and acoustic wave sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M. I.; Evans, C. R.; Simons, J. J.; Hughes, D. C.

    2007-04-09

    The authors report a real-time technique for assessing the number of motile sperm in a semen sample. The time of flight technique uses a flow channel with detection at the end of the channel using quartz crystal microbalances. Data presented suggest that a simple rigid mass model may be used in interpreting the change in resonant frequency using an effective mass for the sperm.

  3. Effects of the platelet-activating factor (PAF) on selected quality parameters of cryopreserved bull semen (AI) with reduced sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Lecewicz, M; Kordan, W; Majewska, A; Kamiński, S; Dziekońska, A; Mietelska, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on selected quality parameters of cryopreserved bull semen with reduced sperm motility used for artificial insemination. The aim of experiment 1 was to identify the optimal concentration of the phospholipid able to preserve sperm viability. Cryopreserved semen was treated with different PAF concentrations: 1×10(-5) M, 1×10(-6) M, 1×10(-7) M, 1×10(-8) M and 1×10(-9) M. The experiment demonstrated that PAF at concentration 1×10(-9) M increased most the sperm viability parameters (motility parameters, plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial function) after 120 min of incubation of thawed semen at 37°C. Cryopreserved bull semen with reduced sperm motility (below 70%) was supplemented with PAF in a concentration of 1×10(-9) M. A statistically significant increase in sperm motility, percentage of linear motile spermatozoa and VSL value was observed after 120 min incubation of sperm with 1×10(-9) M PAF. Sperm supplementation with PAF also had positive effects on plasma membrane integrity and percentage of spermatozoa with preserved mitochondrial transmembrane potential, but the differences were not statistically significant. The results indicated positive effects of PAF supplementation at a concentration of 1×10(-9) M on the selected sperm quality parameters in cryopreserved bull semen with reduced motility. PMID:27096799

  4. Effects of Tinospora cordifolia supplementation on semen quality and hormonal profile in rams.

    PubMed

    Jayaganthan, P; Perumal, P; Balamurugan, T C; Verma, R P; Singh, L P; Pattanaik, A K; Kataria, Meena

    2013-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of dietary supplementation of Tinospora cordifolia on physico-morphological, biochemical, antioxidant profiles and serum testosterone concentration in Muzzafarnagari rams. Twelve rams were randomly divided into two groups, control (n=6) and supplemental (n=6) group. The control group was fed with a diet satisfying NRC recommendations whereas the supplemental group was fed with T. cordifolia at the rate of 1g/kg body weight for 6 months. The semen samples were collected 60 days post-feeding. The result revealed that T. cordifolia supplementation did not have a significant effect on physico-morphological, biochemical attributes of semen and serum testosterone concentrations in rams. The concentration of cholesterol, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were, however, increased (P<0.05) in seminal plasma. It was concluded that the possible protective effects of T. cordifolia supplementation were enhancing antioxidant enzymes and cholesterol concentrations in semen which may be protected the spermatozoa during cryopreservation and thus enhancing fertility in farm animals. PMID:23755935

  5. Semen Quality Improvement in a Man with Idiopathic Infertility Treated with Traditional Korean Medicine: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jo, Junyoung; Lee, Sun Haeng; Lee, Jin Moo; Jerng, Ui Min

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 45-50% of the cases of infertility result from deficiencies associated with male factors, and 30-45% of these deficiencies are idiopathic. A standardized approach for the treatment of idiopathic male infertility remains elusive. In Korea, male infertility has been treated with either acupuncture, herbal remedies, or pharmacopuncture. We report a case of male idiopathic infertility in which the patient's semen quality improved through traditional Korean medicine (TKM) therapies, which was evaluated according to the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) standards. A 35-year-old infertile man visited the Conmaul Hospital from August 2013 to December 2013. He was diagnosed with asthenoteratozoospermia. The patient received 3 TKM therapies-acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, and herbal remedies-for 3 months. After 3 months of treatment, a second semen analysis of the patient was conducted. The sperm motility increased by 13%, and the normal sperm morphology increased by 4% over 3 months. In addition, the total motile sperm count was 2.5 times higher than that before treatment. The results of the present study support the clinical potency of treatment with acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, and herbal remedies in idiopathic infertile men, especially for the improvement of sperm motility and morphology. Further large-scale randomized controlled trials with elaborate designs should be performed to verify the clinical effect of TKM therapies. PMID:26025007

  6. The effect of superoxide dismutase mimetic and catalase on the quality of postthawed goat semen.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Mojtaba; Forouzanfar, Mohsen; Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr

    2015-05-01

    Manganese(III) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin chloride (MnTE) is a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic agent which can convert superoxide to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Supplementation of MnTE to a commercial semen extender can protect sperm from superoxide but not H2O2. Therefore, we proposed that addition of catalase (0.0, 200, or 400 IU/mL) in combination with MnTE (0.1 μM) may further improve the cryopreservation efficiency of goat semen in commercially optimized freezing media such as Andromed. Therefore, ejaculates were obtained from three adult bucks twice a week during the breeding season and diluted with Andromed supplemented with or without MnTE and catalase and were frozen in liquid nitrogen. Sperm parameters and reactive oxygen species contents were evaluated 2 hours after dilution (before freezing) and after freezing/thawing. The results revealed that all the treatments significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved sperm motility, viability, and membrane integrity after freezing and reduced reactive oxygen species content compared with the control group, but maximum improvement was obtained in MnTE + 400 IU/mL catalase. In addition, supplementation with these antioxidants significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increases the cleavage rate after IVF. In conclusion, the results of present study suggest that addition of antioxidant MnTE or catalase to commercial optimized media, such as Andromed, improves total motility, membrane integrity, and viability of goat semen samples after thawing. But the degree of improvement for these parameters significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher when MnTE and catalase were simultaneously added to the cryopreservation media. PMID:25698161

  7. Effect of environmental pollutants on human semen

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, S.

    1988-01-01

    With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of health effects of polluted environment must be made for maintaining and enhancing the quality of human life on this earth. Significant number of malformed children are born each year. Sixty-five to 70% of all birth defects have an unknown etiology. More than one-third of early human conception and up to 15% of recognized pregnancies are terminated by spontaneous abortion. The extent of the effect of environmental pollution on human reproductive performance is for the most part unknown. Of the approximately five million chemicals in existence, humans could be expose to a sufficient quantity of an estimated 53,000 for toxicity to be of potential problem. Methods that do not require autopsy or surgery such as semen analysis would be attractive for assessing the effect of environmental toxicology on quality of human life. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the effects of heavily polluted environment of industrial area of Ludhiana and relatively clean, pollution free environment of Chandigarh on the human semen quality. It was believed that the function of the male reproductive system may often be the most sensitive to toxic effects.

  8. Semen Quality, Hormonal Levels, and Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in a Population of Young Male Volunteers from Two Different Regions of Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kamieniczna, Marzena; Fraczek, Monika; Malcher, Agnieszka; Rozwadowska, Natalia; Czernikiewicz, Anna; Jedrzejczak, Piotr; Semczuk, Marian; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Background The population of healthy Polish men has not been frequently and systematically investigated for fertility status. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of semen in a randomly recruited population of young males. The most important task was to find a relationship between semen parameters, sex hormones, and AR gene polymorphism. Material/Methods Semen and blood samples from young men from the Poznan (n=113) and Lublin regions (n=89) were collected for semen analysis, assessment of hormonal concentrations, and calculation of the CAG and GGN repeats of the AR gene. Results Statistical comparisons of the hormones and circulating proteins and the seminological parameters revealed significant differences between the regional groups of males studied. Among the correlations found, we emphasize the positive relationship between inhibin B levels and both the number of spermatozoa per ml (R=0.37; p=0.0001) and the total sperm concentration (R=0.40; p=0.00003). Positive correlations between IGF1 and sperm morphology was also found (R=0.40; p=0.000004). The mean number of CAG repeats in our tested groups was 21.93±2.79, in a range from 16 to 31. The mean number of GGN repeats was 23.2±1.66 and ranged from 16 to 29. Numerous significant correlations were found between CAG or GGN repeats and blood hormones or circulating proteins and semen parameters; however, Spearman’s rank correlations revealed rather weak coefficients. Conclusions This report attempted to determine the quality of semen samples and sex hormones in a population of Polish young men. The results were found to be similar to data obtained in Scandinavia. The calculated means and range of CAG or GGN repeats of the AR gene in Polish males were similar to West European epidemiological data. PMID:26299772

  9. Effect of natural betaine on estimates of semen quality in mature AI boars during summer heat stress.

    PubMed

    Cabezón, F A; Stewart, K R; Schinckel, A P; Barnes, W; Boyd, R D; Wilcock, P; Woodliff, J

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of supplemental dietary betaine at three concentrations (0.0%, 0.63% and 1.26%) on semen characteristics, quality and quality after storage on boars. The trial was conducted between 22 July and 1 October 2014 in a boar stud located in Oklahoma. Boars were blocked by age within genetic line and randomly allotted to receive 0% (CON, n (line T)=22, n (line L)=10), 0.63% (BET-0.63%, n (line T)=21, n (line L)=6) or 1.26% (BET-1.26%, n (line T)=23, n (line L)=7). The diets containing betaine were fed over 10 weeks, to ensure supplemental betaine product (96% betaine) daily intakes of 16.34 and 32.68g, for the BET-0.63% and BET-1.26% diets, respectively. Serum homocysteine concentrations were less for animals with betaine treatments (P=0.016). Rectal temperatures of the boars were unaffected by betaine diets. Betaine tended to increase total sperm in the ejaculates when collectively compared with data of the control animals (P=0.093). Sperm morphology analysis indicated there was a greater percent of sperm with distal midpiece reflex (P=0.009) and tail (P=0.035) abnormalities in boars fed the BET-1.26% than boars fed the BET-0.63% diet. Betaine concentration in the seminal plasma was greater in boars with betaine treatments, with animals being fed the 0.63% and 1.26% diets having 59.2% and 54.5% greater betaine concentrations in seminal plasma as compared with boars of the control group (P=0.046). In conclusion, betaine supplementation at 0.63% and 1.26% tended to increase sperm concentration in the ejaculates by 6% and 13%, respectively, with no negative impacts on semen quality when 0.63% of betaine was included in the diet. PMID:27095614

  10. Semen analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... The following things will be evaluated: How the semen thickens into a solid and turns to liquid Fluid thickness, acidity, and sugar content Resistance to flow (viscosity) Movement of the sperm (motility) Number and structure ...

  11. Effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E on ganders' response to semen collection and ejaculate characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jerysz, Anna; Lukaszewicz, Ewa

    2013-06-01

    Compared to other domestic bird species, geese exhibit the lowest reproductive efficiency (poor semen quality, low egg production, and poor fertility and hatchability rates). From an economic perspective, it is a necessity of improve these reproductive traits. Studies have demonstrated that the essential trace element-selenium-plays key roles in testicular development and the maintenance of spermatogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of feed supplementation with organic selenium and vitamin E on ganders' response to manual semen collection and semen quality. Sixteen 3-year-old White Koluda ganders were randomly divided into two groups. The control group was provided commercial feed while the experimental group was provided with the same commercial feed supplemented with selenium (0.3 mg/kg) and vitamin E (100 mg/kg). The response of individual ganders from both groups to manual semen collection and the quality of the semen collected were evaluated. The supplements increased (P ≤ 0.05) the frequency and decreased the time interval of a complete ejaculatory response of the ganders to manual semen collections (82.7 % supplement vs. 73.5 % control). Males from the supplemented group had significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01; P ≤ 0.05) ejaculate volumes, sperm concentrations, and percentages of viable sperm and lower percentages of immature sperm (spermatids). Lipids peroxidation, expressed in terms of the malondialdehyde concentration, was lower (P ≤ 0.01) in semen of the supplemented group (0.172 nmol/50 × 10(6)) as compared to the controls (0.320 nmol/50 × 10(6)). Moreover, the duration of the reproductive period of the ganders in the experimental group was 1 week longer. The results show that supplemental dietary selenium and vitamin E improved both the ganders' response to manual semen collection and semen quality. We conclude that such feed supplementation could lead to greater economic benefits

  12. Studies on the accessory reproductive organs in the drake. 1. Addition to semen on the fluid from the ejaculatory groove region.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, H; Nakashima, N; Fujihara, N

    1976-01-01

    This study was performed to clarify whether the semen from the vasa deferentia is diluted with a fluid before ejaculation and to locate the ejecting region of the fluid. Vas deferens semen, ejaculated semen and the fluid ejected from the ejaculatory groove region were obtained from the drake and their characteristics were determined. The mean concentration of ejaculated semen, 9.46 millions/mm.3, was nearly half as much as that of ampulla semen (semen contained in the dilated portion of the vasa deferentia; 20.40 millions/mm.3), and the former had positive aldose color reaction in contrast with complete negative reaction in the latter, suggesting that ampulla semen might be diluted twofold with a fluid containing aldose before ejaculation. The aldose positive fluid was observed to be ejected from the ejaculatory grove region of the cloaca and it could be collected from the vasectomized drake using an artificial vagina. Thus, the ejaculated semen of the drake, about 0.4 ml. in volume, was considered to be a mixture of the semen ejected from the vasa deferentia (estimated to be about 0.2 ml.) and the fluid ejected from the ejaculatory groove region (about 0.2 ml.). The pH value, glucose content and electrophoretic pattern of protein of the ejecting fluid were similar to that of blood plasma, and it was assumed that the fluid might be a fluid of blood origin. PMID:934986

  13. Helium-neon laser irradiation of cryopreserved ram sperm enhances cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP levels improving semen quality.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, N; Paventi, G; Pizzuto, R; Di Iorio, M; Bailey, J L; Manchisi, A; Passarella, S

    2016-08-01

    This study examines whether and how helium-neon laser irradiation (at fluences of 3.96-9 J/cm(2)) of cryopreserved ram sperm helps improve semen quality. Pools (n = 7) of cryopreserved ram sperm were divided into four aliquots and subjected to the treatments: no irradiation (control) or irradiation with three different energy doses. After treatment, the thawed sperm samples were compared in terms of viability, mass and progressive sperm motility, osmotic resistance, as well as DNA and acrosome integrity. In response to irradiation at 6.12 J/cm(2), mass sperm motility, progressive motility and viability increased (P < 0.05), with no significant changes observed in the other investigated properties. In parallel, an increase (P < 0.05) in ATP content was detected in the 6.12 J/cm(2)-irradiated semen samples. Because mitochondria are the main cell photoreceptors with a major role played by cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the COX reaction was monitored using cytochrome c as a substrate in both control and irradiated samples. Laser treatment resulted in a general increase in COX affinity for its substrate as well as an increase in COX activity (Vmax values), the highest activity obtained for sperm samples irradiated at 6.12 J/cm(2) (P < 0.05). Interestingly, in these irradiated sperm samples, COX activity and ATP contents were positively correlated, and, more importantly, they also showed positive correlation with motility, suggesting that the improved sperm quality observed was related to mitochondria-laser light interactions. PMID:27036659

  14. Impact of stress on oocyte quality and reproductive outcome.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Shilpa; Tiwari, Meenakshi; Pandey, Ashutosh N; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2016-01-01

    Stress is an important factor that affects physical and mental status of a healthy person disturbing homeostasis of the body. Changes in the lifestyle are one of the major causes that lead to psychological stress. Psychological stress could impact the biology of female reproduction by targeting at the level of ovary, follicle and oocyte. The increased level of stress hormone such as cortisol reduces estradiol production possibly by affecting the granulosa cell functions within the follicle, which results deterioration in oocyte quality. Adaptation of lifestyle behaviours may generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the ovary, which further affects female reproduction. Balance between level of ROS and antioxidants within the ovary are important for maintenance of female reproductive health. Physiological level of ROS modulates oocyte functions, while its accumulation leads to oxidative stress (OS). OS triggers apoptosis in majority of germ cells within the ovary and even in ovulated oocytes. Although both mitochondria- as well as death-receptor pathways are involved in oocyte apoptosis, OS-induced mitochondria-mediated pathway plays a major role in the elimination of majority of germ cells from ovary. OS in the follicular fluid deteriorates oocyte quality and reduces reproductive outcome. On the other hand, antioxidants reduce ROS levels and protect against OS-mediated germ cell apoptosis and thereby depletion of germ cells from the ovary. Indeed, OS is one of the major factors that has a direct negative impact on oocyte quality and limits female reproductive outcome in several mammalian species including human. PMID:27026099

  15. Improvement of liquid and frozen-thawed semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) through supplementation of fat.

    PubMed

    Adeel, M; Ijaz, A; Aleem, M; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S; Jabbar, M A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary fat on quality of liquid and frozen-thawed semen of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Adult bulls (n=21) were fed a balanced ration (Con; n=7) or the same ration either containing sunflower oil (SF-O; n=7) or whole sunflower seeds (SF-S; n=7) for 63 days. Body weight and body condition score of each bull was recorded on days 0, 30 and 60 of the experiment. Semen was collected on days 39, 46, 53 and 60, frozen by a fast method and stored at -196 degrees C for 24h. Sperm motility was assessed using a bright field microscope. Plasma membrane integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa was assessed using a hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) assay. The concentration of spermatozoa and volume of semen was not different among groups on various days of collection. Sunflower-enriched diets did not affect the motility and number of HOS-positive spermatozoa in the fresh semen. Motility and HOS of post-thawed spermatozoa were higher (p<0.05) in bulls fed the sunflower-enriched diets. Similarly, diets did not affect the body condition score and body weight of bulls. In conclusion, feeding of sunflower oil or sunflower seed as fat sources can improve the quality of buffalo bull spermatozoa. PMID:19246083

  16. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: effects on semen quality and testicular changes.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M; Johnson, L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus bull calves of intratesticular administration of 1mL of either saline (n=9) or one of the two doses of zinc acetate (ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10 or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) on semen quality and testicular changes. Semen was collected by electroejaculation on Days 343, 524 and 783 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. Treatment reduced median maximum number of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm collected (P=0.001) and the percentage of animals in which sperm were recovered (saline: 100%, 9/9; ZA1: 44.9%, 4/9 and ZA2: 40.0%, 4/10; P=0.013). Compared to saline treated controls, treatment with ZA reduced the mean diameter of the testes after Day 34 of treatment (treatment×time, P=0.013) and total testicular weight at slaughter (treatment: mean±SEM; saline: 569.4±59.0g, ZA1: 249.3±72.9g, ZA2: 247.5±68.1g; P=0.004). Histological changes in testes of bulls treated with ZA were characterized by germ cell depletion, vacuolation of Sertoli cells, interstitial fibrosis, epididymal duct atrophy with variable remnants of testicular tissue and degeneration. We conclude that intratesticular administration of two doses of ZA in B. indicus calves is able to severely impair spermatogenesis and cause varying degrees of testicular degeneration and a reduction in testicular diameter and mass. Further investigation is required to determine ways of obtaining more consistent results from treatment. PMID:25752498

  17. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Boar Semen Quality After Long-term Refrigeration at 17°C.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Smp; Chaveiro, A; Moreira da Silva, F

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (10 trans, 12 cis) (CLA) on refrigerated boar sperm quality parameters up to 14 days at 17°C was assessed. Semen was extended in Androhep and divided into four treatments supplemented with CLA (25, 50, 100 and 200 μm) and control group, then kept for 2 h at 22°C. Afterwards an aliquot of each treatment was removed, and mitochondrial activity, viability, lipid membrane peroxidation (LPO) and stability of the sperm plasma membrane were assessed by flow cytometry. The remaining extended semen was maintained at 17°C until 336 h, repeating the same analysis every 48 h. Regarding percentage of live spermatozoa, no statistical differences were observed among treatments up to 96 h. After this time, viability decreased significantly (p < 0.05) for CLA concentrations of 100 and 200 μm. Despite these results, there was an individual response to CLA. Although in the control group, the boar A presented better results when compared with the other boars, especially at concentrations of 50 and 100 μm boar B showed significantly higher results (p < 0.05). Supplementation with CLA improved (p < 0.05) LPO, but not the mitochondrial membrane potential of sperm. The highest two CLA concentrations showed to be toxic for sperm as all results were lower than the observed for the control. In conclusion, CLA at 50 μm seems to be an efficient concentration for reducing the oxidative stress, decreasing LPO, maintaining viability, membrane stability and mitochondrial potential on refrigerated boar spermatozoa. PMID:25976112

  18. Relationship of conventional and fluorescent microscopic technique to assess in vitro semen quality status of Murrah buffalo males

    PubMed Central

    Shivahre, P. R; Gupta, A. K; Panmei, A; Yadav, B. R; Bhakat, M; Mohanty, T. K; Kumaresan, A; Kumar, V; Dash, S. K; Singh, S

    2015-01-01

    In vitro fertility assessment using fluorescent technique is a better predictor of fertility status of bulls as compared to traditional semen quality assessment techniques, therefore, the study was planned to assess in vitro fertility status of bulls based on conventional and fluorescent techniques. Seventy-three ejaculates were collected from 12 Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, NDRI, Karnal, India for the experiment and subjected to statistical analysis using SYSTAT. The mean values of ejaculate volume (ml), mass activity, individual motility (%), sperm concentration (millions/ml), live sperm (%), total abnormalities (%), HOST (%) and acrosomal integrity (%) were 2.70 ± 0.28, 2.8 ± 0.14, 63.8 ± 2.16, 1749.7 ± 122.24, 77.3 ± 2.48, 6.2 ± 0.51, 75.1 ± 1.81 and 84.5 ± 2.26, respectively. The repeatability estimates were significant (P<0.05) for ejaculate volume (0.34 ± 0.137), acrosomal integrity (0.29 ± 0.134) and live percentage (0.28 ± 0.133), indicating sufficient bull to bull variation for the parameters. The mean values of seminal attributes of fluorescent based criteria of CMA3 (Chromomycin A3), SYBR-PI and FITC-PNA (fluorescent isothiocynate-conjugated peanut agglutinin) were 5.25 ± 0.41, 67.91 ± 1.24 and 82.00 ± 1.25 percent, respectively. Bulls were ranked on the basis of expected producing ability (EPA) for semen characteristics assessed by conventional and fluorescent criteria. Rank correlations were found to be significant for FITC with most of the parameters evaluated by conventional methods. In conclusion, among the conventional criteria, individual motility (%) revealed ranking of bulls almost similar to that of fluorescent criteria. PMID:27175204

  19. Cryopreservation of turkey semen: effect of breeding line and freezing method on post-thaw sperm quality, fertilization, and hatching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation methods for poultry semen are not reliable for germplasm preservation, especially for turkeys, where fertility rates from frozen/thawed semen are particularly low. The objective was to evaluate cryopreservation methods for effectiveness in promoting cryosurvival and post-thaw funct...

  20. Quality assessment of wild Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) semen under conditions of short-term storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-term storage trials were conducted with Atlantic sturgeon semen collected from a total of nine wild males during the 2008 and 2009 spawning seasons on the Hudson River. Semen samples were kept refrigerated (4 plus or minus 1 degree C) and stored in different gaseous atmospheres and storage ext...

  1. SEMEN QUALITY AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH OF YOUNG CZECH MEN EXPOSED TO SEASONAL AIR POLLUTION (R827019)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. Effects of cell phone use on semen parameters: Results from the MARHCS cohort study in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guowei; Yan, Huan; Chen, Qing; Liu, Kaijun; Ling, Xi; Sun, Lei; Zhou, Niya; Wang, Zhi; Zou, Peng; Wang, Xiaogang; Tan, Lu; Cui, Zhihong; Zhou, Ziyuan; Liu, Jinyi; Ao, Lin; Cao, Jia

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence for detrimental effects of cell phone use on semen quality is still equivocal. And that recruiting participants from infertility clinic not from general population may raise the possibility of a selection bias. To investigate effects of cell phone use on semen parameters in a general population,We screened and documented the cell phone use information of 794 young men from the Male Reproductive Health in Chongqing College students (MARHCS) cohort study in 2013, followed by 666 and 568 in 2014 and 2015, respectively. In the univariate regression analyses, we found that the daily duration of talking on the cell phone was significantly associated with decreased semen parameters, including sperm concentration [β coefficient=-6.32% per unit daily duration of talking on the cell phone (h); 95% confidence interval (CI), -11.94, -0.34] and total sperm count (-8.23; 95% CI, -14.38, -1.63) in 2013; semen volume (-8.37; 95% CI, -15.93, -0.13) and total sperm count (-16.59; 95% CI, -29.91, -0.73) in 2015]. Internet use via cellular networks was also associated with decreased sperm concentration and total sperm counts in 2013 and decreased semen volume in 2015. Multivariate analyses were used to adjust for the effects of potential confounders, and significant negative associations between internet use and semen parameters remained. Consistent but nonsignificant negative associations between talking on the cell phone and semen parameters persisted throughout the three study years, and the negative association was statistically significant in a mixed model that considered all three years of data on talking on the cell phone and semen quality. Our results showed that certain aspects of cell phone use may negatively affect sperm quality in men by decreasing the semen volume, sperm concentration, or sperm count, thus impairing male fertility. PMID:26949865

  3. EVALUATION OF CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE AND DNA INTEGRITY IN SPERM: AN INVESTIGATION OF REMOTE SEMEN COLLECTION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Home collection of ejaculated semen would facilitate participation rates and geographic diversity in reproductive epidemiology studies. Our study addressed concerns that home collection and overnight mail return might induce chromosome/DNA damage. We collected semen from 10 hea...

  4. Experience with ISO quality control in assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Alper, Michael M

    2013-12-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) programs are complex organizations requiring the integration of multiple disciplines. ISO 9001:2008 is a quality management system that is readily adaptable to an ART program. The value that ISO brings to the entire organization includes control of documents, clear delineation of responsibilities of staff members, documentation of the numerous processes and procedures, improvement in tracking and reducing errors, and overall better control of systems. A quality ART program sets quality objectives and monitors their progress. ISO provides a sense of transparency within the organization and clearer understanding of how service is provided to patients. Most importantly, ISO provides the framework to allow for continual improvement. PMID:24112531

  5. Semen Contains Vitality and Heredity, Not Germs’: Seminal Discourse in the AIDS Era

    PubMed Central

    Hudson-Rodd, Nancy; Saggers, Sherry; Bhuiyan, Mahbubul Islam; Bhuiya, Abbas; Karim, Syed Afzalul; Rauyajin, Oratai

    2006-01-01

    Perspectives of public health generally ignore culture-bound sexual health concerns, such as semen loss, and primarily attempt to eradicate sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Like in many other countries, sexual health concerns of men in Bangladesh have also received less attention compared to STIs in the era of AIDS. This paper describes the meanings of non-STI sexual health concerns, particularly semen loss, in the masculinity framework. In a qualitative study on male sexuality, 50 men, aged 18–55 years, from diverse sociodemographic backgrounds and 10 healthcare practitioners were interviewed. Men considered semen the most powerful and vital body fluid representing their sexual performance and reproductive ability. Rather than recognizing the vulnerability to transmission of STIs, concerns about semen were grounded in the desire of men to preserve and nourish seminal vitality. Traditional practitioners supported semen loss as a major sexual health concern where male heritage configures male sexuality in a patriarchal society. Currently, operating HIV interventions in the framework of disease and death may not ensure participation of men in reproductive and sexual health programmes and is, therefore, less likely to improve the quality of sexual life of men and women. PMID:17591339

  6. Survival capacity of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp capri in the diluted semen of goat bucks and their effects on sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Martín, A; Uc, N; Vieira, L A; Gadea, J; Cadenas, J; Sánchez, A; De la Fe, C

    2015-03-15

    This study examines the viability of Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp capri (Mmc) during 150 minutes of incubation at 37 °C in contaminated diluted semen (DS) doses. The effects of the presence of both microorganisms on sperm viability, motility, and morphology were also examined. In a second experiment, the viability of Ma and its effects on sperm viability were determined in ejaculate samples and skimmed milk semen extender samples. Ma and Mmc were able to survive in DS at concentrations considered infectious, and no significant differences in mean concentrations were detected (7.1 log colony-forming units [CFU]/mL). However, initial concentration of Ma declined (P < 0.05) from 7.5 to 6.9 log CFU/mL and Mmc declined (P < 0.05) from 7.7 to 7.1 log CFU/mL after incubation. Conversely, ejaculate concentrations of Ma increased significantly (from 7.1 to 7.4 log CFU/mL, P < 0.05). These observations suggest that the natural breeding medium is more suitable for Ma than the medium used for artificial insemination (AI). The presence of Mmc slightly reduced sperm viability in the DS (from 21.7% to 16.6%, P < 0.05). The absence of major effects on sperm quality could lead to the unnoticed use of semen contaminated with Ma and Mmc for AI. As both bacteria were able to survive the conditions of ejaculates and semen doses, these findings suggest a risk of venereal transmission of contagious agalactia and support the use of mycoplasma-free semen samples for (AI). PMID:25543157

  7. Preliminary study on effects of bovine frozen semen storage using a liquid nitrogen-independent method on the quality of post-thaw spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Buranaamnuay, K; Seesuwan, K; Saikhun, K

    2016-09-01

    Frozen semen of eight bulls was used to assess effects of storage temperature and length of storage time on frozen-thawed bovine sperm quality. In experiment 1, 25 straws of frozen semen of each bull were allocated to 3 groups. The control was still maintained in liquid nitrogen (LN2). The rest were abruptly moved from LN2 to -80°C and -30°C mechanical freezers, respectively. After thawing, it was found that the sperm motility, vitality and membrane integrity were comparable (P>0.05) between the control and the -80°C samples and were significantly inferior (P<0.001) in the -30°C samples, irrespective of storage time (1-day, 1-week and 1-month). In experiment 2, two out of the three parts (16-18 straws) of frozen semen of each bull were rapidly removed from LN2 and further kept in the freezer (-80°C). One day before being thawed, half of the samples in the freezer were promptly put back to LN2. The results showed that the frozen-thawed sperm quality was not significantly affected (P>0.05) both by storage temperature (-196°C, -80°C and -80 & -196°C) and storage time [day-2, day-8 (1-week) and day-31 (1-month)]. At the same storage times, the quality measures at different temperatures were not significantly different from one another (P>0.05). In conclusion, a -80°C mechanical freezer was as effective as LN2 in preserving in vitro quality of frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa throughout 1-month of storage. When required for use, frozen semen stored in the freezer could be thawed immediately or transferred to the LN2 tank for thawing elsewhere. PMID:27421230

  8. Withania somnifera improves semen quality by combating oxidative stress and cell death and improving essential metal concentrations.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kamla Kant; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Mishra, Vivek; Rajender, Singh; Sankhwar, Satya Narain; Patel, Devender; Das, Mukul

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 3-month treatment with Withania somnifera on apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration of spermatozoa and the metal ions copper, zinc, iron and gold in seminal plasma from infertile men (normozoospermic, n=25; oligozoospermic, n=25; and asthenozoospermic, n=25). The apoptotic and necrotic cell distribution were analysed by annexin-V binding and propidium iodide uptake using flow cytometry. ROS generation was measured by fluorescence intensity and metal ions were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results demonstrated that, prior to treatment, sperm apoptosis and intracellular ROS concentrations were significantly higher in all groups of infertile men compared with controls (P<0.01 to P<0.001). Similarly, the concentrations of the essential metal ions Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(2+) and Au(2+) in seminal plasma were lower. Treatment with W. somnifera significantly reduced apoptosis in normozoospermic and oligozoospermic men and ROS concentrations in oligozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men (all P<0.05). Treatment also significantly improved metal ion concentrations in infertile men (P<0.01). It is concluded that W. somnifera improves semen quality by reducing oxidative stress and cell death, as well as improving essential metal ion concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 3-month treatment with Withania somnifera on apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration in spermatozoa from infertile men. Before and following treatment, sperm apoptosis and concentrations of intracellular ROS and the metal ions copper, zinc, iron, and gold in seminal plasma were measured. The apoptotic and necrotic cell distribution were analysed by annexin-V binding and propidium iodide uptake using flow cytometry. ROS generation was measured by fluorescence intensity and metal ions were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results

  9. Dairy intake and semen quality among men attending a fertility clinic

    PubMed Central

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Bridges, Naima D; Williams, Paige L; Gaskins, Audrey J; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Petrozza, John C; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between dairy food intake and semen parameters Design Longitudinal study Setting Men attending academic medical center fertility clinic in Boston, MA Patients 155 men Interventions None Main Outcome Measures total sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility, and morphology Results Low-fat dairy intake was positively related to sperm concentration and progressive motility. On average, men in the highest quartile of intake (1.22–3.54 servings/day) had 33% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1, 55) higher sperm concentration and 9.3 (95%CI 1.4, 17.2) percentage units higher sperm motility than men in the lowest quartile of intake (≤0.28 servings/day). These associations were primarily explained by intake of low-fat milk. The corresponding results for low-fat milk were 30% (95%CI 1,51) higher sperm concentration and 8.7 (95%CI 3.0, 14.4) percentage units higher sperm motility. Cheese intake was associated with lower sperm concentration among ever smokers. In this group, men in the highest tertile of intake (0.82–2.43 servings/day) had 53.2% (95%CI 9.7, 75.7) lower sperm concentration than men in the lowest tertile of cheese intake (<0.43 servings/day). Conclusions Our findings suggest that low-fat dairy intake, particularly low-fat milk, is related to higher sperm concentration and progressive motility, while cheese intake to lower sperm concentration among past or current smokers. PMID:24636397

  10. Investigation into the impact of tone reproduction on the perceived image quality of fine art reproductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnand, Susan; Jiang, Jun; Frey, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    A project, supported by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, evaluating current practices in fine art image reproduction, determining the image quality generally achievable, and establishing a suggested framework for art image interchange was recently completed. (Information regarding the Mellon project and related work may be found at www.artimaging.rit.edu.) To determine the image quality currently being achieved, experimentation was conducted in which a set of objective targets and pieces of artwork in various media were imaged by participating museums and other cultural heritage institutions. Prints and images for display made from the delivered image files at the Rochester Institute of Technology were used as stimuli in psychometric testing in which observers were asked to evaluate the prints as reproductions of the original artwork and as stand alone images. The results indicated that there were limited differences between assessments made with and without the original present for printed reproductions. For displayed images, the differences were more significant with lower contrast images being ranked lower and higher contrast images generally ranked higher when the original was not present. This was true for experiments conducted both in a dimly lit laboratory as well as via the web, indicating that more than viewing conditions were driving this shift.

  11. 1-Hydroxypyrene as a biomarker for assessing the effects of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on semen quality and sperm DNA integrity.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Chao, Mu-Rong

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess whether urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) could serve as a biomarker to assess the effect of PAHs on cellular and molecular changes of sperm. Urine and semen samples were collected from a total of 65 healthy coke oven workers. Sperm quality parameters (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology) and semen integrity (DNA fragmentation, 8-oxodGuo, bulky DNA adducts) were analyzed. Sixteen (16) targeted PAHs at the personal breathing zone area were monitored and quantified. Results showed that urinary 1-OHP positively correlated with measured levels of 16 targeted PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP did not significantly correlate with semen quality; however, PAHs with heavy molecular weight, e.g., benzo(g,h,i)perylene and benzo(k)fluoranthene, negatively correlated with morphology and motility of sperms (p = 0.02 and 0.002, p = 0.04 and 0.04, respectively). Urinary 1-OHP positively correlated with the level of 8-oxodGuo and bulky DNA adducts, but not DNA fragmentation. Urinary 1-OHP was a suitable biomarker for an estimate of biologically effective doses of PAH exposure. However, urinary 1-OHP may not be sufficient as a biomarker to assess both cellular and molecular changes of sperm induced by PAHs. PMID:23043336

  12. Effects of oocyte quality, semen donor and embryo co-culture system on the efficiency of blastocyst production in goats.

    PubMed

    Katska-Ksiazkiewicz, L; Opiela, J; Ryńska, B

    2007-09-15

    The aim of the study was to determine whether the selection of immature oocytes by a combination of cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) morphology and staining with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) would be helpful in selecting developmentally competent oocytes, and thereby increase the efficiency of blastocyst production from ovarian oocytes of FSH-primed, adult goats. In a second experiment the interaction between oocyte quality and semen donor was assessed. In a third experiment the usefulness of Vero cells for co-culture with goat embryos was investigated. In the pool of morphologically normal COCs recovered from ovaries following slicing (21.9+/-11.0), the mean rate of COCs classified as BCB+ was 85.6%, and the BCB- was approximately 11%. Oocytes classified as grade 1 and BCB+ exhibited the highest developmental competence (P<0.001) after in vitro maturation and fertilization compared with oocytes of grade 1 BCB- and grade 2 BCB+ or BCB-. There were no significant differences in developmental competence in grade 2 oocytes, regardless of BCB coloration. No significant differences in embryo cleavage and blastocyst formation rates among three bucks were observed when morphologically normal, BCB+ oocytes were used. For all tested bucks, differences in embryo production efficiency were related only to the oocyte quality. Similar blastocyst rates were developed from embryos co-cultured with goat oviduct epithelial cells (34.3%) and with Vero cells (33.3%). These results show that the most important criterion for selection of COCs before maturation is the visual assessment of morphological features. Staining with BCB of COCs recovered from adult goats does not enhance efficiency of selection of developmentally competent oocytes for IVF. PMID:17651793

  13. Age-dependent changes in sperm production, semen quality, and testicular volume in the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes).

    PubMed

    Wolf, K N; Wildt, D E; Vargas, A; Marinari, P E; Kreeger, J S; Ottinger, M A; Howard, J G

    2000-07-01

    The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), which was extirpated from its native North American prairie habitat during the 1980s, is being reintroduced to the wild because of a successful captive-breeding program. To enhance propagation, the reproductive biology of this endangered species is being studied intensively. The typical life span of the black-footed ferret is approximately 7 yr. Female fecundity declines after 3 yr of age, but the influence of age on male reproduction is unknown. In this study, testis volume, seminal traits, sperm morphology, and serum testosterone were compared in 116 males from 1 to 7 yr of age living in captivity. Results demonstrated that testes volume during the peak breeding season was similar (P > 0.05) among males 1 to 5 yr of age, reduced (P < 0.05) among males 6 yr of age, and further reduced (P < 0.05) among males 7 yr of age. Motile sperm/ejaculate was similar in males 1 to 6 yr of age but diminished (P < 0.05) in those 7 yr of age. Males at 6 and 7 yr of age produced fewer (P < 0.05) structurally normal sperm than younger counterparts; however, serum testosterone concentrations were not reduced (P > 0.05) in older males. Histological comparison of testicular/epididymal tissue from 5- and 7-yr-old black-footed ferrets confirmed that the interval between these two ages may represent a transitional period to reproductive senescence. In summary, functional reproductive capacity of male black-footed ferrets exceeds that of females by at least 2 yr. Testes and seminal quality are indistinguishable among males 1 to 5 yr of age, with progressive reproductive aging occurring thereafter. PMID:10859258

  14. Donor insemination: the gifting and selling of semen.

    PubMed

    Daniels, K R; Lewis, G M

    1996-06-01

    The authors examine the implications for individuals and society of how semen is provided for use in donor insemination treatment. In particular, they focus on whether 'donors' make a gift of their semen or are paid. The role of health professionals in shaping the nature and meaning of semen provision is also explored. The currently predominant practice of buying semen is compared with other reproductive and biomedical exchanges: oocyte and embryo donation, surrogacy, and blood, organ and fetal tissue donation. The authors suggest that the commercialisation of semen determines and reflects the type of men frequently recruited to provide semen. This in turn influences the meaning that donors themselves, recipients, offspring, health professionals and society at large attribute to the provision of semen. PMID:8771635

  15. Sage (Salvia officinalis) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) improve cryopreserved boar epididymal semen quality study.

    PubMed

    Monton, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Olaciregui, M; Gonzalez, N; de Blas, I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fennel and sage extracts and the influence of the egg yolk source (fresh or pasteurized) on the success of freezing boar epididymal spermatozoa. In experiment 1, epididymal sperm was recovered by flushing and cryopreserved in a lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations (10, 5 and 2.5 g/L) of sage or fennel. Sperm quality was evaluated (motility, viability, HOST and acrosome integrity) at 0 h and 2 h after thawing. Fennel 10 g/L and sage 5 g/L and control (no extracts) were selected for experiment 2 which also compared fresh or pasteurized egg yolk in the freezing extender and measured DNA integrity of the frozen sperm. Results showed that the interaction between fennel and sage antioxidants with fresh egg yolk significantly improved post thaw sperm quality and protected boar epididymal spermatozoa from cryopreservation damage as a result of oxidative stress. PMID:26017296

  16. Influence of Different Protocols of Urethral Catheterization after Pharmacological Induction (Ur.Ca.P.I.) on Semen Quality in the Domestic Cat.

    PubMed

    Cunto, M; Küster, D G; Bini, C; Cartolano, C; Pietra, M; Zambelli, D

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence that different protocols of urethral catheterization after pharmacological induction (Ur.Ca.P.I.) may have on the semen quality of the domestic cat. The study has been divided into two experiments: one in which different dosages of medetomidine administrated are evaluated and the second one in which the timing of the catheterization after pharmacological induction is tested. In the first experiment, 18 cats were sedated with the recommended dosage of medetomidine (130 μg/kg i.m.) while the other 18 were sedated with a lower dose of the same drug (50 μg/kg i.m.). In the second experiment, three groups were implemented, each containing 25 subjects. In group 1, the semen collection was performed immediately once the pharmacological effect of the drug was reached; in group 2, the semen collection was performed three times every 5 min after the pharmacological effect was reached; finally, in group 3, Ur.Ca.P.I. was performed 20 min after the pharmacological effect was reached. All the different protocols permitted sperm collection, nevertheless the first experiment showed a better quality in terms of volume, concentration, total number of spermatozoa (p < 0.01) and quality of the movement (motility p < 0.05 and forward progressive motility p < 0.01), using a high medetomidine dosage rather than 50 μg/kg i.m. In the second experiment, forward motility was statistically higher (p < 0.01) in the first group and total volume was higher (p < 0.01) in the second and third group, while other parameters were statistically not different. Results suggest that a single catheterization immediately after the onset of the pharmacological effect leads to a good-quality semen with the lowest possibility of damaging the urethra and that a sedation with 130 μg/kg of medetomidine leads to a better quality sperm collection than 50 μg/kg does. PMID:26482317

  17. Improved semen collection method for wild felids: urethral catheterization yields high sperm quality in African lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Lueders, I; Luther, I; Scheepers, G; van der Horst, G

    2012-08-01

    For wild and domestic felids, electroejaculation (EE) is the most common semen collection method. However, the equipment is expensive, there is a risk of urine contamination and animals usually show strong muscular contraction despite general anesthesia. Accordingly, we tested the feasibility of a different approach using urethral catheterization (UC) in seven African lions, previously described for domestic cats only. After general anesthesia with the α2-agonist medetomidine (which also stimulates semen release into the urethra) and ketamine, a transrectal ultrasound was performed to locate the prostate. A commercial dog urinary catheter (2.6 or 3.3 mm in diameter) was advanced approximately 30 cm into the urethra to allow semen collection into the lumen of the catheter by capillary forces. After retraction, sperm volumes between of 422.86 ± 296.07 μl yielded motility of 88.83 ± 13.27% (mean ± SD) with a mean sperm concentration of 1.94 × 10(9)/ml. Here we describe a simple, field friendly and effective method to attain highly concentrated semen samples with excellent motility in lions and potentially other wild felid species as an alternative to electroejaculation. PMID:22538007

  18. Association of TNP2 Gene Polymorphisms of the bta-miR-154 Target Site with the Semen Quality Traits of Chinese Holstein Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaojian; Qi, Chao; Li, Jianbin; Zhong, Jifeng; Li, Guorong; Wang, Changfa

    2014-01-01

    Transition protein 2 (TNP2) participates in removing nucleohistones and the initial condensation of spermatid nucleus during spermiogenesis. This study investigated the relationship between the variants of the bovine TNP2 gene and the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. We detected three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNP2 gene in 392 Chinese Holstein bulls, namely, g.269 G>A (exon 1), g.480 C>T (intron 1), and g.1536 C>T (3′-UTR). Association analysis showed that the semen quality traits of the Chinese Holstein bulls was significantly affected by the three SNPs. The bulls with the haplotypic combinations H6H4, H6H6, and H6H8 had higher initial semen motility than those with the H7H8 and H8H4 haplotypic combinations (P<0.05). SNPs in the microRNA (miRNA) binding region of the TNP2 gene 3′-UTR may have contributed to the phenotypic differences. The phenotypic differences are caused by the altered expression of the miRNAs and their targets. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the g.1536 C>T site in the TNP2 3′-UTR is located in the bta-miR-154 binding region. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that the TNP2 mRNA relative expression in bulls with the CT and CC genotypes was significantly higher than those with the TT genotype (P<0.05) in the g.1536 C>T site. The luciferase assay also indicated that bta-miR-154 directly targets TNP2 in a murine Leydig cell tumor cell line. The SNP g.1536 C>T in the TNP2 3′-UTR, which altered the binding of TNP2 with bta-miR-154, was found to be associated with the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. PMID:24416221

  19. Semen hyperviscosity: causes, consequences, and cures.

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, Stefan Stephanus; Gokul, Sheila; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of semen hyperviscosity (SHV) is estimated to be between 12-29% and can lead to male factor infertility both in vivo and in vitro. Semen is composed of fluids secreted by the male accessory glands, which contain proteins essential to the coagulation and liquefaction of semen. Hypofunction of the prostate or seminal vesicles causes abnormal viscosity of seminal fluid. Infection and high levels of seminal leukocytes may also result in the development of SHV. Oxidative stress and biochemical and genetic factors can furthermore contribute to this condition. Hyperviscosity can impair normal sperm movement in the female reproductive tract, and can lead to decreased sperm count. SHV is treated with a hypodermic needle, mucolytic enzymes, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents in certain cases. Further research is needed to better understand the contributors to SHV and the treatments that can be used for infertile males with hyperviscous semen. PMID:23276984

  20. Food quality regulates the metabolism and reproduction of Temora longicornis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, R.; Robinson, C.; Buitenhuis, E.; Castellani, C.

    2013-02-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken to determine the effect of food quality on feeding, respiration, reproduction and the resulting carbon budget of Temora longicornis. The stoichiometric ratios N : P, C : N and C : P of Rhodomonas salina were used as indicators of food quality. R. salina was grown in media with different inorganic nutrient concentrations to produce food for T. longicornis with particulate organic N : P ratios ranging from 10 : 1 to 23 : 1. Feeding rate was not affected by food quality. Maximum respiration (R), egg production rate (EPR), assimilation efficiency (AE), gross growth efficiency (GGE) and metabolic increment (MI) occurred when T. longicornis was fed on phytoplankton with a food quality of 16N : 1P. EPR, GGE and AE also decreased with decreasing C : N ratio and the energy required to produce eggs (CoE) decreased with decreasing N : P ratio, indicative of nitrogen-dependent production. These data suggest that an algal composition of 16N : 1P defines the Threshold Elemental Ratio (TER) and is the optimum diet for T. longicornis. The variations in metabolic rates and the resulting carbon budget are proportional to the quality of food ingested. GGE was negatively affected at dietary ratios above and below 16N : 1P, which in the natural environment could lead to a decline in species biomass with detrimental consequences for fisheries and carbon export. Field data show that phytoplankton organic N : P ratios can change on decadal timescales, and that an increase in the food N : P ratio can co-occur with a shift to smaller sized zooplankton and a change in species abundance. Further research is required to assess how much of the change in zooplankton community structure and activity can be attributed to changes in food quality, rather than to changes in temperature and food quantity.

  1. Banking North American buffalo semen.

    PubMed

    Lessard, C; Danielson, J; Rajapaksha, K; Adams, G P; McCorkell, R

    2009-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure to collect and preserve semen from wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) and plains bison (Bison bison bison). Semen samples from three wood and three plains bison bulls were collected by electroejaculation from June through October. In addition, sperm was collected from the cauda epididymis of seven plains bison. Semen was cryopreserved using two commercially available cryopreservation media, an egg yolk-based medium (Triladyl), and a medium free of products of animal origin (Andromed). Sperm morphology and motility were recorded on fresh and post-thawed semen samples. Total sperm motility was not different between plains and wood bison for the months of June (50%), July (69%) and October (54%). However, total sperm motility for wood bison was higher (P<0.05) than plains bison for the months of August and September (August: 80% vs 55%; September: 73% vs 40%). Plains and wood bison did not differ in mean total and mean progressive motility (35 and 15%, respectively) of frozen-thawed sperm samples. The post-thaw motility of Triladyl-treated sperm was higher (P<0.05) than Andromed-treated sperm (35% vs 13%, respectively). Interestingly, post-thawed epididymal spermatozoa had higher total motility (P<0.05) than post-thawed electroejaculated sperm when cryopreserved with a medium free of products of animal origin (Andromed; 35% vs 9%, respectively). In conclusion, we used electroejaculation to collect high quality bison semen, and cryopreserved it for future needs. PMID:19181375

  2. Quality of life, reproduction and sexuality after stem cell transplantation with partially T-cell-depleted grafts and after conditioning with a regimen including total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Claessens, J J M; Beerendonk, C C M; Schattenberg, A V M B

    2006-05-01

    Thirty-four men and 36 women (median age 43 and 45 years, respectively) underwent stem cell transplantation (SCT) for acute leukaemia in first complete remission or chronic myelogenous leukaemia in first chronic phase between 1981 and 2001 from HLA-identical siblings. The conditioning regimen included TBI and all grafts were partially depleted of T cells. Changes in quality of life (QOL), reproduction and sexuality were studied using a questionnaire, and the previously given information related to these problems was assessed. In addition, endocrine status was assessed and semen analysis was performed. After SCT, patients reported less energy (n=50) and a deterioration in the job situation (n=31). Patients experienced a negative change in sexual relations (n=41). Important problems of sexual dysfunction were vaginal dryness in women (n=19) and erectile dysfunction in men (n=16). None of the patients was fertile based on their gonadotrophin levels, sperm concentrations and reproductive outcomes. Women experienced climacteric symptoms (n=24). Quality of life was negatively influenced by these changes. One-fifth of the patients were not satisfied with the information given with regard to reproduction, premature menopause and sexual problems. PMID:16547485

  3. The Epigenetic Consequences of Paternal Exposure to Environmental Contaminants and Reproductive Toxicants.

    PubMed

    Estill, Molly S; Krawetz, Stephen A

    2016-09-01

    Human populations are exposed to a wide spectrum of environmental contaminants, some of which are considered reproductive toxins. The influence of such toxins on the male reproductive system has been investigated extensively in animal models, while epidemiological studies seek to understand the effect of human exposures. The basic tenant of epidemiological studies in male human reproduction is to infer how one or more substances alter the hormonal profile, seminal characteristics, or both. Determining if a substance alters semen quality may not always provide the underlying mechanism. The mechanisms by which toxins may alter human sperm and semen quality are typically examined as a function of hormonal changes and cellular damage. The possibility that more subtle epigenetic alterations underlie some of the reproductive changes has, until recently, received little attention. In this review, we discuss the roles of epigenetics in human spermatogenesis, while considering the impact of reproductive toxicants on the epigenome. PMID:27357567

  4. Effect of Monotherapy with Darunavir/Ritonavir on Viral Load in Seminal Fluid, and Quality Parameters of Semen in HIV-1-Positive Patients.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Ruz, Miguel A; Navas, Purificación; López-Zúñiga, Miguel A; Gonzalvo, María Carmen; Sampedro, Antonio; Pasquau, Juan; Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; Javier, Rosario; Castilla, José A

    2016-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) often achieve increased survival and improved quality of life. In this respect, monotherapy with darunavir/ritonavir (mDRV/r) can be a useful treatment strategy. This prospective study analyses the effect of mDRV/r on sperm quality and viral load in a group of 28 patients who had previously been given conventional ART and who had recorded a viral load <20 copies/mL for at least six months. These patients were given mDRV/r at a dose of 800/100 mg for 48 weeks. At baseline (V0), CD4, CD8, FSH, LH and testosterone levels were measured, together with HIV-1 viral load in plasma and semen. In addition, seminal fluid quality was studied before mDRV/r treatment was prescribed. At week 48 (V1), HIV-1 viral load in plasma and semen and the quality of the seminal fluid were again measured. The results obtained indicate that at V0, 10% of the patients with ART had a positive viral load in seminal fluid (>20 copies/ml), and that at V1, after mDRV/r treatment, this figure had fallen to 3%. The quality of seminal fluid was close to normal in 57% of patients at V0 and in 62% at V1. We conclude that, similar to ART, mDRV/r maintains HIV-1 viral load in most patients, and that there is no worsening in seminal fluid quality. PMID:27442068

  5. Effect of Monotherapy with Darunavir/Ritonavir on Viral Load in Seminal Fluid, and Quality Parameters of Semen in HIV-1-Positive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Ruz, Miguel A.; Navas, Purificación; López-Zúñiga, Miguel A.; Gonzalvo, María Carmen; Sampedro, Antonio; Pasquau, Juan; Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; Javier, Rosario; Castilla, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) often achieve increased survival and improved quality of life. In this respect, monotherapy with darunavir/ritonavir (mDRV/r) can be a useful treatment strategy. This prospective study analyses the effect of mDRV/r on sperm quality and viral load in a group of 28 patients who had previously been given conventional ART and who had recorded a viral load <20 copies/mL for at least six months. These patients were given mDRV/r at a dose of 800/100 mg for 48 weeks. At baseline (V0), CD4, CD8, FSH, LH and testosterone levels were measured, together with HIV-1 viral load in plasma and semen. In addition, seminal fluid quality was studied before mDRV/r treatment was prescribed. At week 48 (V1), HIV-1 viral load in plasma and semen and the quality of the seminal fluid were again measured. The results obtained indicate that at V0, 10% of the patients with ART had a positive viral load in seminal fluid (>20 copies/ml), and that at V1, after mDRV/r treatment, this figure had fallen to 3%. The quality of seminal fluid was close to normal in 57% of patients at V0 and in 62% at V1. We conclude that, similar to ART, mDRV/r maintains HIV-1 viral load in most patients, and that there is no worsening in seminal fluid quality. PMID:27442068

  6. Split-sample comparison of directional and liquid nitrogen vapour freezing method on post-thaw semen quality in white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum simum and Ceratotherium simum cottoni).

    PubMed

    Reid, C E; Hermes, R; Blottner, S; Goeritz, F; Wibbelt, G; Walzer, C; Bryant, B R; Portas, T J; Streich, W J; Hildebrandt, T B

    2009-01-15

    To increase the quality of cryopreserved sperm in white rhinoceros, the liquid nitrogen vapour (LN vapour) freezing and the multi-thermal gradient directional freezing methods were compared. Sixteen white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum sp.) were electro-ejaculated. Semen samples were diluted with cryoextender (Tris, lactose, egg-yolk, DMSO) and aliquoted into straws for LN vapour freezing, and glass hollow tubes for directional freezing. The sperm quality was evaluated before and after freezing by assessing the following parameters: motility, morphologic state, acrosomal integrity and plasma membrane function and integrity (i.e. sperm viability) as defined by the hypo-osmotic swelling. Directional freezing improved the sperm viability by 5.6% (p<0.005), progressive motility score by 34.7% and sperm motility index (SMI) by 8.1% (p<0.005) versus LN vapour freezing. When data was categorized into groups of low (<19%), moderate (20-39%) and high (>40%) percentages of morphologically normal, directional freezing (DF) resulted in 31.4% less abnormal acrosomes for the low quality group as well as 18.7% increase in intact acrosomes and 10.9% increase in motility for the high quality group compared to LN vapour freezing (LN) (p<0.01, p<0.03, p<0.01, respectively). LN showed a significant reduction in sperm head volume (5.7%, p<0.05) compared to the prefreeze; whereas, no significant reduction in head volume was demonstrated after DF. Several additives (xanthenuric acid, cytochalasin D, potassium, EDTA) to the basic cryoextender provided no significant improvement in spermatozoal survival after directional freezing. In conclusion, directional freezing proved to facilitate higher gamete survival compared to LN vapour freezing. This is especially effective in ejaculates of low sperm quality and is important in endangered species where high quality semen donors are often not accessible. These results suggest that directional freezing could be valuable particularly for species

  7. Associations of urinary 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine with phthalate exposure and semen quality in 562 Chinese adult men.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yitao; Jing, Jun; Yeung, Leo W Y; Sheng, Nan; Zhang, Hongxia; Yao, Bing; Dai, Jiayin

    2016-09-01

    5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5mdC) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5hmdC), products of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation processes, have been detected previously in human urine, but their associations with environmental chemicals or healthy outcomes are unclear. The present investigation explored the associations between urinary 5mdC and 5hmdC with phthalate exposure and semen quality. We assessed semen parameters including sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, before measuring urinary 5mdC, 5hmdC and 13 phthalate metabolites among 562 subfertile men from Nanjing, China. Urinary 5mdC and 5hmdC were positively associated with the levels of low molecular weight phthalate metabolites (Low-MWP), high molecular weight phthalate metabolites (High-MWP), and the sum of all phthalate metabolites (ΣPAEs), respectively. Urinary 5mdC was associated with below-reference sperm concentration (odds ratios for increasing quartiles=1.0, 2.2, 3.0, 2.0; p for trend =0.02), sperm motility (1.0, 1.1, 1.9, 1.3; p for trend =0.05), and sperm morphology (1.0, 1.4, 2.3, 1.5; p for trend =0.05). Sperm concentration was associated with the highest quartile of urinary 5hmdC [odds ratio=1.9 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.6)]. Our findings showed significant associations between urinary 5mdC and 5hmdC with phthalate metabolites and semen parameters, which suggested urinary 5mdC and 5hmdC may be promising biomarkers in future epidemiological studies. PMID:27346742

  8. The effect of melatonin on the quality of extended boar semen after long-term storage at 17 °C.

    PubMed

    Martín-Hidalgo, D; Barón, F J; Bragado, M J; Carmona, P; Robina, A; García-Marín, L J; Gil, M C

    2011-05-01

    Melatonin (MLT) is an efficient antioxidant that protects cells and tissues and initiates a host of receptor-mediated effects. In order to enhance the life span of refrigerated boar semen, our aim was to evaluate the effects of addition of 1 μM MLT to commercially produced pig semen (33 seminal doses from 14 boars) that had been preserved at 17 °C for 7 days. Samples without MLT served as controls. On Days 1, 4 and 7, we evaluated motility parameters and the percentage of total motile and progressively motile spermatozoa by a computer-aided sperm analysis system. Viability (SYBR-14/PI), acrosomal status (FITC-PNA/PI), membrane fluidity (M-540/YoPro-1) and mitochondrial membrane potential status (JC-1) were evaluated by flow cytometry. MLT treatment significantly enhanced the percentage of static spermatozoa after 7 days of storage and significantly reduced the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa on Day 7. The velocity characteristics (VCL, VSL and VAP) were significantly higher for MLT-treated samples on Day 1 and were their lowest on Day 7. With regard to flow cytometry results, the percentage of viable spermatozoa with an intact acrosome was higher in MLT samples throughout the entire storage period. In addition, there was a significantly higher proportion of live spermatozoa on Day 7 in the samples that had not been treated with MLT. The proportion of spermatozoa showing a high mitochondrial membrane potential remained at similar levels (P > 0.05) throughout the trial. Although the findings of the present study revealed that 1 μM MLT increased the proportion of live sperm with an intact acrosome, this treatment did not enhance the spermatic quality of refrigerated boar semen. PMID:21320723

  9. Blood in the semen

    MedlinePlus

    Semen - bloody; Blood in ejaculation ... Most of the time, blood in the semen is caused by swelling or infection of the prostate or seminal vesicles. The problem may occur after a prostate biopsy . Blood in the ...

  10. Concepts in sperm heterogeneity, sperm selection and sperm competition as biological foundations for laboratory tests of semen quality.

    PubMed

    Holt, William V; Van Look, Katrien J W

    2004-05-01

    Stringent selection mechanisms, in both internal and external fertilisation systems, reject all but a significant minority of the spermatozoa released at ejaculation. Sperm competition theory provides circumstantial evidence that the selection process involves mechanisms by which the quality of the fertilising spermatozoon is controlled, thereby ensuring that females and their offspring receive high quality genetic material. In this review we examine some of these selection processes to see whether they could be exploited for the improvement of laboratory tests of sperm quality. Such tests are not only required for clinical and agricultural purposes, but are increasingly needed in fields such as reproductive and environmental toxicology where the species requirement is much broader. Despite many years of research, sperm quality assessment methods continue to provide imprecise data about fertility; here we suggest that this may be a consequence of using tests that focus on the spermatozoa that would normally be unable to fertilise under natural conditions. To achieve fertilisation a spermatozoon must be capable of responding appropriately to external signalling stimuli; those involving protein kinase-regulated flagellar function seem especially influential in governing effects ranging from non-Mendelian inheritance in mammals to sperm chemotaxis in sea urchins. Examination of the elicited responses reveals considerable heterogeneity in all species. Here we propose that this level of heterogeneity is meaningful both in terms of understanding how spermatozoa from some individuals possess fertility advantages over spermatozoa from their rivals in sperm competition, and in that the heterogeneity should be exploitable in the development of more accurate laboratory tests. PMID:15129008